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Sample records for 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate tpa

  1. Effect of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) upon membrane ionic exchanges in sea urchin eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Ciapa, B.; Payan, P. ); Allemand, D. )

    1989-12-01

    The effect of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) upon ionic exchanges was investigated in eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia lixula. Ouabain-sensitive {sup 86}Rb uptake and amiloride-sensitive {sup 24}Na influx were dramatically stimulated after TPA addition, indicating an enhancement of total ionic permeabilities. Stimulation by TPA of both Na{sup +}/H{sup +} and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} exchanges was canceled by amiloride, suggesting that activation of protein kinase C elicits, via Na{sup +}/H{sup +} activity, stimulation of the sodium pump. However, TPA did not stimulate sodium pump activity and Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange at the same rate as fertilization, probably because of an absence of calcium-dependent events. Further fertilization of TPA pretreated eggs triggered an enhancement of sodium pump activity when the TPA treatment duration did not exceed 10 minutes. It is suggested that TPA activates preexisting transporting mechanisms in plasma membranes of unfertilized eggs (Na{sup +} stat, pH stat).

  2. Contact-stimulated proliferation of cultured mouse epidermal cells by 3T3 feeder layers: inhibition of proliferation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.R.; Hamby, K.M.; Slaga, T.J.

    1982-07-01

    Mouse epidermal cells can be subcultured at 31/sup 0/C onto an irradiated BALB/c 3T3 clone A31 feeder layer. A31 cells (supposedly derived from embryonic fibroblasts) were found to be specifically required for the optimal production of keratinizing epidermal colonies in secondary culture. This effect was not transmitted through the medium nor by the culture surface, since A31 cells plated on one end of a flask did not stimulate epidermal cell proliferation at the other end, even if the other end had previously held A31 cells. Epidermal cell contact with metabolizing A31 cells was probably necessary for the effect; fixed or freeze-thawed A31 cells were ineffective. The tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, recently shown to interfere with contact-mediated transfer of label (metabolic cooperation) between Swiss 3T3 cells and cells of an established epidermal line in vitro, also blocked epidermal colony formation. The A31-epidermal cell interaction is apparently not a typical mesenchymal-epithelial interaction, since the basement membrane would prevent this contact in intact skin.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of 4'-Demethylnobiletin, a Metabolite of Nobiletin, on 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-Induced Inflammation in Mouse Ears.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Song, Mingyue; Rakariyatham, Kanyasiri; Zheng, Jinkai; Wang, Minqi; Xu, Fei; Gao, Zili; Xiao, Hang

    2015-12-30

    Nobiletin (NOB) is major citrus flavonoid with many health-promoting benefits. We reported previously that 4'-demethylnobiletin (4DN), a major metabolite of NOB, significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In this study, we further studied the anti-inflammatory effects of 4DN in TPA-induced skin inflammation in mice. We demonstrated that topical application of 4DN decreased TPA-induced ear edema by >88 ± 4.77% in mice. This inhibitory effect was associated with inhibition on TPA-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Immunoblotting results showed that 4DN resulted in profound effects on multiple proteins related with inflammation and carcinogenesis. 4DN significantly decreased the expression levels of iNOS, COX-2, and MMP-9, suppressed phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK, and increased the levels of HO-1 and NQO1 in TPA-treated mice. Overall, the results demonstrated that 4DN had strong anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, which provided a scientific basis for using NOB to inhibit inflammation-driven diseases. PMID:26651527

  4. Prostratin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate are potent and selective inhibitors of Chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Delang, Leen; Nguyen, Van Hung; Neyts, Johan; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-12-28

    A chemical study of the Vietnamese plant species Trigonostemon howii led to the isolation of a new tigliane-type diterpenoid, trigowiin A (1), along with several known coumarins and phenylpropanoids. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 1 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Trigowiin A (1) exhibited moderate antiviral activity in a virus-cell-based assay for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Since the structure of compound 1 is closely related to those of well-known tigliane diterpenoids such as prostratin (2), phorbol (3), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (4), and 4α-TPA (5), the antiviral activity of the latter compounds was also evaluated against CHIKV, as well as in virus-cell-based assays of two additional members of the genus Alphavirus (Sindbis virus, SINV, and Semliki forest virus, SFV). Whereas prostratin inhibited CHIKV replication with a moderate EC(50) of 2.6 μM and a selectivity index (SI) approximating 30, compound 4 proved to be an extremely potent inhibitor, with an EC(50) of ∼3 nM and a SI near 2000. Interestingly, no or very little activity was observed on the replication of SINV and SFV. PMID:23215460

  5. Induction of anti-EBNA-1 protein by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment of human lymphoblastoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Longthung; Tanaka, Akiko; Nonoyama, Meihan )

    1989-08-01

    Binding of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) to BamHI-C DNA was studied by affinity column chromatography followed by immunoblotting with human serum specific for EBNA-1. Two species of EBNA-1 (68 and 70 kilodaltons) were identified in nuclear extracts of the EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Raji and not in nuclear extracts of the EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell line BJAB. Both EBNA-1s bound specifically to the region required for EBV plasmid DNA maintenance (oriP) located in the BamHI-C fragment. Upon treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activates latent EBV genome in Raji cells, the 68-kilodalton EBNA-1 was uncoupled from binding to EBV oriP. Nuclear extracts from 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated BJAB cells also uncoupled the binding of both EBNA-1s to oriP. DNA-cellulose column chromatography identified two protein species which competed for and uncoupled the binding of EBNA-1 to oriP. The two cellular competitors the authors called anti-EBNA-1 proteins had molecular masses of 60 and 40 kilodaltons, respectively. They were not found in nuclear extracts of BJAB cells not activated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

  6. SCF/c-kit signaling is required in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes for epidermal pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Yang, Ke; Lei, Mingxing; Yan, Hongtao; Tang, Hui; Bai, Xiufeng; Yang, Guihong; Lian, Xiaohua; Wu, Jinjin

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are responsible for hair pigmentation and also function as a major melanocyte reservoir for epidermal pigmentation. However, the molecular mechanism promoting McSCs for epidermal pigmentation remains elusive. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics key signaling involved in melanocyte growth, migration and differentiation. We therefore investigated the molecular basis for the contribution of hair follicle McSCs to epidermal pigmentation using the TPA induction model. We found that repetitive TPA treatment of female C57BL/6 mouse dorsal skin induced epidermal pigmentation by increasing the number of epidermal melanocytes. Particularly, TPA treatment induced McSCs to initiate proliferation, exit the stem cell niche and differentiate. We also demonstrated that TPA promotes melanoblast migration and differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, TPA treatment induced robust expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in keratinocytes and c-kit in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Administration of ACK2, a neutralizing antibody against the Kit receptor, suppressed mouse epidermal pigmentation, decreased the number of epidermal melanocytes, and inhibited melanoblast migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPA promotes the expansion, migration and differentiation of hair follicle McSCs for mouse epidermal pigmentation. SCF/c-kit signaling was required for TPA-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes. Our findings may provide an excellent model to investigate the signaling mechanisms regulating epidermal pigmentation from mouse hair follicle McSCs, and a potential therapeutic option for skin pigmentation disorders. PMID:25727244

  7. Combination of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate with diethyldithiocarbamate markedly inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth in 3D culture and in immunodeficient mice

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, HUARONG; CAO, KAJIA; MALIK, SAQUIB; ZHANG, QIUYAN; LI, DONGLI; CHANG, RICHARD; WANG, HUAQIAN; LIN, WEIPING; VAN DOREN, JEREMIAH; ZHANG, KUN; DU, ZHIYUN; ZHENG, XI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) alone or in combination on human pancreatic cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in nude mice. Pancreatic cancer cells were treated with either DDTC or TPA alone, or in combination and the number of viable cells was then determined by trypan blue ecxlusion assay and the number of apoptotic cells was determined by morphological assessment by staining the cells with propidium idiode and examining them under a fluorescence microscope. Treatment with DDTC or TPA alone inhibited the growth and promoted the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were more prominent following treatment with TPA in combination with DDTC than following treatment with either agent alone in PANC-1 cells in monolayer cultures and in 3 dimensional (3D) cultures. The potent effects of the combination treatment on PANC-1 cells were associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and the decreased expression of Bcl-2 induced by DDTC, as shown by NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression assay and western blot analysis. Furthermore, treatment of nude mice with DDTC + TPA strongly inhibited the growth of PANC-1 xenograft tumors. The results of the present study indicate that the administration of TPA and DDTC in combination may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25847449

  8. Different effects of GPR120 and GPR40 on cellular functions stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kaori; Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2016-06-17

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 exhibit a variety of biological responses by the binding of free fatty acids. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a tumor promoting agent of skin carcinogenesis. It is known that TPA treatment stimulates cell motile activity of cancer cells, including melanoma cells. In the present study, we investigated whether GRP120 and GPR40 are involved in regulation of cell motile activity induced by TPA in two melanoma cell lines. A375 and G361 cells were treated with TPA at a concentration of 10 nM for 24 h. The cell motile activity of A375 cells was significantly increased by TPA, correlating with GPR40 expression. In contrast, TPA suppressed the cell motile activity of G361 cells, while GPR120 and GPR40 expressions were increased. The cell motile activity of A375 cells treated with TPA was markedly increased by GPR120 knockdown. In addition, to assess roles of GPR120 and GPR40 in cellular functions of A375 cells by the long-term TPA treatment, cells were treated with TPA (1 nM) for at least 3 months. The long-term TPA treatment induced the high cell motile activity and elevated GPR120 and GPR40 expressions. The high cell motile activity of A375 cells stimulated by the long-term TPA treatment was enhanced by GPR120 knockdown. These results suggest that GPR120 negatively and GPR40 positively regulate cell motile activities induce by TPA in melanoma cells. PMID:27163640

  9. Evaluation of pentacyclic triterpenes found in Perilla frutescens for inhibition of skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jiyoon; Tremmel, Lisa; Rho, Okkyung; Camelio, Andrew M.; Siegel, Dionicio; Slaga, Thomas J.; DiGiovanni, John

    2015-01-01

    A series of pentacyclic tritperpenes found in Perilla frutescens (P. frutescens), including ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA), corosolic acid (CA), 3-epi-corosolic acid (3-epiCA), maslinic acid (MA), and 3-epi-maslinic acid (3-epiMA) were evaluated for their effects on epidermal cell signaling, proliferation, and skin inflammation in relation to their ability to inhibit skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and compared to UA as the prototype compound. All compounds were given topically 30 min prior to each TPA application and significantly inhibited skin tumor promotion. 3-epiCA and MA were significantly more effective than UA at inhibiting tumor development. All of these compounds significantly inhibited epidermal proliferation induced by TPA, however, CA, 3-epiCA and MA were more effective than UA. All compounds also reduced skin inflammation (assessed by infiltration of mast cells and T-cells) and inflammatory gene expression induced by TPA, however, 3-epiCA and MA were again more effective than UA. The greater ability of 3-epiCA and MA to inhibit skin tumor promotion was associated with greater reduction of Cox-2 and Twist1 proteins and inhibition of activation (i.e., phosphorylation) of IGF-1R, STAT3 and Src. Further study of these compounds, especially 3-epiCA and MA, for chemopreventive activity in other cancer model systems is warranted. PMID:26513295

  10. Regulations of Reversal of Senescence by PKC Isozymes in Response to 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate via Nuclear Translocation of pErk1/2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Yeong; Ryu, Min Sook; Kim, Hong Seok; Suganuma, Masami; Song, Kye Yong; Lim, In Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) bypasses cellular senescence was investigated using human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cell replicative senescence as a model. Upon TPA treatment, protein kinase C (PKC) α and PKCβ1 exerted differential effects on the nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic pErk1/2, a protein which maintains senescence. PKCα accompanied pErk1/2 to the nucleus after freeing it from PEA-15pS104 via PKCβ1 and then was rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded within the nucleus. Mitogen-activated protein kinase docking motif and kinase activity of PKCα were both required for pErk1/2 transport to the nucleus. Repetitive exposure of mouse skin to TPA downregulated PKCα expression and increased epidermal and hair follicle cell proliferation. Thus, PKCα downregulation is accompanied by in vivo cell proliferation, as evidenced in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-TPA-mediated carcinogenesis. The ability of TPA to reverse senescence was further demonstrated in old HDF cells using RNA-sequencing analyses in which TPA-induced nuclear PKCα degradation freed nuclear pErk1/2 to induce cell proliferation and facilitated the recovery of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Our data indicate that TPA-induced senescence reversal and carcinogenesis promotion share the same molecular pathway. Loss of PKCα expression following TPA treatment reduces pErk1/2-activated SP1 biding to the p21WAF1 gene promoter, thus preventing senescence onset and overcoming G1/S cell cycle arrest in senescent cells. PMID:26912086

  11. Regulations of Reversal of Senescence by PKC Isozymes in Response to 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate via Nuclear Translocation of pErk1/2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Yeong; Ryu, Min Sook; Kim, Hong Seok; Suganuma, Masami; Song, Kye Yong; Lim, In Kyoung

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism by which 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) bypasses cellular senescence was investigated using human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cell replicative senescence as a model. Upon TPA treatment, protein kinase C (PKC) α and PKCβ1 exerted differential effects on the nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic pErk1/2, a protein which maintains senescence. PKCα accompanied pErk1/2 to the nucleus after freeing it from PEA-15pS(104) via PKCβ1 and then was rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded within the nucleus. Mitogen-activated protein kinase docking motif and kinase activity of PKCα were both required for pErk1/2 transport to the nucleus. Repetitive exposure of mouse skin to TPA downregulated PKCα expression and increased epidermal and hair follicle cell proliferation. Thus, PKCα downregulation is accompanied by in vivo cell proliferation, as evidenced in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-TPA-mediated carcinogenesis. The ability of TPA to reverse senescence was further demonstrated in old HDF cells using RNA-sequencing analyses in which TPA-induced nuclear PKCα degradation freed nuclear pErk1/2 to induce cell proliferation and facilitated the recovery of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Our data indicate that TPA-induced senescence reversal and carcinogenesis promotion share the same molecular pathway. Loss of PKCα expression following TPA treatment reduces pErk1/2-activated SP1 biding to the p21(WAF1) gene promoter, thus preventing senescence onset and overcoming G1/S cell cycle arrest in senescent cells. PMID:26912086

  12. Hexahydro-β-acids potently inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Huei; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Lai, Ching-Shu; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Chen, Li-Hua; Lin, Edwin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2013-11-27

    We previously reported that hexahydro-beta-acids (HBAs), reduced derivatives of beta-acids (BA) from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), displayed more potent anti-inflammatory activity than BA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of hexahydro-β-acids (HBAs) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mouse skin inflammation and in the two-stage carcinogenesis model. Female ICR mice pretreated with HBA at 1 and 10 μg significantly reduced ear edema, epidermal hyperplasia, and infiltration of inflammatory cells caused by TPA. Molecular analysis exhibited that HBA suppressed iNOS, COX-2, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) protein and gene expression through interfering with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositiol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling as well as the activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Furthermore, application of HBA (1 and 10 μg) prior to each TPA treatment (17.2 ± 0.9 tumors/mouse) resulted in the significant reduction of tumor multiplicity (5.1 ± 1.2, P < 0.01 and 2.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.001, respectively) in 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. The tumor incidence was significantly lowered to 75% (P < 0.05) and 58.7% (P < 0.01) by HBA pretreatment, respectively, and significantly reduced the tumor weight (0.34 ± 0.14 g, P < 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.10 g, P < 0.001, respectively) as compared to DMBA/TPA-induced tumors (0.76 ± 0.04 g). PMID:24206127

  13. Embryonic mutation as a possible cause of in utero carcinogenesis in mice revealed by postnatal treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, T.; Nakajima, H.; Hatanaka, T.; Kinuta, M.; Hongyo, T. )

    1990-04-01

    Although in utero irradiation at early stages induced a high incidence of somatic mutations at coat color genes in the embryos of a specified tester strain (PT x HT F1) of mice, it was not carcinogenic by itself. However, in utero-irradiated animals did develop skin tumors and hepatomas (but not leukemias) by the postnatal administration of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The incidence of both tumors and embryonic mutations increased with in utero doses of X-rays. Furthermore, a large reduction of tumor incidence, about 80%, was observed by low-dose-rate irradiation, similar to the 75% reduction in spot size found for embryonic mutations. The tumor nodule size was also dramatically reduced by low-dose-rate irradiation. Consequently, the induced incidence and size of tumors produced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment parallel those which are observed for coat color mutations as expected, because somatic mutations observed in the pigment cells must similarly occur in embryonic cells of other organs. The larger the clone of mutant cells, the greater their chance of becoming tumorigenic by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate posttreatment. These results strongly support the recent epidemiological survey showing that adult types of cancers, but not leukemias, are increasing in the atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero, since humans are continuously exposed to a variety of cancer-promoting agents in contrast to experimental animals reared without such exposures.

  14. HTLV-1 tax-induced NF-kappaB activation is synergistically enhanced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate: mechanism and implications for Tax oncogenicity.

    PubMed

    Azran-Shaish, Inbal; Tabakin-Fix, Yulia; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Bakhanashvili, Mary; Aboud, Mordechai

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) factors regulate a wide range of physiological and oncogenic processes. Normally, these factors are transiently activated by specific external signals which induce their dissociation from inhibitors of kappaB (IkappaB) and subsequent translocation to the nucleus where p65 links to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CBP)-p300 and P/CAF coactivators that are essential for its transcriptional activity. The pathogenic potential of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein is partly ascribed to its capacity to constitutively activate NF-kappaB factors because constitutive activity of these factors play an important role in the pathophysiology of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and tropical spastic paraparesis-HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP-HAM). In assessing the possibility of modulating Tax pathogenic potential by external factors, we focused here on 12-O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) which is a potent protein kinase C (PKC) activator. There are conflicting reports regarding the effect of TPA and PKC on NF-kappaB. Therefore, we reassessed this issue and also investigated their influence on Tax-mediated activation of these factors. We found that TPA promoted NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of p65 dimers through PKC activation. However, both TPA and ectopically expressed PKC had only a marginal effect on the transcriptional competence of these dimers, indicating that the DNA binding of such dimers is insufficient by itself for gene activation. Notably, however, both TPA and the ectopic PKC displayed strong synergistic enhancement of the Tax-induced activation of the NF-kappaB transcriptional function. In contrast, TPA and the ectopic PKC only slightly elevated the low activation of the NF-kappaB transcriptional capacity by cytoplasmic Tax mutants, indicating that the nuclear translocation of Tax was essential for this synergism. Subsequent experiments suggested

  15. Aronia melanocarpa Concentrate Ameliorates Pro-Inflammatory Responses in HaCaT Keratinocytes and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Ear Edema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Goh, Ah Ra; Youn, Gi Soo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Won, Moo Ho; Han, Sang-Zin; Lim, Soon Sung; Lee, Keun Wook; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Jinseu

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as cell adhesion molecules and cytokines has been implicated in various inflammatory skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Aronia melanocarpa concentrate (AC) and its action mechanisms using in vivo and in vitro skin inflammation models. Topical application of AC on mouse ears significantly suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema formation, as judged by measuring ear thickness and weight, and histological analysis. Topical administration of AC also reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in TPA-stimulated mouse ears. Pretreatment with AC suppressed TNF-α-induced ICAM-I expression and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. In addition, AC significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT cells. AC and its constituent cyanidin 3-glucoside also attenuated TNF-α-induced IKK activation, IκB degradation, p65 phosphorylation/nuclear translocation, and p65 DNA binding activity in HaCaT cells. Overall, our results indicate that AC exerts anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo possibly through suppression of ROS-MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathways. Therefore, AC may be developed as a therapeutic agent to treat various inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27331630

  16. Glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum L. modulates the apoptotic-related signals in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-stimulated MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Kyung-Sun; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2005-01-01

    Solanum nigrum L. (SNL) has been used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity. We isolated only the SNL glycoprotein from SNL and found that it was cytotoxic at low concentration. With respect to cytotoxicity, we investigated whether purified SNL glycoprotein is able to regulate protein kinase C (PKC) alpha activation and nuclear factor (NF)- kappaB activities in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor promotion, and whether it has an apoptosis-inducing effect in MCF-7 cells using western blot analysis. In addition, to elucidate the relationship between PKCalpha and NF-kappaB, inhibitory studies were performed with staurosporine (an inhibitor of phospholipid/calcium-dependent protein kinase) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation). To verify induction of apoptosis by the SNL glycoprotein, we performed DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining assays using ethidium bromide and bisbenzamide H33342. The results in this study indicated that SNL glycoprotein induces apoptosis through modulation of PKCalpha and NF-kappaB activity in MCF-7 cells. In fact, SNL glycoprotein interfered with PKCalpha membrane translocation and inhibited NF-kappaB (p50) protein activity in MCF-7 cells stimulated with TPA (61.68 ng/mL, 100 nM) dose-dependently. Regarding the apoptotic-inducing effect, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining by SNL glycoprotein in MCF-7 cells were shown. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SNL glycoprotein is a potential natural anticancer agent because of its ability to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. PMID:15857213

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  18. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated anti-inflammatory effects of tussilagonone on macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skin inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Kang, Unwoo; Seo, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2016-05-01

    The dried flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. have been used in traditional medicine, mainly as an antitussive in the treatment of cough and other respiratory problems. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory signaling pathway via the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in response to tussilagonone (TGN), a sesquiterpene compound isolated from T. farfara. TGN induced HO-1 expression and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation in RAW 264.7 cells. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 by TGN also increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating that TGN induced HO-1 via the Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, TGN suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and reduced the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. TGN inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. However, a specific inhibitor of HO-1 reversed the TGN-mediated suppression of NO production and knockdown of HO-1 by small interfering RNA abrogated inhibitory effects of TGN on iNOS and COX-2 protein expression and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, TGN reduced iNOS and COX-2 expression in a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation mouse model. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role for TGN-induced HO-1 activation in regulating inflammatory responses. Moreover, TGN is a potent therapeutic candidate for targeting the crosstalk between Nrf2/HO-1 and the NF-κB signaling pathway in the prevention or treatment of inflammation-associated diseases. PMID:26950613

  19. Differential carcinogenic effects of intraperitoneal initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene or urethane and topical promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in skin and internal tissues of female SENCAR and BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.M.; Rehm, S.; Devor, D.; Hennings, H.; Wenk, M.L.

    1986-09-01

    Groups of female SENCAR or BALB/c mice were initiated once intraperitoneally with 300 ..mu..g/mouse of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) or 20 mg/mouse of urethane at 7 weeks of age. Beginning one week later, mice received topically applied acetone or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), once weekly, at 2.5 ..mu..g/mouse for weeks 1 through 6 and 1.25 ..mu..g/mouse for weeks 7 through 52. The skin lesions were evaluated clinically. A complete necropsy was performed on all mice at week 52. SENCAR mice exposed to DMBA/TPA and urethane/TPA had more skin tumors than SENCAR mice exposed to DMBA or urethane alone and more than BALB/c mice in any treatment group. Of all skin carcinomas diagnosed histologically in DMBA/TPA-exposed mice, less than one-third had been identified clinically while the mice were alive. Most of the carcinomas arose within papillomas. BALB/c mice developed more vascular and uterine tumors than did SENCAR mice injected with DMBA and more lung and vascular tumors than did SENCAR mice injected with urethane. TPA exposure after treatment with either initiator had no significant effect on internal tumor development in either SENCAR or BALB/c mice.

  20. Inhibitory effect of euphol, a triterpene alcohol from the roots of Euphorbia kansui, on tumour promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, K; Akihisa, T; Yoshida, Z Y; Takido, M

    2000-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of euphol, twelve other triterpene alcohols and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside, isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui, has been evaluated in mice with inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). TPA (1.7 nmol; 1.0 microg/ear) was dissolved in acetone and 10 microL delivered to the inner and outer surfaces of the right ear of ICR mice. A triterpene alcohol, sterol glucoside or vehicle (20 microL; chloroform-methanol 1:1), was applied topically approximately 30 min before each TPA treatment. The ear thickness was measured before treatment and then oedema was measured 6 h after TPA treatment. For the two-stage carcinogenesis experiment, initiation was accomplished by administration of a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA; 195 nmol; 50 microg/mouse) to the shaved backs of mice. Promotion was with 1.7 nmol (1.0 microg) TPA, applied twice weekly to the same shaved area, begun one week after the initiation. Euphol (2.0 micromol; 853 microg), or its vehicle (acetone-dimethylsulphoxide, 9:1; 100 microL), was applied topically 30 min before each TPA treatment. The number and diameter of skin tumours were measured every other week for 20 weeks. All the compounds were found to possess marked inhibitory activity and their 50% inhibitory dose for TPA-induced inflammation was 0.2-1.0 mg/ear. Topical application of euphol (2.0 micromol; 853 microg/mouse) markedly suppressed the tumour-promoting effect of TPA (1.7 nmol; 1.0 microg/mouse) in mouse skin initiated with DMBA. PMID:10716613

  1. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate Induces Up-Regulated Transcription of Variant 1 but Not Variant 2 of VIL2 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells via ERK1/2/AP-1/Sp1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Xie, Jian-Jun; Liao, Lian-Di; Long, Lin; Xie, Yang-Min; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-cytoskeleton link organizer ezrin may be the most “dramatic” tumor marker, being strongly over-expressed in nearly one-third of human malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms of aberrant ezrin expression still need to be clarified. Ezrin, encoded by the VIL2 gene, has two transcript variants that differ in the transcriptional start site (TSS): V1 and V2. Both V1 and V2 encode the same protein. Here, we found that 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced over-expression of human VIL2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Furthermore, VIL2 V1 but not V2 was up-regulated after TPA stimulation in a time-dependent manner. AP-1 and Sp1 binding sites within the promoter region of VIL2 V1 acted not only as basal transcriptional elements but also as a composite TPA-responsive element (TRE) for the transcription of VIL2 V1. TPA stimulation enhanced c-Jun and Sp1 binding to the TRE via activation of the ERK1/2 pathway and increased protein levels of c-Jun, c-Fos, and Sp1, resulting in over-expression of VIL2 V1, whereas the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 blocked these events. Finally, we showed that TPA promoted the migration of ESCC cells whereas MEK1/2 inhibitor or ezrin silencing could partially inverse this alteration. Taken together, these results suggest that TPA is able to induce VIL2 V1 over-expression in ESCC cells by activating MEK/ERK1/2 signaling and increasing binding of Sp1 and c-Jun to the TRE of the VIL2 V1 promoter, and that VIL2 is an important TPA-induced effector. PMID:25915860

  2. Altered sensitivity to ellagic acid in neuroblastoma cells undergoing differentiation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Alfredsson, Christina Fjæraa; Rendel, Filip; Liang, Qui-Li; Sundström, Birgitta E; Nånberg, Eewa

    2015-12-01

    Ellagic acid has previously been reported to induce reduced proliferation and activation of apoptosis in several tumor cell lines including our own previous data from non-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The aim of this study was now to investigate if in vitro differentiation with the phorbol ester 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or the vitamin A derivative all-trans retinoic acid altered the sensitivity to ellagic acid in SH-SY5Y cells. The methods used were cell counting and LDH-assay for evaluation of cell number and cell death, flow cytometric analysis of SubG1- and TUNEL-analysis for apoptosis and western blot for expression of apoptosis-associated proteins. In vitro differentiation was shown to reduce the sensitivity to ellagic acid with respect to cell detachment, loss of viability and activation of apoptosis. The protective effect was phenotype-specific and most prominent in all-trans retinoic acid-differentiated cultures. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of Bcl-2 and integrin expression is introduced as possible protective mechanisms. The presented data also point to a positive correlation between proliferative activity and sensitivity to ellagic-acid-induced cell detachment. In conclusion, the presented data emphasize the need to consider degree of neuronal differentiation and phenotype of neuroblastoma cells when discussing a potential pharmaceutical application of ellagic acid in tumor treatment. PMID:26653548

  3. Epidermal changes following application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to human skin transplanted to nude mice studied with histological species markers

    SciTech Connect

    Graem, N.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of the tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on epidermis of human fetal and adult skin were studied in the nude mouse/human skin model. Human skin grafts on NC nude mice were exposed to two topical applications of 1 mg of DMBA in 50 microliter of acetone with an interval of 3 days and/or to applications of 10 micrograms of TPA in 50 microliter of acetone twice weekly. In some animals, it was attempted to augment the susceptibility of the grafts to the tumor-initiating effect of DMBA by pretreatment with TPA or ultraviolet light. The mice were sacrificed 8-32 wk after the initial treatment. Tumors did not appear in the central portions of any of the grafts, but epidermal tumors were seen at the graft border in 34.9% of the DMBA-treated animals. To identify human epidermis on the grafts and to determine the species origin of the induced tumors, two independently working histological marker methods were applied. (a) The first is detection of a human Blood Group B-like antigen present in mouse epidermis and in chemically induced murine epidermal tumors. This antigen cannot be demonstrated in human epidermis and in epidermal tumors of human patients. (b) The second is histological staining with the DNA-specific fluorochrome, bisbenzimide, displaying a characteristic pattern of 5-10 intranuclear fluorescent bodies in murine nonneoplastic epidermal cells and in murine epidermal tumor cells. Such a pattern is not seen in human epidermis and in epidermal tumors of human patients. The studies showed that TPA treatment resulted in epidermal hyperplasia in both the human epidermis and the adjacent mouse epidermis and that the induced tumors were derived from murine tissue.

  4. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the incorporation of labelled precursors into RNA, DNA and protein in epidermis, dermis and subcutis from precancerous mouse skin with reference to enhanced tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bhisey, R.A.; Ramchandani, A.G.; Sirsat, S.M.

    1984-02-01

    The effects of a single application of 1.8 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA and protein in the epidermis, dermis and subcutis from 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) injected precancerous mouse skin were studied at various time points between 3 and 96 h. In the precancerous tissues, the rates of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)uridine into RNA did not alter appreciably from those in the control tissues; while the rates of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine incorporation into DNA were elevated with peaks appearing between 6 and 12 h, at 24 h and at 72 h in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The rate of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)leucine into protein was markedly elevated in all the three tissues which showed 3-4 sharp peaks. The maximum stimulation ranged between 14 and 20 times that of the control. A single application of TPA to the precancerous mouse skin induced early stimulation of precursor incorporation into all the three macromolecules in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The increased stimulation was maintained for 36-72 h. The patterns of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)methylthymidine into DNA gave rise to 2-3 peaks of elevated uptake in each tissue up to 36-48 h. A lowered rate of DNA synthesis between 48 and 60 h was followed by a peak at 72 h. In each group, epidermal mitotic activity correlated well with spurts of precursor incorporation into cellular DNA. The observations indicate that TPA recruits more cells into the DNA synthetic phase and accelerates selective growth of preneoplastic cells during tumor progression.

  5. Suppression of Transglutaminase-2 is Involved in Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Glucosamine in 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Skin Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun A; Lee, Hye Ja; Lee, Eun Ji; Kang, June Hee; Kim, You Lee; Kim, Hyun Ji; Oh, Seung Hyun; Choi, Changsun; Lee, Ho; Kim, Soo Youl

    2012-01-01

    Glucosamine (GS) is well known for the treatment of inflam-mation. However, the mechanism and efficacy of GS for skin inflammation are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects and mechanism of GS in the mouse 12-O-tetradecanoyl 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema model. TPA-induced ear edema was evoked in ICR or transglutaminase 2 (Tgase-2) (-/-) mice. GS was administered orally (10-100 mg/kg) or topically (0.5-2.0 w/v %) prior to TPA treatment. Orally administered GS at 10 mg/kg showed a 76 or 57% reduction in ear weight or myeloperoxidase, respectively, and a decreased expression of cyclooxy-genase-2 (COX-2), NF-κB and Tgase-2 in TPA-induced ear edema by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Role of Tgase-2 in TPA ear edema is examined using Tgase-2 (-/-) mice and TPA did not induce COX-2 expression in ear of Tgase-2 (-/-) mice. These observations suggested that Tgase-2 is involved in TPA-induced COX-2 expression in the inflamed ear of mice and anti-inflammatory effects of glucosamine is mediated through suppression of Tgase-2 in TPA ear edema. PMID:24009824

  6. Ultraviolet Radiation and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Interaction of Mouse Epidermal Protein Kinase Cε With Stat3 Involve Integration With Erk1/2

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Jordan Marshall; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Aziz, Moammir Hasan; Siebers, Emily Marie; Dreckschmidt, Nancy Ellen; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) expression level in epidermis dictates the susceptibility of mice to the development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) elicited either by repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) or by the DMBA-TPA tumor promotion protocol. To find clues about the mechanism by which PKCε mediates susceptibility to UVR-induced development of SCC, we found that PKCε-over-expressing transgenic mice, as compared to their wild-type littermates, when exposed to UVR, elicit enhanced phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 residues. Stat3 is constitutively activated in SCC and UVR fails to induce SCC in Stat3 mutant mice. Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation is essential for Stat3 transcriptional activity (Cancer Res. 67: 1385, 2007). We now present severa novel findings including that PKCε integrates with its downstream partner ERK1/2 to phosphorylate Stat3Ser727. In these experiments, mice were either exposed to UVR (2 kJ/m2/dose) emitted by Kodacel-filtered FS-40 sun lamps or treated with TPA (5 nmol). Both UVR and TPA treatment stimulated PKCε-Stat3 interaction, Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation and Stat3-regulated gene COX-2 expression. PKCε-Stat3 interaction and Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation was also observed in SCC elicited by repeated UVR exposures of mice. PKCε-Stat3 interaction was PKCε specific. UVR or TPA-stimulated Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation accompanied interaction of PKCε with ERK1/2 in intact mouse skin in vivo. Deletion of PKCε in wild-type mice attenuated both TPA and UVR-induced expression of phosphoforms of ERK1/2 and Stat3Ser727. These results indicate that PKCε integrates with ERK1/2 to mediate both TPA and UVR-induced epidermal Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation. PKCε and Stat3 may be potential molecular targets for SCC prevention. PMID:21480396

  7. Ultraviolet radiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced interaction of mouse epidermal protein kinase Cε with Stat3 involve integration with ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Sand, Jordan Marshall; Bin Hafeez, Bilal; Aziz, Moammir Hasan; Siebers, Emily Marie; Dreckschmidt, Nancy Ellen; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2012-04-01

    We have reported that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) expression level in epidermis dictates the susceptibility of mice to the development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) elicited either by repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) or by the DMBA-TPA tumor promotion protocol. To find clues about the mechanism by which PKCε mediates susceptibility to UVR-induced development of SCC, we found that PKCε-over-expressing transgenic mice, as compared to their wild-type littermates, when exposed to UVR, elicit enhanced phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 residues. Stat3 is constitutively activated in SCC and UVR fails to induce SCC in Stat3 mutant mice. Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation is essential for Stat3 transcriptional activity (Cancer Res. 67: 1385, 2007). We now present several novel findings including that PKCε integrates with its downstream partner ERK1/2 to phosphorylate Stat3Ser727. In these experiments, mice were either exposed to UVR (2 kJ/m(2)/dose) emitted by Kodacel-filtered FS-40 sun lamps or treated with TPA (5 nmol). Both UVR and TPA treatment stimulated PKCε-Stat3 interaction, Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation and Stat3-regulated gene COX-2 expression. PKCε-Stat3 interaction and Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation was also observed in SCC elicited by repeated UVR exposures of mice. PKCε-Stat3 interaction was PKCε specific. UVR or TPA-stimulated Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation accompanied interaction of PKCε with ERK1/2 in intact mouse skin in vivo. Deletion of PKCε in wild-type mice attenuated both TPA and UVR-induced expression of phosphoforms of ERK1/2 and Stat3Ser727. These results indicate that PKCε integrates with ERK1/2 to mediate both TPA and UVR-induced epidermal Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation. PKCε and Stat3 may be potential molecular targets for SCC prevention. PMID:21480396

  8. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer or Bone Marrow Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-01-25

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition

  9. Optimization of chemical induction conditions for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) reactivation with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) from latently-infected BC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenbin; Galvin, Teresa A; Ma, Hailun; Ma, Yunkun; Muller, Jacqueline; Khan, Arifa S

    2011-05-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) persists as episomal DNA in latently-infected cells and can establish two alternative life cycles, latent or lytic. 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a known inducer of HHV-8 in several human primary effusion lymphoma cell lines and has been widely used for HHV-8 reactivation; however, induction conditions have differed, resulting in varying levels of virus expression. We have used HHV-8 latently-infected BC-3 cells as a model to determine critical parameters for optimizing virus reactivation by TPA. We found that cell growth properties and drug treatment conditions were important for maximum reactivation of HHV-8. Addition of TPA to cells in the early log phase of a sigmoidal growth curve, which was tightly associated with high percentage of the cells in early S phase and with lower histone deacetylase activity in the cells, provided the optimum cell conditions for latent virus to switch to lytic replication. Furthermore, increasing TPA concentration (up to 320 ng per ml) at 48 h exposure time resulted in increased virus production. The results demonstrate the use of a step-wise strategy with chemical induction that may facilitate broad detection of latent DNA viruses and novel virus discovery. PMID:21470875

  10. Effects of TPA on short-circuit current across frog skin

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, T.; O'Brien, T.G.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) is an effective tumor promoter that affects a variety of ion transport processes. To examine the relationship between effects on transport and growth and differentiation, the authors have been studying the actions of TPA on frog skin, a particularly well-characterized epithelium. They have reported that high concentrations of TPA stimulate base-line short-circuit current (I/sub SC/) and inhibit the subsequent natriferic action of vasopressin. The current study of 89 preparations extends those findings. The K/sub m/ of the stimulatory effect of TPA is approx. 3 nM; this high affinity indicates that the transport phenomenon does not simply reflect a nonspecific interaction of phorbol ester with the plasma membranes. TPA acts largely or entirely at the mucosal surface of both split and whole skins; thus the sidedness of the effect does not arise from adsorption onto the underlying connective tissue when TPA is applied to the serosal surface of whole skin. Amiloride, an inhibitor of apical Na entry, abolishes I/sub SC/ across frog skins pretreated with TPA. The phorbol ester also increases I/sub SC/ across split skins, preparations which do not produce net Cl transport. The present results indicate that frog skin is highly responsive to TPA at concentrations known to activate protein kinase C in broken-cell preparations. The actions on I/sub SC/ appear to reflect changes in transepithelial Na transport modulated at the apical membranes. The full biochemical events triggered by TPA remain to be clarified; in part, TPA's actions may be mediated by leukotrienes produced by activation of the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism.

  11. Reversal of the TPA-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts: effects on MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Ran; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sun-Jung; Ra, Jeong-Chan; Aruoma, Okezie I; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has continued to receive attention as a folk medicine with indications for the treatment of cancers and digestive diseases. The anticarcinogenic effect of Chaga mushroom extract was investigated using a model system of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver epithelial cells. The cells were pre-incubated with Chaga mushroom extracts (5, 10, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h and this was followed by co-treatment with Chaga mushroom extracts and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 10 ng/ml) for 1 h. The inhibition of GJIC by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), promoter of cancer, was prevented with treatment of Chaga mushroom extracts. Similarly, the increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 protein kinases were markedly reduced in Chaga mushroom extracts-treated cells. There was no change in the JNK kinase protein level, suggesting that Chaga mushroom extracts could only block the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. The Chaga mushroom extracts further prevented the inhibition of GJIC through the blocking of Cx43 phosphorylation. Indeed cell-to-cell communication through gap junctional channels is a critical factor in the life and death balance of cells because GJIC has an important function in maintaining tissue homeostasis through the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and adaptive functions of differentiated cells. Thus Chaga mushroom may act as a natural anticancer product by preventing the inhibition of GJIC through the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. PMID:17012771

  12. Modulation by glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives of TPA-induced mouse ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Mori, T.; Shibata, S.; Koshihara, Y.

    1989-01-01

    1. The anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced mouse ear oedema were studied. The mechanisms of TPA-induced ear oedema were first investigated with respect to the chemical mediators. 2. The formation of ear oedema reached a maximum 5 h after TPA application (2 micrograms per ear) and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production of mouse ear increased with the oedema formation. 3. TPA-induced ear oedema was prevented by actinomycin D and cycloheximide (0.1 mg per ear, respectively) when applied during 60 min after TPA treatment. 4. Of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives examined, dihemiphthalate derivatives (IIe, IIe', IIIa, IIIa', IVa, IVa') most strongly inhibited ear oedema on both topical (ID50, 1.6 mg per ear for IIe, 2.0 mg per ear for IIIa and 1.6 mg per ear for IVa) and oral (ID50, 88 mg kg-1 for IIe', 130 mg kg-1 for IIIa' and 92 mg kg-1 for IVa') administration. 5. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and its derivatives applied 30 min before TPA treatment were much more effective in inhibiting oedema than when applied 30 min after TPA. A dihemiphthalate of triterpenoid compound IVa completely inhibited oedema, even when applied 3 h before TPA treatment. 6. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and deoxoglycyrrhetol (IIa), the parent compounds, produced little inhibition by oral administration at less than 200 mg kg-1. 7. These results suggest that the dihemiphthalate derivatives of triterpenes derived from glycyrrhetinic acid by chemical modification are useful for the treatment of skin inflammation by both topical and oral application. PMID:2924072

  13. Naringenin suppresses TPA-induced tumor invasion by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Liu, Ching-Ju; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2015-06-25

    Naringenin, a common dietary flavonoid abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, is believed to possess strong anti-proliferative properties and the ability to induce apoptosis in hepatoma cell lines. However, there are no reports describing its effects on the invasion and metastasis of hepatoma cell lines, and the detailed molecular mechanisms of its effects are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying naringenin-mediated inhibition of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell invasion and inhibition of secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 production in human hepatoma cells (HepG2, Huh-7, and HA22T) and murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL2). Naringenin suppressed MMP-9 transcription by inhibiting activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity. It suppressed TPA-induced AP-1 activity through inhibiting the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, and it suppressed TPA-induced inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation through IκB. Additionally, it suppressed TPA-induced activation of ERK/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt upstream of NF-κB and AP-1. These data suggest that naringenin suppresses the invasiveness and metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inhibiting multiple signal transduction pathways. PMID:25866363

  14. Surfactin suppresses TPA-induced breast cancer cell invasion through the inhibition of MMP-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Young Ji; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Younghee

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of cancer mortality. In this study, we investigated the effects of surfactin, a cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, on cancer metastasis in vitro and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. Surfactin inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced invasion, migration and colony formation of human breast carcinoma cells. Western blot analysis, gelatin zymography and reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and activation was significantly suppressed by surfactin in a dose-dependent manner. Surfactin attenuated TPA-induced nuclear translocation and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Furthermore, surfactin strongly repressed the TPA-induced phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Treatment with specific inhibitors of Akt and ERK suppressed MMP-9 expression and activation. These results suggest that the surfactin-mediated inhibition of breast cancer cell invasion and MMP-9 expression involves the suppression of the NF-κB, AP-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt and the ERK signaling pathways. Thus surfactin may have potential value in therapeutic strategies for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:23151889

  15. The role of PKC/ERK1/2 signaling in the anti-inflammatory effect of tetracyclic triterpene euphol on TPA-induced skin inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Passos, Giselle F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Marcon, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Andrey F Z; Calixto, João B; Pianowski, Luiz F

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation underlies the development and progression of a number of skin disorders including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and cancer. Therefore, novel antiinflammatory agents are of great clinical interest for prevention and treatment of these conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the underlying molecular mechanisms of the antiinflammatory activity of euphol, a tetracyclic triterpene isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, in skin inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice. Topical application of euphol (100 μg/ear) significantly inhibited TPA-induced ear edema and leukocyte influx through the reduction of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1/KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 levels. At the intracellular level, euphol reduced TPA-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) upregulation. These effects were associated with euphol's ability to prevent TPA-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation, namely PKCα and PKCδ isozymes. Our data indicate that topical application of euphol markedly inhibits the inflammatory response induced by TPA. Thus, euphol represents a promising agent for the management of skin diseases with an inflammatory component. PMID:23099255

  16. Hispolon inhibits TPA-induced invasion by reducing MMP-9 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YI-SHENG; ZHAO, ZHAO; ZHU, HAN-PING

    2015-01-01

    Hispolon has been demonstrated to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, whether hispolon prevents the invasion of breast carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms of its action remain unknown. In the present study, various assays, including a matrigel-based Transwell invasion assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, were used to investigate the anti-invasion effect of hispolon and explore its mechanism of action. The results revealed that hispolon inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells at non-toxic concentrations. Hispolon also prevented the TPA-induced secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and reduced its expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of IκBα was reduced by hispolon, which resulted in the suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that NF-κB DNA-binding activity was induced by TPA and inhibited by hispolon. In addition, Bay 11–7082, which is a specific inhibitor of NF-κB, functioned in a similar manner as hispolon and blocked the secretion and expression of MMP-9. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that hispolon inhibited TPA-induced migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells by reducing the secretion and expression of MMP-9 through the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26171065

  17. Participation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in thapsigargin- and TPA-induced histamine production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Muneshige; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Oikawa, Shinji; Murakami, Akira; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Stimulation of the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with thapsigargin, an endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, induced histamine production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The protein kinase C activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), also enhanced histamine production. α-Fluoromethylhistidine, a suicide substrate of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), suppressed the thapsigargin (30 nM)- and TPA (30 nM)-induced histamine production. Both thapsigargin (30 nM) and TPA (30 nM) induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK-1 which phosphorylates p44/p42 MAP kinase, strongly suppressed both the thapsigargin (30 nM)- and TPA (30 nM)-induced histamine production, whereas SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, inhibited them only partially. The other MEK-1 inhibitor, U-0126, also inhibited both the thapsigargin- and TPA-induced histamine production in a concentration-dependent manner. Thapsigargin (30 nM) and TPA (30 nM) increased the levels of HDC mRNA at 4 h, but PD98059 suppressed both the thapsigargin- and TPA-induced increases in the HDC mRNA level. These findings indicate that thapsigargin and TPA induce histamine production in RAW 264.7 cells by increasing the level of HDC mRNA, and that both the thapsigargin- and TPA-induced histamine production are regulated largely by p44/p42 MAP kinase and partially by p38 MAP kinase.. PMID:10711350

  18. Fractionation of a tumor-initiating UV dose introduces DNA damage-retaining cells in hairless mouse skin and renders subsequent TPA-promoted tumors non-regressing

    PubMed Central

    van de Glind, Gerline; Rebel, Heggert; van Kempen, Marika; Tensen, Kees; de Gruijl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Sunburns and especially sub-sunburn chronic UV exposure are associated with increased risk of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here we focus on a possible difference in tumor initiation from a single severe-sunburn dose (on day 1, 21 hairless mice) and from an equal dose fractionated into very low sub-sunburn doses not causing any (growth-promoting) epidermal hyperplasia (40 days daily exposure, n=20). From day 47 all mice received 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) applications (2x/wk) for 20 weeks to promote tumor development within the lifetime of the animals. After the sub-sunburn regimen sparse DNA damage-retaining basal cells (quiescent stem cells, QSCs) remained in the non-hyperplastic epidermis. These cells were forced to divide by TPA. After discontinuation of TPA tumors regressed and disappeared in the ‘sunburn group’ but persisted and grew in the ‘sub-sunburn group’ (0.06 vs 2.50 SCCs and precursors ≥4mm/mouse after 280 days, p=0.03). As the tumors carried no mutations in p53, H/K/N-Ras and Notch1/2, these ‘usual suspects' were not involved in the UV-driven tumor initiation. Although we could not selectively eliminate QSCs (unknown phenotype) to establish causality, our data suggest that forcing specifically DNA damage-retaining QSCs to divide – with high mutagenic risk - gives rise to persisting (mainly ‘in situ’) skin carcinomas. PMID:26797757

  19. Fractionation of a tumor-initiating UV dose introduces DNA damage-retaining cells in hairless mouse skin and renders subsequent TPA-promoted tumors non-regressing.

    PubMed

    van de Glind, Gerline; Rebel, Heggert; van Kempen, Marika; Tensen, Kees; de Gruijl, Frank

    2016-02-16

    Sunburns and especially sub-sunburn chronic UV exposure are associated with increased risk of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here we focus on a possible difference in tumor initiation from a single severe-sunburn dose (on day 1, 21 hairless mice) and from an equal dose fractionated into very low sub-sunburn doses not causing any (growth-promoting) epidermal hyperplasia (40 days daily exposure, n=20). From day 47 all mice received 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) applications (2x/wk) for 20 weeks to promote tumor development within the lifetime of the animals. After the sub-sunburn regimen sparse DNA damage-retaining basal cells (quiescent stem cells, QSCs) remained in the non-hyperplastic epidermis. These cells were forced to divide by TPA. After discontinuation of TPA tumors regressed and disappeared in the 'sunburn group' but persisted and grew in the 'sub-sunburn group' (0.06 vs 2.50 SCCs and precursors ≥4 mm/mouse after 280 days, p=0.03). As the tumors carried no mutations in p53, H/K/N-Ras and Notch1/2, these 'usual suspects' were not involved in the UV-driven tumor initiation. Although we could not selectively eliminate QSCs (unknown phenotype) to establish causality, our data suggest that forcing specifically DNA damage-retaining QSCs to divide--with high mutagenic risk--gives rise to persisting (mainly 'in situ') skin carcinomas. PMID:26797757

  20. Cytoskeletal reorganization and TPA differently modify AP-1 to induce the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene in LLC-PK1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J S; von der Ahe, D; Kiefer, B; Nagamine, Y

    1993-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is an extracellular protease and expressed in various cells that exhibit dynamic changes in cell morphology, suggesting a link between cytoskeletal reorganization (CSR) and uPA expression. CSR can be induced by pharmacological agents, such as by colchicine for microtubule cytoskeleton and by cytochalasin for microfilament cytoskeleton. Using these agents, we previously showed that CSR induced the uPA gene in LLC-PK1 cells independently of the protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Here we show that the induction of the uPA gene by CSR is mediated by the activation of c-Jun which interacts with an AP-1-like site located 2 kb upstream of the uPA gene. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces the uPA gene through the same elements, but additionally utilizes an adjacent PEA3 element and induces c-fos. Furthermore, CSR induces a greater accumulation and a more pronounced phosphorylation of c-Jun than TPA induction. AP-1 is a positive regulator of growth and oncogenesis, and CSR is an integral part of these processes. Our results provide a view how CSR and AP-1 could be coupled in these processes. We also show that TPA and CSR act synergistically, suggesting a model where an initial activation signal could be amplified by CSR. Images PMID:8346015

  1. Protective Effect of Fermented Soybean Dried Extracts against TPA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hairless Mice Skin

    PubMed Central

    Georgetti, Sandra R.; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T. M. C.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Fonseca, Maria J. V.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms. PMID:24073399

  2. Relationship between exposure to TPA and appearance of transformed cells in MNNG-initiated transformation of BALB/c 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Umeda, M

    1997-10-01

    In the BALB/c-3T3-cell transformation system, the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) exposure on the appearance of transformed cells was examined in order to investigate the mechanisms of in vitro tumor promotion. Optimal duration of TPA exposure on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG)-initiated cells was at least 11 days. To investigate the effect of transformation frequencies of altering inoculating cell density at the replating of MNNG-exposed cells and of altering the time of starting TPA exposure, MNNG-exposed cells were replated at various inoculum sizes. With lower inoculum sizes (1 x 10(3) to 3 x 10(4) cells/dish), maximum TPA-induced transformation occurred for TPA commencement at confluence, while with higher inoculum size (1 x 10(5) cells/dish), maximum transformation frequency was observed when TPA exposure was started on day 7 after replating, being some 2 days after confluence. This may suggest that there are different mechanisms involved, depending on inoculum size, and that these may involve cell-cell interactions (at lower inoculum) and mutation expression periods (at higher inoculum). By means of redispersion experiments, it was demonstrated that the appearance of transformed cells begins on about day 7 after replating at a cell density of 1 x 10(4) cells/dish. These results suggest the usefulness of the replating method for optimizing transformation in the BALB/c-3T3-cell transformation assay, and provide insight into the time frame of expression of MNNG-initiated transformants and TPA-induced expansion of these transformants. PMID:9335454

  3. Effect of the promoter 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13- acetate on the evolution of carcinogen-altered cell populations in tracheas initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Terzaghi, M.; Klein-Szanto, A.; Nettesheim, P.

    1983-04-01

    The aim of these studies was to investigate the effect(s) of the promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) on the evolution of different types of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat tracheal epithelial cells in vivo. In the present study, tracheal transplants were exposed in vivo to 35 ..mu..g DMBA for 2 weeks and subsequently to 100 ..mu..g TPA. Controls were exposed to DMBA alone, TPA alone, or blank pellets alone. Tracheal cells were harvested by enzymatic procedures at 0, 3, 6, 12, or 18 months after the end of exposure to DMBA and at the same time points after the beginning of exposure to TPA or control pellets and were assayed in vitro with the epithelial focus (EF) assay for the frequency of different types of EF-forming units. Control tracheas yielded <1 EF/10/sub 4/ viable cells harvested. Exposure to TPA alone did not increase the yield of EF, EF/sub s/, or EF/sub s,ag+/ above control levels. Carcinogen exposure resulted in a 6- to 20-fold increase in yield of EF, a 2- to 3-fold increase in EF/sub s/, and a greater than or equal to 15-fold increase in yield of EF/sub s,ag+/ above control levels. Neither the yield of EF nor the yield of EF/sub s/ was affected by subsequent TPA. In contrast, there was a marked effect of subsequent TPA exposure on the maintenance and size of the cell pool giving rise to anchorage-independent offspring (EF/sub s,ag+/). In summary, it appears that initiation can be viewed as a series of complex cellular changes. With time, some of these changes are reversible. Exposure to TPA of cell populations initiated with low doses of DMBA results in the persistence of altered cell populations in the intact tissue. Without TPA treatment, some phenotypically altered cells appear to revert to a more normal state and/or fail to replicate. 26 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. Dehydroglyasperin C suppresses TPA-induced cell transformation through direct inhibition of MKK4 and PI3K.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jong-Eun; Jang, Young Jin; Lee, Charles C; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Eunjung; Lim, Soon Sung; Heo, Yong Seok; Seo, Sang Gwon; Son, Joe Eun; Kim, Jong Rhan; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won

    2016-05-01

    Bioactive natural compounds from plant-derived sources have received substantial interest due to their potential therapeutic and preventive effects toward various human diseases. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza), a frequently-used component in traditional oriental medicines, has been incorporated into recipes not only to enhance taste, but also to treat various conditions including inflammation, chronic fatigue syndrome, and even cancer. Dehydroglyasperin C (DGC) is a major isoflavone found in the root of licorice. In the present study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive effect of DGC and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved, by analyzing its effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced neoplastic cell transformation and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells. DGC treatment attenuated TPA-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activation, two major regulators of TPA-induced cell transformation, and COX-2 expression. TPA-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK1/2 and Akt was also suppressed by DGC. Kinase assay data revealed that DGC inhibited the kinase activity of MKK4 and PI3K and this outcome was due to direct physical binding with DGC. Notably, DGC bound directly to MKK4 and PI3K in an ATP-competitive manner. Taken together, these results suggest that DGC exhibits cancer chemopreventive potential via its inhibitory effect on TPA-induced neoplastic cell transformation and COX-2 modulation through regulation of the MKK4 and PI3K pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25787879

  5. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of DMBA-TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diagaradjane, Parmeswaran; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Yu, Jie; Wong, Michael S.; Anvari, Bahman

    2006-01-01

    While initially confined to the epidermis, squamous cell carcinoma can eventually penetrate into the underlying tissue if not diagnosed early and treated. The noninvasive early detection of the carcinoma is important to achieve a complete treatment of the disease. Of the various non-invasive optical techniques, the synchronous fluorescence (SF) technique is considered to provide a simplified spectral profile with more sharp spectral signatures of the endogenous fluorophores in complex systems. The potential use of the SF technique in the characterization of the sequential tissue transformation in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA-TPA)-induced mouse skin tumor model in conjunction with simple statistical analysis is explored. The SF spectra show distinct differences during the earlier weeks of the tumor-induction period. Intensity ratio variables are calculated and used in three discriminant analyses. All the discriminant analyses show better classification results with accuracy greater than 80%. From the observed differences in the spectral characteristics and the ratio variables that resulted in better classification between groups, it is concluded that tryptophan, collagen, and NADH are the key fluorophores that undergo changes during tissue transformation process and hence they can be targeted as tumor markers to diagnose normal from abnormal tissues using the SF technique.

  6. Suppression of TPA-induced cancer cell invasion by Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. extract through the inhibition of PKCα/NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 expression in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Mi; Noh, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ha-Rim; Kim, Mi-Seong; Song, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Minok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic cancers spread from their site of origin (the primary site) to other parts of the body. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix, is important in metastatic cancers as it plays a major role in cancer cell invasion. The present study examined the inhibitory effect of an ethanol extract of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. (PJT) on MMP-9 expression and the invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that PJT significantly suppressed MMP-9 expression and activation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PJT attenuated TPA-induced nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The results indicated that the PJT-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion involved the suppression of the PKCα/NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. Thus, the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by PJT may have potential value as a therapy for restricting the invasiveness of breast cancer. PMID:26717978

  7. Luteolin 8-C-β-fucopyranoside inhibits invasion and suppresses TPA-induced MMP-9 and IL-8 via ERK/AP-1 and ERK/NF-κB signaling in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kang, Jeong-Woo; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Yoon, Do-Young

    2013-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) play major roles in tumor progression and invasion of breast cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of cell invasion by luteolin 8-C-β-fucopyranoside (named as LU8C-FP), a C-glycosylflavone, in human breast cancer cells. We investigated whether LU8C-FP would inhibit MMP-9 activation and IL-8 expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. LU8C-FP suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 and IL-8 secretion and mRNA expression via inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway and down-regulation of nuclear AP-1 and NF-κB. TPA-induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 was suppressed by LU8C-FP, whereas JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were unaffected. In addition, LU8C-FP blocked the ERK 1/2 pathways following expression of MMP-9 and IL-8. These results suggest LU8C-FP may function to suppress invasion of breast cancer cells through the ERK/AP-1 and ERK/NF-κB signaling cascades. PMID:23933110

  8. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  9. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  10. IL-13 but not IL-4 signaling via IL-4Rα protects mice from papilloma formation during DMBA/TPA two-step skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Michael; Quarcoo, David; Chashchina, Anna A; Bozrova, Svetlana V; Qin, Zhihai; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Blankenstein, Thomas; Kammertoens, Thomas; Drutskaya, Marina S

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) was shown to be tumor-promoting in full carcinogenesis studies using 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Because heretofore the role of IL-4 in DMBA/TPA (9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz-anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) two-stage carcinogenesis was not studied, we performed such experiments using either IL-4−/− or IL-4Rα−/− mice. We found that IL-4Rα−/− but not IL-4−/− mice have enhanced papilloma formation, suggesting that IL-13 may be involved. Indeed, IL-13−/− mice developed more papillomas after exposure to DMBA/TPA than their heterozygous IL-13-competent littermate controls. However, when tested in a full carcinogenesis experiment, exposure of mice to 25 μg of MCA, both IL-13−/− and IL-13+/− mice led to the same incidence of tumors. While IL-4 enhances MCA carcinogenesis, it does not play a measurable role in our DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis experiments. Conversely, IL-13 does not affect MCA carcinogenesis but protects mice from DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis. One possible explanation is that IL-4 and IL-13, although they share a common IL-4Rα chain, regulate signaling in target cells differently by employing distinct JAK/STAT-mediated signaling pathways downstream of IL-13 or IL-4 receptor complexes, resulting in different inflammatory transcriptional programs. Taken together, our results indicate that the course of DMBA/TPA- and MCA-induced carcinogenesis is affected differently by IL-4 versus IL-13-mediated inflammatory cascades. PMID:24403255

  11. 3'-untranslated region of SP-B mRNA mediates inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha on SP-B expression.

    PubMed

    Pryhuber, G S; Church, S L; Kroft, T; Panchal, A; Whitsett, J A

    1994-07-01

    Surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is a small hydrophobic polypeptide that enhances spreading and stability of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolus of the lung. Decreased expression of SP-B is associated with respiratory failure in premature infants and in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) cause ARDS-like lung injury in vivo. Inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha on SP-B mRNA expression in vitro were mediated by decreased SP-B mRNA stability rather than by decreased rate of SP-B gene transcription. In the present study, a human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI H441-4, was stably transfected with expression vectors consisting of the thymidine kinase (TK) promotor and human growth hormone (hGH) gene, in which the hGH 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was replaced by the 2.0-kb human SP-B cDNA [pTKGH(SP-B2.0)] or the 837-bp human SP-B 3'-UTR [pTKGH(SP-B.837)]. The mRNAs and cellular growth hormone protein generated from the chimeric TKGH(SP-B2.0) and TKGH(SP-B.837) genes were each inhibited by approximately 50% by TPA and TNF-alpha. Dexamethasone decreased the inhibitory effects of TPA and TNF-alpha. The inhibition of steady-state hGH-SP-B mRNA by TPA and TNF-alpha was mediated by a cis-active element located in the 3-UTR region of SP-B mRNA. PMID:8048538

  12. The effects of dissociated glucocorticoids RU24858 and RU24782 on TPA-induced skin tumor promotion biomarkers in SENCAR mice.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Junco, Jacob J; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Sosnowska, Renata; Tolstykh, Olga; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Hanausek, Margaret; Slaga, Thomas J

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are very effective at preventing carcinogen- and tumor promoter-induced skin inflammation, hyperplasia, and mouse skin tumor formation. The effects of GCs are mediated by a well-known transcription factor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GR acts via two different mechanisms: transcriptional regulation that requires DNA-binding (transactivation) and DNA binding-independent protein-protein interactions between GR and other transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) or activator protein 1 (AP-1; transrepression). We hypothesize that the transrepression activities of the GR are sufficient to suppress skin tumor promotion. We obtained two GCs (RU24858 and RU24782) that have dissociated downstream effects and induce only transrepression activities of the GR in a number of systems. These compounds bind the GR with high affinity and repress AP-1 and NF-κB activities while showing a lack of GR transactivation. RU24858, RU24782, or control full GCs desoximetasone (DES) and fluocinolone acetonide (FA) were applied to the dorsal skin of SENCAR mice prior to application of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), two times per week for 2 weeks. DES, FA and RU24858 reversed TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and proliferation, while RU24782 treatment had no effect on these markers of skin tumor promotion. All tested compounds decreased TPA-induced c-jun mRNA levels in skin. DES, FA, and RU24858, but not RU24782, were also able to reverse TPA-induced increases in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS. These findings show that RU24858 but not RU24782 reduced TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation, while both compounds reversed c-jun mRNA increases in the skin. PMID:23852815

  13. Pterostilbene Is Equally Potent as Resveratrol in Inhibiting 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate Activated NFkappaB, AP-1, COX-2 and iNOS in Mouse Epidermis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes, has been reported to inhibit multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Recent studies showed that topically applied resveratrol significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) induced by tumor promoter...

  14. Bioassay-guided chemical study of the anti-inflammatory effect of Senna villosa (Miller) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae) in TPA-induced ear edema.

    PubMed

    Susunaga-Notario, Ana del Carmen; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Almanza-Pérez, Julio Cesar; Gutiérrez-Carrillo, Atilano; Arrieta-Báez, Daniel; López-López, Ana Laura; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Flores-Sáenz, José Luis Eduardo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Senna villosa (Miller) is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from the leaves of Senna villosa and to perform a bioassay-guided chemical study of the extract with major activity in a model of ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The results reveal that the chloroform extract from Senna villosa leaves has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Nine fractions were obtained from the bioassay-guided chemical study, including a white precipitate from fractions 2 and 3. Although none of the nine fractions presented anti-inflammatory activity, the white precipitate exhibited pharmacological activity. It was chemically characterized using mass spectrometry and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resulting in a mixture of three aliphatic esters, which were identified as the principal constituents: hexyl tetradecanoate (C20H40O2), heptyl tetradecanoate (C21H42O2) and octyl tetradecanoate (C22H44O2). This research provides, for the first time, evidence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of compounds isolated from Senna villosa. PMID:25029073

  15. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Induces Apoptosis via Reduction of COX-2 Expression in TPA-Induced HT-29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun Ju; Sung, Mi Jeong; Park, Jae Ho; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) is one of the bioactive compounds found in cheonggukjang, a fast-fermented soybean paste widely utilized in Korean cooking. PGA is reported to have a number of beneficial health effects, and interestingly, it has been identified as a possible anti-cancer compound through its ability to promote apoptosis in cancer cells, although the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our findings demonstrate that PGA inhibits the pro-proliferative functions of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a known chemical carcinogen in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. This inhibition was accompanied by hallmark apoptotic phenotypes, including DNA fragmentation and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3. In addition, PGA treatment reduced the expression of genes known to be overexpressed in colorectal cancer cells, including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Lastly, PGA promoted activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein (AMPK) in HT-29 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PGA treatment enhances apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, in part by modulating the activity of the COX-2 and AMPK signaling pathways. These anti-cancer functions of PGA make it a promising compound for future study. PMID:25854428

  16. Potential O-acyl-substituted (-)-Epicatechin gallate prodrugs as inhibitors of DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sandeep; Manon, Benu; Vir Singh, Tej; Dev Sharma, Pritam; Sharma, Manu

    2011-04-01

    (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (1) is one of the principal catechins of green tea and exhibits cancer-preventive activities in various animal models. However, this compound is unstable in neutral or alkaline medium and, therefore, has a poor bioavailability. To improve its stability, O-acyl derivatives of 1 were prepared by isolating the partially purified tea catechin fraction from green tea extract and treating it with a variety of acylating agents. The resulting derivatives, compounds 2-6, were screened for their antitumor potential against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis of skin in mice. The results showed that the antitumor activity decreased with the increase in size of the chain length of the acyl groups, i.e., from compound 2, derivative with an Ac group, to compound 6, possessing a valeryl group. Moreover, the C(4) derivative with a branched acyl chain, 5, had a lower activity than the linear C(4) derivative 4. This reduction in the inhibitory activity may be due to the steric hindrance by the two Me groups. Moreover, significant increases in the protein levels analyzed by ELISA of c-Jun, p65, and p53 were observed in the skin of DMBA/TPA treated mice, whereas mice treated with 2 and DMBA/TPA had a similar expression of these transcription factors than the control mice. The prodrug potential of the O-acyl derivatives 2-6 showed that they were adequately stable to be absorbed intact from the intestine, more stable at gastric pH, and suitable for oral administration. PMID:21480506

  17. Spermine synthase overexpression in vivo does not increase susceptibility to DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis or Min-Apc intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Patricia A; Sass-Kuhn, Suzanne; Prakashagowda, Chethana; McCloskey, Diane; Feith, David

    2012-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a link between elevated polyamine biosynthesis and neoplastic growth, but the specific contribution of spermine synthase to epithelial tumor development has never been explored in vivo. Mice with widespread overexpression of spermine synthase (CAG-SpmS) exhibit decreased spermidine levels, increased spermine and a significant rise in tissue spermine:spermidine ratio. We characterized the response of CAG-SpmS mice to two-stage skin chemical carcinogenesis as well as spontaneous intestinal carcinogenesis induced by loss of the Apc tumor suppressor in Apc (Min) (/+) (Min) mice. CAG-SpmS mice maintained the canonical increases in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, polyamine content and epidermal thickness in response to tumor promoter treatment of the skin. The induction of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity and its product decarboxylated AdoMet were impaired in CAG-SpmS mice, and the spermine:spermidine ratio was increased 3-fold in both untreated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated skin. The susceptibility to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/TPA skin carcinogenesis was not altered in CAG-SpmS mice, and SpmS overexpression did not modify the previously described tumor resistance of mice with targeted antizyme expression or the enhanced tumor response in mice with targeted spermidine/spermine-N ( 1) -acetyltransferase expression. CAG-SpmS/Min mice also exhibited elevated spermine:spermidine ratios in the small intestine and colon, yet their tumor multiplicity and size was similar to Min mice. Therefore, studies in two of the most widely used tumorigenesis models demonstrate that increased spermine synthase activity and the resulting elevation of the spermine:spermidine ratio does not alter susceptibility to tumor development initiated by c-Ha-Ras mutation or Apc loss. PMID:22258329

  18. Purification of a peptide from seahorse, that inhibits TPA-induced MMP, iNOS and COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, and induces human osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-03-30

    Ongoing efforts to search for naturally occurring, bioactive substances for the amelioration of arthritis have led to the discovery of natural products with substantial bioactive properties. The seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeler), a telelost fish, is one source of known beneficial products, yet has not been utilized for arthritis research. In the present work, we have purified and characterized a bioactive peptide from seahorse hydrolysis. Among the hydrolysates tested, pronase E-derived hydrolysate exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a phenotype marker of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation. After its separation from the hydrolysate by several purification steps, the peptide responsible for the ALP activity was isolated and its sequence was identified as LEDPFDKDDWDNWK (1821Da). We have shown that the isolated peptide induces differentiation of osteoblastic MG-63 and chondrocytic SW-1353 cells by measuring ALP activity, mineralization and collagen synthesis. Our results indicate that the peptide acts during early to late stages of differentiation in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. We also assessed the concentration dependence of the peptide's inhibition of MMP (-1, -3 and -13), iNOS and COX-2 expression after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a common form of phorbol ester. The peptide also inhibited NO production in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. To elucidate the mechanisms by which the peptide acted, we examined its effects on TPA-induced MAPKs/NF-kappaB activation and determined that the peptide treatment significantly reduced p38 kinase/NF-kappaB in MG-63 cells and MAPKs/NF-kappaB in SW-1353 cells. PMID:20004183

  19. Tat-CBR1 inhibits inflammatory responses through the suppressions of NF-κB and MAPK activation in macrophages and TPA-induced ear edema in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Dae Won; Jo, Hyo Sang; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Youn, Jong Kyu; Hwang, Jae Hyeok; Jeong, Ji-Heon; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-07-15

    Human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) plays a crucial role in cell survival and protects against oxidative stress response. However, its anti-inflammatory effects are not yet clearly understood. In this study, we examined whether CBR1 protects against inflammatory responses in macrophages and mice using a Tat-CBR1 protein which is able to penetrate into cells. The results revealed that purified Tat-CBR1 protein efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells and inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) expression levels. In addition, Tat-CBR1 protein leads to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression through suppression of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Furthermore, Tat-CBR1 protein inhibited inflammatory responses in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation when applied topically. These findings indicate that Tat-CBR1 protein has anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK activation, suggesting that Tat-CBR1 protein may have potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • Transduced Tat-CBR1 reduces LPS-induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines. • Tat-CBR1 inhibits MAPK and NF-κB activation. • Tat-CBR1 ameliorates inflammation response in vitro and in vivo. • Tat-CBR1 may be useful as potential therapeutic agent for inflammation.

  20. EFFECT OF PHORBOL ESTERS ON CLONAL CULTURES OF HUMAN, HAMSTER, AND RAT RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the growth of epithelial cells from rat, hamster, and human respiratory tract has been measured by monitoring colony formation in culture. TPA and its active derivatives stimulated colony formation of ...

  1. 12-O-Tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced growth arrest is increased by silibinin by the down-regulation of cyclin B1 and cdc2 and the up-regulation of p21 expression in MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Hye Sook; Lee, Se-Kyung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hur, Sung Mo; Kim, Jee Soo; Kim, Jung-Han; Choe, Jun-Ho; Shin, Incheol; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2010-12-01

    TPA is a potent regulator of cell growth, including cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we determined the effect of silibinin on TPA-induced growth arrest in breast cancer cells. Silibinin increased growth arrest of the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent fashion. Silibinin decreased the basal level of cyclin B1 and cdc2 expression, which is involved in S phase and G2/M transition. In addition, TPA-induced G2/M phase arrest was increased by silibinin. Under the same conditions, TPA-induced down-regulation of cyclin B1 and cdc2 was decreased by silibinin. In contrast, TPA-induced p21 expression was further increased by silibinin. To determine the regulatory mechanism of TPA-induced growth arrest, we pretreated cells with various inhibitors, such as UO126, SB203580, and LY294002. Interestingly, TPA-induced growth arrest was significantly increased by LY294002, but not by UO126 and SB203580. In addition, TPA-induced down-regulation of cyclin B1 was inhibited by LY294002; however, the basal level of p21 was increased by TPA and TPA-induced p21 expression was further increased by LY294002. Finally, adenoviral constitutively active-Akt (Ad-CA-Akt) overexpression regulated the up-regulation of cyclin B1 and the down-regulation of p21. Therefore, we have demonstrated that silibinin has an additive effect on TPA-induced growth arrest through the PI-3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway. PMID:20554189

  2. EFFECT OF 12-0-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND GROWTH OF C3H/10TL/2 MOUSE EMBRYO CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the morphology and growth properties of C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells were examined. The morphology of these cells was changed within 30 min following treatment with 0.1 micrograms of TPA pe...

  3. 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate down-regulates the Huntingtin promoter at Sp1 sites.

    PubMed

    Coles, R; Birdsall, M; Wyttenbach, A; Rubinsztein, D C

    2000-09-28

    We have studied the effects of the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on Huntington's disease (HD) gene transcription in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines, to investigate pathways regulating HD gene expression. TPA reduced transcription from the HD gene promoter in SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma) and HeLa cells but not in JEG3 (choriocarcinoma) cells. In SK-N-SH cells, the responsible cis-acting promoter sequences comprise the tandemly duplicated Sp1 sites in the region from -213 to -174, relative to the translation start site. The TPA-down-regulating region in HeLa cells was mapped to the sequence from -141 to -126. In conclusion, this demonstrates that HD gene transcription can be down-regulated in vitro in a cell-specific manner. PMID:11043541

  4. Total synthesis of plagiochin G and derivatives as potential cancer chemopreventive agents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui-Juan; Zhao, Yu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Yang, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yue-Hu; Shi, Qian; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    A new and efficient total synthesis has been developed to obtain plagiochin G (22), a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl, and four derivatives. The key 16-membered ring containing biphenyl ether and biaryl units was closed via an intramolecular SNAr reaction. All synthesized macrocyclic bisbibenzyls inhibited Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBVEA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells and, thus, are potential cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:25574060

  5. Protein kinase C is involved in regulation of Ca2+ channels in plasmalemma of Nitella syncarpa.

    PubMed

    Zherelova, O M

    1989-01-01

    Ca2+ current recordings have been made on Nitella syncarpa cells using the intracellular perfusion and the voltage-clamp technique. TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a substance capable of activating protein kinase C from plasmalemma of Nitella cells, modulates voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Polymixin B, inhibitor of protein kinase C, blocks the Nitella plasmalemma Ca2+ channels; the rate of channel blockage depends on the concentration and exposure time of the substance. PMID:2536617

  6. Discovering a new analogue of thalidomide which may be used as a potent modulator of TNF-alpha production.

    PubMed

    Fernández Braña, Miguel; Acero, Nuria; Añorbe, Loreto; Muñoz Mingarro, Dolores; Llinares, Francisco; Domínguez, Gema

    2009-09-01

    A new series of imide derivatives related to thalidomide were synthesized and evaluated as modulators of TNF-alpha production. These derivatives enhance TNF-alpha production using human leukemia HL-60 cells induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), while inhibiting TNF-alpha production induced with okadaic acid (OA) in the same cell line. The diphenylmaleimide derivative 2f, was found to be the most active product, producing a strong modulation of the cytokine level. PMID:19394719

  7. Melatonin inhibits TPA-induced oral cancer cell migration by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation through the histone acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chia-Ming; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Yang, Jia-Sin; Yang, Wei-En; Su, Shih-Chi; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin exerts antimetastatic effects on liver and breast cancer and also inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. However, the detailed impacts and underlying mechanisms of melatonin on oral cancer cell metastasis are still unclear. This study showed that melatonin attenuated the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration of oral cancer cell lines, HSC-3 and OECM-1. Zymography, quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blotting analyses revealed that melatonin lessened MMP-9 enzyme activity as well as the expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, melatonin suppressed the phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway, which dampened MMP-9 gene transcription by affecting the expression of transcriptional coactivators, such as CREB-binding protein (CREBBP) and E1A binding protein p300 (EP300), and decreasing histone acetylation in HSC-3 and OECM-1 cells. Examinations on clinical samples exhibited that MMP-9, CREBBP, and EP300 were significantly increased in oral cancer tissues. Moreover, the relative level of CREBBP was positively correlated with the expression of MMP-9 and EP300. In conclusion, we demonstrated that melatonin inhibits the motility of HSC-3 and OECM-1 cells in vitro through a molecular mechanism that involves attenuation of MMP-9 expression and activity mediated by decreased histone acetylation. PMID:26980735

  8. Okadaic acid: An additional non-phorbol-12-tetradecanoate-13-acetate-type tumor promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Suganuma, Masami; Fujiki, Hirota; Suguri, Hiroko; Yoshizawa, Shigeru; Hirota, Mitsuru; Nakayasu, Michie ); Ojika, Makoto; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Yamada, Kiyoyuki ); Sugimura, Takashi )

    1988-03-01

    Okadaic acid is a polyether compound of a C{sub 38} fatty acid, isolated from a black sponge, Halichondria okadai. Previous studies showed that okadaic acid is a skin irritant and induces ornithine decarboxylase in mouse skin 4 hr after its application to the skin. This induction was strongly inhibited by pretreatment of the skin with 13-cis-retinoic acid. A two-stage carcinogenesis experiment in mouse skin initiated by a single application of 100 {mu}g of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and followed by application of 10 {mu}g of okadaic acid twice a week revealed that okadaic acid is a potent additional tumor promoter: tumors developed in 93% of the mice treated with DMBA and okadaic acid by week 16. In contrast, tumors were found in only one mouse each in the groups treated with DMBA alone or okadaic acid alone. An average of 2.6 tumors per mouse was found in week 30 in the group treated with DMBA and okadaic acid. Unlike phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA), teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin, okadaic acid did not inhibit the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)TPA to a mouse skin particulate fraction when added up to 100 {mu}M or activate calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) in vitro when added up to 1.2 {mu}M. Therefore, the actions of okadaic acid and phorbol ester may be mediated in different ways. These results show that okadaic acid is a non-TPA-type tumor promoter in mouse skin carcinogenesis.

  9. Antitumor-promoting activity of scopadulcic acid B, isolated from the medicinal plant Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Nishino, H; Hayashi, T; Arisawa, M; Satomi, Y; Iwashima, A

    1993-01-01

    Scopadulcic acid B (SDB), a tetracyclic diterpenoid isolated from a medicinal plant, Scoparia dulcis L., inhibited the effects of tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in vitro and in vivo; SDB inhibited TPA-enhanced phospholipid synthesis in cultured cells, and also suppressed the promoting effect of TPA on skin tumor formation in mice initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. The potency of SDB proved to be stronger than that of other natural antitumor-promoting terpenoids, such as glycyrrhetinic acid. PMID:8451033

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50–555 nmol/ear. PMID:24734106

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50-555 nmol/ear. PMID:24734106

  12. Transplacental arsenic plus postnatal 12-O-teradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate exposures associated with hepatocarcinogenesis induce similar aberrant gene expression patterns in male and female mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jie . E-mail: Liu6@niehs.nih.gov; Xie Yaxiong; Merrick, B. Alex; Shen Jun; Ducharme, Danica M.K.; Collins, Jennifer; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Logsdon, Daniel; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-06-15

    Our prior work shows that in utero arsenic exposure alone is a complete transplacental carcinogen, producing hepatocellular carcinoma in adult male offspring but not in females. In a follow-up study to potentially promote arsenic-initiated tumors, mice were exposed to arsenic (85 ppm) from gestation day 8 to 18 and then exposed to 12-O-teradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a well-known tumor promoter after weaning. The dermal application of TPA (2 {mu}g/0.1 ml acetone, twice/week for 21 weeks) after transplacental arsenic did not further increase arsenic-induced liver tumor formation in adult males but significantly increased liver tumor formation in adult females. Thus, for comparison, liver tumors and normal liver samples taken from adult male and female mice at necropsy were analyzed for aberrant gene/protein expression by microarray, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Arsenic/TPA treatment resulted in increased expression of {alpha}-fetoprotein, k-ras, c-myc, estrogen receptor-{alpha}, cyclin D1, cdk2na, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, cytokeratin-8, cytokeratin-18, glutathione S-transferases and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in liver and liver tumors from both male and female mice. Arsenic/TPA also decreased the expression of BRCA1, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, CYP7B1, CYP2F2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 in normal and cancerous livers. Alterations in these gene products were associated with arsenic/TPA-induced liver tumors, regardless of sex. Thus, transplacental arsenic plus postnatal TPA exposure induced similar aberrant gene expression patterns in male and female mouse liver, which are persistent and potentially important to the mechanism of arsenic initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  13. Phytochemical and antiinflammatory studies on Terminalia catappa.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y M; Xu, L Z; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Tang, X H; Zhao, X N; Zhang, Z X

    2004-06-01

    The antiinflammatory activity of Terminalia catappa leaves ethanolic extract was studied using 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in acute and chronic models. A bioassay-oriented fractionation procedure showed that the activity concentrates in the chloroform fraction. Ursolic acid (1) and 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), isolated from the chloroform fraction, exhibited strong antiinflammatory activities. The results suggest that the triterpenic acids 1 and 2 are responsible for the antiinflammatory activity of T. catappa leaves. PMID:15158981

  14. Curcumin relieves TPA-induced Th1 inflammation in K14-VEGF transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Jin, Hairong; Hu, Jinhong

    2015-04-01

    Curcumin has been confirmed to have anti-inflammatory properties in addition to the ability to decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. It was suggested that the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17A cytokine axis played a critical role in the pathogenesis of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced K14-VEGF transgenic psoriasis-like mice model. Here, we report that topical use of a curcumin gel formulation inhibited TPA-induced Th1 inflammation in K14-VEGF transgenic mice ears but not Th17 inflammation as expected. Real-time PCR showed that mRNA levels of IL-23, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-6 and TNFα cytokines failed to increase after TPA-induction in K14-VEGF transgenic mice ear skin; but the mRNA level of IFNγ increased significantly at the same time. Furthermore, TPA-induction up-regulated the TCRγδ protein but failed to impact the CCR6 protein, which means that the proliferation of γδ T cells is incapable of IL-17A production. We find that curcumin is capable of relieving TPA-induced inflammation by directly down-regulating IFNγ production. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits TPA-induced Th1 inflammation in K14-VEGF transgenic mice which has not been previously described. PMID:25682767

  15. myo-Inositol 1,3-acetals as early intermediates during the synthesis of cyclitol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gurale, Bharat P; Sardessai, Richa S; Shashidhar, Mysore S

    2014-11-18

    Synthetic sequences starting from commercially available myo-inositol necessarily involve protection-deprotection strategies of its six hydroxyl groups. Several strategies have been developed/attempted over the last several decades leading to the synthesis of naturally occurring phosphoinositols, their analogs, and cyclitol derivatives. Of late, myo-inositol 1,3-acetals, which can be obtained by the reductive cleavage of myo-inositol orthoesters have emerged as early intermediates for the synthesis of phosphorylated and other inositol derivatives. This mini-review is an attempt to illustrate the economy and convenience of using myo-inositol 1,3-acetals as early intermediates during syntheses from myo-inositol. PMID:25216930

  16. Liganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor Inhibits Phorbol 12-O-Tetradecanoate-13-Acetate-Induced Enhancer Activity via Firefly Luciferase cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Ohba, Kenji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Shingo; Ishizuka, Keiko; Oki, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily and regulates the transcription of its target genes in a thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent manner. While the detail of transcriptional activation by T3 (positive regulation) has been clarified, the mechanism of T3-dependent repression (negative regulation) remains to be determined. In addition to naturally occurring negative regulations typically found for the thyrotropin β gene, T3-bound TR (T3/TR) is known to cause artificial negative regulation in reporter assays with cultured cells. For example, T3/TR inhibits the transcriptional activity of the reporter plasmids harboring AP-1 site derived from pUC/pBR322-related plasmid (pUC/AP-1). Artificial negative regulation has also been suggested in the reporter assay with firefly luciferase (FFL) gene. However, identification of the DNA sequence of the FFL gene using deletion analysis was not performed because negative regulation was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of FFL protein. Thus, there remains the possibility that the inhibition by T3 is mediated via a DNA sequence other than FFL cDNA, for instance, pUC/AP-1 site in plasmid backbone. To investigate the function of FFL cDNA as a transcriptional regulatory sequence, we generated pBL-FFL-CAT5 by ligating FFL cDNA in the 5' upstream region to heterologous thymidine kinase promoter in pBL-CAT5, a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT)-based reporter gene, which lacks pUC/AP-1 site. In kidney-derived CV1 and choriocarcinoma-derived JEG3 cells, pBL-FFL-CAT5, but not pBL-CAT5, was strongly activated by a protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate-13-acetate (TPA). TPA-induced activity of pBL-FFL-CAT5 was negatively regulated by T3/TR. Mutation of nt. 626/640 in FFL cDNA attenuated the TPA-induced activation and concomitantly abolished the T3-dependent repression. Our data demonstrate that FFL cDNA sequence mediates the TPA-induced transcriptional activity

  17. 12-o-Tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-differentiated U937 cells express a macrophage-like profile of neutral proteinases. High levels of secreted collagenase and collagenase inhibitor accompany low levels of intracellular elastase and cathepsin G.

    PubMed

    Welgus, H G; Connolly, N L; Senior, R M

    1986-05-01

    Human monocytic tumor cells of the U937 cell line contain substantial quantities of two neutrophil neutral proteinases, elastase and cathepsin G, raising the question of whether their presence reflects an expression of transformation or whether normal monocytes undergo a developmental stage in which they produce certain neutrophil proteinases. To address this issue, we examined U937 cells for production of collagenase, since human alveolar macrophages release fibroblast-like collagenase, an enzyme that is distinct from neutrophil collagenase. Using an immunoassay that utilized antibody to skin fibroblast collagenase, we found that U937 cells secreted barely detectable quantities of enzyme, 10-12 ng/10(6) cells per 24 h, under basal conditions. Upon incubation with 10 nM 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), however, collagenase release increased 200-fold, comparable to the amount secreted by phorbol-stimulated human fibroblasts. Metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation confirmed the enhanced synthesis of U937 cell collagenase upon TPA exposure. This enzyme activity further resembled fibroblast collagenase and differed from neutrophil collagenase by exhibiting preferential cleavage of monomeric type III collagen relative to type I. As previously observed with human alveolar macrophages, U937 cells also released a protein identical to the collagenase inhibitor produced by human skin fibroblasts, a molecule not associated with neutrophils. Release of this inhibitor increased 10-fold with TPA exposure. In contrast to collagenase and collagense inhibitor, TPA-treated U937 cells contained only 10-15% as much elastase and cathepsin G activities as control cells. Thus, TPA-induced differentiation modified the presence of these enzymes in the direction of their content in normal monocytes. Since the neutral proteinase profile of undifferentiated U937 cells resembles that of neutrophils and changes markedly after cellular differentiation to one that is

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of 2alpha-hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids from the leaves of Ugni molinae.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, María C; Delporte, Carla; Backhouse, Nadine; Erazo, Silvia; Letelier, María Eugenia; Cassels, Bruce K; Silva, Ximena; Alegría, Sergio; Negrete, Rosa

    2006-08-15

    Leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz. are used in the Chilean cosmetic industry on the assumption that they have decongestant, regenerative, and anti-aging properties. A bioassay-guided fractionation of this plant material showed that some extracts have potent anti-inflammatory activities. Further fractionation led to the isolation and identification of betulinic acid, a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids, and the 2alpha-hydroxy derivatives alphitolic, asiatic, and corosolic acids. The latter three were evaluated in vivo in the mouse ear assay for their topical anti-inflammatory activity, inducing inflammation with either arachidonic acid (AA) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA). Only corosolic acid was active in the AA assay, with similar potency to nimesulide, but all three triterpene acids inhibited TPA-induced inflammation with potencies comparable to that of indomethacin. PMID:16697209

  19. Influence of activating hormones on human platelet membrane Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Resink, T.J.; Dimitrov, D.; Stucki, S.; Buehler, F.R.

    1986-07-16

    Intact platelets were pretreated with hormones and thereafter membranes were prepared and Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity determined. Thrombin decreased the V/sub max/ of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase after pretreatment of intact platelets. Platelet activating factor, vasopressin and ADP also decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or A23187 or ionomycin alone had no effect, while the simultaneous pretreatment with TPA and Ca/sup 2 +/-ionophore decreased Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. cAMP elevating agents prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) and forskolin had no influence per se on Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase, but antagonized the inhibitory effect of thrombin. The data suggest a close connection between phosphoinositide metabolism and the Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase system.

  20. Studies on the mechanism of skin tumor promotion: evidence for several stages in promotion. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Nelson, K.; Gleason, G.L.

    1980-06-01

    The effects of nonpromoting and weakly promoting diterpenes on skin tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) were investigated. When phorbol and phorbol 12,13-diacetate (both nonpromoting) were given simultaneously with TPA after 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) initiation in female mice, they had no effect on TPA promotion. However, the nonpromoter 4-O-methyl-TPA and the weak promoter mezerein were found to inhibit TPA promotion in a dose-dependent manner when given simultaneously with TPA. Because mezerein was found to be an effective inhibitor of TPA promotion when given simultaneously and because it induces many biological responses similar to those to TPA, the capacity of mezerein to act as an incomplete promoter in a two-stage promotion protocol was also investigated. The results suggest that although mezerein by itself is a weak promotor and mimics TPA in many biochemical and morphological effects it is a potent second-stage promoter in a two-stage promotion regimen.

  1. The mechanism of the action of IFN-gamma and TPA on the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptors of human amnion cells.

    PubMed

    Katoh, T; Higashi, K; Karasaki, Y

    1992-06-01

    We have examined the mechanism of synergistic action occurring between interferon (IFN)-gamma and 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) with respect to the reduction of 125I-epidermal growth factor (125I-EGF) binding to human amnion (WISH) cells [Karasaki Y et al (1989) J Biol Chem 264: 6158-6163]. The cells were treated with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors (H7, staurosporine) to investigate the role of PKC in the synergism between IFN-gamma and TPA, since TPA is a strong activator of PKC. The combined effect of IFN-gamma and TPA was blocked by the PKC inhibitor, suggesting that PKC plays an important role in the synergistic action of TPA and IFN-gamma on the inhibition of EGF binding to the cells. The prolonged incubation (24 h) of the cells with TPA resulted in the restoration of EGF binding to the cells. A 24 h treatment of WISH cells with both IFN-gamma and TPA, however, still exhibited greater than 50% inhibition of EGF binding. No PKC activity, however, was observed in the WISH cells treated with both IFN-gamma and TPA for 24 h as well as with TPA alone for 24 h, indicating that IFN-gamma may synergize with the second mediator induced by PKC rather than PKC itself in the reduction of EGF binding to WISH cells. In addition, IFN-gamma showed the synergistic action with calcium ionophores on the reduction of EGF binding to the cells, suggesting that Ca2+ may be one of the second mediators which was induced by TPA and which cooperated with IFN-gamma. PMID:1621011

  2. The effect of phorbols on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to study the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), 4-O-methyl TPA, and phorbol on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase+ (HGPRT+) cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine and either 4-O-methyl TPA or phorbol, nearly all interactions that developed in 4 h were positive for metabolic cooperation whereas when high concentrations of TPA were used, the number of positive interactions was significantly less than the control. If the phorbol analogs were added after the donors and recipients had made contact, the number of positive interactions was the same as the control in all cases. However, although primary recipients in the cultures that had been treated with phorbol had the same number of grains as those in the control, primary recipients in cultures that had been treated with TPA or high concentrations of 4-O-methyl TPA had significantly fewer grains than those in the control. TPA treatment for 4 h had no effect on total (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine incorporation or incorporation into acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Thus, the effect of TPA on metabolic cooperation is interpreted as a reduction in the transfer of (/sup 3/H)nucleotides and is an indication of an interference with intercellular communication.

  3. Effects of pergolide mesylate on transduction efficiency of PEP-1-catalase protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, So Mi; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on in vitro and in vivo transduction of PEP-1-catalase. {yields} PEP-1-catatase inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation. {yields} PM enhanced the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells and skin tissue. {yields} PM increased anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catalase. {yields} PM stimulated therapeutic action of anti-oxidant enzyme catalase in oxidative-related diseases. -- Abstract: The low transduction efficiency of various proteins is an obstacle to their therapeutic application. However, protein transduction domains (PTDs) are well-known for a highly effective tool for exogenous protein delivery to cells. We examined the effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT human keratinocytes and mice skin and on the anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catatase against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation using Western blot and histological analysis. PM enhanced the time- and dose-dependent transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells without affecting the cellular toxicity. In a mouse edema model, PEP-1-catalase inhibited the increased expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 and -1{beta}, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induced by TPA. On the other hand, PM alone failed to exert any significant anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of co-treatment with PEP-1-catalase and PM was more potent than that of PEP-1-catalase alone. Our results indicate that PM may enhance the delivery of PTDs fusion therapeutic proteins to target cells and tissues and has potential to increase their therapeutic effects of such drugs against various diseases.

  4. Sulforaphane controls TPA-induced MMP-9 expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway, but not AP-1, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Rae; Noh, Eun-Mi; Han, Ji-Hey; Kim, Jeong-Mi; Hwang, Bo-Mi; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Sung-Ho; Jung, Sung Hoo; Youn, Hyun Jo; Chung, Eun Yong; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane] is an isothiocyanate found in some cruciferous vegetables, especially broccoli. Sulforaphane has been shown to display anti-cancer properties against various cancer cell lines. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays an important role in cancer cell invasion. In this study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in MCF-7 cells. TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion were decreased by sulforaphane treatment. TPA substantially increased NF-κB and AP-1 DNA binding activity. Pre-treatment with sulforaphane inhibited TPA-stimulated NF-κB binding activity, but not AP-1 binding activity. In addition, we found that sulforaphane suppressed NF-κB activation, by inhibiting phosphorylation of IκB in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion by sulforaphane was mediated by the suppression of the NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4): 201-206] PMID:23615261

  5. Increased endocytosis and formation of multivesicular bodies in phorbol-ester-stimulated human monoblastic U-937 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, M. ); Nilsson, K.; Forsbeck, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is known to arrest mitotic activity and induce macrophage differentiation in the U-937 monoblastic cell line. The acute effect of TPA on ultrastructural morphology and endocytic activity of U-937 cells was studied. TPA induced within 15 minutes {alpha} marked enlargement of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), comprising both volume and number of inclusion vesicles (other organelles appeared unchanged). At this stage the MVBs frequently showed tubular cytoplasmic extensions. Inclusion vesicles accumulated in MVBs with prolonged incubation (60 minutes). Cellular uptake of {sup 125}I-HRP was increased five times the control values already after 5 minutes of TPA stimulation. The uptake increased further with prolonged incubation (60 minutes), but at a slower rate. Together these indicate a TPA-induced transfer by endocytosis of portions of the plasma membrane to the lysosomal system via MVBs. Consideration of MVBs as part of the receptor-mediated endocytic pathway suggests that this effect of TPA might involve down-regulation of cell-surface receptors. The possibility of MVBs as a proton-sequestrating compartment, responsible for the cytoplasmic alkalinization previously reported for TPA-stimulated U-937 monoblastic cells, is discussed.

  6. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate promotes nuclear translocation of hepatic steroid response element binding protein-2.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tsz Yan; Tan, Yan Qin; Lin, Shu-Mei; Leung, Lai K

    2016-06-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 is a pivotal transcriptional factor in cholesterol metabolism. Factors interfering with the proper functioning of SREBP-2 potentially alter plasma lipid profiles. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which is a common protein kinase C (PKC) activator, was shown to promote the post-translational processing and nuclear translocation of SREBP-2 in hepatic cells in the current study. Following SREBP-2 translocation, the transcripts of its target genes HMGCR and LDLR were upregulated as demonstrated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) also demonstrated an induced DNA-binding activity on the sterol response element (SRE) domain under PMA treatment. The increase of activated Srebp-2 without the concurrent induced mRNA expression was also observed in an animal model. As the expression of SREBP-2 was not increased by PMA, the activation of PKC was the focus of investigation. Specific PKC isozyme inhibition and overexpression supported that PKCβ was responsible for the promoting effect. Further studies showed that the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), were the possible downstream signaling proteins of PKCβ. In conclusion, this study illustrated that PKCβ increased SREBP-2 nuclear translocation in a pathway mediated by MEK/ERK and JNK, rather than the one dictated by AMPK. These results revealed a novel signaling target of PKCβ in the liver cells. PMID:27032751

  7. Role of the Slug Transcription Factor in Chemically-Induced Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    von Maltzan, Kristine; Li, Yafan; Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Fischer, Susan M.; Kusewitt, Donna F.

    2016-01-01

    The Slug transcription factor plays an important role in ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin carcinogenesis, particularly in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurring during tumor progression. In the present studies, we investigated the role of Slug in two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. Slug and the related transcription factor Snail were expressed at high levels in skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene application followed by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment. TPA-induced transient elevation of Slug and Snail proteins in normal mouse epidermis and studies in Slug transgenic mice indicated that Slug modulates TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and cutaneous inflammation. Although Snail family factors have been linked to inflammation via interactions with the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway, a pathway that also plays an important role in skin carcinogenesis, transient TPA induction of Slug and Snail appeared unrelated to COX-2 expression. In cultured human keratinocytes, TPA induced Snail mRNA expression while suppressing Slug expression, and this differential regulation was due specifically to activation of the TPA receptor. These studies show that Slug and Snail exhibit similar patterns of expression during both UVR and chemical skin carcinogenesis, that Slug and Snail can be differentially regulated under some conditions and that in vitro findings may not recapitulate in vivo results. PMID:26848699

  8. Phorbol ester-stimulated phosphorylation of basolateral membranes from canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerman, M.R.; Rogers, S.; Morrissey, J.J.; Gavin, J.R. III

    1986-06-01

    To determine whether protein kinase C is present in the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell, we performed experiments to ascertain whether specific binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate could be demonstrated in basolateral membranes isolated from canine kidney. Specific binding was demonstrable that was half maximal at between 10(-7) and 10(-8) M phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. Binding was inhibited by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and other tumor-promoting phorbol esters, but not by inactive phorbol esters, including 4 alpha-phorbol. Incubation of basolateral membranes with TPA and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, but not with 4 alpha-phorbol, in the presence of submicromolar concentrations of free calcium, enhanced phosphorylation of several proteins demonstrable in autoradiograms of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels originating from membranes subsequently exposed to (gamma-32P)ATP for 30 s. Dephosphorylation of (/sup 32/P)phosphoproteins was observed in gels from membranes incubated with (gamma-32P)ATP over time. TPA-stimulated phosphorylation of one protein band with Mr 135,000 was quantitated and was found to increase as a function of (TPA). Half-maximal TPA-stimulated phosphorylation of this protein band occurred at slightly less than 10(-9) M TPA. Our findings are consistent with a role for protein kinase C-effected phosphorylation of basolateral membrane proteins in the mediation or modulation of hormonal actions in the proximal tubular cell.

  9. Tumor promoters alter gene expression and protein phosphorylation in avian cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Laszlo, A.; Radke, K.; Chin, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1981-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on the synthesis and modification of polypeptides in normal avian cells and cells infected by wild-type and temperature-sensitive Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have detected alterations in both the abundance of cellular polypeptides and in their phosphorylation that seem unique to TPA treatment. However, the state of phosphorylation of the major putative substrate for the action of the src gene-associated protein kinase, the 34- to 36-kilodalton protein, was not altered. Moreover, examination of the phosphorylated amino acid content of total cellular phosphoproteins revealed that the response to TPA was not associated with detectable increases in their phosphotyrosine content. These results make it unlikely that TPA acts by the activation of the phosphorylating activity of the cellular proto-src gene or by the activation of other cellular phosphotyrosine-specific kinases. We have shown previously that temperature-sensitive RSV-infected cells at nonpermissive temperature demonstrate an increased sensitivity to TPA treatment (Bissell, M.J., Hatie, C. and Calfin, M. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 348-352). Our present results indicate that this is not due to reactivation of the phosphorylating activity of the defective src gene product or to its leakiness, and they lend support to the notion of multistep viral carcinogenesis.

  10. Development of a sensitive in vitro assay to quantify the biological activity of pro-inflammatory phorbol esters in Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Padhi, Bhaja K; Hawari, Jalal; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Poon, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    New health safety concerns may arise from the increasing production and use of Jatropha oil, a biodiesel feedstock that also contains toxic, pro-inflammatory, and co-carcinogenic phorbol esters. Based on the exceptional sensitivity of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to the model phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a robust bioassay was developed to quantify the biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters directly in oil, without sample extraction. We first verified that the characteristic response of MDCK cells to TPA was also observed following direct exposure to phorbol esters in Jatropha oil. We further confirmed that similarly to TPA, Jatropha oil's phorbol esters can activate protein kinase C (PKC). We then assessed the transcriptional response of MDCK cells to Jatropha oil exposure by measuring the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a gene involved in inflammatory processes which is strongly upregulated following PKC activation. Based on the parameterization of a TPA dose-response curve, the transcriptional response of MDCK cells to Jatropha oil exposure was expressed in term of TPA toxic equivalent (TEQ), a convenient metric to report the inflammatory potential of complex mixtures. The sensitive bioassay described in this manuscript may prove useful for risk assessment, as it provides a quantitative method and a convenient metric to report the inflammatory potential of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil. This bioassay may also be adapted for the detection of bioactive phorbol esters in other matrices. PMID:25588777

  11. The preventive role of breadfruit against inflammation-associated epithelial carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jer-An; Chen, Hsiang-Chi; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Artocarpus communis has been identified as a rich source of flavonoids and has been gaining attention for its potential chemopreventive abilities. In this study, methanol extracts from the fruit of A. communis (MEFA) and leaf of A. communis (MELA) were prepared, and their effects on inflammation-associated skin tumorigenesis were assessed using mouse models, including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced cutaneous inflammation as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) initiated and TPA-promoted skin tumorigenesis. According to the results, both MEFA and MELA decreased the intensity of leukocyte infiltration in mouse dorsal skin and cutaneous edema induced by TPA, which appeared to be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory genes (inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, and IL-6) and proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and Prostaglandin E2 ). In addition, topical application with MEFA or MELA effectively attenuated tumor incidence, multiplicity, volume, malignancy as well as angiogenesis of TPA-stimulated skin tumor promotion in DMBA-initiated mice. Notably, immunohistochemical stain showed that MEFA and MELA attenuated COX-2 expression of both skin and tumor tissues in different animal tests, which may be closely related to the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B/activator protein signaling networks. These findings first demonstrate that flavonoid-rich A. communis may exert potent anti-inflammatory activity through modulation of COX-2 in TPA-activated skin and tumor tissues. PMID:23983093

  12. SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model versus other strains and stocks of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Slaga, T.J.

    1986-09-01

    The SENCAR mouse stock was selectively bred for eight generations for sensitivity to skin tumor induction by the two-stage tumorigenesis protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as the initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as the promoter. The SENCAR mouse was derived by crossing Charles River CD-1 mice with skin-tumor-sensitive mice (STS). The SENCAR mice are much more sensitive to both DMBA tumor initiation and TPA tumor promotion than CD-1, BALB/c, and DBA/2 mice. An even greater difference in the sensitivity to two-stage skin tumorigenesis is apparent between SENCAR and C57BL/6 mice when using DMBA-TPA treatment. However, the SENCAR and C57BL/6 mice have a similar tumor response to DMBA-benzoyl peroxide treatment, suggesting that TPA is not an effective promoter in C57BL/6 mice. The DBA/2 mice respond in a similar manner to the SENCAR mice when using N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-TPA treatment. The SENCAR mouse model provides a good dose-response relationship for many carcinogens used as tumor initiators and for many compounds used as tumor promoter. When compared to other stocks and strains of mice, the SENCAR mouse has one of the largest data bases for carcinogens and promoters.

  13. Modulation of the Tumor Metastatic Microenvironment and Multiple Signal Pathways by Prunella vulgaris in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Chieh; Lin, I-Hsin; Siao, Yu-Miao; Liu, Ching-Ju; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris (PV) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used clinically for centuries in Asian countries to treat herpetic keratitis. In previous studies, PV was shown to suppress TPA-induced activation of MMP-9 and inhibit cell invasion and migration in hepatoma cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying these effects is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying PV-mediated inhibition of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell invasion and inhibition of secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 production in human hepatoma cells (Huh-7 and HA22T). PV suppressed VEGF and MMP-9 transcription by inhibiting activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B (NF-[Formula: see text]B) activity. PV suppressed TPA-induced AP-1 activity by inhibiting phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), downregulating p38 signaling pathways, and suppressing TPA-induced inhibition of NF-[Formula: see text]B nuclear translocation through I[Formula: see text]B. PV suppressed TPA-induced activation of ERK/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt upstream of NF-[Formula: see text]B and AP-1. These data suggest that PV modifies the metastatic microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inhibiting multiple signal transduction pathways. PV thus may have the therapeutic potential to inhibit the migration and invasion of HCC and act as potential agent for systemic therapies. PMID:27222069

  14. Comparison of altered expression of histocompatibility antigens with altered immune function in murine spleen cells treated with ultraviolet radiation and/or TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Pretell, J.O.; Cone, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that several treatments that inhibited the ability of cells to stimulate the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) also blocked the shedding of histocompatibility antigens and Ia antigens from murine spleen cells. In the present studies, one of these treatments, ultraviolet radiation (UV), was shown to cause an initial loss in the density of H-2K, IA, and IE antigens prior to the block in shedding observed after culture of these cells. Further analysis revealed that the UV-induced loss of antigens could be prevented by the presence of colchicine during irradiation. Biosynthetic analyses revealed the IA antigen synthesis was also inhibited in the UV-irradiated cells. Examination of the effects of a second agent, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the turnover of histocompatibility antigens revealed that the biosynthesis and shedding of these antigens were accelerated by this agent. However, addition of TPA to UV-irradiated cells did not result in a reversal of the UV-induced block in biosynthesis of IA antigens. Results of immune function assays correlated with the biochemical studies: UV-irradiation inhibited the generation of the MLR, but TPA enhanced this reaction, and addition of TPA to mixed lymphocyte cultures with UV-irradiated stimulators did not reverse the UV-induced inhibition. These results suggest that, although the turnover of histocompatibility antigens may be affected by TPA and UV in an antagonistic fashion, additional factors other than the expression of histocompatibility antigens are operating in the inhibition of stimulation of an MLR by UV radiation or its enhancement by TPA.

  15. The Consequences of edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    States and teacher preparation programs across the country are increasingly using a teacher candidate assessment called edTPA. The purpose? To make sure that teacher candidates are ready and able to teach before they begin their careers. The teacher performance assessment requires candidates to compile a portfolio that consists of lesson plans,…

  16. Disruption of protein kinase Ceta results in impairment of wound healing and enhancement of tumor formation in mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chida, Kazuhiro; Hara, Takeshi; Hirai, Takaaki; Konishi, Chieko; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuki; Aiba, Atsu; Katsuki, Motoya; Kuroki, Toshio

    2003-05-15

    We have generated a mouse strain lacking protein kinase C (PKC) eta to evaluate its significance in epithelial organization and tumor formation. The PKCeta-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to tumor formation in two-stage skin carcinogenesis by single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) for tumor initiation and repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for tumor promotion. The tumor formation was not enhanced by DMBA or TPA treatment alone, suggesting that PKCeta suppresses tumor promotion. Epidermal hyperplasia induced by topical TPA treatment was prolonged in the mutant mice. The enhanced tumor formation may be closely associated with the prolonged hyperplasia induced by topical TPA treatment. In the mutant mice, after inflicting injury by punch biopsy, wound healing on the dorsal skin, particularly reepithelialization, was significantly delayed and impaired in structure. Impairment of epithelial regeneration in wound healing indicates a possibility that PKCeta plays a role in maintenance of epithelial architecture. Homeostasis in epithelial tissues mediated by PKCeta is important for tumor formation in vivo. We propose that PKCeta is involved in tumor formation modulated by regulation of proliferation and remodeling of epithelial cells in vivo. PMID:12750259

  17. Decline in c-myc mRNA expression but not the induction of c-fos mRNA expression is associated with differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jalava, A.M.; Heikkilae, J.E.; Akerman, K.E.O. )

    1988-11-01

    The induction of differentiation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is accompanied by a rapid and a transient expression of c-fos mRNA and a down-regulation of c-myc RNA. The TPA-induced expression of c-fos mRNA was inhibited by H-7, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PK-C). Dioctanoylglycerol (DiC{sub 8}) failed to induce differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells or to down-regulate c-myc mRNA but it did induce the expression of c-fos mRNA. Treatment of IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells with TPA did not cause differentiation although c-fos mRNA was induced. Since PK-C in SH-SY5Y cells was activated by both TPA and DiC{sub 8} it is suggested that the activation of PK-C alone is not sufficient to induce differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells. The down-regulation of c-myc mRNA rather than the induction of c-fos mRNA seems to be associated with differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells.

  18. Sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibits activation of caspases that cleave poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and lamins during Fas- and ceramide-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier, O; Rosenthal, D S; Smulson, M E; Spiegel, S

    1998-01-30

    Ceramide, a sphingolipid generated by the hydrolysis of membrane-associated sphingomyelin, appears to play a role as a gauge of apoptosis. A further metabolite of ceramide, sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP), prevents ceramide-mediated apoptosis, and it has been suggested that the balance between intracellular ceramide and SPP levels may determine the cell fate (Cuvillier, O., Pirianov, G, Kleuser, B., Vanek, P. G., Coso, O. A., Gutkind, J. S., and Spiegel, S. (1996) Nature 381, 800-803). Here, we investigated the role of SPP and the protein kinase C activator, phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), in the caspase cascade leading to the proteolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and lamins. In Jurkat T cells, Fas ligation or addition of exogenous C2-ceramide induced activations of caspase-3/CPP32 and caspase-7/Mch3 followed by PARP cleavage, effects that can be blocked either by SPP or TPA. Furthermore, both SPP and TPA inhibit the activation of caspase-6/Mch2 and subsequent lamin B cleavage. Ceramide, in contrast to Fas ligation, did not induce activation of caspase-8/FLICE and neither SPP nor TPA were able to prevent this activation. Thus, SPP, likely generated via protein kinase C-mediated activation of sphingosine kinase, suppresses the apoptotic pathway downstream of FLICE but upstream of the executioner caspases, caspase-3, -6, and -7. PMID:9446602

  19. Protective role of cathepsin L in mouse skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Fernando; Perez, Carlos; Blando, Jorge; Contreras, Oscar; Shen, Jianjun; Coussens, Lisa M.; Fischer, Susan M.; Kusewitt, Donna F.; DiGiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J.

    2011-01-01

    Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (CTSL) is believed to play a role in tumor progression and is considered a marker for clinically invasive tumors. Studies from our laboratory using the classical mouse skin carcinogenesis model, with 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) for initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for promotion, showed that expression of CTSL is increased in papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We also carried out carcinogenesis studies using Ctsl-deficient nackt (nkt) mutant mice on three different inbred backgrounds. Unexpectedly, the multiplicity of papillomas were significantly higher in Ctsl-deficient than in wild-type mice on two unrelated backgrounds. Topical applications of TPA or DMBA alone to the skin of nkt/nkt mice did not induce papillomas, and there was no increase in spontaneous tumors in nkt/nkt mice on any of the three inbred backgrounds. Reduced epidermal cell proliferation in Ctsl-deficient nkt/nkt mice after TPA treatment suggested that they are not more sensitive than wild-type mice to TPA promotion. We also showed that deficiency of CTSL delays terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, and we propose that decreased elimination of initiated cells is at least partially responsible for the increased papilloma formation in the nackt model. PMID:21538579

  20. Protective role of cathepsin L in mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Fernando; Perez, Carlos; Blando, Jorge; Contreras, Oscar; Shen, Jianjun; Coussens, Lisa M; Fischer, Susan M; Kusewitt, Donna F; DiGiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J

    2012-04-01

    Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (CTSL) is believed to play a role in tumor progression and is considered a marker for clinically invasive tumors. Studies from our laboratory using the classical mouse skin carcinogenesis model, with 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) for initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for promotion, showed that expression of CTSL is increased in papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We also carried out carcinogenesis studies using Ctsl-deficient nackt (nkt) mutant mice on three different inbred backgrounds. Unexpectedly, the multiplicity of papillomas was significantly higher in Ctsl-deficient than in wild-type mice on two unrelated backgrounds. Topical applications of TPA or DMBA alone to the skin of nkt/nkt mice did not induce papillomas, and there was no increase in spontaneous tumors in nkt/nkt mice on any of the three inbred backgrounds. Reduced epidermal cell proliferation in Ctsl-deficient nkt/nkt mice after TPA treatment suggested that they are not more sensitive than wild-type mice to TPA promotion. We also showed that deficiency of CTSL delays terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, and we propose that decreased elimination of initiated cells is at least partially responsible for the increased papilloma formation in the nackt model. PMID:21538579

  1. Evaluation of the possible copromoting effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field during chemically induced carcinogenesis in skin of SENCAR mice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovanni, J.; Walborg, E.F.; Anderson, L.E.; Sasser, L.B.; Morris, J.E.; Miller, D.L. |

    1997-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields can enhance tumorigenesis through a copromotional mechanism. Equivocal support for this hypothesis was provided by experiments performed by Stuchly et al. using a mouse skin model; i.e. the induction of skin tumors in SENCAR mice exposed to a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promotion by repetitive doses of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The mice were exposed to a 2 mT (60 Hz) magnetic field during the entire promotion phase of the experiment. The Stuchly study, which utilized single weekly doses of TPA, demonstrated a statistically significant increase in skin tumors after 16--18 weeks of promotion; however, by 23 weeks of promotion, the difference was not statistically significant. The study was designed to provide definitive evidence to confirm or refute a copromotional role of ELF magnetic field exposure on DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis in SENCAR mice. This study was modeled after the study of Stuchly et al., (1992), including the animal model and exposure conditions. However, three different promoting doses of TPA, within the linear dose response range for induction of skin tumors, were utilized.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting effects of 5-deprenyllupulonol C and other compounds from Hop (Humulus lupulus L.).

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Hideki; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Yasukawa, Ken; Kimura, Yumiko; Manosroi, Aranya; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2012-06-01

    A new phloroglucinol derivative, 5-deprenyllupulonol C (1), along with four other phloroglucinol derivatives, 2-5, five chalcones, 6-10, four flavanones, 11-14, two flavonol glycosides, 15 and 16, and five triterpenoids, 17-21, were isolated from the female inflorescence pellet extracts of hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Upon evaluation of these compounds against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, twelve compounds, i.e., 1-4, 11-14, 17-19, and 21, showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 215-393 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA. In addition, eleven compounds, i.e., 1-4, 6, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, and 20, were found to inhibit TPA-induced inflammation (1 μg/ear) in mice, with ID₅₀ values in the range of 0.13-1.06 μmol per ear. Further, lupulone C (2) and 6-prenylnaringenin (14) exhibited inhibitory effects on skin-tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse-skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and with TPA as promoter. PMID:22700224

  3. Phorbol ester and interferon-gamma modulation of epidermal growth factor receptors on human amniotic (WISH) cells.

    PubMed

    Karasaki, Y; Jaken, S; Komoriya, A; Zoon, K C

    1989-04-15

    In this study we report that pretreatment of human amniotic (WISH) cells with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) resulted in the down-modulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors with respect to both receptor number and affinity. Scatchard analysis of EGF binding in the absence of both IFN-gamma and TPA indicated biphasic binding whereas addition of TPA resulted in the loss of the higher affinity class of sites. Pretreatment with IFN-gamma for 24 h enhanced the TPA-induced inhibition of EGF binding whereas IFN-gamma alone had no effect on binding. Protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme) was examined as a possible mediator of IFN-induced EGF-receptor modulation; pretreatment of cells with IFN-gamma affected neither the binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate to membrane or cytosolic fractions nor the protein kinase C activity, suggesting that IFN-gamma pretreatment did not result in translocation or activation of protein kinase C. PMID:2495278

  4. The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response as assessed by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differences between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) are currently unknown in cattle. Luminol-dependent CL measures the amount of reactive oxygen species released from leukocytes a...

  5. Treatment of mouse melanoma cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate counteracts mannosylerythritol lipid-induced growth arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Geltinger, C; Kishikawa, S; Ohshima, K; Murata, T; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), an extracellularglycolipid from yeast, induces the differentiation ofHL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells towardsgranulocytes. We show here that MEL is also a potentinhibitor of the proliferation of mouse melanoma B16cells. Flow-cytometric analysis of the cell cycle ofMEL-treated B16 cells revealed the accumulation ofcells in the sub-G(0)/G(1) phase, which is a hallmark ofcells undergoing apoptosis. Treatment of B16 cellsfor 24 h with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA),an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), did notinterfere with the growth and survival of the cells,but it effectively counteracted the MEL-induced growtharrest and apoptosis. The activity of PKC was reducedin B16 cells treated with MEL at a concentration atwhich MEL induced apoptosis. However, incubation withPMA in addition to MEL reversed this reduction in theactivity of PKC. These results suggest thatconverging signaling pathways are triggeredindependently by MEL and PMA and that the signalsmight both be mediated by PKC. PMID:19002819

  6. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate prevents isoproterenol-induced morphological change in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nabika, Toru; Chaldakov, G.N.; Nara, Yasuo; Endo, Jiro; Yamori, Yukio )

    1988-10-01

    The effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on isoproterenol (ISO)- and dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP)-induced morphological change and cytoskeletal reorganization was studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) using the fluorescence staining of actin and microtubules. The treatment of VSMC with 1.0 {mu}M of ISO or with 1.0 mM of dBcAMP for 90 min induced the disruption of actin-containing stress fibers followed by cytoplasmic arborization. The addition of 100 nM of PMA prevented both the destruction of actin fibers and cell arborization induced either by ISO or by dBcAMP. These results indicated that the inhibition of arborization by PMA was mediated through the activation of protein kinase C. Colchicine at 5.0 {mu}M also had an inhibitory effect on ISO- and dBcAMP-induced cell arborization. However, immunofluorescence studies revealed that colchicine but not PMA elicited the reorganization of microtubules, suggesting that the effect of PMA was mediated through a mechanism different from that of colchicine. The observations indicated that the morphology of VSMC was regulated through the alteration of cytoskeletal organization induced by cAMP-mediated and by protein kinase C-dependent systems.

  7. Melanogenesis-inhibitory activity and cancer chemopreventive effect of glucosylcucurbic acid from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Kurita, Masahiro; Ebina, Kodai; Ukiya, Motohiko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Yasukawa, Ken; Masters, Eliot T; Shimizu, Naoto; Akihisa, Momoko; Feng, Feng; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    Two jasmonate derivatives, glucosylcucurbic acid (1) and methyl glucosylcucurbate (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of defatted shea (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) kernels. These and their deglucosylated derivatives, cucurbic acid (3) and methyl cucurbate (4), were evaluated for their melanogenesis-inhibitory and cancer chemopreventive potencies. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 exhibited potent melanogenesis-inhibitory activities in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16 melanoma cells. Western-blot analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 3 reduced the protein levels of MITF (=microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), tyrosinase, TRP-1 (=tyrosine-related protein 1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, compound 1 exhibited inhibitory effects against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, against TPA-induced inflammation in mice, and against skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator, and with TPA as promoter. PMID:25879500

  8. Regulation of the human thromboxane A2 receptor gene in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells.

    PubMed

    Saffak, T; Schäfer, S; Haas, C; Nüsing, R M

    2003-11-01

    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is an important mediator for platelet aggregation and blood vessel constriction. TXA(2) receptor (TP receptor) is expressed in different cell types including smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and platelets. Expression level of TP receptor may modulate the action of TXA(2) on target cells. In megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells, a cell line representing a model for platelet precursor cells, addition of phorbolester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) caused an increase in transcriptional activity of TP receptor gene promoter. Within 20 h a rise in expression of TP receptor mRNA and protein was observed. The effect of TPA was concentration-dependent and was blocked by specific inhibitors of protein kinase C. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the increase in TP receptor expression appeared to be one of the earliest events in the course of TPA-induced maturation of MEG-01 cells. Stimulation of the protein kinase A pathway by incubation with forskolin or IBMX caused a decrease in transcriptional activity. Promoter deletion experiments indicated that the responsive elements for protein kinase A and C are located upstream and downstream, respectively, of -700 bp of the TP receptor gene. These experiments indicate that the expression of the human thromboxane receptor is differently regulated in platelet precursor cells by the protein kinase A and C pathway. PMID:14580363

  9. Apigenin inhibits COX-2, PGE2, and EP1 and also initiates terminal differentiation in the epidermis of tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Alex J; Soliman, Eman; Jenkins, Audrey; Van Dross, Rukiyah T

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in the United States. NMSC overexpresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). COX-2 synthesizes prostaglandins such as PGE2 which promote proliferation and tumorigenesis by engaging G-protein-coupled prostaglandin E receptors (EP). Apigenin is a bioflavonoid that blocks mouse skin tumorigenesis induced by the chemical carcinogens, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, the effect of apigenin on the COX-2 pathway has not been examined in the DMBA/TPA skin tumor model. In the present study, apigenin decreased tumor multiplicity and incidence in DMBA/TPA-treated SKH-1 mice. Analysis of the non-tumor epidermis revealed that apigenin reduced COX-2, PGE2, EP1, and EP2 synthesis and also increased terminal differentiation. In contrast, apigenin did not inhibit the COX-2 pathway or promote terminal differentiation in the tumors. Since fewer tumors developed in apigenin-treated animals which contained reduced epidermal COX-2 levels, our data suggest that apigenin may avert skin tumor development by blocking COX-2. PMID:26802941

  10. Actin stress fiber disruption and tropomysin isoform switching in normal thyroid epithelial cells stimulated by thyrotropin and phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, P.P.; Rickaert, F.; Lamy, F.; Authelet, M.; Dumont, J.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH), through cyclic AMP, promotes both proliferation and differentiation expression in dog thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture, whereas the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) also stimulates proliferation but antagonizes differentiating effects of TSH. In this study, within 20 min both factors triggered the disruption of actin-containing stress fibers. This process preceded distinct morphological changes: cytoplasmic retraction and arborization in response to TSH and cyclic AMP, cell shape distortion, and increased motility in response to TPA and diacylglycerol. TSH and TPA also induced a marked decrease in the synthesis of three high M{sub r} tropomyosin isoforms, which were not present in dog thyroid tissue but appeared in culture during cell spreading and stress fiber formation. The tropomyosin isoform switching observed here closely resembled similar processes in various cells transformed by oncogenic viruses. However, it did not correlate with differentiation or mitogenic activation. Contrasting with current hypothesis on this process in transformed cells, tropomyosin isoform switching in normal thyroid cells was preceded and thus might be caused by early disruption of stress fibers.

  11. Tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of the human fgr proto-oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, T.J. . Dept. of Medicine); Connolly, N.L.; Senior, R.M. ); Katamine, S.; Cheah, M.S.C.; Robbins

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the authors show that c-fgr proto-oncogene expression is limited to normal peripheral blood granulocytes, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages, all of which contain 50 to 100 copies of c-fgr mRNA per cell. The c-fgr RNA molecules in these cells consisted of partially spliced transcripts containing intron 7 and completely spliced molecules capable of encoding the predicted p55 c-fgr protein. The splicing of intron 7 appeared to occur after the splicing of most of the other introns; partially spliced molecules containing intron 7 did not appear to be transported into the cytoplasm. Very low levels of fgr transcripts were also present in U937 promonocytic cells and increased in abundance with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation. The level of fgr transcripts began to increase 2 to 4 after TPA addition peaked at 8 h, and subsequently declined. Since the authors found that the half-life of fgr mRNA was longer than 8 h, these changes are best explained by transient transcriptional activation of fgr during TPA-induced differentiation, although nuclear runoff experiments were not sensitive enough to detect this event. Their results demonstrate that the c-fgr gene is expressed in a tissue- and development-specific fashion and suggest that constitutive expression of c-fgr in U937 cells is regulated by a labile transcriptional repressor.

  12. Afadin requirement for cytokine expressions in keratinocytes during chemically induced inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Iwata, Takanori; Takai, Yoshimi; Birchmeier, Walter; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Afadin is a filamentous actin-binding protein and a mediator of nectin signaling. Nectins are Ig-like cell adhesion molecules, and the nectin family is composed of four members, nectin-1 to nectin-4. Nectins show homophilic and heterophilic interactions with other nectins or proteins on adjacent cells. Nectin signaling induces formation of cell–cell junctions and is required for the development of epithelial tissues, including skin. This study investigated the role of afadin in epithelial tissue development and established epithelium-specific afadin-deficient (CKO) mice. Although showing no obvious abnormality in the skin development and homeostasis, the mice showed the reduced neutrophil infiltration into the epidermis during chemical-induced inflammation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of cytokines including Cxcl2, Il-1β and Tnf-α were reduced in CKO keratinocytes compared with control keratinocytes during TPA-induced inflammation. Primary-cultured skin keratinocytes from CKO mice also showed reduced expression of these cytokines and weak activation of Rap1 compared with those from control mice after the TPA treatment. These results suggested a remarkable function of afadin, which was able to enhance cytokine expression through Rap1 activation in keratinocytes during inflammation. PMID:25297509

  13. Translocation of protein kinase C to membranes induced by TNF does not cause the inhibition of EGF binding to human wish cells.

    PubMed

    Katoh, T; Karasaki, Y; Hirano, H; Gotoh, S; Higashi, K

    1990-04-30

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) caused an inhibition of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor [( 125I]EGF) binding to its receptors of human amniotic (WISH) cells at 5 min after addition of TNF, which reached a maximal level (60-70% reduction) after 15-30 min and declined thereafter. TNF also induced a translocation of protein kinase C activity from the cytosol to the membrane, which peaked at 45-60 min after addition of TNF and almost returned to basal level at 120 min. Furthermore, prolonged incubation of WISH cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13 acetate (TPA) diminished the TPA effect on the inhibition of EGF binding to the cells due to the desensitization of protein kinase C; however, TNF still reduced the EGF binding to the cells pretreated with TPA for a long time. These results indicate that although TNF causes the translocation of protein kinase C to the membrane, activation of protein kinase C is not required for TNF to induce a decrease in EGF binding to the cells. PMID:2334431

  14. Activation of human papillomavirus type 18 gene expression by herpes simplex virus type 1 viral transactivators and a phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Gius, D.; Laimins, L.A.

    1989-02-01

    Several viral trans-activators and a tumor promoter were examined for the ability to activate human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) gene expression. A plasmid containing the HPV-18 noncoding region placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was cotransfected with different herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genes into several cell lines. Both HSV-1 TIF and ICPO activated HPV-18 expression; however, activation by TIF was observed only in epithelial cells, while ICPO stimulated expression in a wide variety of cells. The element activated by both TIF and ICOP was mapped to a 229-base-pair fragment which also contains an HPV-18 epithelial cell-preferred enhancer. The inclusion of a papillomavirus E2 trans-activator with TIF and ICOP further increased HPV-18 expression. In contrast, the HSV-1 ICP4 and ICP27 genes, as well as the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat genes, were found to have no effect on HPV-18 expression. In transient assays, the addition of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) also activated HPV-18 expression. The region of HPV-18 activated by TPA was localized to a sequence which is homologous to other TPA-responsive elements.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin, a pterocarpene from Erythrina mildbraedii.

    PubMed

    Njamen, Dieudonné; Talla, Emmanuel; Mbafor, Joseph Tanyi; Fomum, Zacharias Tanee; Kamanyi, Albert; Mbanya, Jean-Claude; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Giner, Rosa M; Recio, M Carmen; Ríos, José Luis

    2003-05-01

    Erycristagallin, a pterocarpene isolated from Erythrina mildbraedii, was tested in vitro for its antioxidant properties on the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and on the arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, erycristagallin was tested on different experimental models of inflammation, such as the acute and chronic inflammation induced by the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on mice and the phospholipase A(2)-induced mouse paw oedema test. In the carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema test, the ethyl acetate extract obtained from E. mildbraedii showed anti-inflammatory activity, and erycristagallin was isolated as the active principle. In vivo, erycristagallin significantly inhibited the phospholipase A(2)-induced mouse paw oedema as well as the mouse ear oedema induced by TPA (ID(50)<10 microg/ear). Moreover, it significantly reduced the chronic inflammation and leukocyte infiltration induced by repeated application of TPA. In vitro, erycristagallin inhibited the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (IC(50)=23.4 microM), but had no effect on cyclooxygenase-1 metabolism in human platelets, while showing antioxidant activity in the DPPH test. As with other phenolics, the anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin may be based on its capacity to inhibit the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. PMID:12729844

  16. A Comparison Between Phorbol 12 Myristate 13 Acetate and Phorbol 12, 13 Dibutyrate in Human Melanocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Divya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Melanocyte culture is an integral part of the studies of skin biology and cosmetic applications. After the introduction of selective medium for the culture of human melanocyte using Phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) in 1982, a lot of methods of culturing were tried but till date PMA is a preferred mitogen because of its cost effectiveness compared to growth factors. We have tried to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of another phorbol ester, Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) in melanocyte culture because of its less hydrophobic nature compared to PMA. This property minimizes the trace amount of mitogen in cell culture after washing off and hence does not interfere in other biological assays. Aim To evaluate the differences in the melanocyte survival rate, morphology and mitotic index when grown in media supplemented with PMA and PDBu. Materials and Methods Foreskins were collected from children undergoing circumcision. Epidermal cells were isolated from foreskin and cultured using PMA and PDBu. Melanocytes in culture were monitored for the better establishment and documented. In proliferative assay, melanocytes were treated with PMA and PDBu for 24, 48 and 72 hours and proliferation was measured using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. Results When cultured, melanocytes acquired proliferative status and bipolar morphology quicker in PDBu medium than in PMA medium. Keratinocytes survived as contamination in PMA medium whereas PDBu medium had minimal keratinocytes. MTT assay showed that PDBu has higher proliferative induction capacity than PMA. In even lower concentration of PDBu in medium, melanocytes survived till 72 hours without significant cell loss in compared to PMA medium. Conclusion PDBu can be a valuable replacement for PMA in human melanocyte culture. Higher proliferation induction, unfavourable to keratinocyte survival and less hydrophobicity make PDBu a promising alternative for quicker

  17. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in a transgenic mouse line (TG.AC) carrying a v-Ha-ras gene.

    PubMed

    Spalding, J W; Momma, J; Elwell, M R; Tennant, R W

    1993-07-01

    A transgenic mouse line (TG.AC) created in the FVB/N strain, carries a v-Ha-ras gene fused to a zeta-globin promoter gene. These trangenic mice have the properties of genetically initiated skin and have been shown to be sensitive to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a well-described promoter of skin papillomas in the two-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis model. It was of interest to determine whether the TG.AC mouse strain was also responsive to other known promoters. Groups of heterozygous or homozygous TG.AC mice were treated topically, 2x/week, for up to 20 weeks with benzoyl peroxide (BPO), 2-butanol peroxide (2-BUP), phenol (PH), acetic acid (AA), TPA and acetone (ACN), the vehicle control. Skin papillomas were induced in all groups treated with TPA, BPO and 2-BUP. Papillomas were observed in some treatment groups as early as 3 weeks. The relative activity of the promoters was TPA > 2-BUP > BPO > PH = AA = ACN. No papillomas were observed in any of the uninitiated FVB/N mice treated in a similar manner and which served as treatment control groups. Studies to determine the sensitivity of TG.AC mice to TPA, indicated that a total dose of 25-30 micrograms of TPA administered in 3 or 10 applications, was sufficient to induce an average incidence of 11-15 papillomas per mouse. The papilloma incidence continued to increase and was maintained up to 15 weeks after TPA treatment was terminated. The short latency period and high incidence of papilloma induction indicate that TG.AC mice have a high sensitivity to known skin promoters. The TG.AC line should prove to be a sensitive model for identifying putative tumor promoters or complete carcinogens. PMID:8330346

  18. Malignant conversion and metastasis of mouse skin tumors: a comparison of SENCAR and CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hennings, H.; Spangler, E.F.; Shores, R.; Mitchell, P.; Devor, D.; Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Elgjo, K.M.; Yuspa, S.H.

    1986-09-01

    The progression of papillomas to squamous cell carcinomas (malignant conversion) was studied in the skin of SENCAR and Charles River CD-1 mice, using a three-stage treatment protocol. After initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) (stage I) and limited promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (stage II), papilloma-bearing mice were treated (stage III) with either tumor initiators, such as urethane, N-methyl-N'nitro-N nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or 4-nitroquinoline-n-oxide (R-NQO), the promoter TPA, or solvent (acetone). Similar final carcinoma yields were found in the mice treated in stage III with TPA or acetone, although carcinomas developed earlier in the TPA-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with tumor initiators in stage III increased both the rate of appearance and the final yield of carcinomas. Similar results were obtained in both SENCAR and CD-1 mice. A papilloma stage appears to be necessary for carcinoma development since elimination of TPA treatment in stage II greatly reduced the incidence of both papillomas and carcinomas in both stocks of mice. The heterogeneity of papillomas with regard to progression to carcinomas is demonstrated by the low rate of conversion of TPA-dependent papillomas and the high rate of conversion of persistent papillomas in CD-1 mice. The carcinomas that develop using the three-stage regimen vary in metastatic potential. In CD-1 mice, the frequency of metastases to lymph nodes were similar in groups treated in stage III with MNNG, urethane, 4-NQO, TPA, or acetone, but treatment with urethane substantially increased metastases to the lung. In SENCAR mice, this effect of urethane was not observed, but lymph node and lung metastases appeared too be increased by stage III treatment with MNNG.

  19. Antioxidants inhibit the enhancement of malignant cell transformation induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Wölfle, D; Marquardt, H

    1996-06-01

    The mechanisms of the tumor promoting activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were studied using as in vitro model the enhancement ('promotion') of malignant transformation of C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or 3-methylcholanthrene. In this assay, the promoting effect of TCDD was maximal at a very low concentration of 1.5 pM and was comparable to the effect of the reference tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 0.25 microg/ml). The role of reactive oxygen species in the promoting action was investigated: mannitol, a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, or antioxidants, i.e. ascorbic acid plus alpha-tocopherol, abolished the in vitro promoting effects of TPA and TCDD. Furthermore, the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation was studied: the protein kinase inhibitor H-7 markedly reduced the in vitro promoting activity of TPA but did not affect the promotion by TCDD. In accord with these results, TPA, but not TCDD, enhanced the PKC activity in C3H/M2 fibroblasts. Since the TPA-mediated activation of PKC was not affected by ascorbate plus alpha-tocopherol, it is concluded that the antioxidants interfere with tumor promotion at a step beyond PKC activation. Thus, the results suggest that the enhancement of malignant cell transformation by TPA and TCDD is dependent on a common mechanism, possibly induced by oxygen radicals, and, in addition, on further mechanisms that may involve agent-specific signalling pathways (e.g. PKC activation by TPA). PMID:8681442

  20. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of the California Teaching Performance Assessment (TPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Conni; Ayala, Carlos Cuauhtémoc; Railsback, Gary; Freking, Frederick W.; McKenna, Corey; Lausch, David

    2016-01-01

    The teaching performance assessment (TPA) seeks to measure the knowledge, skills, and competencies of teachers during the credential phase of their training. The TPA was introduced in California in 2004 with programs piloting it and then became mandatory for candidates enrolling in preliminary programs in 2008. Although California has multiple…

  1. Anti-tumour promoting activity and antioxidant properties of girinimbine isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii S.

    PubMed

    Kok, Yih Yih; Mooi, Lim Yang; Ahmad, Kartini; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Mat, Nashriyah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ali, Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii was tested for the in vitro anti-tumour promoting and antioxidant activities. Anti-tumour promoting activity was determined by assaying the capability of this compound to inhibit the expression of early antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EA-EBV) in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The concentration of this compound that gave an inhibition rate at fifty percent was 6.0 µg/mL and was not cytotoxic to the cells. Immunoblotting analysis of the expression of EA-EBV showed that girinimbine was able to suppress restricted early antigen (EA-R). However, diffused early antigen (EA-D) was partially suppressed when used at 32.0 µg/mL. Girinimbine exhibited a very strong antioxidant activity as compared to a-tocopherol and was able to inhibit superoxide generation in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiated premyelocytic HL-60 cells more than 95%, when treated with the compound at 5.3 and 26.3 µg/mL, respectively. However girinimbine failed to scavenge the stable diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical. PMID:22522395

  2. Ultraviolet stimulated melanogenesis by human melanocytes is augmented by di-acyl glycerol but not TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Wren, F.E.; Matthews, J.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Epidermal melanocytes (MC) synthesize melanin in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The mechanisms mediating the UV-induced activation of melanogenesis are unknown but since UVR induces turnover of membrane phospholipids generating prostaglandins (PGs) and other products, it is possible that one of these might provide the activating signal. We have examined the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2, D2, F2 alpha, and di-acyl glycerol upon the UV-induced responses of cultured human MC and the Cloudman S91 melanoma cell line. The PGs had little effect on unirradiated cells and did not alter the response to UVR in either human MC or S91 melanoma cells. However, a synthetic analogue of di-acyl glycerol, 1-oleyl 2-acetyl glycerol (OAG), caused a significant (P less than 0.0001), dose-related augmentation of melanin content both in human MC (seven-fold) and S91 cells (three-fold). UVR caused a significant augmentation of the OAG-induced melanogenesis of both human MC and S91 cells. Since OAG is known to activate protein kinase C, it was possible that the observed modulation of the UVR signal could be via that pathway. Di-octanoyl glycerol, another di-acyl glycerol, which activates kinase C, caused a small (70%) increase in melanogenesis in MC which was not altered by UVR. However, 12-0 tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C, had no significant effect on either basal or UV-induced melanin synthesis in either cell type. These data suggest that the UV-induced signal activating melanogenesis could be mediated by di-acyl glycerol. Furthermore, they imply that the signal is transduced via an alternative, pathway that might be independent of protein kinase C.

  3. Upregulation of the EP1 receptor for prostaglandin E2 promotes skin tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Surh, Inok; Rundhaug, Joyce; Pavone, Amy; Mikulec, Carol; Abel, Erika; Fischer, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) has been shown to promote the development of murine skin tumors. EP1 is 1 of the 4 PGE(2) G-protein-coupled membrane receptors expressed by murine keratinocytes. EP1 mRNA levels were increased ∼2-fold after topical treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, as well as increased ∼3- to 12-fold in tumors induced by 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation/TPA promotion or by UV exposure. To determine the effect of EP1 levels on tumor development, we generated BK5.EP1 transgenic mice that overexpress EP1 in the basal layer of the epidermis. Skins of these mice were histologically indistinguishable from wild type (WT) mice and had similar levels of proliferation after TPA treatment. Using a DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis protocol, BK5.EP1 mice had a reduced tumor multiplicity compared to WT mice, likely due to the observed down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC). However, the BK5.EP1 mice had an ∼8-fold higher papilloma to carcinoma conversion rate. When DMBA/anthralin was used, BK5.EP1 mice produced more tumors than WT mice, as well as a ninefold increase in carcinomas, indicating that the tumor response is dependent on the type of tumor promoter agent used. Additionally, although almost undetectable in WT mice, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was expressed in the untreated epidermis of BK5.EP1 mice. While TPA highly induced COX-2 in WT mice, COX-2 expression in the BK5.EP1 mice did not change after TPA treatment; PGE(2) levels were likewise affected. These data indicate that EP1 is more important in tumor progression than in tumor promotion and that it indirectly regulates COX-2 expression. PMID:21268127

  4. Comparison of effects of phorbol esters and glucose on protein kinase C activation and insulin secretion in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Easom, R A; Hughes, J H; Landt, M; Wolf, B A; Turk, J; McDaniel, M L

    1989-01-01

    The tumour-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, and this suggests a potential role for protein kinase C in the regulation of stimulus-secretion coupling in islets. In the present study, the hypothesis that the insulinotropic effect of TPA is mediated by activation of protein kinase C in pancreatic islets has been examined. TPA induced a gradual translocation of protein kinase C from the cytosol to a membrane-associated state which correlated with the gradual onset of insulin secretion. The pharmacologically inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not mimic this effect. TPA also induced a rapid time-dependent decline of total protein kinase C activity in islets and the appearance of a Ca2+- and phospholipid-independent protein kinase activity. Insulin secretion induced by TPA was completely suppressed (IC50 approximately 10 nM) by staurosporine, a potent protein kinase C inhibitor. Staurosporine also inhibited islet cytosolic protein kinase C activity at similar concentrations (IC50 approximately 2 nM). In addition, staurosporine partially (approximately 60%) inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion at concentrations (IC50 approximately 10 nM) similar to those required to inhibit TPA-induced insulin secretion, suggesting that staurosporine may act at a step common to both mechanisms, possibly the activation of protein kinase C. However, stimulatory concentrations of glucose did not induce down-regulation of translocation of protein kinase C, and the inhibition of glucose-induced insulin release by staurosporine was incomplete. Significant questions therefore remain unresolved as to the possible involvement of protein kinase C in glucose-induced insulin secretion. PMID:2690823

  5. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppresses monocyte adhesion to the endothelium by inhibiting NF-κB/NOX2-derived ROS signaling.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Risa; Makino, Junya; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the major polyphenols, exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer properties. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, the progression of which is closely related to the accumulated adhesion of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages to the endothelium. We herein determined whether CAPE and its derivatives suppressed THP-1 cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Of the four polyphenols tested, CAPE significantly suppressed the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-elicited expression of cluster for differentiation (CD) 11b, 14, and 36, and this was accompanied by the inhibition of THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVEC. CAPE also suppressed the activation of TPA-elicited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and accumulation of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), but did not affect extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CAPE suppressed THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVEC through, at least in part, the NF-κB, NOX2, and ROS-derived signaling axis. PMID:27257341

  6. Quantification of polyphenols and flavonoid content and evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of Stenocereus stellatus extracts.

    PubMed

    Soto-Cabrera, Diego; Salazar, Juan R; Nogueda-Gutiérrez, Inés; Torres-Olvera, Mariana; Cerón-Nava, Anabelle; Rosales-Guevara, Juan; Terrazas, Teresa; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia

    2016-08-01

    The hexanic, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts from branches of Stenocereus stellatus were tested in both the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) - induced ear oedema model and antimicrobial activity assay. The % of oedema inhibition, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), as well as the polyphenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Also, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In TPA model, the three extracts showed moderate oedema inhibition. In the antimicrobial activity assay, methanolic extract shows better MIC against all strains. The lowest MICs were for Candida albicans (31 μg/mL) and Rhizopus sp. (15 μg/mL). Also, 50.78 mg eq. of gallic acid/g extract of polyphenol and 115.12 mg eq. of catequine/g extract of flavonoids content were founded in ethyl acetate extract. In the chromatographic analysis, β-sitosterol, β-amyrine, betulin and some other molecules were identified. The results show that S. stellatus possess antimicrobial activities against some fungus species. PMID:26395173

  7. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppresses monocyte adhesion to the endothelium by inhibiting NF-κB/NOX2-derived ROS signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Risa; Makino, Junya; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the major polyphenols, exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer properties. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, the progression of which is closely related to the accumulated adhesion of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages to the endothelium. We herein determined whether CAPE and its derivatives suppressed THP-1 cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Of the four polyphenols tested, CAPE significantly suppressed the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-elicited expression of cluster for differentiation (CD) 11b, 14, and 36, and this was accompanied by the inhibition of THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVEC. CAPE also suppressed the activation of TPA-elicited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and accumulation of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), but did not affect extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CAPE suppressed THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVEC through, at least in part, the NF-κB, NOX2, and ROS-derived signaling axis. PMID:27257341

  8. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter . E-mail: bchpcr@nus.edu.sg; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-12-01

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.

  9. Berteroin Present in Cruciferous Vegetables Exerts Potent Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Murine Macrophages and Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jae In; Cho, Han Jin; Choi, Myung-Sook; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina; Kang, Young-Hee; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Berteroin (5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate) is a sulforaphane analog present in cruciferous vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, rucola salad leaves, and mustard oil. We examined whether berteroin exerts anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse skin inflammation models. Berteroin decreased LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Berteroin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and nuclear factor-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus and DNA binding activity. Furthermore, berteroin suppressed degradation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase and phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1. Berteroin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and AKT. In the mouse ear, berteroin effectively suppressed TPA-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. These results demonstrate that berteroin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties and suggest that berteroin can be developed as a skin anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25393510

  10. Studies involving the induction of prostaglandin synthesis following cell transformation by herpes simplex virus type 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of HSV-2 transformation on cellular metabolic processes, specifically the metabolism of arachidonic acid (20:4) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Results obtained by labeling cells with (/sup 3/H)20:4 and analyzing the release of radioactivity into overlay culture medium demonstrate that while nontransformed rat embryo fibroblasts (REF) possess phospholipase to catalyze the release of 20:4 from membrane phospholipids, transformation of REF cells by photoinactivated HSV-2 virions induces cyclooxygenase to convert 20:4 substrate primarily to PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../. Induction of 20:4 deacylation in nontransformed and HSV-2 transformed cells as well as PG synthesis in transformed cells is further enhanced by the tumor promoter (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and calcium ionophore A23187. Phospholipase and cyclooxygenase appear to be coupled in their regulation in HSV-2 transformed tumor-derived rat fibrosarcoma (RFS) cells. Three times more (/sup 3/H)20:4 is incorporated into the phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol (PS/PI) fraction in HSV-2 transformed cells compared to REF cells; additionally, this fraction serves as the primary donor of (/sup 3/H)20:4 released from TPA-stimulated transformed cells.

  11. Detection of chromosomal changes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using classical cytogenetic methods and FISH: application of rich mitogen mixtures for lymphocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Koczkodaj, Dorota; Popek, Sylwia; Zmorzyński, Szymon; Wąsik-Szczepanek, Ewa; Filip, Agata A

    2016-04-01

    One of the research methods of prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is cytogenetic analysis. This method requires the presence of appropriate B-cell mitogens in cultures in order to obtain a high mitotic index. The aim of our research was to determine the most effective methods of in vitro B-cell stimulation to maximize the number of metaphases from peripheral blood cells of patients with CLL for classical cytogenetic examination, and then to correlate the results with those obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The study group involved 50 consecutive patients with CLL. Cell cultures were maintained with the basic composition of culture medium and addition of respective stimulators. We used the following stimulators: Pokeweed Mitogen (PWM), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), ionophore, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30. We received the highest mitotic index when using the mixture of PWM+TPA+I+DSP30. With classical cytogenetic tests using banding techniques, numerical and structural aberrations of chromosomes were detected in 46 patients, and no change was found in only four patients. Test results clearly confirmed the legitimacy of using cell cultures enriched with the mixture of cell stimulators and combining classical cytogenetic techniques with the FISH technique in later patient diagnosing. PMID:26956786

  12. Chemomodulatory efficacy of lycopene on antioxidant enzymes and carcinogen-induced cutaneum carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cunsi; Wang, Siliang; Shan, Yunlong; Liu, Zhaoguo; Fan, Fangtian; Tao, Li; Liu, Yuping; Zhou, Liang; Pei, Changsong; Wu, Hongyan; Tian, Chao; Ruan, Junshan; Chen, Wenxing; Wang, Aiyun; Zheng, Shizhong; Lu, Yin

    2014-07-25

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathological processes, including skin tumourigenesis. Cutaneum carcinoma is commonly responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality, and treatments have not progressed substantially in recent years. Alternative strategies, such as chemoprevention, are being considered. In this study, we investigated the chemomodulatory potential of lycopene against 9,10-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative stress and skin carcinogenesis in female ICR mice. Pretreatment with lycopene at various doses significantly delayed tumour formation and growth. These treatments markedly reduced the tumour incidence and tumour volume. Moreover, lycopene inhibited the formation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, prevented the loss of glutathione, and affected the activities of a battery of oxidant enzymes in the skin of mice. Furthermore, mice that were administered lycopene exhibited higher levels of translocation of nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 into the nucleus compared with the vehicle-treated and model mice. Collectively, these results indicated that lycopene exerts a protective effect against DMBA/TPA-induced cutaneum carcinoma through antioxidant defence. PMID:24781038

  13. Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Tomoko; Yamada, Takeshi; Taji, Sayaka; Ohishi, Hirofumi; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Sakuma, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal X-ray analysis. These compounds except for 2 were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), as a test for potential cancer chemopreventive agents. The most abundant triterpene, inotodiol (3), was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 3 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. PMID:17049251

  14. Triterpene alcohols from camellia and sasanqua oils and their anti-inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, T; Yasukawa, K; Kimura, Y; Takase, S; Yamanouchi, S; Tamura, T

    1997-12-01

    The nonsaponifiable lipids of camellia and sasanqua oils from the seeds of Camellia japonica L. and C. sasanqua THUNB., respectively, were investigated for their triterpene alcohol constituents. This led to the isolation of twenty-seven triterpene alcohols of which seven were novel naturally occurring compounds, tirucalla-5,7,24-trien-3 beta-ol (1), lemmaphylla-7,21-dien-3 beta-ol (2), isoeuphol (3), isotirucallol (4), (24R)-24,25-epoxybutyrospermol (5) and its 24S-epimer (6), and isoaglaiol (7). The structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The inhibitory effects of 3, 4 a mixture of 5 and 6, a mixture of 7 and its 24S-epimer (aglaiol), and eight known triterpene alcohols isolated in this study were evaluated in ear inflammation in mice induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The 50% inhibitory dose of these triterpenes for TPA-induced inflammation (1 microgram per ear) was 0.2-0.9 mg/ear. PMID:9433772

  15. Inhibitory effects of tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and diacylglycerol on erythropoietin production in human renal carcinoma cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Masamichi; Nagakura, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Munehisa; Fisher, J.W. )

    1987-11-01

    A human renal carcinoma from a patient with an erythrocytosis, serially transplanted into athymic nude mice, was grown in primary monolayer cell cultures. After reaching confluency the cultured cells formed multicellular hemicysts (domes) which became more abundant as the cultures approached saturation density. Erythropoietin (Ep) production by this renal carcinoma in culture was only slightly increased at the time of semiconfluency but showed a marked increase in Ep levels in the culture medium after the cultures reached confluency, in parallel with an increase in dome formation. The phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) showed a significant dose-related inhibitory effect on Ep production and dome formation in the renal carcinoma cell cultures, suggesting an important role of protein kinase C, the only known receptor for TPA, in inhibiting the expression of differentiated phenotypes in the renal carcinoma cells. These studies suggest a role of the inositol-lipid second messenger path and protein kinase C in the regulation of Ep production.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity and composition of Senecio salignus Kunth.

    PubMed

    González, Cuauhtemoc Pérez; Vega, Roberto Serrano; González-Chávez, Marco; Sánchez, Miguel Angel Zavala; Gutiérrez, Salud Pérez

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    PubMed Central

    Pérez González, Cuauhtemoc; Serrano Vega, Roberto; González-Chávez, Marco; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  18. Studies of the voltage-sensitive calcium channels in smooth muscle, neuronal, and cardiac tissues using 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists and activators

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, X.

    1988-01-01

    This study describes the investigation of the voltage-sensitive Ca{sup +} channels in vascular and intestinal smooth muscle, chick neural retina cells and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes using 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists and activators. In rat aorta, the tumor promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) produced Ca{sup 2+}-dependent contractile responses. The responses to TPA were blocked by the Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists. The effects of the enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 were characterized in both rat tail artery and guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle preparations using pharmacologic and radioligand binding assays. The (S)-enantiomers induced contraction and potentiated the responses to K{sup +} depolarization. The (R)-enantiomers inhibited the tension responses to K{sup +}. All the enantiomers inhibited specific ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding. The pharmacologic activities of both activator and antagonist ligands correlated on a 1:1 basis with the binding affinities. In chick neural retina cells the (S)-enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 enhanced Ca{sup 2+} influx. In contrast, the (R)-enantiomers inhibited Ca{sup 2+} influx. The enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 inhibited specific ({sup 3}H)PN 200-110 binding competitively. Binding of 1,4-dihydropyridines was characterized in neonatal rat heart cells.

  19. Amplification of bovine papillomavirus DNA by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ultraviolet irradiation, or infection with herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.; Schlehofer, J.R.; Mergener, K.; Gissmann, L.; zur Hausen, H. )

    1989-09-01

    Treatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or irradiation with ultraviolet light (uv254 nm) induces amplification of integrated as well as episomal sequences of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 DNA in BPV-1-transformed mouse C127 cells (i.e., ID13 cells). This is shown by filter in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis of cellular DNA. Similarly, infection of ID13 cells with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 which has been shown to be mutagenic for host cell DNA leads to amplification of BPV DNA sequences. In contrast to this induction of DNA amplification by initiators, treatment of ID13 cells with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) does not result in increased synthesis of BPV DNA nor does TPA treatment modulate the initiator-induced DNA amplification. Similar to other cell systems infection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 inhibits BPV-1 DNA amplification irrespective of the inducing agent. In contrast to initiator-induced DNA amplification, treatment with carcinogen (MNNG) or tumor promoters or combination of MNNG and promoter of C127 cells prior to transformation by BPV-1 does not lead to an increase in the number of transformed foci. The induction of amplification of papillomavirus DNA by initiating agents possibly represents one of the mechanisms by which the observed synergism between papillomavirus infection and initiators in tumorigenesis might occur.

  20. N6-isopentenyladenosine and analogs activate the NRF2-mediated antioxidant response

    PubMed Central

    Dassano, Alice; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Giardullo, Paola; Cecco, Loris De; Ciuffreda, Pierangela; Santaniello, Enzo; Saran, Anna; Dragani, Tommaso A.; Colombo, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    N6-isopentenyladenosine (i6A), a naturally occurring modified nucleoside, inhibits the proliferation of human tumor cell lines in vitro, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Treatment of MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells with i6A or with three synthetic analogs (allyl6A, benzyl6A, and butyl6A) inhibited growth and altered gene expression. About 60% of the genes that were differentially expressed in response to i6A treatment were also modulated by the analogs, and pathway enrichment analysis identified the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response as being significantly modulated by all four compounds. Luciferase reporter gene assays in transfected MCF7 cells confirmed that i6A activates the transcription factor NRF2. Assays for cellular production of reactive oxygen species indicated that i6A and analogs had antioxidant effects, reducing basal levels and inhibiting the H2O2- or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced production in MCF7 or dHL-60 (HL-60 cells induced to differentiate along the neutrophilic lineage) cell lines, respectively. In vivo, topical application of i6A or benzyl6A to mouse ears prior to TPA stimulation lessened the inflammatory response and significantly reduced the number of infiltrating neutrophils. These results suggest that i6A and analogs trigger a cellular response against oxidative stress and open the possibility of i6A and benzyl6A being used as topical anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:24688894

  1. Differentiation of normal and cultured preneoplastic tracheal epithellal cells in rats: importance of epithelial mesenchymal interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Terzaghi, M.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Changes in the dependence on mesenchymal tissues for survival and differentiation in inbred F344 female rats were investigated in tracheal epithelial cells exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Fresh suspensions of normal tracheal epithelium or cultured preneoplastic cells were inoculated into isolated organ segments (trachea, esophagus, bladder, or small intestine) or into Dacron containers that were then implanted subdermally into isogenic recipients. At various times after cell inoculation and implantation, tissues were removed for histologic evaluation. Normal cells inoculated into frozen-thawed trachea, esophagus, bladder, and intestine yielded a regular mucociliary epithelium. Normal cell inocula did not, however, survive in trachea previously heated (100/sup 0/C), fixed in ethanol, or digested with collagenese; nor did normal cells survive in Dacron containers unless tracheal fibroblasts plus epithelial cells were inoculated together. DMBA- and TPA-exposed cell populations with increased growth capacity in vitro survived and differentiated on all of the above substrates. For survival and differentiation in vivo, preneoplastic cells appeared to have less stringent substrate requirements than did normal cells. Application of the described techniques to the study of changes occurring early in the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  2. Arginine vasopressin promotes growth of rat glomerular mesangial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, M.B.; Pekar, S.K.; Perfetto, M.C.; Sterzel, R.B. )

    1988-11-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) binds specifically to vascular smooth muscle-like mesangial cells (MCs) and affects contraction. The authors tested whether this peptide also modulates growth behavior of rat MCs in early subculture (passage 2-5). Subconfluent, serum-starved MCs were exposed to AVP in the presence or absence of insulin. To assess DNA replication, MC uptake of ({sup 3}H)thymidine was determined on days 1, 2, and 3. AVP alone averaged a 1.97-fold increase in DNA synthesis at 24 h, whereas the mean stimulatory effects of AVP at 48 and 72 h were 7.21- and 5.42-fold, respectively. MCs exposed simultaneously to AVP and insulin showed potentiation of the mitogenic response to AVP alone. The V{sub 1}-receptor antagonist (1-({beta}-mercapto-{beta},{beta}-cyclopentamethylene proprionic acid), 2-(O-methyl-Tyr)-Arg)vasopressin (PMP) inhibited only AVP-induced promotion of MC growth. The phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) acutely stimulated MC proliferation but did not add to the AVP effect. They conclude that (1) AVP is strongly and specifically mitogenic for rat MCs, (2) the proliferative effect of AVP is mediated by TPA-like activation of protein kinase C, and (3) a maximal rise of Ca{sub i} need not be essential for the induction of AVP-elicited mitogenesis of MCs.

  3. Impaired skin regeneration and remodeling after cutaneous injury and chemically induced hyperplasia in taps-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hildenbrand, Maike; Rhiemeier, Verena; Hartenstein, Bettina; Lahrmann, Bernd; Grabe, Niels; Angel, Peter; Hess, Jochen

    2010-07-01

    Recently, we identified an AP-1-dependent target gene in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated mouse back skin, which encodes a retroviral-like aspartic proteinase (Taps/Asprv1). Taps expression was detected almost exclusively in stratified epithelia of mouse embryos and adult tissues, and enhanced protein levels were present in several non-neoplastic human skin disorders, implicating a crucial role for differentiation and homeostasis of multilayered epithelia. Here, we generated a mouse model in which Taps transgene expression is under the control of the human ubiquitin C promoter (UBC-Taps). Although no obvious phenotype was observed in normal skin development and homeostasis, these mice showed a significant delay in cutaneous wound closure compared with control animals. Shortly after re-epithelialization, we found an increase in keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, which express Filaggrin, a late differentiation marker. A hypergranulosum-like phenotype with increased numbers of Filaggrin-positive keratinocytes was also observed in UBC-Taps mice after administration of TPA. In summary, these data show that aberrant Taps expression causes impaired skin regeneration and skin remodeling after cutaneous injury and chemically induced hyperplasia. PMID:20237492

  4. A Novel Aspartic Proteinase-Like Gene Expressed in Stratified Epithelia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rhiemeier, Verena; Breitenbach, Ute; Richter, Karl Hartmut; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Vogt, Ingeborg; Hartenstein, Bettina; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Mauch, Cornelia; Hess, Jochen; Angel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Homeostasis of stratified epithelia, such as the epidermis of the skin, is a sophisticated process that represents a tightly controlled balance between proliferation and differentiation. Alterations of this balance are associated with common human diseases including cancer. Here, we report the cloning of a novel cDNA sequence, from mouse back skin, that is induced by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and codes for a hitherto unknown aspartic proteinase-like protein (Taps). Taps represents a potential AP-1 target gene because TPA-induced expression in epidermal keratinocytes critically depends on c-Fos, and co-treatment with dexamethasone, a potent inhibitor of AP-1-mediated gene regulation, resulted in impaired activation of Taps expression. Taps mRNA and protein are restricted to stratified epithelia in mouse embryos and adult tissues, implicating a crucial role for this aspartic proteinase-like gene in differentiation and homeostasis of multilayered epithelia. During chemically induced carcinogenesis, transient elevation of Taps mRNA and protein levels was detected in benign skin tumors. However, its expression is negatively associated with dedifferentiation and malignant progression in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Similar expression was observed in squamous skin tumors of patients, suggesting that detection of Taps levels represents a novel strategy to discriminate the progression state of squamous skin cancers. PMID:16565508

  5. Lack of effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field on biomarkers of tumor promotion in the skin of SENCAR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Digiovanni, John; Johnston, D A.; Rupp, Tim; Sasser, Lyle B. ); Anderson, Larry E. ); Morris, James E. ); Miller, Douglas L. ); Kavet, R; Walborg, Earl R.

    1999-04-20

    It has been proposed that extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields may enhance tumorigenesis through a co-promotional mechanism. This hypothesis has been further tested using the two-stage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis, i.e. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced promotion of skin carcinogenesis in mice initiated by a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Experimentation utilized three different doses of TPA within its dose-response range (0.85, 1.70 or 3.40 nmol) and examined the following early biomarkers of tumor promotion after 1, 2 and 5 weeks of promotion: increases in epidermal thickness and the labeling index of epidermal cells, induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and down regulation of epidermal protein kinase C activity. Mice exposed to a 60 Hz magnetic field having a flux density of 2 mT for 6 hr per day for 5 days per week were compared to mice exposed to an ambient magnetic field. Within the sensitivity limits of the biomarker methodology and the exposure parameters employed, no consistent, statistically significant effects, indicative of co-promotion by the magnetic field, were demonstrated.

  6. Phorbol ester suppression of opioid analgesia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.J.; Wang, X.J.; Han, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been shown to be an important substrate in intracellular signal transduction. Very little is known concerning its possible role in mediating opiate-induced analgesia. In the present study, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a selective activator of PKC, was injected intrathecally (ith) to assess its influence on the analgesia induced by intrathecal injection of the mu opioid agonist PL017, the delta agonist DPDPE and the kappa agonist 66A-078. Radiant heat-induced tail flick latency (TFL) was taken as an index of nociception. TPA in the dose of 25-50 ng, which did not affect the baseline TFL, produced a marked suppression of opioid antinociception, with a higher potency in blocking mu and delta than the kappa effect. In addition, mu and delta agonists induced remarkable decreases in spinal cyclic AMP (cAMP) content whereas the kappa effect was weak. The results suggest a cross-talk between the PKC system and the signal transduction pathway subserving opioid analgesia.

  7. In vivo measurement of epidermal thickness changes associated with tumor promotion in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy; Gladish, James C.; Thuillier, Philippe; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of tissue morphology in murine models of pathogenesis has traditionally been carried out by excision of affected tissues with subsequent immunohistological examination. Excision-based histology provides a limited two-dimensional presentation of tissue morphology at the cost of halting disease progression at a single time point and sacrifice of the animal. We investigate the use of noninvasive reflectance mode confocal scanning laser microscopy (rCSLM) as an alternative tool to biopsy in documenting epidermal hyperplasia in murine models exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). An automated technique utilizing average axial rCSLM reflectance profiles is used to extract epidermal thickness values from rCSLM data cubes. In comparisons to epidermal thicknesses determined from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections, we find no significant correlation to rCSLM-derived thickness values. This results from method-specific artifacts: physical alterations of tissue during H&E preparation in standard histology and specimen-induced abberations in rCSLM imaging. Despite their disagreement, both histology and rCSLM methods reliably measure statistically significant thickness changes in response to TPA exposure. Our results demonstrate that in vivo rCSLM imaging provides epithelial biologists an accurate noninvasive means to monitor cutaneous pathogenesis. PMID:20799792

  8. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC TOPICAL APPLICATION OF 12-0-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE ON THE SKIN AND INTERNAL ORGANS OF SENCAR MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Repetitive topical applications of 2 micrograms TPA twice weekly for 37 to 52 weeks induced a sustained epidermal hyperplasia, hyperplasia of hair follicles, and increased dermal cellularity in SENCAR mice. In addition, after 52 weeks of protracted promoter treatment most animals...

  9. Dihydroavenanthramide D inhibits human breast cancer cell invasion through suppression of MMP-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Rae; Noh, Eun-Mi; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hur, Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Mi; Han, Ji-Hey; Hwang, Jin-Ki; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo; Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Jung, Ji-Youn; Lee, Sung-Ho; Park, Chang-Sik; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} MMP-9 plays a pivotal role in the invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. {yields} TPA stimulates MMP-9 expression through activation of MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 pathways. {yields} Dihydroavenanthramide D suppresses MMP-9 expression via inhibition of TPA-induced MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 activations. {yields} Dihydroavenanthramide D blocks cell invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Dihydroavenanthramide D (DHAvD) is a synthetic analog to naturally occurring avenanthramide, which is the active component of oat. Previous study demonstrates that DHAvD strongly inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), which is a major component in cancer cell invasion. The present study investigated whether DHAvD can modulate MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was increased, whereas these inductions were muted by DHAvD. DHAvD also suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MAPK-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activations in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. The results indicate that DHAvD-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion involves the suppression of the MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 pathways in MCF-7 cells. DHAvD may have potential value in breast cancer metastasis.

  10. TPA induction leads to a Th17-like response in transgenic K14/VEGF mice: a novel in vivo screening model of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Hvid, Henning; Teige, Ingrid; Kvist, Peter Helding; Svensson, Lars; Kemp, Kåre

    2008-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, immune cell infiltration, increased dermal angiogenesis and local up-regulation of a variety of inflammatory mediators. Psoriasis is thought to be driven primarily by CD4(+) T cells with a T(h)1 and/or T(h)17 phenotype. Transgenic keratin 14 (K14)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mice have previously been reported to develop a psoriasis-like phenotype. The aim of this study was to further characterize the model for validation as an in vivo screening model of psoriasis. Inflammation was induced in the ear skin with five topical applications of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and a significantly increased inflammation was found in TPA-induced K14/VEGF transgenic animals compared with wild-type mice. The amount of VEGF in the ear tissue was significantly elevated resulting in increased dermal angiogenesis. Furthermore, intense epidermal hyperplasia, CD3(+) infiltration and significantly increased amounts of (TNF) tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-12/23p40, IL-12p70, IL-22 and IL-17 were detected in the inflamed ear skin. This cytokine profile strongly suggests a T(h)17-mediated inflammation. All findings were a result of induced over-expression of VEGF. Topical treatment with betamethasone-17-valerate (BMS) significantly reduced ear skin inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia and also decreased the CD3(+) infiltration. In conclusion, the TPA-induced phenotype in K14/VEGF animals displayed several features of psoriasis, including a T(h)17 cytokine profile and a chronic-like progression, and can be used as an in vivo screening model of psoriasis. PMID:18579711

  11. Galangin and kaempferol suppress phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu Jung; Lee, Young Hun; Lee, Seung-Taek

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 degrades type IV collagen in the basement membrane and plays crucial roles in several pathological implications, including tumorigenesis and inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of flavonols on MMP-9 expression in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. Galangin and kaempferol efficiently decreased MMP-9 secretion, whereas fisetin only weakly decreased its secretion. Galangin and kaempferol did not affect cell viability at concentrations up to 30 μM. Luciferase reporter assays showed that galangin and kaempferol decrease transcription of MMP-9 mRNA. Moreover, galangin and kaempferol strongly reduce IκBα phosphorylation and significantly decrease JNK phosphorylation. These results indicate that galangin and kaempferol suppress PMA-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking activation of NF-κB and AP-1. Therefore, these flavonols could be used as chemopreventive agents to lower the risk of diseases involving MMP-9. PMID:25518925

  12. The effect of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression on skin carcinogenesis is context dependent.

    PubMed

    Rundhaug, Joyce E; Pavone, Amy; Kim, Eunjung; Fischer, Susan M

    2007-12-01

    The up-regulation of the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), a central enzyme in the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthetic pathway, occurs in many epithelial tumors and has been associated with tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. To better understand the role of COX-2 in skin tumor development, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress COX-2 under the control of the keratin 14 promoter. We previously reported (Cancer Res. 62: 2516, 2002) that these mice, referred to as keratin 14 (K14).COX2 mice, were unexpectedly very resistant to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) tumor promotion. The current studies were undertaken to determine the mechanism of this resistance and determine if it was restricted to TPA promotion. Transgenic and wild-type mice were subjected to a complete carcinogenesis protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) only, as well as a two-stage protocol using DMBA plus an unrelated tumor promoter, anthralin. In addition, the responses of transgenic and wild-type mice to TPA in terms of induction of proliferation and various down-stream mediators were examined. The TPA resistance phenotype correlated with a reduced ability to induce ornithine decarboxylase, interleukin-1alpha, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and a reduced proliferation response. This resistance phenotype appears to be restricted to phorbol ester promotion because K14.COX2 mice developed six times more tumors than wild-type mice when anthralin was used as the tumor promoter. Additionally, K14.COX2 mice treated only with DMBA developed approximately 3.5 times more tumors than wild-type mice, suggesting that PGs have intrinsic tumor promoting activity. We conclude that the role of PGs in skin tumorigenesis is context dependent. PMID:17583568

  13. Purification and characterization of a platelet-derived growth factor and heavy metal-modulated nuclear protein.

    PubMed

    Disa, S; Manilla, A C; Scher, C D

    1989-09-25

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor, and heavy metal salts such as sodium arsenite stimulated BALB/c-3T3 cells to synthesize a 31-kDa protein(s) (termed p31) in a concentration-dependent manner. p31 was also synthesized in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). V8 protease digestion of p31 purified from PDGF-, TPA-, and arsenite-treated cells showed identical fragmentation patterns, demonstrating that these agents modulate synthesis of the same (or a highly similar) protein. TPA-induced p31 synthesis was cell cycle-specific, occurring in density-arrested but not exponentially replicating cells. p31 was readily labeled with [35S]methionine but not with [35S]cysteine. Thus it is not a metallothionein. The protein associated with nuclei. It appears to be highly hydrophobic because solubilization required detergents or organic solvents. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided further evidence of hydrophobicity. p31 has been purified to homogeneity using sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with electroelution and reverse-phase HPLC. It has an isoelectric point of 6.8. Its nuclear localization and amino acid analysis demonstrate that p31 is not heme oxygenase, a 32-kDa arsenite-induced microsomal protein. Stimulation of p31 synthesis by growth factors, PDGF and fibroblast growth factor; a tumor promoter, TPA; and heavy metal salts suggests that there is overlap in the pathways for mitogenic stimulation and heavy metal stress. PMID:2777774

  14. Dihydrolipoic acid inhibits skin tumor promotion through anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yuan-Soon; Lai, Ching-Shu; Liu, Hsin-I; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Tai, Chein; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2007-06-01

    alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) has been intensely investigated as a therapeutic agent for several diseases, including hepatic disorder and diabetic polyneuropathy. However, the effects of LA or its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), on cancer chemoprevention has never been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of DHLA/LA on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two important mediators associated with inflammation. DHLA/LA significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO and PGE(2) formation in RAW 264.7 cells. Meanwhile, treatment with DHLA/LA suppressed the expression of iNOS protein but, unexpectedly, did not affect or increase the expression of COX-2 protein. The in vivo anti-inflammatory and antitumor-promoting activities were evaluated by a topical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) application to mouse skin with measurement of edema formation, epidermal thickness and hydrogen peroxide production. DHLA significantly inhibited the priming and activation stages of skin inflammation induced by a double TPA application, by decreasing the inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, DHLA inhibited DMBA (0.3 micromol)/TPA (2.0 nmol)-induced skin tumor formation by reducing the tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. When applied topically onto the shaven backs of mice prior to TPA, DHLA markedly inhibited the expression of iNOS protein. DHLA also strongly and directly inhibited COX-2 activity. These results suggest that DHLA can be a possible chemopreventive agent in inflammation-associated tumorigenesis. PMID:17403519

  15. p53 Acts as a Co-Repressor to Regulate Keratin 14 Expression during Epidermal Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chung-Faye; Lu, Mei-Hua; Lin, Hwang-Chi; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chen, Jang-Yi

    2012-01-01

    During epidermal cell differentiation, keratin 14 (K14) expression is down-regulated, p53 expression varies, and the expression of the p53 target genes, p21 and 14-3-3σ, increases. These trends suggest that the relative transcriptional activity of p53 is increased during epidermal cell differentiation. To determine the relationship between K14 and p53, we constructed K14 promoters of various sizes and found that wild-type p53 could repress the promoter activity of all of the K14 promoter constructs in H1299 cells. K14-p160 contains an SP1 binding site mutation that prevents p53 from repressing K14 expression. Using a DNA affinity precipitation assay, we confirmed that p53 forms a complex with SP1 at the SP1 binding site between nucleotides -48 and -43 on the K14 promoter. Thus, our data indicate that p53 acts as a co-repressor to down-regulate K14 expression by binding to SP1. Next, we used a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced epidermal cell differentiation model to examine the inhibition of K14 expression caused by increased p53 activity. Human ovarian teratocarcinoma C9 cells were treated with TPA to induce differentiation. Over-expression of the dominant negative p53 mutant ΔTAp53, which inhibits p53 activity, prevented the TPA-induced K14 down-regulation in C9 cells. Furthermore, treatment of normal primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) with the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α) showed that the inhibition of p53 activity relieves K14 repression during epidermal cell differentiation. Finally, we found that TPA induces the phosphorylation of p53 at residue 378, which enhances the affinity of p53 to bind to Sp1 and repress K14 expression. PMID:22911849

  16. Phorbol ester treatment to mice inhibits DNA binding of the TCDD inducible nuclear dioxin-receptor to Cyp1A1 enhancer elements

    SciTech Connect

    Okino, S.T.; Tukey, R.H. )

    1991-03-15

    The treatment of C57BL/6 mice with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) results in transcriptional activation of the Cyp1A1 and Cyp1A2 genes. Quantitation of mRNA levels and transcription rates demonstrate that post-transcriptional mechanisms are not involved in TCDD induction of the Cyp1A genes. The induction of the Cyp1A genes by TCDD occurs following ligand binding to the dioxin-receptor and accumulation of the ligand-receptor complex in the nucleus. The administration of the tumor promoting agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) before or in combination with the administration of TCDD inhibits transcriptional activation of the Cyp1A genes. To analyze the mechanism of this inhibition, methods were developed to determine if the DNA binding potential of the nuclear dioxin-receptor was impaired. Using an oligonucleotide covering the Cyp1A1 xenobiotic responsive element (XRE), gel retardation assays demonstrated that within 1 hour, TCDD induces a nuclear DNA binding protein. This bonding is completely inhibited when incubated with excess XRE. Transcriptional increases in the Cyp1A1 and Cyp1A2 gene follow the appearance of the nuclear dioxin-receptor. When TPA is administered together with TCDD, the ligand dependent accumulation of the nuclear dioxin-receptor is abolished. Similar results are observed if TPA is administered prior to treatment with TCDD. These results indicate that TPA inhibits TCDD induced activation of the Cyp1A genes through a receptor mediated mechanism.

  17. Genetic deletion of TNFα inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in PKCε transgenic mice via inhibition of cell survival signals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok; Singh, Anupama; Bauer, Samuel J; Wheeler, Deric L; Havighurst, Thomas C; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a Ca(2+)-independent phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinase, is among the six PKC isoforms (α, δ, ε, η, μ, ζ) expressed in both mouse and human skin. Epidermal PKCε level dictates the susceptibility of PKCε transgenic (TG) mice to the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) elicited either by repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) or by using the DMBA initiation-TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) tumor promotion protocol (Wheeler,D.L. et al. (2004) Protein kinase C epsilon is an endogenous photosensitizer that enhances ultraviolet radiation-induced cutaneous damage and development of squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer Res., 64, 7756-7765). Histologically, SCC in TG mice, like human SCC, is poorly differentiated and metastatic. Our earlier studies to elucidate mechanisms of PKCε-mediated development of SCC, using either DMBA-TPA or UVR, indicated elevated release of cytokine TNFα. To determine whether TNFα is essential for the development of SCC in TG mice, we generated PKCε transgenic mice/TNFα-knockout (TG/TNFαKO) by crossbreeding TNFαKO with TG mice. We now present that deletion of TNFα in TG mice inhibited the development of SCC either by repeated UVR exposures or by the DMBA-TPA protocol. TG mice deficient in TNFα elicited both increase in SCC latency and decrease in SCC incidence. Inhibition of UVR-induced SCC development in TG/TNFαKO was accompanied by inhibition of (i) the expression levels of TNFα receptors TNFRI and TNFRII and cell proliferation marker ornithine decarboxylase and metastatic markers MMP7 and MMP9, (ii) the activation of transcription factors Stat3 and NF-kB and (iii) proliferation of hair follicle stem cells and epidermal hyperplasia. The results presented here provide the first genetic evidence that TNFα is linked to PKCε-mediated sensitivity to DMBA-TPA or UVR-induced development of cutaneous SCC. PMID:26586792

  18. Tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of the human fgr proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Ley, T J; Connolly, N L; Katamine, S; Cheah, M S; Senior, R M; Robbins, K C

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we show that c-fgr proto-oncogene expression is limited to normal peripheral blood granulocytes, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages, all of which contain 50 to 100 copies of c-fgr mRNA per cell. The c-fgr RNA molecules in these cells consisted of partially spliced transcripts containing intron 7 and completely spliced molecules capable of encoding the predicted p55 c-fgr protein. The splicing of intron 7 appeared to occur after the splicing of most of the other introns; partially spliced molecules containing intron 7 did not appear to be transported into the cytoplasm. Very low levels of fgr transcripts were also present in U937 promonocytic cells and increased in abundance with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation. The level of fgr transcripts began to increase 2 to 4 h after TPA addition, peaked at 8 h, and subsequently declined. Since we found that the half-life of fgr mRNA was longer than 8 h, these changes are best explained by transient transcriptional activation of fgr during TPA-induced differentiation, although nuclear runoff experiments were not sensitive enough to detect this event. Cycloheximide also caused accumulation of c-fgr transcripts in U937 cells; no superinduction was observed when TPA and cycloheximide were added at the same time. Induction by either agent was blocked with actinomycin D. These results demonstrate that the c-fgr gene is expressed in a tissue- and development-specific fashion and suggest that constitutive expression of c-fgr in U937 cells is regulated by a labile transcriptional repressor. Images PMID:2538725

  19. Candidate Success and edTPA: Looking at the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Lesley A.; Kelly, Mary K.; Baldwin, Joni L.; Arnold, Jackie M.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study looks at the correlations between Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) data and numerous program data points, including GPA, major GPA, and benchmark assignment scores, gathered in an Early Childhood Education (ECE) program. Previous studies have looked to correlate grade point average (GPA) with pre-service teacher…

  20. Teaching Elementary School Social Studies Methods under edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a self-study that analyzes my experience as a teacher educator navigating a turbulent educational landscape with the advent of edTPA. The data consist of my journal entries, the syllabi, handouts, work submitted by my students, and course evaluations. Data were analyzed by using an inductive process to describe how the edTPA…

  1. Three Ways edTPA Prepared Me for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    edTPA, a capstone assessment designed to assess whether new teachers are ready for the job by evaluating their teaching and their analysis of their teaching, helped prepare the author for the classroom in three ways. First, he became accountable to his students. Second, he learned to analyze his teaching. Third, he discovered how to relate…

  2. Genome sequence and characterization of the Tsukamurella bacteriophage TPA2.

    PubMed

    Petrovski, Steve; Seviour, Robert J; Tillett, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    The formation of stable foam in activated sludge plants is a global problem for which control is difficult. These foams are often stabilized by hydrophobic mycolic acid-synthesizing Actinobacteria, among which are Tsukamurella spp. This paper describes the isolation from activated sludge of the novel double-stranded DNA phage TPA2. This polyvalent Siphoviridae family phage is lytic for most Tsukamurella species. Whole-genome sequencing reveals that the TPA2 genome is circularly permuted (61,440 bp) and that 70% of its sequence is novel. We have identified 78 putative open reading frames, 95 pairs of inverted repeats, and 6 palindromes. The TPA2 genome has a modular gene structure that shares some similarity to those of Mycobacterium phages. A number of the genes display a mosaic architecture, suggesting that the TPA2 genome has evolved at least in part from genetic recombination events. The genome sequence reveals many novel genes that should inform any future discussion on Tsukamurella phage evolution. PMID:21183635

  3. cdk4 Deficiency Inhibits Skin Tumor Development but Does Not Affect Normal Keratinocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; LaCava, Margaret; Moons, David S.; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Conti, Claudio J.

    2002-01-01

    Most human tumors have mutations that result in deregulation of the cdk4/cyclin-Ink4-Rb pathway. Overexpression of D-type cyclins or cdk4 and inactivation of Ink4 inhibitors are common in human tumors. Conversely, lack of cyclin D1 expression results in significant reduction in mouse skin and mammary tumor development. However, complete elimination of tumor development was not observed in these models, suggesting that other cyclin/cdk complexes play an important role in tumorigenesis. Here we described the effects of cdk4 deficiency on mouse skin proliferation and tumor development. Cdk4 deficiency resulted in a 98% reduction in the number of tumors generated through the two-stage carcinogenesis model. The absence of cdk4 did not affect normal keratinocyte proliferation and both wild-type and cdk4 knockout epidermis are equally affected after topical treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), resulting in epidermal hyperplasia. In similar fashion, cdk4 knockout keratinocytes proliferated well in an in vivo model of wound-induced proliferation. Biochemical studies in mouse epidermis showed that cdk6 activity increased twofold in cdk4-deficient mice compared to wild-type siblings. These results suggest that therapeutic approaches to inhibit cdk4 activity could provide a target to inhibit tumor development with minimal or no effect in normal tissue. PMID:12163365

  4. Potential analgesic effects of a novel N-acylethanolamine acid amidase inhibitor F96 through PPAR-α.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longhe; Li, Long; Chen, Ling; Li, Yanting; Chen, Huixia; Li, Yuhang; Ji, Guangnian; Lin, Donghai; Liu, Zuguo; Qiu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) activity is an available approach for inflammation and pain control through restoring the ability of endogenous PEA. But the recently reported NAAA inhibitors suffer from the chemical and biological unstable properties, which restrict functions of NAAA inhibition in vivo. It is still unrevealed whether systematic inhibition of NAAA could modulate PEA-mediated pain signalings. Here we reported an oxazolidinone imide compound 3-(6-phenylhexanoyl) oxazolidin-2-one (F96), which potently and selectively inhibited NAAA activity (IC50 = 270 nM). Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of F96 (3-30 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced ear edema and restored PEA levels of ear tissues in 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced ear edema models. Furthermore, F96 inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing and increased spared nerve injury induced tactile allodynia thresholds in a dose-dependent manner. Pharmacological effects of F96 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on various animal models were abolished in PPAR-α(-/-) mice, and were prevented by PPAR-α antagonist MK886 but not by canabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist Rimonabant nor canabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) antagonist SR144528. Zebrafish embryos experiments showed better security and lower toxicity for F96 than ibuprofen. These results revealed that F96 might be useful in treating inflammatory and neuropathic pain by NAAA inhibition depending on PPAR-α receptors. PMID:26310614

  5. 1,2-diacylglycerols, but not phorbol esters, activate a potential inhibitory pathway for protein kinase C in GH/sub 3/ pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnick, R.N.; Clegg, S.

    1988-05-15

    It has been suggested that sphingoid bases may serve as physiologic inhibitors of protein kinase C. Because 1,2-diacylglycerols, but not phorbol esters, enhance sphingomyelin degradation via a sphingomyelinase in GH/sub 3/ pituitary cells, the effects of phorbol esters, 1,2-diacylglycerols, and sphingomyelinase on protein kinase C activation were assessed. Under basal conditions, the inactive cytosolic form of protein kinase C predominated. 1,2-Diacylglycerols stimulated transient protein kinase C redistribution to the membrane. 1.2-Dioctanoylglycerol (200 ..mu..g/ml) reduced cytosolic protein kinase C activity to 67% of control. In contrast, the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), stimulated redistribution to the membrane without return to the cytosol. Exogenous sphingomyelinase reduced membrane-bound protein kinase C activity to 30% of control, yet did not alter cytosolic activity. Sphingomyelinase, added after phorbol ester-induced redistribution was completed, restored activity to the cytosol. These studies suggest that a pathway involving a sphingomyelinase might comprise a physiologic negative effector system for protein kinase C. Further, the failure of phorbol esters to activate this system might account for some differences between these agents.

  6. Receptor interconversion model of hormone action. 3. Estrogen receptor mediated repression of reporter gene activity in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Nag, A; Park, I; Krust, A; Smith, R G

    1990-03-20

    The chicken estrogen receptor exists in three interconvertible forms, two of which bind estradiol with high affinity and one which lacks the capacity to bind estradiol. Interconversion is regulated by reactions involving ATP/Mg2+. By cotransfecting into A431 cells estrogen receptor cDNA in an expression vector together with the pA2 (-821/-87) tk-CAT vitellogenin construct, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity can be regulated either by selection of ligand or by modifying phosphorylation reactions in the recipient cells. In the presence of estrogen receptors, constitutive expression of CAT activity is inhibited in three situations: (i) in the absence of an estrogenic ligand; (ii) in the presence of an anti-estrogen; and (iii) in the presence of an estrogenic ligand together with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Estrogen receptor mediated repression of constitutive CAT activity is not observed with the pA2 (-331/-87) tk-CAT construct, indicating that DNA sequences required for repression are located between -821 and -331 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site. PMID:2346742

  7. Production of the anti-inflammatory compound 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol by Callus cultures of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae).

    PubMed

    Salinas, Roberta; Arellano-García, Jesús; Perea-Arango, Irene; Alvarez, Laura; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Marquina, Silvia; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo-España, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Lopezia racemosa Cav. is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to heal inflammatory diseases. From this plant we isolated the novel compound 6-O-palmitoyl- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol (1) and 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol (2), previously reported to have cytotoxic activity on several cancer cell lines. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of 1 in vivo by mouse ear edema induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 57.14% inhibition was observed. The aim of our study was to obtain callus cultures derived from this plant species with the ability to produce the compounds of interest. Callus cultures were initiated on MS basal medium amended with variable amounts of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), combined or not with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Ten treatments with these growth regulators were carried out, using in vitro germinated seedlings as source of three different explants: hypocotyl, stem node, and leaf. Highest yield of 1 was observed on callus derived from leaf explants growing in medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP. Selected callus lines produced less 1 than wild plants but the in vitro cultured seedlings showed higher production. So we conclude that it could be attractive to further investigate their metabolic potential. PMID:24962399

  8. Evaluation of novel Akt1 inhibitors as anticancer agents using virtual co-crystallized pharmacophore generation.

    PubMed

    Al-Sha'er, Mahmoud A; Mansi, Iman; Almazari, Inas; Hakooz, Nancy

    2015-11-01

    The pharmacophoric features of the virtual co-crystallized protein of 17 Akt1 proteins were downloaded from the protein data bank, and explored to end up with 132 generated pharmacophores that had been evaluated using the decoy list composed of 1724 compounds. The areas under the curve of the Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC-AUC) were sorted, and the highest ranked pharmacophore 3MV5_2_01 was selected to be used as a searching tool in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database. The captured hits were mapped based on successful hypotheses and the best fitted compounds were selected. The inhibition of Akt1 was measured and expressed as a percentage of inhibition. 24 out of the 40 compounds showed inhibition of Akt1, out of which 13 compounds showed more than 50% inhibition. Compound 1 showed 93.3% inhibition at 100 μM concentration. To confirm the inhibition of Akt1 phosphorylation, MCF10A cell line was co-treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 100 μM of each of the most potent 13 Akt inhibitors (1-13). It was found that compounds 1 exert 91.6% inhibition of Akt1 phosphorylation in MCF10A cell line. PMID:26485540

  9. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Novel Polysaccharide Sacran Extracted from Cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum in Various Inflammatory Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Tanida, Yuki; Hata, Kyona; Hayashi, Tomoya; Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim Abu; Higashi, Taishi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Kondo, Yuki; Irie, Tetsumi; Kaneko, Shinichiro; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the megamolecular polysaccharide sacran extracted from cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum using various inflammatory animal models. Sacran showed potent anti-inflammatory effects with optimum effective concentrations at 0.01 and 0.05% (w/v). Sacran markedly inhibited paw swelling and neutrophil infiltration in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Additionally, 6,7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-2(1H)-quinoxalinone-3-propionyl-carboxylic acid (DMEQ)-labeled sacran had the ability to penetrate carrageenan-induced rat paw skin rather than normal skin. Also, sacran significantly suppressed kaolin-induced and dextran-induced rat paw edema throughout the duration of the study. Furthermore, sacran significantly suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema and mRNA expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Safety of sacran solution was verified by negligible cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that sacran may be useful as a therapeutic agent against inflammatory skin diseases with no life-threatening adverse effects. PMID:27170516

  10. In Silico Inhibition Studies of Jun-Fos-DNA Complex Formation by Curcumin Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Bora, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP1) is a transcription factor that consists of the Jun and Fos family proteins. It regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli and controls cellular processes including proliferation, transformation, inflammation, and innate immune responses. AP1 binds specifically to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) responsive element 5′-TGAG/CTCA-3′ (AP1 site). It has been found constitutively active in breast, ovarian, cervical, and lung cancers. Numerous studies have shown that inhibition of AP1 could be a promising strategy for cancer therapeutic applications. The present in silico study provides insights into the inhibition of Jun-Fos-DNA complex formation by curcumin derivatives. These derivatives interact with the amino acid residues like Arg155 and Arg158 which play a key role in binding of Jun-Fos complex to DNA (AP1 site). Ala151, Ala275, Leu283, and Ile286 were the residues present at binding site which could contribute to hydrophobic contacts with inhibitor molecules. Curcumin sulphate was predicted to be the most potent inhibitor amongst all the natural curcumin derivatives docked. PMID:25374685

  11. The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2012-12-01

    Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1α, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, TNF α, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

  12. Chemopreventive Agents Attenuate Rapid Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Induced by Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-07-01

    Altered gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with chemical carcinogenesis, where both chemical tumor promoters and chemopreventive agents (CPAs) are known to conversely modulate GJIC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether attenuation of chemically inhibited GJIC represents a common outcome induced by different CPAs, which could be effectively evaluated using in vitro methods. Rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 were pretreated with a CPA for either 30 min or 24 h, and then exposed to GJIC-inhibiting concentration of a selected tumor promoter or environmental toxicant [12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lindane, fluoranthene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), or pentachlorophenol]. Out of nine CPAs tested, quercetin and silibinin elicited the most pronounced effects, preventing the dysregulation of GJIC by all the GJIC inhibitors, but DDT. Metformin and curcumin attenuated the effects of three GJIC inhibitors, whereas the other CPAs prevented the effects of two (diallyl sulfide, emodin) or one (indole-3-carbinol, thymoquinone) GJIC inhibitor. Significant attenuation of chemically induced inhibition of GJIC was observed in 27 (50%) out of 54 possible combinations of nine CPAs and six GJIC inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that in vitro evaluation of GJIC can be used as an effective screening tool for identification of chemicals with potential chemopreventive activity. PMID:27266532

  13. Effects of quinone derivatives, such as 1,4-naphthoquinone, on DNA polymerase inhibition and anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Nishida, Masayuki; Hirai, Midori; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that vitamin K(3), which consists of a quinone component, inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of 4 quinone derivatives (1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and 5,12-naphthacenequinone (NCQ)) on the activity of mammalian pols. BQ and NQ potently inhibited the activity of all the pol species: pols α, β, γ, δ, ε and λ, and NQ was a stronger pol inhibitor than BQ. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol l inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these quinone derivatives could inhibit inflammatory responses. BQ and NQ caused a marked reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear, although AQ and NCQ did not. In a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, NQ displayed the strongest suppression in the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) among the quinone derivatives tested. Moreover, NQ was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF)-κ. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of BQ and NQ to mice led to suppression of TNF-α production in serum. These anti-inflammatory responses of NQ were more potent than those of BQ. In conclusion, this study has identified several quinone derivatives, such as NQ, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:21235518

  14. Purified canola lutein selectively inhibits specific isoforms of mammalian DNA polymerases and reduces inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Horie, Sho; Okuda, Chiaki; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kuramochi, Kouji; Hosokawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Kakuda, Makiko; Miyashita, Kazuo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2010-08-01

    In the screening of DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitor, we isolated lutein, a carotenoid, from the crude (unrefined) pressed oil of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed, Brassica napus L.). Commercially prepared carotenoids such as lutein (1), zeaxanthin (2), beta-cryptoxanthin (3), astaxanthin (4), canthaxanthin (5), beta-carotene (6), lycopene (7), capsanthin (8), fucoxanthin (9) and fucoxanthinol (10), were investigated for the inhibitory activities of pols. Compounds 1, 2 and 8 exhibited strong inhibition of the activities of mammalian pols beta and lambda, which are DNA repair- and/or recombination-related pols. On the other hand, all carotenoids tested had no influence on the activity of a mammalian pol alpha, which is a DNA replicative pol. Lutein (1) was the strongest pol inhibitor of mammalian pols beta and lambda in the prepared ten carotenoids tested, but did not influence of the activities of mammalian pols alpha, gamma, delta and epsilon. The tendency for pols beta and lambda inhibition by these carotenoids showed a positive correlation with the suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation. These results suggest that cold pressed unrefined canola/rapeseed oil, or other oils with high levels of lutein and other carotenoids, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20669052

  15. Eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol ("antiquol C") and other triterpenes from Euphorbia antiquorum latex and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E M; Tokuda, Harukuni; Enjo, Fumio; Toriumi, Masakazu; Kimura, Yumiko; Koike, Kazuo; Nikaido, Tamotsu; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2002-02-01

    The structures of three triterpene alcohols isolated from the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum were established to be eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol (2; antiquol C), 19(10-->9)abeo-8alpha,9beta,10alpha-eupha-5,24-dien-3beta-ol (3; antiquol B), and 24-methyltirucalla-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol (4; euphorbol) on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3 and 4 have previously been assigned the erroneous structures of 10alpha-cucurbita-5,24-dien-3alpha-ol and 24-methyleupha-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol, respectively. Compounds 2-4 and four other known compounds isolated from the latex, euphol (1), lemmaphylla-7,21-dien-3beta-ol (5), isohelianol (6), and camelliol C (7), showed potent inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). PMID:11858748

  16. Head-specific gene expression in Hydra: Complexity of DNA– protein interactions at the promoter of ks1 is inversely correlated to the head activation potential

    PubMed Central

    Endl, Ingrid; Lohmann, Jan U.; Bosch, Thomas C. G.

    1999-01-01

    To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that direct position-dependent gene expression in the simple and evolutionarily old metazoan Hydra, we have examined DNA–protein interactions in the 1.5-kb cis regulatory region of the head-specific gene ks1. In vitro footprinting and gel-retardation techniques have been used to map the location of all protein-binding sites. To our surprise, we found substantially more proteins binding to ks1 promoter elements in nuclear extract from basal (gastric) than from apical (head- and tentacle-formation zone) cells. One of these proteins is the homeobox protein Cnox-2. In the head regeneration-deficient mutant reg-16, an increased level of nuclear protein binds to ks1 promoter elements. Treatment of polyps with the ks1-inducing phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) resulted in reduced binding of nuclear proteins to the ks1 cis regulatory region. As activation of ks1 transcription is correlated with the absence of nuclear proteins binding to the ks1 promoter, we propose that the majority of these proteins act as transcriptional repressors. In this view, the gradient of head activation along the Hydra body axis is caused by a decreasing amount of inhibitory factors, rather than an increasing amount of activators, toward the head. Thus, inhibitory mechanisms might have played a crucial role in regulating position-dependent gene activation during early metazoan evolution. PMID:9990043

  17. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in stimuli-induced shedding of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a critical growth factor for a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing, atherosclerosis and cancer proliferation. HB-EGF is synthesized as a membrane form (proHB-EGF), and is shedded at the cell surface to yield soluble HB-EGF, resulting in making it active. In this study, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF was investigated using monkey kidney Vero cells overexpressing HB-EGF (Vero-H cells). 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a ligand for seventransmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and sorbitol as stress induced shedding of HB-EGF mediated protein kinase C (PKC)-δ, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38MAPK, respectively. These stimuli-induced sheddings of HB-EGF were inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS. As specific inhibitors of these protein kinases inhibited the shedding of HB-EGF, these signaling pathways seem to be independent, respectively. In contrast, γ-ray irradiation did not induce shedding although it did increase intracellular ROS levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the synergistic generation of ROS and the activation of protein kinase are required to promote stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF. PMID:24930874

  18. Development of novel ionic liquid-based microemulsion formulation for dermal delivery of 5-Fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Goindi, Shishu; Arora, Prabhleen; Kumar, Neeraj; Puri, Ashana

    2014-08-01

    The present study was aimed at synthesizing an imidazole-based ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMIMBr) and subsequent development of a novel ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/o) microemulsion (ME) system for dermal delivery of a poorly permeating drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). A significant enhancement in the solubility of 5-FU was observed in BMIMBr. IL/o MEs of 5-FU were prepared using isopropyl myristate, Tween 80/Span 20, and BMIMBr. Results of ex vivo skin permeation studies through mice skin indicated that the selected IL/o ME exhibited 4-fold enhancement in percent drug permeation as compared to aqueous solution, 2.3-fold as compared to hydrophilic ointment, and 1.6-fold greater permeation than water in oil (w/o) ME. The results of in vivo studies against dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mice skin carcinogenesis demonstrated that the IL/o ME could effectively treat skin cancer in 4 weeks. In addition, the side effects such as erythema and irritation associated with the conventional formulations were not observed. Histopathological studies showed that the use of IL/o ME caused no anatomic and pathological changes in the skin structure of mice. These studies suggest that the use of IL-based ME system can efficiently enhance the solubility and permeability of 5-FU and hence its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24668136

  19. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, Agnieszka; Łuczak, Michał; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease--ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients' neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity. PMID:27117102

  20. In vivo activity of benzoyl ester clerodane diterpenoid derivatives from Dodonaea polyandra.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Bradley S; Claudie, David J; Gerber, Jacobus P; Pyke, Simon M; Wang, Jiping; McKinnon, Ross A; Semple, Susan J

    2011-04-25

    Four new benzoyl ester clerodane diterpenoids, 15,16-epoxy-8α-(benzoyloxy)methylcleroda-3,13(16),14-trien-18-oic acid (1), 15,16-epoxy-8α-(benzoyloxy)methyl-2α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(16),14-trien-18-oic acid (2), 15,16-epoxy-8α-(benzoyloxy)methyl-2-oxocleroda-3,13(16),14-trien-18-oic acid (3), and 15,16-epoxy-2α-benzoyloxycleroda-3,13(16),14-trien-18-oic acid (4), have been isolated from the leaves and stems of Dodonaea polyandra. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1, 2, and 4 were evaluated by means of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited maximum inhibition of inflammation (70-76%) at doses of 0.22 and 0.9 μmol/ear, respectively. Modest activity (~45% inhibition) was maintained at nanomole/ear doses. PMID:21381684

  1. Contrasting effects of midazolam on induction of heat shock protein 27 by vasopressin and heat in aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, K; Kozawa, O; Niwa, M; Yamomoto, T; Matsuno, H; Ito, H; Kato, K; Dohi, S; Uematsu, T

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that vasopressin stimulates the induction of heat shock protein (HSP) 27, a low molecular-weight HSP, through protein kinase C activation in aortic smooth muscle A10 cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of midazolam, an intravenous anesthetic, on the HSP27 induction stimulated by vasopressin, heat, or sodium arsenite (arsenite) in A10 cells. Midazolam inhibited the accumulation of HSP27 induced by vasopressin or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a direct activator of protein kinase C. Midazolam also reduced the vasopressin-induced level of the mRNA for HSP27. In contrast, midazolam enhanced the HSP27-accumulation induced by heat or arsenite. Midazolam also enhanced the heat-increased level of the mRNA for HSP27. However, midazolam had no effect on the dissociation of the aggregated form of HSP27 following stimulation by vasopressin, heat, or arsenite. These results suggest that midazolam suppresses vasopressin-stimulated HSP27 induction in vascular smooth muscle cells, and that this inhibitory effect is exerted at a point downstream from protein kinase C. In contrast, midazolam enhanced heat- or arsenite-stimulated HSP27 induction. Thus, midazolam has dual effects on the HSP27 induction stimulated by various stresses in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:11746514

  2. The perinuclear factor, a rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantigen, is not present in keratohyalin granules of cultured buccal mucosa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoet, R M; Voorsmit, R A; Van Venrooij, W J

    1991-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients have antibodies in their serum directed against the perinuclear factor, a protein component present in keratohyalin granules in the cytoplasm of human buccal mucosa cells. The anti-perinuclear factor (APF) can only be detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test performed on fresh buccal mucosa cells from 'selected donors'. To obtain a more reliable antigen source and to gain more insight into the origin and nature of the perinuclear factor we attempted to culture perinuclear factor-containing buccal mucosa cells. Here we describe the successful culturing of such cells, which, however, did not contain keratohyalin granules nor the perinuclear factor. By adding the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) we were able to induce keratohyalin granules in both cultured primary buccal mucosa cells and a squamous carcinoma cell line of the cheek (SqCC/Y1). These induced keratohyalin granules do contain the protein profilaggrin, which in vivo, in fresh buccal mucosa cells, co-localizes with the perinuclear factor. However, we were not able to demonstrate the presence of the perinuclear factor, not even after induction of terminal differentiation of the cultured cells nor after Epstein-Barr virus infection. Our results suggest that the perinuclear factor, in contrast to profilaggrin, is not an integral component of buccal mucosa cells. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1849807

  3. Sex differences and pathology status correlated to the toxicity of some common carcinogens in experimental skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dehelean, Cristina A; Soica, Codruta; Pinzaru, Iulia; Coricovac, Dorina; Danciu, Corina; Pavel, Ioana; Borcan, Florin; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Baderca, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    The increased susceptibility of men as compared to women to develop different types of cancer, including skin cancer, is well known; however, the mechanisms involved in this process are still a matter of debate. This study aimed to obtain animal models of photo-chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis by exposure to ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) coupled with topical applications of a tumor initiator (7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, DMBA) and a tumor promoter (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in order to characterize the gender disparities regarding the skin lesions developed by the female and male SKH-1 hairless mice included in this study. Histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of malignant lesions in both cases, in female and male mice, following chronic exposure (24 weeks) to the noxious effects of the carcinogens applied, whereas the tumors in male mice had a more severe histological grade. In addition, tumor incidence, size and multiplicity were higher in male mice than in female mice. PMID:27417450

  4. Structural analysis of isosteviol and related compounds as DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Ukiya, Motohiko; Hamasaki, Yusuke; Murakami-Nakai, Chikako; Kuriyama, Isoko; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2005-09-01

    Isosteviol (ent-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid) is a hydrolysis product of stevioside, which is a natural sweetener produced in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni. In this report, we prepared isosteviol and related compounds from stevioside by microbial transformation and chemical conversion and assayed the inhibitory activities toward DNA metabolic enzymes and human cancer cell growth. Among twelve compounds obtained, only isosteviol (compound 3) potently inhibited both mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) and human DNA topoisomerase II (topo II), and IC50 value for pol alpha was 64.0 microM. This compound had no inhibitory effect on higher plant (cauliflower) pols, prokaryotic pols, human topo I, and DNA metabolic enzymes such as human telomerase, T7 RNA polymerase, and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. With pol alpha, isosteviol acted non-competitively with the DNA template-primer and nucleotide substrate. Isosteviol prevented the growth of human cancer cells, with LD50 values of 84-167 microM, and 500 microg of the compound caused a marked reduction in TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation (inhibitory effect, 53.0%). The relationship between the structure of stevioside-based compounds and these activities were discussed. PMID:15935396

  5. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF6 gene is essential in viral lytic replication.

    PubMed

    Peng, Can; Chen, Jungang; Tang, Wei; Liu, Chunlan; Chen, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposis's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes at least 8 open reading frames (ORFs) that play important roles in its lytic DNA replication. Among which, ORF6 of KSHV encodes an ssDNA binding protein that has been proved to participate in origin-dependent DNA replication in transient assays. To define further the function of ORF6 in the virus life cycle, we constructed a recombinant virus genome with a large deletion within the ORF6 locus by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 (wild type) and BACΔ6 genomes were generated. When monolayers of 293T-BAC36 and 293T-BACΔ6 cells were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate, infectious virus was detected from the 293T-BAC36 cell supernatants only and not from the 293T- BACΔ6 cell supernatants. DNA synthesis was defective in 293T-BACΔ6 cells. Expression of ORF6 in trans in BACΔ6-containing cells was able to rescue both defects. Our results provide genetic evidence that ORF6 is essential for KSHV lytic replication. The stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 and BACΔ6 genomes could be used as tools to investigate the detailed functions of ORF6 in the lytic replication of KSHV. PMID:24911362

  6. Direct dopamine D2-receptor-mediated modulation of arachidonic acid release in transfected CHO cells without the concomitant administration of a Ca2+-mobilizing agent

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Christer L; Hellstrand, Monika; Ekman, Agneta; Eriksson, Elias

    1998-01-01

    In CHO cells transfected with the rat dopamine D2 receptor (long isoform), administration of dopamine per se elicited a concentration-dependent increase in arachidonic acid (AA) release. The maximal effect was 197% of controls (EC50=25 nM). The partial D2 receptor agonist, (−)-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine [(−)-3-PPP], also induced AA release, but with somewhat lower efficacy (maximal effect: 165%; EC50=91 nM). The AA-releasing effect of dopamine was counteracted by pertussis toxin, by the inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ release, 8-(N N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8), by excluding calcium from the medium, by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, quinacrine, and by long-term pretreatment with the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In addition, it was antagonized by the D2 antagonists, raclopride and (−)-sulpiride–but not by (+)-sulpiride–and absent in sham-transfected CHO cells devoid of D2 receptors. The results obtained contrast to the previous notion that dopamine and other D2 receptor agonists require the concomitant administration of calcium-mobilizing agents such as ATP, ionophore A-23187 (calcimycin), thrombin, and TRH, to influence AA release from various cell lines. PMID:9756380

  7. Supression of inflammatory responses by labdane-type diterpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Giron, Natalia; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Lopez-Fontal, Raquel; Bosca, Lisardo; Hortelano, Sonsoles Heras, Beatriz de las

    2008-04-15

    A series of 11 labdane-type diterpenoids (1-11) with various patterns of substitution were tested for potential anti-inflammatory activity. Of these compounds, 4 and 11 were selected to evaluate their influence on targets relevant to the regulation of the inflammatory response. These diterpenoids reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50 in the range 1-10 {mu}M. Inhibition of these inflammatory mediators was related to inhibition of the expression of nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcriptional level, as determined by western-blot and RT-PCR. Examination of the effects of these diterpenoids on nuclear factor {kappa}B signaling showed that both compounds inhibit the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and I{kappa}B{beta}, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit. Inhibition of IKK activity was also observed. These derivatives displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, suppressing mouse ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and inhibiting myeloperoxidase activity, an index of neutrophil infiltration. The anti-inflammatory effects of these labdane diterpenoids, together with their low cell toxicity, suggest potential therapeutic applications in the regulation of the inflammatory response.

  8. Protease inhibitors interfere with the necessary factors of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Troll, W

    1989-01-01

    Many tumor promoters are inflammatory agents that stimulate the formation of oxygen radicals (.O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in phagocytic neutrophils. The neutrophils use the oxygen radicals to kill bacteria, which are recognized by the cell membrane of phagocytic cells causing a signal to mount the oxygen response. The tumor promoter isolated from croton oil, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), mimics the signal, causing an oxygen radical release that is intended to kill bacteria; instead, it injures cells in the host. Oxygen radicals cause single strand breaks in DNA and modify DNA bases. These damaging reactions appear to be related to tumor promotion, as three types of chemopreventive agents, retinoids, onion oil, and protease inhibitors, suppress the induction of oxygen radicals in phagocytic neutrophils and suppress tumor promotion in skin cancer in mice. Protease inhibitors also suppress breast and colon cancers in mice. Protease inhibitors capable of inhibiting chymotrypsin show a greater suppression of the oxygen effect and are better suppressors of tumor promotion. In addition, oxygen radicals may be one of the many agents that cause activation of oncogenes. Since retinoids and protease inhibitors suppress the expression of the ras oncogene in NIH 3T3 cells, NIH 3T3 cells may serve as a relatively facile model for finding and measuring chemopreventive agents that interfere with the carcinogenic process. PMID:2667986

  9. A role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein in direct alkylation repair.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Gururaj; Kodipelli, Naveena; Monisha, Mohan; Anindya, Roy

    2014-12-26

    Alkylating agents induce cytotoxic DNA base adducts. In this work, we provide evidence to suggest, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein is involved in DNA alkylation repair. Little is known about Tpa1 as a repair protein beyond the initial observation from a high-throughput analysis indicating that deletion of TPA1 causes methyl methane sulfonate sensitivity in S. cerevisiae. Using purified Tpa1, we demonstrate that Tpa1 repairs both single- and double-stranded methylated DNA. Tpa1 is a member of the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family, and we show that mutation of the amino acid residues involved in cofactor binding abolishes the Tpa1 DNA repair activity. Deletion of TPA1 along with the base excision repair pathway DNA glycosylase MAG1 renders the tpa1Δmag1Δ double mutant highly susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. We further demonstrate that the trans-lesion synthesis DNA polymerase Polζ (REV3) plays a key role in tolerating DNA methyl-base lesions and that tpa1Δmag1revΔ3 triple mutant is extremely susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. Our results indicate a synergism between the base excision repair pathway and direct alkylation repair by Tpa1 in S. cerevisiae. We conclude that Tpa1 is a hitherto unidentified DNA repair protein in yeast and that it plays a crucial role in reverting alkylated DNA base lesions and cytotoxicity. PMID:25381260

  10. A Role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 Protein in Direct Alkylation Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Shivange, Gururaj; Kodipelli, Naveena; Monisha, Mohan; Anindya, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Alkylating agents induce cytotoxic DNA base adducts. In this work, we provide evidence to suggest, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein is involved in DNA alkylation repair. Little is known about Tpa1 as a repair protein beyond the initial observation from a high-throughput analysis indicating that deletion of TPA1 causes methyl methane sulfonate sensitivity in S. cerevisiae. Using purified Tpa1, we demonstrate that Tpa1 repairs both single- and double-stranded methylated DNA. Tpa1 is a member of the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family, and we show that mutation of the amino acid residues involved in cofactor binding abolishes the Tpa1 DNA repair activity. Deletion of TPA1 along with the base excision repair pathway DNA glycosylase MAG1 renders the tpa1Δmag1Δ double mutant highly susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. We further demonstrate that the trans-lesion synthesis DNA polymerase Polζ (REV3) plays a key role in tolerating DNA methyl-base lesions and that tpa1Δmag1revΔ3 triple mutant is extremely susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. Our results indicate a synergism between the base excision repair pathway and direct alkylation repair by Tpa1 in S. cerevisiae. We conclude that Tpa1 is a hitherto unidentified DNA repair protein in yeast and that it plays a crucial role in reverting alkylated DNA base lesions and cytotoxicity. PMID:25381260

  11. TPA - A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO BALANCE MAPPED TURBOPUMP ASSEMBLIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate simulation of nuclear thermal propulsion systems using computational methods will permit reductions in testing and, thus, the time and cost of achieving a flight ready status for systems utilizing this advanced technology. An accurate simulation must maintain a "balance-of-plant" where the required pump work equals the supplied turbine work. This turbopump assembly balancing must be integrated into the overall system analysis models. TPA was developed to balance turbine and pump work using performance maps. It requires the inlet properties, performance maps, and shaft speed. TPA then computes the exit conditions and work terms. The work terms can then be balanced by varying the input shaft speed. The objective of the pump analysis is to determine the propellant state properties at the pump exit and the pump work. The pump analysis algorithm for liquid flow assumes that the shaft speed, the propellant state properties at the pump entrance, the propellant flow rate, the pump entrance and exit areas, as well as performance curves, are all known. The analysis of both the pump pressure rise and pump efficiency curves is required. The objective of the turbine analysis is to determine the propellant state properties at the turbine exit and the turbine work. The turbine analysis algorithm assumes that the shaft speed, the propellant state properties at the turbine entrance, the propellant flow rate, the turbine root mean square blade diameter, the turbine entrance and exit areas, as well as performance curves, are all known. The analysis also requires the turbine flow parameter curve and the turbine total efficiency curve. TPA is written in FORTRAN 77 to be machine independent. The TPA package includes the NBS+_PH2 code, which is also available separately (LEW-15505). TPA has been successfully implemented on a DEC VAX series computer running VMS, a Sun4 series computer running SunOS, and an IBM PC compatible computer running MS-DOS. Lahey F77L3 EM/32 v. 5.01 or

  12. Berberine sulfate inhibits tumor-promoting activity of teleocidin in two-stage carcinogenesis on mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Nishino, H; Kitagawa, K; Fujiki, H; Iwashima, A

    1986-01-01

    Berberine sulfate, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Hydrastis canadensis L., inhibited the effects of the tumor promoters 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and teleocidin, such as increased 32Pi-incorporation into phospholipids of cell membrane and hexose transport. Berberine sulfate also markedly suppressed the promoting effect of teleocidin on skin tumor formation in mice initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. PMID:3081844

  13. Shock Hugoniot measurements on Ta to 0. 78 TPa

    SciTech Connect

    Froeschner, K.E.; Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Weingart, R.C.

    1983-08-18

    Symmetric impact shock Hugoniot measurements have been made on Ta with an electrically exploded foil gun system. The results obtained to date for the Hugoniot of Ta cover the range 0.19 to 0.78 TPa (impact velocities from 4.0 to 9.7 km/s) and agree with data obtained by other researchers to within 2.7% rms. Recent improvements in the system include electromagnetic shielding of impactor and target, continuous measurement of impactor velocity with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and computer-aided analysis of shot film. Conservative extrapolation from current operating conditions indicate that pressures of 1.1 to 1.5 TPa could be achieved with little difficulty.

  14. A Metabolic Shift toward Pentose Phosphate Pathway Is Necessary for Amyloid Fibril- and Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-induced Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) Formation.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Estefania P; Rochael, Natalia C; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B; de Souza-Vieira, Thiago S; Ganilho, Juliana; Saraiva, Elvira M; Palhano, Fernando L; Foguel, Debora

    2015-09-01

    Neutrophils are the main defense cells of the innate immune system. Upon stimulation, neutrophils release their chromosomal DNA to trap and kill microorganisms and inhibit their dissemination. These chromatin traps are termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and are decorated with granular and cytoplasm proteins. NET release can be induced by several microorganism membrane components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate as well as by amyloid fibrils, insoluble proteinaceous molecules associated with more than 40 different pathologies among other stimuli. The intracellular signaling involved in NET formation is complex and remains unclear for most tested stimuli. Herein we demonstrate that a metabolic shift toward the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is necessary for NET release because glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), an important enzyme from PPP, fuels NADPH oxidase with NADPH to produce superoxide and thus induce NETs. In addition, we observed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which are NADPH-independent, are not effective in producing NETs. These data shed new light on how the PPP and glucose metabolism contributes to NET formation. PMID:26198639

  15. Phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate promotes anchorage-independent growth and survival of melanomas through MEK-independent activation of ERK1/2

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Kjersti; Skrede, Martina; Cruciani, Veronique; Mikalsen, Svein-Ole; Slipicevic, Ana; Florenes, Vivi Ann . E-mail: v.a.florenes@labmed.uio.no

    2005-04-01

    The phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKCs, is known to stimulate the in vitro growth of monolayer cultures of normal human melanocytes whereas it inhibits the growth of most malignant melanoma cell lines. We examined the effect of PMA on proliferation and survival of melanoma cells grown as multicellular aggregates in suspension (spheroids), and aimed to elucidate downstream targets of PKC signaling. In contrast to monolayer cultures, PMA increased cell proliferation as well as protected melanoma cells from suspension-mediated apoptosis (anoikis). Supporting the importance of PKC in anchorage-independent growth, treatment of anoikis-resistant melanoma cell lines with antisense oligonucleotides against PKC-{alpha}, or the PKC inhibitor Goe6976, strongly induced anoikis. PMA induced activation of ERK1/2, but this effect was not prevented by the MEK inhibitors PD98059 or by U0126. Whereas PD98059 treatment alone led to marked activation of the pro-apoptotic Bim and Bad proteins and significantly increased anoikis, these effects were clearly reversed by PMA. In conclusion, our results indicate that the protective effect of PMA on anchorage-independent survival of melanoma cells at least partly is mediated by MEK-independent activation of ERK1/2 and inactivation of downstream pro-apoptotic effector proteins.

  16. A Metabolic Shift toward Pentose Phosphate Pathway Is Necessary for Amyloid Fibril- and Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-induced Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Estefania P.; Rochael, Natalia C.; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B.; de Souza-Vieira, Thiago S.; Ganilho, Juliana; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Palhano, Fernando L.; Foguel, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are the main defense cells of the innate immune system. Upon stimulation, neutrophils release their chromosomal DNA to trap and kill microorganisms and inhibit their dissemination. These chromatin traps are termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and are decorated with granular and cytoplasm proteins. NET release can be induced by several microorganism membrane components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate as well as by amyloid fibrils, insoluble proteinaceous molecules associated with more than 40 different pathologies among other stimuli. The intracellular signaling involved in NET formation is complex and remains unclear for most tested stimuli. Herein we demonstrate that a metabolic shift toward the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is necessary for NET release because glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), an important enzyme from PPP, fuels NADPH oxidase with NADPH to produce superoxide and thus induce NETs. In addition, we observed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which are NADPH-independent, are not effective in producing NETs. These data shed new light on how the PPP and glucose metabolism contributes to NET formation. PMID:26198639

  17. Stimulation of phospholipid hydrolysis and arachidonic acid mobilization in human uterine decidua cells by phorbol ester.

    PubMed Central

    Schrey, M P; Read, A M; Steer, P J

    1987-01-01

    Vasopressin and oxytocin both stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation in isolated uterine decidua cells. Pretreatment of cells with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) prevented this agonist-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. TPA (0.1 microM) alone had no effect on basal inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated phosphoinositide deacylation, as indicated by a 2-fold increase in lysophosphatidylinositol and glycerophosphoinositol. TPA also stimulated a dose-related release of arachidonic acid from decidua-cell phospholipid [phosphatidylcholine (PC) much greater than phosphatidylinositol (PI) greater than phosphatidylethanolamine]. The phorbol ester 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) at 0.1 microM had no effect on arachidonic acid mobilization. The TPA-stimulated increase in arachidonic acid release was apparent by 2 1/2 min (116% of control), maximal after 20 min (283% of control), and remained around this value (306% of control) after 120 min incubation. TPA also stimulated significant increases in 1,2-diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol production at 20 and 120 min. Although the temporal increases in arachidonic acid and monoacylglycerol accumulation in the presence of TPA continued up to 120 min, that of 1,2-diacylglycerol declined after 20 min. In decidua cells prelabelled with [3H]choline, TPA also stimulated a significant decrease in radiolabelled PC after 20 min, which was accompanied by an increased release of water-soluble metabolites into the medium. Most of the radioactivity in the extracellular pool was associated with choline, whereas the main cellular water-soluble metabolite was phosphorylcholine. TPA stimulated extracellular choline accumulation to 183% and 351% of basal release after 5 and 20 min respectively and cellular phosphorylcholine production to 136% of basal values after 20 min. These results are consistent with a model in which protein kinase C activation by TPA leads to arachidonic acid mobilization

  18. Transcriptional activation of the human cytotoxic serine protease gene CSP-B in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R D; Ley, T J

    1990-01-01

    The cytotoxic serine protease B (CSP-B) gene is activated during cytotoxic T-lymphocyte maturation. In this report, we demonstrate that the PEER T-cell line (bearing gamma/delta T-cell receptors) accumulates CSP-B mRNA following exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (bt2cAMP) because of transcriptional activation of the CSP-B gene. TPA and bt2cAMP act synergistically to induce CSP-B expression, since neither agent alone causes activation of CSP-B transcription or mRNA accumulation. Chromatin upstream from the CSP-B gene is resistant to DNase I digestion in untreated PEER cells, but becomes sensitive following TPA-bt2cAMP treatment. Upon activation of PEER cells, a DNase I-hypersensitive site forms upstream from the CSP-B gene within a region that is highly conserved in the mouse. Transient transfection of CSP-B promoter constructs identified two regulatory regions in the CSP-B 5'-flanking sequence, located at positions -609 to -202 and positions -202 to -80. The region from -615 to -63 is sufficient to activate a heterologous promoter in activated PEER cells, but activation is orientation specific, suggesting that this region behaves as an upstream promoter element rather than a classical enhancer. Consensus AP-1, AP-2, and cAMP response elements are found upstream from the CSP-B gene (as are several T-cell-specific consensus elements), but the roles of these elements in CSP-B gene activation have yet to be determined. Images PMID:2233710

  19. Identification of a 42-kilodalton phosphotyrosyl protein as a serine(threonine) protein kinase by renaturation.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, J E; Martin, G S

    1990-01-01

    We have surveyed fibroblast lysates for protein kinases that might be involved in mitogenesis. The assay we have used exploits the ability of blotted, sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured proteins to regain enzymatic activity after guanidine treatment. About 20 electrophoretically distinct protein kinases could be detected by this method in lysates from NIH 3T3 cells. One of the kinases, a 42-kilodalton serine(threonine) kinase (PK42), was found to possess two- to fourfold-higher in vitro activity when isolated from serum-stimulated cells than when isolated from serum-starved cells. This kinase comigrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-gels with a protein (p42) whose phosphotyrosine content increased in response to serum stimulation. The time courses of p42 tyrosine phosphorylation and PK42 activation were similar, reaching maximal levels within 10 min and returning to basal levels within 5 h. Both p42 tyrosine phosphorylation and PK42 activation were stimulated by low concentrations of phorbol esters, and the responses of p42 and PK42 to TPA were abolished by chronic 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment. Chronic TPA treatment had less effect on serum-induced p42 tyrosine phosphorylation and PK42 activation. PK42 and p42 bound to DEAE-cellulose, and both eluted at a salt concentration of 250 mM. Thus, PK42 and p42 comigrate and cochromatograph, and the kinase activity of PK42 correlates with the tyrosine phosphorylation of p42. These findings suggest that PK42 and p42 are related or identical, that PK42 is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation, and that this tyrosine phosphorylation can be regulated by protein kinase C. Images PMID:1692963

  20. Pro/antioxidant status in murine skin following topical exposure to cumene hydroperoxide throughout the ontogeny of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, A A; Kisin, E R; Murray, A; Kommineni, C; Vallyathan, V; Castranova, V

    2004-01-01

    Organic peroxides used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries have a reputation for being potent skin tumor promoters and inducers of epidermal hyperplasia. Their ability to trigger free radical generation is critical for their carcinogenic properties. Short-term in vivo exposure of mouse skin to cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) causes severe oxidative stress and formation of spin-trapped radical adducts. The present study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Cum-OOH compared to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the induction of tumor promotion in the mouse skin, to identify the involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in oxidative metabolism of Cum-OOH in keratinocytes, and to evaluate morphological changes and outcomes of oxidative stress in skin of SENCAR mice throughout a two-stage carcinogenesis protocol. Dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated mice were treated with Cum-OOH (32.8 micro mol) or TPA (8.5 nmol) twice weekly for 20 weeks to promote papilloma formation. Skin carcinoma formed only in DMBA/Cum-OOH-exposed mice. Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation (as indicated by the accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion, and edema formation) were evident in the DMBA/Cum-OOH group compared to DMBA/TPA treated mice. Exposure of keratinocytes (HaCaT) to Cum-OOH for 18 h resulted in expression of COX-2 and increased levels of PGE(2). Inhibitors of COX-2 efficiently suppressed oxidative stress and enzyme expression in the cells treated with Cum-OOH. These results suggest that COX-2-dependent oxidative metabolism is at least partially involved in Cum-OOH-induced inflammatory responses and thus tumor promotion. PMID:14972014

  1. Regulation of p53, nuclear factor {kappa}B and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by bromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Neetu; Bhui, Kulpreet; Roy, Preeti; Srivastava, Smita; George, Jasmine; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and immature fruits of pineapples (Ananas cosmosus), which has been shown to have anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-metastatic properties. In the present study, antitumorigenic activity of bromelain was recorded in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted 2-stage mouse skin model. Results showed that bromelain application delayed the onset of tumorigenesis and reduced the cumulative number of tumors, tumor volume and the average number of tumors/mouse. To establish a cause and effect relationship, we targeted the proteins involved in the cell death pathway. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in mouse skin. Since persistent induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis and is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), we also investigated the effect of bromelain on Cox-2 and NF-{kappa}B expression. Results showed that bromelain application significantly inhibited Cox-2 and inactivated NF-{kappa}B by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. In addition, bromelain treatment attenuated DMBA-TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Taken together, we conclude that bromelain induces apoptosis-related proteins along with inhibition of NF-{kappa}B-driven Cox-2 expression by blocking the MAPK and Akt/protein kinase B signaling in DMBA-TPA-induced mouse skin tumors, which may account for its anti-tumorigenic effects.

  2. Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive expression of the interleukin-5 gene in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, T; Mitani, K; Ueno, H; Kanda, Y; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

    1997-01-01

    Accumulated evidence demonstrates that adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is frequently associated with eosinophilia, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells frequently express interleukin-5 (IL-5). However, the molecular mechanism of constitutive IL-5 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells remains unclear. To clarify the mechanism of aberrant IL-5 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells, we investigated the response of the human IL-5 promoter to the HTLV-1-encoded protein Tax. Cotransfection experiments using Jurkat cells revealed that Tax is incapable of activating the IL-5 promoter by itself but that it synergistically transactivates the promoter with GATA-binding protein (GATA-4) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation. By introducing a series of mutations within the IL-5 promoter, we found that conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLE0) is responsible for mediating the signal induced by Tax-TPA. A deletion construct of the promoter indicated that the -75 GATA element and CLE0 are sufficient to mediate synergistic activation of the IL-5 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using Jurkat cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that TPA induces a transcription factor to bind CLE0, and an experiment using JPX-9 cell nuclear extracts showed that Tax enhances this binding activity. An antibody supershift experiment revealed that this band consists of c-Jun and JunD. However, among the Jun family members, only c-Jun is able to cooperate with Tax and GATA-4 to activate the IL-5 promoter. We have determined the minimum factors required for IL-5 gene activation by reconstituting the IL-5 promoter activity in F9 cells. This is the first report to demonstrate the functional involvement of Tax protein in IL-5 gene regulation and to suggest the functional triple synergism among Tax, GATA-4, and AP-1, which disrupts regulated control of the gene and leads to constitutive expression of the IL-5 gene. PMID:9234684

  3. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) enhances the carcinogenic potential of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and accelerates the onset of tumor development in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Nida; Bilal, Nayeem; Hasan, Shirin; Ahmad, Ausaf; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Banu, Naheed

    2015-11-01

    Social stressors evolving from individual and population interactions produce stress reactions in many organisms (including humans), influencing homeostasis, altering the activity of the immunological system, and thus leading to various pathological states including cancer and their progression. The present study sought to validate the effectiveness of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in cancer promotion and to assess oxidative stress outcomes in terms of various in vivo biochemical parameters, oxidative stress markers, DNA damage, and the development of skin tumors in Swiss albino mice. Animals were randomized into different groups based on their exposure to CUS alone, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) alone (topical), and DMBA-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (topical) and exposure to CUS prior to DMBA or DMBA-TPA treatments and sacrificed after 16 weeks of treatment. Prior exposure to CUS significantly increased the pro-oxidant effect of carcinogen, depicted by compromised levels of antioxidants in the circulation and skin, accompanied by enhanced lipid peroxidation, plasma corticosterone, and marker enzymes as compared to DMBA-alone or DMBA-TPA treatments. DNA damage results corroborated the above biochemical outcomes. Also, the development of skin tumors (in terms of their incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden) in mice in the presence and absence of stress further strongly supported our above biochemical measurements. CUS may work as a promoter of carcinogenesis by enhancing the pro-oxidant potential of carcinogens. Further studies may be aimed at the development of interventions for disease prevention by identifying the relations between psychological factors and DNA damage. PMID:26272695

  4. Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 Is a Key Regulator in Tumor Promoter–Induced Cell Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Yao, Ke; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Kang, Bong Seok; Zheng, Duo; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2010-01-01

    The ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2), a member of the p90RSK (RSK) family of proteins, is a widely expressed serine/threonine kinase that is activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 in response to many growth factors and peptide hormones. Its activation signaling enhances cell survival. However, the roles of RSK2 in cell transformation have not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that RSK2 is a critical serine/threonine kinase for the regulation of cell transformation. When cells were stimulated with tumor promoters, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phosphorylation of RSK was increased within 5 min. Cell proliferation was suppressed in RSK2–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) compared with RSK2+/+ MEFs. Moreover, RSK2–/– MEFs accumulated at the G1 phase of the cell cycle under normal cell culture conditions as well as after stimulation with EGF or TPA. In the anchorage-independent cell transformation assay (soft agar), stable expression of RSK2 in JB6 cells significantly enhanced colony formation in either the presence or absence of tumor promoters. Furthermore, knockdown of RSK2 with small interfering RNA-RSK2 suppressed constitutively active Ras (RasG12V)-induced foci formation in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, kaempferol, an inhibitor of RSK2, suppressed EGF-induced colony formation of JB6 Cl41 cells in soft agar, which was associated with inhibition of histone H3 phosphorylation (Ser10). These results showed that RSK2 is a key regulator for cell transformation induced by tumor promoters such as EGF and TPA. PMID:17804722

  5. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  6. Effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on triglyceride and cholesteryl ester synthesis in cultured coronary smooth muscle cells and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Moinat, M; Chevey, J M; Muzzin, P; Giacobino, J P; Kossovsky, M

    1990-02-01

    In cultured pig coronary smooth muscle cells phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated the conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into cholesteryl esters and the incorporation of [2-3H]glycerol into triglycerides 6.4- and 4.5-fold, respectively. The maximal effects occurred after 3 h of treatment and there was a return to basal values after 72 h. In the presence of 400 microM oleic acid, PMA stimulated the conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into cholesteryl esters and that of [2-3H]glycerol into triglycerides 5.3- and 2.3-fold, respectively. The stimulatory effects were more sustained (still significant after 72 h) and their maxima were delayed (peaks after 24 h). PMA was also found to increase 2-fold the amount of triglyceride that accumulated in the cells in the presence of oleic acid after 24 h. In macrophages IC-21, the effects of PMA were observed only in the presence of oleic acid. They consisted of a 1.9-fold stimulation in the conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into cholesteryl esters after 72 h and of a 1.7-fold stimulation in the incorporation of [2-3H]glycerol into triglycerides after 24 h. PMA also increased the amount of triglyceride that accumulated in the cells 1.9-fold after 72 h. It is concluded that PMA, and possibly growth factors, may promote lipid storage in smooth muscle cells and that fatty acids favor long lasting effects of PMA in smooth muscle cells and are necessary for any effect of PMA in macrophages. PMID:2324651

  7. The choice of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate differentiation protocol influences the response of THP-1 macrophages to a pro-inflammatory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Lund, Maria E; To, Joyce; O'Brien, Bronwyn A; Donnelly, Sheila

    2016-03-01

    The human monocytic cell line, THP-1, is the most widely used model for primary human monocytes/macrophages. This is because, following differentiation using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), THP-1 cells acquire a macrophage-like phenotype, which mimics, in many respects, primary human macrophages. Despite the widespread use of THP-1 cells in studies elucidating macrophage responses to inflammatory stimuli, as well as the development and screening of potential therapeutics, there is currently no standardised protocol for the reliable differentiation of THP-1 monocytes to a macrophage phenotype using PMA. Consequently, reports using THP-1 cells have demonstrated significant phenotypic and functional differences between resultant THP-1 macrophage populations, which are largely attributable to the varying PMA differentiation methods used. Thus, to guarantee consistency and reproducibility between studies, and to ensure the relevance of THP-1 cells as an appropriate model for primary human macrophages, it is crucial to develop a standardised protocol for the differentiation of THP-1 macrophages. Accordingly, we compared the function and phenotype of THP-1 macrophages generated using the range of published PMA differentiation protocols, specifically in response to the pro-inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results demonstrated that the function of the resultant THP-1 macrophage populations, as determined by tumour necrosis factor (TNF) secretion in response to LPS stimulation, varied significantly, and was dependent upon the concentration of PMA used to stimulate the differentiation of monocytes, and the period of rest following PMA exposure. These data indicate that exposure of monocytic THP-1 cells to 25 nM PMA over 48 h, followed by a recovery period of 24h in culture in the absence of PMA, was the optimal protocol for the differentiation of THP-1 cells. PMID:26826276

  8. Phosphatidic acid mobilized by phospholipase D is involved in the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced G2 delay of A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kaszkin, M; Richards, J; Kinzel, V

    1996-01-01

    This study was aimed at gaining an understanding of metabolic events responsible for the inhibition of cells in G2 phase, a known physiological restriction site in the cell cycle of multicellular organisms. In an earlier study, phosphatidic acid was proposed as an inhibitory mediator in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced inhibition of A431 cells in G2 phase via the phospholipase C pathway [Kaszkin, Richards and Kinzel (1992) Cancer Res. 52, 5627-5634]. We show here that the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces a reversible inhibition of the G2/M transition in A431 cells under conditions of phospholipase D-catalysed phosphatidic acid formation. Such PMA-induced inhibition in G2 phase is largely attenuated in the presence of 1-propanol (but not of 2-propanol). In this case the amount of phosphatidic acid is reduced to almost control levels, and instead phosphatidylpropanol is formed. In the case of EGF-induced activation of a phospholipase D the amount of phosphatidic acid is only slightly decreased in the presence of a primary alcohol. Under these conditions the EGF-induced G2 delay was not affected. The correlation between the formation of phosphatidic acid and the G2 delay induced by PMA, as well as by an exogenous bacterial phospholipase D (from Streptomyces chromofuscus), could be supported by using synchronized cells in order to increase the population of cells in G2 phase. This study indicates that the formation of substantial amounts of phosphatidic acid immediately before entry into mitosis seems to be important for establishing a delay in the cell cycle at the G2/M border by exogenous ligands. PMID:8660273

  9. Involvement of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 in goniothalamin-induced TP53-dependent and -independent apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Kung-Kai; Chen, Yi-Ling; Chen, Lih-Ren; Li, Chien-Feng; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang; Shiue, Yow-Ling

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the upstream apoptotic mechanisms that were triggered by a styrylpyrone derivative, goniothalamin (GTN), in tumor protein p53 (TP53)-positive and -negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived cells. Effects of GTN were evaluated by the flow cytometry, alkaline comet assay, immunocytochemistry, small-hairpin RNA interference, mitochondria/cytosol fractionation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting analysis and caspase 3 activity assays in two HCC-derived cell lines. Results indicated that GTN triggered phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, also known as NOXA)-mediated apoptosis via TP53-dependent and -independent pathways. In TP53-positive SK-Hep1 cells, GTN furthermore induced TP53 transcription-dependent and -independent apoptosis. After GTN treatment, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, formation of DNA double-strand breaks, transactivation of TP53 and/or PMAIP1 gene, translocation of TP53 and/or PMAIP1 proteins to mitochondria, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, cleavage of caspases and induction of apoptosis in both cell lines were sustained. GTN might represent a novel class of anticancer drug that induces apoptosis in HCC-derived cells through PMAIP1 transactivation regardless of the status of TP53 gene. - Highlights: > Goniothalamin (GTN) induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinomas-derived cells. > The apoptosis induced by GTN is PMAIP1-dependent, regardless of TP53 status. > The apoptosis induced by GTN might be TP53 transcription-dependent or -independent. > GTN-induced apoptosis is mitochondria- and caspases-mediated.

  10. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) responsive sequence in Galphaq promoter during megakaryocytic differentiation. Regulation by EGR-1 and MAP kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Jalagadugula, Gauthami; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Rao, A Koneti

    2008-11-01

    Galphaq plays a major role in platelet signal transduction, but little is known regarding its transcriptional regulation. We have reported that Galphaq is upregulated during phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced megakaryocytic transformation of human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells and regulated by EGR-1, an early growth transcription factor. These studies focused on the initial 238 bp of the 5' upstream region of the Galphaq gene. In the present studies we characterize a minimal region -1042/-1037 bp from ATG in the 5' upstream of the Galphaq promoter that is associated with PMA responsiveness. In luciferase reporter gene studies in HEL cells, Galphaq 5' upstream promoter sequence -1042/-1 showed an about four-fold increased activity in PMA-treated compared to untreated cells. Deletion of 6-nt -1042/-1037 eliminated the difference. Gel-shift studies on Galphaq probe (-1042/-1012 bp) revealed binding of EGR-1 with PMA-treated but not untreated nuclear extracts, and this was dependent on the sequence -1042/-1037. Silencing of endogenous EGR-1 inhibited Galphaq induction by PMA. MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 blocked PMA effect on promoter activity of the -1042/-1 construct. In conclusion, EGR-1 binding to sequence -1042/-1037 bp in Galphaq promoter mediates the induction of Galphaq gene by PMA via the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These studies provide the first evidence of a PMA-responsive element in Galphaq promoter, and new insights into regulation of Galphaq gene by EGR-1. PMID:18989526

  11. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced endocytosis of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in MDCK cells is associated with a clathrin-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mykoniatis, Andreas; Shen, Le; Fedor-Chaiken, Mary; Tang, Jun; Tang, Xu; Worrell, Roger T.; Delpire, Eric; Turner, Jerrold R.; Matlin, Karl S.

    2010-01-01

    In secretory epithelial cells, the basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1) plays a major role in salt and fluid secretion. Our laboratory has identified NKCC1 surface expression as an important regulatory mechanism for Cl− secretion in the colonic crypt cell line T84, a process also present in native human colonic crypts. We previously showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by carbachol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) decreases NKCC1 surface expression in T84 cells. However, the specific endocytic entry pathway has not been defined. We used a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line stably transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-NKCC1 to map NKCC1 entry during PMA exposure. At given times, we fixed and stained the cells with specific markers (e.g., dynamin II, clathrin heavy chain, and caveolin-1). We also used chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, amiloride, and dynasore, blockers of the clathrin, caveolin, and macropinocytosis pathways and the vesicle “pinchase” dynamin, respectively. We found that PMA caused dose- and time-dependent NKCC1 endocytosis. After 2.5 min of PMA exposure, ∼80% of EGFP-NKCC1 endocytic vesicles colocalized with clathrin and ∼40% colocalized with dynamin II and with the transferrin receptor, the uptake of which is also mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles. We did not observe significant colocalization of EGFP-NKCC1 endocytic vesicles with caveolin-1, a marker of the caveolae-mediated endocytic pathway. We quantified the effect of each inhibitor on PMA-induced EGFP-NKCC1 endocytosis and found that only chlorpromazine and dynasore caused significant inhibition compared with the untreated control (61% and 25%, respectively, at 2.5 min). Together, these results strongly support the conclusion that PMA-stimulated NKCC1 endocytosis is associated with a clathrin pathway. PMID:19864322

  12. Roles of insulin, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in signalling pathways of GLUT4 translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Todaka, M; Hayashi, H; Imanaka, T; Mitani, Y; Kamohara, S; Kishi, K; Tamaoka, K; Kanai, F; Shichiri, M; Morii, N; Narumiya, S; Ebina, Y

    1996-01-01

    Insulin, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S] and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) trigger the translocation of Gl UT4 (type 4 glucose transporter; insulin-sensitive glucose transporter) from an intracellular pool to the cell surface. We have developed a highly sensitive and quantitative method to detect GLUT4 immunologically on the surface of intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, using c-myc epitope-tagged GLUT4 (GLUT4myc). We examined the roles of insulin, GTP[S] and PMA in the signalling pathways of GLUT4 translocation in the CHO cell system. Among small molecular GTP-binding proteins, ras, rab3D, rad and rho seem to be candidates as signal transmitters of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Overexpression of wild-type H-ras and the dominant negative mutant H-rass17N in our cell system respectively enhanced and blocked insulin-stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, but did not affect insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Overexpression of rab3D or rad in the cells did not affect GLUT4 translocation triggered by insulin, GTP[S] or PMA. Treatment with Botulinum C3 exoenzyme, a specific inhibitor of rho, had no effect on GLUT4 translocation induced by insulin, GTP[S] or PMA. Therefore these small molecular GTP-binding proteins are not likely to be involved in GLUT4 translocation. In addition, insulin, GTP[S] and PMA apparently stimulate GLUT4 translocation through independent pathways. PMID:8645171

  13. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate up-regulates the transcription of MUC2 intestinal mucin via Ras, ERK, and NF-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Wan; Ahn, Dae-Ho; Crawley, Suzanne C; Li, Jian-Dong; Gum, James R; Basbaum, Carol B; Fan, Nancy Q; Szymkowski, David E; Han, Sang-Young; Lee, Bong H; Sleisenger, Marvin H; Kim, Young S

    2002-09-01

    MUC2 is a secretory mucin normally expressed by goblet cells of the intestinal epithelium. It is overexpressed in mucinous type colorectal cancers but down-regulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment of colon cancer cell lines increases MUC2 expression, so we have undertaken a detailed analysis of the effects of PMA on the promoter activity of the 5'-flanking region of the MUC2 gene using stably and transiently transfected promoter reporter vectors. Protein kinase C inhibitors (bisindolylmaleimide, calphostin C) and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal regulated kinase kinase (MEK) (PD98059 and U0126) suppressed up-regulation of MUC2. Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT5720), and a p38 inhibitor (SB 203580) did not affect transcription. Western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR analysis confirmed these results. In addition, co-transfections with mutants of Ras, Raf, and MEK showed that the induction of MUC2 promoter activity by PMA required these three signaling proteins. Our results demonstrate that PMA activates protein kinase C, stimulating MAP kinase through a Ras- and Raf-dependent mechanism. An important role for nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) was also demonstrated using the inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Such identification of pathways involved in MUC2 up-regulation by PMA in the HM3 colon cancer cell line may serve as a model for the effects of cytokines and growth factors, which regulate MUC2 expression during the progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:12077118

  14. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  15. Induction of neutrophil chemotactic factor production by staurosporine in rat peritoneal neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Edamatsu, Takeo; Xiao, Yi-Qun; Tanabe, Jun-ichi; Mue, Suetsugu; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Incubation of rat peritoneal neutrophils in medium containing various concentrations of staurosporine (6.4–64 nM) increased the neutrophil chemotactic activity in the conditioned medium in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Separation of the neutrophil chemotactic activity in the conditioned medium by isoelectric focusing revealed that staurosporine (64 nM) stimulated the production of basic (pH>8) neutrophil chemotactic factors, while TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, 49 nM) stimulated the production of both basic (pH>8) and acidic (pH 5) neutrophil chemotactic factors. Determination by immunoassay of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, -2α, -2β and -3 in the conditioned medium at 4 h revealed that staurosporine (64 nM) and TPA (49 nM) strongly stimulated the production of CINC-3 (staurosporine, 133.0±3.8; TPA, 26.7±1.0; control, 0.32±0.01 ng ml−1, means±s.e.mean from four samples) compared to CINC-1 (staurosporine, 55.0±1.2; TPA, 12.2±0.3; control, 0.56±0.01 ng ml−1), and CINC-2α (staurosporine, 1.09±0.03; TPA, 0.90±0.02; control, <0.10 ng ml−1). CINC-2β was below the detectable amount (<0.078 ng ml−1). The level of CINC-3 mRNA in the peritoneal neutrophils was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Staurosporine (64 nM) and TPA (49 nM) enhanced the level of CINC-3 mRNA time-dependently, but had no effect on GAPDH mRNA levels. Production of staurosporine-induced neutrophil chemotactic factor was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors, H-7 (IC50, 12.3 μM), calphostin C (IC50, 0.77 μM) and Ro 31-8425 (24.3% inhibition at 10 μM), and by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (IC50, 68.5 μM). Production of TPA-induced neutrophil chemotactic factor was also inhibited by both inhibitors. Both the staurosporine- and the TPA-induced increase in CINC-3 mRNA levels were suppressed by H-7 and genistein. PMID:9283699

  16. Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion Extends Window for tPA Therapy in a Rabbit Stroke Model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. T.; Lowery, J. D.; Arthur, M. C.; Roberson, P. K.; Skinner, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) nanodroplets are exceptional oxygen transporters and can protect ischemic brain in stroke models 24 h without reperfusion. Current stroke therapy usually fails to reach patients because of delays following stroke onset. We tested using DDFPe to extend the time window for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Longer treatment windows will allow more patients more complete stroke recovery. We test DDFPe to safely extend the time window for tPA thrombolysis to 9 h after stroke. With IACUC approval, randomized New Zealand white rabbits (3.4–4.7 kg, n=30) received angiography and 4-mm blood clot in the internal carotid artery for flow-directed middle cerebral artery occlusion. Seven failed and were discarded. Groups were IV tPA (n=11), DDFPe + tPA (n=7), and no therapy controls (n=5). DDFPe (0.3 ml/kg, 2 % emulsion) IV dosing began at 1 h and continued at 90 min intervals for 6 doses in one test group; the other received saline injections. Both got standard IV tPA (0.9 mg/kg) therapy starting 9 h post stroke. At 24 h, neurological assessment scores (NAS, 0–18) were determined. Following brain removal percent stroke volume (%SV) was measured. Outcomes were compared with Kruskal-Wallis analysis. For NAS, DDFPe + tPA was improved overall, p=0.0015, and vs. tPA alone, p=0.0052. For %SV, DDFPe + tPA was improved overall, p=0.0003 and vs. tPA alone, p=0.0018. NAS controls and tPA alone were not different but %SV was, p=0.0078. With delayed reperfusion, DDFPe + tPAwas more effective than tPA alone in preserving functioning brain after stroke. DDFPe significantly extends the time window for tPA therapy. PMID:26055229

  17. t-PA activity in peripheral blood obtained from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ishii, A; Yamada, S; Yamada, R; Hamada, H

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were measured in blood obtained from pregnant women to elucidate the fluctuations in the fibrinolytic system which occur during the course of pregnancy. The t-PA activity was measured with a modified bioimmunoassay using anti-t-PA monoclonal antibody (SP-322) against a single chain of recombinant t-PA. The t-PA antigen was measured by ELISA using the same antibody. PAI activity was determined with a competitive inhibition assay of t-PA activity. In early pregnancy, t-PA activity was found to be close to the standard range seen in nonpregnant women, and gradually decreased during the course of pregnancy, then recovered to rise to the normal range within 48 hours after delivery. The t-PA antigen and PAI activity levels rose slowly during the course of pregnancy, and fell promptly after delivery. t-PA activity and t-PA antigen in levels in umbilical cord blood were higher after vaginal delivery than after cesarean section. These findings suggest that there may be an important physiological balance of the fibrinolytic system between mother and fetus during the course of pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:7965540

  18. tPA promotes cortical neuron survival via mTOR-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Grummisch, Julia A; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Smith, Patrice D

    2016-07-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a thrombolytic agent commonly used in the treatment of ischemic stroke. While the thrombolytic effects of tPA have been well established, the impact of this blood-brain barrier (BBB) crossing drug on neurons is not known. Given the widespread use of tPA in the clinical setting and the strict therapeutic window established for effective use of the drug, we examined the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of tPA on postnatal cortical neurons isolated from the mouse brain. Dissociated postnatal primary cortical neurons were treated with tPA and the effects on neuron survival were evaluated. Pharmacological inhibitors of several signaling pathways previously implicated in neuroprotection (mTOR, JAK/STAT, MAPK and PKA-dependent mechanisms) were used to pinpoint the mechanistic effectors of tPA on neuron survival in vitro. We report here that tPA treatment results in a time-dependent neuroprotective effect on postnatal cortical neurons that relies predominantly on Janus kinase (JAK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mechanisms. Taken together, these data suggest that tPA promotes neuroprotection in a temporally-regulated manner and that both JAK and mTOR signaling effectors are critical mediators of this neuroprotective effect. The results suggest the possibility of targeting these defined mechanisms to potentially expand the therapeutic window for tPA. PMID:26995507

  19. NRF2 Signaling Negatively Regulates Phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA)-Induced Differentiation of Human Monocytic U937 Cells into Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye-young; Choi, Bo-hyun; Kim, Sang-Tae; Heo, Tae-Hwe; Lee, Joo Young; Park, Pil-Hoon; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Blood monocytes are recruited to injured tissue sites and differentiate into macrophages, which protect against pathogens and repair damaged tissues. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be an important contributor to monocytes’ differentiation and macrophages’ function. NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a transcription factor regulating cellular redox homeostasis, is known to be a critical modulator of inflammatory responses. We herein investigated the role of NRF2 in macrophage differentiation using the human monocytic U937 cell line and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). In U937 cells with NRF2 silencing, PMA-stimulated cell adherence was significantly facilitated when compared to control U937 cells. Both transcript and protein levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukine-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were highly elevated in PMA-stimulated NRF2-silenced U937 compared to the control. In addition, PMA-inducible secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) was significantly high in NRF2-silenced U937. As an underlying mechanism, we showed that NRF2-knockdown U937 retained high levels of cellular ROS and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers expression; and subsequently, PMA-stimulated levels of Ca2+ and PKCα were greater in NRF2-knockdown U937 cells, which caused enhanced nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-ҡB (NFҡB) p50 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 phosphorylation. Whereas the treatment of NRF2-silenced U937 cells with pharmacological inhibitors of NFҡB or ERK1/2 largely blocked PMA-induced IL-1β and IL-6 expression, indicating that these pathways are associated with cell differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that the NRF2 system functions to suppress PMA-stimulated U937 cell differentiation into pro-inflammatory macrophages and provide evidence that the ROS-PKCα-ERK-NFҡB axis is involved in PMA-facilitated differentiation of NRF2-silenced U937 cells

  20. Impact of mTORC1 inhibition on keratinocyte proliferation during skin tumor promotion in wild-type and BK5.AktWT mice.

    PubMed

    Rho, Okkyung; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Jiang, Guiyu; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of rapamycin on mTORC1 signaling during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced keratinocyte proliferation and skin tumor promotion in both wild-type (FVB/N) and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. TPA activated mTORC1 signaling in a time-dependent manner in cultured primary mouse keratinocytes and a mouse keratinocyte cell line. Early activation (15-30 min) of mTORC1 signaling induced by TPA was mediated in part by PKC activation, whereas later activation (2-4 h) was mediated by activation of EGFR and Akt. BK5.Akt(WT) transgenic mice, where Akt1 is overexpressed in basal epidermis, are highly sensitive to TPA-induced epidermal proliferation and two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Targeting mTORC1 with rapamycin effectively inhibited TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and hyperproliferation as well as tumor promotion in a dose-dependent manner in both wild-type and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. A significant expansion (∼threefold) of the label retaining cell (LRC) population per hair follicle was observed in BK5.Akt(WT) mice compared to FVB/N mice. There was also a significant increase in K15 expressing cells in the hair follicle of transgenic mice that coincided with expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6K, and phospho-PRAS40, suggesting an important role of mTORC1 signaling in bulge-region keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) homeostasis. After 2 weeks of TPA treatment, LRCs had moved upward into the interfollicular epidermis from the bulge region of both wild-type and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. TPA-mediated LRC proliferation and migration was significantly inhibited by rapamycin. Collectively, the current data indicate that signaling through mTORC1 contributes significantly to the process of skin tumor promotion through effects on proliferation of the target cells for tumor development. PMID:24114993

  1. Gold-conjugated resveratrol nanoparticles attenuate the invasion and MMP-9 and COX-2 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Chae, Seon Yeong; Park, Jin Oh; Lee, Kyu Jin; Park, Geuntae

    2016-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with antitumorigenic effects obstruct the initiation, development and progression of tumors via the regulation of various processes, such as proliferation and apoptosis. However, the effects of AuNPs on breast cancer metastasis have not been well studied, and their response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation remains unclear. Therefore, we synthesized resveratrol-capped gold nanoparticles (Rev-AuNPs) using green nanotechnology and investigated their potential anti-invasive properties in human breast cancer cells in response to TPA stimulation. The Rev-AuNPs formed spherical nanoparticles of 22.28±2.98 nm in diameter. Next, we found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of Rev-AuNPs significantly suppressed the TPA-induced migration and invasion abilities of breast cancer cells. Rev-AuNPs suppressed TPA-induced enzymatic activity and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, Rev-AuNP treatment remarkably downregulated TPA-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Rev-AuNPs reduced the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling, but did not affect the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38 MAPK in the TPA-stimulated breast cancer cells. Notably, Rev-AuNPs generally showed better anti-invasive activity than resveratrol without cytotoxicity. The inhibitory effect of Rev-AuNPs on MMP-9, COX-2, NF-κB, AP-1, PI3K/Akt and ERK activation was stronger than that of resveratrol for the same concentrations. We also demonstrated that Rev-AuNPs induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and that the inhibition of MMP-9 and COX-2 expression and MMP-9 enzymatic activity of Rev-AuNPs were abrogated by siRNA knockdown of HO-1 expression. Our findings revealed that the anti-invasive effects of Rev

  2. Application of several advanced oxidation processes for the destruction of terephthalic acid (TPA).

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatachari, Ramesh; Kwon, Tae Ouk; Jun, Jung Chul; Balaji, Subramanian; Matheswaran, Manickam; Moon, Il Shik

    2007-04-01

    Terephthalic acid (TPA) is widely applied as a raw material in making polyester fiber, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, polyester films, etc. TPA is toxic and is known to act as endocrine disruptor. TPA wastewater is traditionally treated by biological process and this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of several advanced oxidation processes on TPA removal. The oxidation processes studied were: UV-TiO(2), UV-H(2)O(2), UV-H(2)O(2)-Fe, O(3), O(3)/Fe, O(3)/TiO(2), UV-O(3)-H(2)O(2)-Fe and UV-O(3)-H(2)O(2)-Fe-TiO(2). The results indicate that the time required for the complete destruction of 50 ppm of TPA can be minimized from 10h using UV-TiO(2) system, to less than 10 min by UV-H(2)O(2)-Fe-O(3) system. Some of the likely organic intermediates identified during TPA destruction include, benzoquinone, benzene, maleic acid and oxalic acid. Possible destruction pathway of TPA has been proposed. TPA degradation by various systems was also analyzed based on the reaction kinetics and operating costs. PMID:17023113

  3. Unstandardized Responses to a "Standardized" Test: The edTPA as Gatekeeper and Curriculum Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledwell, Katherine; Oyler, Celia

    2016-01-01

    We examine edTPA (a teacher performance assessment) implementation at one private university during the first year that our state required this exam for initial teaching certification. Using data from semi-structured interviews with 19 teacher educators from 12 programs as well as public information on edTPA pass rates, we explore whether the…

  4. "What about Bilingualism?" A Critical Reflection on the edTPA with Teachers of Emergent Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleyn, Tatyana; López, Dina; Makar, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Amidst the debates surrounding teacher quality and preparation programs, the edTPA (education Teaching Performance Assessment) has emerged to assess future teachers through a portfolio-based certification process. This study offers the perspective of three faculty members who participated in an experimental configuration of edTPA implementation…

  5. Roles of G-protein beta gamma, arachidonic acid, and phosphorylation inconvergent activation of an S-like potassium conductance by dopamine, Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2, and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2.

    PubMed

    van Tol-Steye, H; Lodder, J C; Mansvelder, H D; Planta, R J; van Heerikhuizen, H; Kits, K S

    1999-05-15

    Dopamine and the neuropeptides Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide or APGWa) and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide or FMRFa) all activate an S-like potassium channel in the light green cells of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, neuroendocrine cells that release insulin-related peptides. We studied the signaling pathways underlying the responses, the role of the G-protein betagamma subunit, and the interference by phosphorylation pathways. All responses are blocked by an inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) release, 4-bromophenacylbromide, and by inhibitors of lipoxygenases (nordihydroguaiaretic acid and AA-861) but not by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. AA and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) induced currents with similar I-V characteristics and potassium selectivity as dopamine, APGWa, and FMRFa. PLA2 occluded the response to FMRFa. We conclude that convergence of the actions of dopamine, APGWa, and FMRFa onto the S-like channel occurs at or upstream of the level of AA and that formation of lipoxygenase metabolites of AA is necessary to activate the channel. Injection of a synthetic peptide, which interferes with G-protein betagamma subunits, inhibited the agonist-induced potassium current. This suggests that betagamma subunits mediate the response, possibly by directly coupling to a phospholipase. Finally, the responses to dopamine, APGWa, and FMRFa were inhibited by activation of PKA and PKC, suggesting that the responses are counteracted by PKA- and PKC-dependent phosphorylation. The PLA2-activated potassium current was inhibited by 8-chlorophenylthio-cAMP but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). However, TPA did inhibit the potassium current induced by irreversible activation of the G-protein using GTP-gamma-S. Thus, it appears that PKA targets a site downstream of AA formation, e.g., the potassium channel, whereas PKC acts at the active G-protein or the phospholipase. PMID:10234006

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of two cucurbitacins isolated from Cayaponia tayuya roots.

    PubMed

    Recio, M Carmen; Prieto, Maite; Bonucelli, Marina; Orsi, Cecilia; Máñez, Salvador; Giner, Rosa M; Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Ríos, José-Luis

    2004-05-01

    Fractionation of an anti-inflammatory extract from Cayaponia tayuya roots yielded two active compounds, identified as 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin B (1) and cucurbitacin R (2). Both were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on several experimental models of pain and inflammation. In addition, their cytotoxicity and effects on leukotriene B4 (LTB4) formation were evaluated in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Both compounds showed activity in the following models: carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema (1, 4 mg/kg p.o., 46% inhibition at 3 h), phospholipase A2-induced mouse paw oedema (2, 3 mg/kg i.p., 61% inhibition at 60 min), serotonin-induced mouse paw oedema (1 and 2, 0.5 mg/kg s.c., 73% and 79% inhibition, respectively), 12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute ear oedema (2, 36% inhibition at 4 mg/kg p.o., and 87% inhibition at 0.1 mg/ear topically). The compounds were also active against the inflammation induced by repeated application of TPA on mouse ears, affecting both the oedema itself (1 and 2 at 0.1 mg/ear, 44% and 56% inhibition, respectively) as well as cell infiltration (68% and 69%, respectively). The activity of both compounds against oedema induced by serotonin was not modified by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone; however, the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide abolished the anti-inflammatory response in both cases. Neither compound modified the production of LTB4 in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes, nor did they exhibit analgesic properties at the dose assayed. PMID:15124085

  7. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, inhibits melanoma cancer cell migration by reducing the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tripti; Vaid, Mudit; Katiyar, Nandan; Sharma, Samriti; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin disease due, in large part, to its propensity to metastasize. We have examined the effect of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, on human melanoma cancer cell migration and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using melanoma cell lines, A375 and Hs294. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we show that over expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGE2 receptors promote the migration of cells. We found that treatment of A375 and Hs294 cells with berberine resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of migration of these cells, which was associated with a reduction in the levels of COX-2, PGE2 and PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4). Treatment of cells with celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, or transient transfection of cells with COX-2 small interfering RNA, also inhibited cell migration. Treatment of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an inducer of COX-2 or PGE2, enhanced cell migration, whereas berberine inhibited TPA- or PGE2-promoted cell migration. Berberine reduced the basal levels as well as PGE2-stimulated expression levels of EP2 and EP4. Treatment of the cells with the EP4 agonist stimulated cell migration and berberine blocked EP4 agonist-induced cell migration activity. Moreover, berberine inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), an upstream regulator of COX-2, in A375 cells, and treatment of cells with caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an inhibitor of NF-κB, inhibited cell migration. Together, these results indicate for the first time that berberine inhibits melanoma cell migration, an essential step in invasion and metastasis, by inhibition of COX-2, PGE2 and PGE2 receptors. PMID:20974686

  8. Alteration of C-MYB DNA binding to cognate responsive elements in HL-60 variant cells

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, C; Le Rouzic, E; Créminon, C; Perbal, B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To establish whether the MYB protein expressed in HL-60 variant cells, which are cells resistant to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced differentiation, is able to bind MYB recognition elements (MREs) involved in the transcriptional regulation of myb target genes. In addition, to determine whether alterations in the binding of the MYB protein to MREs affects HL-60 cell proliferation and differentiation. Methods: Nuclear extracts of HL-60 variant cells exhibiting different degrees of resistance to TPA induced monocytic differentiation were used in electrophoretic mobility shift experiments (EMSAs), bandshift experiments performed with labelled oliogonucleotides containing the MYB consensus binding sequences. Results: The MYB protein contained in nuclear extracts from HL-60 variant cells did not bind efficiently to the MYB recognition elements identified in the mim-1 and PR264 promoters. Molecular cloning of the myb gene and analysis of the MYB protein expressed in the HL-60 variant cells established that the lack of binding did not result from a structural alteration of MYB in these cells. The lack of MRE binding did not abrogate the ability of variant HL-60s to proliferate and to undergo differentiation. Furthermore, the expression of the PR264/SC35 splicing factor was not affected as a result of the altered MYB DNA binding activity. Conclusions: Because the MYB protein expressed in HL-60 variant cells did not appear to be structurally different from the MYB protein expressed in parental HL-60 cells, it is possible that the HL-60 variant cells contain a MYB binding inhibitory factor (MBIF) that interferes with MYB binding on MREs. The increased proliferation rate of HL-60 variant cells and their reduced serum requirement argues against the need for direct MYB binding in the regulation of cell growth. PMID:12354938

  9. Pharmacological profiles of high-concentration (20 microg/g) tacalcitol ointment: effects on cutaneous inflammation, epidermal proliferation, and differentiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroaki; Ogino, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hideko; Hata, Junko; Asano, Satoshi; Ohta, Tomohiro; Komoriya, Keiji

    2003-07-01

    This study focused on the effects of tacalcitol (1,24 (R) (OH)2D3, TV-02) ointment (20 micro g/g) on cutaneous inflammation, epidermal proliferation, and differentiation and compared them with tacalcitol ointment (2 micro g/g) and other anti-psoriatic ointments using hairless mice. Tacalcitol ointment (0, 2 and 20 micro g/g) significantly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced cutaneous inflammation, histopathologically. The effect of tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) on cutaneous inflammation was much stronger than that of tacalcitol ointment (0, 2 micro g/g), and as effective as calcipotriol ointment (50 micro g/g) or betamethasone valerate ointment (1.2 mg/g). Tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) also significantly inhibited TPA-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as effectively as calcipotriol ointment (50 micro g/g) or betamethasone valerate ointment (1.2 mg/g). The effect of tacalcitol ointment on epidermal proliferation [ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity] and differentiation [transglutaminase (TGase) activity] was dose-dependent from 0 micro g/g to 20 micro g/g. The effect of tacalcitol ointments on epidermal proliferation was significant at the doses of 2 micro g/g and 20 micro g/g, and that on epidermal differentiation was significant at the doses of 0.2 micro g/g or more. The effect of tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) on epidermal differentiation was significantly stronger than tacalcitol ointment (2 micro g/g). In this study, tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) was found to have a marked effect on cutaneous inflammation and improved effect on epidermal differentiation, although tacalcitol ointment (2 micro g/g) also had significant effects on epidermal proliferation and differentiation. These findings support the clinical effectiveness of tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) against psoriasis. PMID:12928540

  10. p-HPEA-EDA, a phenolic compound of virgin olive oil, activates AMP-activated protein kinase to inhibit carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Prem; Oh, Won-Keun; Yun, Hyo Jeong; Namgoong, Gwang Mo; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Kwon, Seong-Min; Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Choi, Hong Seok

    2011-04-01

    Phenolic constituents of virgin olive oil are reported to have antitumor activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and specific target proteins of virgin olive oil remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone (p-HPEA-EDA), a phenolic compound of virgin olive oil, inhibits tumor promoter-induced cell transformation in JB6 Cl41 cells and suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumorigenicity by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in HT-29 cells. p-HPEA-EDA inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p90RSK in JB6 Cl41 cells, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation, activator protein-1 transactivation and cell transformation promoted by TPA. Moreover, p-HPEA-EDA strongly inhibited the cell viability and COX-2 expression by activation of AMPK activity in HT-29 cells, resulted from depletion of intracellular adenosine triphosphate. p-HPEA-EDA-induced activation of caspase-3 and poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase, phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15) and DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells, leading to apoptosis. Importantly, p-HPEA-EDA suppressed the colony formation of HT-29 cells in soft agar. In contrast, Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, blocked the p-HPEA-EDA-inhibited colony formation in HT-29 cells. In vivo chorioallantoic membrane assay also showed that p-HPEA-EDA-inhibited tumorigenicity of HT-29 cells. These findings revealed that targeted activation of AMPK and inhibition of COX-2 expression by p-HPEA-EDA contribute to the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of virgin olive oil against colon cancer cells. PMID:21216846

  11. Expression profiles of cortisol-inactivating enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2, in human epidermal tumors and its role in keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Terao, Mika; Itoi, Saori; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion between hormonally active cortisol and inactive cortisone within cells. There are two isozymes: 11β-HSD1 activates cortisol from cortisone and 11β-HSD2 inactivates cortisol to cortisone. 11β-HSD1 was recently discovered in skin, and we subsequently found that the enzyme negatively regulates keratinocyte proliferation. We verified 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 expression in benign and malignant skin tumors and investigated the role of 11β-HSD in skin tumor pathogenesis. Randomly selected formalin-fixed sections of skin lesions of seborrheic keratosis (SK), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were stained with 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 antibodies, and 11β-HSD expression was also evaluated in murine epidermis in which hyperproliferation was induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA). We observed that 11β-HSD1 expression was decreased in all SK, SCC, and BCC lesions compared with unaffected skin. Conversely, 11β-HSD2 expression was increased in SK and BCC but not in SCC. Overexpression of 11β-HSD2 in keratinocytes increased cell proliferation. In the murine model, 11β-HSD1 expression was decreased in TPA-treated hyperproliferative skin. Our findings suggest that 11β-HSD1 expression is decreased in keratinocyte proliferative conditions, and 11β-HSD2 expression is increased in basal cell proliferating conditions, such as BCC and SK. Assessing 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 expression could be a useful tool for diagnosing and characterizing skin tumors. PMID:23362866

  12. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-12-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  13. Identification of phosphorylation sites on AChR delta-subunit associated with dispersal of AChR clusters on the surface of muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nimnual, A S; Chang, W; Chang, N S; Ross, A F; Gelman, M S; Prives, J M

    1998-10-20

    The innervation of embryonic skeletal muscle cells is marked by the redistribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on muscle surface membranes into high-density patches at nerve-muscle contacts. To investigate the role of protein phosphorylation pathways in the regulation of AChR surface distribution, we have identified the sites on AChR delta-subunits that undergo phosphorylation associated with AChR cluster dispersal in cultured myotubes. We found that PKC-catalyzed AChR phosphorylation is targeted to Ser378, Ser393, and Ser450, all located in the major intracellular domain of the AChR delta-subunit. Adjacent to one of these sites is a PKA consensus target site (Ser377) that was efficiently phosphorylated by purified PKA in vitro. The PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) produced increased phosphorylation of AChR delta-subunits on the three serine residues that were phosphorylated by purified PKC in vitro. In contrast, treatment of these cells with the PKA activator forskolin, or with the cell-permeable cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP, did not alter the phosphorylation state of surface AChR, suggesting that PKA does not actively phosphorylate the delta-subunit in intact chick myotubes. The effects of TPA and OA included an increase in the proportion of surface AChR that is extracted in Triton X-100, as well as the spreading of AChR from cluster regions to adjacent areas of the muscle cell surface. These findings suggest that PKC-catalyzed phosphorylation on the identified serine residues of AChR delta-subunits may play a role in the surface distribution of these receptors. PMID:9778356

  14. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirose, H; Suhara, T; Kaji, N; Sakuma, N; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses. Our group previously reported that DNA strand breaks were not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation up to 800 mW/kg from mobile radio base stations employing the IMT-2000 cellular system. In the current study, BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in BALB/3T3 cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At the end of the incubation period, transformation dishes were fixed, stained with Giemsa, and scored for morphologically transformed foci. No significant differences in transformation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA-treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation. PMID:17694516

  15. Murine susceptibility to two-stage skin carcinogenesis is influenced by the agent used for promotion

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, J.J. Jr.; Nesnow, S.; Slaga, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Several approaches were employed to investigate whether murine stock and strain differences in susceptibility to two-stage skin carcinogenesis are due to differences in the metabolism of the initiating aromatic hydrocarbons, or the consequences of the agents used for promotion. A cell-mediated mutagenesis assay was used to quantitatively compare the abilities of cultured newborn SENCAR, DBA/2, C57BL/6 and BALB/c keratinocytes to metabolize dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to mutagenic and cytotoxic metabolites. At equivalent concentrations of DMBA, throughout a 25-fold range in promutagen concentration, C57BL/6, BALB/c and SENCAR keratinocyte-dependent mutant frequencies were very similar and approximately twice DBA/2 keratinocyte-dependent mutant frequencies. In in vivo tumor studies, C57BL/6 mice were more sensitive than SENCAR mice to complete skin carcinogenesis protocols employing repetitive weekly treatments with DMBA and benzo(a)pyrene (BP). At equivalent concentrations of either DMBA or BP, C57BL/6 mice developed carcinomas sooner, and had a greater number of carcinomas per animal. SENCAR mice were very sensitive to two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocols employing BP and DMBA as initiators and benzoyl peroxide and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as promoters. C57BL/6 mice were relatively refractory to TPA promotion but sensitive to promotion with benzoyl peroxide. These findings suggest that murine stock and strain-dependent differences in sensitivity to two-stage skin carcinogenesis may not be due to major differences in the metabolism of the initiating hydrocarbons, but are partially the consequences of the agents for promotion. 24 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  16. Inhibition of mediator release in RBL-2H3 cells by some H1-antagonist derived anti-allergic drugs: relation to lipophilicity and membrane effects.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M J; Paulussen, J J; Horbach, D A; Roelofsen, E P; van Miltenburg, J C; de Mol, N J; Janssen, L H

    1995-02-01

    In a model for mucosal mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells) a set H1-antagonist derived anti-allergic drugs containing a diphenylmethyl piperazinyl moiety was examined for their ability to inhibit release of the mediator beta-hexosaminidase. Cells were activated with antigen or the calcium ionophore A23187, whether or not in combination with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Oxatomide, hydroxyzine and cetirizine inhibit the antigen induced beta-hexosaminidase release. The release triggered by A23187, whether or not in combination with TPA is hardly influenced by the compounds. A biphasic dependence of the inhibition of exocytosis in RBL cells on lipophilicity is observed with the optimum at log P is 5-6. The extremely lipophilic compounds meclozine and buclizine are not active in this model. pH dependence of the effect of the drugs shows that especially the uncharged species are active in inhibiting exocytosis. The investigated compounds show an effect on phase transitions in L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl liposomes as assayed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For the less extremely lipophilic compounds the induced changes in the phospholipid membranes increased with lipophilicity. The relation between structural features of the drug and the interaction with phospholipids is discussed in view of the DSC results. We conclude that location of the active drugs at the membrane or the membrane/protein interface is important for the inhibiting activity on exocytosis. This could affect several membrane related processes, which are abundant in the early phases of the IgE-mediated signal transduction process. PMID:7655991

  17. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5 mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ≥1 mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ≥2 mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE. PMID:25658580

  18. Photon upconversion: from two-photon absorption (TPA) to triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA).

    PubMed

    Ye, Changqing; Zhou, Liwei; Wang, Xiaomei; Liang, Zuoqin

    2016-04-20

    Organic upconversion is a unique process in which low-energy light (usually NIR light) is converted to high-energy light through either the two-photon absorption (TPA) mechanism or the triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) mechanism. Both TPA upconversion (TPA-UC) and TTA upconversion (TTA-UC) have been actively investigated in recent years due to their intriguing applications in optics, biophotonics, and solar energy utilization. Although they show some similarity (i.e., belonging to the nonlinear two-quantum process and needing focused excitation light), TPA-UC and TTA-UC are very different, such as in mechanism, characteristics involved, molecular design and potential applications. Here, we collectively reviewed these two kinds of upconversion processes and compared their respective characteristics and merits. We also present recent advances made in the areas of TPA- and TTA-UC, the remaining challenges and opportunities, with particular emphasis on molecular engineering of these two active upconversion materials. PMID:26843136

  19. Tumorigenesis in athymic nude mouse skin by chemical carcinogens and ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.M.; Rice, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of established skin tumorigenesis protocols were tested for efficacy on athymic nu/nu mice (BALB/c background) and compared on euthymic nu/+ counterparts. Chemical carcinogens and UV light were applied to the ears of 10 mice of each sex and genotype for each group. Treatments were: 0.5 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene ((DMBA) CAS: 57-97-6) to each ear; 0.125 mg DMBA to each ear, followed by 0.1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate ((TPA) CAS: 16561-29-8) twice weekly for 56 weeks; 0.2 mg N-nitroso-N-methylurea ((NMU) CAS: 684-93-5; 1% in acetone, 20 microliter) to each ear; 0.1 mg NMU to each ear weekly for 30 weeks; 0.2 mg NMU to each ear, followed by TPA twice weekly for 56 weeks; two ip doses of N-nitroso-N-ethylurea ((NEU) CAS: 759-73-9; 25 mg/kg each), followed by TPA twice weekly topically for 56 weeks; and exposure to sunlamps (250- to 400-nm emission) two or three times per week for 20 weeks, for a total dose of 3.7 X 10(5) J/m2. The chemical treatments caused mainly squamous papillomas and carcinomas, sebaceous adenomas and adenocarcinomas, and basal cell tumors, which appeared both on the skin of the ears and elsewhere. UV light caused squamous tumors, basal cell tumors, and sarcomas. Ear skin of the nu/nu mice developed significantly more squamous tumors than those of nu/+ mice after DMBA-TPA, NMU-TPA, NEU-TPA, repeated NMU, or UV light. Similar results were obtained for the skin of the heads and bodies. Even a single dose of NMU caused a few tumors on the nude, but not the euthymic, mice. A single dose of DMBA caused primarily sebaceous adenomas, distributed at random over the entire bodies. These results show that, contrary to previous reports, nude mice are sensitive to skin tumorigenesis, more so than euthymic nu/+ mice similarly exposed to diverse types of carcinogen and treatment protocols.

  20. Impacts of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Chevilley, Arnaud; Lesept, Flavie; Lenoir, Sophie; Ali, Carine; Parcq, Jérôme; Vivien, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins, and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous) or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA). In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival. PMID:26528141

  1. Polypyrrole layered SPEES/TPA proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakandan, S.; Kanagaraj, P.; Sabarathinam, R. M.; Nagendran, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene ether ether sulfone) (SPEES)/tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) were prepared. SPEES/TPA membrane surfaces were modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) by in situ polymerization method to reduce the TPA leaching. The morphology and electrochemical property of the surface coated membranes were studied by SEM, AFM, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, methanol permeability and tensile strength. The water uptake and the swelling ratio of the surface coated membranes decreased with increasing the Ppy layer. The surface roughness of the hybrid membrane was decreased with an increase in Ppy layer on the membrane surface. The methanol permeability of SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 hybrid membrane was significantly suppressed and found to be 2.1 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, which is 1.9 times lower than pristine SPEES membrane. The SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 membrane exhibits highest relative selectivity (2.86 × 104 S cm-3 s) than the other membrane with low TPA leaching. The tensile strength of hybrid membranes was improved with the introduction of Ppy layer. Combining their lower swelling ratio, high thermal stability and selectivity, SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 membranes could be a promising material as PEM for DMFC applications.

  2. Production of human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Mishaneh; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Masoumiasl, Asad; Abdolinasab, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease with 72 kD molecular mass and 527 amino acids plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The collective production of this drug in plants such as cucumber, one of the most important vegetables in the world, could reduce its production costs. In this study, after scrutiny of the appropriate regeneration of cucumber plant (Isfahan variety) on MS medium with naphthalene acetic acid hormone (NAA; 0/1 mg L⁻¹) and benzyl amino purine hormone (BAP; 3 mg L⁻¹) hormones, the cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into cotyledon explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Subsequent to the regeneration of inoculated explants on the selective medium, the persistence of tPA gene in recombinant plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. To evaluate the tPA gene expression in transgenic plants, RNA was extracted and the tPA gene transcription was confirmed by reverse-transcription (RT) PCR. Followed the extraction of protein from the leaves of transgenic plants, the presence of tPA protein was confirmed by dot blot and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis in order to survey the production of recombinant tPA protein. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used for recombinant tPA protein level in transgenic cucumber plants. It was counted between 0.8 and 1%, and based on this, it was concluded that the presence of three expressions of regulatory factors (CaMV 35S, Kozak, NOS) and KDEL signal in the construct caused the increase of the tPA gene expression in cucumber plants. PMID:24152103

  3. Effect of Fagonia arabica on thrombin induced release of t-PA and complex of PAI-1 tPA in cultured HUVE cells.

    PubMed

    Aloni, Prutha D; Nayak, Amit R; Chaurasia, Sweta R; Deopujari, Jayant Y; Chourasia, Chhaya; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-07-01

    Fagonia arabica (FA) possesses a thrombolytic property which has been earlier reported in our laboratory. Current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of FA on thrombin-induced tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) release from cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVE) for studying its clot lytic activity. For this, establishment of cell line model has been done by isolating the cells from human umbilical cord. Cell toxicity was evaluated using XTT assay. Estimation of t-PA and PAI-1 t-PA complex were done using ELISA technique. Thrombin treatment induces the t-PA and PAI-1 release from HUVE cell line, and FA treatment was found to antagonize the thrombin induced t-PA and PAI-1 release. Our preliminary results suggest that FA may be used as an alternative to thrombolytic drug. However, study demands further experiments using animal model of thrombosis to establish the role of FA as a novel thrombolytic drug. PMID:27419084

  4. Pulsed High–Intensity-focused US and Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA) Versus TPA Alone for Thrombolysis of Occluded Bypass Graft in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Pritchard, William F.; Amalou, Hayet; Linguraru, Marius; Chiesa, Oscar A.; Adams, Joshua D.; Gacchina, Carmen; Wesley, Robert; Maruvada, Subha; McDowell, Briana; Frenkel, Victor; Karanian, John W.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prosthetic arteriovenous or arterial-arterial bypass grafts can thrombose and be resistant to revascularization. A thrombosed bypass graft model was created to evaluate the potential therapeutic enhancement and safety profile of pulsed high-intensity-focused ultrasound (pHIFU) on pharmaceutical thrombolysis. Materials and Methods In swine, a right carotid-carotid expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass graft was surgically constructed, containing a 40% stenosis at its distal end to induce graft thrombosis. The revascularization procedure was performed 7 days after surgery. After model development and dose response experiments (n = 11), two cohorts were studied: pHIFU with tissue plasminogen activator (TPA; n = 4) and sham pHIFU with TPA (n = 3). The experiments were identical in both groups except no energy was delivered in the sham pHIFU group. Serial angiograms were obtained in all cases. The area of graft opacified by contrast medium on angiograms was quantified with digital image processing software. A blinded reviewer calculated the change in the graft area opacified by contrast medium and expressed it as a percentage, representing percentage of thrombolysis. Results Combining pHIFU with 0.5 mg of TPA resulted in a 52% ± 4% increase in thrombolysis on angiograms obtained at 30 minutes, compared with a 9% ± 14% increase with sham pHIFU and 0.5 mg TPA (P = .003). Histopathologic examination demonstrated no differences between the groups. Conclusions Thrombolysis of occluded bypass grafts was significantly increased when combining pHIFU and TPA versus sham pHIFU and TPA. These results suggest that application of pHIFU may augment thrombolysis with a reduced time and dose. PMID:22609287

  5. X-ray diffraction of solid tin to 1.2 TPa

    SciTech Connect

    Lazicki, A.; Rygg, J. R.; Coppari, F.; Smith, R.; Fratanduono, D.; Kraus, R. G.; Collins, G. W.; Briggs, R.; Braun, D. G.; Swift, D. C.; Eggert, J. H.

    2015-08-12

    In this study, we report direct in situ measurements of the crystal structure of tin between 0.12 and 1.2 TPa, the highest stress at which a crystal structure has ever been observed. Using angle-dispersive powder x-ray diffraction, we find that dynamically compressed Sn transforms to the body-centered-cubic (bcc) structure previously identified by ambient-temperature quasistatic-compression studies and by zero-kelvin density-functional theory predictions between 0.06 and 0.16 TPa. However, we observe no evidence for the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase found by those studies to be stable above 0.16 TPa. Instead, our results are consistent with bcc up to 1.2 TPa. We conjecture that at high temperature bcc is stabilized relative to hcp due to differences in vibrational free energy.

  6. X-ray diffraction of solid tin to 1.2 TPa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lazicki, A.; Rygg, J. R.; Coppari, F.; Smith, R.; Fratanduono, D.; Kraus, R. G.; Collins, G. W.; Briggs, R.; Braun, D. G.; Swift, D. C.; et al

    2015-08-12

    In this study, we report direct in situ measurements of the crystal structure of tin between 0.12 and 1.2 TPa, the highest stress at which a crystal structure has ever been observed. Using angle-dispersive powder x-ray diffraction, we find that dynamically compressed Sn transforms to the body-centered-cubic (bcc) structure previously identified by ambient-temperature quasistatic-compression studies and by zero-kelvin density-functional theory predictions between 0.06 and 0.16 TPa. However, we observe no evidence for the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase found by those studies to be stable above 0.16 TPa. Instead, our results are consistent with bcc up to 1.2 TPa. We conjecturemore » that at high temperature bcc is stabilized relative to hcp due to differences in vibrational free energy.« less

  7. Chemopreventive effect of resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil in the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay and the mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Govind J; Azuine, Magnus A; Tokuda, Harukuni; Takasaki, Midori; Mukainaka, Teruo; Konoshima, Takao; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2002-06-01

    Resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil are known natural dietary components with intrinsic cancer chemopreventive potentials. As a part of our study of dietary constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, we have assessed the anti-cancer potentials of these products in the promotion stage of cancer development employing the in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Further, we studied the activities of these compounds in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay as well as on the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging bioassay with a view to comparing some of the mechanisms of their anti-cancer activity. Finally, we compared the observed chemoprotective capabilities of the four products in the in vivo 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene initiated and TPA-promoted mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis protocols. All the products tested showed a profound inhibitory effect on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen induction using Raji cells. Comparatively, sesame oil was the most potent followed by sesamol and then resveratrol. Only sesamol and resveratrol showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assays as well as profound free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH bioassay. In both test systems, sesamol exhibited a more remarkable activity than resveratrol while sesame oil and sunflower oil did not exhibit any appreciable activity even at the highest concentrations tested (4000 microg ml(-1) ). In our in vivo assay at a 50-fold molar ratio to TPA, sesamol offered 50% reduction in mouse skin papillomas at 20 weeks after promotion with TPA. Under an identical molar ratio to TPA, resveratrol offered a 60% reduction in the papillomas in mouse at 20 weeks. Thus sesamol seems to be an almost equally potent chemopreventive agent. Sesame oil and sunflower oil offered 20 and 40% protection, respectively, in the mouse

  8. tPA Deficiency in Mice Leads to Rearrangement in the Cerebrovascular Tree and Cerebroventricular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Stefanitsch, Christina; Lawrence, Anna-Lisa E.; Olverling, Anna; Nilsson, Ingrid; Fredriksson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is used as a thrombolytic agent in the management of ischemic stroke, but concerns for hemorrhagic conversion greatly limits the number of patients that receive this treatment. It has been suggested that the bleeding complications associated with thrombolytic tPA may be due to unanticipated roles of tPA in the brain. Recent work has suggested tPA regulation of neurovascular barrier integrity, mediated via platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-C/PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) signaling, as a possible molecular mechanism affecting the outcome of stroke. To better understand the role of tPA in neurovascular regulation we conducted a detailed analysis of the cerebrovasculature in brains from adult tPA deficient (tPA−/−) mice. Our analysis demonstrates that life-long deficiency of tPA is associated with rearrangements in the cerebrovascular tree, including a reduction in the number of vascular smooth-muscle cell covered, large diameter, vessels and a decrease in vessel-associated PDGFRα expression as compared to wild-type (WT) littermate controls. In addition, we found that ablation of tPA results in an increased number of ERG-positive endothelial cells and increased junctional localization of the tight junction protein ZO1. This is intriguing since ERG is an endothelial transcription factor implicated in regulation of vascular integrity. Based on these results, we propose that the protection of barrier properties seen utilizing these tPA−/− mice might be due, at least in part, to these cerebrovascular rearrangements. In addition, we found that tPA−/− mice displayed mild cerebral ventricular malformations, a feature previously associated with ablation of PDGF-C, thereby providing an in vivo link between tPA and PDGF signaling in central nervous system (CNS) development. Taken together, the data presented here will advance our understanding of the role of tPA within the CNS and in regulation of

  9. Evidence for impairment of behavioural inhibition in performance of operant tasks in tPA-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ripley, T L; Horwood, J M; Stephens, D N

    2001-11-01

    We have previously shown that mice that lack the serine protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), show over-responding on the active lever during time-out periods in an I.V. cocaine self-administration task. To investigate this effect further, tPA knockout mice (tPA-/-) were tested in a number of operant paradigms for a liquid food reinforcer. tPA-/- and wild-type (WT) control mice acquired a fixed ratio (FR) and a fixed interval (FI) task equally. However, extinction from the FR schedule resulted in a significant decrease in responses on the active and inactive levers in the WT mice whilst responding on the inactive lever remained high in the tPA-/- animals. In a differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) task, tPA-/- mice acquired the task at a slower rate than WT animals. This was characterised by high levels of responding on the active lever during the first 15 sessions in the tPA-/- mice. Burst responding on the active lever (lever press rate with an inter-response time of less than 3 s) was especially high in these animals. This behaviour pattern resulted in the animals obtaining less reinforcers than the WT controls. Acute cocaine dose-dependently shifted the pattern of behaviour on the active lever towards shorter inter-response times. However, there was no difference between the tPA-/- and WT mice in their sensitivity to cocaine on this task. Repeated administration of a low dose of cocaine did not alter performance on this task in either set of animals. When the DRL task was modified to allow the tPA-/- and WT mice an equal number of reinforced trials per session there was no difference in the ability of the animals to perform the task. This would suggest that the tPA-/- mice have a tendency to over-respond but that this can be overcome when the task is modified to allow equal opportunity to learn. PMID:11682113

  10. Novel bioassay system for evaluating anti-oxidative activities of food items: use of basolateral media from differentiated Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Ai; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2005-12-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including superoxide and nitric oxide (NO), are known to be mediators of oxidative stress and play pivotal roles in the onset of numerous life style-related diseases. While a number of studies have shown that naturally occurring anti-oxidants may be applicable for prevention and therapy for those diseases, most in vitro anti-oxidation tests reported have not provided significant insight into the absorption efficiency or metabolism of dietary anti-oxidants in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we established a novel assay system by focusing on the bioconversion of food constituents using differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells. Various fresh food preparations [ginger, garlic, shimeji (Hypsizigus marmoreus), onion, carrot] were added to the apical side of differentiated Caco-2 monolayers. After incubation, the medium was recovered and tested for its inhibitory effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced generation in differentiated HL-60 cells, and on combined lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-gamma -induced NO generation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The garlic preparation (25% v/v) basolateral medium abolished generation without any cytotoxicity toward HL-60 cells, though it was cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells. In the NO generation tests, all of the food preparations showed notable inhibitory activity, while the garlic preparation (5% v/v) basolateral medium inhibited NO generation with substantial cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 cells. Interestingly, the carrot preparation (1% v/v) basolateral medium inhibited NO generation in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 or Caco-2 cells, and its activities were higher than those of the carrot preparation alone (1% v/v). Our results indicate that the present assay system is appropriate and reliable for determination of the anti-oxidative efficacy of dietary

  11. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity of fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio-; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Ronquillo de Jesús, Elba

    2015-05-01

    Produced worldwide at 1.2m tons per year, fibrous clays are used in the production of pet litter, animal feed stuff to roof parcels, construction and rheological additives, and other applications needing to replace long-fiber length asbestos. To the authors' knowledge, however, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity by sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejon El Rubio, Spain). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) methods. Histological cuts were obtained for quantifying leukocytes found in the epidermis. Palygorkite and sepiolite caused edema inhibition and migration of neutrophils ca. 68.64 and 45.54%, and 80 and 65%, respectively. Fibrous clays yielded high rates of infiltration, explained by cleavage of polysomes and exposure of silanol groups. Also, fibrous clays showed high inhibition of myeloperoxidase contents shortly after exposure, but decreased sharply afterwards. In contrast, tubular clays caused an increasing inhibition of myeloperoxidase with time. Thus, clay structure restricted the kinetics and mechanism of myeloperoxidase inhibition. Fibrous clays were screened in vitro against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the protein-binding dye sulforhodamine B (SRB). Exposing cancer human cells to sepiolite or palygorskite showed growth inhibition varying with cell line. This study shows that fibrous clays served as an effective anti-inflammatory, limited by chemical transfer and cellular-level signals responding exclusively to an early exposure to clay, and cell viability decreasing significantly only after exposure to high concentrations of sepiolite. PMID:25819359

  12. Structural analysis and promoter characterization of the human collagenase-3 gene (MMP13)

    SciTech Connect

    Pendas, A.M.; Balbin, M.; Llano, E.

    1997-03-01

    Human collagenase-3 (MMP13) is a recently identified member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family that is expressed in breast carcinomas and in articular cartilage from arthritic patients. In this work we have isolated and characterized genomic clones coding for human collagenase-3. This gene is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns and spans over 12.5 kb. The overall organization of the collagenase-3 gene is similar to that of other MMP genes clustered at chromosome 11q22, including fibroblast collagenase (MMP-1), matrilysin (MMP-7), and macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), but is more distantly related to genes coding for stromelysin-3 (MMP-11), gelatinase-A (MMP-2), and gelatinase-B (MMP-9), which map outside of this gene cluster. Nucleotide sequence analysis of about 1 kb of the 5{prime}-flanking region of the collagenase-3 gene revealed the presence of a TATA box, an AP-1 motif, a PEA-3 consensus sequence, an osteoblast specific element (OSE-2), and a TGF-{beta} inhibitory element. Transient transfection experiments in HeLa and COS-1 cells with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)-containing constructs showed that the AP-1 site is functional and responsible for the observed inducibility of the reporter gene by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, and in contrast to other MMP genes, no significative synergistic effect on CAT activity between the AP-1 and PEA-3 elements found in the collagenase-3 gene promoter was found. DNA binding analysis with nuclear extracts from HeLa cells revealed the formation of specific complexes between collagenase-3 promoter sequences containing the AP-1 site and nuclear proteins. The presence of this AP-1 functional site, which is able to confer responsiveness to a variety of tumor promoters and oncogene products, may contribute to explaining the high-level expression of collagenase-3 in breast carcinomas and degenerative joint diseases. 48 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. ANTINOCICEPTIVE EFFECTS OF THE N-ACYLETHANOLAMINE ACID AMIDASE INHIBITOR ARN077 IN RODENT PAIN MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Oscar; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Martucci, Cataldo; Realini, Natalia; Dionisi, Mauro; Mengatto, Luisa; Duranti, Andrea; Tarozzo, Glauco; Tarzia, Giorgio; Mor, Marco; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Reggiani, Angelo; Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), which include palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), are endogenous agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and important regulators of the inflammatory response. They are degraded in macrophages by the lysosomal cysteine amidase, N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA). Previous studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of NAAA activity suppresses macrophage activation in vitro and causes marked anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, which is suggestive of a role for NAAA in the control of inflammation. It is still unknown, however, whether NAAA-mediated FAE deactivation might regulate pain signaling. In the present study, we examined the effects of ARN077, a potent and selective NAAA inhibitor recently disclosed by our group, in rodent models of hyperalgesia and allodynia caused by inflammation or nerve damage. Topical administration of ARN077 attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia elicited in mice by carrageenan injection or sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-nociceptive effects of ARN077 were prevented by the selective PPAR-α antagonist GW6471 and did not occur in PPAR-α-deficient mice. Furthermore, topical ARN077 reversed the allodynia caused by ultraviolet B-radiation in rats, and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with GW6471. Sciatic nerve ligation or application of the pro-inflammatory phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) decreased FAE levels in sciatic nerve and skin tissue, respectively. ARN077 reversed these biochemical effects. The results identify ARN077 as a potent inhibitor of intracellular NAAA activity, which is active in vivo by topical administration. The findings further suggest that NAAA regulates peripheral pain initiation by interrupting endogenous FAE signaling at PPAR-α. PMID:23218523

  14. Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J M; Quander, R; Devor, D; Wenk, M L; Spangler, E F

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors included histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:3780636

  15. Apoptosis-mediated cytotoxicity of prodigiosin-like red pigment produced by gamma-Proteobacterium and its multiple bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuji; Tamura, Tadashi; Kurachi, Maki; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2005-12-01

    Recently we discovered a bacterial strain (MS-02-063) that produces large amounts of red pigment (PG-L-1). Among the cell lines tested, U937 cells showed the highest susceptibility to PG-L-1 toxicity. PG-L-1 induced typical apoptotic nuclear morphological changes, and single cell gel electrophoresis revealed that PG-L-1 caused DNA fragmentation in U937 cells. In PG-L-1 treated U937 cells, the acidic compartment such as lysosomes disappeared, suggesting that PG-L-1-induced disorder of intracellular pH compartmentalization might trigger apoptotic signal. Since p38 MAP kinase inhibitor specifically prevented the PG-L-1 mediated cell death, p38 MAP kinase may be involved in the cytotoxic mechanism. In fact, immunoblot analysis of p38 MAP kinase revealed that phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase occurred in PG-L-1-treated U937 cells. In addition to the activity to induce apoptotic cell death as reported in several PG family members, our chemiluminescence analysis suggested that PG-L-1 inhibited superoxide generation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated U937 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Since PG-L-1 had no effect on the chemiluminescence response caused by xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine system, PG-L-1 acts on the enzyme system responsible for O(2)(-) generation rather than direct scavenging toward O(2)(-). Our results suggest that PG-L-1 causes multiple biochemical effects on the target cells such as increase in pH in acidic intracellular compartment, activation of p38 MAP kinase, inhibition of O(2)(-) generation, and eventually induces apoptotic cell death. PMID:16327167

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of transduced PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 in Raw 264.7 cells and a mouse edema model

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Soon Won; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Jeong, Hoon Jae; Kim, Mi Jin; Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Nam; Dutta, Suman; Kim, Duk-Soo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant PEP-1 heme oxygenase-1 expression vector was constructed and overexpressed. {yields} We investigated transduction efficiency of PEP-1-HO-1 protein in Raw 264.7 cells. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 exerted anti-inflammatory activity in Raw 264.7 cells and in a mice edema model. {yields} PEP-1-HO-1 could be used as a therapeutic drug against inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of free heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe{sup 2+}), is up-regulated by several cellular stress and cell injuries, including inflammation, ischemia and hypoxia. In this study, we examined whether fusion of HO-1 with PEP-1, a protein transduction domain that is able to deliver exogenous molecules to living cells or tissues, would facilitate HO-1 delivery to target cells and tissues, and thereby effectively exert a therapeutically useful response against inflammation. Western blot analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were transduced into Raw 264.7 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and were stably maintained in the cells for about 60 h. In addition, fluorescence analysis revealed that only PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins were significantly transduced into the cytoplasm of cells, while HO-1 proteins failed to be transduced. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse edema model, transduced PEP-1-HO-1 fusion proteins effectively inhibited the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Also, histological analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-HO-1 remarkably suppressed ear edema. The results suggest that the PEP-1-HO-1 fusion protein can be used as a therapeutic molecule against reactive oxygen species-related inflammatory diseases.

  17. Topical application of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS-21680 prevents phorbol-induced epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Arasa, Jorge; Martos, Patricio; Terencio, María Carmen; Valcuende-Cavero, Francisca; Montesinos, María Carmen

    2014-08-01

    The nucleoside adenosine is a known regulator of immunity and inflammation that mediates, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effect of methotrexate, an immunosuppressive agent widely used to treat autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Adenosine A2A receptors play a key role in the inhibition of the inflammatory process besides promoting wound healing. Therefore, we aimed to determine the topical effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on a murine model of skin hyperplasia with a marked inflammatory component. Pretreatment with either CGS-21680 (5 μg per site) or the reference agent dexamethasone (200 μg/site) prevented the epidermal hyperplasia and inflammatory response induced by topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 2 nmol/site) for three consecutive days. The histological analysis showed that both CGS-21680 and dexamethasone produced a marked reduction of inflammatory cell infiltrate, which correlated with diminished myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in skin homogenates. Both treatments reduced the levels of the chemotactic mediators LTB4 and CXCL-1, and the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, through the suppression of NFκB phosphorylation. The immunohistochemical analysis of the hyperproliferative markers cytokeratin 6 (CK6) and Ki67 revealed that while both agents inhibit the number of proliferating cells in the epidermis, CGS-21680 treatment promoted dermal fibroblasts proliferation. Consistently, increased collagen deposition in dermis was observed in tissue sections from agonist-treated mice. Our results showed that CGS 21680 efficiently prevents phorbol-induced epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation in mice without the deleterious atrophic effect of topical corticosteroids. PMID:24889129

  18. Effects of intermediates between vitamins K(2) and K(3) on mammalian DNA polymerase inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Jun; Irino, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Masayuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Kuriyama, Isoko; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hiromi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported that vitamin K(3) (VK(3)), but not VK(1) or VK(2) (=MK-4), inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we chemically synthesized three intermediate compounds between VK(2) and VK(3), namely MK-3, MK-2 and MK-1, and investigated the inhibitory effects of all five compounds on the activity of mammalian pols. Among these compounds, MK-2 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols α, κ and λ, which belong to the B, Y and X families of pols, respectively; whereas VK(3) was the strongest inhibitor of human pol γ, an A-family pol. MK-2 potently inhibited the activity of all animal species of pol tested, and its inhibitory effect on pol λ activity was the strongest with an IC(50) value of 24.6 μM. However, MK-2 did not affect the activity of plant or prokaryotic pols, or that of other DNA metabolic enzymes such as primase of pol α, RNA polymerase, polynucleotide kinase or deoxyribonuclease I. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol λ inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these compounds could inhibit inflammatory responses. Among the five compounds tested, MK-2 caused the greatest reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear. In addition, in a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, MK-2 displayed the strongest suppression of the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, MK-2 was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of MK-2 in mice led to suppression of TNF-α production in serum. In conclusion, this study has identified VK(2) and VK(3) intermediates, such as MK-2, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:21541047

  19. Annexin A2 Modulates Radiation-Sensitive Transcriptional Programming and Cell Fate

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Stenoien, David L.; Sowa, Marianne B.; von Neubeck, Claere; Chrisler, William B.; Tan, Ruimin; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable public interest in the health effects of low doses of radiation (LDR) that fall below the doses that can be plausibly investigated in epidemiological studies. At these low doses, experimental models can detect perturbations in signaling pathways and use this information to define functional consequences of LDR exposures prospectively. In this study, we show increased nuclear annexin A2 (AnxA2) levels in human skin organotypic culture and murine progenitor cell model systems following exposure to X-radiation (10-200 cGy). LDR (2-20 cGy) inhibits cell transformation responses following epidermal growth factor (EGF) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) exposures, indicating LDR may have a protective component mediated in part by nuclear localization of AnxA2. Oncogenic protein kinase C epsilon (PKC) levels are increased in nuclear extracts from AnxA2 silenced [shRNA] cells, suggesting that AnxA2 may contribute to PKC nuclear export, perhaps reducing oncogenic potential. Coordinately, silencing AnxA2 results in a sensitive phenotype and cells grow constitutively in soft agar. Using global microarray analysis, we show that silencing AnxA2 fundamentally alters transcriptional programming, changing the radioresponsive transcriptome and revealing biological processes that are induced in the absence of AnxA2. These observations suggest that AnxA2 plays a fundamental role in the sensitivity of cellular and tissue response to ionizing radiation, and deficiency of AnxA2 could result in a permissive environment for radiation-induced health effects.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    PubMed Central

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by 32P post- labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH- dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). PMID:22935520

  1. Anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activity, and cytotoxicity of halloysite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, José Ascención; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Ramírez-Apán, María Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Halloysite is a naturally-occurring nanomaterial occurring in the thousands of tons and that serves as biomaterial, with applications in the areas of biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and medical research. This study reports on the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and anti-oxidant activity of halloysite Jarrahdale (collected at ∼ 45 km SE of Perth, Western Australia; JA), Dragon Mine (provided by Natural Nano Inc., Rochester, New York; NA), and Kalgoorie Archean (collected at Siberia, ∼ 85km NW of Kalgoorlie, West Australia; PA). Prior to biological testing, halloysites were characterized by 27Al and 29Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, the anti-inflammatory activity was determined by (a) the mouse ear edema method, using 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as anti-inflammatory agent; and (b) the myeloperoxidase enzymatic activity method (MPO). Cell viability was determined using the MTT method. Sample characterization by NMR method showed similar symmetry and atomic environments, with no evidence of distortion(s) due to shiftings in atomic ordering or electron density. The anti-inflammatory activity followed the order: PA>JA>NA, and remained invariant with time. Prolonged anti-inflammatory activity related inversely to surface area and lumen space. The low extent of infiltration at shorter reaction times confirmed a limiting number of active surface sites. EPR intensity signals followed the order: JA>NA>PA. The poor stabilization of RO species in PA suspensions was explained by tube alignment provoking occlusion, thus limiting transfer of H(+) or e(-) from-and-to the surface, and decreases in acidity associated to Al(oct). Cell viability (%) varied from one surface to the other, PA(92.3 ± 6.0), JA(84.9 ± 7.8), and NA(78.0 ± 5.6), but related directly to SBET values. PMID:23907053

  2. In vivo suppression of HSP27 and HSP70 accelerates DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis by inducing antigenic unresponsiveness to the initiating carcinogenic chemical

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Nasti, Tahseen H.; Ahmad, Israr; Chowdhury, Sanim; Mohiuddin, Hasan; Xu, Hui; Athar, Mohammad; Timares, Laura; Elmets, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are constitutively expressed in murine skin. HSP27 is present in the epidermis and HSP70 can be found in both the epidermis and dermis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these proteins in cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis and to determine if their effects on cell-mediated immune function were a contributing factor. In vivo inhibition of HSP27 and HSP70 produced a reduction in the T-cell mediated immune response to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene B(a)P in C3H/HeN mice and resulted in a state of antigen specific tolerance. When mice were pre-treated with anti-HSP27 and anti-HSP70 antibodies in vivo prior to subjecting them to a standard two-stage DMBA/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) cutaneous carcinogenesis protocol, the percentage of mice with tumors was much greater (p<0.05) in anti-HSP27 and HSP70 pre-treated animals compared to mice pre-treated with control antibody. Similar results were obtained when the data were evaluated as the cumulative number of tumors per group. Mice pre-treated with HSP27 and HSP70 antibodies developed more H-ras mutations and fewer DMBA specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. These findings indicate that in mice HSP27 and HSP70 play a key role in the induction of cell-mediated immunity to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Bolstering the immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be an effective method for prevention of the tumors that they produce. PMID:25840912

  3. Studies on the metabolism of metallothionein and alkaline phosphatase of adult rat primary hepatocyte cultures: role of fetal calf serum and agonists of the phosphoinositide cascade.

    PubMed

    Krämer, K; Markwitan, A; Pallauf, J

    1993-09-01

    Adult rat primary hepatocytes maintained in DMEM/F12 (Ham) media were used as a model system for studying the role of fetal calf serum (FCS) and agonists of the phosphoinositide cascade in the metabolism of metallothionein (MT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Experiments were performed both after a 24 h preincubation with FCS and with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Hepatocytes were treated with dexamethasone (DEX), zinc (Zn) and with the agonists of the phosphoinositide cascade A23187, 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), angiotensin II (AT), platelet activating factor (PAF), Arg8-vasopressin (VP) and were analyzed for MT and ALP activity in cell homogenates. Cell viability was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) liberation into culture medium, induction of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) through DEX and by trypan blue exclusion. Overall, cell viability was improved by the FCS pretreatment and by DEX. Exposure of hepatocytes to the established direct inducers Zn and DEX of MT resulted in a manifold increase in MT, independent of whether the cultures were FCS pretreated or not. The FCS preincubation produced a moderate elevation of ALP activity by stimulating cell viability. However, ALP was unaltered in response to Zn and DEX. None of the experiments conducted with agonists of the phosphoinositide cascade led to an elevation of MT and ALP. Only the incubation of hepatocytes with A23187 resulted in a concentration dependent significant decrease of MT and ALP. This observation was due to a cytotoxic effect of A 23187, displayed by LDH leakage and an increase in the number of cells stained with trypan blue. In conclusion, in primary hepatocyte cultures agonists of the phosphoinositide did not have an effect on the metabolism of MT and ALP. Previous in vivo results indicating alterations of Zn metabolism in liver, therefore seem to be caused by indirect systemic responses. PMID:8237077

  4. Functional characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus open reading frame K8 by bacterial artificial chromosome-based mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Sathish, Narayanan; Hollow, Charles; Yuan, Yan

    2011-03-01

    The open reading frame K8 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a basic leucine zipper (bZip) protein that binds to the origin of viral DNA replication and is an integral component of viral lytic DNA replication complex. Moreover, K8 physically interacts with replication and transcription activator (RTA) and represses its transactivation activity on several viral promoters. To investigate the role of this protein in viral life cycle, we constructed two K8-null recombinant mutant viruses (BAC-ΔK8 and BAC-stopK8) by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Latent viral infection can be reconstituted in 293T and BJAB cells with wild-type and the K8-null recombinant viruses by introducing the cloned viral genomes into the cells. When the cells carrying these viruses were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate, no significant difference was seen in overall viral gene expression between wild-type and K8-null viruses, with lytic DNA replication still active in the latter. However, 293T cells harboring K8-null mutant viruses, either BAC-ΔK8 or BAC-stopK8, displayed lower copy numbers of latent KSHV genome in comparison with wild-type viruses. Furthermore, although K8 deficiency appeared to not affect infectivity when K8-null viruses were used to infect 293T, primary human microvascular dermal endothelial and human foreskin fibroblast cells, they exhibited much lower viral genome copy numbers in all types of cell compared to wild-type viruses. Taken together, these data suggest a possible role of K8 in abortive lytic DNA replication occurring in early stages of de novo infection or in the maintenance of latent viral genomes. PMID:21159864

  5. High-Throughput Functional MicroRNAs Profiling by Recombinant AAV-Based MicroRNA Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuerong; Wang, Gang; Dong, Zheyue; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Jianxin; Chen, Jinzhong; Wang, Yue; Wu, Zhijian; Wu, Xiaobing

    2012-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are small and non-coding RNAs which play critical roles in physiological and pathological processes. A number of methods have been established to detect and quantify miRNA expression. However, method for high-throughput miRNA function detection is still lacking. Principal Findings We describe an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-based microRNA (miRNA) sensor (Asensor) array for high-throughput functional miRNA profiling. Each Asensor contains a Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) and a firefly luciferase (Fluc) expression cassette to sense functional miRNA and to serve as an internal control respectively. Using this array, we acquired functional profiles of 115 miRNAs for 12 cell lines and found “functional miRNA signatures” for several specific cell lines. The activities of specific miRNAs including the let-7 family, miR-17-92 cluster, miR-221, and miR-222 in HEK 293 cells were compared with their expression levels determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). We also demonstrate two other practical applications of the array, including a comparison of the miRNA activity between HEK293 and HEK293T cells and the ability to monitor miRNA activity changes in K562 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Conclusions/Significance Our approach has potential applications in the identification of cell types, the characterization of biological and pathological processes, and the evaluation of responses to interventions. PMID:22242174

  6. Functional Characterization of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Open Reading Frame K8 by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome-Based Mutagenesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Sathish, Narayanan; Hollow, Charles; Yuan, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The open reading frame K8 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a basic leucine zipper (bZip) protein that binds to the origin of viral DNA replication and is an integral component of viral lytic DNA replication complex. Moreover, K8 physically interacts with replication and transcription activator (RTA) and represses its transactivation activity on several viral promoters. To investigate the role of this protein in viral life cycle, we constructed two K8-null recombinant mutant viruses (BAC-ΔK8 and BAC-stopK8) by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Latent viral infection can be reconstituted in 293T and BJAB cells with wild-type and the K8-null recombinant viruses by introducing the cloned viral genomes into the cells. When the cells carrying these viruses were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate, no significant difference was seen in overall viral gene expression between wild-type and K8-null viruses, with lytic DNA replication still active in the latter. However, 293T cells harboring K8-null mutant viruses, either BAC-ΔK8 or BAC-stopK8, displayed lower copy numbers of latent KSHV genome in comparison with wild-type viruses. Furthermore, although K8 deficiency appeared to not affect infectivity when K8-null viruses were used to infect 293T, primary human microvascular dermal endothelial and human foreskin fibroblast cells, they exhibited much lower viral genome copy numbers in all types of cell compared to wild-type viruses. Taken together, these data suggest a possible role of K8 in abortive lytic DNA replication occurring in early stages of de novo infection or in the maintenance of latent viral genomes. PMID:21159864

  7. Potential analgesic effects of a novel N-acylethanolamine acid amidase inhibitor F96 through PPAR-α

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Longhe; Li, Long; Chen, Ling; Li, Yanting; Chen, Huixia; Li, Yuhang; Ji, Guangnian; Lin, Donghai; Liu, Zuguo; Qiu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) activity is an available approach for inflammation and pain control through restoring the ability of endogenous PEA. But the recently reported NAAA inhibitors suffer from the chemical and biological unstable properties, which restrict functions of NAAA inhibition in vivo. It is still unrevealed whether systematic inhibition of NAAA could modulate PEA-mediated pain signalings. Here we reported an oxazolidinone imide compound 3-(6-phenylhexanoyl) oxazolidin-2-one (F96), which potently and selectively inhibited NAAA activity (IC50 = 270 nM). Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of F96 (3–30 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced ear edema and restored PEA levels of ear tissues in 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced ear edema models. Furthermore, F96 inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing and increased spared nerve injury induced tactile allodynia thresholds in a dose-dependent manner. Pharmacological effects of F96 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on various animal models were abolished in PPAR-α−/− mice, and were prevented by PPAR-α antagonist MK886 but not by canabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist Rimonabant nor canabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) antagonist SR144528. Zebrafish embryos experiments showed better security and lower toxicity for F96 than ibuprofen. These results revealed that F96 might be useful in treating inflammatory and neuropathic pain by NAAA inhibition depending on PPAR-α receptors. PMID:26310614

  8. Suppression of endothelial t-PA expression by prolonged high laminar shear stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfhammer, Erik; Carlstroem, Maria; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker

    2009-02-06

    Primary hypertension is associated with an impaired capacity for acute release of endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is an important local protective response to prevent thrombus extension. As hypertensive vascular remodeling potentially results in increased vascular wall shear stress, we investigated the impact of shear on regulation of t-PA. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to low ({<=}1.5 dyn/cm{sup 2}) or high (25 dyn/cm{sup 2}) laminar shear stress for up to 48 h in two different experimental models. Using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, shear stress was observed to time and magnitude-dependently suppress t-PA transcript and protein secretion to approximately 30% of basal levels. Mechanistic experiments revealed reduced nuclear protein binding to the t-PA specific CRE element (EMSA) and an almost completely abrogated shear response with pharmacologic JNK inhibition. We conclude that prolonged high laminar shear stress suppresses endothelial t-PA expression and may therefore contribute to the enhanced risk of arterial thrombosis in hypertensive disease.

  9. Adenylate cyclase regulation in the spermatogenic cell plasma membrane: Modulating effects of TPA and TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    This research was designed to compare the effects of TPA, a phorbol ester, and TCDD in a spermatogenic cell population, a target of TCDD toxicity. Membrane-bound adenylate cyclase activity was used an index of membrane function, and was quantified by the amount of {sup 32}P-cAMP formed from {sup 32}P-ATP following chromatographic separation. Exposure to male germ cells in-vitro to TPA and TCDD followed by direct measurement of enzyme activity was used to investigate the potential of each agent to perturb membrane function. TPA and TCDD consistently inhibited adenylate cyclase activity at the levels of G{sub s}-catalytic unit coupling and hormone-receptor activation, as measured by the stimulation of enzyme activity by concomitant addition of forskolin and GTP and FSH and GTP, respectively. The effect on coupling required at least 60 minutes of exposure to TPA or TCDD. Concentration-response curves demonstrated a progressive desensitization with increasing TPA concentration, while TCDD exhibited consistent inhibition over the same concentration range.

  10. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester stimulates human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) gene.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, A K; Venugopal, R; Mucha, J; Carothers, A M; Grunberger, D

    1997-02-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a phenolic antioxidant derived from the propolis of honeybee hives. CAPE was shown to inhibit the formation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and oxidized bases in DNA of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated HeLa cells and was also found to induce a redox change that correlated with differential growth effects in transformed cells but not the nontumorigenic parental ones. Mediated via the electrophile or human antioxidant response element (hARE), induction of the expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit genes by certain phenolic antioxidants has been correlated with the chemopreventive properties of these agents. Here, we determined by Northern analysis that CAPE treatment of hepatoma cells stimulates NQO1 gene expression in cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2), and we characterized the effects of CAPE treatment on the expression of a reporter gene either containing or lacking the hARE or carrying a mutant version of this element in rodent hepatoma (Hepa-1) transfectants. A dose-dependent transactivation of human hARE-mediated chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene expression was observed upon treatments of the Hepa-1 transfectants with TPA, a known inducer, as well as with CAPE. The combined treatments resulted in an apparent additive stimulation of the reporter expression. To learn whether this activation of cat gene expression was effected by protein kinase C in CAPE-treated cells, a comparison was made of cat gene activity after addition of calphostin, a protein kinase C inhibitor. Calphostin reduced the cat gene induction by TPA but not by CAPE, suggesting that stimulation of gene expression in this system by these agents proceeds via distinct mechanisms. Band-shift experiments to examine binding of transactivator proteins from nuclear extracts of treated and untreated cells to a hARE DNA probe showed that TPA exposure increased the binding level

  11. Further evidence for a two-step model of glucose-transport regulation. Inositol phosphate-oligosaccharides regulate glucose-carrier activity.

    PubMed Central

    Obermaier-Kusser, B; Mühlbacher, C; Mushack, J; Seffer, E; Ermel, B; Machicao, F; Schmidt, F; Häring, H U

    1989-01-01

    The insulin effect on glucose uptake is not sufficiently explained by a simple glucose-carrier translocation model. Recent studies rather suggest a two-step model of carrier translocation and carrier activation. We used several pharmacological tools to characterize the proposed model further. We found that inositol phosphate (IP)-oligosaccharides isolated from the drug Actovegin, as well as the alkaloid vinblastine, show a partial insulin-like effect on glucose-transport activity of fat-cells (3-O-methylglucose uptake, expressed as % of equilibrium value per 4 s: basal 5.8%, insulin 59%, IP-oligosaccharides 30%, vinblastine 29%) without inducing carrier translocation. On the other hand, two newly developed anti-diabetic compounds (alpha-activated carbonic acids, BM 130795 and BM 13907) induced carrier translocation to the same extent as insulin and phorbol esters [cytochalasin-B-binding sites in plasma membranes: basal 5 pmol/mg of protein, insulin 13 pmol/mg of protein, TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate) 11.8 pmol/mg of protein, BM 130795 10.8 pmol/mg of protein], but produce also only 40-50% of the insulin effect on glucose-transport activity (basal 5.8%, insulin 59%, TPA 23%, BM 130795 35%). Almost the full insulin effect was mimicked by a combination of phorbol esters and IP-oligosaccharides (basal 7%, insulin 50%, IP-oligosaccharides 30%, TPA 23%, IP-oligosaccharides + TPA 45%). None of these substances stimulated insulin-receptor kinase in vitro or in vivo, suggesting a post-kinase site of action. The data confirm the following aspects of the proposed model: (1) carrier translocation and carrier activation are two independently regulated processes; (2) the full insulin effect is mimicked only by a simultaneous stimulation of carrier translocation and intrinsic carrier activity, suggesting that insulin acts through a synergism of both mechanisms; (3) IP-oligosaccharides might be involved in the transmission of a stimulatory signal on carrier activity

  12. Ric-8A gene deletion or phorbol ester suppresses tumorigenesis in a mouse model of GNAQ(Q209L)-driven melanoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, B R; Tall, G G

    2016-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein α subunit oncogenes GNAQ or GNA11 carry Q209X or R183X activating mutations and are present with ~90% frequency in human uveal melanomas. Forced expression of GNAQ/11(Q209L) in melanocytes is sufficient to drive metastatic melanoma in immune-compromised mice. No known drugs directly target these oncogenic G proteins. Ric-8A is the molecular chaperone that selectively folds Gαq/i/13 subunits. Targeting Ric-8A serves as a rational, yet unexplored approach to reduce the functional abundance of oncogenic Gαq/11 in order to blunt cancer signaling. Here, using mouse melanocyte cell graft tumorigenesis models, we determined that Ric-8A genetic ablation attenuated the abundance and melanoma-driving potential of Gαq-Q209L. A new conditional Ric-8A(Flox/Flox); Rosa-CreER(+/)(-) mouse strain was derived and used as a tissue source to culture an immortalized, tamoxifen-inducible Ric-8A knockout melanocyte cell line that required 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, phorbol ester) for growth. The cell line failed to grow tumors when grafted into immune-compromised mice regardless of Ric-8A expression. Stable expression of human GNAQ(Q209L), but not GNAQ(WT) in the cell line promoted TPA-independent cell proliferation, and upon cell grafting in mice, the initiation and robust growth of darkly-pigmented melanoma tumors. Deletion of Ric-8A in GNAQ(Q209L) cells restored TPA-dependent growth, reduced Gαq-Q209L below detectable levels and completely mitigated tumorigenesis from primary or secondary cell line grafts. Interestingly, TPA treatment of cultured GNAQ(Q209L) cells or host animals grafted with GNAQ(Q209L) cells also sharply reduced Gαq-Q209L abundance and tumorigenic capacity. Finally, tumorigenesis initiated from GNAQ(Q209L) cell grafts, followed by host mouse systemic tamoxifen treatment to delete Ric-8A in the grafted cells completely abrogated GNAQ(Q209L)-driven tumor progression unless a stable human RIC-8A transgene was used to

  13. Ric-8A gene deletion or phorbol ester suppresses tumorigenesis in a mouse model of GNAQQ209L-driven melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B R; Tall, G G

    2016-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G protein α subunit oncogenes GNAQ or GNA11 carry Q209X or R183X activating mutations and are present with ~90% frequency in human uveal melanomas. Forced expression of GNAQ/11Q209L in melanocytes is sufficient to drive metastatic melanoma in immune-compromised mice. No known drugs directly target these oncogenic G proteins. Ric-8A is the molecular chaperone that selectively folds Gαq/i/13 subunits. Targeting Ric-8A serves as a rational, yet unexplored approach to reduce the functional abundance of oncogenic Gαq/11 in order to blunt cancer signaling. Here, using mouse melanocyte cell graft tumorigenesis models, we determined that Ric-8A genetic ablation attenuated the abundance and melanoma-driving potential of Gαq-Q209L. A new conditional Ric-8AFlox/Flox; Rosa-CreER+/− mouse strain was derived and used as a tissue source to culture an immortalized, tamoxifen-inducible Ric-8A knockout melanocyte cell line that required 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, phorbol ester) for growth. The cell line failed to grow tumors when grafted into immune-compromised mice regardless of Ric-8A expression. Stable expression of human GNAQQ209L, but not GNAQWT in the cell line promoted TPA-independent cell proliferation, and upon cell grafting in mice, the initiation and robust growth of darkly-pigmented melanoma tumors. Deletion of Ric-8A in GNAQQ209L cells restored TPA-dependent growth, reduced Gαq-Q209L below detectable levels and completely mitigated tumorigenesis from primary or secondary cell line grafts. Interestingly, TPA treatment of cultured GNAQQ209L cells or host animals grafted with GNAQQ209L cells also sharply reduced Gαq-Q209L abundance and tumorigenic capacity. Finally, tumorigenesis initiated from GNAQQ209L cell grafts, followed by host mouse systemic tamoxifen treatment to delete Ric-8A in the grafted cells completely abrogated GNAQQ209L-driven tumor progression unless a stable human RIC-8A transgene was used to rescue the floxed

  14. In vitro clonal analysis of mouse neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Morita, T; Sieber-Blum, M

    1993-06-01

    Analysis of lineage segregation during mammalian neural crest development has not been sufficiently performed due to technical difficulties. In the present study, therefore, we established a clonal culture system of mouse neural crest cells in order to analyze developmental potentials of individual neural crest cells and their patterns of lineage segregation. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and cholera toxin (CT) were applied to culture medium to trigger melanogenic differentiation of mouse neural crest cells. Three morphologically distinct types of clones were observed. (1) "Pigmented clones" consisted of melanocytes only, suggesting that the clone-forming cells were committed to the melanogenic lineage. These clones were observed only in the presence of TPA and CT. The proportion of this type of clone (8%) was much lower than that of the equivalent type of clone in quail trunk neural crest (40-60%; Sieber-Blum and Cohen, 1980, Dev. Biol. 80, 96-106). It therefore appears that the segregation pattern to the melanogenic lineage during mouse neural crest development in vitro differs quantitatively from that in the quail. (2) "Mixed clones" consisted of pigmented and unpigmented cells. Like pigmented clones, they were observed only in the presence of TPA and CT. The clones contained up to four types of cells: melanocytes, S100-positive cells (Schwann cells or melanogenic precursor cells), serotonin (5-HT)-positive autonomic neuron-like cells, and substance P (SP)-immunoreactive sensory neuron-like cells. Thus, at least some mixed clone-forming cells are pluripotent. (3) Two classes of "unpigmented clones" were observed that consisted of unpigmented cells only. These clones developed in the presence and absence of TPA and CT. Unpigmented clones in one class contained up to three types of cells as well as other, as yet unidentified cells: S100-, 5-HT-, and SP-positive cells. This observation suggests that at least some of these clones originate from cells

  15. CpG and TpA frequencies in the plant system.

    PubMed Central

    Boudraa, M; Perrin, P

    1987-01-01

    Higher plant nuclear sequences reveal avoidance of CpG and TpA doublets. Chloroplast sequences avoid the TpA doublet in all codon positions. The chloroplast genome is not methylated but codon positions II-III and untranslated regions avoid CpG. The mitochondrial genome, also unmethylated, avoids CpG in all codon positions. We therefore deduce that methylation is not sufficient to explain CpG avoidance in the higher plant systems. Other factors must be taken into account such as amino acid composition, codon choices and perhaps stability of the DNA helix. PMID:3497385

  16. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate cause differential activation of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent isoforms of protein kinase C in rat colonocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, M; Wali, R K; Hartmann, S C; Niedziela, S M; Roy, H K; Tien, X Y; Sitrin, M D; Brasitus, T A

    1995-01-01

    Considerable evidence that alterations in protein kinase C (PKC) are intimately involved in important physiologic and pathologic processes in many cells, including colonic epithelial cells, has accumulated. In this regard, phorbol esters, a class of potent PKC activators, have been found to induce a number of cellular events in normal or transformed colonocytes. In addition, our laboratory has demonstrated that the major active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, also rapidly (seconds-minutes) activated PKC and increased intracellular calcium in isolated rat colonocytes. These acute responses, however, were lost in vitamin D deficiency and partially restored with the in vivo repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3. The Ca(2+)-independent or novel isoforms of PKC expressed in the rat colon and the isoform-specific responses of PKC to acute treatment with phorbol esters or 1,25(OH)2D3 have not been previously characterized. Moreover, the effects of vitamin D status on PKC isoform expression, distribution, and response to agonists are also unknown. In the present experiments, in addition to PKC-alpha, rat colonocytes were found to express the novel isoforms delta, epsilon, and zeta by Western blotting using isoform-specific PKC antibodies. The tumor-promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate, caused time- and concentration-dependent translocations of all these isoforms except PKC-zeta. In vitamin D deficiency, there were no alterations in colonic PKC isoform expression but significant changes in the subcellular distribution of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -zeta. Acute treatment of colonocytes from D-sufficient, but not D-deficient, rats with 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a rapid transient redistribution of only PKC-alpha from the soluble to the particulate fraction. The alterations in PKC isoform distribution and PKC-alpha responsiveness to 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitamin D deficiency were partially, but significantly, restored with 5-7 d in vivo repletion of this secosteroid. Both 12

  17. Racist Ordering, Settler Colonialism, and EdTPA: A Participatory Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve; Gorlewski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This article tells the story of an intervention by a collective of teacher educators on New York State's adoption of edTPA. Too often in education policy analysis, issues of race are discussed briefly, if at all. This article argues that attending to constructions of race specific to settler colonialism is an important approach to education policy…

  18. Buyer Beware: Lessons Learned from EdTPA Implementation in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Deborah; O'Hara, Kate E.

    2015-01-01

    As states across the country continue their implementation of the Teacher Performance Assessment Portfolio (edTPA), a complex and high-stakes certification requirement for teacher certification, there are important lessons for educators and education advocates to learn from New York State's implementation. As Linda Darling-Hammond, developer and…

  19. Novel Ru (II) complex with TPA derivatives as a donor for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dong Yuel; Chang, Dong Min; Kim, Young Sik

    2015-01-01

    Novel heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(CF3-ppyd-TPA)(tctpy)]+ (ppyd = 2-phenyl-6-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridine, TPA = triphenylamine, and tctpy = 4,4',4″-tricarboxy-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) was designed and investigated to increase its molar absorptivity compared to [Ru(ppd)(tctpy)]+ (ppd = 2-(3-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)pyridine). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were performed to gain insight into the factors responsible for the photovoltaic properties of a dye sensitizer. [Ru(CF3-ppyd-TPA)(tctpy)]+ showed a broad absorption spectrum and enhanced the molar extinction coefficient. Significant improvements to light absorption were exhibited by enhancing the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) characteristics through the addition of the electron-withdrawing group-CF3 para to the organometallic bond and by increasing the transition dipole moment through the addition of TPA as an electron-donating group compared to the [Ru(ppd)(tctpy)]+. This study suggests that a ruthenium-based dye sensitizer would show improved photovoltaic performance in conversion efficiency for DSSCs by adding electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups.

  20. Breakers, Benders, and Obeyers: Inquiring into Teacher Educators' Mediation of edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Andrew R.; Kolman, Joni S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects a qualitative exploratory inquiry into the lived experiences of faculty members working within a system of urban schools of education as they supported diverse teacher candidates in completing the Educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) during its first semesters of high-stakes implementation. Drawing upon…

  1. Developing a Culture of Learning around the edTPA: One University's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew; Carroll, David; Jancic, Mitchell; Markworth, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how an interdisciplinary faculty team at a midsized public university created supports for the Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA), a high-stakes performance assessment for preservice candidates being adopted by many states. We provide a general description of our work in contending with the challenge of developing a…

  2. Anti-tumor promoting activity of bufadienolides from Kalanchoe pinnata and K. daigremontiana x tubiflora.

    PubMed

    Supratman, U; Fujita, T; Akiyama, K; Hayashi, H; Murakami, A; Sakai, H; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H

    2001-04-01

    Five bufadienolides (1-5) isolated from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. daigremontiana x tubiflora (Crassulaceae) were examined for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation in Raji cells induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. All bufadienolides showed inhibitory activity, and bryophyllin A (1) exhibited the most marked inhibition (IC50 = 0.4 microM) among the tested compounds. Bryophyllin C (2), a reduction analogue of 1, and bersaldegenin-3-acetate (3) lacking the orthoacetate moiety were less active. These results strongly suggest that bufadienolides are potential cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:11388478

  3. Preservice Teachers' Adaptations to Tensions Associated with the edTPA during Its Early Implementation in New York and Washington States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwissen, Kevin W.; Choppin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The edTPA is a teaching performance assessment (TPA) that the states of New York and Washington implemented as a licensure requirement in 2013. While TPAs are not new modes of assessment, New York and Washington are the first states to use the edTPA specifically as a compulsory, high-stakes policy lever in an effort to strengthen the quality and…

  4. Development of a selective modulator of aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor activity that exhibits anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Murray, Iain A; Krishnegowda, Gowdahalli; DiNatale, Brett C; Flaveny, Colin; Chiaro, Chris; Lin, Jyh-Ming; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu; Perdew, Gary H

    2010-05-17

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. However, the role of the AHR in normal physiology is still an area of intense investigation. For example, this receptor plays an important role in certain immune responses. We have previously determined that the AHR can mediate repression of acute-phase genes in the liver. For this observation to be therapeutically useful, selective activation of the AHR would likely be necessary. Recently, the selective estrogen receptor ligand WAY-169916 has also been shown to be a selective AHR ligand. WAY-169916 can efficiently repress cytokine-mediated acute-phase gene expression (e.g., SAA1) yet fail to mediate a dioxin response element-driven increase in transcriptional activity. The goals of this study were to structurally modify WAY-169916 to block binding to the estrogen receptor and increase its affinity for the AHR. A number of WAY-169916 derivatives were synthesized and subjected to characterization as AHR ligands. The substitution of a key hydroxy group for a methoxy group ablates binding to the estrogen receptor and increases its affinity for the AHR. The compound 1-allyl-7-trifluoromethyl-1H-indazol-3-yl]-4-methoxyphenol (SGA 360), in particular, exhibited essentially no AHR agonist activity yet was able to repress cytokine-mediated SAA1 gene expression in Huh7 cells. SGA 360 was tested in a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mediated ear inflammatory edema model using C57BL6/J and Ahr(-/-) mice. Our findings indicate that SGA 360 significantly inhibits TPA-mediated ear swelling and induction of a number of inflammatory genes (e.g., Saa3, Cox2, and Il6) in C57BL6/J mice. In contrast, SGA 360 had no effect on TPA-mediated ear swelling or inflammatory gene expression in Ahr(-/-) mice. Collectively, these results indicate that SGA 360 is a selective Ah receptor modulator (SAhRM) that exhibits anti

  5. Glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum L. kills HT-29 cells through apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kye-Taek

    2005-01-01

    Solanum nigrum L. (SNL) has been used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity. We previously isolated glycoprotein from SNL and observed that it decreased viable HT-29 cell numbers at a low concentration (60 microg/mL). This study investigated the apoptotic signal pathway triggered by glycoprotein isolated from SNL in HT-29 cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with SNL glycoprotein (60 microg/mL) for 4 hours resulted in a cytotoxic effect of more than 60%, compared with the control. To explain the apoptotic effects of SNL glycoprotein, we investigated its effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) alpha activity and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor (NF) kappaB in HT-29 cells, using western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Results from these experiments showed that SNL glycoprotein has remarkable inhibitory effects on the activities of TPA (100 nM)-stimulated PKCalpha and NF-kappaB in HT-29 cells. They also substantiated that PKCalpha is a part of the TPA-activated upstream signal pathway of NF-kappaB, since NF-kappaB activity was inhibited by staurosporine (a PKC inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an NF-kappaB inhibitor) in a western blot analysis. Furthermore, to verify the triggering of apoptosis by the SNL glycoprotein, we performed DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining, and protein expression assays of apoptotic-related proteins. The amount of DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell numbers increased in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with SNL glycoprotein. Apoptosis-related protein assays demonstrated that SNL glycoprotein-induced apoptosis is associated with the regulation of bcl-2 and Bax expression. Taken together, the results of this study showed that the activation of PKCalpha, NF-kappaB, and Bax expression by SNL glycoprotein is possibly involved in the apoptotic process. Consequently, these results indicate that SNL glycoprotein causes HT-29 cell death through

  6. Keratinocyte p38δ loss inhibits Ras-induced tumor formation, while systemic p38δ loss enhances skin inflammation in the early phase of chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Alexi; Koppel, Aaron C; Anders, Joanna; Cataisson, Christophe; Yuspa, Stuart H; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Efimova, Tatiana

    2016-05-01

    p38δ expression and/or activity are increased in human cutaneous malignancies, including invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and head and neck SCC, but the role of p38δ in cutaneous carcinogenesis has not been well-defined. We have reported that mice with germline loss of p38δ exhibited a reduced susceptibility to skin tumor development compared with wild-type mice in the two-stage 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) chemical skin carcinogenesis model. Here, we report that p38δ gene ablation inhibited the growth of tumors generated from v-ras(Ha) -transformed keratinocytes in skin orthografts to nude mice, indicating that keratinocyte-intrinsic p38δ is required for Ras-induced tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of v-ras(Ha) -transformed p38δ-null keratinocytes revealed transcriptional changes associated with cellular responses linked to tumor suppression, such as reduced proliferation and increased differentiation, cell adhesion, and cell communications. Notably, a short-term DMBA/TPA challenge, modeling the initial stages of chemical skin carcinogenesis treatment, elicited an enhanced inflammation in p38δ-null skin compared with skin of wild-type mice, as assessed by measuring the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNFα. Additionally, p38δ-null skin and p38δ-null keratinocytes exhibited increased p38α activation and signaling in response to acute inflammatory challenges, suggesting a role for p38α in stimulating the elevated inflammatory response in p38δ-null skin during the initial phases of the DMBA/TPA treatment compared with similarly treated p38δ(+/+) skin. Altogether, our results indicate that p38δ signaling regulates skin carcinogenesis not only by keratinocyte cell-autonomous mechanisms, but also by influencing the interaction between between the epithelial compartment of the developing skin tumor and its stromal microenvironment. © 2015 Wiley

  7. Current perspectives on the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sherita N; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Johansen, Michelle C; McMurry, Timothy L; Johnston, Karen C; Southerland, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    In 1995, the NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) Stroke Study Group published the results of a large multicenter clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of intravenous tPA by revealing a 30% relative risk reduction (absolute risk reduction 11%–15%) compared with placebo at 90 days in the likelihood of having minimal or no disability. Since approval in 1996, tPA remains the only drug treatment for acute ischemic stroke approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the years, an abundance of research and clinical data has supported the safe and efficacious use of intravenous tPA in all eligible patients. Despite such supporting data, it remains substantially underutilized. Challenges to the utilization of tPA include narrow eligibility and treatment windows, risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, perceived lack of efficacy in certain high-risk subgroups, and a limited pool of neurological and stroke expertise in the community. With recent US census data suggesting annual stroke incidence will more than double by 2050, better education and consensus among both the medical and lay public are necessary to optimize the use of tPA for all eligible stroke patients. Ongoing and future research should continue to improve upon the efficacy of tPA through more rapid stroke diagnosis and treatment, refinement of advanced neuroimaging and stroke biomarkers, and successful demonstration of alternative means of reperfusion. PMID:24591838

  8. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of stroke: therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, James F

    2008-06-01

    Today there exists only one FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke; i.e., the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). In the aftermath of the failed stroke clinical trials with the nitrone spin trap/radical scavenger, NXY-059, a number of articles raised the question: are we doing the right thing? Is the animal research truly translational in identifying new agents for stroke treatment? This review summarizes the current state of affairs with plasminogen activators in thrombolytic therapy. In addition to therapeutic value, potential side effects of tPA also exist that aggravate stroke injury and offset the benefits provided by reperfusion of the occluded artery. Thus, combinational options (ultrasound alone or with microspheres/nanobubbles, mechanical dissociation of clot, activated protein C (APC), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), neuroserpin and CDP-choline) that could offset tPA toxic side effects and improve efficacy are also discussed here. Desmoteplase, a plasminogen activator derived from the saliva of Desmodus rotundus vampire bat, antagonizes vascular tPA-induced neurotoxicity by competitively binding to low-density lipoprotein related-receptors (LPR) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) interface, minimizing the tPA uptake into brain parenchyma. tPA can also activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of endopeptidases comprised of 24 mammalian enzymes that primarily catalyze the turnover and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs have been implicated in BBB breakdown and neuronal injury in the early times after stroke, but also contribute to vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and axonal regeneration during the later repair phase after stroke. tPA, directly or by activation of MMP-9, could have beneficial effects on recovery after stroke by promoting neurovascular repair through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, any treatment regimen directed at MMPs must consider their

  9. Inhibition of PAI-1 Antiproteolytic Activity Against tPA by RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Damare, Jared; Brandal, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1) inhibits the plasminogen activators: tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been correlated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Pharmacologically suppressing PAI-1 might prevent, or successfully treat PAI-1 related vascular diseases. This can potentially be accomplished by using small RNA molecules (aptamers). This study's goal is to develop RNA aptamers to a region of PAI-1 that will prevent the ability of PAI-1 to interact with the plasminogen activators. The aptamers were generated through a systematic evolution of ligands via exponential enrichment approach that ensures the creation of RNA molecules that bind to our target protein, PAI-1. In vitro assays were used to determine the effect of these aptamers on PAI-1's inhibitory activity. Three aptamers that bind to PAI-1 with affinities in the nanomolar range were isolated. The aptamer clones R10-4 and R10-2 inhibited PAI-1's antiproteolytic activity against tPA and disrupted PAI-1's ability to form a stable covalent complex with tPA. Increasing aptamer concentrations correlated positively with an increase in cleaved PAI-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of RNA molecules that inhibit the antiproteolytic activity of PAI-1. PMID:24922319

  10. X-ray diffraction of solid tin to 1.2 TPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazicki, Amy; Rygg, Ryan; Coppari, Federica; Smith, Ray; Fratanduono, Dayne; Braun, Dave; Kraus, Richard; Swift, Damian; Collins, Gilbert; Eggert, Jon

    2015-06-01

    We present x-ray diffraction studies of solid crystal structure at the highest stress state where such measurements have ever been performed. Using laser-driven ramp compression methods coupled with angle-resolved powder x-ray diffraction at the Omega laser facility, we explore the phase diagram of tin below the melting curve between 0.1 and 1.2 terapascals (TPa). We demonstrate that, at dynamic-compression rates on the order of 107 s-1, tin transforms from the ambient tetragonal beta-Sn phase to the stable high pressure body-centered cubic (bcc) phase with densities consistent with static-compression measurements. Above 0.16 TPa our experiments identify a new feature in the phase diagram: a crystal structure clearly inconsistent with the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) phase identified at these conditions by ambient-temperature static-compression measurements and by zero-kelvin density functional theory structure predictions. Our results suggest that the bcc phase is stabilized relative to hcp at high temperature, analogous to the heavier group IV metal Pb and numerous other elemental metals, and retains this phase during ramp compression to 1.2 TPa. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Surface membrane antigen expression changes induced in vitro by exogenous growth factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Vilpo, J; Hulkkonen, J; Hurme, M; Vilpo, L

    2002-09-01

    The factors determining the growth and survival of cells in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have remained poorly understood. We investigated the effects of optimal mitogen combinations (OMCs) on the expression of 26 surface membrane antigens among 33 CLL patients. The seven OMCs used were selected after pre-testing 14 combinations of (1) S. aureus Cowan I (SAC), (2) interleukin-2 (IL-2), (3) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and (4) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA; also known as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or PMA). In flow cytometry we revealed that OMCs induced statistically highly significant upregulation of the expression of CD5, CD11c, CD19, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD45, CD45RO, CD95, CD126, CD130 and FMC7, and downregulation of CD20 and CD124 expression. Interestingly, the expression of CD27, CD45RA, CD79b, CD80, CD122 and that of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily members CD21, Ig-kappa, Ig-lambda, Ig-delta and Ig-micro were not significantly affected under similar conditions. The expression of several antigens was co-regulated, suggesting common regulatory pathways. These antigens include CD11c/CD5, CD11c/CD22, CD11c/CD126, CD11c/FMC7 as well as CD27/CD45, CD27/CD45RA and CD27/CD79b. Upregulation of surface antigen expression, induced by OMCs, should be applicable in antibody therapy in vitro and in vivo, and in negative stem cell selection for autotransplantation. Furthermore, the current strategy to enhance cell surface antigen expression may be a versatile tool to raise humoral and cell-mediated host defense against CLL cells. Upregulation of proteins mediating positive growth signals (eg CD25, CD40) and negative signals or apoptosis (eg CD95) may be used to sensitize cells to chemotherapy and programmed cell death. PMID:12200683

  12. tPA-S481A prevents neurotoxicity of endogenous tPA in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Armstead, William M; Riley, John; Yarovoi, Serge; Cines, Douglas B; Smith, Douglas H; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2012-06-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with loss of autoregulation due to impaired responsiveness to cerebrovascular dilator stimuli, which leads to cerebral hypoperfusion and neuronal impairment or death. Upregulation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) post-TBI exacerbates loss of cerebral autoregulation and NMDA-receptor-mediated impairment of cerebral hemodynamics, and enhances excitotoxic neuronal death. However, the relationship between NMDA-receptor activation, loss of autoregulation, and neurological dysfunction is unclear. Here, we evaluated the potential therapeutic efficacy of a catalytically inactive tPA variant, tPA S481A, that acts by competing with wild-type tPA for binding, cleavage, and activation of NMDA receptors. Lateral fluid percussion brain injury was produced in anesthetized piglets. Pial artery reactivity was measured via a closed cranial window, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). tPA-S481A prevented impairment of cerebral autoregulation and reduced histopathologic changes after TBI by inhibiting upregulation of the ERK isoform of MAPK. Treatment with this tPA variant provides a novel approach for limiting neuronal toxicity caused by untoward NMDA-receptor activation mediated by increased tPA and glutamate following TBI. PMID:22435890

  13. Lectin interactions with the Jurkat leukemic T-cell line: quantitative binding studies and interleukin-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, G.; Bastin, B.

    1988-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), pea lectin, and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) have been used to investigate their binding properties to Jurkat 77 6.8 leukemic human T cells and their ability to induce these cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2). Binding studies showed that the Jurkat cells fixed 0.82 +/- 0.11 microgram pea lectin, 2.02 +/- 0.17 micrograms Con A, 1.85 +/- 0.07 micrograms PHA and 8.88 +/- 0.61 micrograms WGA. Scatchard plots were linear, indicating that the binding process was homogeneous with respect to the binding constant. PHA and Con A bound with the highest affinity (Kass (apparent) approximately equal to 9 x 10(9) M-1), followed by pea lectin and WGA (Kass (apparent) approximately equal to 3 x 10(9) M-1). The number of lectin binding sites was in agreement with the results of saturation experiments. We also evaluated the effect of the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the binding process. Results show that there were no gross alterations in the value of (apparent) Kass in the case of PHA and WGA. In contrast, the presence of TPA decreased the affinity of Con A and modified the Scatchard profile for pea lectin, which was curvilinear with a concavity turned upward. In this case, data were (apparent) K1 = 17.7 x 10(9) M-1 (high-affinity sites) and (apparent) K2 = 2.6 x 10(9) M-1 (low-affinity sites). The four lectins shared the ability to stimulate Jurkat 77 6.8 cells to secrete IL-2. Optimal lectin concentrations were 20 micrograms/ml (PHA) and 50 micrograms/ml (WGA and Con A). Pea lectin failed to display a dose-response relationship, and IL-2 production increased proportionally with lectin concentration. Con A was the most efficient stimulator (250 U/ml), followed by WGA (160 U/ml) and PHA (108 U/ml).

  14. Role of 3', 5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein kinase C in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein secretion by thyroid-stimulating hormone in isolated ovine thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, J F; Hill, D J; Becks, G P

    1994-05-01

    Isolated sheep thyroid follicles release insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II together with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). We previously showed that TSH suppresses the biosynthesis and release of IGFBPs in vitro which may increase the tissue availability of IGFs, allowing a synergy with TSH which potentiates both thyroid growth and function. Many of the actions of TSH on thyroid cell function are dependent upon activation of adenylate cyclase, although increased synthesis of inositol trisphosphate and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) have also been implicated. We have now examined whether probable changes in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or PKC are involved in TSH-mediated suppression of IGFBP release. Confluent primary cultures of ovine thyroid cells were maintained in serum-free Ham's modified F-12M medium containing transferrin, somatostatin and glycyl-histidyl-lysine (designated 3H), and further supplemented with sodium iodide (10(-8)-10(-3) mol/l), dibutyryl cAMP (0.25-1 mmol/l), forskolin (5-20 mumol/l) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 10(-11)-10(-6) mol/l), with or without exposure to TSH (200 microU/ml). The uptake and organification of Na [125I] by cells was examined after test incubations of up to 48 h, and IGFBPs in conditioned media were analysed by ligand blot using 125I-labelled IGF-II. The PKC activity in the cytosol and plasma membrane fractions of cells was measured by phosphorylation of histone using [gamma-32P]ATP, and PKC immunoreactivity was visualized by Western immunoblot analysis. While dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin largely reproduced the stimulatory effect of TSH on iodine organification, they did not mimic the inhibitory effect of TSH on the secretion of IGFBPs of 43, 34, 28 and 19 kDa. Incubation with physiological or pharmacological concentrations of iodide (10(-6)-10(-3) mol/l) for up to 48 h significantly decreased TSH action on iodide uptake and organification but did not alter the

  15. Regulation of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase activity and regulatory subunit RII beta content by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) during granulosa cell differentiation: possible implication of protein kinase C in bFGF action.

    PubMed

    Oury, F; Faucher, C; Rives, I; Bensaïd, M; Bouche, G; Darbon, J M

    1992-08-01

    We have previously shown that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) inhibits the FSH-induced differentiation of cultured rat granulosa cells, as manifested by prominent reduction of the LH receptor expression. We now investigate the possible sites and mechanism of action of bFGF. Whereas bFGF decreased the cAMP formation induced by FSH, it enhanced the cAMP production caused by cholera toxin and forskolin, suggesting that bFGF exerted its inhibitory action on cell differentiation at a step to cAMP production. Photoaffinity labeling with 8-azido-[32P]cAMP revealed that bFGF markedly reduced the FSH-induced increase in the level of regulatory subunit RII beta of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) type II. In contrast to its striking effect on RII beta expression (70-80% inhibition), bFGF decreased PKA enzymatic activity by only 30%. On the other hand, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) slightly amplified the stimulatory action of FSH and antagonized the bFGF inhibitory effect on both LH receptor expression and RII beta synthesis. We report that the protein kinase C (PKC) activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which impaired granulosa cell differentiation, also abolished the RII beta synthesis induced by FSH. The activation of PKC by bFGF in granulosa cells was supported by the following findings: (i) bFGF markedly enhanced the production of diacylglycerol (2.3-fold stimulation at 5 min), the intracellular activator of PKC; (ii) bFGF promoted tight association of PKC to cellular membranes, a process that is believed to correlate with the enzyme activation; (iii) bFGF induced the phosphorylation of an endogenous M(r) 78,000/pI 4.7 protein that appears as a specific PKC substrate; (iv) bFGF mimicked the TPA-induced transmodulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, reducing by 36% the 125I-EGF binding on granulosa cells. We conclude that bFGF may exert its repressive action on RII beta synthesis, PKA activity, and granulosa cell

  16. Simultaneous cross-linking of CD6 and CD28 induces cell proliferation in resting T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, L M; Rottenberg, M; Jondal, M; Chow, S C

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we showed that simultaneous ligation of the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against CD6 and CD28 induces T-cell proliferation in purified resting T lymphocytes in the absence of T-cell receptor (TCR) occupancy. No cell proliferation was observed when the mAb were cross-linked alone or used simultaneously in the soluble form. T-cell proliferation mediated through CD6/CD28 is accompanied by the up-regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA and expression of IL-2 receptors on the cell surface. In the presence of IL-2-neutralizing mAb the proliferative response of the T cell induced through CD6/CD28 was inhibited dose dependently. Cross-linking mAb to CD6 and CD28 alone or together did not down-regulate the CD3/TCR complex. T-cell proliferation mediated through CD6/CD28 was only partially blocked by the immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporin A (CsA), whereas anti-CD28-induced T-cell proliferation in the presence of the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), was unaffected. In sharp contrast T-cell proliferation mediated by anti-CD6 in the presence of TPA was efficiently blocked by CsA. In addition, two protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, GF 109203X and H-7 dose-dependently inhibited T-cell proliferation mediated through CD6/CD28, suggesting that PKC activation may be involved. Furthermore, there was a marked differential dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the PKC inhibitors on T-cell proliferation mediated by the co-ligation of anti-CD6 or anti-CD28 in the presence of anti-CD3, with the former being more sensitive to PKC inhibition. Taken collectively, our results suggest that T-cell activation can occur through an antigen-independent pathway by cross-linking the accessory molecules, CD6 and CD28, and that these two cell surface antigens may have distinct signalling pathways. Images Figure 3 PMID:9640246

  17. MRI evaluation of BBB disruption after adjuvant AcSDKP treatment of stroke with tPA in rat.

    PubMed

    Ding, G; Zhang, Z; Chopp, M; Li, L; Zhang, L; Li, Q; Wei, M; Jiang, Q

    2014-06-20

    The primary limitation of thrombolytic treatment of ischemic stroke with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the hemorrhagic risk. We tested AcSDKP (N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline), as an auxiliary therapeutic agent, to reduce blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in a combination tPA thrombolytic treatment of stroke. Wistar rats subjected to embolic stroke were randomly assigned to either the tPA monotherapy group (n=9) or combination of tPA and AcSDKP treatment group (n=9) initiated at 4 h after ischemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements were performed before and after the treatments. Immunohistochemical staining and measurements were performed to confirm MRI findings. Longitudinal MRI permeability measurements with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) demonstrated that combination treatment of acute embolic stroke with AcSDKP and tPA significantly reduced BBB leakage, compared to tPA monotherapy, at 3 and 6 days (18.3±9.8 mm3 vs. 65.0±21.0 mm3, p<0.001) after the onset of stroke, although BBB leakage was comparable between the two groups prior to the treatments (6.8±4.4 mm3 vs. 4.3±3.3 mm3, p>0.18). The substantial reduction of BBB leakage observed in the combination treatment group was closely associated with reduced ischemic lesions measured by T2 maps (113.6±24.9 mm3 vs. 188.1±60.8 mm3, p<0.04 at 6 days). Histopathological analysis of the same population of rats showed that the combination treatment significantly reduced parenchymal fibrin deposition (0.063±0.059 mm2 vs. 0.172±0.103 mm2, p<0.03) and infarct volume (146.7±35.9 mm3 vs. 199.3±60.4 mm3, p<0.05) compared to the tPA monotherapy at 6days after stroke. MRI provides biological insight into the therapeutic benefit of combination treatment of stroke with tPA and AcSDKP 4h after onset, and demonstrates significantly improved cerebrovascular integrity with neuroprotective effects compared with tPA monotherapy. PMID:24769225

  18. Conformations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) orchestrate neuronal survival by a crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, T; Lesept, F; Chevilley, A; Lenoir, S; Aimable, M; Briens, A; Hommet, Y; Bardou, I; Parcq, J; Vivien, D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a pleiotropic serine protease of the central nervous system (CNS) with reported neurotrophic and neurotoxic functions. Produced and released under its single chain form (sc), the sc-tPA can be cleaved by plasmin or kallikrein in a two chain form, tc-tPA. Although both sc-tPA and tc-tPA display a similar fibrinolytic activity, we postulated here that these two conformations of tPA (sc-tPA and tc-tPA) could differentially control the effects of tPA on neuronal survival. Using primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons, our present study reveals that sc-tPA is the only one capable to promote N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced calcium influx and subsequent excitotoxicity. In contrast, both sc-tPA and tc-tPA are capable to activate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), a mechanism mediating the antiapoptotic effects of tPA. Interestingly, we revealed a tPA dependent crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR in which a tPA-dependent activation of EGFRs leads to downregulation of NMDAR signaling and to subsequent neurotrophic effects. PMID:26469972

  19. Catheter-directed Thrombolysis with Argatroban and tPA for Massive Iliac and Femoropopliteal Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sharifi, Mohsen; Bay, Curt; Nowroozi, Sasan; Bentz, Suzanne; Valeros, Gayle; Memari, Sara

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is a highly effective approach in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There are no data on the primary use of CDT with argatroban and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients without heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combined administration of argatroban and tPA during CDT for massive DVT in patients without HIT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with massive symptomatic iliac and femoropopliteal DVT underwent CDT with tPA and argatroban within 28 {+-} 6 h of presentation. The dose of tPA was 0.75-1 mg/h through the infusion port and that of argatroban at 0.3-1 {mu}g/kg/min through the side port of the sheath. The patients were evaluated for the efficacy and safety of CDT and recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) at a mean follow-up of 22 months. Results: There was no bleeding or iatrogenic pulmonary embolism with the CDT regimen we used. Grade III lysis (complete resolution of thrombus on venography) was achieved in 30 patients (91 %). In 3 patients with additional inferior vena cava filter thrombosis, further thrombectomy of the filter was required. No patient developed recurrent VTE. Conclusion: Concomitant administration of argatroban and tPA is a highly safe and effective regimen for CDT for massive DVT.

  20. tPA promotes ADAMTS-4-induced CSPG degradation, thereby enhancing neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lemarchant, Sighild; Pruvost, Mathilde; Hébert, Marie; Gauberti, Maxime; Hommet, Yannick; Briens, Aurélien; Maubert, Eric; Gueye, Yatma; Féron, François; Petite, Didier; Mersel, Marcel; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Vaudry, Hubert; Koistinaho, Jari; Ali, Carine; Agin, Véronique; Emery, Evelyne; Vivien, Denis

    2014-06-01

    Although tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is known to promote neuronal remodeling in the CNS, no mechanism of how this plastic function takes place has been reported so far. We provide here in vitro and in vivo demonstrations that this serine protease neutralizes inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) by promoting their degradation via the direct activation of endogenous type 4 disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-4). Accordingly, in a model of compression-induced spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats, we found that administration of either tPA or its downstream effector ADAMTS-4 restores the tPA-dependent activity lost after the SCI and thereby, reduces content of CSPGs in the spinal cord, a cascade of events leading to an improved axonal regeneration/sprouting and eventually long term functional recovery. This is the first study to reveal a tPA-ADAMTS-4 axis and its function in the CNS. It also raises the prospect of exploiting such cooperation as a therapeutic tool for enhancing recovery after acute CNS injuries. PMID:24576594

  1. Differential effects of free and liposome-associated 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methylglycerophosphocholine on protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, S; Olah, Z; Cuvillier, O; Edsall, L C; Janoff, A S

    1999-07-01

    Incorporation of ET-18-OCH3 into well-characterized liposomes known as ELL-12 has eliminated its gastrointestinal and hemolytic toxicity without loss of growth inhibiting activity. ET-18-OCH3, but not ELL-12, blunted the increase in membrane protein kinase C (PKC) activity induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-myristate (TPA) and markedly reduced levels of PKC alpha in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with ELL-12 neither inhibited TPA-induced translocations of PKC alpha and PKC delta to the particulate fraction nor caused down-regulation, and did not affect the cellular distribution of TPA-insensitive PKC zeta. In Jurkat T cells, where ELL-12 markedly induced apoptosis that was blocked by an inhibitor of caspase-3-like activities, it had no effect on PKC activity or translocation induced by TPA. Thus, it seems unlikely that PKC is involved in the therapeutic effects of ELL-12. PMID:10413111

  2. Dependence of Proximal GC Boxes and Binding Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Basal and Valproic Acid-Induced Expression of t-PA

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Pia; Magnusson, Mia; Karlsson, Lena; Bergh, Niklas; Jern, Sverker

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release is a pivotal response to protect the circulation from occluding thrombosis. We have shown that the t-PA gene is epigenetically regulated and greatly induced by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). We now investigated involvement of known t-PA promoter regulatory elements and evaluated dependence of potential interacting transcription factors/cofactors. Methods. A reporter vector with an insert, separately mutated at either the t-PA promoter CRE or GC box II or GC box III elements, was transfected into HT-1080 and HUVECs and challenged with VPA. HUVECs were targeted with siRNA against histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and selected transcription factors from the Sp/KLF family. Results. An intact VPA-response was observed with CRE mutated constructs, whereas mutation of GC boxes II and III reduced the magnitude of the induction by 54 and 79% in HT-1080 and 49 and 50% in HUVECs, respectively. An attenuated induction of t-PA mRNA was observed after Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5 depletion. KLF2 and p300 (HAT) were identified as positive regulators of basal t-PA expression and Sp4 and KLF9 as repressors. Conclusion. VPA-induced t-PA expression is dependent on the proximal GC boxes in the t-PA promoter and may involve interactions with Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5. PMID:26966581

  3. Crystal structure searching by free energy surface trekking: application to carbon at 1 TPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Suzuki, N.; Shimizu, K.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed an ab-initio crystal structure searching method, free energy surface trekking (FEST). This method consists of an ascent-run and a descent-run. First, the system is forced to climb up a free energy surface following by the inversion of the restoring forces acting on the simulation cell (ascent-run). Then, the system climbs down the surface toward neighboring local minima according to the release from the constraint of the inversion immediately after the system crosses the ridges of the surface (descent-run). We have applied the FEST simulations to carbon at terapascal pressures and obtained a BC8-like structure with a tetragonal I41 in addition to the earlier-predicted BC8, R8, and simple cubic structures. This structure is mechanically stable in the pressure range of at least 0.5-3.5 TPa, and has a potential to survive as a metastable structure in carbon at terapascal pressures.

  4. The quest for TPa Hugoniot data: using the DEMG in high velocity pulsed power experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeff H; Rousculp, Christopher L; Holtkamp, David B; Oro, David M; Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L; Reinovsky, Robert E

    2010-12-20

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities at pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive >60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. The 1-D model of the DEMG has been refined from a given current profile to a time-varying inductance. Various techniques are used to model the FOS (Foil Opening Switch) on the DEMG and a refined DEMG model is then used to drive a liner into various targets to determine the optimum design for the experiment and analyze the possible conditions and complications.

  5. t-PA, but not desmoteplase, induces plasmin-dependent opening of a blood-brain barrier model under normoxic and ischaemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roxann; Niego, Be'eri; Croucher, David R; Pedersen, Lars O; Medcalf, Robert L

    2014-05-27

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is the only thrombolytic treatment available for patients with acute ischaemic stroke. However, t-PA can increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Desmoteplase is a plasminogen activator derived from the common vampire bat, currently under clinical development for ischaemic stroke. We compared how t-PA and desmoteplase influenced BBB permeability using a human in vitro model where primary brain endothelial cells (BEC) and astrocytes are co-cultured on the opposite sides of a porous membrane. Permeability changes were evaluated 6 or 24h post-stimulation by passage of fluorescent albumin across the membrane. Under normoxic conditions, t-PA, but not desmoteplase, increased BBB permeability. Surprisingly, the ability of t-PA to affect the barrier was lost under conditions of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Addition of plasminogen re-sensitised the BBB to the action of t-PA under both normoxia and OGD, but did not affect the inert behaviour of desmoteplase, even when digested fibrinogen was added to ensure optimal plasmin generation. These observations coincided with plasmin-dependent changes in astrocyte and BEC morphology and disruption of tight junction proteins in BECs, specifically initiated by t-PA but not by desmoteplase. Finally, inhibition of plasmin post-stimulation with t-PA and plasminogen, especially within 2h, protected the BBB against t-PA-mediated barrier opening. Hence t-PA, but not desmoteplase, increases BBB permeability under both normoxic and OGD conditions in a reversible, plasmin-dependent process. The inability of desmoteplase to increase permeability despite its capacity to generate plasmin provides further support for its use as thrombolytic in patients with ischaemic stroke. PMID:24675027

  6. Rabies virus replication in primary murine bone marrow macrophages and in human and murine macrophage-like cell lines: implications for viral persistence.

    PubMed

    Ray, N B; Ewalt, L C; Lodmell, D L

    1995-02-01

    To determine whether rabies viruses replicate in macrophage or macrophage-like cells, several human and murine macrophage-like cell lines, as well as primary cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages, were incubated with the Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) virus and several different street rabies viruses (SRV). ERA rabies virus replicated well in human monocytic U937 and THP-1 cells and murine macrophage IC-21 cells, as well as primary cultures of murine macrophages. Minimal replication was detected in murine monocytic WEHI-3BD- and PU5-1R cells, and ERA virus did not replicate in murine monocytic P388D1 or J774A.1 cells. A tissue culture-adapted SRV of bat origin also replicated in IC-21 and U937 cells. Non-tissue culture-adapted SRV isolated from different animal species, particularly bats, replicated minimally in U937, THP-1, IC-21 cells and primary murine bone marrow macrophages. To determine whether rabies virus replication is dependent upon the state of differentiation of the macrophage-like cell, human promyelocytic HL-60 cells were differentiated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). ERA rabies virus replicated in the differentiated HL-60 cells but not in undifferentiated HL-60 cells. Persistent infections were established in macrophage-like U937 cells with ERA rabies virus and SRV, and infectious SRV was isolated from adherent bone marrow cells of mice that had been infected 96 days previously. Virus harvested from persistently infected U937 cells and the adherent bone marrow cells had specifically adapted to each cell. This specificity was shown by the inability of the viruses to infect macrophages other than U937 cells and primary bone marrow macrophages, respectively. Virus titers of the persistently infected U937 cells fluctuated with extended cell passage. After 30 passages, virus released from the cells had lost virulence as shown by its inability to kill intracranially inoculated mice. However, the avirulent virus released from the

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.; and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  8. A novel retinoic acid analog, 4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate, inhibits gastric cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kong-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Fei-Hu; Qin, Rong; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Hua-Gang; Wu, Fan-Rong; Ge, Jin-Fang; Han, Wen-Xiu; Yin, Chun-Lin; Li, Hong-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) analogs have been used in the treatment of a variety of cancers; however, their application is limited due to serious therapy-related sequelae. In the present study, the effects of a novel RA analog, 4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR), on the growth of gastric cancer cells were evaluated. Three gastric cancer cell lines, AGS, MKN-74 and SC-M1, were treated with either all‑trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or ATPR, and their growth and distribution in different cell cycle phases were assessed using an MTT assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining followed by flow cytometry. The binding affinity of ATPR to the retinoic acid receptors, retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α) and retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α), was determined using ligand-binding assays. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was measured using a luciferase reporter assay. Western blot analysis was used to determine cyclin E, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression. ATPR preferentially bound RXR-α (0.04 nM) as compared with RAR-α (20.96 nM). Although both ATRA and ATPR inhibited the growth of AGS, MKN-74 and SC-M1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, a significantly greater inhibitory effect was observed with treatment with 5 and 500 µM ATPR for 3 days (P<0.05). In addition, ATPR (50 µM), but not ATRA, significantly increased the population of AGS and MKN-74 cells in the subG1 phase and decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (P<0.05). Furthermore, in MNK-74 and SC-M1 cells treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 5 or 10 µM of ATPR significantly suppressed the activity of the AP-1 reporter as compared to treatment with ATRA (P<0.05). Thus, ATPR inhibits cancer cell proliferation to a greater extent compared to ATRA, possibly through the RXR-mediated inhibition of AP-1 activity. PMID:24317440

  9. Peripheral inflammation is associated with remote global gene expression changes in the brain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the central nervous system (CNS) was once considered an immunologically privileged site, in recent years it has become increasingly evident that cross talk between the immune system and the CNS does occur. As a result, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease or psoriasis, are often further burdened with neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety and fatigue. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of neuroimmune communication pathways, the precise effect of peripheral immune activation on neural circuitry remains unclear. Utilizing transcriptomics in a well-characterized murine model of systemic inflammation, we have started to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which inflammation originating in the periphery can induce transcriptional modulation in the brain. Methods Several different systemic and tissue-specific models of peripheral toll-like-receptor-(TLR)-driven (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid and Imiquimod) and sterile (tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)) inflammation were induced in C57BL/6 mice. Whole brain transcriptional profiles were assessed and compared 48 hours after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or vehicle, using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. Target gene induction, identified by microarray analysis, was validated independently using qPCR. Expression of the same panel of target genes was then investigated in a number of sterile and other TLR-dependent models of peripheral inflammation. Results Microarray analysis of whole brains collected 48 hr after LPS challenge revealed increased transcription of a range of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the brain. In addition to acute LPS challenge, ISGs were induced in the brain following both chronic LPS-induced systemic inflammation and Imiquimod-induced skin inflammation. Unique to the brain, this transcriptional response is

  10. Glucocorticoid-induced tethered transrepression requires SUMOylation of GR and formation of a SUMO-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guoqiang; Ganti, Krishna Priya; Chambon, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Upon binding of a glucocorticoid (GC), the GC receptor (GR) can exert one of three transcriptional regulatory functions. We recently reported that SUMOylation of the GR at position K293 in humans (K310 in mice) within the N-terminal domain is indispensable for GC-induced evolutionary conserved inverted repeated negative GC response element (IR nGRE)-mediated direct transrepression. We now demonstrate that the integrity of this GR SUMOylation site is mandatory for the formation of a GR-small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs)-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex, which is indispensable for NF-κB/AP1-mediated GC-induced tethered indirect transrepression in vitro. Using GR K310R mutant mice or mice containing the N-terminal truncated GR isoform GRα-D3 lacking the K310 SUMOylation site, revealed a more severe skin inflammation than in WT mice. Importantly, cotreatment with dexamethasone (Dex) could not efficiently suppress a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation in these mutant mice, whereas it was clearly decreased in WT mice. In addition, in mice selectively ablated in skin keratinocytes for either nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1)/silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) corepressors or histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), Dex-induced tethered transrepression and the formation of a repressing complex on DNA-bound NF-κB/AP1 were impaired. We previously suggested that GR ligands that would lack both (+)GRE-mediated transactivation and IR nGRE-mediated direct transrepression activities of GCs may preferentially exert the therapeutically beneficial GC antiinflammatory properties. Interestingly, we now identified a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory selective GR agonist (SEGRA) that selectively lacks both Dex-induced (+)GRE-mediated transactivation and IR nGRE-mediated direct transrepression functions, while still exerting a tethered indirect transrepression activity and could therefore be clinically lesser

  11. Chemopreventive activity of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) from yacon against TPA-induced Raji cells deformation.

    PubMed

    Siriwan, D; Miyawaki, C; Miyamoto, T; Naruse, T; Okazaki, K; Tamura, H

    2011-05-15

    Yacon is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine by the natives in South America. In Japan, it becomes popular as a health food. Sesquiterpene Lactones (SLs) from yacon leaves were investigated and the active SLs such as enhydrin, uvedalin and sonchifolin, bearing alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone and epoxides as the active functional groups, were identified by 1H-6000 MHz-NMR. Chemopreventive and cytotoxic activities were determined using different primary screening methods. In this study, all tested SLs strongly inhibited TPA-induced deformed of Raji cells. The IC50 values of yacon SLs from anti-deforming assay were 0.04-0.4 microM. Interestingly, yacon SLs showed more potential of chemo preventive activity than both curcumin and parthenolide. However, the cytotoxicity on Raji cells was observed at high concentration of yacon SLs. The degree of anti-deformation was ranked in order: enhydrin >uvedalin >sonchifolin >parthenolide >curcumin. As according to structure-activity relationship, the high activities of enhydrin, uvedalin and sonchifolin may be due to the 2-methyl-2-butenoate and its epoxide moiety. PMID:22097098

  12. Crystal Structure Searching by Free Energy Surface Trekking: Application to Carbon above 1 TPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Naoshi; Shimizu, Katsuya

    2013-06-01

    Crystal structure determination of materials under extreme conditions has been one of grand challenges in high-pressure materials science. In computer simulations, the crystal structure searching is carried out by exploring Gibbs free energy surface (GFES) at given pressures and temperatures. Here, we propose a new crystal structure searching technique named as free energy surface trekking (FEST). FEST is based on a very simple idea and consists of an ascent-run and a descent-run. In the ascent-run, the system is forced to ascend GFES from a starting local minimum by following the inversion of the driving force acting on the simulation cell. Then, the system descends it toward a neighboring local minimum by flipping the inverted force at the ridge of GFES. The details of GFES around the starting local minimum are more correctly obtained by more investigating different trekking routes. We have applied FEST to carbon at 1.2 TPa and at 300 K, and successfully obtained the transition from the cubic diamond phase to the previously predicted BC8 phase. In this transition, 3 cell-angles concurrently increase from 90° to 101° in the ascent-run and become 109° through the descent-run, in which the activation energy is approximately 0.17 Ry/atom.

  13. Russian Nesting Doll Complexes of Molecular Baskets and Zinc Containing TPA Ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhiquan, Lei; Polen, Shane; Hadad, Christopher M; RajanBabu, T V; Badjić, Jovica D

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we examined the structural and electronic complementarities of convex 1-Zn(II), comprising functionalized tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) ligand, and concave baskets 2 and 3, having glycine and (S)-alanine amino acids at the rim. With the assistance of (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, we found that basket 2 would entrap 1-Zn(II) in water to give equimolar 1-Zn⊂2in complex (K = (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10(3) M(-1)) resembling Russian nesting dolls. Moreover, C3 symmetric and enantiopure basket 3, containing (S)-alanine groups at the rim, was found to transfer its static chirality to entrapped 1-Zn(II) and, via intermolecular ionic contacts, twist the ligand's pyridine rings into a left-handed (M) propeller (circular dichroism spectroscopy). With molecular baskets embodying the second coordination sphere about metal-containing TPAs, the here described findings should be useful for extending the catalytic function and chiral discrimination capability of TPAs. PMID:27305044

  14. Loss of endogenous Nfatc1 reduces the rate of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jill; Roth, Eve; Roberts, Natalie; Zwick, Rachel; Lin, Samantha; Fletcher, Sean; Tadeu, Ana; Wu, Christine; Beck, Amanda; Zeiss, Caroline; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Horsley, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapies using calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine A, are associated with a higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma formation in mice and humans. Calcineurin is believed to suppress tumorigenesis in part through Nfatc1, a transcription factor expressed primarily in hair follicle bulge stem cells in mice. However, mice overexpressing a constitutively active Nfatc1 isoform in the skin epithelium developed increased spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas. Because follicular stem cells can contribute to skin tumorigenesis, whether the endogenous expression of Nfatc1 inhibits or enhances skin tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we show that loss of the endogenous expression of Nfatc1 suppresses the rate of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis. Inducible deletion of Nfatc1 in follicular stem cells before tumor initiation significantly reduces the rate of tumorigenesis and the contribution of follicular stem cells to skin tumors. We find that skin tumors from mice lacking Nfatc1 display reduced Hras codon 61 mutations. Furthermore, Nfatc1 enhances the expression of genes involved in DMBA metabolism and increases DMBA-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes. Together these data implicate Nfatc1 in the regulation of skin stem cell–initiated tumorigenesis via the regulation of DMBA metabolism. PMID:26310443

  15. Cloning and characterization of the goadsporin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0584.

    PubMed

    Onaka, Hiroyasu; Nakaho, Mizuho; Hayashi, Keiko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Furumai, Tamotsu

    2005-12-01

    The biosynthetic gene cluster of goadsporin, a polypeptide antibiotic containing thiazole and oxazole rings, was cloned from Streptomyces sp. TP-A0584. The cluster contains a structural gene, godA, and nine god (goadsporin) genes involved in post-translational modification, immunity and transcriptional regulation. Although the gene organization is similar to typical bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters, each goadsporin biosynthetic gene shows low homology to these genes. Goadsporin biosynthesis is initiated by the translation of godA, and the subsequent cyclization, dehydration and acetylation are probably catalysed by godD, godE, godF, godG and godH gene products. godI shows high similarity to the 54 kDa subunit of the signal recognition particle and plays an important role in goadsporin immunity. Furthermore, four goadsporin analogues were produced by site-directed mutagenesis of godA, suggesting that this biosynthesis machinery is used for the heterocyclization of peptides. PMID:16339937

  16. Design, synthesis, and characterization of TPA-thiophene-based amide or imine functionalized molecule for potential optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant K.; Sathyapalan, Amarchand; Zhu, Yakun; Free, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    New sets of molecules containing tri-phenyl-amine (TPA) core and thiophene unit with amide and imine functional groups are designed, synthesized, characterized, and compared. These are solution processable small molecules with high mobility. The newly designed molecules have better solubility due to the C=N (imine) and CONH2 (amide) moiety as compared to the established molecules with CH=CH (methine) for optoelectronic applications. They have an optimal energy band gap, which indicates their potential utility in a variety of optoelectronic applications. These molecules also show efficient intermolecular charge transfer mechanisms similar to conventional organic semiconducting molecules as evidenced by optical measurements. Density functional theory simulation results show that the localization of the frontier highest occupied molecular orbital is around the TPA core for molecules coupled with imine and amide, and is reasonably stable.

  17. Effects of Early Post-Ischemic Reperfusion and tPA on Cerebrovascular Function and Nitrosative Stress in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Ahnstedt, Hilda; Sweet, Julie; Cruden, Patrick; Bishop, Nicole; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2016-06-01

    Stroke is a major health issue in women. Our previous studies in male rats showed decreased myogenic tone in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), while tone in parenchymal arterioles (PAs) was increased. This vascular response may aggravate stroke damage in males by limiting reperfusion; however, the effect in females is not known. The current study investigated the effect of I/R and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on myogenic tone and reactivity of MCAs and PAs in female rats. Nitrosative stress by peroxynitrite and recruitment of inflammatory neutrophils to the microvasculature were also studied. Female rats were subjected to 2-h MCA filament occlusion (n = 16) or sham surgery (n = 17) and given tPA (1 mg/kg, i.v) or vehicle followed by 30-min reperfusion. Myogenic tone and reactivity were measured in isolated and pressurized MCAs and PAs from the same animals. Cerebrovascular F-actin, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, peroxynitrite marker), and intravascular neutrophils were quantified. Myogenic tone and constriction to the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine were decreased in MCAs but unchanged in PAs after I/R with no effect of tPA. F-actin and 3-NT expression were unaffected by I/R or tPA. Our study showed that MCAs from females, similar to what has been seen in males, are dilated after I/R and have decreased myogenic tone while tone in PAs was unchanged. Increased small vessel resistance may contribute to decreased reperfusion and worse outcome after stroke. PMID:27125535

  18. Pulsed-high intensity focused ultrasound enhanced tPA mediated thrombolysis in a novel in vivo clot model, a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael J.; Frenkel, Victor; Dromi, Sergio; Thomas, Peter; Lewis, Ryan P.; Li, King CP; Horne, McDonald; Wood, Bradford J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Thrombotic disease continues to account for significant morbidity and mortality. Ultrasound energy has been investigated as a potential primary and adjunctive treatment for thrombotic disease. We have previously shown that pulsed-high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enhances thrombolysis induced by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in vitro, including describing the non-destructive mechanism by which tPA availability and consequent activity is increased. In this study we aimed to determined if the same effects could be achieved in vivo. Materials and Methods In this study, pulsed-HIFU exposures combined with tPA boluses was compared to treatment with tPA alone, HIFU alone and control in a novel in vivo clot model. Clots were formed in the rabbit marginal ear vein and verified using venography and infrared imaging. The efficacy of thrombolytic treatment was monitored via high resolution ultrasonography for five hours post treatment. The cross-sectional area of clots at 4 points along the vein was measured and normalized to the pre-treatment size. Results At five hours the complete recanalization of clots treated with pulsed-HIFU and tPA was significantly different from the partial recanalization seen with tPA treatment alone. tPA treatment alone showed a significant decrease in clot versus control, where HIFU was not significantly different than control. Histological analysis of the vessel walls in the treated veins showed no apparent irreversible damage to endothelial cells or extravascular tissue. Conclusions This study demonstrates that tPA mediated thrombolysis can be significantly enhanced when combined with non-invasive pulsed-HIFU exposures. PMID:17481699

  19. PACAP Interacts with PAC1 Receptors to Induce Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Expression and Activity in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A.; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures. PMID:25658447

  20. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Kumkum; Armstead, William M; Kiessling, J W; Chen, Xiao - Han; Smith, Douglas H; Higazi, Abd Ar; Cines, Douglas B; Bdeir, Khalil; Zaitsev, Sergei; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  1. Circulating t-PA antigen predicts major adverse coronary events in patients with stable coronary artery disease--a 13-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Niessner, Alexander; Graf, Senta; Nikfardjam, Mariam; Speidl, Walter S; Huber-Beckmann, Renate; Zorn, Gerlinde; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt

    2003-08-01

    Thrombus formation after rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque plays a crucial role in coronary artery disease (CAD). A decreased endogenous fibrinolytic system and prothrombotic factors are supposed to influence coronary thrombosis. It was our aim to investigate the predictive value of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen, von Willebrand Factor, Lipoprotein (a) and anti-cardiolipin antibodies for major adverse coronary events in patients with stable CAD in a prospective cohort study of more than 10 years. We observed 141 patients with angiographically proven CAD for a median follow-up period of 13 years. t-PA antigen was the only marker predicting coronary events (logistic regression, p = 0.044) with a poor prognosis for patients in the 5th quintile with an odds ratio of 7.3 (compared to the 1st quintile). The odds ratio even increased to 10.0 for coronary events associated with the "natural course" of CAD excluding events due to restenosis. t-PA antigen had a slightly higher prognostic power (ROC curve; AUC = 0.69) than fasting glucose (AUC = 0.68) and cholesterol (AUC = 0.67). Triglycerides influenced plasma levels of t-PA antigen (regression, p < 0.001). The predictive value of t-PA antigen remained significant after adjustment for inflammation (logistic regression, p = 0.013) and extent of CAD (p = 0.045) but disappeared adjusting for insulin resistance (p = 0.12). In conclusion t-PA antigen predicted coronary events during a very long-term follow-up with a comparable prognostic power to established cardiovascular risk factors. Markers of insulin resistance influenced t-PA antigen and its predictive value. PMID:12888883

  2. Cortical-layer-specific effects of PACAP and tPA on interneuron migration during post-natal development of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Emilie; Bénard, Magalie; Komuro, Hitoshi; Lebon, Alexis; Vivien, Denis; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Vaudry, David; Galas, Ludovic

    2014-07-01

    During early post-natal development of the cerebellum, granule neurons (GN) execute a centripetal migration toward the internal granular layer, whereas basket and stellate cells (B/SC) migrate centrifugally to reach their final position in the molecular layer (ML). We have previously shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates in vitro the expression and release of the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from GN, but the coordinated role of PACAP and tPA during interneuron migration has not yet been investigated. Here, we show that endogenous PACAP is responsible for the transient arrest phase of GN at the level of the Purkinje cell layer (PCL) but has no effect on B/SC. tPA is devoid of direct effect on GN motility in vitro, although it is widely distributed along interneuron migratory routes in the ML, PCL, and internal granular layer. Interestingly, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 reduces the migration speed of GN in the ML and PCL, and that of B/SC in the ML. Taken together, these results reveal for the first time that tPA facilitates the migration of both GN and fast B/SC at the level of their intersection in the ML through degradation of the extracellular matrix. Crucial role of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in interneuron migration. Interneuron migration is a critical step for normal establishment of neuronal network. This study indicates that, in the post-natal cerebellum, tPA facilitates the opposite migration of immature excitatory granule neurons (GN) and immature inhibitory basket/stellate cells (B/SC) along the same migratory route. These data show that tPA exerts a pivotal role in neurodevelopment. PMID:24646324

  3. Treatment of a Class II Division 2 Patient with Severe Skeletal Discrepancy by Using a Custom Made TPA Proclination Spring

    PubMed Central

    Paduano, Sergio; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Biase, Giuseppe di; Cioffi, Iacopo

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a boy, aged 15.3 years, with permanent dentition, mesofacial typology, affected with a severe sagittal skeletal Class II division 2 malocclusion, due to a mandibular retrusion. His chief compliant was the position of the maxillary incisors, displaced too palatally, and an impaired facial profile. Herbst and multi-bracket straightwire fixed appliances, together with a custom made modified transpalatal arch (i.e. TPA proclination spring), were used to correct the sagittal discrepancy and to improve the attractiveness of the impaired facial profile. PMID:24155800

  4. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of the thermophysical properties of shocked liquid ammonia for pressures up to 1.3 TPa.

    PubMed

    Li, Dafang; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Jun

    2013-10-01

    We investigate via quantum molecular-dynamics simulations the thermophysical properties of shocked liquid ammonia up to the pressure 1.3 TPa and temperature 120,000 K. The principal Hugoniot is predicted from the wide-range equation of state, which agrees well with the available experimental measurements up to 64 GPa. Our systematic study of the structural properties demonstrates that the liquid ammonia undergoes a gradual phase transition along the Hugoniot. At about 4800 K, the system transforms into a metallic, complex mixture state consisting of NH3, N2, H2, N, and H. Furthermore, we discuss the implications for the interiors of Uranus and Neptune. PMID:24116573

  5. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in tPA Treated Patients Is Associated with Worse Short-term Functional Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Amelia K.; Kapoor, Niren; Albright, Karen C.; Lyerly, Michael J.; Rawal, Pawan V.; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Alvi, Muhammad; Houston, J. Thomas; Sisson, April; Beasley, T. Mark; Alexandrov, Anne W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Miller, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Systemic Inflammatory Response (SIRS) is a generalized inflammatory state. The primary goal of the study was to determine if differences exist in outcomes in SIRS and non-SIRS IV tPA treated patients. Methods Consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of SIRS during their admission. SIRS was defined as the presence of two or more: body temperature <36° C or >38° C, HR >90, respiratory rate >20 and WBC <4,000/mm or >12,000mm or >10% bands. Patients diagnosed with infection (via positive culture) were excluded. Results Out of 241 patients, 44 had evidence of SIRS (18%). Adjusting for pre-tPA NIHSS, age, and race, SIRS remained a predictor of poor functional outcome at discharge (OR= 2.58, 95% CI, 1.16 – 5.73, p=0.0197). Conclusion In our sample of tPA treated patients, almost 1 out of 5 patients developed SIRS. Further, we found the presence of SIRS to be associated with poor short-term functional outcomes and prolonged length of stay. PMID:23704110

  6. Evaluation of adult dTPaP vaccination coverage in France: experience in Lyon city, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Compliance with official recommendations can be assessed by evaluating vaccination coverage (VC) in populations. The main objective of our study was to assess VC of adults against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis (dTPaP) according to age. The second objective was to explore if vaccination status could be confirmed by documentation. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 680 adults consulting for biological examination in private laboratories in Lyon (France) to evaluate VC for diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis (dTPaP) and enabled reported vaccinations to be compared with documented, confirmed vaccinations. Results Verification of documented, confirmed vaccinations disclosed VC of 78.7% for tetanus, 63.6% for poliomyelitis, 57.8% for diphtheria and 10.7% for pertussis. Comparison of confirmed and self-reported vaccinations revealed that a large percentage of people who thought that they were vaccinated were not. VC significantly decreased with age for diphtheria and poliomyelitis and did not vary by gender. The VC rate for pertussis has increased since the 2008 recommendations were made. Conclusions The main thrust of this study was to compare reported and confirmed data. A significant percentage of people wrongly believed that they were up to date with their vaccination. PMID:23114050

  7. A family of uranyl-aromatic dicarboxylate (pht-, ipa-, tpa-) framework hybrid materials: photoluminescence, surface photovoltage and dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Wang, Che; Shi, Zhong-Feng; Song, Jian; Bai, Feng-Ying; Wang, Ji-Xiao; Xing, Yong-Heng

    2015-07-01

    Four uranyl complexes [(UO2)(pht)H2O]·H2O (pht = phthalic acid) (1), (UO2)2(Hipa)4(H2O)2 (Hipa = isophthalic acid) (2), (UO2)(tpa)(DMF)2 (tpa = terephthalic acid) (3) and (UO2)(box)2 (box = benzoic acid) (4) were synthesized by the reaction of UO2(CH3COO)2·2H2O as the metal source and phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid or benzoic acid as the ligand. They were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, XRD, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. The structural analysis reveals that complex 1 exhibits a one-dimensional chain structure constructed by the building unit [(UO2)2(pht)4(H2O)2] and further extends the chain into a 2D supramolecular architecture by hydrogen bonding interactions. Complex 2 is a discrete [(UO2)2(Hipa)4(H2O)2] structure, and by the hydrogen bonding interaction, forms a 3D supramolecular structure. In complexes 3 and 4, adjacent uranyl polyhedra form a 1D chain through bridging terephthalic acid and benzoic acid, respectively. In order to extend their functional properties, their photoluminescence, surface photovoltage and dye adsorption properties have been studied. PMID:26038888

  8. Inhibition of glutamine-dependent autophagy increases t-PA production in CHO cell fed-batch processes.

    PubMed

    Jardon, Mario A; Sattha, Beheroze; Braasch, Katrin; Leung, Amy O; Côté, Hélène C F; Butler, Michael; Gorski, Sharon M; Piret, James M

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the cellular responses caused by metabolic stress is crucial for the design of robust fed-batch bioprocesses that maximize the expression of recombinant proteins. Chinese hamster ovary cells were investigated in chemically defined, serum-free cultures yielding 10(7) cells/mL and up to 500 mg/L recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA). Upon glutamine depletion increased autophagosome formation and autophagic flux were observed, along with decreased proliferation and high viability. Higher lysosomal levels correlated with decreased productivity. Chemical inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) increased the t-PA yield by 2.8-fold. Autophagy-related MAP1LC3 and LAMP2 mRNA levels increased continuously in all cultures. Analysis of protein quality revealed that 3-MA treatment did not alter glycan antennarity while increasing fucosylation, galactosylation, and sialylation. Taken together, these findings indicate that inhibition of autophagy can considerably increase the yield of biotechnology fed-batch processes, without compromising the glycosylation capacity of cells. Monitoring or genetic engineering of autophagy provides novel avenues to improve the performance of cell culture-based recombinant protein production. PMID:22125188

  9. Embryonic Stem Cells/Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xuezhu; Zhang, Jiuchun; Smuga-Otto, Kimberly; Tian, Shulan; Yu, Junying; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are closely related to the inner cell mass, human ESCs appear to be more closely related to the later primitive ectoderm. For example, human ESCs and primitive ectoderm share a common epithelial morphology, growth factor requirements, and the potential to differentiate to all three embryonic germ layers. However, it has previously been shown that human ESCs can also differentiate to cells expressing markers of trophoblast, an extraembryonic lineage formed before the formation of primitive ectoderm. Here, we show that phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate causes human ESCs to undergo an epithelial mesenchymal transition and to differentiate into cells expressing markers of parietal endoderm, another extraembryonic lineage. We further confirmed that this differentiation is through the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) pathway and demonstrated that a particular PKC subtype, PKC-δ, is most responsible for this transition. PMID:22213079

  10. Effect of methylazoxymethanol acetate on bluegill sunfish cell cultures in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Borenfreund, E.; Babich, H.; Martin-Alguacil, N.

    1989-06-01

    An epithelioid cell line derived from fin tissue of bluegill sunfish (designated BG/F) exhibited early indications of cell transformation upon exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM acetate). Such changes included the induction of polyploidy, increased colony-forming efficiency, loss of contact inhibition, and formation of transformed foci. Unlike later transformation characteristics observed with mammalian cells, the MAM acetate-treated BG/F cells could not be propagated under conditions of anchorage independence in soft agar. Incubation of BG/F cells with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, followed by exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, was not observed to cause cell transformation under the experimental conditions. The controls of a fibroblastic cell culture derived from gill tissue of bluegill sunfish showed spontaneous transformation after 6 months of passage, similar to the transformation observed in the experimental MAM acetate treated gill cultures.

  11. UV radiation facilitates methotrexate resistance and amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in cultured 3T6 mouse cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tlsty, T.D.; Brown, P.C.; Schimke, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    Pretreatment of 3T6 murine cells with the carcinogen UV radiation or N-acetoxy-N-acetylaminofluorene increased the number of methotrexate-resistant colonies. This carcinogen-induced enhancement was seen only at low toxicities. The enhancement was transient and was observed at its maximum when cells were subjected to methotrexate selection 12 to 24 h after treatment. The addition of a tumor-promoting agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, during or after carcinogen treatment further enhanced this effect. A large proportion of the resistant colonies had an increase in the dihydrofolate reductase gene copy number and the relative proportions of colonies with amplified genes were similar, regardless of whether selected cells were untreated, treated with carcinogen, or treated with carcinogen plus promoter. We discuss some of the variables which both enhance the generation and improve the detection of methotrexate-resistant colonies, as well as certain implications of our results for the generation and mechanism of gene amplification.

  12. Anti-transforming nature of ascorbic acid and its derivatives examined by two-stage cell transformation using BALB/c 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Kato-Masatsuji, E; Tsuzuki, T; Umeda, M

    2000-11-10

    The anti-transforming effects of sodium ascorbate and its stable derivatives were examined in the two-stage transformation assay. When BALB/c 3T3 cells were treated with 0.2 microg/ml 20-methylcholanthrene as an initiator, and 100 ng/ml 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as a promoter, the addition at the promotion stage of L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate ester magnesium (APM) was most marked in the inhibition of transformation. The inhibitory effects of sodium ascorbate and ascorbic acid-2-glucoside (AG) were comparable, but weaker than those of APM; L (+)-ascorbic acid-2-sulfate ester disodium 2H(2)O showed little effect. When phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as promoters, APM also effectively suppressed transformation. PMID:11098084

  13. Carcinogenic sulfide salts of nickel and cadmium induce H2O2 formation by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Z J; Troll, W; Koenig, K L; Frenkel, K

    1990-12-01

    Some derivatives of nickel, cadmium, and cobalt are carcinogenic in humans and/or animals but their mechanisms of action are not known. We show that they are capable of stimulating human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as measured by H2O2 formation, a known tumor promoter. Most effective were the carcinogens nickel subsulfide, which caused a 550% net increase in H2O2 over that formed by resting PMNs, followed by cadmium sulfide, 400%, and nickel disulfide, 200%. Nickel sulfide and cobalt sulfide caused statistically nonsignificant increases of 45 and 20%, respectively. Noncarcinogenic barium and manganese sulfides, and sulfates of nickel, cadmium, and cobalt were inactive. The enhancement of H2O2 formation by CdS and Ni3S2 (1 mumol/2.5 x 10(5) PMNs) was comparable to that mediated by the potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, used at 0.5 and 1 nM, respectively. Concurrent treatment of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated PMNs with Ni3S2 or NiS caused a decrease in H2O2 accumulation from that expected if the effects were additive. Including catalase in the reaction mixture proved that the oxidant formed by stimulated PMNs was H2O2, whereas adding superoxide dismutase showed that superoxide was also present in PMN samples treated with NiS but not with Ni3S2. Since nickel- and cadmium-containing particulates are deposited in the lungs and cause infiltration of PMNs, the ability to activate those cells and induce H2O2 formation may contribute to their carcinogenicity. PMID:2253206

  14. Identification and partial characterization of genes that are transactivated by different pathways in quiescent mouse cells stimulated with serum.

    PubMed

    Boeggeman, E; Masibay, A S; Qasba, P K; Sreevalsan, T

    1990-11-01

    We have identified four cDNA clones, cl-1, cl-5, cl-15, and cl-16, that represent genes induced by serum in resting mouse 3T3 cells. Partial sequence analysis of the four cDNAs indicated that cl-15 corresponds to the mouse beta-actin gene. Comparison of the DNA sequences of the other three clones with the sequence data bank (Genbank) showed little homology to other known DNA sequences and thus represent novel genes. The level of the mRNAs corresponding to the four genes began to increase in resting cells following serum stimulation, reached a peak between 5 h and 8 h and then started to decline. Inhibitors of transcription diminished the induction of the mRNAs corresponding to the four genes. Cycloheximide and anisomycin had little effect on the induction of beta actin mRNA while the induction of the other three genes was suppressed by the same inhibitors. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 enhanced the expression of the cl-16 mRNA while epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, or insulin enhanced the expression of cl-1- and cl-5-specific transcripts. The level of beta-actin mRNA was elevated in resting cells by epidermal growth factor and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and to a lesser extent by fibroblast growth factor, insulin, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP-elevating agents. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of the action of G proteins, did not significantly suppress the activation of the four genes by serum. However, 2-aminopurine, a protein kinase inhibitor, suppressed the induction of the four transcripts in serum-stimulated cells. The possible pathways involved in the activation of these genes in resting cells are discussed. PMID:1978837

  15. Effects of botulinum toxin type D on secretion of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, K.; Spriggs, D.; Ohno, T.; Kufe, D.

    1989-05-01

    Botulinum toxins are potent neurotoxins which block the release of neurotransmitters. The effects of these toxins on hematopoietic cells, however, are unknown. Monocytes secrete a variety of polypeptide growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In the study reported here, the effects of botulinum toxin type D on the secretion of TNF from human monocytes were examined. The results demonstrate that biotulinum toxin type D inhibits the release of TNF from monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Botulinum toxin type D had no detectable effect on intracellular TNF levels in LPS-treated monocytes, indicating that the effects of this toxin involve the secretory process. This inhibitory effect of botulinum toxin type D on TNF secretion from LPS-treated monocytes was partially reversed by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or introduction of guanosine 5'-(/gamma/-thio)t-riphosphate into these cells. The results demonstrate that TNF secretion is regulated by at least two distinct guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, one responsible for the activation of phospholiphase C and another which acts as a substrate for botulinum toxin type D. ADP-ribosylation of monocyte membranes by botulinum toxin type D demonstrated the presence of three substrates with M/sub r/s of 45,000, 21,000, and 17,000. While the role of these substrates in exocytosis is unknown, the results suggest that the M/sub r/ 21,000 substrate is involved in a process other than TNF secretion.

  16. The inhibitory effects of boldine, glaucine, and probucol on TPA-induced down regulation of gap junction function. Relationships to intracellular peroxides, protein kinase C translocation, and connexin 43 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Speisky, H; Cotgreave, I A

    1995-11-01

    The naturally occurring antioxidant boldine and its di-methoxy analogue glucine, as well as the drug antioxidant probucol, all inhibit TPA-induced downregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells in dose-dependent manners. The compounds were essentially 100% inhibitory to the effect of TPA (10 nM) at 50 microM each. Analysis of the mechanism of the antitumor promotive action of these agents in vitro revealed that boldine and probucol (both at 10 microM) totally inhibited the TPA-induced accumulation of intracellular oxidants. Additionally, boldine, glaucine, and probucol, each at 50 microM, inhibited TPA-induced translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) to the particulate fraction of the cells, with concomitant inhibition of TPA-induced hyperphosphorylation of gap junctional connexin 43 (cx43) and TPA-induced internalisation of cx43 protein from the plasma membrane of the cells. None of the compounds inhibited the binding of (3H)-PDBu to TPA-specific binding sites in the cells. The results indicate that antioxidant molecules, irrespective of structure, possess common antitumor promotive potential in this model of gap junctional intercellular communication. The data also indicate that the compounds may interfere with the promotive function of TPA, at least in part, by the destruction of oxidants within the cells. Xanthine oxidase was excluded as a major source of such intracellular oxidants because allopurinol (50 microM) did not significantly affect either the accumulation of oxidants in the cells or the downregulation of gap junctional communication in response to TPA. Taken together, these data also suggest that TPA-induced oxidants play a role in the translocation of PKC to cellular membranes and it is at this level where the antioxidants may interfere in TPA-induced downregulation of gap junctional function. PMID:7503766

  17. A [4+2] mixed ligand approach to ruthenium DNA metallointercalators [Ru(tpa)(N-N)](PF(6))(2) using a tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (tpa) capping ligand.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Sabine Seeberg née; Bischof, Caroline; Loos, Annette; Braun, Sebastian; Jafarova, Nigar; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    A series of five tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (tpa) ruthenium complexes [Ru(tpa)(N-N)](PF(6))(2) with N-N=bpy (2,2'-bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline), dpq (dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline), dppz (dipyrido[3,2-a;2',3'-c]phenazine), and dppn (4,5,9,16-tetraazadibenzo[a,c]naphthacene) was prepared and characterized by NMR, UV-Visible (UV/Vis), and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as cyclic voltammetry. Structures optimized with density functional theory methods (DFT, BP86, TZVP) without constraints show C(1) symmetry while in solution, the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra are in accordance with an average C(s) symmetry. This is thought to be due to a low energy barrier for flipping of the equatorial pyridine ring from one side of the N-N plane to the other. The electronic structure of the compounds was studied with DFT and a change in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) character from Ru t(2g) for the bpy, phen, and dpq to N-N ligand-based for the dppz and dppn complexes was found. TDDFT calculations showed dominant N-N-based intra-ligand charge transfer (ILCT) transitions in the latter two complexes mixed with metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands found for all five compounds. DNA binding of the complexes was studied with UV/Vis titrations, the fluorescent ethidium bromide displacement assay, and CD spectroscopy. The affinity increases with the aromatic surface area of of the bidentate N-N ligand in the order bpy

  18. A TPA-caged precursor of (imino)coumarin for "turn-on" fluorogenic detection of Cu(.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhangjun; Hu, Jiwen; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qiong; Zhao, Meng; Brommesson, Caroline; Tian, Yupeng; Gao, Hongwen; Zhang, Xuanjun; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2016-08-24

    We strategize to utilize the precursors of (imino)coumarin fluorophores to deliver novel reactive Cu(+) probes, where tris[(2-pyridyl)-methyl] amine (TPA) works as a reactive receptor towards Cu(+). To verify this strategy, CP1, a representative probe and relevant sensing behaviors towards Cu(+) are presented here. CP1 features good solubility and fast response for monitoring labile copper in aqueous solution and live cells. The sensing mechanism of CP1 is determined by HPLC titration and mass spectrometric analysis. The probe CP1 exhibits a 60-fold fluorescence enhancement and a detection limitation of 10.8 nM upon the detection of Cu(+). CP1 is further applied for imaging labile copper in live cells. This work provides a starting point for future development of Cu(+) probes, based on in situ formation of (imino)coumarin scaffolds, as well as their further investigations of copper signaling and biological events. PMID:27497012

  19. Outcomes of Patients Requiring Blood Pressure Control Before Thrombolysis with tPA for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Darger, Bryan; Gonzales, Nicole; Banuelos, Rosa C.; Peng, Hui; Radecki, Ryan P.; Doshi, Pratik B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of thrombolysis in the setting of aggressive blood pressure (BP) control as it compares to standard BP control or no BP control prior to thrombolysis. Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) between 2004–2011. We compared the outcomes of patients treated with tPA for AIS who required aggressive BP control prior to thrombolysis to those requiring standard or no BP control prior to thrombolysis. The primary outcome of interest was safety, defined by all grades of hemorrhagic transformation and neurologic deterioration. The secondary outcome was efficacy, determined by functional status at discharge, and in-hospital deaths. Results Of 427 patients included in the analysis, 89 received aggressive BP control prior to thrombolysis, 65 received standard BP control, and 273 required no BP control prior to thrombolysis. Patients requiring BP control had more severe strokes, with median arrival National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of 10 (IQR [6–17]) in patients not requiring BP control versus 11 (IQR [5–16]) and 13 (IQR [7–20]) in patients requiring standard and aggressive BP lowering therapies, respectively (p=0.048). In a multiple logistic regression model adjusting for baseline differences, there were no statistically significant differences in adverse events between the three groups (P>0.10). Conclusion We observed no association between BP control and adverse outcomes in ischemic stroke patients undergoing thrombolysis. However, additional study is necessary to confirm or refute the safety of aggressive BP control prior to thrombolysis. PMID:26759644

  20. Politics of Policy: Assessing the Implementation, Impact, and Evolution of the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) and edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Emilie Mitescu; Schram, Thomas; McCurdy, Kathryn; Chang, Te-Hsin; Evans, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Summative performance assessments in teacher education, such as the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) and the edTPA, have been heralded through polices intended to enhance the quality of the teaching profession and raise its stature among other professions. However, the development and implementation of the PACT, and…

  1. Vitros 5600 Syphilis TPA assay: evaluation of an automated chemiluminescence assay for detection of Treponema pallidum antibodies in a high prevalence setting.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, Dorien; Florence, Eric; Kenyon, Christopher; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

    2014-11-01

    The performance of the Syphilis TPA assay (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) on Vitros 5600 Integrated System was evaluated and demonstrated excellent results. Our data support the use of this assay for test confirmation in the traditional algorithm and for screening for syphilis in a routine automated laboratory setting when using the reverse algorithm. PMID:25299416

  2. Loss of CRABP-II Characterizes Human Skin Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Favors DMBA/TPA-Induced Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Passeri, Daniela; Doldo, Elena; Tarquini, Chiara; Costanza, Gaetana; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Agostinelli, Sara; Campione, Elena; Di Stefani, Alessandro; Giunta, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    Retinol and its derivatives play an important role in epidermal growth and differentiation and represent chemopreventive agents in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABP-II) is a cytoplasmic receptor that critically regulates all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) trafficking. We documented the marked reduced expression of CRABP-II and its promoter methylation in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. To investigate the role of CRABP-II in skin carcinogenesis we used skin lesion induction by dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in CRABP-II-knockout C57BL/6 mice. We observed earlier and more diffuse epidermal dysplasia, greater incidence and severity of tumors, reduced expression of cytokeratin 1/cytokeratin 10 and involucrin, increased proliferation, and impaired ATRA inhibition of tumor promotion compared with wild-type animals. CRABP-II-transfected HaCaT, FaDu, and A431 cells showed expression of differentiation markers, retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling, ATRA sensitivity, and suppression of EGFR/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) pathways in a fatty acid binding protein 5/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-δ-independent manner. The opposite was true in keratinocytes isolated from CRABP-II-knockout mice. Finally, CRABP-II accumulation induced ubiquitination-associated reduction of EGFR. Our results showed reduced CRABP-II expression in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and its gene deletion favored experimental skin carcinogenesis and impaired ATRA antitumor efficacy, likely modulating EGFR/AKT pathways and retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring CRABP-II-mediated signaling may amplify therapeutic retinoid efficacy in nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:26945879

  3. Lattice stability and high-pressure melting mechanism of dense hydrogen up to 1.5 TPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hua Y.; Hoffmann, R.; Wu, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Lattice stability and metastability, as well as melting, are important features of the physics and chemistry of dense hydrogen. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), the classical superheating limit and melting line of metallic hydrogen are investigated up to 1.5 TPa. The computations show that the classical superheating degree is about 100 K, and the classical melting curve becomes flat at a level of 350 K when beyond 500 GPa. This information allows us to estimate the well depth and the potential barriers that must be overcome when the crystal melts. Inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQE) using path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) predicts that both superheating limit and melting temperature are lowered to below room temperature, but the latter never reaches absolute zero. Detailed analysis indicates that the melting is thermally activated, rather than driven by pure zero-point motion (ZPM). This argument was further supported by extensive PIMD simulations, demonstrating the stability of Fddd structure against liquefaction at low temperatures.

  4. Absolute equation of state and opacity measurements of CH plastic to 40 TPa using the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doeppner, T.; Swift, D.; Hawreliak, J.; Kritcher, A.; Collins, G.; Glenzer, S.; Rothman, S.; Chapman, D.; Gaffney, J.; Rose, S.; Falcone, R.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed an experimental configuration using a hohlraum-driven spherically-convergent shock to induce pressures into the gigabar range, measuring the Hugoniot radiographically. The shock pressure increases with convergence, so a range of Hugoniot states is obtained from a single experiment. The opacity along the Hugoniot is also deduced, which is essential in gigabar experiments as it changes significantly from its initial value. We are focusing initially on plastics, as we can reliably obtain spherical samples with the desired design of ablator, and the radiographic signal is reasonable. Our initial measurements on NIF used a conservative timing of the x-ray backlighter to allow for uncertainty in the EOS, and probed only part of the pressure range. The shock speed and compression, obtained from radiographic analysis, gave absolute Hugoniot states from 12-41 TPa, which is an order of magnitude greater than previously measured in CH. The measured EOS locus was consistent with the previous measurements, and significantly stiffer than the theoretical EOS used for comparison. Our analysis also gave the variation of opacity along the Hugoniot, which showed a decrease of an order of magnitude, as expected from atomic physics calculations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Atrazine represses S100A4 gene expression and TPA-induced motility in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Ludovic; Zucchini-Pascal, Nathalie; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) is probably the most widely used herbicide in the world. However there are still many controversies regarding its impacts on human health. Our investigations on the role of pesticides in liver dysfunctions have led us to detect an inhibition of FSP1 expression of 70% at 50μm and around 95% at 500μM of ATZ (p<0.01). This gene encodes the protein S100a4 and is a clinical biomarker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step in the metastatic process. Here we investigated the possible effect of ATZ on cell migration and noticed that it prevents the EMT and motility of the HepG2 cells induced by the phorbol ester TPA. ATZ decreases Fak pathway activation but has no effect on the Erk1/2 pathway known to be involved in metastasis in this cell line. These results suggest that ATZ could be involved in cell homeostasis perturbation, potentially through a S100a4-dependant mechanism. PMID:24211529

  6. Optimization of alternate-strand triple helix formation at the 5"-TpA-3" and 5"-ApT-3" junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, P; Sun, J S; Mouscadet, J F; Auclair, C

    1999-01-01

    Alternate-strand triple helix formation was optimized at the two junction steps, the 5"-TpA-3" and 5"-ApT-3" junctions. Footprint experiments, gel retardation assays and thermal denaturation measures on a sequence appropriately designed with two adjacent alternate-strand polypurine tracts points out that the addition of an adenine residue and the removal of one nucleotide should facilitate the crossing strands at the 5"-TpA-3" junction and at the 5"-ApT-3" junction, respectively. These results provide a 'switch code' for the construction of alternate-strand triple helix forming oligonucleotides which open new possibilities for extending the range of applications of antigene strategy. PMID:10454596

  7. Provider perceptions of barriers to the emergency use of tPA for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only 1-3% of ischemic stroke patients receive thrombolytic therapy. Provider barriers to adhering with guidelines recommending tPA delivery in acute stroke are not well known. The main objective of this study was to describe barriers to thrombolytic use in acute stroke care. Methods Twenty-four hospitals were randomly selected and matched into 12 pairs. Barrier assessment occurred at intervention sites only, and utilized focus groups and structured interviews. A pre-specified taxonomy was employed to characterize barriers. Two investigators independently assigned themes to transcribed responses. Seven facilitators (three emergency physicians, two nurses, and two study coordinators) conducted focus groups and interviews of emergency physicians (65), nurses (62), neurologists (15), radiologists (12), hospital administrators (12), and three others (hospitalists and pharmacist). Results The following themes represented the most important external barriers: environmental and patient factors. Important barriers internal to the clinician included familiarity with and motivation to adhere to the guidelines, lack of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. The following themes were not substantial barriers: lack of awareness of the existence of acute stroke guidelines, presence of conflicting guidelines, and lack of agreement with the guidelines. Conclusions Healthcare providers perceive environmental and patient-related factors as the primary barriers to adherence with acute stroke treatment guidelines. Interventions focused on increasing physician familiarity with and motivation to follow guidelines may be of highest yield in improving adherence. Improving self-efficacy in performing guideline concordant care may also be useful. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00349479 PMID:21548943

  8. Biochemical properties of the kringle 2 and protease domains are maintained in the refolded t-PA deletion variant BM 06.022.

    PubMed

    Kohnert, U; Rudolph, R; Verheijen, J H; Weening-Verhoeff, E J; Stern, A; Opitz, U; Martin, U; Lill, H; Prinz, H; Lechner, M

    1992-01-01

    BM 06.022 is a t-PA deletion variant which comprises the kringle 2 and the protease domain. Production of BM 06.022 in Escherichia coli leads to the formation of inactive inclusion bodies, which have to be refolded by an in vitro refolding process to achieve activity and proper structure of the domains. We analysed the biochemical properties of BM 06.022 to obtain some information about the structure of kringle 2 and the protease as compared with the structure of these domains in the intact t-PA molecule. The kinetic analysis of the amidolytic activity of BM 06.022 and CHO-t-PA yielded similar values for kcat (13.9 s-1 and 11.4 s-1 for the single chain forms and 33.9 s-1 and 27.1 s-1 for the two chain forms of BM 06.022 and CHO-t-PA, respectively) and for Km (2.5 mM and 2.1 mM for the single chains forms and 0.5 mM and 0.3 mM for the two chain forms of BM 06.022 and CHO-t-PA, respectively). BM 06.022 and CHO-t-PA have the same plasminogenolytic activity in the absence of CNBr fragments of fibrinogen. However, BM 06.022 has a lower plasminogenolytic activity in the presence of CNBr fragments of fibrinogen and a lower affinity to fibrin as compared with CHO-t-PA. The affinity of BM 06.022 for fibrin is completely suppressed by 0.3 mM epsilon-aminocaproic acid, while the intact t-PA has a residual affinity of approximately 30%. The dissociation constants for the interaction with the lysine analogue epsilon-aminocaproic acid are 0.10 mM and 0.09 mM for BM 06.022 and the intact t-PA, respectively. Furthermore, BM 06.022 and CHO-t-PA are inhibited by PAI-1 in a similar manner. PMID:1321420

  9. Dynamic compression of dense oxide (Gd3Ga5O12) from 0.4 to 2.6 TPa: Universal Hugoniot of fluid metals

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, N.; Nellis, W. J.; Mashimo, T.; Ramzan, M.; Ahuja, R.; Kaewmaraya, T.; Kimura, T.; Knudson, M.; Miyanishi, K.; Sakawa, Y.; Sano, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-01-01

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great current interest for warm dense matter physics, planetary sciences, and inertial fusion energy research. Shock-compression equation-of-state data and optical reflectivities of the fluid dense oxide, Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), were measured at extremely high pressures up to 2.6 TPa (26 Mbar) generated by high-power laser irradiation and magnetically-driven hypervelocity impacts. Above 0.75 TPa, the GGG Hugoniot data approach/reach a universal linear line of fluid metals, and the optical reflectivity most likely reaches a constant value indicating that GGG undergoes a crossover from fluid semiconductor to poor metal with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC). These results suggest that most fluid compounds, e.g., strong planetary oxides, reach a common state on the universal Hugoniot of fluid metals (UHFM) with MMC at sufficiently extreme pressures and temperatures. The systematic behaviors of warm dense fluid would be useful benchmarks for developing theoretical equation-of-state and transport models in the warm dense matter regime in determining computational predictions. PMID:27193942

  10. Dynamic compression of dense oxide (Gd3Ga5O12) from 0.4 to 2.6 TPa: Universal Hugoniot of fluid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, N.; Nellis, W. J.; Mashimo, T.; Ramzan, M.; Ahuja, R.; Kaewmaraya, T.; Kimura, T.; Knudson, M.; Miyanishi, K.; Sakawa, Y.; Sano, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-05-01

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great current interest for warm dense matter physics, planetary sciences, and inertial fusion energy research. Shock-compression equation-of-state data and optical reflectivities of the fluid dense oxide, Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), were measured at extremely high pressures up to 2.6 TPa (26 Mbar) generated by high-power laser irradiation and magnetically-driven hypervelocity impacts. Above 0.75 TPa, the GGG Hugoniot data approach/reach a universal linear line of fluid metals, and the optical reflectivity most likely reaches a constant value indicating that GGG undergoes a crossover from fluid semiconductor to poor metal with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC). These results suggest that most fluid compounds, e.g., strong planetary oxides, reach a common state on the universal Hugoniot of fluid metals (UHFM) with MMC at sufficiently extreme pressures and temperatures. The systematic behaviors of warm dense fluid would be useful benchmarks for developing theoretical equation-of-state and transport models in the warm dense matter regime in determining computational predictions.

  11. Dynamic compression of dense oxide (Gd3Ga5O12) from 0.4 to 2.6 TPa: Universal Hugoniot of fluid metals.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, N; Nellis, W J; Mashimo, T; Ramzan, M; Ahuja, R; Kaewmaraya, T; Kimura, T; Knudson, M; Miyanishi, K; Sakawa, Y; Sano, T; Kodama, R

    2016-01-01

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great current interest for warm dense matter physics, planetary sciences, and inertial fusion energy research. Shock-compression equation-of-state data and optical reflectivities of the fluid dense oxide, Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), were measured at extremely high pressures up to 2.6 TPa (26 Mbar) generated by high-power laser irradiation and magnetically-driven hypervelocity impacts. Above 0.75 TPa, the GGG Hugoniot data approach/reach a universal linear line of fluid metals, and the optical reflectivity most likely reaches a constant value indicating that GGG undergoes a crossover from fluid semiconductor to poor metal with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC). These results suggest that most fluid compounds, e.g., strong planetary oxides, reach a common state on the universal Hugoniot of fluid metals (UHFM) with MMC at sufficiently extreme pressures and temperatures. The systematic behaviors of warm dense fluid would be useful benchmarks for developing theoretical equation-of-state and transport models in the warm dense matter regime in determining computational predictions. PMID:27193942

  12. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children. PMID:27435387

  13. Absolute Hugoniot measurements of polystyrene between 3 and 12 TPa using radiography of a converging shock at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doeppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Swift, D. C.; Bachmann, B.; Hawreliak, J.; Colllins, G. W.; Glenzer, S.; Rothman, S. D.; Kraus, D.; Falcone, R. W.

    2015-06-01

    A converging shock was induced with hohlraum-driven soft x-ray radiation on a solid, spherical sample of poly alpha-methyl styrene. The time-history of density profiles through the sample was measured by x-ray radiography using a laser-heated backlighter and a streak camera, viewing a diameter across the sample through slots in the hohlraum wall. Profile-matching in radius and time was used to increase the accuracy of density inferred from the transmission. The speed and compression of the shock were measured from the density profiles. The shock pressure increased with convergence, so a range of Hugoniot states was obtained from a single experiment. Using a laser power based on the early part of a ``high foot'' pulse from ignition experiments, the low end of the pressure range was brought down to 2 TPa, overlapping states accessible by experiments in plane geometry, and ensuring that the opacity of the compressed sample was the same as for unshocked material, simplifying the analysis. Shock states were measured up to 12 TPa, when the shock was close to the center of the sample. This is several times higher than has been obtained by other methods and is an absolute measurement. Performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Dynamic compression of dense oxide (Gd3Ga5O12) from 0.4 to 2.6 TPa: Universal Hugoniot of fluid metals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ozaki, N.; Nellis, W. J.; Mashimo, T.; Ramzan, M.; Ahuja, R.; Kaewmaraya, T.; Kimura, T.; Knudson, M.; Miyanishi, K.; Sakawa, Y.; et al

    2016-05-19

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great current interest for warm dense matter physics, planetary sciences, and inertial fusion energy research. Shock-compression equation-of-state data and optical reflectivities of the fluid dense oxide, Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), were measured at extremely high pressures up to 2.6 TPa (26 Mbar) generated by high-power laser irradiation and magnetically-driven hypervelocity impacts. Above 0.75 TPa, the GGG Hugoniot data approach/reach a universal linear line of fluid metals, and the optical reflectivity most likely reaches a constant value indicating that GGG undergoes a crossover from fluid semiconductor to poor metal with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC). Thesemore » results suggest that most fluid compounds, e.g., strong planetary oxides, reach a common state on the universal Hugoniot of fluid metals (UHFM) with MMC at sufficiently extreme pressures and temperatures. Lastly, the systematic behaviors of warm dense fluid would be useful benchmarks for developing theoretical equation-of-state and transport models in the warm dense matter regime in determining computational predictions.« less

  15. Schistosoma mansoni: possible involvement of protein kinase C in linoleic acid-induced proteolytic enzyme release from cercariae.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, K; Mitsui, Y; Sato, K; Sakamoto, M; Aoki, Y

    1991-04-01

    The possible involvement of protein kinase C and Ca2+ metabolism in the proteolytic enzyme release from schistosome cercariae was studied. Cercariae were placed in dechlorinated tap water containing 0.37 mM calcium in the small glass petri dish and exposed to the stimuli (linoleic acid, phorbol esters, and Ca2+ ionophore) with or without inhibitors of protein kinase C or Ca2+ metabolism. The proteolytic activity of incubation medium of cercariae thus treated was measured by the azocoll assay. The penetration response of cercariae induced by linoleic acid, a physiological stimulus, was mimicked by phorbol esters. When exposed to phorbol esters, 0.02 to 2 microM of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 0.2 to 2 microM of phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), cercariae ceased the swimming movement, began a rhythmic thrusting of the anterior tip of the parasite, and released the proteolytic enzyme, but they did not shed the tails. Lowering Ca2+ in water by addition of 5 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), phorbol ester-induced release of enzyme was completely inhibited. Phorbol ester-induced release of enzyme was partially inhibited by 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, at a concentration of 100 microM. H-7 alone, at a concentration of 100 microM, did not affect the swimming movement of cercariae. The cercariae were stimulated to release the enzyme by high concentrations (10 and 100 microM) of the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, but enzyme was not released by low concentrations (0.5 and 1 microM) of this drug. Cercariae exposed to A23187 behaved differently from those exposed to phorbol esters. They ceased swimming, showed strong muscle contraction, and shed their tail. A23187 stimulated cercariae to release the enzyme in the water containing 5 mM EGTA. A23187-induced enzyme release was not inhibited by N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), a calmodulin

  16. Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) Is a Phosphoprotein Regulated by Calcineurin (PP2B)*

    PubMed Central

    Filosto, Simone; Fry, William; Knowlton, Anne A.; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to oxidative stress increased ceramide generation via specific activation of neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2). Here we show that nSMase2 is a phosphoprotein exclusively phosphorylated at serine residues. The level of nSMase2 phosphorylation can be modulated by treatment with anisomycin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), suggesting that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinases Cs are upstream of nSMase2 phosphorylation. Oxidative stress enhances both the activity and phosphorylation of nSMase2. Strikingly, we show here that nSMase2 is bound directly by the phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), which acts as an on/off switch for nSMase2 phosphorylation in the presence or absence of oxidative stress. Specifically, CaN is being inhibited/degraded and therefore does not bind nSMase2 under oxidative stress, and a mutant nSMase2 that lacks the CaN binding site exhibits constitutively elevated phosphorylation and increased activity relative to wild type nSMase2. Importantly, the phosphorylation and activity of the mutant no longer responds to oxidative stress, confirming that CaN is the critical link that allows oxidative stress to modulate nSMase2 phosphorylation and function. PMID:20106976

  17. Cerebroprotective effects of TAK-937, a novel cannabinoid receptor agonist, in permanent and thrombotic focal cerebral ischemia in rats: therapeutic time window, combination with t-PA and efficacy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koji; Suzuki, Motohisa; Suzuki, Noriko; Hamajo, Kazuhiro; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Shimojo, Masato

    2013-08-14

    Some occluded arteries of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients are not recanalized, even if thrombolytic therapy is performed. Considering such clinical settings, we examined the potential cerebroprotective efficacy of TAK-937, a novel cannabinoid receptor agonist, in young adult and aged rats with a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and conducted a combination study with TAK-937 and tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in a rat thrombotic MCAO model. TAK-937 significantly reduced infarct volume when it was administered 3 and 5h after permanent MCAO in young adult rats. A thrombotic MCAO was induced by photo-irradiation of the middle cerebral artery with Rose Bengal administration and a permanent MCAO was produced by thermoelectric coagulation of occluded arteries. TAK-937 (10, 30 and 100μg/kg/h) was intravenously infused 1, 3, 5, or 8-24h after MCAO. t-PA (3 or 10mg/kg) was intravenously administered 1, 1.5 or 2h after MCAO. Infarct volume was determined using a 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining method 24 or 48h after MCAO. The combined treatment of TAK-937 with t-PA significantly reduced the cerebral infarction compared with t-PA treatment alone in a rat thrombotic MCAO model. TAK-937 reduced infarct volume of aged rats as well, when it was administered 1h after permanent MCAO. These results suggest that TAK-937 exerts protective effects regardless of age and has a wide therapeutic time window in permanent occlusion. Furthermore, combined treatment of TAK-937 with t-PA would provide more therapeutic efficacy compared to t-PA treatment alone. PMID:23791950

  18. Effects of garlic on cellular doubling time and DNA strand breaks caused by UV light and BPL, enhanced with catechol and TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Baturay, N.Z.; Gayle, F.; Liu, S.; Kreidinger, C.

    1995-11-01

    3T3 cell cultures were exposed to UV light and Beta-Propiolactone. Neoplastic cell transformation (TF) was demonstrated after concurrent addition of catechol, or repeated addition of TPA. Addition of garlic to all fluences/concentrations of the carcinogen/cocarcinogen/promoter groups reduced the number of transformed foci/dish by at least 40%. Since the cell cycle is prolonged following exposure to carcinogens, it is likely the cell requires a longer time to repair this damage. The doubling time (DT) was extended from 12 to 36 hrs. when cells were exposed to BPL and from 12 o 28 hrs. when cells were exposed to 3.0J/M2/sec. If an anticarcinogenic compound is also added, it is reasonable to assume that the cell cycle may be further elongated. The cell cycle, denoted by DT was lengthened from 12 to 47 hrs and from 12 to 86 hrs for BPL and UVC, respectively. The extensions occurred in a dope dependent manner. The concentrations of the cocarcinogen and promoter remained constant throughout the experiment. When strand breaks were determined at the same dose sequences, by alkaline elution, more repair was seen with garlic where the lowest and middle doses of BPL were used and almost no decrease in % DNA eluted was seen with UVC exposed cells. With catechol, there was a two-fold decrease in % DNA eluted at the lowest and middle fluences. When TPA was added, all three fluences of UVC showed more than a threefold decrease in % DNA eluted. BPS with both TPA and catechol, again showed a reduction in strand breaks only low and middle doses. Both a direct-acting alkylating agent, BPL, and a physical carcinogen, UVC, were homogeneously affected, in terms of doubling time, but not when strand break repair was examined. A separate mechanism may be responsible for repair, and the mechanism associated with combinations of physical carcinogen enhancing agents combined with some non-carcinogens may be more profoundly affected by some natural products.

  19. Synthesis, fine structure of 19F NMR and fluorescence of novel amorphous TPA derivatives having perfluorinated cyclopentenyl and benzo[b]thiophene unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bian-Peng; Pang, Mei-Li; Tan, Ting-Feng; Meng, Ji-ben

    2013-04-01

    Three novel triphenylamine (TPA) derivatives having perfluorinated cyclopentenyl and benzo[b]thiophene unit are obtained from 4-bromo-N,N-diphenyl-2-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-5-amine. The new compounds are expected to find their use in thin film devices as charge transport materials and host organic light-emitting materials. It is found that the new compounds show relatively strong fluorescence either in solution or in solid state, and are amorphous due to a special conformation which is elucidated by the fine structure of 19F NMR. Molecular structure and properties of these compounds is characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR (broadband decoupled), ESI-HRMS, elemental analysis and thermal analysis (DSC). Fluorescent quantum yield in solution is measured using 9,10-diphenylanthrancene (DPA) as standard fluorescent substance.

  20. Anti-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as an effective therapy of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia with and without inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dianer; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neurodevelopmental deficits in neonates. Intrauterine infection and the ensuing fetal inflammatory responses augment hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and attenuate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. Here, we review evidences from preclinical studies suggesting that the induction of brain parenchymal tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays an important pathogenic role in these conditions. Moreover, administration of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 called CPAI confers potent protection against hypoxic-ischemic injury with and without inflammation via different mechanisms. Besides intracerebroventricular injection, CPAI can also be administered into the brain using a noninvasive intranasal delivery strategy, adding to its applicability in clinical use. In sum, the therapeutic potential of CPAI in neonatal care merits further investigation with large-animal models of hypoxia-ischemia and cerebral palsy. PMID:25475942

  1. Table-top Generation and Spectroscopic Study of ~10 TPa High-Energy Density Materials with C60 Hypervelocity (v ~ 100 km/s) Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Young

    2013-06-01

    Intense bursts of soft x-rays were discovered by Bae et al. in hypervelocity (v ~ 100 km/s) impact of bio and water nanoparticles at the Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) in 1994. In the experiment, the nanoparticles were directly impacted on and detected by Si particle detectors that also detected the soft x-rays. Energy deposition measurements through thin films revealed that the impact generated pressures were ~10 TPa, and the photon energies in the range of 75-100 eV for Si targets. The conversion efficiency from the kinetic energy to the radiation energy was unexpectedly high, ~38%, which was attributed to Dicke Superradiance of collective quantum states in High-Energy Density Materials (HEDM), Metastable Innershell Molecular States (MIMS). This talk presents recent experimental results obtained in a table-top apparatus completely different from and orders of magnitude smaller than that at BNL. In the new setup, hypervelocity (v 100 km/s) C60+ ions impacted on Al targets, and the impact generated soft x-rays were detected off-axis and analyzed using three Si photodiode detectors with selective energy response curves. The photon energy was determined to be ~70 eV with the kinetic-energy to photon-energy conversion efficiency of ~35% in confirmation of the results by Bae et al. at BNL. The present results demonstrate a new way of generation and spectroscopic study of HEDM with pressures exceeding 10 TPa, and show the pathway to scaling up the soft x-ray generation method for a wide range of applications from lithography to inertial fusion. This work was supported by DTRA under the contract HDTRA1-12-C-0094.

  2. Adjunctive treatment with ticagrelor, but not clopidogrel, added to tPA enables sustained coronary artery recanalisation with recovery of myocardium perfusion in a canine coronary thrombosis model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhou, Xiaorong; Huang, Yanming; Khalil, Mazen; Wiktor, Dominik; van Giezen, J J J; Penn, Marc S

    2010-09-01

    Reperfusion therapy for myocardial infarction is limited by significant re-occlusion rates and less-than-optimal myocardial tissue perfusion. It was the objective of this study to assess and compare the effect of ticagrelor, the first reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, with that of clopidogrel, in conjunction with thrombolytic therapy, on platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and myocardial perfusion in a canine model. Thrombus formation was induced by electrolytic injury and blood flow was measured with a Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter. All animals received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (1 mg/kg over 20 min); 10 animals received clopidogrel (10 mg/kg IV bolus over 5 min), 10 animals received ticagrelor initiated with a 1-min bolus (75 microg/kg/min), followed by continuous infusion (10 microg/kg/min) for 2 h, and 10 animals received IV saline. Re-occlusion rate and cyclic flow variation decreased with ticagrelor compared to saline groups (p<0.05). Adenosine phosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation decreased with ticagrelor (1.9% +/- 2.67) and clopidogrel (1.11% +/- 2.0) vs. saline (26.3% +/- 23.5, p<0.05) at the end of adjunctive therapy. Bleeding time increased in the clopidogrel compared to the ticagrelor group (p=0.01). Infarct size was reduced with ticagrelor compared to the clopidogrel and saline groups (p<0.05). Blood flow remained significantly below baseline values at 20 min after tPA administration in the saline and clopidogrel groups but not in the ticagrelor group. In conclusion, in a dog coronary thrombosis model, ticagrelor blocks ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation; prevents platelet-mediated thrombosis; prolongs reperfusion time and reduces re-occlusion and cyclic flow variation; and significantly decreases infarct size and rapidly restores myocardial tissue perfusion. PMID:20694285

  3. Decreased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 alpha during the acute-phase response influences transthyretin gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, X; Samadani, U; Porcella, A; Costa, R H

    1995-01-01

    Three distinct hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF-3) proteins (alpha, beta, and gamma) are known to regulate the transcription of numerous liver-specific genes. The HNF-3 proteins bind to DNA as monomers through a winged-helix motif, which is also utilized by a number of developmental regulators, including the Drosophila homeotic fork head (fkh) protein. We have previously characterized a strong-affinity HNF-3S site in the transthyretin (TTR) promoter region which is essential for expression in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. In the current study, we identify an activating protein 1 (AP-1) site which partially overlaps the HNF-3S sequence in the TTR promoter. We show that in HepG2 cells the AP-1 sequence confers 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate inducibility to the TTR promoter and contributes to normal TTR transcriptional activity. We also demonstrate that the HNF-3 proteins and AP-1 bind independently to the TTR AP-1-HNF-3 site, and cotransfection experiments suggest that they do not cooperate to activate an AP-1-HNF-3 reporter construct. In addition, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate exposure of HepG2 cells results in a reciprocal decrease in HNF-3 alpha and -3 gamma expression which may facilitate interaction of AP-1 with the TTR AP-1-HNF-3 site. In order to explore the role of HNF-3 in the liver, we have examined expression patterns of TTR and HNF-3 during the acute-phase response and liver regeneration. Partial hepatectomy produced minimal fluctuation in HNF-3 and TTR expression, suggesting that HNF-3 expression is not influenced by proliferative signals induced during liver regeneration. In acute-phase livers, we observed a dramatic reduction in HNF-3 alpha expression which correlates with a decrease in the expression of its target gene, the TTR gene. Furthermore, consistent with previous studies, the acute-phase livers are induced for c-jun but not c-fos expression. We propose that the reduction in TTR gene expression during the acute phase is likely due

  4. Calculated distortions of duplex DNA by a cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimer are unaffected by a 3' TpA step.

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, M G; Miller, J H

    1997-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the duplex DNA dodecamers d(CGCGAA TT CGCG): d(CGCGAATTCGCG) and d(GCACGAA TT AAG): d(CTTAATTCGTGC), where TT denotes a cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimer. The constant temperature and pressure algorithm of the AMBER 4.1 molecular-modeling package was used with explicit water and counterions, periodic boundary conditions and electrostatic interactions evaluated by the particle-mesh Ewald method. Results were analyzed by the CURVES algorithm and its implementation in DIALS and WINDOWS. Calculated distortions of DNA structure by the thymine dimer were qualitatively and quantitatively similar for the two sequences. Despite the enhanced flexibility of the native TpA dinucleotide step, major deviations from the B-DNA values of helicoidal parameters were found only at the Ap and p dinucleotide steps in both sequences. Only the AT base pairs of the two sequences that contain the 5' thymine of the dimers exhibited weakened Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds and anomalous stretching. Hence, we conclude that the pattern of structural perturbations responsible for recognition of cis, syn thymine dimers by repair enzymes is not sensitive to their sequence context. PMID:9060440

  5. Regulated proteolytic processing of Reelin through interplay of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, and their modulators.

    PubMed

    Krstic, Dimitrije; Rodriguez, Myriam; Knuesel, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular signaling protein Reelin, indispensable for proper neuronal migration and cortical layering during development, is also expressed in the adult brain where it modulates synaptic functions. It has been shown that proteolytic processing of Reelin decreases its signaling activity and promotes Reelin aggregation in vitro, and that proteolytic processing is affected in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, neither the pathophysiological significance of dysregulated Reelin cleavage, nor the involved proteases and their modulators are known. Here we identified the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and two matrix metalloproteinases, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5, as Reelin cleaving enzymes. Moreover, we assessed the influence of several endogenous protease inhibitors, including tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), α-2-Macroglobulin, and multiple serpins, as well as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) on Reelin cleavage, and described their complex interplay in the regulation of this process. Finally, we could demonstrate that in the murine hippocampus, the expression levels and localization of Reelin proteases largely overlap with that of Reelin. While this pattern remained stable during normal aging, changes in their protein levels coincided with accelerated Reelin aggregation in a mouse model of AD. PMID:23082219

  6. Hugoniot and opacity measurements of polystyrene and carbon up to 80 TPa from radiography of converging shocks at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritcher, A. L.; Doeppner, T.; Swift, D. C.; Bachmann, B.; Kraus, D.; Hawreliak, J.; Gaffney, J.; Collins, G.; Glenzer, S.; Chapman, D.; Rothman, S. D.; Rose, S.; Falcone, R. W.

    2015-06-01

    Converging shocks were induced with hohlraum-driven x-ray radiation on spherical samples of poly alpha-methyl styrene and diamond. The time-history of density profiles through the sample was measured by x-ray radiography using a laser-heated backlighter and a streak camera, viewing a diameter across the sample through slots in the hohlraum wall. Profile-matching in radius and time was used to increase the accuracy of density inferred from the transmission. The shock temperature reached several hundred eV, causing ionization which significantly reduced the opacity to the 9 kV x-ray energy. The opacity change at the shock was inferred from the change in apparent mass inside a radiographic marker layer. The speed and compression of the shock were measured from the density profiles. The shock pressure increased with convergence, so a range of Hugoniot states was obtained from each experiment. Shock states were measured between 10 and 80 TPa. Presently at Washington State University.

  7. Host cell reactivation studies with epidermal cells of mice sensitive and resistant to carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.E.; Strickland, A.G.

    1984-03-01

    Primary epidermal cells from AKR, BALB/c, CD-1, and SENCAR mice, listed in order of least to most sensitive to epidermal carcinogenesis by initiation and promotion protocols, were found to be equally competent to ''reactivate'' herpes simplex virus type 1 irradiated by germicidal ultraviolet radiation. Nontumorigenic BALB/c epidermal cell lines selected in vitro for resistance to terminal differentiation after in vivo or in vitro treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens showed virus survival curves similar to those of primary cells. Similarly, primary cultures which were allowed to grow to confluency following a single treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (100 ng/ml) retained normal host cell reactivation. Host cell reactivation studies with mouse dermal fibroblasts could not be done because of the failure of the herpes simplex virus to infect these cells and produce plaques. These results demonstrate that survival of ultraviolet light-damaged virus in primary epidermal cells in culture is unrelated to whether the cells are derived from mice sensitive or resistant to epidermal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, virus survival is not changed by tumor promoter treatment or by treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens which results in differentiation-resistant cells.

  8. Tle1 tumor suppressor negatively regulates inflammation in vivo and modulates NF-κB inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Selvi; Saez, Borja; Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Ding, Daching; Ahmed, Alwiya M; Chen, Xi; Pucci, Ferdinando; Yamin, Rae'e; Wang, Jianfeng; Pittet, Mikael J; Kelleher, Cassandra M; Scadden, David T; Sweetser, David A

    2016-02-16

    Tle1 (transducin-like enhancer of split 1) is a corepressor that interacts with a variety of DNA-binding transcription factors and has been implicated in many cellular functions; however, physiological studies are limited. Tle1-deficient (Tle1(Δ/Δ)) mice, although grossly normal at birth, exhibit skin defects, lung hypoplasia, severe runting, poor body condition, and early mortality. Tle1(Δ/Δ) mice display a chronic inflammatory phenotype with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the skin, lung, and intestine and increased circulatory IL-6 and G-CSF, along with a hematopoietic shift toward granulocyte macrophage progenitor and myeloid cells. Tle1(Δ/Δ) macrophages produce increased inflammatory cytokines in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and Tle1(Δ/Δ) mice display an enhanced inflammatory response to ear skin 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment. Loss of Tle1 not only results in increased phosphorylation and activation of proinflammatory NF-κB but also results in decreased Hes1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1), a negative regulator of inflammation in macrophages. Furthermore, Tle1(Δ/Δ) mice exhibit accelerated growth of B6-F10 melanoma xenografts. Our work provides the first in vivo evidence, to our knowledge, that TLE1 is a major counterregulator of inflammation with potential roles in a variety of inflammatory diseases and in cancer progression. PMID:26831087

  9. The anti-inflammatory effects of methylsulfonylmethane on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lim, Hwan; Baek, Doo-Yeon; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2009-04-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), also known as dimethyl sulfone and methyl sulfone, is an organic sulfur-containing compound that occurs naturally in a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, and animals, including humans. In the present study, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of MSM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages, RAW264.7 cells. MSM significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) by alleviating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, the levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were decreased by MSM treatment in cell culture supernatants. Further study indicated that the translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB to the nucleus was inhibited by MSM treatment in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, in which it helped block degradation of inhibitor of NF-kappaB. In addition, in vivo studies demonstrated that topical administration of MSM at 500-1250 microg/ear resulted in similar inhibitory activities in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced mouse ear edema. Collectively, theses results indicate that MSM inhibits LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages through downregulation of NF-kappaB signaling. PMID:19336900

  10. Phorbol ester stimulates secretory activity while inhibiting receptor-activated aminopyrine uptake by gastric glands

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.; Chew, C.S.

    1986-03-05

    Both cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent secretagogues stimulate pepsinogen release, respiration and H/sup +/ secretory activity (AP uptake) in rabbit gastric glands. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (T), a diacyglycerol analog, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and stimulates secretion in many systems. T stimulated respiration and pepsinogen release by glands and increased AP uptake by both glands and purified parietal cells. However, T reduced AP uptake by glands stimulated with carbachol (C) or histamine (H) with an apparent IC/sub 50/ of 1 nM. Preincubation with T for 30 min produced maximum inhibition which was not reversed by removal of T. T accelerated the decline of the transient C peak while the late steady state response to H was most inhibited. H-stimulated AP uptake was also inhibited by 50 ..mu..g/ml 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, a reported PKC activator, but not by the inactive phorbol, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate. In contrast, T potentiated AP uptake by glands stimulated with submaximal doses of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest inhibition by T is a specific effect of PKC activators. The differing effects of T on secretion indicators may result from a dual action of T on receptor and post-receptor intracellular events.

  11. Dietary feeding of Opuntia humifusa inhibits UVB radiation-induced carcinogenesis by reducing inflammation and proliferation in hairless mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Su-Gil; Park, Young-Seok; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    It has been validated that ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced both squamous and basal cell carcinomas, as a tumor initiator and promoter. Opuntia humifusa is a member of the Cactaceae family which has been demonstrated in our previous study to have a chemopreventive effect in 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced skin carcinogenesis models. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the protective effects of O. humifusa against photocarcinogenesis. O. humifusa was administrated to mice as a dietary feeding, following exposure to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm(2)) twice a week of 30 weeks for skin tumor development in hairless mice. Dietary O. humifusa inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of leukocytes, level of myeloperoxidase and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in UVB exposed skin. Also, O. humifusa significantly inhibited both protein and mRNA expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 compared to the non-O. humifusa treated group. Collectively, these results suggest that O. humifusa could inhibit photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin and that protective effect is associated with the inhibition of not only UVB-induced inflammatory responses involving COX-2, iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines, but also the down-regulation of UVB-induced cellular proliferation. PMID:23789636

  12. Lack of effect of 94 GHz radio frequency radiation exposure in an animal model of skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mason, P A; Walters, T J; DiGiovanni, J; Beason, C W; Jauchem, J R; Dick, E J; Mahajan, K; Dusch, S J; Shields, B A; Merritt, J H; Murphy, M R; Ryan, K L

    2001-10-01

    Although there is no evidence that electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency radiation (RFR) band is mutagenic, there have been suggestions that RFR energy might serve as either a promoter or co-promoter in some animal models of carcinogenesis. Recent developments in electromagnetic technology have resulted in the manufacture of RFR sources capable of generating frequencies in the millimeter wavelength (MMW) range (30-300 GHz). Because absorption of MMW energy occurs in the skin, it is to be expected that long-term detrimental health effects, if any, would most likely be manifest in the skin. In this study we investigated whether a single (1.0 W/cm(2) for 10 s) or repeated (2 exposures/week for 12 weeks, 333 mW/cm(2) for 10 s) exposure to 94 GHz RFR serves as a promoter or co-promoter in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced SENCAR mouse model of skin carcinogenesis. Neither paradigm of MMW exposure significantly affected papilloma development, as evidenced by a lack of effect on tumor incidence and multiplicity. There was also no evidence that MMW exposure served as a co-promoter in DMBA-induced animals repeatedly treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. Therefore, we conclude that exposure to 94 GHz RFR under these conditions does not promote or co-promote papilloma development in this animal model of skin carcinogenesis. PMID:11577012

  13. Interaction of MCM7 and RACK1 for Activation of MCM7 and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Yue; Tang, Lang-Zhu; Ren, Bao-Guo; Yu, Yan P.; Nelson, Joel; Michalopoulos, George; Luo, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    MCM7 is one of the pivotal DNA replication licensing factors in controlling DNA synthesis and cell entry into S phase. Its expression and DNA copy number are some of the most predictive factors for the growth and behavior of human malignancies. In this study, we identified that MCM7 interacts with the receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1), a protein kinase C (PKC) adaptor, in vivo and in vitro. The RACK1 binding motif in MCM7 is located at the amino acid 221-248. Knocking down RACK1 significantly reduced MCM7 chromatin association, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle entry into S phase. Activation of PKC by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate dramatically decreased MCM7 DNA replication licensing and induced cell growth arrest. Activation of PKC induced redistribution of RACK1 from nucleus to cytoplasm and decreased RACK1-chromatin association. The MCM7 mutant that does not bind RACK1 has no DNA replication licensing or oncogenic transformation activity. As a result, this study demonstrates a novel signaling mechanism that critically controls DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. PMID:23313748

  14. A rice-derived recombinant human lactoferrin stimulates fibroblast proliferation, migration, and sustains cell survival.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ling; Cui, Tengjiao; Wu, James J; Liu-Mares, Wen; Huang, Ning; Li, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLF), a glycoprotein of the transferrin family, has recently been shown to stimulate wound repair through its antimicrobial effect and inflammation modulation. A recent study with several non-skin cell lines indicated that hLF may also have a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation. To explore the role of hLF in wound healing, we used recombinant human lactoferrin (holo-rhLF), derived from transgenic rice, to examine the effects of holo-rhLF on cell proliferation, migration, attachment, and survival in a human primary skin fibroblast culture system. This study revealed that holo-rhLF not only significantly stimulates fibroblast proliferation but also has synergistic effects with fibroblast growth factor-2 and antagonistic effects with transforming growth factor-beta1 on cell proliferation. Furthermore, using a chamber migration assay, our results demonstrate that holo-rhLF promotes fibroblast migration in a dosage-dependent manner. More importantly, holo-rhLF significantly increased cell viability and protected cells from death when they were stressed by either serum depletion or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate exposure. No significant effect was observed on cell attachment. In conclusion, these findings reveal the multiple functions of holo-rhLF in human skin fibroblasts and indicate its potential application in wound therapy by enhancing cell proliferation and migration as well as protecting cells from apoptosis. PMID:20082685

  15. Tumor promoter-like activity of the molluscicidal latex of 'Crown-of-Thorns' (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in the V79 metabolic cooperation assay.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C M; Kasper, P; Cataldo, A; Zamith, H P; Paumgartten, F J

    1996-11-01

    The latex of 'Crown-of-Thorns' (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. E. splendens) has been shown to be a potent plant molluscicide that could be used against the snails which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma trematodes. However, a comprehensive toxicological evaluation of the latex is necessary before its large-scale use in schistosomiasis control becomes possible. In fact, one cause for concern is the presence of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in several plants of the Euphorbiaceae family. Phorbol esters as well as a number of other known tumor promoters share the common property of inhibiting metabolic cooperation (i.e., exchange of low molecular weight molecules via gap junctions) between Chinese hamster V79 cells in monolayer cultures. The present study was undertaken to determine if latex of E. milii presents tumor promoter-like activity is this short-term in vitro assay. Samples of lyophilized E. milii latex were tested at a noncytotoxic concentration range (1, 10, 50 and 100 micrograms/ml) in three independent experiments. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (10 ng/ml) was used as positive control. In all three assays, E. milii latex consistently inhibited metabolic cooperation between V79 cells at concentrations > or = 10 micrograms/ml. These results that E. milii latex contains tumor-promoting substances. These findings suggest that the use of crude latex as a molluscicide may pose a carcinogenic hazard to people who are continuously exposed to the product. PMID:9196556

  16. Induction of heme oxygenase: A general response to oxidant stress in cultured mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, L.A.; Luscher, P.; Tyrrell, R.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA is strongly stimulated by treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or the sulfhydryl reagent sodium arsenite. Since this will result in a transient reduction in the prooxidant state of cells, the phenomenon may represent an important inducible antioxidant defense mechanism. To examine the generality of the response, we have measured the accumulation of the specific mRNA in a variety of human and mammalian cell types after inducing treatments. Induction by sodium arsenite is observed in all additional human cell types tested. This includes primary epidermal keratinocytes and lung and colon fibroblasts as well as established cell lines such as HeLa, TK6 lymphoblastoid, and transformed fetal keratinocytes. Strong induction of heme oxygenase mRNA is also observed following sodium arsenite treatment of cell lines of rat, hamster, mouse, monkey, and marsupial origin. The agents which lead to induction in cultured human skin fibroblasts fall into two categories: (a) those which are oxidants or can generate active intermediates (ultraviolet A radiation, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate); (b) agents which are known to interact with or modify cellular glutathione levels (buthionine sulfoximine, sodium arsenite, iodoacetamide, diamide, and cadmium chloride). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that induction of the enzyme is a general response to oxidant stress in mammalian cells and are consistent with the possibility that the cellular redox state plays a key role.

  17. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory action of the ethanol extract of Trachelospermi caulis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mu Hong; Lee, Jeong Min; Jun, Sung Hoon; Ha, Chul Gyu; Lee, Seung-Ha; Kim, Nam Wook; Lee, Jun Ho; Ko, Na Young; Mun, Se Hwan; Park, Seung Hwa; Kim, Bo Kyung; Her, Erk; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity, antinociceptive activity and the action mechanism of Trachelospermi caulis extract. The anti-inflammatory effects were investigated using arachidonic acid, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate or carrageenan-induced oedema assays. Antinociceptive activity, using the acetic acid-induced writhing model, was also tested in mice. The extract exhibited dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05 at 100-400 mg kg-1) anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity in the animals. To further understand the mechanism of activity, we investigated whether the extract inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of TNF-alpha from murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Similar to the in-vivo activity, the iNOS expression, NO production and TNF-alpha expression were found to be dose dependent and significantly suppressed by the extract through the inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase/NF-kappaB pathway. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that T. caulis extract may be useful for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:17227629

  18. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene-induced mouse forestomach neoplasia and reduction of H2O2 concentration in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes by flavour components of Japanese-style fermented soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, S; Liu, W; Albright, K; Storkson, J; Pariza, M

    1997-05-01

    Previously it was reported that 4-hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), a characteristic flavour component of Japanese-style fermented soy sauce that exhibits antioxidant activity, inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach neoplasia in mice. The antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities of other structurally similar soy sauce flavour components are now reported. 4-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) were found to be antioxidants. In particular, HMF and HDMF (as well as HEMF) reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes stimulated by arachidonic acid or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. HMF and HDMF were administered individually in semipurified diet to female ICR mice previously treated with benzo[a]pyrene (1.5 mg/wk, orally for 4 wk) to initiate forestomach neoplasia. The mice were killed at 30 wk of age. Both furanones reduced forestomach neoplasms, with HDMF exhibiting more potency. The data indicate that HDMF and HMF, like HEMF, inhibit carcinogenesis in this system by acting at the post-initiation stage. PMID:9216743

  19. Increased skin tumorigenesis in mice lacking pi class glutathione S-transferases

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Colin J.; Smith, Austin G.; Ure, Jan; Brown, Ken; Bacon, E. Jane; Wolf, C. Roland

    1998-01-01

    The activity of chemical carcinogens is a complex balance between metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and detoxification by enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). Regulation of these proteins may have profound effects on carcinogenic activity, although it has proved impossible to ascribe the observed effects to the activity of a single protein. GstP appears to play a very important role in carcinogenesis, although the precise nature of its involvement is unclear. We have deleted the murine GstP gene cluster and established the effects on skin tumorigenesis induced by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz anthracene and the tumor promoting agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. After 20 weeks, a highly significant increase in the number of papillomas was found in the GstP1/P2 null mice [GstP1/P2(−/−) mice, 179 papillomas, mean 9.94 per animal vs. GstP1/P2(+/+) mice, 55 papillomas, mean 2.89 per animal, (P < 0.001)]. This difference in tumor incidence provides direct evidence that a single gene involved in drug metabolism can have a profound effect on tumorigenicity, and demonstrates that GstP may be an important determinant in cancer susceptibility, particularly in diseases where exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is involved, for instance in cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer. PMID:9560266

  20. Equivalency of endothelial cell growth supplement to irradiated feeder cells in carcinogen-induced morphologic transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.H.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS), an extract of bovine neural tissue with growth-promoting properties for human endothelial and epithelial cells and for mouse BALB/c fibroblast-like cells, can be substituted for feeder cells in a quantitative 7-day Syrian hamster embryo cell colony in vitro model of carcinogenesis. Inclusion of 50 or 100 micrograms ECGS/ml medium throughout the 7-day growth period produced results equal to those obtained with feeder cells. The frequency and morphology of normal fibroblast colonies and carcinogen-induced morphologically transformed cell colony growth in the presence of ECGS were similar to those in the presence of feeder cells. A positive dose-response relationship in transformation by benzo(a)pyrene occurred. The frequency of transformed colonies following UV irradiation and treatment of the cells with the cocarcinogenic tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate was greatly augmented, and lymphotoxin, a lymphokine with anticarcinogenic activity, reduced transformation. Thus ECGS can substitute for feeder cells in supporting in vitro transformation and eliminates a potential complex source of variability for studies where interaction(s) with feeder cells are a consideration. The mechanics of this model system was simplified, and its versatility for the study of physiologic, carcinogenic, and other pathophysiologic processes was broadened.

  1. Propagation of mouse and human T cells with defined antigen specificity and function.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P A; Fowler, D H; Kim, H; White, R L; Czerniecki, B J; Carter, C; Gress, R E; Rosenberg, S A

    1994-01-01

    Difficulties maintaining fully functional CD4+ T cells in culture have historically limited the study of their role in tumour rejection as well as other clinical applications. As the therapeutic value of current antitumour CD8+ T cell adoptive therapy becomes better defined, a strong impetus exists to determine optimal conditions for culturing antitumour CD4+ T cells. Our goal is to promote broadly polyclonal, antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses of either Th1 or Th2 character for use in antitumour therapy or allograft facilitation, respectively. Similar obstacles exist in murine and human cultures: (1) during even brief periods of culture CD4+ T cells develop high 'background' reactivity to class II-positive antigen-presenting cells; (2) maintenance of antigen specificity as evidenced by cytokine secretion and short-term proliferation assays is insufficient to ensure bulk numerical expansion; (3) Th1-type CD4+ T cells often lose their potential for antigen-specific secretion of interleukin 2 on re-stimulation (though remain inducible by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate/ionomycin); (4) during prolonged culture selection pressure favours CD4+ subpopulations that recognize artifactual antigens such as culture medium proteins; (5) even with optimal culture conditions, cultured CD4+ T cells may function differently in vivo to uncultured CD4+ T cells. We have devised various strategies to surmount these obstacles by use of selected cytokines, antigen-presenting cells and timely culture manoeuvres. PMID:7540969

  2. Induction of megakaryocyte differentiation drives nuclear accumulation and transcriptional function of MKL1 via actin polymerization and RhoA activation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elenoe C.; Teixeira, Alexandra M.; Chen, Rachel C.; Wang, Lin; Gao, Yuan; Hahn, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    How components of the cytoskeleton regulate complex cellular responses is fundamental to understanding cellular function. Megakaryoblast leukemia 1 (MKL1), an activator of serum response factor (SRF) transcriptional activity, promotes muscle, neuron, and megakaryocyte differentiation. In muscle cells, where MKL1 subcellular localization is one mechanism by which cells control SRF activity, MKL1 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to actin polymerization is critical for its function as a transcriptional regulator. MKL1 localization is cell-type specific; it is predominantly cytoplasmic in unstimulated fibroblasts and some muscle cell types and is constitutively nuclear in neuronal cells. In the present study, we report that in megakaryocytes, subcellular localization and regulation of MKL1 is dependent on RhoA activity and actin organization. Induction of megakaryocytic differentiation of human erythroleukemia cells by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and primary megakaryocytes by thrombopoietin promotes MKL1 nuclear localization. This MKL1 localization is blocked by drugs inhibiting RhoA activity or actin polymerization. We also show that nuclear-localized MKL1 activates the transcription of SRF target genes. This report broadens our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms regulating megakaryocyte differentiation. PMID:23243284

  3. Induction of histidine decarboxylase in mouse tissues by mitogens in vivo.

    PubMed

    Endo, Y

    1983-12-15

    Various types of mitogenic substances, such as a Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concanavalin A (Con A), pokeweed mitogen, polyI:polyC (a synthetic double-stranded RNA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (a component of croton oil), induced histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the liver, spleen and lung of mice at 4.5 hr after injection. Other inflammatory agents without mitogenic activity, such as zymosan, carrageenan, glycogen, D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, did not induce the enzyme. Both LPS (a B-cell mitogen) and Con A (a T-cell mitogen) induced HDC also in nude mice that lack T-cells, indicating that T-cells are not required for HDC induction by mitogens. C3H/HeJ mice, which are LPS-low responder mice in various immunological tests, were quite a bit less responsive to LPS also in the HDC induction. These results show that mitogens with different properties can induce HDC as a common characteristic. On the basis of these results, the possible participation of macrophages in the process of HDC induction by mitogens was discussed. PMID:6661256

  4. Loss of integrin α3 prevents skin tumor formation by promoting epidermal turnover and depletion of slow-cycling cells

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Norman; Secades, Pablo; van Hulst, Laura; Kreft, Maaike; Song, Ji-Ying; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    Progression through the various stages of skin tumorigenesis is correlated with an altered expression of the integrin α3β1, suggesting that it plays an important role in the tumorigenic process. Using epidermis-specific Itga3 KO mice subjected to the 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol, we demonstrate that efficient tumor development is critically dependent on the presence of α3β1. In the absence of α3β1, tumor initiation is dramatically decreased because of increased epidermal turnover, leading to a loss of DMBA-initiated label-retaining keratinocytes. Lineage tracing revealed emigration of α3-deficient keratinocytes residing in the bulge of the hair follicle toward the interfollicular epidermis. Furthermore, tumor growth and cell proliferation were strongly reduced in mice with an epidermis-specific deletion of Itga3. However, the rate of progression of α3β1-null squamous cell carcinomas to undifferentiated, invasive carcinomas was increased. Therefore, α3β1 critically affects skin carcinogenesis with opposing effects early and late in tumorigenesis. PMID:23236172

  5. Loss of integrin α3 prevents skin tumor formation by promoting epidermal turnover and depletion of slow-cycling cells.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Norman; Secades, Pablo; van Hulst, Laura; Kreft, Maaike; Song, Ji-Ying; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-12-26

    Progression through the various stages of skin tumorigenesis is correlated with an altered expression of the integrin α3β1, suggesting that it plays an important role in the tumorigenic process. Using epidermis-specific Itga3 KO mice subjected to the 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol, we demonstrate that efficient tumor development is critically dependent on the presence of α3β1. In the absence of α3β1, tumor initiation is dramatically decreased because of increased epidermal turnover, leading to a loss of DMBA-initiated label-retaining keratinocytes. Lineage tracing revealed emigration of α3-deficient keratinocytes residing in the bulge of the hair follicle toward the interfollicular epidermis. Furthermore, tumor growth and cell proliferation were strongly reduced in mice with an epidermis-specific deletion of Itga3. However, the rate of progression of α3β1-null squamous cell carcinomas to undifferentiated, invasive carcinomas was increased. Therefore, α3β1 critically affects skin carcinogenesis with opposing effects early and late in tumorigenesis. PMID:23236172

  6. Functional characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus small capsid protein by bacterial artificial chromosome-based mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sathish, Narayanan; Yuan Yan

    2010-11-25

    A systematic investigation of interactions amongst KSHV capsid proteins was undertaken in this study to comprehend lesser known KSHV capsid assembly mechanisms. Interestingly the interaction patterns of the KSHV small capsid protein, ORF65 suggested its plausible role in viral capsid assembly pathways. Towards further understanding this, ORF65-null recombinant mutants (BAC-{Delta}65 and BAC-stop65) employing a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system were generated. No significant difference was found in both overall viral gene expression and lytic DNA replication between stable monolayers of 293T-BAC36 (wild-type) and 293T-BAC-ORF65-null upon induction with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, though the latter released 30-fold fewer virions to the medium than 293T-BAC36 cells. Sedimentation profiles of capsid proteins of ORF65-null recombinant mutants were non-reflective of their organization into the KSHV capsids and were also undetectable in cytoplasmic extracts compared to noticeable levels in nuclear extracts. These observations collectively suggested the pivotal role of ORF65 in the KSHV capsid assembly processes.

  7. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Rivedal, E; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    2000-04-01

    A large fraction of chemicals observed to cause cancer in experimental animals is devoid of mutagenic activity. It is therefore of importance to develop methods that can be used to detect and study environmental carcinogenic agents that do not interact directly with DNA. Previous studies have indicated that induction of in vitro cell transformation and inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication are endpoints that could be useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. In the present work, 13 compounds [chlordane, Arochlor 1260, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, limonene, sodium fluoride, ethionine, o-anisidine, benzoyl peroxide, o-vanadate, phenobarbital, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and clofibrate] have been tested for their ability to induce morphological transformation and affect intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. The substances were selected on the basis of being proven or suspected non-genotoxic carcinogens, and thus difficult to detect in short-term tests. The data show that nine of the 13 compounds induced morphological transformation, and seven of the 13 inhibited intercellular communication in hamster embryo cells. Taken together, 12 of the 13 substances either induced transformation or caused inhibition of communication. The data suggest that the combined use of morphological transformation and gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells may be beneficial when screening for non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:10793297

  8. Phosphorylation of intracellular proteins related to the multihormonal regulation of prolactin: comparison of normal anterior pituitary cells in culture with the tumor-derived GH cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Beretta, L.; Boutterin, M.C.; Sobel, A.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously identified a group of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins (proteins 1-11) whose phosphorylation could be related, on a pharmacological basis, to the multihormonal regulation of PRL synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary tumor-derived GH cell lines. Phosphoproteins with identical migration properties on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels were also detectable in normal rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. We designed appropriate culture and (/sup 32/P) phosphate-labeling conditions allowing to analyze the regulation of the phosphorylation of these proteins in normal pituitary cells. TRH, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced the same qualitative changes in phosphorylation of proteins 1-11 in normal as in GH cells. Quantitative differences observed are most likely due to the heterogeneity of primary pituitary cultures. Phosphorylation changes affecting proteins 14-16, not previously detected in GH cells, were also observed with normal anterior pituitary cells. GH cell lines have lost the sensitivity of pituitary lactotrophs for dopamine, an important physiological inhibitor of PRL synthesis and release. In normal anterior pituitary cells in culture, dopamine inhibited also the TRH-stimulated phosphorylation of proteins 1-10, thus strengthening the correlation between phosphorylation of these proteins and multihormonal regulation of pituitary cell functions. Our results indicate: 1) that the same phosphoproteins as in GH cells are related to the multihormonal regulation of nontumoral, normal anterior pituitary cells in culture; 2) that dopamine acts by interfering with the phosphorylation of these proteins.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor gene expression is mediated by protein kinase C following activation by ionizing radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D. E.; Virudachalam, S.; Sherman, M. L.; Huberman, E.; Kufe, D. W.; Weichselbaum, R. R.; Univ. of Chicago; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Univ. of Chicago

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production following X-irradiation has been implicated in the biological response to ionizing radiation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is suggested to participate in TNF transcriptional induction and X-ray-mediated gene expression. We therefore studied radiation-mediated TNF expression in HL-60 cells with diminished PKC activity produced by either pretreatment with protein kinase inhibitors or prolonged 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment. Both treatments resulted in attenuation of radiation-mediated TNF induction. Consistent with these results, we found no detectable induction of TNF expression following X-irradiation in the HL-60 variant deficient in PKC-mediated signal transduction. The rapid activation of PKC following {gamma}-irradiation was established using an in vitro assay measuring phosphorylation of a PKC specific substrate. A 4.5-fold increase in PKC activity occurred 15 to 30 s following irradiation, which declined to baseline at 60 s. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of phosphoproteins extracted from irradiated cells demonstrated in vivo phosphorylation of the PKC specific substrate Mr 80,000 protein at 45 s following X-irradiation. These findings indicate that signal transduction via the PKC pathway is required for the induction of TNF gene expression by ionizing radiation.

  10. Novel protein in human epidermal keratinocytes: regulation of expression during differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kartasova, T.; van Muijen, G.N.; van Pelt-Heerschap, H.; van de Putte, P.

    1988-05-01

    Recently, two groups of cDNA clones have been isolated from human epidermal keratinocytes; the clones correspond to genes whose expression is stimulated by exposure of the cells to UV light or treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. The proteins predicted by the nucleotide sequence of both groups of cDNAs are small (8 to 10 kilodaltons), are exceptionally rich in proline, glutamine, and cysteine, and contain repeating elements with a common sequence, PK PEPC. These proteins were designated sprI and sprII (small, proline rich). Here we describe the characterization of the sprIa protein, which is encoded by one of the group 1 cDNAs. The expression of this protein during keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and the distribution of the sprIa protein in some human tissues was studied by using a specific rabbit antiserum directed against a synthetic polypeptide corresponding to the 30 amino acids of the C-terminal region of the sprIa gene product. The results indicate that the expression of the sprIa protein is stimulated during keratinocyte differentiation both in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: Response to toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.H.; LaMontagne, A.D.; Petito, C.T.; Rong, Xianhui )

    1989-03-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAmP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents.

  12. Protein kinase C activation by anthracyclines in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, C; Gambetta, R A; Perego, P; Banfi, P; Franzi, A; Guazzoni, L; Zunino, F

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the anti-cancer anthracyclines doxorubicin and daunorubicin on the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) were examined in intact Swiss 3T3 cells. The 2 drugs stimulated the phosphorylation of an 80K phosphoprotein found to be identical to that generated in response to the PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as indicated by gel electrophoresis and peptide mapping. The effect of doxorubicin was dose-dependent in the range 10(-5) to 10(-3) M and was not associated with a detectable translocation of PKC activity from cytosol to the cell membrane. Doxorubicin and daunorubicin were found to increase the incorporation of phosphate into phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate. In addition, the anthracyclines induced a rise in inositol phosphates, thus indicating a stimulation of the breakdown of phosphoinositides. These data are consistent with an indirect mechanism of PKC activation by anthracyclines. We propose that diacylglycerol, which is derived from the hydrolysis of phospholipids, (including the phosphoinositides), by activation of phospholipases, could mediate PKC activation. The described effects, involving cell-signal-transducing pathways, emphasize a new aspect of the cellular actions of these anti-tumor agents. PMID:1845961

  13. A Regulatory Mechanism for RSK2 NH2-Terminal Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Yao, Ke; Pugliese, Angelo; Malakhova, Margarita L.; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2010-01-01

    Our previous findings indicated that RSK2 plays a critical role in proliferation and cell transformation induced by tumor promoters, such as epidermal growth factor or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and that kaempferol, a natural compound found in edible plants, selectively inhibits RSK2 activity. However, the molecular mechanism for RSK2 activation is unclear. Herein, we provide evidence showing that NH2-terminal kinase domain (NTD) activation of RSK2 is required for the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase–mediated COOH-terminal kinase domain (CTD). We also found that the NTD plays a key role in substrate phosphorylation and that kaempferol binds with the NTD but not the CTD in both the active and inactive forms. Homology modeling of the RSK2 NH2-terminal domain and small-molecule docking, validated by mutagenesis experiments, clearly showed that Val82 and Lys100 are critical amino acids for kaempferol binding and RSK2 activity. Furthermore, immunohistofluorescence and Western blot results indicated that the RSK2 protein level is markedly higher in cancer cell lines as well as cancer tissues compared with nonmalignant cell lines or normal tissues. In addition, kaempferol inhibited proliferation of malignant human cancer cell lines, including A431, SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28, and HCT-116. These results indicate that targeting RSK2 with natural compounds, such as kaempferol, might be a good strategy for chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic application. PMID:19435896

  14. Intracellular calcium changes induced by the endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of protein kinase C and effect of calcium channel blockers

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Cattaneo, Simona; Frigo, Giuseppina; Fietta, Anna M; Lecchini, Sergio; Frigo, Gian Mario

    2004-01-01

    Background The endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN) induces intracellular calcium ([Ca++]i) changes followed by activation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of protein kinase (PK) C in the modulation of the response to TTN by human PMNs, and to examine the pharmacology of TTN-induced Ca++ entry through the plasma membrane of these cells. Results The PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) concentration-dependently inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise, and this effect was reverted by the PKC inhibitors rottlerin (partially) and Ro 32-0432 (completely). PMA also inhibited TTN-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. In the absence of PMA, however, rottlerin (but not Ro 32-0432) per se partially inhibited TTN-induced [Ca++]i rise. The response of [Ca++]i to TTN was also sensitive to mibefradil and flunarizine (T-type Ca++-channel blockers), but not to nifedipine, verapamil (L-type) or ω-conotoxin GVIA (N-type). In agreement with this observation, PCR analysis showed the expression in human PMNs of the mRNA for all the α1 subunits of T-type Ca++ channels (namely, α1G, α1H, and α1I). Conclusions In human PMNs TTN activates PKC-modulated pathways leading to Ca++ entry possibly through T-type Ca++ channels. PMID:15228623

  15. Overexpression of members of the AP-1 transcriptional factor family from an early stage of renal carcinogenesis and inhibition of cell growth by AP-1 gene antisense oligonucleotides in the Tsc2 gene mutant (Eker) rat model.

    PubMed

    Urakami, S; Tsuchiya, H; Orimoto, K; Kobayashi, T; Igawa, M; Hino, O

    1997-12-01

    We previously isolated subtracted cDNA clones for genes having increased expression in Tsc2 gene mutant (Eker) rat renal carcinomas (RCs). Among them, fra-1 encoding a transcriptional factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) was identified. We have therefore investigated whether other members of the AP-1 transcription factor family might also be involved in renal carcinogenesis in the Eker rat model. In the present study, overexpression of fra-1, fra-2, c-jun, junB, and junD mRNAs was demonstrated in RCs by Northern blot analysis. Interestingly, AP-1 proteins were highly expressed even in the earliest preneoplastic lesions (e.g., phenotypically altered tubules) as suggested by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element (TRE)-binding activity of AP-1 proteins was observed in RC cell extracts by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. As a next step, we transfected antisense oligonucleotides targeting AP-1 genes into RC cells and demonstrated that their growth was strongly inhibited. Thus, the data suggest that overexpression of AP-1 genes might play a crucial role in renal carcinogenesis in the Eker rat model. PMID:9405228

  16. Mechanism of inhibition of Raf-1 by protein kinase A.

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, S; Adler, H S; Mischak, H; Janosch, P; Heidecker, G; Wolfman, A; Pippig, S; Lohse, M; Ueffing, M; Kolch, W

    1994-01-01

    The cytoplasmic Raf-1 kinase is essential for mitogenic signalling by growth factors, which couple to tyrosine kinases, and by tumor-promoting phorbol esters such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activate protein kinase C (PKC). Signalling by the Raf-1 kinase can be blocked by activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The molecular mechanism of this inhibition is not precisely known but has been suggested to involve attenuation of Raf-1 binding to Ras. Using purified proteins, we show that in addition to weakening the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras, PKA can inhibit Raf-1 function directly via phosphorylation of the Raf-1 kinase domain. Phosphorylation by PKA interferes with the activation of Raf-1 by either PKC alpha or the tyrosine kinase Lck and even can downregulate the kinase activity of Raf-1 previously activated by PKC alpha or amino-terminal truncation. This type of inhibition can be dissociated from the ability of Raf-1 to associate with Ras, since (i) the isolated Raf-1 kinase domain, which lacks the Ras binding domain, is still susceptible to inhibition by PKA, (ii) phosphorylation of Raf-1 by PKC alpha alleviates the PKA-induced reduction of Ras binding but does not prevent the downregulation of Raf-1 kinase activity by PKA and (iii) cAMP agonists antagonize transformation by v-Raf, which is Ras independent. Images PMID:7935389

  17. Erucin exerts anti-inflammatory properties in murine macrophages and mouse skin: possible mediation through the inhibition of NFκB signaling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han Jin; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Erucin, an isothiocyanate, is a hydrolysis product of glucoerucin found in arugula and has recently been reported to have anti-cancer properties in various cancer cells. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of erucin and the underlying mechanisms, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin. In RAW 264.7 cells, erucin (2.5, 5 μmol/L) inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Erucin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα and translocation of p65 to the nucleus and, subsequently, reduced LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB) DNA binding activities, as well as the transcriptional activity of NFκB, leading to the decreased expression of NFκB-target genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as transcriptional activity of iNOS and COX-2. In mice, erucin (100, 300 nmoles) treatment significantly inhibited phorbol ester-induced formation of ear edema and expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that erucin exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines, which may be mediated, at least in part, via the inhibition of NFκB signaling. PMID:24132147

  18. Erucin Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Murine Macrophages and Mouse Skin: Possible Mediation through the Inhibition of NFκB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Jin; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Erucin, an isothiocyanate, is a hydrolysis product of glucoerucin found in arugula and has recently been reported to have anti-cancer properties in various cancer cells. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of erucin and the underlying mechanisms, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin. In RAW 264.7 cells, erucin (2.5, 5 μmol/L) inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Erucin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα and translocation of p65 to the nucleus and, subsequently, reduced LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB) DNA binding activities, as well as the transcriptional activity of NFκB, leading to the decreased expression of NFκB-target genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as transcriptional activity of iNOS and COX-2. In mice, erucin (100, 300 nmoles) treatment significantly inhibited phorbol ester-induced formation of ear edema and expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that erucin exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines, which may be mediated, at least in part, via the inhibition of NFκB signaling. PMID:24132147

  19. Anti-tumour-promoting and thermal-induced protein denaturation inhibitory activities of β-sitosterol and lupeol isolated from Diospyros lotus L.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Khan, Haroon; Raza, Muslim; Zafar, Muhammad; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the anti-tumour-promoting and thermal-induced protein denaturation inhibitory activities of β-sitosterol (1) and lupeol (2), isolated from Diospyros lotus L., were explored. Compound 1 showed a marked concentration-dependent inhibition against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (20 ng/32 pmol)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation in Raji cells with IC50 of 270 μg/ml, without significant toxicity (70% viability). Compound 2 showed significant anti-tumour-promoting effect with IC50 of 412 μg/ml, without significant toxicity (60% viability). In heat-induced protein denaturation assay, compound 1 exhibited a concentration-dependent attenuation with a maximum effect of 73.5% at 500 μg/ml with EC50 of 117 μg/ml, while compound 2 exhibited a maximum effect of 59.2% at 500 μg/ml with EC50 of 355 μg/ml. Moreover, in silico docking studies against the phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzyme also show the inhibitory potency of these compounds. In short, both the compounds exhibited a marked anti-tumour-promoting and potent inhibitory effect on thermal-induced protein denaturation. PMID:26134930

  20. Increased Capillary Endothelial Cell Protease Activity in Response to Angiogenic Stimuli in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Janet L.; Moscatelli, David; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    1983-05-01

    Bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) cells produce increased amounts of the proteases plasminogen activator (PA) and latent collagenase when cultured in the presence of the following preparations which are known to contain angiogenic activities: bovine retinal extract, mouse adipocyte conditioned medium, and human hepatoma cell lysate. These preparations stimulated both BCE cell PA and collagenase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Both activities were increased to about the same level by these preparations as by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. Mitogens that are not angiogenic, such as insulin, epidermal and fibroblast growth factors, and endothelial cell growth supplement, had no effect on BCE cell PA and collagenase activities. Two of the angiogenic preparations (retinal extract and mouse adipocyte-conditioned medium) had no effect on PA activity in endothelial cells derived from bovine aortae (BAE cells). The angiogenic preparations had little (human hepatoma cell lysate, mouse adipocyte-conditioned medium) or no (bovine retinal extract) effect on BAE cell collagenase activities. In the bovine system, the induction of high levels of both PA and collagenase activities by angiogenic preparations is limited to capillary endothelial cells.

  1. Chemical induction of skin tumors in hairless (Skh-1) mice in view of photochemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Edwidge; Parache, Robert M.; Notter, Dominique; Vigneron, C.; Guillemin, Francois H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a classic two-stage carcinogenesis protocol on the formation of skin tumors in hairless female SKH-1 mice were studied in order to carry out photochemotherapy on the mice bearing tumors later. Mice were initiated with a single application of 100 nmol of 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in 0.1 ml acetone and promoted one week later, twice weekly with topical applications of 1.8 nmol (first protocol) or 5 nmol (second protocol) 12-o- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in 0.1 ml acetone. The first tumors occurred between 4 and 6 weeks after the beginning of the promotion process depending on the protocol and the percentage of mice bearing tumors increased and reached 41% and 100% at the end of the treatment respectively for the first and the second protocol. Depending on the protocol, the tumor yield was 0.8 for the first one and approximately 10 for the second one whereas we expected 3 tumors per mouse. Histology of some skin tumors revealed that all were papillomas, hence benign tumors. These papillomatous lesions seem characteristic of a viral attack as seen in other strains of mammals including humans.

  2. Stimulation of progesterone production by phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in cultured Leydig tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, L.R.; Raju, V.S.; Stocco, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    It has been shown that addition of hCG or c-AMP to cultured Leydig tumor cells (MA-10) increases synthesis of progesterone as the major steroid. To investigate the possible involvement of protein kinase C (PK-C) in the regulation of steroid synthesis, the authors have studied the effect of PMA, an activator of PK-C, on progesterone production in MA-10 cells. The addition of PMA (100 ng/ml) stimulated steroid production whereas 4 -phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, an inactive phorbol ester, did not have any effects. Like hCG and c-AMP, PMA-stimulated progesterone production was inhibited by cycloheximide. hCG-stimulated steroid synthesis was inhibited by PMA. The addition of PMA to MA-10 Leydig cells further increased the c-AMP-stimulated progesterone production. To determine whether c-AMP has a obligatory role in the regulation of steroid production, the effect of adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 9-(tetrahydro-2-furyl)adenine (TFA), was studied on progesterone production in the presence of hCG. At lower dose (17 ng/ml) hCG-stimulated intracellular c-AMP levels and steroid production were inhibited by TFA (300 M). At higher dose of hCG (34 ng/ml) TFA did not inhibit the hCG-stimulated intracellular c-AMP levels, however, progesterone production was inhibited. Results suggest that the action of hCG, c-AMP and PMA in controlling steroidogenesis might be regulated by similar but different mechanisms.

  3. Effects of PMA (PHORBOL-12-MYRISTATE-13-ACETATE) on the Developing Rodent Brain.

    PubMed

    Dzietko, Mark; Hahnemann, Maria; Polley, Oliver; Sifringer, Marco; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Bührer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal infections have a negative impact on brain development. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to neurological impairment are not completely understood and reliable models of inflammation are urgently needed. Using phorbol-myristate-acetate as an activator of inflammation, we investigated the effect on the developing rodent brain. Neonatal rats and mice deficient in IL-18 or IRAK-4 were exposed to PMA. Brains were assessed for regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cell death 24 hrs, 7 and 14 days after treatment. PMA induced an inflammatory response and caused widespread neurodegeneration in the brains of 3- and 7-day-old rats. In contrast, 14-day-old rats were resistant to the neurotoxic effect of PMA. Histological evaluation at the age of 14 and 21 days revealed a destruction of the cortical microstructure with decreased numerical density of neuronal cells. Mice deficient in IL-18 or IRAK-4 were protected against PMA induced brain injury. PMA treatment during a vulnerable period can alter brain development. IL-18 and IRAK-4 appear to be important for the development of PMA induced injury. PMID:25918710

  4. Effect of phorbol derivatives and staurosporine on gravitropic response of primary root of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Mulkey, T.J.; Kim, S.Y. ); Lee, J.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Time-lapse videography and computer-based, video image digitization were used to examine the effects of phorbol derivatives (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, TPA; phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 4-O-methyl ether, mTPA) and staurosporine on the kinetics of gravicurvature of primary roots of maize (Zea mays L., Pioneer 3343 and Golden Cross Bantam). Pretreatment of roots with TPA (3 hr, 1 {mu}M) decreases the time lag prior to induction of positive gravicurvature in horizontally-oriented roots by > 60%. The rate of curvature is not significantly different than the rate observed in control roots. Wrongway curvature which is observed in 30-40% of control roots is not observed in TPA-pretreated roots. Oscillatory movements observed in control roots after completion of gravitropic reorientation is completely dampened in TPA-pretreated roots. Pretreatment of roots with mTPA(3hr,1{mu}M), the inactive analog of TPA, does not significantly alter the kinetics of gravicurvature of primary roots of maize. Staurosporine (10{sup {minus}8}M), a microbial alkaloid which has been reported to have antifungal activity and to inhibit phospholipid/Ca{sup ++} dependent protein kinase, completely inhibits TPA-induced alteration of the kinetics of gravitropism. DAG (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol), a synthetic diglyceride activator of protein kinase C, exhibits similar activity to TPA. TPA-induced alterations in tissue response to auxin are presented.

  5. Final report of the amended safety assessment of PEG-5, -10, -16, -25, -30, and -40 soy sterol.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    95% of the material entering the colon. Absorbed plant phytosterols are transported to the blood. Although there are some data suggesting that sulfates of beta-sitosterol can act as abortifacients in rats and rabbits, other studies of well-characterized plant phytosterols and phytosterol esters demonstrated no effect in an estrogen-binding study, a recombinant yeast assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity, or a juvenile rat uterotrophic assay for estrogen or estrogen-like activity. In a two-generation reproduction study using rats, plant phytosterol esters in the diet had no effect on any parameter of reproduction or fertility. Subcutaneous injections of beta-sitosterol did reduce sperm concentrations and fertility in rats. Sitosterol inhibited tumor promoting activity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice after initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), and reduced the tumors produced by N-methylnitrosourea in rats. Phytosterols were not genotoxic in several bacterial, mammalian, and in vitro assay systems. Phytosterols decreased epithelial cell proliferation in the colon of mice and rats, and were cytotoxic for human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx. PEGs Soy Sterols: The acute oral LD50 in rats of PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was >10 g/kg. The acute dermal LD50 of a liquid eyeliner containing 2%PEG-5 Soy Sterol was >2 g/kg in rabbits. PEG-5-25 Soy Sterol was not a primary irritant in rabbits when applied undiluted. Undiluted PEG-5 Soy Sterol did not cause sensitization in guinea pigs. PEGs Soy Sterol did not produce ocular toxicity in rabbits. PEG-5 Soy Sterol was negative in the Ames mutagenicity test, with or without metabolic activation. PEG-5 Soy Sterol, at concentrations up to 2%in formulation, did not cause dermal or ocular irritation, dermal sensitization, or photosensitization in clinical studies. Because of the possible presence of 1,4-dioxane reaction product and unreacted ethylene oxide residues, it was considered

  6. Epinephrine impairs insulin release by a mechanism distal to calcium mobilization. Similarity to lipoxygenase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms that enable epinephrine (EPI) and lipoxygenase inhibitors to impede insulin secretion are unknown. We examined the possibility that EPI inhibits Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes as its major mechanism by studying /sup 45/Ca efflux from prelabeled, intact rat islets. EPI (2.5 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-5) M) inhibited insulin release induced by the influx of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ (46 mM K+) or the mobilization of intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ stores (2 mM Ba/sup 2 +/), but it did not reduce the /sup 45/Ca efflux stimulated by either agonist. EPI also nullified insulin release induced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP, with minimal or no effects on /sup 45/Ca efflux, and blocked the insulinotropic effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (a direct activator of protein kinase C), which is believed primarily to sensitize the exocytotic apparatus to Ca/sup 2 +/ without mobilizing additional Ca/sup 2 +/. Previously we reported that similar effects were induced by inhibitors of pancreatic islet lipoxygenase. In this study, however, pretreatment with either the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine or pertussis toxin did not block the effects of lipoxygenase inhibitors, although either agent did block the effects of EPI. Thus, EPI, via an alpha 2-receptor mechanism, is able to reduce exocytosis largely distal to, or independent of, changes in Ca/sup 2 +/ flux, cAMP formation or its Ca/sup 2 +/-mobilizing action, or generation of protein kinase C activators. Therefore, EPI may reduce the sensitivity of the exocytotic apparatus to Ca/sup 2 +/. Inhibition of islet lipoxygenase may have a similar effect; however, in this case, the effect would have to be unrelated, or distal, to stimulation of alpha 2-receptors.

  7. Ca/sup 2 +/-stimulated catecholamine release from. cap alpha. -toxin-permeabilized PC12 cells: biochemical evidence for exocytosis and its modulation by protein kinase C and G protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Braeutigam, M.; Gratzl, M.

    1987-12-01

    Two possible cellular pathways of catecholamines from the chromaffin vesicles of PC12 cells to the surrounding medium are explored in this study. The direct one circumventing the cytoplasm can be activated in ..cap alpha..-toxin-permeabilized cells with micromolar levels of free Ca/sup 2 +/. Catecholamine metabolites formed in the cytoplasm (i.e., 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol) are neither formed nor released from the cells under these conditions. However, when vesicular catecholamines were discharged into the cytoplasm by addition of the ionophore nigericin, such metabolites are formed and released into the medium independent of Ca/sup 2 +/. Both types of experiments provide direct evidence for the operation of Ca/sup 2 +/-induced exocytosis of dopamine and noradrenaline in permeabilized PC12 cells. The Ca/sup 2 +/ dependence of dopamine or noradrenaline release, as measured by the determination of the endogenous catecholamines using the high-performance liquid chromatography technique, exhibits two different phases. One is already activated below ..mu..M free Ca/sup 2 +/ and plateaus at 1-5 ..mu..M free Ca/sup 2 +/, while a second occurs in the presence of larger amounts of free Ca/sup 2 +/ (10-100 ..mu..M). Ca/sup 2 +/-induced catecholamine release from the permeabilized cells can be modulated in different ways: It is enhanced by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and the diacylglycerol 1-oleyl-2-acetylglycerol provided Mg/sup 2 +//ATP is present, and it is inhibited by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). The latter effect is abolished by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin but not by cholera toxin. Thus, it appears that Ca/sup 2 +/-induced exocytosis can be modulated via the protein kinase C system, as well as via GTP binding proteins.

  8. Suprabasin, a novel epidermal differentiation marker and potential cornified envelope precursor.

    PubMed

    Park, Geon Tae; Lim, Susan E; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Morasso, Maria I

    2002-11-22

    The suprabasin gene is a novel gene expressed in mouse and human differentiating keratinocytes. We identified a partial cDNA encoding suprabasin using a suppression subtractive hybridization method between the proliferative basal and differentiating suprabasal populations of the mouse epidermis. A 3' gene-specific probe hybridized to transcripts of 0.7- and 2.2-kb pairs on Northern blots with specific detection in differentiated keratinocytes of stratified epithelia. The mouse gene was mapped to chromosome 7 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. This region is syntenic to human chromosome band 19q13.1, which contained the only region in the data bases with homology to the mouse suprabasin sequence. During embryonic mouse development, suprabasin mRNA was detected at day 15.5, coinciding with epidermal stratification. Suprabasin was detected in the suprabasal layers of the epithelia in the tongue, stomach, and epidermis. Differentiation of cultured primary epidermal keratinocytes with 0.12 mm Ca(2+) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment resulted in the induction of suprabasin. The 2.2-kb cDNA transcript encodes a protein of 72 kDa with a predicted isoelectric point of 6.85. The translated sequence has an amino-terminal domain, a central domain composed of repeats rich in glycine and alanine, and a carboxyl-terminal domain. The alternatively spliced 0.7-kb transcript encodes a smaller protein that shares the NH(2)- and COOH-terminal regions but lacks the repeat domain region. Cross-linking experiments indicate that suprabasin is a substrate for transglutaminase 2 and 3 activity. Altogether, these results indicate that the suprabasin protein potentially plays a role in the process of epidermal differentiation. PMID:12228223

  9. Vimentin Is Involved in Peptidylarginine Deiminase 2-Induced Apoptosis of Activated Jurkat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Chen; Liao, Ya-Fan; Lin, Chin-Li; Lin, Wen-Hao; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 (PADI2) deiminates (or citrullinates) arginine residues in protein to citrulline residues in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and is found in lymphocytes and macrophages. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein and a well-known substrate of PADI2. Citrullinated vimentin is found in ionomycin-induced macrophage apoptosis. Citrullinated vimentin is the target of anti-Sa antibodies, which are specific to rheumatoid arthritis, and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. To investigate the role of PADI2 in apoptosis, we generated a Jurkat cell line that overexpressed the PADI2 transgene from a tetracycline-inducible promoter, and used a combination of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and ionomycin to activate Jurkat cells. We found that PADI2 overexpression reduced the cell viability of activated Jurkat cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The PADI2-overexpressed and -activated Jurkat cells presented typical manifestations of apoptosis, and exhibited greater levels of citrullinated proteins, including citrullinated vimentin. Vimentin overexpression rescued a portion of the cells from apoptosis. In conclusion, PADI2 overexpression induces apoptosis in activated Jurkat cells. Vimentin is involved in PADI2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PADI2-overexpressed Jurkat cells secreted greater levels of vimentin after activation, and expressed more vimentin on their cell surfaces when undergoing apoptosis. Through artificially highlighting PADI2 and vimentin, we demonstrated that PADI2 and vimentin participate in the apoptotic mechanisms of activated T lymphocytes. The secretion and surface expression of vimentin are possible ways of autoantigen presentation to the immune system. PMID:24850148

  10. Modulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in aortic smooth muscle cells by allylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, L.R.; Murphy, S.K.; Ramos, K. )

    1990-08-01

    Aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) modulate from a contractile to a proliferative phenotype upon subchronic exposure to allylamine. The present studies were designed to determine if this phenotypic modulation is associated with alterations in the metabolism of membrane phosphoinositides. 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) was lower by 31, 35, and 22%, respectively, in SMC from allylamine-treated animals relative to controls. In contrast, incorporation of (3H)myoinositol into inositol phosphates did not differ in allylamine cells relative to control cells. Exposure to dibutyryl (db) cAMP (0.2 mM) and theophylline (0.1 mM) reduced 32P incorporation into PIP and PIP2 in SMC from both experimental groups. Under these conditions, a decrease in (3H)myoinositol incorporation into inositol 1-phosphate was only observed in allylamine cells. The effects of db cAMP and theophylline in allylamine and control SMC correlated with a marked decrease in cellular proliferation. These results suggest that alterations in phosphoinositide synthesis and/or degradation contribute to the enhanced proliferation of SMC induced by allylamine. To further examine this concept, the effects of agents which modulate protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. Sphingosine (125-500 ng/ml), a PKC inhibitor, decreased SMC proliferation in allylamine, but not control cells. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1-100 ng/ml), a PKC agonist, stimulated proliferation in control cells, but inhibited proliferation in cells from allylamine-treated animals. We conclude that allylamine-induced phenotypic modulation of SMC is associated with alterations in phosphoinositide metabolism.

  11. RING protein Trim32 associated with skin carcinogenesis has anti-apoptotic and E3-ubiquitin ligase properties.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth J; Albor, Amador; Liu, Yuangang; El-Hizawi, Sally; Vanderbeek, Gretchen E; Babcock, Melissa; Bowden, G Tim; Hennings, Henry; Lozano, Guillermina; Weinberg, Wendy C; Kulesz-Martin, Molly

    2004-02-01

    Tripartite motif protein 32, Trim32, mRNA and protein expression was elevated in independently transformed and tumorigenic keratinocytes of a mouse epidermal carcinogenesis model, in ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and in approximately 20-25% of chemically induced mouse papillomas and human head and neck SCCs. This suggests that elevated Trim32 expression occurs frequently in experimental epidermal carcinogenesis and is relevant to human cancer. Transduced Trim32 increased colony number in an epidermal in vitro transformation assay and epidermal thickening in vivo when skin-grafted to athymic nu/nu mice. These effects were not associated with proliferation and were not sufficient for tumorigenesis, even with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment or defects in the tumor suppressor p53. However, transduced Trim32 inhibited the synergistic effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on UVB-induced apoptosis of keratinocytes in vitro and the apoptotic response of keratinocyte grafts exposed to UVB-light in vivo. Consistent with its RING domain, Trim32 exhibited characteristics of E3-ubiquitin ligases, including being ubiquitylated itself and interacting with ubiquitylated proteins, with increases in these properties following treatment of cultured keratinocytes with TNFalpha/UVB. Interestingly, missense point mutation of human TRIM32 has been reported in Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2H, an autosomal recessive disease. We propose a model in which Trim32 activities as an E3-ubiquitin ligase favor initiated cell survival in carcinogenesis by blocking UVB-induced TNFalpha apoptotic signaling. PMID:14578165

  12. Protein kinase C activation disrupts epithelial apical junctions via ROCK-II dependent stimulation of actomyosin contractility

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I; Samarin, Stanislav N; Bachar, Moshe; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma

    2009-01-01

    Background Disruption of epithelial cell-cell adhesions represents an early and important stage in tumor metastasis. This process can be modeled in vitro by exposing cells to chemical tumor promoters, phorbol esters and octylindolactam-V (OI-V), known to activate protein kinase C (PKC). However, molecular events mediating PKC-dependent disruption of epithelial cell-cell contact remain poorly understood. In the present study we investigate mechanisms by which PKC activation induces disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in a model pancreatic epithelium. Results Exposure of HPAF-II human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell monolayers to either OI-V or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate caused rapid disruption and internalization of AJs and TJs. Activity of classical PKC isoenzymes was responsible for the loss of cell-cell contacts which was accompanied by cell rounding, phosphorylation and relocalization of the F-actin motor nonmuscle myosin (NM) II. The OI-V-induced disruption of AJs and TJs was prevented by either pharmacological inhibition of NM II with blebbistatin or by siRNA-mediated downregulation of NM IIA. Furthermore, AJ/TJ disassembly was attenuated by inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) II, but was insensitive to blockage of MLCK, calmodulin, ERK1/2, caspases and RhoA GTPase. Conclusion Our data suggest that stimulation of PKC disrupts epithelial apical junctions via ROCK-II dependent activation of NM II, which increases contractility of perijunctional actin filaments. This mechanism is likely to be important for cancer cell dissociation and tumor metastasis. PMID:19422706

  13. Antinociceptive effects of the N-acylethanolamine acid amidase inhibitor ARN077 in rodent pain models.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Oscar; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Martucci, Cataldo; Realini, Natalia; Dionisi, Mauro; Mengatto, Luisa; Duranti, Andrea; Tarozzo, Glauco; Tarzia, Giorgio; Mor, Marco; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Reggiani, Angelo; Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-03-01

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), which include palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), are endogenous agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and important regulators of the inflammatory response. They are degraded in macrophages by the lysosomal cysteine amidase, N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA). Previous studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of NAAA activity suppresses macrophage activation in vitro and causes marked anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, which is suggestive of a role for NAAA in the control of inflammation. It is still unknown, however, whether NAAA-mediated FAE deactivation might regulate pain signaling. The present study examined the effects of ARN077, a potent and selective NAAA inhibitor recently disclosed by our group, in rodent models of hyperalgesia and allodynia caused by inflammation or nerve damage. Topical administration of ARN077 attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia elicited in mice by carrageenan injection or sciatic nerve ligation. The antinociceptive effects of ARN077 were prevented by the selective PPAR-α antagonist GW6471 and did not occur in PPAR-α-deficient mice. Furthermore, topical ARN077 reversed the allodynia caused by ultraviolet B radiation in rats, and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with GW6471. Sciatic nerve ligation or application of the proinflammatory phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate decreased FAE levels in sciatic nerve and skin tissue, respectively. ARN077 reversed these biochemical effects. The results identify ARN077 as a potent inhibitor of intracellular NAAA activity, which is active in vivo by topical administration. The findings further suggest that NAAA regulates peripheral pain initiation by interrupting endogenous FAE signaling at PPAR-α. PMID:23218523

  14. Changes in phosphoinositide turnover, Ca sup 2+ mobilization, and protein phosphorylation in platelets from NIDDM patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, H.; Umeda, F.; Hashimoto, T.; Nawata, H. )

    1990-12-01

    Enhanced platelet functions have been demonstrated in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This study evaluated abnormalities in platelet signal transduction in diabetic patients, including turnover of phosphoinositides, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, and phosphorylation of 20,000- and 47,000-Mr proteins (P20 and P47). Washed platelets were obtained from 6 patients with NIDDM whose platelet aggregation rates were abnormally elevated (DM-A group), 11 NIDDM patients with normal platelet aggregation rates (DM-B group), and 8 age-matched healthy control subjects. The mass and specific radioactivity of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in 32P-labeled platelets were not different among the three groups. Hydrolysis of PIP2, PIP, and PI; accumulation of PA; and phosphorylation of P20 in platelets stimulated by 0.05 U/ml thrombin were significantly increased in the DM-A group compared with the control or DM-B group. There was no difference in P47 phosphorylation among the three groups. On the contrary, P20 and P47 phosphorylation induced by 50 nM of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, was significantly decreased in the DM-A group. Additionally, the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (( Ca2+)i) was measured with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura 2. Although the basal (Ca2+)i value was similar in the three groups, the rise in (Ca2+)i induced by 0.05 U/ml thrombin in the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was significantly higher in the DM-A group than the other groups.

  15. Inhibition of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and skin tumor initiating and tumor promoting activities in SENCAR mice by glycyrrhetinic acid: comparison of 18 alpha- and 18 beta-stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Agarwal, R; Zhou, Z C; Bickers, D R; Mukhtar, H

    1991-02-01

    Licorice has been used as medicine and as sweetening agent in food products. The major water-soluble constituent of licorice is glycyrrhizin (GL), an oleanane triterpenoide, which is known to be partly hydrolyzed by glucuronidase to its aglycone glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) which exists in 18 alpha (alpha-GA) and 18 beta (beta-GA) stereoisomeric forms. In this study alpha-GA and beta-GA were found to inhibit the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 2-aminofluorene and aflatoxin B1 in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. beta-GA was more effective than alpha-GA as an antimutagen. In the two-stage skin tumorigenesis protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as the tumor initiating agent followed by twice weekly applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as tumor promoter, pretreatment of SENCAR mice with alpha-GA or beta-GA resulted in significant protection against tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion. As an anti-tumor initiating agent, beta-GA was found to be more effective than alpha-GA. Similarly, topical application of beta-GA was found to be more effective than alpha-GA in inhibiting the binding of both [3H]B[a]P and [3H]DMBA to epidermal DNA. However, as an anti-tumor promoter, alpha-GA and beta-GA showed comparable effects. Our results suggest that both alpha-GA and beta-GA possess substantial anti-skin tumor initiating and anti-skin tumor promoting activities. PMID:1899808

  16. Epigenetic modifications of triterpenoid ursolic acid in activating Nrf2 and blocking cellular transformation of mouse epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuck; Ramirez, Christina N; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2016-07-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a well-known natural triterpenoid found in abundance in blueberries, cranberries and apple peels, has been reported to possess many beneficial health effects. These effects include anticancer activity in various cancers, such as skin cancer. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of antioxidative stress response with anticarcinogenic activity against UV- and chemical-induced tumor formation in the skin. Recent studies show that epigenetic modifications of Nrf2 play an important role in cancer prevention. However, the epigenetic impact of UA on Nrf2 signaling remains poorly understood in skin cancer. In this study, we investigated the epigenetic effects of UA on mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells. UA inhibited cellular transformation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate at a concentration at which the cytotoxicity was no more than 25%. Under this condition, UA induced the expression of the Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that UA demethylated the first 15 CpG sites of the Nrf2 promoter region, which correlated with the reexpression of Nrf2. Furthermore, UA reduced the expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes, including the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3a and the histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC8 (Class I) and HDAC6 and HDAC7 (Class II), and HDAC activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the epigenetic effects of the triterpenoid UA could potentially contribute to its beneficial effects, including the prevention of skin cancer. PMID:27260468

  17. Tumor initiators and promoters in the induction of Epstein—Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Hausen, Harald zur; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Schmidt, Rainer; Hecker, Erich

    1979-01-01

    The effect of various tumor initiators and promoters on induction of persisting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in different lines of lymphoblastoid cells was analyzed. Neither five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, amongst them potent tumor initiators (e.g., 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), nor the potent (ultimate) liver carcinogen N-acetoxy-N-2-acetylamino-fluorene induced EBV. A series of compounds, representing three classes of tumor-promoting diterpene esters (e.g., 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), efficiently induced EBV in persistently infected cells. The concentration required for maximal induction ranged between 0.5 and 100 nM. Some nonpromoting diterpenes (phorbol, 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, and ingenol) did not induce EBV. However, the nonpromoters, resiniferatoxin and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-decatrienoate, were effective, whereas anthralin, a tumor promoter, did not induce EBV. In three lines of EBV genome-carrying cells (Raji, NC-37, and RPMI 64-10) only abortive induction was noted, leading exclusively to synthesis of early antigen. In cells of lines with low spontaneous virus release (P3HR-1, B95-8, and QIMR-Wil), upon treatment with tetradecanoylphorbol acetate, approximately 20-40 times more viral DNA was recovered as compared to untreated controls. Viral DNA from tetradeca-noylphorbol acetate-induced cultures revealed the same restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern as viral DNA obtained from noninduced cells. Within 10 days after induction, release of infectious virus increased approximately by one order of magnitude. Prostaglandins, reported to be released after treatment with tumor promoters, were ineffective in virus induction under the conditions tested. Images PMID:218219

  18. Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kuramochi, Kouji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of β-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans-citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24682420

  19. Stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells by hormones and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Feyen, J.H.; van der Wilt, G.; Moonen, P.; Di Bon, A.; Nijweide, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    The effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH), dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2 D3), thrombin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (PMA) on the biosynthesis and release of arachidonic acid metabolites were studied in primary cultures of osteoblast-like cells isolated from 18-day-old chick embryo calvaria. Cells were labelled with (/sup 14/C)-arachidonic acid for 30 h. The radioactive eicosanoids were extracted from the cell culture media after a further 30 h stimulation period and analysed on a PRP-1 column by HPLC. The radioactive products were characterized by co-elution of (/sup 3/H) standard prostanoids. Osteoblasts showed a basal release of the prostanoids 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, TXB2, PGF2 alpha, PGE2, PGD2 and PGB2, the latter being the most abundant one. Indomethacin (10(-5) M) effectively inhibited the basal release, but not that of an as yet unidentified compound. The release of prostanoids was stimulated by PTH (2 U/ml), thrombin (0.4 NIH/ml), EGF (50 ng/ml) and PMA (25 ng/ml), the latter being by far the most potent one. 1,25-(OH)2D3 was found to slightly inhibit the prostanoid release. These results indicate: (1) primary cultures of osteoblasts synthesize several prostaglandins, thromboxane B2 and one unidentified product. (2) the action on bone of PTH and the various drugs tested may be, at least partly, mediated by an increased prostaglandin production by osteoblasts. Clearly this does not apply to 1,25-(OH)2D3.

  20. Improved clonal and nonclonal growth of human, rat and bovine adrenocortical cells in culture.

    PubMed

    McAllister, J M; Hornsby, P J

    1987-10-01

    This report describes the development of a culture system for long-term growth and cloning of human fetal adrenocortical cells. Optimal conditions for stimulating clonal growth were determined by testing the efficacy of horse serum (HS), fetal bovine serum (FBS), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin, and a combination of growth factors, UltroSer G, in stimulating growth from low density. Optimal conditions for clonal growth were achieved using fibronectin-coated dishes and DME/F12 medium with 10% FBS, 10% HS, 2% UltroSer G, and 100 ng/ml FGF or 100 pM EGF. Conditions for growth at clonal density were found to be optimal for growth of early passage, nonclonal cultures at higher densities. The improved growth conditions used for cloning were shown to allow continued long-term growth of nonclonal human adrenocortical cells without fibroblast overgrowth. All cells in cultures grown in HS, FBS, and UltroSer G had morphologic characteristics of adrenocortical cells, whereas cells grown in FBS only rapidly became overgrown with fibroblasts. Clonal and nonclonal early passage human adrenocortical cells had similar mitogenic responses to FGF and EGF. Whereas FGF, EGF, and UltroSer G showed similar stimulation of DNA synthesis and clonal growth in human adrenocortical cells and human adrenal gland fibroblasts, the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate stimulated growth only in adrenocortical cells and was strongly inhibitory to growth in fibroblasts. In both cell types, forskolin inhibited DNA synthesis. Human adrenocortical cell cultures were functional and synthesized cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. The improved growth conditions for clonal growth of human adrenocortical cells also provided optimal conditions for long-term growth of cultured rat adrenocortical cells and increased the cloning efficiency of cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. PMID:3667487

  1. CD21-mediated entry and stable infection by Epstein-Barr virus in canine and rat cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Maruo, S; Takada, K

    2000-11-01

    We developed an adenovirus vector for transduction of the human CD21 gene (Adv-CD21), the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific receptor on human B lymphocytes, to overcome the initial barrier of EBV infection in nonprimate mammalian cells. Inoculation of Adv-CD21 followed by exposure to recombinant EBV carrying a selectable marker resulted in the successful entry of EBV into three of seven nonprimate mammalian cell lines as evidenced by expression of EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA). The EBV-susceptible cell lines included rat glioma-derived 9L, rat mammary carcinoma-derived c-SST-2, and canine kidney-derived MDCK. Subsequent selection culture with G418 yielded drug-resistant cell clones. In these cell clones, EBV existed as an episomal form, as evidenced through the Gardella gel technique. Among the known EBV latency-associated gene products, EBV-encoded small RNAs, EBNA1 and transcripts from the BamHI-A rightward reading frame (BARF0), and latent membrane protein 2A were expressed in all EBV-infected cell clones. The viral lytic events could be induced in these cell clones by simultaneous treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and n-butyric acid, but they were abortive, and infectious virus was not produced. These results indicate that once the initial barrier for attachment is overcome artificially, EBV can establish a stable infection in some nonprimate mammalian cells, and they raise the possibility that transgenic animals with the human CD21 gene could provide an animal model for EBV infection. PMID:11044119

  2. Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, M A; Kerr, N C; Robbins, J H; McBride, O W; Alamo, I; Barrett, S F; Hickson, I D; Fornace, A J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the expression of two DNA-damage-inducible genes, designated gadd45 and gadd153, was examined in cultured human cells. These genes have previously been shown to be strongly and coordinately induced by UV radiation and alkylating agents in human and hamster cells. We found that the gadd45 but not the gadd153 gene is strongly induced by X rays in human cells. The level of gadd45 mRNA increased rapidly after X rays at doses as low as 2 Gy. After 20 Gy of X rays, gadd45 induction, as measured by increased amounts of mRNA, was similar to that produced by the most effective dose of the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. No induction was seen after treatment of either human or hamster cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a known activator of protein kinase C (PKC). Therefore, gadd45 represents the only known mammalian X-ray-responsive gene whose induction is not mediated by PKC. However, induction was blocked by the protein kinase inhibitor H7, indicating that induction is mediated by some other kinase(s). Sequence analysis of human and hamster cDNA clones demonstrated that this gene has been highly conserved and encodes a novel 165-amino-acid polypeptide which is 96% identical in the two species. This gene was localized to the short arm of human chromosome 1 between p12 and p34. When induction in lymphoblast lines from four normal individuals was compared with that in lines from four patients with ataxia telangiectasia, induction by X rays of gadd45 mRNA was less in the cell lines from this cancer-prone radiosensitive disorder. Our results provide evidence for the existence of an X-ray stress response in human cells which is independent of PKC and which is abnormal in taxia telangiectasia. Images PMID:1990262

  3. Characterization of a Novel Human Herpesvirus 8-Encoded Protein, vIRF-3, That Shows Homology to Viral and Cellular Interferon Regulatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lubyova, Barbora; Pitha, Paula M.

    2000-01-01

    The genome of the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) contains a cluster of open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins with homology to the cellular transcription factors of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family. Two of these homologues, vIRF-1 and vIRF-2, were previously identified and functionally analyzed. In this study, we have characterized a novel gene, designated vIRF-3, encoded within the previously predicted ORF K10.5 and our newly identified ORF K10.6. Northern blotting of RNA extracted from BCBL-1 cells with a vIRF-3-specific probe and reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed a single transcript of 2.2 kb with a splice present in the coding region. The vIRF-3 mRNA levels in BCBL-1 cells were increased upon 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment, with kinetics of expression similar to those of the early immediate genes. The vIRF-3 ORF encodes a 73-kDa protein with homology to cellular IRF-4 and HHV-8-encoded vIRF-2 and K11. In transient transfection assays with the IFNACAT reporter, vIRF-3 functioned as a dominant-negative mutant of both IRF-3 and IRF-7 and inhibited virus-mediated transcriptional activity of the IFNA promoter. Similarly, the overexpression of vIRF-3 in mouse L929 cells resulted in inhibition of virus-mediated synthesis of biologically active interferons. These results suggest that by targeting IRF-3 and IRF-7, which play a critical role in the activation of alpha/beta interferon (IFN) genes, HHV-8 has evolved a mechanism by which it directly subverts the functions of IRFs and down-regulates the induction of the IFN genes that are important components of the innate immunity. PMID:10933732

  4. Definition of the tumor protein D52 (TPD52) gene family through cloning of D52 homologues in human (hD53) and mouse (mD52)

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, J.A.; Basset, P.; Mattei, M.G.

    1996-08-01

    Cloning is reported of a cDNA homologue to the breast carcinoma-associated D52 cDNA, termed D53, and of a mouse D52 cDNA (HGMW-approved symbols TPD52L1 and TPD52). Human D53 and mouse D52 proteins are predicted to be 52 and 86% identical to human D52, respectively. Analysis of the three protein sequences identified a coiled-coil domain and N- and C-terminally located PEST domains in each. The conservation of homology between the D52 and the D53 sequences, combined with a lack of homology between these and known proteins, defines a new mammalian gene/protein family, the D52 family. The human D52 locus has been previously mapped to chromosome 8q21, and using in situ mapping in the present study, a human D53 locus was mapped to chromosome 6q22-q23. We observed coexpression of the human D52 and D53 genes in some breast tumors and derivative cell lines and found that maintenance of D52 and D53 transcript levels in estrogen receptor-positive MCF7 breast carcinoma cells depends upon estradiol. However, D52 and D53 genes were specifically expressed in HL-60 and K-562 leukemia cells, respectively, with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment decreasing D52 and D53 transcript levels in these cell lines. The presence of a coiled-coil domain, combined with observed codependent or independent expression of the D52 and D53 genes, suggests that D52 and D53 proteins may be capable of hetero- and/or homodimer formation. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.T. )

    1991-08-01

    The effect of Ca2+ and calmodulin on phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins was studied. Secretory granules were incubated in a phosphorylation reaction mixture containing (32P)ATP and test reagents. The 32P-labeled proteins were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 32P content was visualized by autoradiography, and the relative intensities of specific bands were quantitated. When the reaction mixture contained EGTA and no added Ca2+, 32P was incorporated into two proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 13,000. When 10(-4) M Ca2+ was added without EGTA, two additional proteins (58,000 and 48,000 Mr) were phosphorylated, and the 13,000-Mr protein was absent. The addition of 2.4 microM calmodulin markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of the 58,000- and 48,000-Mr proteins and resulted in the phosphorylation of a major protein whose molecular weight (64,000 Mr) is identical to that of one of the calmodulin binding proteins located on the granule surface. Calmodulin had no effect on phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+ but was effective in the presence of calcium between 10 nM and 50 microM. Trifluoperazine and calmidazolium, calmodulin antagonists, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the calmodulin effect. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a phorbol ester that activates protein kinase C, produced no increase in phosphorylation, and 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methyl piperazine dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, had no effect. These results indicate that Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and endogenous substrates are present in islet secretory granules.

  6. Mouse skin tumor-initiating activity of 5-, 7-, and 12-methyl- and fluorine-substituted benz(a)anthracenes

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.W.; Levin, W.; Chang, R.L.; Conney, A.H.; Slaga, T.J.; O'Malley, R.F.; Newman, M.S.; Buhler, D.R.; Jerina, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Eleven methyl- and/or fluorine-substitued benz(a)anthracenes were evaluated for tumor-initating activity on mouse skin. Outbred CD-1 and outbred Sencar mice received a single topical application of the hydrocarbons followed by twice weekly application of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate for 16-26 weeks. 7, 12-DMBA was almost two orders of magnitude more active as a tumor-initator than 7- and 12-methylbenz(a)anthracene. Methyl substitution at the 7- and 7,12-positions of benz(a)anthracence was significantly more effective in the enhancement of tumorigenic activity than fluorine substitution at these positions. Although 7-fluorobenz(a)anthracene, 12-fluorobenz(a)anthracene, and 7,12-difluorobenz(a)anthracene had only 0.15, 0.26, and less than 0.005 times the tumor-initiating activity of their respective methyl-substituted derivatives, they were severalfold more active than benz(a)anthracene. 7-Fluorobenz(a)anthracene was slightly less active than 12-fluorobenz(a)anthracene, whereas 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene was about twofold more active than 12-methylbenz(a)anthracene. For 7,12-disubstituted benz(a)anthracenes, 7-methyl-12-fluorobenz(a)anthracene was more than twice as tumorigenic as 7-fluoro-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene, but each was individually more active than 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene and 12-methylbenz(a)anthracene, respectively. Both fluorinated compounds were much less active than 7,12-DMBA. Substitution of fluorine or methyl at the 5-position of 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene and substition of fluorine at the 5-position of 12-methylbenz(a)anthracene dramatically reduced their tumorigenic activity.

  7. Analysis of the Catecholaminergic Phenotype in Human SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Filograna, Roberta; Civiero, Laura; Ferrari, Vanni; Codolo, Gaia; Greggio, Elisa; Bubacco, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bisaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Human cell lines are often used to investigate cellular pathways relevant for physiological or pathological processes or to evaluate cell toxicity or protection induced by different compounds, including potential drugs. In this study, we analyzed and compared the differentiating activities of three agents (retinoic acid, staurosporine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cell lines; the first cell line is largely used in the field of neuroscience, while the second is still poorly characterized. After evaluating their effects in terms of cell proliferation and morphology, we investigated their catecholaminergic properties by assessing the expression profiles of the major genes involved in catecholamine synthesis and storage and the cellular concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline. Our results demonstrate that the two cell lines possess similar abilities to differentiate and acquire a neuron-like morphology. The most evident effects in SH-SY5Y cells were observed in the presence of staurosporine, while in BE(2)-M17 cells, retinoic acid induced the strongest effects. Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cells are characterized by the production of both NA and DA, but their levels are considerably higher in BE(2)-M17 cells. Moreover, the NAergic phenotype appears to be more pronounced in SH-SY5Y cells, while BE(2)-M17 cells have a more prominent DAergic phenotype. Finally, the catecholamine concentration strongly increases upon differentiation induced by staurosporine in both cell lines. In conclusion, in this work the catecholaminergic phenotype of the human BE(2)-M17 cell line upon differentiation was characterized for the first time. Our data suggest that SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 represent two alternative cell models for the neuroscience field. PMID:26317353

  8. AP-1 activity during normal human keratinocyte differentiation: evidence for a cytosolic modulator of AP-1/DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Briata, P; D'Anna, F; Franzi, A T; Gherzi, R

    1993-01-01

    Increased levels of c-fos and c-jun expression have been observed in differentiating epithelial cells. However, no data are available on activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity during keratinocyte differentiation. In this work we investigated c-fos and c-jun gene expression and AP-1-(12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-responsive enhancer element (TRE) binding activity during keratinocyte differentiation utilizing both authentic and in culture-reconstituted human epidermis. We demonstrate that: (i) in reconstituted epidermis, non-differentiated and differentiated keratinocytes express equivalent levels of c-Jun, while in reconstituted epidermis permanently grafted onto athymic mice, as well as in authentic epidermis, c-Jun is predominantly expressed in the granular layer of the tissue. Equivalent levels of c-fos expression have been found in all the layers of both reconstituted and authentic epidermis. (ii) Nuclear extracts from cultures enriched in differentiated keratinocytes display an 80-90% reduction of AP-1 activity when compared to extracts from cultures enriched in nondifferentiated cells. (iii) Cytosolic extracts obtained from cultures enriched in differentiated cells reduce, in a concentration-dependent manner, the AP-1 activity present in nuclear extracts of both mammalian and Drosophila cells. (iv) The specific TRE binding activity of a recombinant c-Jun protein is significantly reduced by cytosolic extracts of differentiated keratinocytes, while the specific DNA binding of the purified recombinant human homeoprotein HOX4B is not. (v) The dephosphorylation, by alkaline phosphatase, of cytosolic extracts increases the inhibitory activity already present or makes evident a latent activity. PMID:8416791

  9. Differentiation-specific increase in ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX accumulation in primary mouse keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ortel, B.; Chen, N.; Brissette, J.; Dotto, G. P.; Maytin, E.; Hasan, T.

    1998-01-01

    A treatment regimen that takes advantage of the induction of intracellular porphyrins such as protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) by exposure to exogenous 5-amino-laevulinic acid (ALA) followed by localized exposure to visible light represents a promising new approach to photodynamic therapy (PDT). Acting upon the suggestion that the effectiveness of ALA-dependent PDT may depend upon the state of cellular differentiation, we investigated the effect of terminal differentiation upon ALA-induced synthesis of and the subsequent phototoxicity attributable to PPIX in primary mouse keratinocytes. Induction of keratinocyte differentiation augmented intracellular PPIX accumulation in cells treated with ALA. These elevated PPIX levels resulted in an enhanced lethal photodynamic sensitization of differentiated cells. The differentiation-dependent increase in cellular PPIX levels resulted from several factors including: (a) increased ALA uptake, (b) enhanced PPIX production and (c) decreased PPIX export into the culture media. Simultaneously, steady-state levels of coproporphyrinogen oxidase mRNA increased but aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase mRNA levels remained unchanged. From experiments using 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, transforming growth factor beta 1 and calcimycin we demonstrated that the increase in PPIX concentration in terminally differentiating keratinocytes is calcium- and differentiation specific. Stimulation of the haem synthetic capacity is seen in primary keratinocytes, but not in PAM 212 cells that fail to undergo differentiation. Interestingly, increased PPIX formation and elevated coproporphyrinogen oxidase mRNA levels are not limited to differentiating keratinocytes; these were also elevated in the C2C12 myoblast and the PC12 adrenal cell lines upon induction of differentiation. Overall, the therapeutic implications of these results are that the effectiveness of ALA-dependent PDT depends on the differentiation status of the cell and that this may enable

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Shin, Chung Min; Park, Chi-Hyun; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Chung, Jin Ho

    2005-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation regulates UV-responsive genes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Moreover, UV-induced MMPs cause connective tissue damage and the skin to become wrinkled and aged. Here, we investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a dietary omega-3 fatty acid, on UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). We found that UV radiation increases MMP-1 expression and that this is mediated by p44 and p42 MAP kinase (ERK) and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation but not by p38 activation. Pretreatment of HDFs with EPA inhibited UV-induced MMP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner and also inhibited the UV-induced activation of ERK and JNK by inhibiting ERK kinase (MEK1) and SAPK/ERK kinase 1 (SEK1) activation, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of ERK and JNK by EPA resulted in the decrease of c-Fos expression and c-Jun phosphorylation/expression induced by UV, respectively, which led to the inhibition of UV-induced activator protein-1 DNA binding activity. This inhibitory effect of EPA on MMP-1 was not mediated by an antioxidant effect. We also found that EPA inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced MMP-1 expression in HDFs and UV-induced MMP-1 expression in HaCaT cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EPA can inhibit UV-induced MMP-1 expression by inhibiting the MEK1/ERK/c-Fos and SEK1/JNK/c-Jun pathways. Therefore, EPA is a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin aging. PMID:15930517

  11. Periplogenin induces necroptotic cell death through oxidative stress in HaCaT cells and ameliorates skin lesions in the TPA- and IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Song, Zhen-Bo; Bao, Yong-Li; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Chun-Lei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Huang, Yan-Xin; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease that inconveniences many patients. Considering the side effects and drug resistance of the current therapy, it is urgent to discover more effective and safer anti-psoriatic drugs. In the present study, we screened over 250 traditional Chinese medicine compounds for their ability to inhibit the cell viability of cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes, a psoriasis-relevant in vitro model, and found that periplogenin was highly effective. Mechanistic studies revealed that apoptosis and autophagy were not induced by periplogenin in HaCaT cells. However, periplogenin caused PI to permeate into cells, increased lactate LDH release and rapidly increased the number of necrotic cells. Additionally, the typical characteristics of necrosis were observed in the periplogenin-treated HaCaT cells. Notably, the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1 and NSA were able to rescue the cells from necrotic cell death, supporting that necroptosis was involved in periplogenin-induced cell death. Furthermore, the ROS levels were elevated in the periplogenin-treated cells, NAC (an antioxidant) and Nec-1 could inhibit the ROS levels, and NAC could attenuate necroptotic cell death, indicating that the periplogenin-induced necroptotic cell death was mediated by oxidative stress. More importantly, in the murine models of TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and IMQ-induced skin inflammation, topical administration of periplogenin ameliorated skin lesions and inflammation. In sum, our results indicate, for the first time, that periplogenin is a naturally occurring compound with potent anti-psoriatic effects in vitro and in vivo, making it a promising candidate for future drug research. PMID:26850986

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of the Manganese Photoactivated Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]+ Against a Pathogenic Escherichia coli that Causes Urinary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Rana, Namrata; Nagel, Christoph; Jesse, Helen E.; Smith, Thomas W.; Wareham, Lauren K.; Hippler, Michael; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We set out to investigate the antibacterial activity of a new Mn-based photoactivated carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (PhotoCORM, [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]+) against an antibiotic-resistant uropathogenic strain (EC958) of Escherichia coli. Results: Activated PhotoCORM inhibits growth and decreases viability of E. coli EC958, but non-illuminated carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM) is without effect. NADH-supported respiration rates are significantly decreased by activated PhotoCORM, mimicking the effect of dissolved CO gas. CO from the PhotoCORM binds to intracellular targets, namely respiratory oxidases in strain EC958 and a bacterial globin heterologously expressed in strain K-12. However, unlike previously characterized CORMs, the PhotoCORM is not significantly accumulated in cells, as deduced from the cellular manganese content. Activated PhotoCORM reacts avidly with hydrogen peroxide producing hydroxyl radicals; the observed peroxide-enhanced toxicity of the PhotoCORM is ameliorated by thiourea. The PhotoCORM also potentiates the effect of the antibiotic, doxycycline. Innovation: The present work investigates for the first time the antimicrobial activity of a light-activated PhotoCORM against an antibiotic-resistant pathogen. A comprehensive study of the effects of the PhotoCORM and its derivative molecules upon illumination is performed and mechanisms of toxicity of the activated PhotoCORM are investigated. Conclusion: The PhotoCORM allows a site-specific and time-controlled release of CO in bacterial cultures and has the potential to provide much needed information on the generality of CORM activities in biology. Understanding the mechanism(s) of activated PhotoCORM toxicity will be key in exploring the potential of this and similar compounds as antimicrobial agents, perhaps in combinatorial therapies with other agents. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 765–780. PMID:26842766

  13. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces protein kinase ceta-specific proliferative response in astrocytic tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, I M; Karns, L R; Vinton, G; Carpenter, J E; Redpath, G T; Sando, J J; VandenBerg, S R

    2000-07-21

    Protein kinase C (PKC) activation has been implicated in cellular proliferation in neoplastic astrocytes. The roles for specific PKC isozymes in regulating this glial response, however, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of PKC isozymes and the role of PKC-eta expression in regulating cellular proliferation in two well characterized astrocytic tumor cell lines (U-1242 MG and U-251 MG) with different properties of growth in cell culture. Both cell lines expressed an array of conventional (alpha, betaI, betaII, and gamma) and novel (theta and epsilon) PKC isozymes that can be activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Another novel PKC isozyme, PKC-eta, was only expressed by U-251 MG cells. In contrast, PKC-delta was readily detected in U-1242 MG cells but was present only at low levels in U-251 MG cells. PMA (100 nm) treatment for 24 h increased cell proliferation by over 2-fold in the U-251 MG cells, whereas it decreased the mitogenic response in the U-1242 MG cells by over 90%. When PKC-eta was stably transfected into U-1242 MG cells, PMA increased cell proliferation by 2.2-fold, similar to the response of U-251 MG cells. The cell proliferation induced by PMA in both the U-251 MG and U-1242-PKC-eta cells was blocked by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (0.5 micrometer) and the MEK inhibitor, PD 98059 (50 micrometer). Transient transfection of wild type U-251 with PKC-eta antisense oligonucleotide (1 micrometer) also blocked the PMA-induced increase in [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. The data demonstrate that two glioblastoma lines, with functionally distinct proliferative responses to PMA, express different novel PKC isozymes and that the differential expression of PKC-eta plays a determining role in the different proliferative capacity. PMID:10806212

  14. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  15. COLONY FORMATION ENHANCEMENT OF RAT TRACHEAL AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS BY POLYACETATE, INDOLE ALKALOID, AND PHORBOL ESTER TUMOR PROMOTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), teleocidin, and two polyacetate tumor promoters (aplysiatoxin and debromoaplysiatoxin) have been tested for their effect on colony forming efficiency (CFE) of rat tracheal and nasal turbinate epithelial cells. In rat t...

  16. 1Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits programmed cell death in HL-60 cells by activation of sphingosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kleuser, B; Cuvillier, O; Spiegel, S

    1998-05-01

    Sphingolipid breakdown products [ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP)] are emerging as a new class of bioactive molecules. In agreement with previous studies, treatment of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells with 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] induced a transient increase of ceramide levels within 2 h, which then returned to basal levels within 8 h. In contrast, sphingosine kinase activity increased more slowly and reached maximal levels only after 20 h of exposure, leading to a concomitant increase in SPP level. Unlike treatments with cell-permeable ceramide analogues or sphingomyelinase, which induce apoptosis, 1,25-(OH)2D3 did not induce apoptosis, despite the early formation of ceramide. Moreover, prolonged treatment of HL-60 cells with 1,25-(OH)2D3 suppressed ceramide-induced apoptosis. There was a correlation between the time course and dose response of the activation of sphingosine kinase by 1,25-(OH)2D3 and the protection against apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid neither stimulated sphingosine kinase activity nor protected cells from ceramide-induced apoptosis. Treatment with SPP protected HL-60 cells from ceramide-induced apoptosis, and N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), a competitive inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, prevented the survival effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3. The effect of DMS was counteracted by SPP, suggesting that SPP is a critical component of the cytoprotective effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, markedly reduced sphingosine kinase activity and the apoptosis-sparing effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and conversely, the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorhol-13-acetate not only suppressed ceramide-induced apoptosis but also stimulated sphingosine kinase activity. Moreover, the protective effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate was blocked by DMS. Collectively, our observations indicate that the cytoprotective effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 is

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Choisya ternata Kunth Essential Oil, Ternanthranin, and Its Two Synthetic Analogs (Methyl and Propyl N-Methylanthranilates)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B.; Radulović, Niko S.; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as “Mexican orange”. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin—ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate – MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3–100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1–30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B; Radulović, Niko S; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  19. Application of the improved BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay to the examination of the initiating and promoting activities of chemicals: the second interlaboratory collaborative study by the non-genotoxic carcinogen study group of Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Umeda, Makoto; Tanaka, Noriho; Sakai, Ayako; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Isao; Ajimi, Syozo; Asada, Shin; Asakura, Masumi; Baba, Hiroshi; Dewa, Yasuaki; Ebe, Youji; Fushiwaki, Yuichi; Hagiwara, Yuji; Hamada, Shuichi; Hamamura, Tetsuo; Iwase, Yumiko; Kajiwara, Yoshitsugu; Kasahara, Yasushi; Kato, Yukihiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Kitada, Emiko; Kaneko, Kazuko; Kizaki, Yuko; Kubo, Kinya; Miura, Daisaku; Mashiko, Kaori; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Muramatsu, Dai; Nakajima, Madoka; Nakamura, Tetsu; Oishi, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki; Shimada, Sawako; Takahashi, Chitose; Takeda, Yuko; Wakuri, Sinobu; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Yajima, Satoshi; Yatsushiro, Tomoko

    2010-03-01

    The Non-genotoxic Carcinogen Study Group in the Environmental Mutagen Society of Japan organised the second step of the inter-laboratory collaborative study on one-stage and two-stage cell transformation assays employing BALB/c 3T3 cells, with the objective of confirming whether the respective laboratories could independently produce results relevant to initiation or promotion. The method was modified to use a medium consisting of DMEM/F12 supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum and a mixture of insulin, transferrin, ethanolamine and sodium selenite, at the stationary phase of cell growth. Seventeen laboratories collaborated in this study, and each chemical was tested by three to five laboratories. Comparison between the one-stage and two-stage assays revealed that the latter method would be beneficial in the screening of chemicals. In the test for initiating activity with the two-stage assay (post-treated with 0.1microg/ml 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), the relevant test laboratories all obtained positive results for benzo[a]pyrene and methylmethane sulphonate, and negative results for phenanthrene. Of those laboratories assigned phenacetin for the initiation phase, two returned positive results and two returned negative results, where the latter laboratories tested up to one dose lower than the maximum dose used by the former laboratories. In the exploration of promoting activity with the twostage assay (pretreated with 0.2microg/ml 3-methylcholanthrene), the relevant test laboratories obtained positive results for mezerein, sodium orthovanadate and TGF-beta1, and negative results for anthralin, phenacetin and phorbol. Two results returned for phorbol 12,13-didecanoate were positive, but one result was negative - again, the maximum dose to achieve the latter result was lower than that which produced the former results. These results suggest that this modified assay method is relevant, reproducible and transferable, provided that dosing issues, such as the

  20. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Bursera copallifera

    PubMed Central

    Columba-Palomares, M. F. María C.; Villareal, Dra. María L.; Acevedo Quiroz, M. C. Macdiel E.; Marquina Bahena, M. C. Silvia; Álvarez Berber, Dra. Laura P.; Rodríguez-López, Dra. Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background: The plant species Bursera copallifera (DC) bullock is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The leaves of this plant can be prepared as an infusion to treat migraines, bronchitis, and dental pain Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts from the stems, stem bark, and leaves of B. copallifera, which was selected based on the knowledge of its traditional use. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the ability of extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The extracts with anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activities of the organic extracts were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B assay. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems (HAS) exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity of 54.3% (0.5 mg/ear), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the dichloromethane-methanol extract from the leaves (DMeL) was 55.4% at a dose of 0.1 mg/ear. Methanol extract from the leaves (MeL) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 4.4 μg/mL), hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, and DMeL also reduce the enzyme activity, (IC50 = 6.5 μg/mL, IC50 = 5.7 μg/mL), respectively, from stems HAS exhibit activity at the evaluated concentrations (IC50 =6.4 μg/mL). The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, IC50 = 0.90 μg/mL), whereas DMeL exhibited an IC50 value of 19.9 μg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, extracts from leaves and stems inhibited cyclooxygenase-1, which is the target enzyme for nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, and some of these extracts demonstrated substantial antiproliferative effects against the MCF7 cell line. These results validate the traditional use of B. copallifera. PMID:26664022

  1. Plasma Membrane-Targeted Raf Kinase Activates NF-κB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication in T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Flory, Egbert; Weber, Christoph K.; Chen, Peifeng; Hoffmeyer, Angelika; Jassoy, Christian; Rapp, Ulf R.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to a role of the mitogenic Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade in regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression. Stimulation of elements of this pathway leads to transactivation of the HIV-1 promoter. In particular, the NF-κB motif in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) represents a Raf-responsive element in fibroblasts. Regulation of the Raf kinase in T cells differs from findings with a variety of cell lines that the catalytic domain of Raf (RafΔ26–303) shows no activity. In this study, we restored the activity of the kinase in T cells by fusing its catalytic domain to the CAAX motif (-Cx) of Ras, thus targeting the enzyme to the plasma membrane. Constitutive activity of Raf was demonstrated by phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and endogenous mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in A3.01 T cells transfected with RafΔ26–303-Cx. Membrane-targeted Raf also stimulates NF-κB, as judged by κB-dependent reporter assays and enhanced NF-κB p65 binding on band shift analysis. Moreover, we found that active Raf transactivates the HIVNL4-3 LTR in A3.01 T lymphocytes and that dominant negative Raf (C4) blocked 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced transactivation. When cotransfected with infectious HIVNL4-3 DNA, membrane-targeted Raf induces viral replication up to 10-fold over basal levels, as determined by the release of newly synthesized p24gag protein. Our study clearly demonstrates that the activity of the catalytic domain of Raf in A3.01 T cells is dependent on its cellular localization. The functional consequences of active Raf in T lymphocytes include not only NF-κB activation and transactivation of the HIVNL4-3 LTR but also synthesis and release of HIV particles. PMID:9525598

  2. Technical modification of the Balb/c 3T3 cell transformation assay: the use of serum-reduced medium to optimise the practicability of the protocol.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kumiko; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Asada, Shin; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Makoto; Yoshimura, Isao; Tanaka, Noriho; Umeda, Makoto

    2008-12-01

    The two-stage Balb/c 3T3 model of cell transformation can mimic the two-stage carcinogenicity bioassay, and has been recognised as a screening method for detecting potential tumour initiators and promoters. A technical modification to the original protocol (which involved the use of M10F medium, consisting of MEM plus 10% fetal bovine serum [FBS]) has been previously proposed, in order to increase its efficacy, namely: the introduction of enriched, serum-reduced medium (DF2F medium, comprising DMEM/F12 plus 2% FBS and other supplements). The aim of this study was to further modify the protocol, so as to attain higher practicability for the assay. The protocol was further optimised by: a) reducing the number of plates required, through the use of larger plates; b) reducing the cost of the assay by retaining the reduced serum concentration and by using 2microg/ml insulin, rather than the more-complex insulin-transferrin-ethanolamine-sodium selenite (ITES) supplement (i.e. DF2F2I medium); and c) extending the culture period from 24-25 days to 31-32 days, resulting in clearer foci (the number of medium changes did not increase, as less-frequent medium changes were performed during the extended culture period). Growth curve construction revealed that variations in the saturation densities of the parental Balb/c 3T3 cell line and its three transformed clones were highest when M10F medium was replaced with DF2F2I medium just before cells reached confluence. We applied this newly-optimised protocol to the assessment of: a) the tumour initiating activity of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, mitomycin C, methylmethane sulphonate, CdCl(2) and phenacetin, combining a post-treatment of 100ng/ml 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate at the promotion stage; and b) the tumour promoting activity of insulin, lithocholic acid, CdCl(2) and phenobarbital, with pre-treatment of 0.2microg/ml MCA at the initiation stage. In the present study, only

  3. Evidence that initiated keratinocytes clonally expand into multiple existing hair follicles during papilloma histogenesis in SENCAR mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Binder, R L; Gallagher, P M; Johnson, G R; Stockman, S L; Smith, B J; Sundberg, J P; Conti, C J

    1997-09-01

    We have previously shown that the precursors of cutaneous papillomas in SENCAR mice initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate are focal hyperplastic lesions that we refer to as squamous cell hyperplastic foci (SCHF). Ha-ras gene codon 61 mutations were frequently found in SCHF, providing evidence that these lesions represent clones of initiated cells. We report here the pathogenesis of multiple hair follicle involvement in more advanced SCHF and describe the role of the hair follicle in papilloma histogenesis. Detailed histological evaluation of 83 SCHF and 25 early papillomas revealed a morphological continuum from the least developed SCHF, involving only one hair follicle, to advanced SCHF and early papillomas, which involved more than 10 hair follicles. These results provide evidence of the recruitment of additional hair follicles as SCHF progress. In advanced SCHF and early papillomas the bulk of the epithelial component in all cases consisted of several markedly hyperplastic adjacent hair follicles, whereas the involved interfollicular epidermis (IFE) was generally less hyperplastic. All of the hair follicles involved in SCHF appeared to have been preexisting, based on their pattern of spacing, that they were consistently normal appearing below the level of the sebaceous glands, and that they were in the same phase of the hair cycle as surrounding, uninvolved hair follicles. Also, no evidence of follicular neogenesis was observed in serially sectioned SCHF, and coalescence of smaller lesions was rare. To investigate whether the involvement of multiple hair follicles in SCHF was due to expansion of initiated cells into existing hair follicles or, possibly, to a paracrine mechanism, we analyzed different levels of three serially sectioned SCHF and one early papilloma for Ha-ras mutations. These analyses revealed cells with Ha-ras gene codon 61 mutations at multiple levels that involved different hair

  4. Enhancive effect of N,N′-dinitrosopiperazine on inducing precancerous lesion on nasal and/or nasopharyngeal epithelia of TgN(p53mt-LMP1)/HT mice*

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dao-fa; He, Ying-chun; Lu, Fang-guo; Tang, Fa-qing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the enhancive effect of N,N′-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP) on induced carcinogenesis in nasal and/or nasopharyngeal epithelia among TgN(p53mt-LMP1)/HT transgenic mice to examine the underlying mechanism for the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: TgN(p53mt-LMP1)/HT transgenic mice and the same strain of C57BL/6J wild-type mice both at the age of 5 months were randomly divided into 2 groups in parallel, respectively, i.e., TgN(p53mt-LMP1)/HT cancerous lesion-inducing group (TI), TgN(p53mt-LMP1)/HT control group (TC), C57BL/6J cancerous lesion-inducing group (CI), and C57BL/6J control group (CC). TI and CI mice were treated only with DNP for 16 weeks, twice each week, while TC and CC mice were given the same volume of saline as controls. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed to collect epithelial tissue samples from nasal cavity and nasopharynx for pathohistological evaluation by haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and for determination on the expression of TRAF2, c-Jun, and p16 by immunohistochemistry. Results: Atypical hyperplasia was more significant in the samples of TI than in those of TC, CI, and CC, with the rates of lesions being 90%, 10%, 0, and 0 (P<0.01) respectively, though DNP was used alone in a much shortened inducing period at less dosage and without the use of carcinogenic promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as usual. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and c-Jun in these samples were significantly up-regulated in TI (P<0.01), while the expression of p16 was significantly lower in TI than in the other groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: TgN(p53mt-LMP1)/HT mice hold inherited constitutional defect in immune surveillance function, which can be aggravated by environmental carcinogens, such as DNP used even though in a much less strength. The enhanced carcinogenesis-inducing effect of DNP on TgN(p53mt-LMP1)/HT mice should be closely associated with

  5. Overexpression of Protein Kinase C-ε in the Mouse Epidermis Leads to a Spontaneous Myeloproliferative-Like Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Deric L.; Reddig, Peter J.; Ness, Kristin J.; Leith, Catherine P.; Oberley, Terry D.; Verma, Ajit K.

    2005-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-ε, a Ca2+-independent, phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinase, is among the PKC isoforms expressed in mouse epidermis. We reported that FVB/N transgenic mouse lines that overexpress (8- or 18-fold) PKC-ε protein in basal epidermal cells and cells of the hair follicle develop papilloma-independent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) elicited by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promotion or by repeated ultraviolet radiation exposures. The susceptibility to the development of SCC was proportional to the level of expression of the PKC-ε transgene. We now report that PKC-ε FVB/N transgenic mice (line 215) that overexpress in epidermis ∼18-fold PKC-ε protein more than their wild-type littermates spontaneously develop a myeloproliferative-like disease (MPD) in 100% of PKC-ε transgenic mice. The MPD was characterized by an excess of neutrophils and eosinophils, resulting in invasion of almost all vital organs of the mouse by 6 months of age. On gross examination these mice present with splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and severe lymphadenopathy. Examination of the bone marrow revealed almost complete effacement by neutrophils, eosinophils, and their precursors. Furthermore, the spleen and lymph nodes were enlarged and exhibited marked extramedullary hematopoiesis. Complete pathological analysis of the second PKC-ε transgenic mouse (line 224) that expresses approximately eightfold PKC-ε protein more than their wild-type littermates revealed no remarkable findings in any of the affected organs as seen in line 215. However, peripheral blood analyses of PKC-ε transgenic mice indicated significant increases of neutrophils in the circulating blood in both PKC-ε transgenic lines. To determine whether there was an imbalance of cytokines in PKC-ε transgenic mice (line 215), resulting in aberrant myelopoiesis, we analyzed 17 cytokines in the peripheral blood. This analysis indicated that interleukin-5

  6. Stimulation by extracellular ATP and UTP of the stress-activated protein kinase cascade in rat renal mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huwiler, Andrea; van Rossum, Gerda; Wartmann, Markus; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    1997-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP) have been shown to activate a nucleotide receptor (P2U receptor) in rat mesangial cells that mediates phosphoinositide and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipases C and D, respectively. This is followed by an increased activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and cell proliferation. Here we show that ATP and UTP potently stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase pathway and phosphorylation of the transcription factor c-Jun.Both nucleotides stimulated a rapid (within 5 min) and concentration-dependent activation of stress-activated protein kinases as measured by the phosphorylation of c-Jun in a solid phase kinase assay.When added at 100 μM the rank order of potency of a series of nucleotide analogues for stimulation of c-Jun phosphorylation was UTP>ATP=UDP=ATPγS>2-methylthio-ATP>βγ-imido-ATP= ADP>AMP=UMP=adenosine=uridine. Activation of stress-activated protein kinase activity by ATP and UTP was dose-dependently attenuated by suramin.Down-regulation of protein kinase C-α, -δ and -ε isoenzymes by 24 h treatment of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate did not inhibit ATP- and UTP-induced activation of c-Jun phosphorylation. Furthermore, the specific protein kinase C inhibitors, CGP 41251 and Ro 31-8220, did not inhibit nucleotide-stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation, suggesting that protein kinase C is not involved in ATP- and UTP-triggered stress-activated protein kinase activation.Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, strongly attenuated ATP- and UTP-induced c-Jun phosphorylation. Furthermore, N-acetyl-cysteine completely blocked the activation of stress-activated protein kinase in response to extracellular nucleotide stimulation.In summary, these results suggest that ATP and UTP trigger the activation of the stress-activated protein kinase module in mesangial cells by a

  7. Comparison of Epstein-Barr virus strains of different origin by analysis of the viral DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Bornkamm, G W; Delius, H; Zimber, U; Hudewentz, J; Epstein, M A

    1980-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) originating from Burkitt's lymphoma (P3HR-1 and CC34-5), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (M-ABA), transfusion mononucleosis (B95-8), and a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia (QIMR-WIL) was isolated from virus-carrying lymphoid cell lines after induction with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Viral DNA was analyzed by partial denaturation mapping and by use of the restriction endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII, and SalI and separation of fragments in 0.4% agarose. By using the restriction enzyme data of B95-8 (EBV) and W91 (EBV) obtained by Given and Kieff (D. Given and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 28:524-542, 1978), maps were established for the other virus strains. Comigrating fragments were assumed to be identical or closely related among the different strains. Fragments of different strains migrating differently were isolated, purified, radioactively labeled, and mapped by hybridization against blots of separated viral fragments. The results were as follows. (i) All strains studied were closely related. (ii) The number of internal repeats was variable among and within viral strains. (iii) B95-8 (EBV) was the only strain with a large deletion of about 12,000 base pairs at the right-hand side of the molecule. At the same site, small deletions of about 400 to 500 base pairs were observed in P3HR-1 (EBV) and M-ABA (EBV) DNA. (iv) P3HR-1 (EBV), the only nontransforming EBV strain, had a deletion of about 3,000 to 4,000 base pairs in the long unique region adjacent to the internal repeats carrying a HindIII site. (v) Small inserted sequences of 150 to 400 base pairs were observed in M-ABA (EBV) and B95-8 (EBV) at identical sites in the middle of the long unique region. (vi) Near this site, an insertion of about 1,000 base pairs was found in P3HR-1 (EBV) DNA. (vii) The cleavage patterns of P3HR-1 virus DNA and the results of blot hybridizations with P3HR-1 virus fragments are not conclusive and point to the possibility that in addition

  8. Identification of a novel interleukin-6 response element containing an Ets-binding site and a CRE-like site in the junB promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, K; Kusafuka, T; Takeda, T; Fujitani, Y; Nakae, K; Hirano, T

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activation of the immediate-early gene junB has been shown to require both a tyrosine kinase and an unknown 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7)-sensitive pathway. Here we report the identification and characterization of an IL-6 immediate-early response element in the junB promoter (designated JRE-IL6) in HepG2 cells. The JRE-IL6 element, located at -149 to -124, contains two DNA motifs, an Ets-binding site (EBS) (CAGGAAGC) and a CRE-like site (TGACGCGA). Functional studies using variously mutated JRE-IL6 elements showed that both motifs were necessary and sufficient for IL-6 response of the promoter. The EBS of the JRE-IL6 element (JEBS) appears to bind a protein in the Ets family or a related protein which could also form a major complex with the EBSs of the murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 long terminal repeat. The CRE-like site appears to weakly bind multiple CREB-ATF family proteins. Despite the similarity in the structure between the JRE-IL6 element and the polyomavirus enhancer PyPEA3, composed of an EBS and an AP1-binding site and known to be activated by a variety of oncogene signals, JRE-IL6 could not be activated by activated Ha-Ras, Raf-1, or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. We show that IL-6 activates JRE-IL6 through an H7-sensitive pathway that does not involve protein kinase C, cyclic AMP-dependent kinase, Ca(2+)- or calmodulin-dependent kinases, Ras, Raf-1, or NF-IL6 (C/EBP beta). The combination of JEBS and the CRE-like site appears to form the basis for the selective and efficient response of JRE-IL6 to IL-6 signals, but not to signals generated by activated Ha-Ras, Raf-1, or protein kinase C. Images PMID:8386318

  9. Phosphatidylcholine Specific PLC-Induced Dysregulation of Gap Junctions, a Robust Cellular Response to Environmental Toxicants, and Prevention by Resveratrol in a Rat Liver Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Sovadinova, Iva; Babica, Pavel; Böke, Hatice; Kumar, Esha; Wilke, Andrew; Park, Joon-Suk; Trosko, James E.; Upham, Brad L.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with different pathologies, including cancer; however, molecular mechanisms regulating GJIC are not fully understood. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanisms of GJIC-dysregulation have been well-established, however recent discoveries have implicated phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) in the regulation of GJIC. What is not known is how prevalent these two signaling mechanisms are in toxicant/toxin-induced dysregulation of GJIC, and do toxicants/toxins work through either signaling mechanisms or both, or through alternative signaling mechanisms. Different chemical toxicants were used to assess whether they dysregulate GJIC via MEK or PC-PLC, or both Mek and PC-PLC, or through other signaling pathways, using a pluripotent rat liver epithelial oval-cell line, WB-F344. Epidermal growth factor, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 and lindane regulated GJIC through a MEK1/2-dependent mechanism that was independent of PC-PLC; whereas PAHs, DDT, PCB 153, dicumylperoxide and perfluorodecanoic acid inhibited GJIC through PC-PLC independent of Mek. Dysregulation of GJIC by perfluorooctanoic acid and R59022 required both MEK1/2 and PC-PLC; while benzoylperoxide, arachidonic acid, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, 1-monolaurin, pentachlorophenol and alachlor required neither MEK1/2 nor PC-PLC. Resveratrol prevented dysregulation of GJIC by toxicants that acted either through MEK1/2 or PC-PLC. Except for alachlor, resveratrol did not prevent dysregulation of GJIC by toxicants that worked through PC-PLC-independent and MEK1/2-independent pathways, which indicated at least two other, yet unidentified, pathways that are involved in the regulation of GJIC. In conclusion: the dysregulation of GJIC is a contributing factor to the cancer process; however the underlying mechanisms by which gap

  10. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) leaves and other selected tropical green vegetables investigated on lipoperoxidation and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated monocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsumbu, Cesar N; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange

    2011-09-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N'-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in "inflammation like" conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration. PMID:22254126

  11. Activation of protein kinase C potentiates postsynaptic acetylcholine response at developing neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, W. M.; Lin, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    1. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA, 1 microM) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, 2 microM), activators of protein kinase C (PKC), increased the mean amplitude and decay time of the spontaneous synaptic currents of Xenopus nerve-muscle coculture, whereas, 4 alpha-phorbol (2 microM) which is an inactive phorbol analogue had no effect. 2. Staurosporine (0.5 microM) and H-7 (10 microM), inhibitors of PKC, inhibited the potentiation effects of TPA on the spontaneous synaptic currents. 3. Effects of TPA on the postsynaptic acetylcholine (ACh) sensitivity were examined by iontophoresis of ACh to the surface of embryonic muscle cells of 1-day-old Xenopus cultures. TPA increased both the amplitude and decay time of ACh-induced whole-cell currents in isolated myocytes. 4. TPA concentration-dependently increased the mean open time of low-conductance ACh channels but did not affect those of high-conductance ACh channels. PDBu but not 4 alpha-phorbol exhibited similar effects to TPA. Staurosporine and H-7 inhibited the increasing effects of TPA. 5. These results suggest that activation of PKC might be involved in synaptogenesis at developing neuromuscular synapses by the postsynaptic potentiation of ACh sensitivity. PMID:7694757

  12. Stroke, tPA, and Physician Decision-Making

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessel become starved for oxygen. When a part of the brain is starved for oxygen, it is called ischemia ... are several arteries that bring blood to the brain, but the middle cerebral artery is a major artery that supplies ...

  13. Characterization of an ExoS Type III Translocation-Resistant Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rucks, Elizabeth A.; Olson, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS is a type III-secreted type III-secreted, bifunctional protein that causes diverse effects on eukaryotic cell function. The coculture of P. aeruginosa strains expressing ExoS with HL-60 myeloid cells revealed the cell line to be resistant to the toxic effects of ExoS. Differentiation of HL-60 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) rendered the cell line sensitive to ExoS. To understand the cellular basis for the alteration in sensitivity, undifferentiated and TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells were compared for differences in bacterial adherence, type III secretion induction,