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Sample records for 12-pound solid steel

  1. Solid-state joining of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A.J.

    1993-04-22

    A joining study of these steels was initiated to determine the feasibility of using ultrahigh carbon steels in structural applications. The high carbon content (1.5 wt%) in these steels and the desire to maintain the superplastic microstructure limit the use of conventional arc-welding processes. We chose two solid-state joining processes: diffusion bonding and inertia friction welding. Preliminary results show that sound bonds can be obtained with tensile properties nearly equal to those of the base metal. Of three UHC steels bonded by both inertia-friction welding and diffusion- bonding processes, the one with the lowest aluminum content had the best overall properties. Diffusion bonding with a nickel interlayer showed the most promising results for the UHC steel containing 1.6 wt% aluminum. The properties of inertia-friction-welded steels can be improved by a post-weld heat treatment.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION CONSIDERATIONS OF STEEL INDUSTRY SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the solid wastes generated by the iron and steel industry relative to the impact of Section 4004 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The quantities, properties, and origin of wastes which pose a potential problem are identified using flow diagrams, ...

  3. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  4. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    PubMed

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed. PMID:22086964

  5. Management of solid wastes in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gohary, F.; El-khouly, M.S.

    1983-03-01

    Wastes from a local iron and steel factory operations are agglomeration of iron ore and sintering, pig iron manufacture, steel making, rolling mill operations, and pickling. Liquid slag, produced in the blast furnace, is granulated in water and used as a concrete additive. Other wastes are directed separately to sedimentation tanks. The settleable solids are reused, and the treated effluents are pumped to a cooling tower for recycling. As a result of the new manufacturing expansion, existing waste treatment facilities are not adequate, and it was found necessary to provide additional treatment techniques. Departmental, as well as composite wastes were treated using plain sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, or chemical coagulation, or a combination of these methods. The results obtained showed that the use of the hydrocyclone for solid-liquid separation is much more efficient than plain sedimentation. When this process was followed by coagulation, very promising results were obtained. The use of pickling liquor as a coagulant gave comparable results with alum and ferric chloride.

  6. Solidification and solid state transformations of austenitic stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J A; Williams, J C; Thompson, A W

    1982-05-01

    The microstructure of austenitic stainless steel welds can contain a large variety of ferrite morphologies. It was originally thought that many of these morphologies were direct products of solidification. Subsequently, detailed work on castings suggested the structures can solidify either as ferrite or austenite. However, when solidification occurs by ferrite, a large fraction of the ferrite transforms to austenite during cooling via a diffusion controlled transformation. It was also shown by Arata et al that welds in a 304L alloy solidified 70-80% as primary ferrite, a large fraction of which also transformed to austenite upon cooling. More recently it was suggested that the cooling rates in welds were sufficiently high that diffusionless transformations were responsible for several commonly observed ferrite morphologies. However, other workers have suggested that even in welds, delta ..-->.. ..gamma.. transformations are diffusion controlled. A variety of ferrite morphologies have more recently been characterized by Moisio and coworkers and by David. The purpose of this paper is to provide further understanding of the evaluation of the various weld microstructures which are related to both the solidification behavior and the subsequent solid state transformations. To accomplish this, both TEM and STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) techniques were employed.

  7. Regression relations for estimating the mechanical properties of steels subjected to solid-solution hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, E. A.; Val'ter, A. I.; Protopopov, A. A.; Malenko, P. I.

    2015-07-01

    An approach is proposed to obtain regression relations to estimate the mechanical properties of steels subjected to solid-solution hardening. The applicability of the developed approach is shown for hot-rolled sheet austenitic iron-nickel and nickel alloys after quenching, toughened low-alloy structural steels with a sorbite structure in the case of full hardenabilty, sheet corrosion-resistant ferritic steels after softening heat treatment, and corrosion-resistant austenitic steels after austenitization. The derived regression relations serve as the basis for correcting the chemical composition of a metal melt to ensure the required level of the mechanical properties of ready products by controlling the degree of solid-solution hardening.

  8. Liquid-Solid Reactions and Microstructure of SiC-5120 Steel Composite Brake Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingyang; Ru, Hongqiang; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yinong

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated solid-liquid reactions between SiC preform and molten 5120 steel during infiltration casting of SiC-steel composite for heavy duty brake applications. The reactions between SiC and the molten steel resulted in the formation of three distinctive microstructural regions, including the α 1-Fe(Si)-graphite region, the pearlite region, and the ferrite-pearlite region. The phase structures were identified by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, and metallographic examination. These observations reveal that SiC was decomposed via reactions with the molten steel. The diffusion of C and Si into the molten steel and selective solidification led to the formation of different regions with varied C and Si contents. The microstructures produced during the solidification sequence are identified to be the ferrite-pearlite → pearlite → α 1-Fe(Si) + graphite and cementite.

  9. An analysis of HS6-5-2 steel viscosity in the semi-solid state

    SciTech Connect

    Solek, Krzysztof; Korolczuk-Hejnak, Marta; Slezak, Wojciech; Karbowniczek, Miroslaw

    2011-05-04

    The main objective of this study was an analysis of the rheological properties of selected steel alloy in the semi-solid state. A knowledge of the rheological properties of material is crucial for the numerical modeling of the shaping technology. Semi-solid processing of metal alloys, also known as thixoforming processes, is an innovative method which has many advantages in comparison with classical metal forming and foundry processes. The most significant achievement of this particular study is the application of a viscometer which was specially designed for material tests executed at extremely high temperatures, such as the measurement of liquid or semi-liquid steel viscosity. This paper presents the results of a rheological analysis of HS6-5-2 (PN SW7M) tool steel. It was performed using a rotational viscometer with a stationary external cup. The results were used for the development of mathematical models of the apparent viscosity.

  10. Characterization of welded HP 9-4-30 steel for the advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, George William

    1990-01-01

    Solid rocket motor case materials must be high-strength, high-toughness, weldable alloys. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) cases currently being developed will be made from a 9Ni-4Co quench and temper steel called HP 9-4-30. These ultra high-strength steels must be carefully processed to give a very clean material and a fine grained microstructure, which insures excellent ductility and toughness. The HP 9-4-30 steels are vacuum arc remelted and carbon deoxidized to give the cleanliness required. The ASRM case material will be formed into rings and then welded together to form the case segments. Welding is the desired joining technique because it results in a lower weight than other joining techniques. The mechanical and corrosion properties of the weld region material were fully studied.

  11. Cracking of high-solids epoxy coatings on steel structures in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Bijen, J. ); Montfort, J. van

    1999-05-01

    High-solids epoxy coatings on steel flood barriers in The Netherlands showed cracking shortly after application. An investigation revealed the cause of cracking. It appeared that shrinkage-induced stresses caused the coatings to fail. Two cracking phenomena are described and simulated by an accelerated test and computer modeling.

  12. THE EROSION BEHAVIOR OF STEEL AS A FUNCTION OF MICROSTRUCTURE ON SOLID PARTICLE EROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Alan V.

    1980-04-01

    The effects of the microstructure of two ductile steels on their solid particle erosion were determined. The steels chosen allowed microstructural changes to be made without drastically changing their hardness, which is reported to be a direct function of erosion resistance. The steels used were plain carbon 1075 and 1020 in the coarse pearlite, fine pearlite, and spheroidized forms for the 1075 and in three spherodized conditions for the 1020 steel. Single particle and multiple particle erosion tests were conducted using 240 {micro}m diameter SiC particles, angles of impingement of 15°, 30°, and 90° and velocities of 30.5 mps (100fps) and 61 mps (200fps). Both surface and subsurface analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy. In the room temperature erosion tests, the spheroidized microstructure of the 1075 steel eroded less than either of the two pearlitic microstructures. It was found that the pearlitic steels exhibited cracking at the eroded surface as well as beneath it, causing greater material removal. The spheroidized structure showed no surface cracking; however, cracking did occur at a depth of approximately 20 {micro}m below the surface. The carbide particle spacing in the 1020 spheroidized steel also had a measureable effect on the erosion rate, The hardness of the various microstructures had an inverse relation to the erosion rate,

  13. Development of microstructure in high-alloy steel K390 using semi-solid forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opatova, K.; Aisman, D.; Rubesova, K.; Ibrahim, K.; Jenicek, S.

    2016-03-01

    Semi-solid processing of light alloys, namely aluminium and magnesium alloys, is a widely known and well-established process. By contrast, processing of powder steels which have high levels of alloying elements is a rather new subject of research. Thixoforming of high-alloy steels entails a number of technical difficulties. If these are overcome, the method can offer a variety of benefits. First of all, the final product shape and the desired mechanical properties can be obtained using a single forming operation. Semi-solid forming can produce unusual powder steel microstructures unattainable by any other route. Generally, the microstructures, which are normally found in thixoformed steels, consist of large fractions of globular or polygonal particles of metastable austenite embedded in a carbide network. An example is the X210Cr12 steel which is often used for semi-solid processing experiments. A disadvantage of the normal microstructure configuration is the brittleness of the carbide network, in which cracks initiate and propagate, causing low energy fractures. However, there is a newly-developed mini-thixoforming route which produces microstructures with an inverted configuration. Here, the material chosen for this purpose was K390 steel, in which the content of alloying elements is up to 24%. Its microstructure which was obtained by mini- thixoforming did not contain polyhedral austenite grains but hard carbides embedded in a ductile austenitic matrix. This provided the material with improved toughness. The spaces between the austenite grains were filled with a eutectic in which chromium, molybdenum and cobalt were distributed uniformly. After the processing parameters were optimized, complexshaped demonstration products were manufactured by this route. These products showed an extraordinary compressive strength and high wear resistance, thanks to the hardness of their microstructure constituents, predominantly the carbides.

  14. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin

    2013-12-01

    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry. PMID:23913597

  15. [Riboflavin-radical formation by mechanochemical solid-state reaction using stainless steel vessel].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Furuta, Youji; Okita, Shintarou; Sasai, Yasushi; Aramaki, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masayuki

    2004-03-01

    The mechanochemical reaction of free riboflavin (FR) due to vibratory ball milling was carried out in a stainless steel vessel at room temperature under anaerobic conditions. The ESR of the fractured sample showed a broad single-line spectrum. It is suggested that the solid-state single-electron transfer (SSET) reaction from the surface of the stainless steel vessel to FR proceeded during the vibratory milling, resulting in the formation of the corresponding anion radicals. When the mechanochemical reaction of FR in the presence of calcium pantothenate (PC) was carried out, the radical concentration increased with the increasing PC content. It was shown that the anion radical in the metal complex was stable for a lengthy period of time even in highly humid air. PMID:15049132

  16. Dilatometric technique for evaluation of the kinetics of solid-state transformation of maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, U.K.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Ganguly, C.

    1993-12-01

    Solid-state transformation kinetics of a 350 grad commercial maraging steel were investigated using a nonisothermal dilatometric technique. Two solid-state reactions -- namely, precipitation of intermetallic phases from supersaturated martensite and reversion of martensite to austenite -- were identified. Determination was made of the temperatures at which the rates of these reactions reached a maximum at different heating rates. The kinetics of the individual reactions in terms of activation energy were analyzed by simplified procedures based on the Kissinger equation. An estimated activation energy of 145 {+-} 4 kJ/mol for the precipitation of intermetallic phase was in good agreement with reported results based on the isothermal hardness measurement technique. Martensite to austenite reversion was associated with an activation energy of 224 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, which is very close to the activation energy for diffusion of substitutional elements in ferrite. Results were supplemented with microstructural analysis.

  17. Oxidation Resistance of Low Carbon Stainless Steel for Applications in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Matthes, Steven A.; Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.; Singh, P.

    2003-10-01

    Alloys protected from corrosion by Cr2O3 (chromia) are recognized as potential replacements for LaCrO3–based ceramic materials currently used as bipolar separators (interconnects) in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Stainless steels gain their corrosion resistance from the formation of chromia, when exposed to oxygen at elevated temperatures. Materials for interconnect applications must form uniform conductive oxide scales at 600–800o C while simultaneously exposed to air on the cathode side and mixtures of H2 - H2O, and, possibly, CHx and CO - CO2 on the anode side. In addition, they must possess good physical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Type 316L stainless steel was selected for the baseline study and development of an understanding of corrosion processes in complex gas environments. This paper discusses the oxidation resistance of 316L stainless steel exposed to dual SOFC environment for ~100 hours at ~900oK. The dual environment consisted of dry air on the cathode side of the specimen and a mixture of H2 and 3% H2O on the anode side. Post - corrosion surface evaluation involved the use of optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses.

  18. Experimental Investigations And Numerical Modelling of 210CR12 Steel in Semi-Solid State

    SciTech Connect

    Maciol, Piotr; Jakubowicz, Aleksandra; Wladislaw, Stanislaw; Zalecki, Wladyslaw; Kuziak, Roman

    2011-05-04

    Experimental investigation, including hot compression and simple closed die filling was performed. Temperature range of tests was between 1225 deg. C and 1320 deg. C. Temperature selection was adequate with liquid fraction between 20 and 60%, which is typical for thixoforming processes. In the die filling test, steel dies with ceramic layer was used (highly refractory air-setting mortar JM 3300 manufactured by Thermal Ceramics). Experiments were carried out on the Gleeble 3800 physical simulator with MCU unit. In the paper, methodology of experimental investigation is described. Dependency of forming forces on temperature and forming velocities is analysed. Obtained results are discussed. The second part of the paper concerns numerical modelling of semi-solid forming. Numerical models for both sets of test were developed. Structural and Computational Fluid Dynamics models are compared. Initial works in microstructural modelling of 210CR12 steel behaviour are described. Lattice Boltzman Method model for thixotropic flows is introduced. Microscale and macroscale models were integrated into multiscale simulation of semi-solid forming. Some fundamental issues related to multiscale modelling of thixoforming are discussed.

  19. Thermophysical Properties of a Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Steel in the Solid and Liquid Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilthan, B.; Reschab, H.; Tanzer, R.; Schützenhöfer, W.; Pottlacher, Gernot

    2008-02-01

    Numerical simulation of vacuum arc re-melting, pressurized or protective electro-slag re-melting, and ingot casting have become quite important in the metal industry. However, a major drawback of these simulation techniques is the lack of accurate thermophysical properties for temperatures above 1,500 K. Heat capacity, heat of fusion, density, and thermal conductivity are important input parameters for the heat transfer equation. Since, direct measurements of thermal conductivity of alloys in the liquid state are almost impossible, its estimation from electrical conductivity using the Wiedemann Franz law is very useful. The afore-mentioned thermophysical properties of several steels are investigated within the context of an ongoing project. Here, we present a full set of thermophysical data for the chromium nickel molybdenum steel meeting the standard DIN 1.4435 (X2CrNiMo18-14-3); these values will be used by our partner to simulate various re-melting and solidification processes. Wire-shaped samples of the steel are resistively volume-heated, as part of a fast capacitor discharge circuit. Time-resolved measurements with sub-μs resolution of current through the specimen are performed with a Pearson probe. The voltage drop across the specimen is measured with knife-edge contacts and ohmic voltage dividers, the temperature of the sample with a pyrometer, and the volumetric expansion of the wire with a fast acting CCD camera. These measurements enable the heat of fusion, the heat capacity, and the electrical resistivity to be determined as a function of temperature in the solid and liquid phases. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are estimated via the Wiedemann Franz law.

  20. Corrosive characteristics of surface-modified stainless steel bipolar plate in solid polymer fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Wang, Lixia; Sun, Juncai

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, corrosion behavior of an AISI 304 stainless steel modified by niobium or niobium nitride (denoted as niobized 304 SS and Nb-N 304 SS, respectively) is investigated in simulated solid polymer fuel cell (SPFC) operating conditions. Potentiodynamic polarizations show that the corrosion potentials of surface modified 304 SS shift to positive direction while the corrosion current densities decrease greatly comparing with the bare 304 SS in simulated anodic SPFC environments. The order of corrosive resistance in corrosive potential, corrosive current density and pitting potential is: Nb-N 304 SS > niobized 304 SS > bare 304 SS. In the methanol-fueled SPFC operating conditions, the results show that the corrosion resistance of bare and niobized 304 SS increases with the methanol concentration increasing in the test solutions.

  1. Thermal Diffusivity and Thermal Conductivity of Five Different Steel Alloys in the Solid and Liquid Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilthan, B.; Schützenhöfer, W.; Pottlacher, G.

    2015-08-01

    The need for characterization of thermophysical properties of steel and nickel-based alloys was addressed in the FFG-Bridge Project 810999 in cooperation with a partner from industry, Böhler Edelstahl GmbH & Co KG. To optimize numerical simulations of production processes, such as remelting or plastic deformation, additional, and more accurate data were necessary for the alloys under investigation. With a fast ohmic pulse heating circuit system, the temperature-dependent specific electrical resistivity, density, and specific heat capacity for a set of five high alloyed steels were measured. Hence, using the Wiedemann-Franz law with a Lorenz number of , the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity could be calculated for the solid and liquid phases up to temperatures of 2500 K. This experimental approach is limited by the following requirements for the specimens: they have to be electrically conducting, the melting point has to be high enough for the implemented pyrometric temperature measurement, and one has to be able to draw wires of the material. The latter restriction is technologically challenging with some of the materials being very brittle. For all samples, electrical and temperature signals are recorded and a fast shadowgraph method is used to measure the volume expansion. For each material under investigation, a set of data including the chemical composition, the density at room temperature, solidus and liquidus temperatures, and the change of enthalpy, resistivity, density, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity as a function of temperature is reported.

  2. Brazing of Stainless Steels to Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shpargel, Tarah P.; Needham, Robert J.; Singh, M.; Kung, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in research, development, and commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells. Joining and sealing are critical issues that will need to be addressed before SOFC's can truly perform as expected. Ceramics and metals can be difficult to join together, especially when the joint must withstand up to 900 C operating temperature of the SOFC's. The goal of the present study is to find the most suitable braze material for joining of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to stainless steels. A number of commercially available braze materials TiCuSil, TiCuNi, Copper-ABA, Gold-ABA, and Gold-ABA-V have been evaluated. The oxidation behavior of the braze materials and steel substrates in air was also examined through thermogravimetric analysis. The microstructure and composition of the brazed regions have been examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis. Effect of braze composition and processing conditions on the interfacial microstructure and composition of the joint regions will be presented.

  3. Brazing of Stainless Steel to Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using Gold-Based Brazes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Asthana, R.

    2007-01-01

    Two gold-base active metal brazes (gold-ABA and gold-ABA-V) were evaluated for oxidation resistance to 850 C, and used to join yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to a corrosion-resistant ferritic stainless steel for possible use in solid oxide fuel cells. Thermogravimetric analysis and optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate the braze oxidation behavior, and microstructure and composition of the YSZ/braze/steel joints. Both gold-ABA and gold-ABA-V exhibited nearly linear oxidation kinetics at 850 C, with gold-ABA-V showing faster oxidation than gold-ABA. Both brazes produced metallurgically sound YSZ/steel joints due to chemical interactions of Ti and V with the YSZ and steel substrates.

  4. Lanthanum oxide-coated stainless steel for bipolar plates in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jong Seol; Lee, Jun; Hwang, Hae Jin; Whang, Chin Myung; Moon, Ji-Woong; Kim, Do-Hyeong

    Solid oxide fuel cells typically operate at temperatures of about 1000 °C. At these temperatures only ceramic interconnects such as LaCrO 3 can be employed. The development of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) can potentially bring about reduced manufacturing costs as it makes possible the use of an inexpensive ferritic stainless steel (STS) interconnector. However, the STS suffers from Cr 2O 3 scale formation and a peeling-off phenomenon at the IT-SOFC operating temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. Application of an oxidation protective coating is an effective means of providing oxidation resistance. In this study, we coated an oxidation protective layer on ferritic stainless steel using a precursor solution prepared from lanthanum nitrate, ethylene glycol, and nitric acid. Heating the precursor solution at 80 °C yielded a spinable solution for coating. A gel film was coated on a STS substrate by a dip coating technique. At the early stage of the heat-treatment, lanthanum-containing oxides such as La 2O 3 and La 2CrO 6 formed, and as the heat-treatment temperature was increased, an oxidation protective perovskite-type LaCrO 3 layer was produced by the reaction between the lanthanum-containing oxide and the Cr 2O 3 scale on the SUS substrate. As the concentration of La-containing precursor solution was increased, the amount of La 2O 3 and La 2CrO 6 phases was gradually increased. The coating layer, which was prepared from a precursor solution of 0.8 M, was composed of LaCrO 3 and small amounts of (Mn,Cr)O 4 spinel. A relatively dense coating layer without pin-holes was obtained by heating the gel coating layer at 1073 K for 2 h. Microstructures and oxidation behavior of the La 2O 3-coated STS444 were investigated.

  5. Long term high temperature oxidation characteristics of La and Cu alloyed ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Lee, Young-Su; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2016-09-01

    To ensure the best performance of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects, the Fe-22 wt.% Cr ferritic stainless steels with various La contents (0.006-0.6 wt.%) and Cu addition (1.57 wt.%), are developed. Long-term isothermal oxidation behavior of these steels is investigated in air at 800 °C, for 2700 h. Chemistry, morphology, and microstructure of the thermally grown oxide scale are examined using XPS, SEM-EDX, and XRD techniques. Broadly, all the steels show a double layer consisting of an inner Cr2O3 and outer (Mn, Cr)3O4. Distinctly, in the La-added steels, binary oxides of Cr, Mn and Ti are found at the oxide scale surface together with (Mn, Cr)3O4. Furthermore, all La-varied steels possess the metallic Fe protrusions along with discontinuous (Mn, Cr)3O4 spinel zones at the oxide scale/metal interface and isolated precipitates of Ti-oxides in the underlying matrix. Increase of La content to 0.6 wt.% is detrimental to the oxidation resistance. For the Cu-added steel, Cu is found to segregate strongly at the oxide scale/metal interface which inhibits the ingress of oxygen thereby suppressing the subscale formation of (Mn, Cr)3O4. Thus, Cu addition to the Fe-22Cr ferritic stainless steels benefits the oxidation resistance.

  6. Palladium-coated stainless-steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimi; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-05-01

    A novel palladium solid-phase microextraction coating was fabricated on a stainless-steel wire by a simple in situ oxidation-reduction process. The palladium coating exhibited a rough microscaled surface and its thickness was about 2 μm. Preparation conditions (reaction time and concentration of palladium chloride and hydrochloric acid) were optimized in detail to achieve sufficient extraction efficiency. Extraction properties of the fiber were investigated by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters in aqueous samples. The extracted analytes were transferred into a gas chromatography system by thermal desorption. The effect of extraction and desorption conditions on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained and correlation coefficients between 0.9908 and 0.9990 were obtained. Limits of detection were 0.05-0.10 μg/L for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 0.3 μg/L for phthalate esters. Their recoveries for real aqueous samples were in the range from 97.1 to 121% and from 89.1 to 108%, respectively. The intra- and interday tests were also investigated with three different addition levels, and satisfactory results were also obtained. PMID:25726925

  7. Summary and evaluation of low-velocity impact tests of solid steel billet onto concrete pads

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, M.C.; Hovingh, W.J.; Mok, G.C.; Murty, S.S.; Chen, T.F.; Fischer, L.E.

    1998-02-01

    Spent fuel storage casks intended for use at independent spent fuel storage installations are evaluated during the application and review process for low-velocity impacts representative of possible handling accidents. In the past, the analyses involved in these evaluations have assumed that the casks dropped or tipped onto an unyielding surface - a conservative and simplifying assumption. Since 10 CFR Part 72, the regulation imposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), does not require this assumption, applicants are currently seeking a more realistic model for the analyses to predict the effect of a cask dropping onto a reinforced concrete pad, including energy absorbing aspects such as cracking and flexure. To develop data suitable for benchmarking these analyses, the NRC has conducted several series of drop-test studies of a solid steel billet and of a near-full-scale empty cask. This report contains a summary and evaluation of all steel billet testing conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A series of finite element analyses of the billet testing is described and benchmarked against the test data. A method to apply the benchmarked finite element model of the soil and concrete pad to an analysis of a full-size storage cask is provided. In addition, an application to a {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} full-size cask is presented for side and end drops, and tipover events. The primary purpose of this report is to provide applicants for an NRC license under 10 CFR Part 72 with a method for evaluating storage casks for low-velocity impact conditions.

  8. Solid-particle erosion of tungsten carbide/cobalt cermet vs. hardened AISI 440C stainless steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Rateick, R. G., Jr.; Karasek, K. R.; Cunningham, A.; Goretta, K. C.; Routbort, J. L.; Energy Technology; Honeywell

    2006-01-01

    Solid-particle erosion tests were conducted on hardened AISI 440C stainless steel and a cermet that consisted of {approx}90 vol.% submicrometer WC embedded in {approx}10 vol.% Co. Angular Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} abrasives were used as the erodent. Experimental variables were: angle of impact = 20, 50, or 90 degrees; erodent velocity = 60 or 120 m/s; erodent nominal diameter = 63 or 143 {micro}m. For all test conditions, the stainless steel eroded faster than the cermet. Analysis of weight-loss data and examination of eroded surfaces by scanning electron microscopy indicated that the erosion mechanisms were similar for the two hard materials. Both exhibited significant plasticity when impacted, but the stainless steel's response to impact appeared to have been more ductile in nature.

  9. Graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-03-01

    A graphene coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was fabricated and investigated as a solid-phase microextraction fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The coating with rough and crinkled structure was about 1 μm. These characteristics were helpful for promoting extraction. Using five n-alkanes (n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane) as analytes, the fiber was evaluated in direct-immersion mode by coupling with gas chromatography (GC). Through optimizing extraction and desorption conditions, a sensitive SPME-GC analytical method was established. SPME-GC method provided wide linearity range (0.2-150 μg L(-1)) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.5 μg L(-1)). It was applied to analyze rain water and a soil sample, and analytes were quantified in the range of 0.85-1.96 μg L(-1) and 0.09-3.34 μg g(-1), respectively. The recoveries of samples spiked at 10 μg L(-1) were in the range of 90.1-120% and 80.6-94.2%, respectively. The fiber also exhibited high thermal and chemical stability, due to the covalent bonds between graphene coating and wire, and the natural resistance of graphene for thermal, acid and basic conditions. PMID:25618658

  10. Manganese-Cobalt Mixed Spinel Oxides as Surface Modifiers for Stainless Steel Interconnects of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Gordon; Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2006-11-06

    Ferritic stainless steels are promising candidates for interconnect applications in low- and mid-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A couple of issues however remain for the particular application, including the chromium poisoning due to chromia evaporation, and long-term surface and electrical stability of the scale grown on these steels. Application of a manganese colbaltite spinel protection layer on the steels appears to be an effective approach to solve the issues. For an optimized performance, Mn{sub 1+x}Co{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (-1 {le} x {le} 2) spinels were investigated against properties relative for protection coating applications on ferritic SOFC interconnects. Overall it appears that the spinels with x around 0.5 demonstrate a good CTE match to ceramic cell components, a relative high electrical conductivity, and a good thermal stability up to 1,250 C. This was confirmed by a long-term test on the Mn{sub 1.5}Co{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} protection layer that was thermally grown on Crofer22 APU, indicating the spinel protection layer not only significantly decreased the contact resistance between a LSF cathode and the stainless steel interconnects, but also inhibited the sub-scale growth on the stainless steels.

  11. Investigation of iron-chromium-niobium-titanium ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guan-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    As part of an effort to develop cost-effective ferritic stainless steel-based interconnects for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, both bare AISI441 and AISI441 coated with (Mn,Co) 3O 4 protection layers were studied in terms of its metallurgical characteristics, oxidation behavior, and electrical performance. The addition of minor alloying elements, in particular Nb, led to formation of Laves phases both inside grains and along grain boundaries. In particular, the Laves phase which precipitated out along grain boundaries during exposure at intermediate SOFC operating temperatures was found to be rich in both Nb and Si. The capture of Si in the Laves phase minimized the Si activity in the alloy matrix and prevented formation of an insulating silica layer at the scale/metal interface, resulting in a reduction in area-specific electrical resistance (ASR). However, the relatively high oxidation rate of the steel, which leads to increasing ASR over time, and the need to prevent volatilization of chromium from the steel necessitates the application of a conductive protection layer on the steel. In particular, the application of a Mn 1.5Co 1.5O 4 spinel protection layer substantially improved the electrical performance of the 441 by reducing the oxidation rate.

  12. Investigation of Iron-Chromium-Niobium-Titanium Ferritic Stainless Steel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Chong M.; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua D.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2008-09-01

    As part of an effort to develop cost-effective ferritic stainless steel-based interconnects for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, AL 441 HPTM was studied in terms of its metallurgical characteristics, oxidation behavior, and electrical performance. Minor alloying elements (Nb and Ti) captured interstitials such as C by forming carbides, stabilizing the ferritic structure and mitigating the risks of sensitization and inter-granular corrosion. Laves phases rich in Nb and Si precipitated along grain boundaries during high temperature exposure, improving the steel’s high temperature mechanical strength. The capture of Si in the Laves phase minimized the Si activity in the steel substrate and prevented formation of an insulating silica layer at the scale/metal interface. However, the relatively high oxidation rate, and thus increasing ASR over time, necessitates the application of a conductive protection layer on the steel. In particular, Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel protection layers drastically improved the electrical performance of the ferritic stainless steel 441, acting as barriers to chromium outward and oxygen inward diffusion.

  13. Avoiding chromium transport from stainless steel interconnects into contact layers and oxygen electrodes in intermediate temperature solid oxide electrolysis stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlupp, Meike V. F.; Kim, Ji Woo; Brevet, Aude; Rado, Cyril; Couturier, Karine; Vogt, Ulrich F.; Lefebvre-Joud, Florence; Züttel, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of (La0.8Sr0.2)(Mn0.5Co0.5)O3-δ (LSMC) and La(Ni0.6Fe0.4)O3-δ (LNF) contact coatings to avoid the transport of Cr from steel interconnects to solid oxide electrolysis electrodes, especially to the anode. The transport of chromium from commercial Crofer 22 APU (ThyssenKrupp) and K41X (AISI441, Aperam Isbergues) steels through LSMC and LNF contact coatings into adjacent (La0.8Sr0.2)MnO3-δ (LSM) oxygen electrodes was investigated in an oxygen atmosphere at 700 °C. Chromium concentrations of up to 4 atom% were detected in the contact coatings after thermal treatments for 3000 h, which also lead to the presence of chromium in adjacent LSM electrodes. Introduction of a dense (Co,Mn)3O4 coating between steel and contact coating was necessary to prevent the diffusion of chromium into contact coatings and electrodes and should lead to extended stack performance and lifetime.

  14. Ordered mesoporous polymers in situ coated on a stainless steel wire for a highly sensitive solid phase microextraction fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Juan; Liang, Yeru; Liu, Shuqin; Ding, Yajuan; Shen, Yong; Luan, Tiangang; Zhu, Fang; Jiang, Ruifen; Wu, Dingcai; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-07-01

    Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application.Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, Fig. S1-S3 and Tables S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02674a

  15. Effect of oxide inclusions on the solid state transformation in low-alloy steel fusion welds

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Non-metallic inclusions are known to influence the properties of low alloy steel weld metal by altering the microstructure development. Isothermal transformation kinetics of austenite to acicular ferrite and allotriomorphic ferrite were measured in reheated low alloy steel weld deposits with similar weld compositions and austenite grain size but different inclusion characteristics. Accelerated kinetics of the transformation to acicular ferrite were observed in the weld metal containing coarser titanium-rich inclusions. The results are also discussed in relation to the predictions of inclusion model. The kinetics of the transformation to allotriomorphic ferrite were not influenced by a change in the inclusion characteristics, but, rather, by a change in austenite grain size. A theoretical analysis of austenite grain development during weld cooling is considered in this work. The austenite grain size was found to depend on the driving force for transformation from 6 ferrite to austenite ({Delta}G{sup {sigma}->{gamma}}) calculated from ThermoCalc{trademark} software.

  16. Nitride inclusions in titanium-containing high-nitrogen steel after solid-phase nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenkova, E. V.; Kadach, M. V.; Butskii, E. V.; Dorofievich, I. V.; Stomakhin, A. Ya.

    2015-09-01

    The principal possibility of production of sheet titanium-containing high-nitrogen steels without extreme harmful coarse nitride inclusions and their aggregates, which are characteristic of these compositions even at a relatively low (impurity) nitrogen content, is studied. To this end, the nitrogen content in the initial metal before its solidification is limited to the calculation level at which titanium nitrides are thermally unstable. Nitrogen is introduced in metal (08Cr18Ni12Ti steel) during its chemical thermal treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1200°C. The nitrogen content in the finished metal is 0.4% (at 0.31% Ti). Studies in this direction are thought to be promising, since it is evident that the production of a metal of such a composition using the standard method of nitrogen introduction (in melt) is impossible. Scanning electron microscopy shows that titanium nitride particles in the finished metal are ≤0.5 μm in size.

  17. Characterization of livestock odors using steel plates, solid-phase microextraction, and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Bulliner, Edward A; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Wright, Donald

    2006-10-01

    Livestock operations are associated with emissions of odor, gases, and particulate matter (PM). Livestock odor characterization is one of the most challenging analytical tasks. This is because odor-causing gases are often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this project was to develop a set of characteristic reference odors from a swine barn in Iowa and, in the process, identify compounds causing characteristic swine odor. Odor samples were collected using a novel sampling methodology consisting of clean steel plates exposed inside and around the swine barn for < or =1 week. Steel plates were then transported to the laboratory and stored in clean jars. Headspace solid-phase microextraction was used to extract characteristic odorants collected on the plates. All of the analyses were conducted on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry system where the human nose is used as a detector simultaneously with chemical analysis via mass spectrometry. Multidimensional chromatography was used to isolate and identify chemicals with high-characteristic swine odor. The effects of sampling time, distance from a source, and the presence of PM on the abundance of specific gases, odor intensity, and odor character were tested. Steel plates were effectively able to collect key volatile compounds and odorants. The abundance of specific gases and odor was amplified when plates collected PM. The results of this research indicate that PM is major carrier of odor and several key swine odorants. Three odor panelists were consistent in identifying p-cresol as closely resembling characteristic swine odor, as well as attributing to p-cresol the largest odor response out of the samples. Further research is warranted to determine how the control of PM emissions from swine housing could affect odor emissions. PMID:17063862

  18. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm−2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling. PMID:26928921

  19. The effect of temperature on chromium vaporization and oxide scale growth on interconnect steels for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Svensson, Jan Erik; Froitzheim, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Chromium vaporization and oxide scale growth are probably the two most important degradation mechanisms associated with the interconnect in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) when Cr2O3-forming alloys are used as the interconnect material. This study examines the influence of temperature on both mechanisms. Two commercially available steels; Crofer 22 H and Sanergy HT, were isothermally exposed at 650, 750 and 850 °C in an air-3% H2O atmosphere with a high flow rate. Volatile chromium species were collected using the denuder technique. The microstructure of thermally grown oxide scales was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The findings of this study show that although Cr evaporation is reduced with lower temperature, its relative importance compared to oxide scale growth is greater.

  20. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm(-2) at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling. PMID:26928921

  1. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm-2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling.

  2. Numerical estimation of phase transformations in solid state during Yb:YAG laser heating of steel sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, Marcin Piekarska, Wiesława; Domański, Tomasz; Saternus, Zbigniew; Stano, Sebastian

    2015-03-10

    This work concerns the numerical modeling of heat transfer and phase transformations in solid state occurring during the Yb:YAG laser beam heating process. The temperature field is obtained by the numerical solution into transient heat transfer equation with convective term. The laser beam heat source model is developed using the Kriging interpolation method with experimental measurements of Yb:YAG laser beam profile taken into account. Phase transformations are calculated on the basis of Johnson - Mehl - Avrami (JMA) and Koistinen - Marburger (KM) kinetics models as well as continuous heating transformation (CHT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams for S355 steel. On the basis of developed numerical algorithms 3D computer simulations are performed in order to predict temperature history and phase transformations in Yb:YAG laser heating process.

  3. Using CrAlN multilayer coatings to improve oxidation resistance of steel interconnects for solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, A.; Ramana, C. V.; Kayani, A.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, D. S.

    2004-06-01

    The requirements of low-cost and high-temperature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. The performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings, consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAlN for oxidation resistance, was investigated. The coatings were deposited using large area filtered arc deposition technology, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 °C. The composition, structure, and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

  4. Special Features of Fracture of a Solid-State Titanium Alloy - Nickel - Stainless Steel Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazgaliev, R. G.; Mukhametrakhimov, M. Kh.; Imaev, M. F.; Shayakhmetov, R. U.; Mulyukov, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    Microstructure, nanohardness, and special features of fracture of three-phase titanium alloy and stainless steel joint through a nanostructural nickel foil are investigated. Uniformly distributed microcracks are observed in Ti2Ni and TiN3 layers joined at temperatures above T = 700°C, whereas no microcracks are observed in the TiNi layer. This suggests that the reason for microcracking is an anomalously large change in the linear expansion coefficient of the TiNi layer during austenitic-martensitic transformation. Specimens subjected to mechanical tests at T = 20°C are fractured along different layers of the material, namely, in the central part of the specimen they are fractured along the Ti2Тi/TiNi interface, whereas at the edge they are fractured along the TiNi/TiNi3 interface.

  5. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    PubMed

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature. PMID:25846002

  6. CNT-TiO2 coating bonded onto stainless steel wire as a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Xiangjun; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-09-30

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber based on carbon nanotubes-titanium oxide (CNT-TiO2) composite coating bonded onto stainless steel wire was prepared via electroless plating and sol-gel techniques. The SPME coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was investigated with seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in direct-immersion mode. The SPME-GC analytical method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions. Compared with other reports, higher sensitivity (LODs, 0.002-0.004 μg L(-1)) and better linear range (0.01-100 and 0.01-200 μg L(-1)) were obtained by the proposed method. The fiber exhibited high thermal stability to 300 °C and excellent durability in HCl and NaOH solutions. The as-established SPME-GC method was used to analyze the real water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:23953442

  7. Direct measurement of solids: High temperature sensing: Phase 2, Experimental development and testing on furnace-heated steel blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.; Daly, D.S.

    1985-12-01

    Using average velocity measurements to estimate average profile temperature shows promise and merits further investigation. The current generation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) can transmit and detect signals in steel below the magnetic transition temperature. Techniques for calibrating ultrasonic velocity to internal temperature need further development. EMATs are inadequate ultrasonic transmitters for these applications. A high-energy, pulsed laser capable of generating more intense ultrasonic signals should be investigated as a transmitter. Recommendations are given for further work.

  8. In situ hydrothermal growth of ytterbium-based metal-organic framework on stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Lin; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report the use of a porous ytterbium-based metal-organic framework (Yb-MOF) coating material with good thermal stability for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental samples. The Yb-MOF thin films, grown in situ on stainless steel wire in solution, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward PAHs. Under the optimal conditions, the novel fibers achieved large enrichment factors (130-2288), low limits of detection (0.07-1.67ngL(-1)), and wide range of linearity (10-1000ngL(-1)) for 16 PAHs in the tested samples. The novel fiber was successfully used in the analysis of PAHs in real environmental samples. These results demonstrated that Yb-MOF is a promising coating material for the SPME of PAHs at trace levels from environmental samples. PMID:26346186

  9. Solid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters from aqueous media by electrochemically deposited carbon nanotube/polypyrrole composite on a stainless steel fiber.

    PubMed

    Asadollahzadeh, H; Noroozian, E; Maghsoudi, Sh

    2010-06-11

    A novel direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method using a stainless steel wire electrochemically coated with oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polypyrrole composite (MWCNTs-PPy) was used in the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of phthalate esters in aqueous samples. The composite coating did not swell in organic solvents nor did it strip off from the substrate. It was also highly stable and extremely adherent to the surface of the steel fiber. The effects of various parameters on the efficiency of SPME process such as extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, desorption time, and desorption temperature were studied. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits for the phthalate esters varied between 0.05 and 0.1 ng mL(-1), the inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for various phthalates at 1.0 ng mL(-1) concentration level (N=7) using a single fiber were 6.2-10.2% and 7.7-10.5, respectively. The fiber-to fiber RSD% (N=3) was 9.3-12.1% at 10 ng mL(-1). The linear ranges varied between 0.5 and 300 ng mL(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of mineral water samples with the recoveries from 90 to 113%. PMID:20510900

  10. Investigation into the diffusion and oxidation behavior of the interface between a plasma-sprayed anode and a porous steel support for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Liu, Meilin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Porous metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention because their potential to dramatically reduce the cost while enhancing the robustness and manufacturability. In particular, 430 ferritic steel (430L) is one of the popular choice for SOFC support because of its superior performance and low cost. In this study, we investigate the oxidation and diffusion behavior of the interface between a Ni-based anode and porous 430L support exposed to a humidified (3% H2O) hydrogen atmosphere at 700 °C. The Ni-GDC (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ) cermet anodes are deposited on the porous 430L support by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The effect of exposure time on the microstructure and phase structure of the anode and the supports is studied and the element diffusion across the support/anode interface is characterized. Results indicate that the main oxidation product of the 430L support is Cr2O3, and that Cr and Fe will diffuse to the anode and the diffusion thickness increases with the exposure time. The diffusion thickness of Cr and Fe reach about 5 and 2 μm, respectively, after 1000 h exposure. However, the element diffusion and oxidation has little influence on the area-specific resistance, indicating that the porous 430L steel and plasma sprayed Ni-GDC anode are promising for durable SOFCs.

  11. Au-coated ZnO nanorods on stainless steel fiber for self-cleaning solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Shi, Yu-E; Cui, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhan, Jinhua

    2016-06-01

    Solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SPME-SERS), combining the pretreatment and determination functions, has been successfully used in environmental analysis. In this work, Au-coated ZnO nanorods were fabricated on stainless steel fiber as a self-cleaning SERS-active SPME fiber. The ZnO nanorods grown on stainless steel fiber were prepared via a simple hydrothermal approach. Then the obtained nanostructures were decorated with Au nanoparticles through ion-sputtering at room temperature. The obtained SERS-active SPME fiber is a reproducible sensitivity sensor. Taking p-aminothiophenol as the probe molecule, the RSD value of the SERS-active SPME fiber was 8.9%, indicating the fiber owned good uniformity. The qualitative and quantitative detection of crystal violet and malachite green was also achieved. The log-log plot of SERS intensity to crystal violet and malachite green concentration showed a good linear relationship. Meanwhile, this SERS-active SPME fiber can achieve self-cleaning owning to the excellent photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanorods. Crystal violet was still successfully detected even after five cycles, which indicated the high reproducibility of this SERS-active SPME fiber. PMID:27155303

  12. Electrodeposition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on a stainless steel wire for solid phase microextraction and GC determination of some esters with high boiling points.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2013-01-30

    In this work, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) emulsion is prepared by ultrasonication agitation and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating is fabricated on a stainless steel wire by electrochemical method from a 0.10M sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate aqueous solution containing EDOT. The coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, and it presents cauliflower-like structure. When the resulted PEDOT/steel fiber is used for the headspace solid phase-microextraction of some esters (i.e. methyl anthranilate, dimethyl phthalate, ethyl-o-aminobenzoate, methyl laurate and diethyl phthalate) and their GC detection, the limits of detection (LOD) are ca. 7.8-31 ng L(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear ranges are 0.25-800 μg L(-1). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 320 °C), good reproducibility and long lifetime (more than 183 times). It also has good chemical stability. After it is immersed in acid, alkali and dichloromethane for 4h its extraction efficiency remains almost unchanged. Besides esters the fiber also exhibits high extraction efficiency for alcohols and aromatic compounds. PMID:23597884

  13. Elastic Constants at High Pressure, Solid-Liquid Phase Boundaries and Equations of State for Solid and Liquid Copper and 316-Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Dennis

    1999-06-01

    Prior accurate measurements of sound speed on the Hugoniot for copper and 316-SS are used to construct complete equations of state for solid and liquid phases. Differences between calculated bulk and observed elastic sound-speed in the solid are used to infer high-pressure elastic constants. At higher pressures, where the shocked state is entirely liquid, data are sufficient to construct the EOS including an accurate estimate for Grüneisen's ratio. The liquid EOS also reasonably describes some low-pressure, high-temperature properties, including density, sound speed, variation of sound speed with temperature, and thermal expansion, lending confidence to its accuracy. Results are comparable for each metal: the shear modulus increases along the Hugoniot and then drops precipitously toward zero as the pressure nears the liquid-phase boundary. In the liquid, Grüneisen's ratio is observed to be constant and agrees with the value measured for the liquid at zero pressure. The state below which this constancy holds is identified as the smallest pressure on the Hugoniot at which melting is complete. The gap between pure solid and pure liquid is identified as the mixed-phase region and in the case of copper, its size and location are in reasonable agreement with published ab initio calculations of Moriarty. Confidence in calculated temperature and entropy is less then that in pressure, volume and energy owing to uncertainties in specific heats.

  14. Evaluation of Incoherent Interface Strength of Solid-State-Bonded Ti64/Stainless Steel Under Dynamic Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Devendra; Singh, Jogender; Varma, Amit H.; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-08-01

    Ti/steel interfaces are produced using field-assisted sintering technology, a technique known to bring about full consolidation of materials using much lower sintering temperatures and durations. The interface thickness is verified using the energy-dispersive x-ray analysis exhibiting the extent of diffusion in interface regions. The interface mechanical strength is characterized using dynamic indentation experiments at strain rates approaching 400 s-1. The experiments were conducted on the interfaces within the spatial error tolerance of less than 3 µm. The measurements of dynamic hardness values, strain rates, and plastic-residual depths were correlated to show the relation of interface mechanical strength with the bulk-phase mechanical strength properties of Ti and steel. The Johnson-Cook model is fitted to the obtained interface normal stress-normal strain data based on the nanoimpact experiments. The coefficient of restitution in the mechanical loading and its dependence on the interface dynamic hardness and interface impact velocity validate the experimental results. The results show that interfacial properties are affected by the rate of loading and are largely dependent upon the interface structural inhomogeneity.

  15. Long-term oxidation behavior of spinel-coated ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua D.

    2013-06-01

    Long-term tests (>8,000 hours) indicate that AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel coated with a Mn-Co spinel protection layer is a promising candidate material system for IT-SOFC interconnect applications. While uncoated AISI 441 showed a substantial increase in area-specific electrical resistance (ASR), spinel-coated AISI 441 exhibited much lower ASR values (11-13 mOhm-cm2). Formation of an insulating silica sublayer beneath the native chromia-based scale was not observed, and the spinel coatings reduced the oxide scale growth rate and blocked outward diffusion of Cr from the alloy substrate. The structure of the scale formed under the spinel coatings during the long term tests differed from that typically observed on ferritic stainless steels after short term oxidation tests. While short term tests typically indicate a dual layer scale structure consisting of a chromia layer covered by a layer of Mn-Cr spinel, the scale grown during the long term tests consisted of a chromia matrix with discrete regions of Mn-Cr spinel distributed throughout the matrix. The presence of Ti in the chromia scale matrix and/or the presence of regions of Mn-Cr spinel within the scale may have increased the scale electrical conductivity, which would explain the fact that the observed ASR in the tests was lower than would be expected if the scale consisted of pure chromia.

  16. Electroplating of nanostructured polyaniline-polypyrrole composite coating in a stainless-steel tube for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Asiabi, Hamid; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Esrafili, Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-06-01

    In this work, a novel and efficient on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction method followed by high performance liquid chromatography was developed for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of parabens. A nanostructured polyaniline-polypyrrole composite was electrochemically deposited on the inner surface of a stainless steel tube and used as the extraction phase. Several important factors that influence the extraction efficiency, including type of solid-phase coating, extraction and desorption times, flow rates of the sample solution and eluent, pH, and ionic strength of the sample solution were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were in the range of 0.02-0.04 μg L(-1). This method showed good linearity for parabens in the range of 0.07-50 μg L(-1), with coefficients of determination better than 0.998. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (RSD%, n=3) were in the range of 5.9-7.0% and 4.4-5.7% at three concentration levels of 2, 10, and 20 μg L(-1), respectively. The extraction recovery values for the spiked samples were in the acceptable range of 80.3-90.2%. The validated method was successfully applied for analysis of methyl-, ethyl-, and propyl parabens in some water, milk, and juice samples. PMID:25913328

  17. Solid-state flow, mechanical alloying, and melt-related phenomena for [001] single-crystal tungsten ballistic rod penetrators interacting with steel targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizana, Carlos

    This research program consists of a detailed microstructural investigation of in-target, single-crystal [001], clad (with Inconel 718) and unclad, W long-rod, ballistic penetrators. The rods were shot into rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets approximately 76 mm in thickness at impact velocities ranging from 1100 m/s to 1350 m/s. A comprehensive microstructural overview of the penetration process was obtained from this investigation. Solid-state flow/erosion, solid-state target/rod mixing as well as influencing factors such as strain rate, penetration performance, cladding interference and the interaction between target and projectile were emphasized. Some of the microstructural features observed, including deformation twins, cleaving, adiabatic shear bands and DRX support an overall solid-state penetration process. Furthermore they provide for a unifying perspective for the applicability of the hydrodynamic paradigm (DOP ≈ l∘rp/rt ) and earlier mechanistic erosion approaches. DRX and grain growth within adiabatic shear bands observed at specific high strain/strain-rate zones within the rods suggest that the projectile erodes by means of these microstructures in a solid-state form. This erosion process contributes to the performance of the rod by either allowing optimum flow of rod material which would increase penetration depth, or by maximizing rod material consumption which would reduce it. Since flow and/or erosion are also necessary in the target for perforation to occur, it is not surprising that the erosion process in the target was observed to mirror the one in the projectile. That is both target and projectile developed erosion zones with DRX facilitating the extreme deformation via dense overlapping shear band formation. Mechanical alloying and/or mixing of the target (steel) and rod (W, or W-Inconel 718) was also observed and investigated. Selective etching techniques as well as energy-dispersive x-ray mapping revealed unambiguous evidence of

  18. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  19. Comment on "Origin of low-temperature shoulder internal friction peak of Snoek-Köster peak in a medium carbon high alloyed steel" by Lu et al. [Solid State Communications 195 (2014) 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, J. J.; Mari, D.

    2016-01-01

    We want to discuss the interpretation of low-temperature shoulder internal friction peak of Snoek-Köster peak (LTS-SK). Lu et al. (2015) [1] attributed it to the interaction between the carbon atoms and twin boundaries in martensite. Nevertheless, the decrease of the amplitude of LTS-SK peak due to carbon segregation is correlated with the interstitial carbon content in solid solution in martensite (Hoyos et al., 2015 [2]). Therefore, this peak can also be attributed to the presence of an internal friction athermal background, which is proportional to the concentration of interstitial carbon in solid solution (Tkalcec et al., 2015 [2,3]). In addition, they used an alloyed steel, in which ε carbide precipitated above of the LTS-SK peak temperature. As this behavior cannot be generalized for carbon and high alloyed steels, the carbide precipitates could made an additional contribution to the internal friction.

  20. Graphene oxide based sol-gel stainless steel fiber for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of organophosphate ester flame retardants in water samples.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tingting; Cheng, Jing; Cai, Cuicui; Cheng, Min; Wu, Shiju; Zhou, Hongbin

    2016-07-29

    In this paper, graphene oxide was coated onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique and it was used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The prepared fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which displayed that the fiber had crinkled surface and porous structure The application of the fiber was evaluated through the headspace SPME of nine organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPFRs) with different characteristics in water samples followed by gas chromatography and nitrogen-phosphorous detector (GC/NPD). The major factors influencing the extraction efficiency, including the extraction and desorption conditions, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method was evaluated, and applied to the analysis of organophosphate ester flame retardants in real environmental water samples. The results demonstrated the HS-SPME method based on GO sol-gel fiber had good linearity (R>0.9928), and limits of detection (1.4-135.6ngL(-1)), high repeatability (RSD<9.8%) and good recovery (76.4-112.4%). The GO based sol-gel fiber displayed bigger extraction capability than the commercial PDMS fiber and the pure sol-gel fiber for both polar and apolar organophosphate esters, especially for the OPFRs containing benzene rings. PMID:27371020

  1. Development of Cu1.3Mn1.7O4 spinel coating on ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, N.; Abbasi, M. H.; Karimzadeh, F.; Choi, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    To protect solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from chromium poisoning and to improve area specific resistance (ASR), Cu1.3Mn1.7O4 is thermally grown on AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (FESEM-EDS) and 4-probe ASR tests. The results show that the coating not only decreases the ASR considerably, but also acts as a barrier to mitigate the sub-scale growth and to prevent chromium migration through the coating and the cathode. The EDS analysis reveals that a mixed spinel region is formed between the coating and oxide scale after 500 h oxidation at 750 °C causing a noticeable decrease in oxygen diffusivity through this layer and subsequent decline in sub-scale growth rate. The ASR of uncoated sample is measured to be 63.5 mΩ cm2 after 500 h oxidation, while the Cu1.3Mn1.7O4 spinel coated sample shows a value of 19.3 mΩ cm2 representing ∼70% reduction compared to the uncoated sample. It is proposed that the high electrical conductivity of Cu1.3Mn1.7O4 (140 S cm-1), reduction of oxide scale growth, and good bonding between the coating and substrate contribute to the substantial ASR reduction for the coated sample.

  2. Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel protective coating on ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoyi; Xin, Xianshuang; Luo, Ting; Liu, Leimin; Zhou, Yuchun; Yuan, Chun; Lin, Chucheng; Zhan, Zhongliang; Wang, Shaorong

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt to reduce the oxidation and Cr evaporation rates of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coating is developed on the Crofer22 APU ferritic stainless steel substrate by a powder reduction technique. Doping of Cu into Mn-Co spinels improves electrical conductivity as well as thermal expansion match with the Crofer22 APU interconnect. Good adhesion between the coating and the alloy substrate is achieved by the reactive sintering process using the reduced powders. Long-term isothermal oxidation experiment and area specific resistance (ASR) measurement are investigated. The ASR is less than 4 mΩ cm2 even though the coated alloy undergoes oxidation at 800 °C for 530 h and four thermal cycles from 800 °C to room temperature. The Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coatings demonstrate excellent anti-oxidation performance and long-term stability. It exhibits a promising prospect for the practical application of SOFC alloy interconnect.

  3. Three dimensional finite element modeling of laser solid freeform fabrication of cobalt alloy stellite 21 with 1.5% nanoCeO2 on the low carbon steel 1015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayaz, G. R.; Ebrahimi, A.; Zakeri, S. S.

    Our purpose is to model the multilayer laser solid freeform fabrication (LSFF) process for the material properties of low carbon steel 1015 for workpiece and cobalt alloy stellite 21 with 1.5 wt.% nano CeO2 as the powder particles. In this paper, transient heat transfer and mass transfer equations in laser solid freeform fabrication process are solved by Finite Element Method (FEM). In this approach, the geometry of the deposited material, temperature and thermal stress fields across the process area are predicted. For each layer the clad height is computed and computations are done by the use of MATLAB and COMSOL software.

  4. Metal-organic framework UiO-66 coated stainless steel fiber for solid-phase microextraction of phenols in water samples.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hai-Bo; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2014-08-29

    Effective solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polar phenols from water samples is usually difficult due to the strong interaction between polar phenols and aqueous matrix. Here, we report the fabrication of a metal-organic framework UiO-66 coated stainless steel fiber via physical adhesion for the SPME of polar phenols (phenol, o-cresol, p-cresol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6-dichlorophenol) in water samples before gas chromatographic separation with flame ionic detection. Headspace SPME of 10mL sample solution with the fabricated UiO-66 coated fiber gave the enhancement factors of 160 (phenol) - 3769 (2,4-dichlorophenol), and the linear ranges of 1-1000μgL(-1) (2,6-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6-dichlorophenol), 1-500μgL(-1) (o-cresol and p-cresol) and 5-500μgL(-1) (phenol). The detection limits ranged from 0.11μgL(-1) (2,6-dimethylphenol) to 1.23μgL(-1) (phenol). The precision (relative standard deviations, RSDs) for six replicate determinations of the analytes at 100μgL(-1) using a single UiO-66 coated fiber ranged from 2.8% to 6.2%. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (RSDs) for three parallel UiO-66 coated fibers varied from 5.9% to 10%. The recoveries obtained by spiking 5μgL(-1) of the phenols in the water samples ranged from 80% to 115%. PMID:24891159

  5. Fabrication and application of zinc-zinc oxide nanosheets coating on an etched stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlan; Guo, Mei; Zhang, Yida; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-03-01

    A novel zinc-zinc oxide (Zn-ZnO) nanosheets coating was directly fabricated on an etched stainless steel wire substrate as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber via previous electrodeposition of robust Zn coating. The scanning electron micrograph of the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coated fiber exhibits a flower-like nanostructure with high surface area. The SPME performance of as-fabricated fiber was investigated for the concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and ultraviolet (UV) filters coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). It was found that the Zn-ZnO nanosheets coating exhibited high extraction capability, good selectivity and rapid mass transfer for some UV filters. The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graphs were linear over the range of 0.1-200μgL(-1). The limits of detection of the proposed method were 0.052-0.084μgL(-1) (S/N=3). The single fiber repeatability varied from 5.18% to 7.56% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 6.74% to 8.83% for the extraction of spiked water with 50μgL(-1) UV filters (n=5). The established SPME-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to the selective concentration and sensitive determination of target UV filters from real environmental water samples with recoveries from 85.8% to 105% at the spiking level of 10μgL(-1) and 30μgL(-1). The relative standard deviations were below 9.7%. PMID:25662065

  6. Evaluation of low-velocity impact tests of solid steel billet onto concrete pads, and application to generic ISFSI storage cask for tipover and side drop

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, M. C.; Chen, T.F.; Mok, G.C.; Murty, S.S.; Fischer, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Casks intended for use at Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIS) typically are evaluated during the application and review process for low-energy impacts representative of possible handling accidents including tipover events. In the past, the analyses involved in these evaluations have assumed that the casks dropped or tipped onto an unyielding surface, a conservative and simplifying assumption. Since 10 CFR Part 72`, the regulation imposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), does not require this assumption, applicants are currently seeking a more realistic model for the analyses and are using analytical models which predict the effect of a cask dropping onto a reinforced concrete pad, including energy absorbing aspects such as cracking and flexure. In order to develop data suitable for benchmarking these analyses, the NRC has conducted several series of drop-test studies. The tests described in this report were primarily intended to determine the response characteristics of concrete pads during tipover and side impacts of a solid steel billet onto the pads. This series of tests is fourth in a program of tests funded by the NRC; all four series of tests address issues of impact involving spent fuel storage casks. The first series was performed in March 1993 by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involved five end-drops of a billet, nearly identical to the one used in the present series, onto a variety of surfaces from a height of 18 inches. The second series of tests was performed between July and October 1993, and involved four end- drops of a near-full-scale empty Excellox 3A cask onto a full-scale concrete pad and foundation, or onto an essentially unyielding surface, from heights ranging from 18 inches to 60 inches, and was conducted by the British Nuclear Fuels Limited in Winfrith, England. (Two of the drops in the second series were sponsored by Electric Power Research Institute.) The third test series was

  7. A solid-phase microextraction platinized stainless steel fiber coated with a multiwalled carbon nanotube-polyaniline nanocomposite film for the extraction of thymol and carvacrol in medicinal plants and honey.

    PubMed

    Ghiasvand, Alireza; Dowlatshah, Samira; Nouraei, Nadia; Heidari, Nahid; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    A mechanically hard and cohesive porous fiber, with large surface area, for more strong attachment of the coating was provided by platinizing a stainless steel wire. Then, the platinized stainless steel fiber was coated with a multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (MWCNT/PANI) nanocomposite using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method and applied for the extraction of thymol and carvacrol with direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) quantification. To provide a larger coarse surface for the tightened attachment of coating on the fiber, a stainless steel wire was platinized using a suitable optimized EPD method. Different experimental parameters were studied and the optimal conditions were obtained as: pH of the sample solution: 2; extraction time: 60min; salt content in the sample solution: 1% w/v NaNO3; desorption time: 60min; type and volume of the desorption solvent: acetonitrile, 100μL. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs) were 0.6 and 0.8μgmL(-1) for thymol and carvacrol, respectively. Linear dynamic range (LDR) for the calibration curves of both analytes were 1-80μgmL(-1). Relative standard deviation (RSD%, n=6) was 6.8 for thymol and 12.7 for carvacrol. The proposed fiber was successfully applied for the recovery and determination of thymol and carvacrol in thyme, savory, and honey samples. PMID:26138604

  8. Y0.08Sr0.88TiO3-CeO2 composite as a diffusion barrier layer for stainless-steel supported solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kun Joong; Kim, Sun Jae; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    A new diffusion barrier layer (DBL) is proposed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) supported on stainless-steel where DBL prevents inter-diffusion of atoms between anode and stainless steel (STS) support during fabrication and operation of STS-supported SOFCs. Half cells consisting of dense yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, porous Ni-YSZ anode layer, and ferritic STS support, with or without Y0.08Sr0.88TiO3-CeO2 (YST-CeO2) composite DBL, are prepared by tape casting and co-firing at 1250 and 1350 °C, respectively, in reducing (H2) atmosphere. The porous YST-CeO2 layer (t ∼ 60 μm) blocks inter-diffusion of Fe and Ni, and captures the evaporated Cr during cell fabrication (1350 °C). The cell with DBL and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode achieved a maximum power density of ∼220 mW cm-2 which is stable at 700 °C. In order to further improve the power performance, Ni coarsening in anode during co-firing must be prevented or alternative anode which is resistive to coarsening is suggested. This study demonstrates that the new YST-CeO2 layer is a promising as a DBL for stainless-steel-supported SOFCs fabricated with co-firing process.

  9. Gas-Solid Interactions During Nonisothermal Heat Treatment of a High-Strength CrMnCN Austenitic Steel Powder: Influence of Atmospheric Conditions and Heating Rate on the Densification Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasokha, Nikolaj; Weber, Sebastian; Huth, Stephan; Zumsande, Kathrin; Theisen, Werner

    2012-11-01

    This work deals with gas-solid interactions between a high-alloyed steel powder and the surrounding atmosphere during continuous heating. It is motivated by the recently developed corrosion-resistant CrMnCN austenitic cast steels. Here, powder metallurgical processing would be desirable to manufacture highly homogeneous parts and/or novel corrosion-resistant metal-matrix composites. However, the successful use of this new production route calls for a comprehensive investigation of interactions between the sintering atmosphere and the metallic powder to prevent undesirable changes to the chemical composition, e.g., degassing of nitrogen or evaporation of manganese. In this study, dilatometric measurements combined with residual gas analysis, high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations provided detailed information about the influence of different atmospheric conditions on the microstructure, constitution, and densification behavior of a gas-atomized CrMnCN steel powder during continuous heating. Intensive desorption of nitrogen led to the conclusion that a vacuum atmosphere is not suitable for powder metallurgical (PM) processing. Exposure to an N2-containing atmosphere resulted in the formation of nitrides and lattice expansion. Experimental findings have shown that the N content can be controlled by the nitrogen partial pressure. Furthermore, the reduction of surface oxides because of a carbothermal reaction at elevated temperatures and the resulting enhancement of the powder's densification behavior are discussed in this work.

  10. Gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube for fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yanan; Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Zhou, Changli; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-03-01

    A fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction device based on a gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube was developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, it was evaluated using six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as model analytes. Important parameters including sampling rate, sample volume, organic solvent content and desorption time were investigated. Under optimized conditions, an online analysis method was established. The linearity was in the range of 0.15-50 μg/L with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9999, and limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L. The method was applied to determine model analytes in mosquito-repellent incense ash and river water samples, with recoveries in the range of 85-120%. PMID:26681645

  11. Novel unbreakable solid-phase microextraction fibers on stainless steel wire and application for the determination of oxadiargyl in environmental and agricultural samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Es-Haghi, Ali; Baghernejad, Masoud; Bagheri, Habib

    2014-10-01

    Sol-gel based solid-phase microextraction fibers supported by a stainless steel wire were fabricated and employed for GC-MS determination of oxadiargyl in real samples. The fibers were based on four compounds with different polarity: polar and non-polar (end-capped) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly(ethylene-propyleneglycol)-monobutyl ether (UCON). For this purpose, the surface of the stainless steel was initially modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The results of the modification procedure were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. After the modification, four different sol-gel based SPME fibers with different values of polarity, polar and non-polar PDMS, PEG, and UCON have been prepared and investigated. They are supposed to be employed to determinate oxadiargyl in agricultural and environmental samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Most important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were also optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was found to be linear for the concentrations ranging from 100 ng L(-1) to 2 mg L(-1) with R(2)=0.997. Limit of detection (LOD) of 40 ng L(-1) and relative standard deviation of less than 10% were obtained. Relative recovery in environmental and agricultural samples was in the range of 73-96%. PMID:25059153

  12. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  13. Development of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by the chemical binding of graphene oxide on a silver-coated stainless-steel wire with an ionic liquid as the crosslinking agent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Luo, Chuannan

    2014-12-01

    Graphene oxide was bonded onto a silver-coated stainless-steel wire using an ionic liquid as the crosslinking agent by a layer-by-layer strategy. The novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman microscopy. A multilayer graphene oxide layer was closely coated onto the supporting substrate. The thickness of the coating was about 4 μm. Coupled with gas chromatography, the fiber was evaluated using five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene, 1,2-benzophenanthrene, and benzo(a)pyrene) as model analytes in direct-immersion mode. The main conditions (extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, and desorption time) were optimized by a factor-by-factor optimization. The as-established method exhibited a wide linearity range (0.5-200 μg/L) and low limits of determination (0.05-0.10 μg/L). It was applied to analyze environmental water samples of rain and river water. Three kinds of the model analytes were quantified and the recoveries of samples spiked at 10 μg/L were in the range of 92.3-120 and 93.8-115%, respectively. The obtained results indicated the fiber was efficient for solid-phase microextraction analysis. PMID:25283136

  14. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  15. Fabrication of ciprofloxacin molecular imprinted polymer coating on a stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber for sensitive determination of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids and tablet formulation using HPLC-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Mirzajani, Roya; Kardani, Fatemeh

    2016-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) fiber on stainless steel wire using ciprofloxacin template with a mild template removal condition was synthetized and evaluated for fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from biological fluids and pharmaceutical samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The developed MIP fiber exhibited high selectivity for the analytes in complex matrices. The coating of the fibers were inspected using fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, thermogaravimetric analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 300°C), good reproducibility and long lifetime. The composite coating did not swell in organic solvents nor did it strip off from the substrate. It was also highly stable and extremely adherent to the surface of the stainless steel fiber. The fabricated fiber exclusively exhibited excellent extraction efficiency and selectivity for some FQs. The effective parameters influencing the microextraction efficiency such as pH, extraction time, desorption condition, and stirring rate were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection of the four FQs ranged from 0.023-0.033 μg L(-1) (S/N=5) and the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 0.1-40 μg L(-1), the inter-day and intraday relative standard deviations (RSD) for various FQs at three different concentration level (n=5) using a single fiber were 1.1-4.4% and the fiber to fiber RSD% (n=5) was 4.3-6.7% at 5 μg L(-1) of each anlyetes. The method was successfully applied for quantification of FQs in real samples including serum, plasma and tablet formulation with the recoveries between 97 to 102%. PMID:26852159

  16. Application of sol-gel technique to synthesis of copper-cobalt spinel on the ferritic stainless steel used for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknahad, Pouyan; Askari, Masoud; Ghorbanzadeh, Milad

    2014-11-01

    The conductive CuCo2O4 spinel coating is applied on the surface of the AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel by the dip-coating sol-gel process and it is evaluated in terms of the microstructure, oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity. The results show that the CuCO2O4 coating forms a double-layer scale consisting of a Cr, Fe-rich subscale and Cu-Co spinel top layer after 500 h in air at 800 °C. This scale is protective, acts as an effective barrier against Cr migration into the outer oxide layer and alleviates the cathode Cr-poisoning. The oxidation resistance is significantly enhanced by the protective coating with a parabolic rate constant of 5.8 × 10-13 gr2 cm-4 s-1, meanwhile the electrical conductivity is considerably improved due to inhibited growth of resistive Cr2O3 oxide scale. The area specific resistance at temperatures between 550 and 800 °C is in the range of 11.5 and 22.2 mΩ cm2.

  17. A Virtual Steel Sculpture for Structural Engineering Education: Development and Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dib, Hazar Nicholas; Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a virtual steel sculpture for engineering education. A good connection design requires the engineer to have a solid understanding of the mechanics and steel behavior. To help students better understand various connection types, many schools have acquired steel sculptures. A steel sculpture is a…

  18. Covalent Bonding of Metal-Organic Framework-5/Graphene Oxide Hybrid Composite to Stainless Steel Fiber for Solid-Phase Microextraction of Triazole Fungicides from Fruit and Vegetable Samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuaihua; Yang, Qian; Wang, Wenchang; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid material of the zinc-based metal-organic framework-5 and graphene oxide (metal-organic framework-5/graphene oxide) was prepared as a novel fiber coating material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The SPME fibers were fabricated by covalent bonding via chemical cross-linking between the coating material metal-organic framework-5/graphene oxide and stainless steel wire. The prepared fiber was used for the extraction of five triazole fungicides from fruit and vegetable samples. Gas chromatography coupled with microelectron capture detector (GC-μECD) was used for quantification. The developed method gave a low limit of detection (0.05-1.58 ng g(-1)) and good linearity (0.17-100 ng g(-1)) for the determination of the triazole fungicides in fruit and vegetable samples. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for five replicate extractions of the triazole fungicides ranged from 3.7 to 8.9%. The method recoveries for spiked fungicides (5, 20, and 50 ng g(-1)) in grape, apple, cucumber, celery cabbage, pear, cabbage, and tomato samples were in the range of 85.6-105.8% with the RSDs ranging from 3.6 to 11.4%, respectively, depending on both the analytes and samples. The metal-organic framework-5/graphene oxide coated fiber was stable enough for 120 extraction cycles without a significant loss of extraction efficiency. The method was suitable for the determination of triazole fungicides in fruit and vegetable samples. PMID:26998567

  19. Stainless steel-supported solid oxide fuel cell with La0.2Sr0.8Ti0.9Ni0.1O3-δ/yttria-stabilized zirconia composite anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayaghi, Amir Masoud; Kim, Kun Joong; Kim, Sunwoong; Park, Juahn; Kim, Sun Jae; Park, Byung Hyun; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-08-01

    A metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell (MS-SOFC) is fabricated by co-firing stainless steel (STS) support with a new reduction-resistant oxide-anode and yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. La and Ni co-doped SrTiO3 (La0.2Sr0.8Ti0.9Ni0.1O3-δ, LSTN) which shows Ni exsolution capability is composited with Y0.16Zr0.84O2-δ (YSZ) electrolyte to form a new LSTN-YSZ anode. A cermet layer composed of STS and YSZ (STS-YSZ) is inserted between a porous STS support and a new LSTN-YSZ composite anode for stable contact. With La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) cathode and Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ (GDC) interlayer coated on top of co-fired half-cell, YSZ/LSTN-YSZ/STS-YSZ/STS, a newly designed and fabricated cell achieved maximum power density of 185 mW cm-2 at 650 °C. This power density is an improvement over many conventional co-fired MS-SOFCs that use a Ni-cermet anode.

  20. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  1. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Combined stability in isothermal ageing and thermal cycling with YSZ coated ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-01-01

    An alkali-containing silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass contains about 17 mole% alkalis (K+Na) and has low glass transition and softening temperatures. It remains vitreous and compliant around 750-800oC after sealing without substantial crystallization, as contrary to conventional glass-ceramic sealants, which experience rapid crystallization after the sealing process. The glassy nature and low characteristic temperatures can reduce residual stresses and result in the potential for crack healing. In a previous study, the glass was found to have good thermal cycle stability and was chemically compatible with YSZ coating during short term testing. In the current study, the compliant glass was further evaluated in a more realistic way in that the sealed glass couples were first isothermally aged for 1000h followed by thermal cycling. High temperature leakage was measured. The chemical compatibility was also investigated with powder mixtures at 700 and 800oC to enhance potential interfacial reaction. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and evaluated with regard to the leakage and chemical compatibility results.

  2. Small stack performance of intermediate temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells using stainless steel interconnects and anode-supported single cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joongmyeon; Lim, Sungkwang; Jee, Hyunjin; Kim, Jung Hyun; Yoo, Young-Sung; Lee, Taehee

    We are developing 1 kW class solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for residential power generation (RPG) application supported by Korean Government. Anode-supported single cells with thin electrolyte layer of YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) or ScSZ (scandia-stabilized zirconia) for intermediate temperature operation (650-750 °C), respectively, were fabricated and small stacks were built and evaluated. The LSCF/ScSZ/Ni-YSZ single cell showed performance of 543 mW cm -2 at 650 °C and 1680 mW cm -2 at 750 °C. The voltage of 15-cell stack based on 5 cm × 5 cm single cell (LSM/YSZ/Ni-YSZ) at 150 mW was 12.5 V in hydrogen as fuel of 120 sccm per cell at 750 °C and decreased to about 10.9 V at 500 h operation time. A 5-cell stack based on the LSCF/YSZ/FL/Ni-YSZ showed the maximum power density of 30 W, 25 W and 20 W at 750 °C, 700 °C and 650 °C, respectively. LSCF/ScSZ/Ni-YSZ-based stack showed better performance than LSCF/YSZ/Ni-YSZ stack from the experiment temperature range. I- V characteristics by using hydrogen gas and reformate gas of methane as fuel were investigated at 750 °C in LSCF/ScSZ/FL/Ni-YSZ-based 5-cell stack.

  3. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Combined stability in isothermal ageing and thermal cycling with YSZ coated ferritic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Thomsen, E. C.; Choi, J.-P.; Stevenson, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is being evaluated as a candidate sealant for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass contains about 17 wt.% alkalis (K + Na) and has low glass transition and softening temperatures. It remains vitreous and compliant after sealing without substantial crystallization, as contrary to conventional glass-ceramic sealant. The glassy nature and low characteristic temperatures can reduce residual stresses and result in the potential for crack healing. In a previous study, the glass was found to have good thermal cycle stability and was chemically compatible with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating during short term testing. In this study, the compliant glass was further evaluated in a more realistic way in that the sealed couples were first isothermally aged for 1000 h followed by thermal cycling. High temperature leakage was measured. Chemical compatibility was also investigated with powder mixtures to enhance potential interfacial reaction. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and evaluated with regard to the leakage and chemical compatibility results. Overall the compliant sealing glass showed desirable chemical compatibility with YSZ coated metallic interconnect of minimum reaction and hermetic behavior at 700-750 °C in dual environment.

  4. Irradiation effects in ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenberg, Thomas

    1985-08-01

    Since 1979 the Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance (ADIP) task funded by the US Department of Energy has been studying the 2-12Cr class of ferritic steels to establish the feasibility of using them in fusion reactor first wall/breeding blanket (FW/B) applications. The advantages of ferritic steels include superior swelling resistance, low thermal stresses compared to austenitic stainless steels, attractive mechanical properties up to 600°C. and service histories exceeding 100 000 h. These steels are commonly used in a range of microstructural conditions which include ferritic, martensitic. tempered martensitic, bainitic etc. Throughout this paper where the term "ferritic" is used it should be taken to mean any of these microstructures. The ADIP task is studying several candidate alloy systems including 12Cr-1MoWV (HT-9), modified 9Cr-1MoVNb, and dual-phased steels such as EM-12 and 2 {1}/{4}Cr-Mo. These materials are ferromagnetic (FM), body centered cubic (bcc), and contain chromium additions between 2 and 12 wt% and molybdenum additions usually below 2%. The perceived issues associated with the application of this class of steel to fusion reactors are the increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) with neutron damage, the compatibility of these steels with liquid metals and solid breeding materials, and their weldability. The ferromagnetic character of these steels can also be important in reactor design. It is the purpose of this paper to review the current understanding of these bcc steels and the effects of irradiation. The major points of discussion will be irradiation-induced or -enhanced dimensional changes such as swelling and creep, mechanical properties such as tensile strength and various measurements of toughness, and activation by neutron interactions with structural materials.

  5. Fabrication of stainless steel foil utilizing chromized steel strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria, Edward A.

    1980-10-01

    Stainless steel foil has properties which are, in many respects, unmatched by alternative thin films. The high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures are generally advantageous. The aerospace and automotive industries have used Type 430 and 304 foil in turbine engine applications. Foil around 2 mils (5.1 × 10-3 cm) thick has been appropriate for the recuperator or heat exchanger and this product has also been used in honeycomb and truss-core structures. Further, such foil has been employed as a wrap to protect tool steel parts from contamination during heat treating. A large part of the high cost of producing stainless steel foil by rolling is due to the complicated and expensive rolling mill and annealing equipment involved. A method will be described which produces (solid) stainless steel foil from chromized (coated) steel which can be cheaper than the conventional processing stainless steel, such as Type 430, from ingot to foil. Also, the material is more ductile and less work hardenable during processing to foil and consequently intermediate annealing treatments are eliminated and scrap losses minimized.

  6. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles onto an etched stainless steel wire followed by a self-assembled monolayer of octanedithiol as a fiber coating for selective solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaoxia; Li, Yi; Liu, Haixia; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, a novel approach for rapid electrodeposition on an etched stainless steel (SS) wire followed by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was proposed for the fabrication of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The etched SS wire offers a rough surface structure for subsequent electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). As a result, uniform AuNPs coating was tightly attached to the etched SS wire substrate. After SAM of 1,8-octanedithiol onto AuNPs coating via Au-S bonding, a unique floccular structure with extremely large surface area was obtained for the fabricated fiber. The mercaptooctyl groups modified AuNPs coated etched SS fiber (C8-S-AuNPs/SS) was then assessed for SPME of phthalate esters (PAEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols (CPs), ultraviolet (UV) filters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and substituted anilines coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. This fiber exhibits higher extraction capability and better selectivity for some PCBs, CPs, UV filters and PAHs. Extraction conditions were investigated and optimized for SPME performance of UV filters. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method showed good linearity between 0.10 and 400μgL(-1) with corresponding coefficients in the range of 0.9989-0.9998. The limits of detection ranged from 0.025 to 0.056μgL(-1). The relative standard deviation for fiber-to-fiber reproducibility of five fabricated fibers was less than 9.4%. The developed method was successfully applied to the preconcentration and determination of trace UV filters from environmental water samples. Furthermore the fabrication of the C8-S-AuNPs/SS fiber can be performed in a highly reproducible manner. This fabricated fiber exhibits good stability and long lifetime, and could be a potential alternative for the conventional fused silica fiber. PMID:25465004

  7. The interphase precipitation reaction in HSLA steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    An in-depth study of the interphase precipitation reaction in model vanadium steels has shown that the reaction may not just be confined to HSLA steels, but may be part of a general class of banded microstructures which are common to both eutectoid and eutectic systems. A new mass transport theory has been developed in which the interphase precipitation reaction in Fe-C-V steels is treated as a generalized type of cooperative growth. In addition to predicting the spacings of sheets of interphase precipitates and the precipitate sizes in steels, this theory is providing new insights into the origin of banded structures occurring in eutectic systems at solid-liquid interface boundary velocities faster than those required for coupled growth, but slower than those required to produce the extended metastable solid solution.

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  9. Residual stress patterns in steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Spooner, S.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, X.L.; David, S.A.; Holden, T.M.; Root, J.H.; Swainson, I.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron strain scanning of residual stress is a valuable nondestructive tool for evaluation of residual stress in welds. The penetrating characteristic of neutrons permits mapping of strain patterns with a spatial resolution approaching 1mm at depths of 20mm in steels. While the overall patterns of the residual stress tensor in a weld are understood, the detailed patterns depend on welding process parameters and the effects of solid state transformation. The residual strain profiles in two multi-pass austenitic welds and a ferritic steel weld are presented. The stress-free lattice parameters within the fusion zone and the adjacent heat affected zone in the two austenitic welds show that the interpretation of residual stress from strains are affected by welding parameters. An interpretation of the residual strain pattern in the ferritic steel plate can be made using the strain measurements of a Gleeble test bar which has undergone the solid state austenite decomposition.

  10. Making Solid Geometry Solid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Viggo

    1981-01-01

    Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

  11. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  12. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Screen-printed (La,Sr)CrO3 coatings on ferritic stainless steel interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells using nanopowders prepared by means of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brylewski, Tomasz; Dabek, Jaroslaw; Przybylski, Kazimierz; Morgiel, Jerzy; Rekas, Mieczyslaw

    2012-06-01

    In order to protect the cathode from chromium poisoning and improve electrical resistance, a perovskite (La,Sr)CrO3 coating was deposited on the surface of a DIN 50049 ferritic stainless steel by means of the screen-printing method, using a paste composed of an ultra-fine powder prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Investigations of the oxidation process of the coated steel in air and the Ar-H2-H2O gas mixture at 1073 K for times up to 820 h showed high compactness of the protective film, good adhesion to the metal substrate, as well as area specific resistance (ASR) at a level acceptable for metallic SOFC interconnect materials. The microstructure, nanostructure, phase composition of the thick film, and in particular the film/substrate interface, were examined via chemical analyses by means of SEM-EDS and TEM-SAD. It was shown that the (La,Sr)CrO3 coating interacts with the steel during long-term thermal oxidation in the afore-mentioned conditions and intermediate, chromia-rich and/or spinel multilayer interfacial zones are formed. Cr-vaporization tests showed that the (La,Sr)CrO3 coating may play the role of barriers that decrease the volatilization rate of chromia species.

  14. Clean Steel: Advancing the State of the Art (TRP 0003)

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar Seetharaman; Alan W. Cramb

    2004-05-19

    This project had 3 objectives: (1) to determine the kinetic factors governing inclusion removal from liquid steels at a slag metal interface; (2) to develop a methodology to enable steels of less than 1 ppm total oxygen to be produced with an average inclusion diameter of less than 5 {micro}m; and, (3) to determine the slag-metal interface conditions necessary for ultra clean steels. In objectives 1, and 3, the major finding was that dissolution rates of solid particles in slags were found to be significant in both ladle and tundish slags and must be included in a model to predict steel cleanliness. The work towards objective 2 indicated that liquid steel temperature was a very significant factor in our understanding of clean steel potential and that undercooled steels equilibrated with low oxygen potential inert gases have the potential to be significantly cleaner than current steels. Other work indicated that solidification front velocity could be used to push particles to produce clean steels and that reoxidation must be severely curtailed to allow the potential for clean steels to be realized.

  15. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect

    Badra, C.

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  16. Embrittlement of austenitic stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Alexander, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    To prevent hot-cracking, austenitic stainless steel welds generally contain a small percent of delta ferrite. Although ferrite has been found to effectively prevent hot-cracking, it can lead to embrittlement of welds when exposed to elevated temperatures. The aging behavior of type-308 stainless steel weld has been examined over a range of temperatures 475--850 C for times up to 10,000 hrs. Upon aging, and depending on the temperature range, the unstable ferrite may undergo a variety of solid state transformations. These phase changes creep-rupture and Charpy impact properties.

  17. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  18. Welding Rustproof Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, W

    1929-01-01

    The following experimental results will perhaps increase the knowledge of the process of welding rustproof steels. The experiments were made with two chrome-steel sheets and with two chrome-steel-nickel sheets having the composition shown in Table I.

  19. The Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram: A Practical Guide to Some Descriptive Solid State Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary J.; Leighly, H. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the solid state chemistry of iron and steel in terms of the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Suggests that this is an excellent way of introducing the phase diagram (equilibrium diagram) to undergraduate students while at the same time introducing the descriptive solid state chemistry of iron and steel. (Author/JN)

  20. Protective glove material permeation by organic solids.

    PubMed

    Fricker, C; Hardy, J K

    1992-12-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of permeation characteristics of glove materials by organic solids. The system employs a stainless steel exposure cell and allows rapid and uniform contact of either solid disks or powders with minimal membrane bowing. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used for monitoring the permeation process, which provided detection limits of 0.9-1.2 ng for the organic solids evaluated. By using an automated system for instrument control and data collection, breakthrough times, steady-state times, and steady-state permeation rates have been determined for five common glove materials when exposed to nine organic solids. PMID:1471595

  1. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-01

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age. PMID:23442209

  2. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  3. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nathaniel Steven Lee Phillips

    2006-12-12

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  4. X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lily L; Berry, Phillip C

    2009-01-01

    Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

  5. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  6. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  7. Tool steels. 5. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.; Krauss, G.; Kennedy, R.

    1998-12-31

    The revision of this authoritative work contains a significant amount of new information from the past nearly two decades presented in an entirely new outline, making this a must have reference for engineers involved in tool-steel production, as well as in the selection and use of tool steels in metalworking and other materials manufacturing industries. The chapter on tool-steel manufacturing includes new production processes, such as electroslag refining, vacuum arc remelting, spray deposition processes (Osprey and centrifugal spray), and powder metal processing. The seven chapters covering tool-steel types in the 4th Edition have been expanded to 11 chapters covering nine main groups of tool steels as well as other types of ultrahigh strength steels sometimes used for tooling. Each chapter discusses in detail processing, composition, and applications specific to the particular group. In addition, two chapters have been added covering surface modification and trouble shooting production and performance problems.

  8. Thermochromic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Jeffrey G.

    1998-01-01

    Thermochromism is the reversible change of color of a solid when it is heated or cooled. Previous reported examples of thermochromic solids involve color changes due to changes of stereochemistry. Salts of mercuric iodide, M2HgI4 [M=Cu(I), Ag(I)] are easily prepared and exhibit sharp, reversible thermochromic transitions at moderately low temperatures. The Ag(I) solid changes color from yellow to orange at 50 °C and the Cu(I) solid at 67 °C. The color changes are due to subtle changes in crystal structure. Signs can be prepared for lecture demonstrations using pieces of filter paper saturated in the solids

  9. Evaluation of Steel Cleanliness in a Steel Deoxidized Using Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Cedeño, Edgar-Ivan; Herrera-Trejo, Martín; Castro-Román, Manuel; Castro-Uresti, Fabián; López-Cornejo, Monserrat

    2016-06-01

    The effect of magnesium in the aluminum used as a deoxidizer on the cleanliness of steel was studied throughout a steelmaking route for the production of thin slabs. Two deoxidizers with different Mg contents were used. The Mg content of a "typical" deoxidizer was ~0.5 wt pct Mg, whereas that for an alternative deoxidizer was ~2 wt pct Mg. The inclusion population at different stages of the steelmaking process was characterized in terms of chemical composition, number, and size distribution. The inclusion modification path shows that the solid Al2O3 and Al2O3-MgO inclusions formed in the early stage of the steel ladle treatment are modified into Al2O3-MgO-CaO liquid and MgO-Al2O3-liquid inclusions. Although some slight differences were observed in the ladle furnace samples, the chemical composition of inclusions was similar in the samples taken at the mold of the continuous casting, regardless of the deoxidizer used. Gumbel, generalized extreme value (GEV), and generalized Pareto (GP) distributions were used for the description of the size distribution. The GEV and GP distributions resulted in proper distributions to describe the evolution of size distribution throughout the steelmaking process. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between inclusion size distributions resulting from the use of either deoxidizer were found.

  10. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  11. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  12. The Steel Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes studying the steel drum, an import from Trinidad, as an instrument of intellectual growth. Describes how developing a steel drum band provided Montessori middle school students the opportunity to experience some important feelings necessary to emotional growth during this difficult age: competence, usefulness, independence, and…

  13. Recycling steel from grinding swarf

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, H.; Matthews, M.A.; Warner, L.S.

    1998-12-31

    Two cleaning processes have been investigated for removing contaminants (cutting oil with phosphorus ester) from high speed steel (HSS) griding swarf. One process uses an aqueous surfactant washing technique, and the second process uses supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) extraction. Both technical and preliminary financial analysis are performed to have a better evaluation of these two competing cleaning technologies. Bench scale aqueous washings have shown that the required phosphorus removal is easily obtained, but a sufficient oil removal is more difficult. The experimental results also indicate a strong dependence of the aqueous washing efficiency on the choice of a suitable surfactant. SCCO{sub 2} extraction at 80 C and 340 atm shows that approximately 80% of the oil can be removed from swarf during a 60-minute process to produce a batch of recyclable steel, and that the phosphorus removal also reaches the required level. The cost of processing swarf using either aqueous surfactant washing or SCCO{sub 2} extraction in a 3,000,000 lbs per year plant is analyzed and the market forces impacting the feasibility of recycling on a commercial basis are reviewed. Commercial scale recycling is, in part, dependent upon resolution of regulatory uncertainty on the definition of swarf. States regulating swarf as hazardous provide a significant financial incentive to recycle. In states that regulate swarf as a solid waste, low disposal costs provide a disincentive that must be balanced with the possible hidden, future liabilities of landfill disposal.

  14. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  16. Galvanised steel to aluminium joining by laser and GTAW processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, G.; Peyre, P.; Deschaux Beaume, F. Stuart, D.; Fras, G.

    2008-12-15

    A new means of assembling galvanised steel to aluminium involving a reaction between solid steel and liquid aluminium was developed, using laser and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. A direct aluminium melting strategy was investigated with the laser process, whereas an aluminium-induced melting by steel heating and heat conduction through the steel was carried out with the GTAW process. The interfaces generated during the interaction were mainly composed of a 2-40 {mu}m thick intermetallic reaction layers. The linear strength of the assemblies can be as high as 250 N/mm and 190 N/mm for the assemblies produced respectively by laser and GTAW processes. The corresponding failures were located in the fusion zone of aluminium (laser assemblies), or in the reaction layer (GTAW assemblies)

  17. Solid Freeform Fabrication Using the Wirefeed Process

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, T.E.; Crenshaw, T.B.; Ensz, M.T.; Greene, D.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Reckaway, D.E.; Romero, J.A.; Tikare, V.

    1999-07-22

    Direct metal deposition technologies produce complex, near net shape components from CAD solid models. Most of these techniques fabricate a component by melting powder in a laser weld pool, rastering this weld bead to form a layer, and additively constructing subsequent layers. This talk describes a new direct metal deposition process, known as WireFeed, whereby a small diameter wire is used instead of powder as the feed material to fabricate components. Currently, parts are being fabricated from stainless steel. Microscopy studies show the WireFeed parts to be fully dense with fine microstructural features. Initial mechanical tests show stainless steel parts to have good strength values with retained ductility.

  18. Thermodynamics of Complex Sulfide Inclusion Formation in Ca-Treated Al-Killed Structural Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yin-tao; He, Sheng-ping; Chen, Gu-jun; Wang, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Controlling the morphology of the sulfide inclusion is of vital importance in enhancing the properties of structural steel. Long strip-shaped sulfides in hot-rolled steel can spherize when, instead of the inclusion of pure single-phase MnS, the guest is a complex sulfide, such as an oxide-sulfide duplex and a solid-solution sulfide particle. In this study, the inclusions in a commercial rolled structural steel were investigated. Spherical and elongated oxide-sulfide duplex as well as single-phase (Mn,Ca)S solid solution inclusions were observed in the steel. A thermodynamic equilibrium between the oxide and sulfide inclusions was proposed to understand the oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion formation. Based on the equilibrium solidification principle, thermodynamic discussions on inclusion precipitation during the solidification process were performed for both general and resulfurized structural steel. The predicted results of the present study agreed well with the experimental ones.

  19. Thermodynamics of Complex Sulfide Inclusion Formation in Ca-Treated Al-Killed Structural Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yin-tao; He, Sheng-ping; Chen, Gu-jun; Wang, Qian

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the morphology of the sulfide inclusion is of vital importance in enhancing the properties of structural steel. Long strip-shaped sulfides in hot-rolled steel can spherize when, instead of the inclusion of pure single-phase MnS, the guest is a complex sulfide, such as an oxide-sulfide duplex and a solid-solution sulfide particle. In this study, the inclusions in a commercial rolled structural steel were investigated. Spherical and elongated oxide-sulfide duplex as well as single-phase (Mn,Ca)S solid solution inclusions were observed in the steel. A thermodynamic equilibrium between the oxide and sulfide inclusions was proposed to understand the oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion formation. Based on the equilibrium solidification principle, thermodynamic discussions on inclusion precipitation during the solidification process were performed for both general and resulfurized structural steel. The predicted results of the present study agreed well with the experimental ones.

  20. Solid electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  1. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  2. Spreading Modes on Copper and Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feoktistov, Dmitry; Orlova, Evgeniya; Islamova, Anastasiya

    2016-02-01

    This work presents the experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and liquid flow rate on the dynamic contact angle during spreading of distilled nondeaerated water drop on a solid horizontal substrate. Copper and steel substrates with different roughness have been investigated. Three spreading modes were conventionally indicated. It was found that the spreading of drops on substrates made of different materials occurs in similar modes. However, the duration of each mode for substrates made of copper and steel are different. Spreading of a liquid above the asperities of a surface micro relief was observed to be dominant for large volumetric flow rates of drops (0.01 ml/s). Liquid was spreading inside the grooves of a rough substrate at low rates (0.005 ml/s).

  3. Structural Amorphous Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Thompson, J. R.; Porter, W. D.

    2004-06-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist’s dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed.

  4. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  5. Cobalt free maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Floreen, S.

    1984-04-17

    The subject invention is directed to ferrous-base alloys, particularly to a cobalt-free maraging steel of novel chemistry characterized by a desired combination of strength and toughness, notwithstanding that cobalt is non-essential.

  6. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  7. Semi-solid processing and its as yet unexplored potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisman, D.; Rubesova, K.; Masek, B.

    2016-03-01

    Thanks to the available advanced control technology, manufacturing processes which have been described in the past but their hidden potential remained untapped are now continuing to be developed. As a result, even conventional materials which have been around for years can be manipulated to obtain unusual microstructures with specific mechanical and physical properties. Semi-solid processing belongs to the above-described group: it had been studied in the past but, due to complicated process control, it gradually lost its appeal. However, advanced techniques of temperature field control enable engineers to control this complex process accurately. One of the innovative methods of semi-solid processing is mini- thixoforming. As it focuses on very small-size products, it offers very steep heating curves and extremely high solidification and cooling rates, when compared to conventional thixoforming. The capabilities of this process were tested on X210Cr12 ledeburitic tool steel. After the optimum processing conditions were found, additional materials were tried, ranging from low- carbon microalloyed steels through medium-alloy steels to high-alloy tool steels. The microstructure evolution upon the mini-thixoforming process is an issue of its own. The final microstructure of X210Cr12 consisted of more than 90% of austenite and chromium carbides. Semi-solid processing of a steel with a high vanadium content led to a microstructure comprising MA matrix and globular vanadium carbides. In a low-alloy steel, martensitic microstructure was obtained.

  8. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  9. Test Of Protective Coatings On Carbon Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis

    1993-01-01

    Report describes results of tests in which carbon-steel panels coated with one-or two-component solvent-based inorganic zinc primers and top-coated with inorganic topcoat or any of various organic topcoats, placed on outdoor racks at beach at Kennedy Space Center for 5 years. From time to time, slurry of Al(2)O(3) in 10-percent HCI solution applied to some of panels to simulate corrosive effect of effluent from solid-fuel rocket booster engines. Panels coated with inorganic topcoat performed much better than organic-topcoated panels.

  10. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  11. Systems design of advanced gear steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, John Patrick

    A new generation of Ni-Co secondary hardening gear steels has been developed using a systems approach. These high toughness ultrahigh-strength martensitic steels show great promise for demanding gear applications. Quantitative science-based modeling was used to create prototype alloys of superior strength and fatigue resistance over conventional steels. Carburizing and strengthening models were developed to relate processing parameters to microstructure and microstructure to strength. The failure of the DICTRA software to accurately predict the carburizing behavior of Ni-Co steels led to a series of experiments to refine its kinetic database. New carbon diffusivities were calculated from the concentration gradients of carburized model alloys, resulting in a significant improvement of simulation accuracy. A structure/property model was created to equate the strength of a secondary hardening steel to the sum of the effects of solid solution, precipitates, dislocation density, and the substructure of the lath martensite matrix. The strengthening model was subsequently combined with the carburizing simulations to predict the hardness gradient in a case-hardened alloy based upon initial carburizing conditions. In addition, existing precipitation theory was used in conjunction with the microstructure/strength relationship to simulate the evolution of material hardness during secondary hardening. The creation of three prototype gear steels began with the use of the strengthening model to establish the carbon and alloying element contents required to reach the core and case hardness objectives of 50 and 70 HRC respectively. The design approach also included the establishment of proper transformation and solution temperatures and the maximization of the efficiency of the Msb2C carbide strengthening dispersion. The core hardnesses of the C3-A and B prototypes significantly exceeded the design goal. A reduction in core carbon content from 0.16 to 0.12 weight percent was

  12. Strength analysis of laser welded lap joint for ultra high strength steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Young Cheol; Kim, Cheol Hee; Cho, Young Tae; Jung, Yoon Gyo

    2013-12-01

    Several industries including the automotive industry have recently applied the process of welding high strength steel. High strength steel is steel that is harder than normal high strength steel, making it much stronger and stiffer. HSS can be formed in pieces that can be up to 10 to 15 percent thinner than normal steel without sacrificing strength, which enables weight reduction and improved fuel economy. Furthermore, HSS can be formed into complex shapes that can be welded into structural areas. This study is based on previous experiments and is aimed at establishing the stress distribution for laser welded high strength steel. Research on the stress distribution for laser welded high strength steel is conducted by using Solid Works, a program that analyzes the stress of a virtual model. In conclusion, we found that the stress distribution is changed depending on the shape of welded lap joint. In addition, the Influence of the stress distribution on welded high strength steel can be used to standard for high energy welding of high strength steel, and we can also predict the region in welded high strength steel that may cracked.

  13. A discussion on improving hydration activity of steel slag by altering its mineral compositions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Yan, Peiyu; Feng, Jianwen

    2011-02-28

    This study aims to investigate the ways to improve the cementitious properties of steel slag. The results show that the cementitious phase of steel slag is composed of silicate and aluminate, but the large particles of these phases make a very small contribution to the cementitious properties of steel slag. RO phase (CaO-FeO-MnO-MgO solid solution), Fe(3)O(4), C(2)F and f-CaO make no contribution to the cementitious properties of steel slag. A new kind of steel slag with more cementitious phase and less RO phase can be obtained by removing some large particles. This new steel slag possesses better cementitious properties than the original steel slag. The large particles can be used as fine aggregates for concrete. Adding regulating agent high in CaO and SiO(2) during manufacturing process of steel slag to increase the cementitious phase to inert phase ratio is another way to improve its cementitious properties. The regulating agent should be selected to adapt to the specific steel slag and the alkalinity should be increased as high as possible on the premise that the f-CaO content does not increase. The cooling rate should be enhanced to improve the hydration activity of the cementitious phase at the early ages and the grindability of steel slag. PMID:21168967

  14. Effect of Structural Heterogeneity on In Situ Deformation of Dissimilar Weld Between Ferritic and Austenitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, M.; Santosh, R.; Das, S. K.; Das, G.; Mahato, B.; Korody, J.; Kumar, S.; Singh, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    Low-alloy steel and 304LN austenitic stainless steel were welded using two types of buttering material, namely 309L stainless steel and IN 182. Weld metals were 308L stainless steel and IN 182, respectively, for two different joints. Cross-sectional microstructure of welded assemblies was investigated. Microhardness profile was determined perpendicular to fusion boundary. In situ tensile test was performed in scanning electron microscope keeping low-alloy steel-buttering material interface at the center of gage length. Adjacent to fusion boundary, low-alloy steel exhibited carbon-depleted region and coarsening of matrix grains. Between coarse grain and base material structure, low-alloy steel contained fine grain ferrite-pearlite aggregate. Adjacent to fusion boundary, buttering material consisted of Type-I and Type-II boundaries. Within buttering material close to fusion boundary, thin cluster of martensite was formed. Fusion boundary between buttering material-weld metal and weld metal-304LN stainless steel revealed unmixed zone. All joints failed within buttering material during in situ tensile testing. The fracture location was different for various joints with respect to fusion boundary, depending on variation in local microstructure. Highest bond strength with adequate ductility was obtained for the joint produced with 309L stainless steel-buttering material. High strength of this weld might be attributed to better extent of solid solution strengthening by alloying elements, diffused from low-alloy steel to buttering material.

  15. Rarefied solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, D. A.; Nikora, V. I.

    1994-01-01

    One important limit to creating low density materials is the objects' own weight. As a solid or colloidal matrix becomes more rarefied, gravity acts destructively to compress its suporting skeleton. We describe experimental results and propose a model which matches the low gravity behavior of rarefied or fractal solids. On parabolic airplane flights, we sought to demonstrate a key component of producing higher surface area fractals. Flight paths were selected to give a range of gravity levels: 0.01 g/g(sub 0) (low), 0.16 g(sub 0) (Lunar), 0.33 g/g(sub 0) (Martian), 1 g/g(sub 0) (Earth) and 1.8 g/g(sub 0) (high) (where g(sub 0) = 980 cm/sq s). Results using the model material of hydrophobic silica indicated that stable agglomeration of such tenuous objects can increase markedly in reduced gravity. Optical characterization revealed that fractal dimension changed directly with varying gravity. As measured by fractal dimension, effective surface area and roughness increased by 40% in low gravity. This finding supports the conclusion that relieving internal weight stresses on delicate aggregates can enhance their overall size (by two orders of magnitude) and internal surface area. We conclude that gravitational restructuring limits the overall size and void content of low-density solids. These sparse colloidal regimes may present new and technologically attractive physics, ranging from improved insulators, liquid-like tension in a 'solid' matrix, and characteristically low conductivities for sound and (8 to 14 micrometers wavelength) infrared radiation.

  16. Phase transformations and microstructure development in low alloy steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    Microstructure development in low alloy steel welds depends on various phase transformations that are a function of weld heating and cooling. The phase changes include non-metallic oxide inclusion formation in the liquid state, weld pool solidification, and solid state transformations. In this paper the mechanism of inclusion formation during low alloy steel welding is considered and the model predictions are compared with published results. The effect of inclusions on the austenite to ferrite transformation kinetics is measured and the mechanisms of transformation are discussed. The austenite gain development is related to the driving force for transformation of {delta} ferrite to austenite.

  17. Investigation of aluminum-steel joint formed by explosion welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs-Coskun, T.; Volgyi, B.; Sikari-Nagl, I.

    2015-04-01

    Explosion welding is a solid state welding process that is used for the metallurgical joining of metals. Explosion cladding can be used to join a wide variety of dissimilar or similar metals [1]. This process uses the controlled detonation of explosives to accelerate one or both of the constituent metals into each other in such a manner as to cause the collision to fuse them together [2]. In this study, bonding ability of aluminum and steel with explosion welding was investigated. Experimental studies, microscopy, microhardness, tensile and bend test showed out that, aluminum and steel could be bonded with a good quality of bonding properties with explosion welding.

  18. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  19. Advanced Solid Rocket Motor case design status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, G. L.; Cash, S. F.; Beck, J. P.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) case design aimed at achieving a safer and more reliable solid rocket motor for the Space Shuttle system is considered. The ASRM case has a 150.0 inch diameter, three equal length segment, and 9Ni-4CO-0.3C steel alloy. The major design features include bolted casebolted case joints which close during pressurization, plasma arc welded factory joints, integral stiffener for splash down and recovery, and integral External Tank attachment rings. Each mechanical joint has redundant and verifiable o-ring seals.

  20. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  1. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  2. Fabricating the Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ring, Peter J.; Sayre, Edwin D.; Houts, Mike

    2006-01-20

    The solid core heatpipe nuclear reactor has the potential to be the most dependable concept for the nuclear space power system. The design of the conversion system employed permits multiple failure modes instead of the single failure mode of other concepts. Regardless of the material used for the reactor, either stainless steel, high-temperature alloys, Nb1Zr, Tantalum Alloys or MoRe Alloys, making the solid core by machining holes in a large diameter billet is not satisfactory. This is because the large diameter billet will have large grains that are detrimental to the performance of the reactor due to grain boundary diffusion. The ideal fabrication method for the solid core is by hot isostatic pressure diffusion bonding (HIPing). By this technique, wrought fine-grained tubes of the alloy chosen are assembled into the final shape with solid cusps and seal welded so that there is a vacuum in between all surfaces to be diffusion bonded. This welded structure is then HIPed for diffusion bonding. A solid core made of Type 321 stainless steel has been satisfactorily produced by Advanced Methods and Materials and is undergoing evaluation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Fabricating the Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Peter J.; Sayre, Edwin D.; Houts, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The solid core heatpipe nuclear reactor has the potential to be the most dependable concept for the nuclear space power system. The design of the conversion system employed permits multiple failure modes instead of the single failure mode of other concepts. Regardless of the material used for the reactor, either stainless steel, high-temperature alloys, Nb1Zr, Tantalum Alloys or MoRe Alloys, making the solid core by machining holes in a large diameter billet is not satisfactory. This is because the large diameter billet will have large grains that are detrimental to the performance of the reactor due to grain boundary diffusion. The ideal fabrication method for the solid core is by hot isostatic pressure diffusion bonding, (HIPing). By this technique, wrought fine-grained tubes of the alloy chosen are assembled into the final shape with solid cusps and seal welded so that there is a vacuum in between all surfaces to be diffusion bonded. This welded structure is then HIPed for diffusion bonding. A solid core made of Type 321 stainless steel has been satisfactorily produced by Advanced Methods and Materials and is undergoing evaluation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Alloyed steel wastes utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, I.V.

    1995-12-31

    Alloyed steel chips and swarf formed during metal processing are looked upon as additional raw materials in metallurgical production. This paper presents some new methods for steel waste chips and swarf cleaning. One of them is swarf and steel chips cleaning in tetrachloroethylene with ultrasonic assistance and solvent regeneration. Thermal cleaning of waste chips and swarf provides off gas products utilization. The catalyst influence of the metal surface on the thermal decomposition of liquid hydrocarbons during the cleaning process has been studied. It has been determined that the efficiency of this metal waste cleaning technique depends on the storage time of the swarf. The waste chips and swarf cleaning procedures have been proven to be economically advantageous and environmentally appropriate.

  5. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  6. Antimicrobial Cu-bearing stainless steel scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Ren, Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuyuan; Sercombe, Timothy B; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Copper-bearing stainless steel scaffolds with two different structures (Body Centered Cubic and Gyroid labyrinth) at two solid fractions (25% and 40%) were fabricated from both 316L powder and a mixture of 316L and elemental Cu powder using selective laser melting, and relative 316L scaffolds were served as control group. After processing, the antimicrobial testing demonstrated that the 316L-Cu scaffolds presented excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the cell viability assay indicated that there was no cytotoxic effect of 316L-Cu scaffolds on rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As such, these have the potential to reduce implant-associated infections. The Cu was also found to homogeneously distribute within the microstructure by scanning electronic microcopy. The addition of Cu would not significantly affect its strength and stiffness compared to 316L scaffold, and the stiffness of all the scaffolds (3-20GPa) is similar to that of bone and much less than that of bulk stainless steel. Consequently, fabrication of such low stiffness porous structures, especially coupled with the addition of antimicrobial Cu, may provide a new direction for medical stainless steels. PMID:27524049

  7. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  8. Braze alloy spreading on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, T. A.; Heine, R. W.; Lagally, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron microscopy (AEM) were employed to observe elemental surface decomposition resulting from the brazing of a copper-treated steel. Two types of steel were used for the study, stainless steel (treated with a eutectic silver-copper alloy), and low-carbon steel (treated with pure copper). Attention is given to oxygen partial pressure during the processes; a low enough pressure (8 x 10 to the -5th torr) was found to totally inhibit the spreading of the filler material at a fixed heating cycle. With both types of steel, copper treatment enhanced even spreading at a decreased temperature.

  9. Sensitization of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the corrosion rates of 18-8 stainless steels that have been sensitized at various temperatures and to show the application of phase diagrams. The laboratory instructor will assign each student a temperature, ranging from 550 C to 1050 C, to which the sample will be heated. Further details of the experimental procedure are detailed.

  10. Friction Stir Welding of ODS and RAFM Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zhili; Hoelzer, David; Tan, Lizhen; Sokolov, Mikhail A.

    2015-09-01

    Advanced structural materials such as oxide dispersion strengthened steels and reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are desired in fusion reactors as primary candidate materials for first wall and blanket structures, due to their excellent radiation and high-temperature creep resistance. However, their poor fusion weldability has been the major technical challenge limiting practical applications. For this reason, solid-state friction stir welding (FSW) has been considered for such applications. In this work, the effect of FSW parameters on joining similar and dissimilar advanced structural steels was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction methods were used to reveal the effects of FSW on grain size, micro-texture distribution, and phase stability. Hardness mapping was performed to evaluate mechanical properties. Post weld heat treatment was also performed to tailor the microstructure in the welds in order to match the weld zone mechanical properties to the base material.

  11. Friction Stir Welding of ODS and RAFM Steels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zhili; Hoelzer, David; Tan, Lizhen; Sokolov, Mikhail A.

    2015-09-14

    Advanced structural materials such as oxide dispersion strengthened steels and reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are desired in fusion reactors as primary candidate materials for first wall and blanket structures, due to their excellent radiation and high-temperature creep resistance. However, their poor fusion weldability has been the major technical challenge limiting practical applications. For this reason, solid-state friction stir welding (FSW) has been considered for such applications. In this paper, the effect of FSW parameters on joining similar and dissimilar advanced structural steels was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction methods were used to reveal the effects of FSW onmore » grain size, micro-texture distribution, and phase stability. Hardness mapping was performed to evaluate mechanical properties. Finally, post weld heat treatment was also performed to tailor the microstructure in the welds in order to match the weld zone mechanical properties to the base material.« less

  12. Friction Stir Welding of ODS and RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zhili; Hoelzer, David; Tan, Lizhen; Sokolov, Mikhail A.

    2015-09-14

    Advanced structural materials such as oxide dispersion strengthened steels and reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are desired in fusion reactors as primary candidate materials for first wall and blanket structures, due to their excellent radiation and high-temperature creep resistance. However, their poor fusion weldability has been the major technical challenge limiting practical applications. For this reason, solid-state friction stir welding (FSW) has been considered for such applications. In this paper, the effect of FSW parameters on joining similar and dissimilar advanced structural steels was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction methods were used to reveal the effects of FSW on grain size, micro-texture distribution, and phase stability. Hardness mapping was performed to evaluate mechanical properties. Finally, post weld heat treatment was also performed to tailor the microstructure in the welds in order to match the weld zone mechanical properties to the base material.

  13. Stabilization of small deformations of maraging steels by stress relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseeva, L.E.; Koritskaya, G.I.; Talalakina, E.I.

    1988-05-01

    The possibility of increasing the forming accuracy with small degrees of deformation of maraging steel by aging of it under stress after deformation was investigated. Aging under stress of water hardened VNS-2 maraging steel was done in the elastic area and after deformation to epsilon = 6% at 450/degree/: No. 12, (Dec 1987)C, a temperature corresponding to the maximum degree of dispersion hardening. The influence of the degree of deformation on the mechanical properties of the steel, the residual deformation, and stabilization of the ratio of the residual to the total deformations were determined. The structural condition of the martensite and the degree of solid solution decomposition were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis. The proposed treatment led to complete stabilization of the specified deformations with simultaneous strengthening and made it possible to obtain high accuracy in production of small curvature parts.

  14. Solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Wang, Junpu E-mail: nicolis@phys.columbia.edu

    2013-10-01

    We develop a cosmological model where primordial inflation is driven by a 'solid', defined as a system of three derivatively coupled scalar fields obeying certain symmetries and spontaneously breaking a certain subgroup of these. The symmetry breaking pattern differs drastically from that of standard inflationary models: time translations are unbroken. This prevents our model from fitting into the standard effective field theory description of adiabatic perturbations, with crucial consequences for the dynamics of cosmological perturbations. Most notably, non-gaussianities in the curvature perturbations are unusually large, with f{sub NL} ∼ 1/(εc{sub s}{sup 2}), and have a novel shape: peaked in the squeezed limit, with anisotropic dependence on how the limit is approached. Other unusual features include the absence of adiabatic fluctuation modes during inflation — which does not impair their presence and near scale-invariance after inflation — and a slightly blue tilt for the tensor modes.

  15. Special steel production on common carbon steel production line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Huachun; Han, Jingtao; Hu, Haiping; Bian, Ruisheng; Kang, Jianjun; Xu, Manlin

    2004-06-01

    The equipment and technology of small bar tandem rolling line of Shijiazhuang Iron & Steel Co. in China has reached the 90's international advanced level in the 20th century, but products on the line are mostly of common carbon steel. Currently there are few steel plants in China to produce 45 steel bars for cold drawing, which is a kind of shortage product. Development of 45 steel for cold drawing has a wide market outlook in China. In this paper, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of 45 steel for cold drawing used for rolling was set out first. According to the CCT curve, we determined some key temperature points such as Ac3 temperature and Ac1 temperature during the cooling procedure and discussed the precipitation microstructure at different cooling rate. Then by studying thermal treatment process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing, the influence of cooling time on microstructure was analyzed and the optimum cooling speed has been found. All results concluded from the above studies are the basis of regulating controlled cooling process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing. Finally, the feasible production process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing on common carbon steel production line combined with the field condition was recommended.

  16. Effect of recycling on residuals, processing, and properties of carbon and low-alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, E. T.

    1983-02-01

    Because of the continuing increase in electric furnace steelmaking, which is a scrap-intensive process, and also in view of future new sources of scrap, such as municipal solid wastes, it is important to develop more knowledge about: (a) the effects of residual elements on steel, (b) processing strategies for producing high-residual steels, and (c) products in which residuals could be used to advantage. This review will first identify the important residual elements and the trends in their use and levels in steels. The effect of these elements on the processing phenomena and product properties of carbon and low-alloy steels will be discussed in detail. These phenomena and properties include hot shortness, scale adherence, room temperature tensile properties, impact resistance, and hardenability. Also discussed are examples of specific problems that residual elements present, both now and with emerging trends, for steel processing and applications, and the ways of using residuals to advantage.

  17. Microstructure and properties of pure iron/copper composite cladding layers on carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Long; Huang, Yong-xian; Lü, Shi-xiong; Huang, Ti-fang; Lü, Zong-liang

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, pure iron/copper composite metal cladding was deposited onto carbon steel by tungsten inert gas welding. The study focused on interfacial morphological, microstructural, and mechanical analyses of the composite cladding layers. Iron liquid-solid-phase zones were formed at copper/steel and iron interfaces because of the melting of the steel substrate and iron. Iron concentrated in the copper cladding layer was observed to exhibit belt, globule, and dendrite morphologies. The appearance of iron-rich globules indicated the occurrence of liquid phase separation (LPS) prior to solidification, and iron-rich dendrites crystallized without the occurrence of LPS. The maximum microhardness of the iron/steel interface was lower than that of the copper/steel interface because of the diffusion of elemental carbon. All samples fractured in the cladding layers. Because of a relatively lower strength of the copper layer, a short plateau region appeared when shear movement was from copper to iron.

  18. Pulsed Magnetic Welding for Advanced Core and Cladding Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Guoping; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-19

    To investigate a solid-state joining method, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), for welding the advanced core and cladding steels to be used in Generation IV systems, with a specific application for fuel pin end-plug welding. As another alternative solid state welding technique, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) has not been extensively explored on the advanced steels. The resultant weld can be free from microstructure defects (pores, non-metallic inclusions, segregation of alloying elements). More specifically, the following objectives are to be achieved: 1. To design a suitable welding apparatus fixture, and optimize welding parameters for repeatable and acceptable joining of the fuel pin end-plug. The welding will be evaluated using tensile tests for lap joint weldments and helium leak tests for the fuel pin end-plug; 2 Investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties changes in PMW weldments of proposed advanced core and cladding alloys; 3. Simulate the irradiation effects on the PWM weldments using ion irradiation.

  19. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  20. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  1. 7. Credit BG. View looking west into small solid rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Credit BG. View looking west into small solid rocket motor testing bay of Test Stand 'E' (Building 4259/E-60). Motors are mounted on steel table and fired horizontally toward the east. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand E, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  3. Work of adhesion of dairy products on stainless steel surface

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Patrícia Campos; Araújo, Emiliane Andrade; dos Santos Pires, Ana Clarissa; Queiroz Fialho Júnior, José Felício; Lelis, Carini Aparecida; de Andrade, Nélio José

    2012-01-01

    The adhesion of the solids presents in food can difficult the process of surface cleaning and promotes the bacterial adhesion process and can trigger health problems. In our study, we used UHT whole milk, chocolate based milk and infant formula to evaluate the adhesion of Enterobacter sakazakii on stainless steel coupons, and we determine the work of adhesion by measuring the contact angle as well as measured the interfacial tension of the samples. In addition we evaluated the hydrophobicity of stainless steel after pre-conditioning with milk samples mentioned. E. sakazakii was able to adhere to stainless steel in large numbers in the presence of dairy products. The chocolate based milk obtained the lower contact angle with stainless steel surface, higher interfacial tension and consequently higher adhesion work. It was verified a tendency of decreasing the interfacial tension as a function of the increasing of protein content. The preconditioning of the stainless steel coupons with milk samples changed the hydrophobic characteristics of the surfaces and became them hydrophilic. Therefore, variations in the composition of the milk products affect parameters important that can influence the procedure of hygiene in surface used in food industry. PMID:24031951

  4. A method for vertical electromagnetic moldless casting of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.

    1988-05-01

    Several approaches have been studied for the vertical casting of thin (3 mm-8 mm) sheets of steel. Each approach employs electromagnetic (EM) forces, avoids the need for contact between the solidifying steel and a solid mold. The most promising approach uses a high-frequency (HF:>100 kHz) oval solenoid magnet to provide containment of the liquid steel and a low-frequency (LF:/approximately/60 Hz) traveling field, similar to the double-sided linear induction pump, to provide levitation. The low field level of the solenoid and the low frequency of the levitation magnet result in acceptably low EM heating of the steel. The LF field penetrates the steel and provides a body force exactly counteracting the force of gravity everywhere except near the edges of the solidifying sheet. Additional HF traveling field magnets augment the levitation force near the edges but generate more EM heating. Other means of extending the levitating force to the edge and other approaches using stationary or traveling fields have also been studied. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Frequency domain photothermal radiometry with spherical solids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chinhua; Liu, Yue; Mandelis, Andreas; Shen, Jun

    2007-04-15

    Motivated by increasing practical and industrial applications of photothermal techniques in the measurement of materials of various shapes with curvature, we extend the applications of photothermal diagnostics to solid spheres, in which both theoretical and experimental photothermal radiometry studies on spherical geometries and thermal diffusivity of the sample are discussed. Based on the Green function method, a full thermal-wave field distribution of a spherical solid is obtained. The characteristics of the thermal-wave field with respect to thermophysical properties of the material, the diameter of the solid, the size of the incident laser beam, and the measurement angle are discussed. Experimental results with steel spheres of different diameters exhibit good agreement between the theory and the experiments.

  6. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  7. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  8. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  9. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  10. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  11. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Lu, Zhao Ping; Shim, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  12. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Kad, Bimal

    2008-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  13. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  14. Green rust', iron solubility and the role of chloride in the corrosion of steel at high pH

    SciTech Connect

    Sagoe-Crentsil, K.K.; Glasser, F.P. . Department of Chemistry)

    1993-07-01

    The solubility of iron, as well as nature of the solid corrosion products, influences greatly the kinetics and mechanism of reaction of steel embedded in cement or concrete. At high pH, ferric iron has a very low solubility, steel, is obtained as the solid corrosion product. However, at pH [approximately]13, low chloride ion concentrations are inimical to spinel formation; the solubility-limiting solid corrosion product is instead green rust'', a layer-structured hydrate containing both Fe[sup 2+] and Fe[sup 3+] and Cl[sup [minus

  15. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  16. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  17. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  18. Induction heat treatment of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Semiatin, S.L.; Stutz, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the induction heating. After reviewing heat treating operations for steel and the principles of the heat treatment of steel, an overview of induction heat treating is provided. Next, consideration is given to equipment and equipment selection, coil design, power requirements and temperature control. A discussion of surface and through hardening of steel is provided, including information on frequency and power selection and quenching apparatus. Tempering is considered, followed by information on control of residual stresses, cracking, temper brittleness and the important metallurgical and hardness differences between induction and furnace treated steel.

  19. Activation response of martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Forty, C.B.A.

    1997-09-01

    A hypothetical martensitic steel has been compositionally designed in order to optimize both metallurgical and reduced activation properties. When compared with two other martensitic steels, its activation characteristics are shown to be superior for all activation indices examined. However, these excellent properties are found to be due to the assumed absence of deleterious tramp impurities. When limiting impurity concentrations are determined for the hypothetical steel, they are found to be extremely stringent, and wholly unachievable using industrial scale production methods. It is concluded that only slight improvements can be made to currently available low activation martensitic steels to reduce residual activity responses further. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Activation Response of Martensitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forty, C. B. A.

    1997-09-01

    A hypothetical martensitic steel has been compositionally designed in order to optimize both metallurgical and reduced activation properties. When compared with two other martensitic steels, its activation characteristics are shown to be superior for all activation indices examined. However, these excellent properties are found to be due to the assumed absence of deleterious tramp impurities. When limiting impurity concentrations are determined for the hypothetical steel, they are found to be extremely stringent, and wholly unachievable using industrial scale production methods. It is concluded that only slight improvements can be made to currently available low activation martensitic steels to reduce residual activity responses further.

  1. Stress-corrosion cracking of steels in ammonia with consideration given to OTEC design: a survey

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, R.B.

    1980-03-01

    Carbon steel, alloy steel, and high-strength, quenched and tempered steel, when under applied or residual stress and especially when cold formed and/or welded without subsequent thermal stress relief, are subject to failure by stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in air-contaminated dry ammonia. Water as well as hydrazine when present in small amounts have been shown to be effective inhibitors in an all steel system. Galvanic corrosion between dissimilar metals and/or accelerated failure by SCC of stressed steel as a result of galvanic coupling may be of concern. Where water has proven effective as an inhibitor of SCC in an all steel system, it may not be adequate in a mixed metal system. With aluminum tubes, the tube sheet will either have to be solid aluminum, aluminum clad steel or some nonconductive coating will be necessary to effectively remove the cathodic alloy from the galvanic circuit. Research is required to determine the severity of the coupling effect between dissimilar alloys in ammonia under OTEC conditions; especially the possibility of accelerated SCC failures of stressed steel where the presence of an inhibitor in the ammonia may not be sufficient to override the galvanic coupling effect.

  2. Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, looking SE. Concrete and steel bridge with exposed steel frame is the central of three bridges crossing Brush Street between east Baltimore and Piquette. The bridge links Old Lake Shore and Michigan Central Main Line on the western side to a New York Central siding on the eastern side - Railroad Overpass, East Milwaukee & Hastings Avenues, Detroit, MI

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOEpatents

    Riley, B.

    1988-04-22

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

  4. Photodesorption from stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesarwi, A.; Ignatiev, A.

    1988-01-01

    The photodesorption by low-energy photons from three types of stainless steels is examined. For all these systems both CO and CO2 were observed to photodesorb with high yields: about 0.001 molecules/photon for CO2 and about 0.0001 molecules/photon for CO at 250 nm. The observed threshold energies were found to be the same for all systems at E0 = 2.92 eV for CO2 and E0 = 2.92-3.10 eV for CO.

  5. Asymmetric neutron emissions from sonicated steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Andrea; Rosada, Alberto; Santoro, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Following up published works in which we studied and experimentally verified the assumptions of the theory of "Deformed Space-Time" in relation to piezonuclear emissions, and according to previous experiments of sonication by ultrasounds performed on solid materials with high density, cylindrical bars of AISI 304 steel have been sonicated by ultrasounds of the power of 330 Watts and frequency of 20 KHz. We verified by means of passive detectors CR39 (PADC) pulsed emissions of neutrons. In this work, following a recent proposal, it was decided to perform a stereoscopic measurement of neutron emission. It has been verified that they are characterized by a distribution which is anisotropic and asymmetric in the space. The work shows a wide and accurate description of the experiment and the results of neutron emissions, and we stress that there exist two directions corresponding to maximum emission (maximum dose) and zero emission (null dose).

  6. Switch to duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Quik, J.M.A.; Geudeke, M.

    1994-11-01

    Duplex stainless steels contain approximately equal proportions of ferrite and austenite. These stainless steels have become an established material of construction in the chemical process industries (CPI). Duplexes offer benefits over austenitic stainless steels and carbon steels because of their higher strength, and good toughness and ductility, in combination with equivalent resistance to general corrosion, as well as better resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Additionally, duplex materials have thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion coefficients similar to those of ferritic materials, are tough at low (sub-zero) temperatures, and have a high resistance to erosion and abrasion. In some of the highly corrosive environments encountered in the CPI, the super duplex stainless steels offer cost-effective options not possible with the standard austenitic stainless steels. The initial applications were almost exclusively as heat exchanger tubing in water-cooled service. In recent times, duplex stainless steels have been used in the oil, gas, and chemical industries. Examples include service in sweet and mildly sour corrosive environments, on offshore platforms where weight savings can be realized, and as a replacement for standard austenitic stainless steel in chemical-processing plants.

  7. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  8. Processing fine stainless-steel slag using spiral concentration.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Eric R; Klima, Mark S

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of spiral concentration to process a fine (-1 mm) stainless-steel slag was evaluated. Specifically, testing was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing a high metal content stainless steel product and a low metal content aggregate product. This involved investigating a key operating variable for both five-and seven-turn spiral concentrators. The raw slag and spiral products were characterized to determine their respective size and metal distributions. Separation testing was carried out using the two full-scale spiral concentrators to evaluate the effects of feed solids concentration on spiral performance at solids feed rates ranging from 15 to 30 kg/min. The results indicated that under certain conditions, a high-quality metal fraction could be produced. For example, using the five-turn spiral, a product containing 95% metal was obtained at a low metal recovery. Both spirals were ineffective at concentrating the aggregate fraction. Overall, the feed solids concentration did not significantly affect the quality or recoveries of the products, particularly for feed solids concentrations less than 35% by weight. In order to improve the metal recoveries and to produce a low-metal aggregate material, reprocessing of the product streams and/or additional liberation of the raw slag would be required. PMID:18324536

  9. Magnetoacoustic stress measurements in steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Utrata, D.; Allison, S. G.; Heyman, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Uniaxial stress effects on the low-field magnetoacoustic interaction have been studied using bulk compressional waves and Rayleigh surface waves in numerous steel samples having various impurity concentrations (Namkung et al., 1984). The results invariably showed that the initial slope of acoustic natural velocity variations, with respect to net induced magnetization parallel to the stress axis, is positive under tension and negative under compression. The results of current measurements in railroad rail steel having about 0.68 wt percent carbon content are typical for medium range carbon steels. The low-field natural velocity slope in this particular type of steel, which is almost zero when unstressed, becomes steeper with increased magnitude of stress in both directions. Hence, the nondestructive determination of the sign of residual stress in railroad wheels and rails is possible using this technique. This paper discusses the basic physical mechanism underlying the experimental observations and presents the results obtained in railroad rail steel.

  10. Nanoscale Cementite Precipitates and Comprehensive Strengthening Mechanism of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jie; Li, Guangqiang; Mao, Xinping; Fang, Keming

    2011-12-01

    This article summarizes the state of the art of the comprehensive strengthening mechanism of steel. By using chemical phase analysis, X-ray small-angle scattering (XSAS), room temperature organic (RTO) solution electrolysis and metal embedded sections micron-nano-meter characterization method, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, the properties of nanoscale cementite precipitates in Ti microalloyed high-strength weathering steels produced by the thin slab continuous casting and rolling process were analyzed. Except nanoscale TiC, cementite precipitates with size less than 36 nm and high volume fraction were also found in Ti microalloyed high-strength weathering steels. The volume fraction of cementite with size less than 36 nm is 4.4 times as much as that of TiC of the same size. Cementite with high volume fraction has a stronger precipitation strengthening effect than that of nanoscale TiC, which cannot be ignored. The precipitation strengthening contributions of nanoscale precipitates of different types and sizes should be calculated, respectively, according to the mechanisms of shearing and dislocation bypass, and then be added with the contributions of solid solution strengthening and grain refinement strengthening. A formula for calculating the yield strength of low-carbon steel was proposed; the calculated yield strength considering the precipitation strengthening contributions of nanoscale precipitates and the comprehensive strengthening mechanism of steels matches the experimental results well. The calculated σ s = 630 to 676 MPa, while the examined σ s = 630 to 680 MPa. The reason that "ultrafine grain strengthening can not be directly added with dislocation strengthening or precipitation strengthening" and the influence of the phase transformation on steel strength were discussed. The applications for comprehensive strengthening theory were summarized, and several scientific questions for further study were pointed out.

  11. SolidShperal

    2013-12-22

    SolidSpheral is an extension of the Spheral open source meshless hydrodynamics method. SolidSpheral adds the capability to model solid materials using analytic equations of state, and a simple damage model to allow for the modeled materials to undergo dynamic damage evolution. SolidSpheral is a distributed parallel code employing MPI for the parallel framework.

  12. Why stainless steel corrodes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mary P; Williams, David E; Chater, Richard J; Hutton, Bernie M; McPhail, David S

    2002-02-14

    Stainless steels are used in countless diverse applications for their corrosion resistance. Although they have extremely good general resistance, they are nevertheless susceptible to pitting corrosion. This localized dissolution of an oxide-covered metal in specific aggressive environments is one of the most common and catastrophic causes of failure of metallic structures. The pitting process has been described as random, sporadic and stochastic and the prediction of the time and location of events remains extremely difficult. Many contested models of pitting corrosion exist, but one undisputed aspect is that manganese sulphide inclusions play a critical role. Indeed, the vast majority of pitting events are found to occur at, or adjacent to, such second-phase particles. Chemical changes in and around sulphide inclusions have been postulated as a mechanism for pit initiation but such variations have never been measured. Here we use nanometre-scale secondary ion mass spectroscopy to demonstrate a significant reduction in the Cr:Fe ratio of the steel matrix around MnS particles. These chromium-depleted zones are susceptible to high-rate dissolution that 'triggers' pitting. The implications of these results are that materials processing conditions control the likelihood of corrosion failures, and these data provide a basis for optimizing such conditions. PMID:11845203

  13. 2169 Steel Waveform Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnish, M.; Alexander, C.; Reinhart, W.; Brown, J.

    2013-06-01

    In support of efforts to develop multiscale models of materials, we performed eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn). These experiments provided shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were used, with samples 1 to 5 mm thick. The study focused on dynamic strength determination via the release/reshock paths. Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allowed release information to be determined from these free surface samples as well. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Effect of cooling rate during solidification on the structure of high-speed steel powder particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ershova, L.S.; Smirnov, V.P.

    1985-08-01

    The structure and properties of a P/M high-speed steel form during solidification, hot plastic working, and subsequent heat treatment are the focus here. The character of steel structure variation under the action of high cooling rates during solidification has not yet been sufficiently investigated, therefore it is of interest to study the interrelationship between these factors. An R6M5F3 steel powder was produced by the atomization of molten metal in an apparatus constructed at the Ukranian Scientific-Research Institute of Special Steels, and divided into several fractions. A study was then made of the effect of cooling rate on the phase composition of the steel, degree of alloying of its solid solution and the microstructure and microhardness of the material. As a result of a higher rate of cooling, the amount of metastable M2C carbide inclusions in the structure of P/M R6M5F3 steel increases and the degree of bulk alloying of its grains grows. The increase in the microhardness of powder particles brought about by cooling at a higher rate is due to the formation of finer carbide inclusions during solidification, grain refinement, and an increased degree of alloying of the gamma and alpha solid solutions being formed.

  15. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S.; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P.; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  16. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field.

    PubMed

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  17. NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

  18. NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These

  20. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOEpatents

    Bulicz, Tytus R.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  1. Effect of the dendritic morphology on hot tearing of carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    Hot tears form during solidification in the brittle region of the dendritic front. Most hot tearing criteria are based on solid and fluid mechanics, being the phenomenon strictly depending on the solid resistance to applied strains and on the liquid capability of filling the void spaces. Modelling both mechanisms implies the precise description of the dendritic morphology. To this scope, the theory of coalescence of the dendritic arms at grain boundaries of Rappaz et al. has been applied, in this work, to the columnar growth of carbon steels by means of a simple mathematical model. Depending on the alloy composition, solid bridging starts at solid fractions down to about 0.8 and up to above 0.995 (very low carbon). The morphology of the brittle region changes drastically with increasing carbon and adding other solutes. In particular, ferritic dendrites, typical of low carbon steels, tend to offer short and wide interdendritic spaces to the surrounding liquid making possible their complete filling, and few solid bridges; peritectic steels show the rise of austenite growing and bridging rapidly in the interdendritic spaces, preventing void formation; austenitic dendrites form long and narrow interdendritic spaces difficult to reach for the liquid and with a lot of solid bridges. Sulphur addition mainly acts in delaying the coalescence end, more markedly in ferritic dendrites.

  2. Solids mass flow determination

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  3. Welding techniques for high alloy austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, T.G.; Woollin, P.

    1996-11-01

    Factors controlling corrosion resistance of weldments in high alloy austenitic stainless steel are described, with emphasis on microsegregation, intermetallic phase precipitation and nitrogen loss from the molten pool. The application is considered of a range of welding processes, both fusion and solid state. Autogenous fusion weldments have corrosion resistance below that of the parent, but low arc energy, high travel speed and use of N{sub 2}-bearing shielding gas are recommended for best properties. Conventional fusion welding practice is to use an overalloyed nickel-base filler metal to avoid preferential weld metal corrosion, and attention is given to the effects of consumable composition and level of weldpool dilution by base steel. With non-matching consumables, overall joint corrosion resistance may be limited by the presence of a fusion boundary unmixed zone: better performance may be obtained using solid state friction welding, given appropriate component geometry. Overall, the effects of welding on superaustenitic steels are understood, and the materials have given excellent service in welded fabrications. The paper summarizes recommendations on preferred welding procedure.

  4. Microstructural development of diffusion-brazed austenitic stainless steel to magnesium alloy using a nickel interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Elthalabawy, Waled M.; Khan, Tahir I.

    2010-07-15

    The differences in physical and metallurgical properties of stainless steels and magnesium alloys make them difficult to join using conventional fusion welding processes. Therefore, the diffusion brazing of 316L steel to magnesium alloy (AZ31) was performed using a double stage bonding process. To join these dissimilar alloys, the solid-state diffusion bonding of 316L steel to a Ni interlayer was carried out at 900 deg. C followed by diffusion brazing to AZ31 at 510 deg. C. Metallographic and compositional analyses show that a metallurgical bond was achieved with a shear strength of 54 MPa. However, during the diffusion brazing stage B{sub 2} intermetallic compounds form within the joint and these intermetallics are pushed ahead of the solid/liquid interface during isothermal solidification of the joint. These intermetallics had a detrimental effect on joint strengths when the joint was held at the diffusion brazing temperature for longer than 20 min.

  5. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  6. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  7. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  8. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  9. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  10. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  11. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Koji

    2002-08-15

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  12. Thermodynamic-kinetic simulation of constrained dendrite growth in steels

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, J.

    2000-04-01

    A model of constrained dendritic growth for steels, based on thermodynamic and kinetic theory, is presented. The model links thermodynamic chemical potential-equality equations to an existing, approximate treatment of constrained dendritic growth in multicomponent steels, taking into account the deviation from the local thermodynamic equilibrium of the phase interface caused by interface friction, capillarity, and solute trapping. Due to the thermodynamic approach, with a thermodynamic model and recently assessed data, the present treatment yields a more accurate determination of phase stabilities than the earlier methods. Depending on the steel composition and the growth conditions (growth rate and temperature gradient), the model determines the dendrite tip undercooling, the primary solid phase (ferrite or austenite), the stability of that phase, certain dimensions of the microstructure, and the solute accumulation ahead of the dendrite tip. A special optional calculations is that of the equally probable formation of ferrite and austenite in stainless steels. Calculations for testing the model and for validation it with experimental data are presented.

  13. Lithium wetting of stainless steel for plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2014-10-01

    Ensuring continuous wetting of a solid container by the liquid metal is a critical issue in the design of liquid metal plasma facing components foreseen for NSTX-U and FNSF. Ultrathin wetting layers may form on metallic surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions if material reservoirs are present from which spreading and wetting can start. The combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and ion beam etching capabilities of a Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) have been used to study the spreading of lithium films on stainless steel substrates. A small (mm-scale) amount of metallic lithium was applied to a stainless steel surface in an argon glove box and transferred to the SAM. Native impurities on the stainless steel and lithium surfaces were removed by Ar+ ion sputtering. Elemental mapping of Li and Li-O showed that surface diffusion of Li had taken place at room temperature, well below the 181°C Li melting temperature. The influence of temperature and surface oxidation on the rate of Li spreading on stainless steel will be reported. Support was provided through DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. INFLUENCE OF BUFFER CAPACITY, CHLORINE RESIDUAL, AND FLOW RATE ON CORROSION OF MILD STEEL AND COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The corrosion rates of mild steel decreased as buffer capacity was increased with pH at constant alkalinity. The corrosion-promoting effect of ionic strength, however, appeared to predominate over the buffer action in water systems with relatively high total dissolved solids and ...

  15. Cycles for Science: Biology Curriculum Supplement for Grades 9-12. A Steel Cycles Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Diana; Laymon, Carol

    This document contains project-oriented lessons and hands-on activities developed to integrate steel recycling, natural resource conservation, and solid waster management into science learning. It is designed to assist secondary teachers and students (grades 9-12) in meeting state and local goals for learning in biology, chemistry, general science…

  16. Solidification structures grown under induced flow and continuous casting of steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsavaras, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of induced flow as a means to control solidification structures in strand cast steel is investigated. The quality problems in strand cast steel stemming from columnar growth can be partially controlled, by Electro Magnetic Stirring (EMS). Induced flow changes the normal morphology of dendrites. Solids grown under intense stirring conditions show both negative and positive segregation which is considered unacceptable by some steel producers. The inclusion size and population is strongly affected by induced flow (EMS). Laboratory and industrial data show substantial reduction in inclusion size and content, but the overall effect of flow on inclusions is affected by the particular type of flow patterns utilized in each case. Productivity and quality are raised substantially in steel strand casting by utilizing EMS.

  17. Mathematical modeling and validation of the carburizing of low carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Mariaca, A.; Cendales, E. D.; Chamarraví, O.

    2016-02-01

    This paper shows the mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer in transient state of cylindrical bars of low carbon steel subjected to carburizing process. The model solution for the two phenomena was performed using a one-dimensional analysis in the radius direction, using the numerical method of finite differences; also a sensitivity analysis by varying the coefficient of convective heat transfer (h) is performed. The modeling results show that this carburization steel is strongly dependent on h. These results suggest that if it can increase the value of h in this kind of process could reduce the time of process for this heat treatment. Additionally, an experimental procedure was established by carburization of a steel AISI SAE 1010, which develops cementing solid phase and the specimen steel and micrographic hardness profiles obtained from samples of the specimen analysis was performed, to determine the penetration depth of the carbon and validate this result over the values obtained by the computer model.

  18. High-strength, low-alloy steels.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M S

    1980-05-23

    High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels have nearly the same composition as plain carbon steels. However, they are up to twice as strong and their greater load-bearing capacity allows engineering use in lighter sections. Their high strength is derived from a combination of grain refinement; precipitation strengthening due to minor additions of vanadium, niobium, or titanium; and modifications of manufacturing processes, such as controlled rolling and controlled cooling of otherwise essentially plain carbon steel. HSLA steels are less formable than lower strength steels, but dualphase steels, which evolved from HSLA steels, have ferrite-martensite microstructures and better formability than HSLA steels of similar strength. This improved formability has substantially increased the utilization potential of high-strength steels in the manufacture of complex components. This article reviews the development of HSLA and dual-phase steels and discusses the effects of variations in microstructure and chemistry on their mechanical properties. PMID:17772810

  19. Stainless steel display evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir processed ODS ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko; Park, Seung Hwan C.; Hirano, Satoshi

    2011-10-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered to be one of the candidate structural materials for advanced blanket systems because of its excellent properties in fusion environments. For more applications of the ODS steels to fusion systems with a huge and complex structure, development of joining technologies is a key issue to be solved. To reserve nano-oxide particles in the matrix homogeneously, the friction stir welding (FSW) is a suitable way to get good welding characteristics as a solid-state processing technique. In this research, effects of friction stir processing (FSP) on microstructure and mechanical properties of a ODS steel were studied to apply FSW process to ODS steels. The microstructure of FSPed ODS steel consists of stirred zone (SZ) and base metal (BM), as reported for other ferritic steels. Although equiaxed grain coarsening occurred through dynamic recrystallization during FSP, the nano-oxide particles in SZ showed fewer change in the size distribution. This resulted that FSP is effective to suppress the anisotropy and minimize the change of nano-oxide particles dispersion morphologies of ODS steel.

  1. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe - phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  2. JPDR vessel steel examination

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel which has been irradiated during normal service. This task has been included with the HSSI Program to provide just such an evaluation of material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the JPDR. The JPDR was a small BWR that began operation in 1963. It operated until 1976, accumulating {approximately}17,000 h of operation, of which a little over 14,000 h were with the original 45-MWTh core, and the remaining fraction, late in life, with an upgraded 90-MWTh core. The pressure vessel of the JPDR, fabricated from A 302, grade B, modified steel with an internal weld overlay cladding of 304 stainless steel, is approximately 2 m ID and 73 mm thick. It was fabricated from two shell halves joined by longitudinal seam welds located 180{degrees} from each other. The rolling direction of the shell plates is parallel to the axis of the vessel. It operated at 273{degrees}C and reached a maximum fluence of about 2.3 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The impurity contents in the base metal are 0.10 to 0.11% Cu and 0.010 to 0.017% P with a nickel content of 0.63 to 0.65%. Impurity contents of the weld metal are 0.11 to 0.14% Cu and 0.025 to 0.039% P with a nickel content of 0.59%.

  3. Electrophoretically-deposited solid film lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.; Panitz, J.K.J.; Vanecek, C.W.

    1995-04-01

    An aqueous-based process that uses electrophoresis to attract powdered lubricant in suspension to a charged target was developed. The deposition process yields coatings with low friction, complies with environmental safety regulations, requires minimal equipment, and has several advantages over processes involving organic binders or vacuum techniques. This work focuses on development of the deposition process, includes an analysis of the friction coefficient of the material in sliding contact with stainless steel under a range of conditions, and a functional evaluation of coating performance in a precision mechanical device application. Results show that solid lubricant films with friction coefficients as low as 0.03 can be produced. A 0.03 friction coefficient is superior to solid lubricants with binder systems and is comparable to friction coefficients generated with more costly vacuum techniques.

  4. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  5. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  6. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    This book reviews the mechanisms and forms of corrosion and examines the corrosion of stainless steels and similar chromium-bearing nickel containing higher alloys, detailing various corrosive environments including atmospheric and fire-side corrosion, corrosion by water and soil, and corrosion caused by particular industrial processes. It provides information on specific groups and grades of stainless steels; summarizes typical applications for specific stainless alloys; describes common corrosion problems associated with stainless steels; presents the acceptable isocorrosion parameters of concentration and temperature for over 250 chemicals for which stainless steels are the preferred materials of construction; discusses product forms and their availability; elucidates fabrication, welding, and joining techniques; and covers the effects of pickling and passivation.

  7. TIG and HIP joining of Reduced Activation Ferrite/Martensitic steel for the Korean ITER-TBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Duck Young; Oh, Seungjin; Ahn, Mu-Young; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Duck-Hoi; Cho, Seungyon; Choi, Im-Sub; Kwon, Ki-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Korea is developing a Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module for ITER. The primary candidate structural material is a Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic steel. The complex TBM structure requires developing joining technologies for successful fabrication. The characteristics of Tungsten Inert Gas welding and Hot Isostatic Pressing joining of RAFM steel were investigated. Metallurgical examinations showed that the steel grain size was increased after HIP joining and recovered by post joining heat treatment. Both TIG welding and HIP joining are found to be acceptable for ITER TBM based on mechanical tests and microstructure examination.

  8. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  9. Process Hood Stand Support Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-04-03

    This package is written to comply with EN-6-035-00 for upgrade dedication of commercial grade items (CGI). The SNF-5953 CGI package provides the Technical evaluation to identify the critical characteristics and the acceptance criteria associated with the safety function of the Hood Stand Support Steel. Completion of the technical and quality requirements identified in the dedication package will provide enough data to be reasonably assured that CGI Hood Stand Support Steel will perform its SC function.

  10. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  11. Analysis of plasma nitrided steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Ferrante, J.; Honecy, F.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of plasma nitrided steels can be divided to two main categories - structural and chemical. Structural analysis can provide information not only on the hardening mechanisms but also on the fundamental processes involved. Chemical analysis can be used to study the kinetics for the nitriding process and its mechanisms. In this paper preliminary results obtained by several techniques of both categories are presented and the applicability of those techniques to the analysis of plasma-nitrided steels is discussed.

  12. Wear of steel by rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

  13. [Methodological approaches to the development of environmentally benign technology for the use of solid waste in iron metallurgy].

    PubMed

    Pugin, K G; Vaĭsman, Ia I

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the life cycle of materials, containing wastes of iron and steel industry, new methodological approaches to the assessment of technologies of the secondary use of wastes are developed A complex criteria for selection of the technology for the use of resource potential of solid waste of iron and steel industry are developed with taking into account environmental, technological and economic indices. The technology of the use of wastes of ferrovanadium industry as bulk solid materials at the solid waste landfill is shown. PMID:24340603

  14. The P/M processing of high-nitrogen stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J. W.; Kemp, W. E.; Dunning, J. S.

    1996-04-01

    The production of high-nitrogen steels requires the utilization of unique melting and casting technologies such as pressurized electroslag remelting; however, production can be accomplished via powder metallurgy techniques utilizing lower-cost modifications to existing gas-atomization equipment and, in the solid state, by the development of novel processing schemes and equipment. This article describes two methods, one liquid- and one solid-state processing, for the production of high-nitrogen stainless steels—pressurized gas atomization and solid-state nitriding in a mechanical-fluidized vacuum machine.

  15. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  16. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800[degree]C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280[degree]F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found.

  17. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800{degree}C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280{degree}F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found.

  18. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  19. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  20. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  1. Physicochemical processes on the solid metal-molten metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Dybkov, V.I.; Natanzon, Y.V.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a method of dissolution by which bimetalspecimens of St3 and 45 steels, 12Kh18N1OT stainless steel with A995 aluminum, ADl and silumin were obtained. Tests showed high mechanical strength of the bimetals and good resistance under thermal shock conditions. The authors further conclude that the method of creation of permanent joints of metals by holding the solid, more refractory metal with a liquid low-melting one is most suitable for the production of cylindrical bimetal blanks since in this case it is easy to agitate the molten metal by rotation of the original blank of the solid metal in it. By simple machining from such a bimetal, it is possible to obtain tubes, butt joints or concentric two- and three-layer sleeves.

  2. Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.; Edwards, T.B.

    1997-12-19

    Tetraphenylborate solids provide a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene.

  3. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  4. Thermal dryers for solids

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, C.H.

    1993-12-01

    This article describes an indirect thermal dryer added to dewater solids before incineration of sewage sludge at a Buffalo, New York waste water treatment plant. In the first three months of operation, the solids inventory was reduced from about 799 tons to 250 tons. The solids processed in the plant's multiple hearth incinerators varied from 12 to 14 tons per hour.

  5. Batteries: Getting solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Materials with high ionic conductivity are urgently needed for the development of solid-state lithium batteries. Now, an inorganic solid electrolyte is shown to have an exceptionally high ionic conductivity of 25 mS cm‑1, which allows a solid-state battery to deliver 70% of its maximum capacity in just one minute at room temperature.

  6. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  7. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  8. Solid aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  9. Hydrogen Permeation in Nanostructured Bainitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazum, Oluwole; Beladi, Hossein; Timokhina, Ilana B.; He, Yinghe; Bobby Kannan, M.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen permeation of nanostructured bainitic steel, produced at two different transformation temperatures, i.e., 473.15 K (200 °C) BS-200 and 623.15 K (350 °C) BS-350, was determined using Devanathan-Stachurski hydrogen permeation cell and compared with that of mild steel. Nanostructured bainitic steel showed lower effective diffusivity of hydrogen as compared to the mild steel. The BS-200 steel, which exhibited higher volume fraction of bainitic ferrite phase, showed lower effective diffusivity than BS-350 steel. The finer microstructural constituents (bainitic ferrite laths and retained austenite films) and higher dislocation density in the bainitic ferrite phase of BS-200 steel can be attributed to its lower effective diffusivity as compared to BS-350 steel and mild steel.

  10. Austenite Static Recrystallization Kinetics in Microalloyed B Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga-Otegui, Ane; Pereda, Beatriz; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Boron is added to steels to increase hardenability, substituting of more expensive elements. Moreover, B acts as a recrystallization delaying element when it is in solid solution. However, B can interact with N and/or C to form nitrides and carbides at high temperatures, limiting its effect on both phase transformation and recrystallization. On the other hand, other elements like Nb and Ti are added due to the retarding effect that they exert on the austenite softening processes, which results in pancaked austenite grains and refined room microstructures. In B steels, Nb and Ti are also used to prevent B precipitation. However, the complex interaction between these elements and its effect on the austenite microstructure evolution during hot working has not been investigated in detail. The present work is focused on the effect the B exerts on recrystallization when added to microalloyed steels. Although B on its own leads to retarded static recrystallization kinetics, when Nb is added a large delay in the static recrystallization times is observed in the 1273 K to 1373 K (1000 °C to 1100 °C) temperature range. The effect is larger than that predicted by a model developed for Nb-microalloyed steels, which is attributed to a synergistic effect of both elements. However, this effect is not so prominent for Nb-Ti-B steels. The complex effect of the composition on recrystallization kinetics is explained as a competition between the solute drag and precipitation pinning phenomena. The effect of the microalloying elements is quantified, and a new model for the predictions of recrystallization kinetics that accounts for the B and Nb+B synergetic effects is proposed.

  11. High-power laser applications in Nippon Steel Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamida, Katsuhiro

    2000-02-01

    The laser, which was invented in 1960, has been developed using various substances of solids, liquids, gases and semiconductors as laser active media. Applications of laser utilizing the coherent properties of laser light and the high power density light abound in many industries and in heavy industries respectively. The full-scale use of lasers in the steel industry began nearly 23 years ago with their applications as controllable light sources. Its contribution to the increase in efficiency and quality of the steel making process has been important and brought us the saving of the energy, the resource and the labor. Laser applications in the steel making process generally require high input energy, so it is essential to consider the interaction between the laser beam and the irradiated material. In particular, the reflectivity of the laser beam on the surface of material and the quantity of the laser-induced plasma are critical parameters for high efficient processes with low energy losses. We have developed plenty of new laser systems for the steel making process with their considerations in mind. A review of the following high-power-laser applications is given in the present paper: (1) Use of plasma as a secondary heat source in CO2 laser welding for connecting steel sheets of various grades. (2) Laser-assisted electric resistance welding of pipes. (3) New type all-laser-welded honeycomb panels for high-speed transport. (4) Laser flying welder for continuous hot rolling mill using two 45 kW CO2 lasers.

  12. Austenite Static Recrystallization Kinetics in Microalloyed B Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga-Otegui, Ane; Pereda, Beatriz; Jorge-Badiola, Denis; Gutiérrez, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Boron is added to steels to increase hardenability, substituting of more expensive elements. Moreover, B acts as a recrystallization delaying element when it is in solid solution. However, B can interact with N and/or C to form nitrides and carbides at high temperatures, limiting its effect on both phase transformation and recrystallization. On the other hand, other elements like Nb and Ti are added due to the retarding effect that they exert on the austenite softening processes, which results in pancaked austenite grains and refined room microstructures. In B steels, Nb and Ti are also used to prevent B precipitation. However, the complex interaction between these elements and its effect on the austenite microstructure evolution during hot working has not been investigated in detail. The present work is focused on the effect the B exerts on recrystallization when added to microalloyed steels. Although B on its own leads to retarded static recrystallization kinetics, when Nb is added a large delay in the static recrystallization times is observed in the 1273 K to 1373 K (1000 °C to 1100 °C) temperature range. The effect is larger than that predicted by a model developed for Nb-microalloyed steels, which is attributed to a synergistic effect of both elements. However, this effect is not so prominent for Nb-Ti-B steels. The complex effect of the composition on recrystallization kinetics is explained as a competition between the solute drag and precipitation pinning phenomena. The effect of the microalloying elements is quantified, and a new model for the predictions of recrystallization kinetics that accounts for the B and Nb+B synergetic effects is proposed.

  13. Dynamics of solid lubrication as observed by optical microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    A bench metallograph was converted into a 'micro contact imager' by the addition of a tribometer employing a steel ball in sliding contact with a glass disk. The sliding contact was viewed in real time by means of projection microscope optics. The dynamics of abrasive particles and of solid lubricant particles within the contact were observed in detail. The contact was characterized by a constantly changing pattern of elastic strain with the passage of surface discontinuities and solid particles. Abrasive particles fragmented upon entering the contact, embedded in one surface and scratched the other; in contrast, the solid lubricant particles flowed plastically into thin films. The rheological behavior of the lubricating solids gave every appearance of a paste-like consistency within the Hertzian contact.

  14. Dynamics of solid lubrication as observed by optical microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    A bench metallograph was converted into a micro contact imager by the addition of a tribometer employing a steel ball in sliding contact with a glass disk. The sliding contact was viewed in real time by means of projection microscope optics. The dynamics of abrasive particles and of solid lubricant particles within the contact were observed in detail. The contact was characterized by a constantly changing pattern of elastic strain with the passage of surface discontinuities and solid particles. Abrasive particles fragmented upon entering the contact, embedded in one surface and scratched the other; in contrast, the solid lubricant particles flowed plastically into thin films. The rheological behavior of the lubricating solids gave every appearance of a paste-like consistency within the Hertzian contact.

  15. Effect of Mo Addition on Strength of Fire-Resistant Steel at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Rongchun; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Lanting; Shan, Aidang

    2014-08-01

    A series of Fe-Mo-C steels with Mo addition from 0.1 to 0.8 wt.% has been prepared for studying the effect of Mo on the elevated-temperature strength of fire-resistant steel. Two heat treatments were performed for obtaining either ferrite microstructure or ferrite-bainite microstructure to study the contributions from two strengthening mechanisms with Mo addition, namely solid-solution strengthening and bainite strengthening. The results show that solid-solution strengthening is the predominant elevated-temperature strengthening mechanism of Mo in fire-resistant steel. This strengthening effect has a huge contribution in improving elevated-temperature strength when Mo content is below 0.5 wt.%, and the yield strength at 600 °C goes up by a significant 13.7 MPa per 0.1 wt.% Mo addition. However, it becomes relatively weak when Mo content is more than or equal to 0.5 wt.%. Moreover, results indicate that the elevated-temperature strength remarkably increases when the volume fraction of bainite is above 15%. Furthermore, it is found that the ferrite grain size has minor effect on elevated-temperature strength of fire-resistant steel. Results also provide fundamentals of designing low-cost fire-resistant steels with excellent strength.

  16. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-05-03

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system.

  17. Solid expellant plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  18. Solid Rocket Booster Hydraulic Pump Port Cap Joint Load Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.; Murphy, N. C.

    2004-01-01

    The solid rocket booster uses hydraulic pumps fabricated from cast C355 aluminum alloy, with 17-4 PH stainless steel pump port caps. Corrosion-resistant steel, MS51830 CA204L self-locking screw thread inserts are installed into C355 pump housings, with A286 stainless steel fasteners installed into the insert to secure the pump port cap to the housing. In the past, pump port cap fasteners were installed to a torque of 33 Nm (300 in-lb). However, the structural analyses used a significantly higher nut factor than indicated during tests conducted by Boeing Space Systems. When the torque values were reassessed using Boeing's nut factor, the fastener preload had a factor of safety of less than 1, with potential for overloading the joint. This paper describes how behavior was determined for a preloaded joint with a steel bolt threaded into steel inserts in aluminum parts. Finite element models were compared with test results. For all initial bolt preloads, bolt loads increased as external applied loads increased. For higher initial bolt preloads, less load was transferred into the bolt, due to external applied loading. Lower torque limits were established for pump port cap fasteners and additional limits were placed on insert axial deformation under operating conditions after seating the insert with an initial preload.

  19. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  20. Microstructures of laser deposited 304L austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    BROOKS,JOHN A.; HEADLEY,THOMAS J.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.

    2000-05-22

    Laser deposits fabricated from two different compositions of 304L stainless steel powder were characterized to determine the nature of the solidification and solid state transformations. One of the goals of this work was to determine to what extent novel microstructure consisting of single-phase austenite could be achieved with the thermal conditions of the LENS [Laser Engineered Net Shape] process. Although ferrite-free deposits were not obtained, structures with very low ferrite content were achieved. It appeared that, with slight changes in alloy composition, this goal could be met via two different solidification and transformation mechanisms.

  1. Martensitic transformations in high-strength steels at aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, V. V.; Bannykh, O. A.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of heat treatment and elastic stresses on the texture of maraging NiTi-steels is studied. The interruption of the decomposition of martensite at the early stages is shown to be accompanied by the γ → α transformation, which proceeds upon cooling from the aging temperature and under elastic (σ < σ0.2) tensile stresses. The martensite has a crystallographic texture, which is caused by the evolution of hot-deformation texture as a result of quenching and decomposition of a supersaturated α solid solution.

  2. Corrosion Performance of Ferritic Steel for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Jablonski, P.D.; Alman, D.E.

    2006-11-01

    Ferritic stainless steels have been identified as potential candidates for interconnects in planar-type solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) operating below 800ºC. Crofer 22 APU was selected for this study. It was studied under simulated SOFC-interconnect dual environment conditions with humidified air on one side of the sample and humidified hydrogen on the other side at 750ºC. The surfaces of the oxidized samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with microanalytical capabilities. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also used in this study.

  3. Microbial corrosion of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Ibars, J R; Moreno, D A; Ranninger, C

    1992-11-01

    Stainless steel, developed because of their greater resistance to corrosion in different aggressive environments, have proved to be affected, however, by various processes and types of corrosion. Some of these types of corrosion, mainly pitting, is activated and developed in the presence of microorganisms, which acting in an isolated or symbiotic way, according to their adaptation to the environment, create a favorable situation for the corrosion of these steel. The microorganisms that are involved, mainly bacteria of both the aerobic and anaerobic type, modify the environment where the stainless steel is found, creating crevices, differential aeration zones or a more aggressive environment with the presence of metabolites. In these circumstances, a local break of the passive and passivating layer is produced, which is proper to these types of steel and impedes the repassivation that is more favorable to corrosion. In the study and research of these types of microbiologically influenced corrosion are found electrochemical techniques, since corrosion is fundamentally an electrochemical process, and microbiological techniques for the identification, culture, and evaluation of the microorganisms involved in the process, as well as in the laboratory or field study of microorganism-metal pairs. Microstructural characterization studies of stainless steel have also been considered important, since it is known that the microstructure of steel can substantially modify their behavior when faced with corrosion. As for surface analysis studies, it is known that corrosion is a process that is generated on and progresses from the surface. The ways of dealing with microbiologically influenced corrosion must necessarily include biocides, which are not always usable or successful, the design of industrial equipment or components that do not favor the adherence of microorganisms, using microstructures in steel less sensitive to corrosion, or protecting the materials. PMID:1492953

  4. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  5. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOEpatents

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  6. Characterization of steel fiber and/or polymer concrete mixes and applications to slender rectangular and I-beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ashraf Ibrahim

    This dissertation presents results from experimental studies related to polymer modified concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete, and steel fiber/polymer modified concrete. As a first stage of this research, the properties of different concrete mixes were characterized. These mixes were: plain concrete, steel fiber concrete with fiber volume fraction of 1%, polymer modified concrete with 1% to 7.5% solids of polymer, and steel fiber/polymer modified concrete with 1% to 7.5% polymer solids and I% steel fiber fraction. Concrete cylinders and 4 x 4 inches beams were tested under compressive, tensile, flexural, and bar pull-out loadings. In the second phase of this research, slender beams with a depth to width ratio of three were tested under four point loading for shear and flexure. Half I-beams, with gross aspect ratio of four and web aspect ratio of three were tested under the combined loading of bending, shear, and torsion. Lateral eccentric loads were applied transversely in the shallow direction to the 3 x 9 inches beams and the half I-beams. Dog bone shaped reinforced and un-reinforced specimens with 3 x 3 inches square sections were tested under pure torsional loading. The addition of 1% steel fibers alone or with 5% solids of polymers to concrete mixes improved their toughness and ductility. The contribution of steel fibers to bending, shear, and torsion in slender and half I-beams is presented. The ACI code methods for calculating the torsional, shear, and flexural resistance of beams are compared to the experimental results. Post crack analysis performed on the slender beams and half I-beams indicated that the tested specimens could carry 70% of the maximum applied loads after initial concrete cracking and failure. The reduction in the tensile stresses of stirrups and longitudinal reinforcing bars, due to the steel fibers and polymer, are presented. Fibers and polymers increase bending and toughness in concrete.

  7. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-01

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime. PMID:26891093

  8. Carbide transformations in constructional steels

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokur, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the type of carbides formed in general purpose constructional steels or on the mechanisms of carbide transformations and the influence of carbide formation on the properties, this work presents an investigation that was made of medium-carbon chrome-nickel and chrome-manganese steels with 1, 2, and 3% Cr, 1% Ni, and 1% Mn additionally alloyed with 0.25-2% Mo or W (every 0.25%). All of the steels were hardened from temperatures providing the fullest solution of carbides in austenite and were tempered at 400-650/sup 0/C every 25-50/sup 0/C. The composition of the carbides and their type were established by chemical, x-ray diffraction, and microdiffraction methods and the mechanism of the carbide transformations was determined on the basis of the changes in distortions of the second and third order of the matrix electrical resistance, and coercive force of the steel. All of the carbideforming elements present in steel participate in saturation of the carbides, as a result of which the formation of a special carbide is eased and the degree of alloying of the matrix increases. In the carbide transformation with a certain share of carbide phase an increase or retarding of the reduction in strength with an increase in tempering temperature with constant plasticity and impact strength is possible.

  9. Hollow Retroreflectors Offer Solid Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A technician who lead a successful team of scientists, engineers, and other technicians in the design, fabrication, and characterization of cryogenic retroreflectors for the NASA Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) mission to Saturn, developed a hollow retroreflector technology while working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. With 16 years of NASA experience, the technician teamed up with another NASA colleague and formed PROSystems, Inc., of Sharpsburg, Maryland, to provide the optics community with an alternative source for precision hollow retroreflectors. The company's hollow retroreflectors are front surface glass substrates assembled to provide many advantages over existing hollow retroreflectors and solid glass retroreflectors. Previous to this new technology, some companies chose not to use hollow retroreflectors due to large seam widths and loss of signal. The "tongue and groove" facet design of PROSystems's retroreflector allows for an extremely small seam width of .001 inches. Feedback from users is very positive regarding this characteristic. Most of PROSystems's primary customers mount the hollow retroreflectors in chrome steel balls for laser tracker targets in applications such as automobile manufacturing and spacecraft assembly.

  10. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  11. NASA's Advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) will not only bring increased safety, reliability and performance for the Space Shuttle Booster, it will enhance overall Shuttle safety by effectively eliminating 174 failure points in the Space Shuttle Main Engine throttling system and by reducing the exposure time to aborts due to main engine loss or shutdown. In some missions, the vulnerability time to Return-to-Launch Site aborts is halved. The ASRM uses case joints which will close or remain static under the effects of motor ignition and pressurization. The case itself is constructed of the weldable steel alloy HP 9-4-0.30, having very high strength and with superior fracture toughness and stress corrosion resistance. The internal insulation is strip-wound and is free of asbestos. The nozzle employs light weight ablative parts and is some 5,000 pounds lighter than the Shuttle motor used to date. The payload performance of the ASRM-powered Shuttle is 12,000 pounds higher than that provided by the present motor. This is of particular benefit for payloads delivered to higher inclinations and/or altitudes. The ASRM facility uses state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, including continuous propellant mixing and direct casting.

  12. Influence Of Tool Geometry, Tool Coating And Process Parameters In Thixoextrusion Of Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Knauf, Frederik; Hirt, Gerhard; Immich, Philipp; Bobzin, Kirsten

    2007-04-07

    Thixoextrusion could become one possibility to enlarge the complexity of extruded profiles made of steel. Accordingly semi-solid extrusion experiments of X210CrW12 tool steel using round dies of approximately 15 mm diameter were performed in order to achieve first information concerning possible process windows and process limits. For liquid fractions between 38% and 10%, extrusion press velocities from 10 mm/s to 50 mm/s and dies with novel PVD-coatings no complete solidification during extrusion was achieved. However the collected pieces of the extruded bars showed a fine and evenly distributed globular microstructure.

  13. Thermal Cycling of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia-Coated Hot Work Tool Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Yucel

    2011-09-01

    Thermal fatigue performance of yttria-stabilized zirconia-coated hot work tool steel was investigated under conditions encountered by thixoforming dies in semi-solid processing of steels. The thermal barrier effect of the YSZ coating was evident from the relatively smaller and more uniform temperature gradients set up across the section of the sample, which in turn, had a direct impact on the magnitude of thermal stresses generated at the surface of the tool steel. In spite of some thermal expansion mismatch with the substrate tool steel and occasional discontinuous thermally grown oxides along the splat boundaries and between the BC and TC, the YSZ coating survived thermal cycling under steel thixoforming conditions for over 12,000 cycles with no evidence of debonding and spallation. This is a nearly ten-fold increase in thermal fatigue life with respect to the uncoated counterpart. An increasingly dense YSZ layer and the toughening linked with the tetragonal to monoclinic ZrO2 phase transformation are credited for the remarkable performance of the YSZ-coating. It is fair to conclude that the YSZ coating offers adequate protection for the underlying tool steel, which without YSZ coating, suffers severe oxidation after only several hundred cycles and extensive cracking after 1000 cycles.

  14. Precipitates in Nb and Nb-V microalloyed X80 pipeline steel.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyi; Liu, Delu; Zhang, Jianping; Tian, Wenhuai

    2013-08-01

    Precipitates in two X80 pipeline steels were studied by transmission electron microscopy equipped with an energy filtering system. The steels are microalloyed with niobium and niobium-vanadium (Nb-V), respectively, and produced by continuous hot rolling. Besides the precipitates TiN and (Ti, Nb) (C, N), which were 10-100 nm in size, a large number of precipitates smaller than 10 nm distributed in the two steels have been observed. In the Nb-V microalloyed steel, only a few titanium nitrides covered by vanadium compounds on the surface have been observed. It is inferred that the vanadium exists mainly in the matrix as a solid solution element. The fact has been accepted that there was no contribution to the precipitation strengthening of the X80 steel by adding 0.04-0.06% vanadium under the present production process. By contrast, the toughness of the Nb-V steel is deteriorated. Therefore, a better toughness property of the Nb microalloyed X80 results from the optimum microalloying composition design and the suitable accelerating cooling after hot rolling. PMID:23920176

  15. Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

    2012-04-16

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

  16. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  17. High-temperature brazing of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Prevention of iron contamination of platens is eliminated by placing alumina/silica ceramic-fiber blankets between platens and carbon-steel plate. Carbon-steel plates provide rigidity and improve heat transfer.

  18. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  19. Thermal dryer dewaters solids

    SciTech Connect

    DiMascio, F.J.; Burrowes, P.A.

    1993-09-01

    Solids incineration is traditionally an energy-intensive solids handling process at wastewater treatment plants. To reduce energy costs, the Buffalo (N.Y.) Sewer Authority has added an indirect thermal dryer to its treatment plant to dewater solids before incineration. In the first 3 months of operation, the authority reduced its solids inventory from 634,400 to 227,300 kg. Solids processed in the plant`s multiple-hearth incinerators varied from 11 to 12.75 wet Mg/hr at feed concentrations averaging 21% total solids. And, the dryer was operated with less than 5% downtime. The cost of this indirect thermal dryer system, including construction and equipment, was $995,000. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Metallography of maraging 350 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Merten, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for etching maraging 350 steel with Glyceregia is described. Surface activation procedures are integral to this technique. Microstructural features revealed by this technique are compared with those obtained with Kalling's reagent, Fry's reagent, and 5% Nital, three etchants commonly used to reveal microstructures of maraging steels. Features which may be simultaneously revealed using Glyceregia include prior austenite grain boundaries, martensitic structure, precipitates, titanium carbo-nitrides, and reverted austenite. The other etchants examined in this investigation typically reveal only a few of the microstructural features detailed above at any one time. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Steel industry wastes. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Vachon, D.T.; Schmidt, J.W.; Schmidtke, N.W.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with waste processing of steel industry wastes is presented. The costs for the U.S. steel industry to comply with environmental standards are such that water reuse and recycling may be necessary. The review examines conventional coke plant wastewater treatments such as flotation, phenol extraction, ammonia stripping, and biological nitrification, and alternative treatment processes for blast furnace scrubber blowdown such as alkaline chlorination, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. A review of pickling operations and finishing processes is also included with their appropriate waste methods highlighted.

  2. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-09-11

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate.

  3. Susceptibility of irradiated steels to hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossin, A. D.

    1968-01-01

    Investigation determined whether irradiated pressure-vessel steels 4340 and 212-B are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement and to catastrophic failure. Hydrogen-charging conditions which completely embrittled 4340 steel had negligible effect on 212-B steel in tensile and delayed-failure tests.

  4. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  5. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  6. High-pressure stainless steel active membrane microvalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G.; Svensson, S.; Ogden, S.; Klintberg, L.; Hjort, K.

    2011-07-01

    In this work, high-pressure membrane microvalves have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. The valves were able to withstand back-pressures of 200 bar with a response time of less than 0.6 s. These stainless steel valves, manufactured with back-end batch production, utilize the large volume expansion coupled to the solid-liquid phase transition in paraffin wax. When membrane materials were evaluated, parylene coated stainless steel was found to be the best choice as compared to polydimethylsiloxane and polyimide. Also, the influence of the orifice placement and diameter is included in this work. If the orifice is placed too close to the rim of the membrane, the valve can stay sealed even after turning the power off, and the valve will not open until the pressure in the system is released. The developed steel valves, evaluated for both water and air, provide excellent properties in terms of mechanical stability, ease of fabrication, and low cost. Possible applications include sampling at high pressures, chemical microreactors, high performance liquid chromatography, pneumatics, and hydraulics.

  7. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, S.; Andreas, L.; Herrmann, I.; Ecke, H.; Lagerkvist, A.

    2010-01-15

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  8. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  9. Kinetics of steel slag leaching: Batch tests and modeling.

    PubMed

    De Windt, Laurent; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jerome

    2011-02-01

    Reusing steel slag as an aggregate for road construction requires to characterize the leaching kinetics and metal releases. In this study, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag were subjected to batch leaching tests at liquid to solid ratios (L/S) of 10 and 100 over 30 days; the leachate chemistry being regularly sampled in time. A geochemical model of the steel slag is developed and validated from experimental data, particularly the evolution with leaching of mineralogical composition of the slag and trace element speciation. Kinetics is necessary for modeling the primary phase leaching, whereas a simple thermodynamic equilibrium approach can be used for secondary phase precipitation. The proposed model simulates the kinetically-controlled dissolution (hydrolysis) of primary phases, the precipitation of secondary phases (C-S-H, hydroxide and spinel), the pH and redox conditions, and the progressive release of major elements as well as the metals Cr and V. Modeling indicates that the dilution effect of the L/S ratio is often coupled to solubility-controlled processes, which are sensitive to both the pH and the redox potential. A sensitivity analysis of kinetic uncertainties on the modeling of element releases is performed. PMID:20646922

  10. Mechanical alloying of lanthana-bearing nanostructured ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Somayeh Paseban; Indrajit Charit; Yaqiao Q. Wu; Jatuporn Burns; Kerry N. Allahar; Darryl P. Butt; James I. Cole

    2013-09-01

    A novel nanostructured ferritic steel powder with the nominal composition Fe–14Cr–1Ti–0.3Mo–0.5La2O3 (wt.%) was developed via high energy ball milling. La2O3 was added to this alloy instead of the traditionally used Y2O3. The effects of varying the ball milling parameters, such as milling time, steel ball size and ball to powder ratio, on the mechanical properties and micro structural characteristics of the as-milled powder were investigated. Nanocrystallites of a body-centered cubic ferritic solid solution matrix with a mean size of approximately 20 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Nanoscale characterization of the as-milled powder by local electrode atom probe tomography revealed the formation of Cr–Ti–La–O-enriched nanoclusters during mechanical alloying. The Cr:Ti:La:O ratio is considered “non-stoichiometric”. The average size (radius) of the nanoclusters was about 1 nm, with number density of 3.7 1024 m3. The mechanism for formation of nanoclusters in the as-milled powder is discussed. La2O3 appears to be a promising alternative rare earth oxide for future nanostructured ferritic steels.

  11. Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

  12. Solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  13. Teaching Steel Connections Using an Interactive Virtual Steel Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaveni, Saeed; Chou, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many structural failures are attributed to connection failures. Connections are the glue that holds a structure together. The failures of the Hartford Coliseum in 1977, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City in 1980, and the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007 are all…

  14. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  15. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  16. Steel and Graphite Heating by Megaampere Current Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, B. E.; Lex, A. G.; Makarevich, I. P.; Rutberg, Ph. G.; Rakhel, A. D.

    2004-11-01

    Many properties of metals and graphite are investigated by the exploding wires technique. For typical conditions of exploding thin wires of 0.1-1.0 mm, the pressure is no more than 0.1 GPa. Application of electrical currents greater than 1 MA in amplitude allows us to reach gigapascal pressures, more typical for the megagauss field generation devices. In this case, the energy of a pulse is fairly high and it becomes possible to use relatively large samples of up to 1 cm in diameter. This gives an advantage in scope measurements during the process. Here, we present the results on steel and graphite heating by electrical current pulses of large amplitude, and duration of up to 100 μs. Cylindrical rods of 0.6-1 cm diameter and 3-8 cm in length were used. Electrical current was passed through the sample and the voltage drop across it was measured. The shadow graph method was used to observe the course of the sample heating. The information on electrical specific resistance as a function of specific energy and current integral was defined from these data. This information was obtained for solid, liquid and mixed (solid and liquid) phases for steel. Some preliminary results of pulse heating of graphite are also presented.

  17. Fusion welding of a modern borated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Robino, C.V.; Cieslak, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments designed to assess the fabrication and service weldability of 304B4A borated stainless steel were conducted. Welding procedures and parameters for manual gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, autogenous electron beam (EB) welding and filler-added EB welding were developed and found to be similar to those for austenitic stainless steels. Following the procedure development, four test welds were produced and evaluated by microstructural analysis and Charpy impact testing. Further samples were used for determination of the postweld heat treatment (PWHT) response of the welds. The fusion zone structure of welds in this alloy consists of primary austenite dendrites with an interdendritic eutectic-like austenite/boride constituent. Welds also show an appreciable partially molten zone that consists of the austenite/boride eutectic surrounding unmelted austenite islands. The microstructure of the EB welds was substantially finer than that of the GTA welds, and boride coarsening was not observed in the solid state heat-affected zone (HAZ) of either weld type. The impact toughness of as-welded samples was found to be relatively poor, averaging less than 10 J for both GTA and EB welds. For fusion zone notched GTA and EB samples and centerline notched EB samples, fracture generally occurred along the boundary between the partially molten and solid-state regions of the HAZ. The results of the PWHT study were very encouraging, with typical values of the impact energy for HAZ notched samples approaching 40 J, or twice the minimum code-acceptable value.

  18. MTR, TRA603. BASEMENT DECONTAMINATION ROOM DETAILS. WALLS OF SOLID CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. BASEMENT DECONTAMINATION ROOM DETAILS. WALLS OF SOLID CONCRETE MASONRY. STAINLESS STEEL WORK BENCH, FLOOR COVING AND DRAINS. "WARM" FLOOR DRAIN. OVERHEAD SHOWER WITH CHAIN PULL. IDO MTR-603-IDO-4, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110468, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  20. GALVANIZED STEEL: NATIONAL DISTRIBUTION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a field survey done to observe the extent and application of bare galvanized steel in the United States. or purposes of the analysis, the conterminous 48 states were grouped into four regions. ndustrial and rural areas were considered In the study which exam...

  1. Precision machining of steel decahedrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, W. J.; Sealy, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Production of highly accurate decahedron prisms from hardened stainless steel is discussed. Prism is used to check angular alignment of mounting pads of strapdown inertial guidance system. Accuracies obtainable using recommended process and details of operation are described. Photographic illustration of production device is included.

  2. Oxidation in HVOF-sprayed steel

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.; Neiser, R.A.; Dykhuizen, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    It is widely held that most of the oxidation in thermally sprayed coatings occurs on the surface of the droplet after it has flattened. The evidence in this paper suggests that, for the conditions studied here, oxidation of the top surface of flattened droplets is not the dominant oxidation mechanism. In this study, a mild steel wire (AISI 1025) was sprayed using a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) torch onto copper and aluminum substrates. Ion milling and Auger spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of oxides within individual splats. Conventional metallographic analysis was also used to study oxide distributions within coatings that were sprayed under the same conditions. An analytical model for oxidation of the exposed surface of a splat is presented. Based on literature data, the model assumes that diffusion of iron through a solid FeO layer is the rate limiting factor in forming the oxide on the top surface of a splat. An FeO layer only a few thousandths of a micron thick is predicted to form on the splat surface as it cools. However, the experimental evidence shows that the oxide layers are typically 100x thicker than the predicted value. These thick, oxide layers are not always observed on the top surface of a splat. Indeed, in some instances the oxide layer is on the bottom, and the metal is on the top. The observed oxide distributions are more consistently explained if most of the oxide formed before the droplets impact the substrate.

  3. Welding Behavior of Free Machining Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    BROOKS,JOHN A.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; HEADLEY,THOMAS J.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.

    2000-07-24

    The weld solidification and cracking behavior of sulfur bearing free machining austenitic stainless steel was investigated for both gas-tungsten arc (GTA) and pulsed laser beam weld processes. The GTA weld solidification was consistent with those predicted with existing solidification diagrams and the cracking response was controlled primarily by solidification mode. The solidification behavior of the pulsed laser welds was complex, and often contained regions of primary ferrite and primary austenite solidification, although in all cases the welds were found to be completely austenite at room temperature. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) pattern analysis indicated that the nature of the base metal at the time of solidification plays a primary role in initial solidification. The solid state transformation of austenite to ferrite at the fusion zone boundary, and ferrite to austenite on cooling may both be massive in nature. A range of alloy compositions that exhibited good resistance to solidification cracking and was compatible with both welding processes was identified. The compositional range is bounded by laser weldability at lower Cr{sub eq}/Ni{sub eq} ratios and by the GTA weldability at higher ratios. It was found with both processes that the limiting ratios were somewhat dependent upon sulfur content.

  4. Structure and mechanical and corrosion properties of new high-nitrogen Cr-Mn steels containing molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, V. V.; Savrai, R. A.; Merkushkin, E. A.; Makarov, A. V.

    2012-05-01

    The structure, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion of nickel-free high-nitrogen (0.8% N) austenitic 06Kh18AG19M2 and 07Kh16AG13M3 steels have been studied in various structural states obtained after hot deformation, quenching, and tempering at 300 and 500°C. Both steels are shown to be resistant to the γ → α and γ → ɛ martensite transformations irrespective of the decomposition of a γ solid solution (06Kh18AG19M2 steel). Austenite of the steel with 19 wt % Mn shows lower resistance to recrystallization, which provides its higher plasticity (δ5) and fracture toughness at a lower strength as compared to the steel with 13 wt % Mn. Electrochemical studies of the steels tempered at 300 and 500°C show that they are in a stable passive state during tests in a 3.5% NaCl solution and have high pitting resistance up to a potential E pf = 1.3-1.4 V, which is higher than that in 12Kh18N10T steel. In the quenched state, the passive state is instable but pitting formation potentials E pf retain their values. In all steels under study, pitting is shown to form predominantly along the grain boundaries of nonrecrystallized austenite. The lowest pitting resistance is demonstrated by the structure with a double grain boundary network that results from incomplete recrystallization at 1100°C and from the existence of initial and recrystallized austenite in the 07Kh16AG13M3 steel. To obtain a set of high mechanical and corrosion properties under given rolling conditions (1200-1150°C), annealing of the steels at temperatures no less than 1150°C (for 1 h) with water quenching and tempering at 500°C for 2 h are recommended.

  5. 78 FR 4389 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011, 77 FR 67332 (November 9, 2012) (``Final Results''). Before the... People's Republic of China: Notice of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 17154 (April 14, 2009). \\5\\ See... threaded rod is certain threaded rod, bar, or studs, of carbon quality steel, having a solid,...

  6. Solid-state configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts developed for the solar power satellite (SPS) are described. In both concepts, the beam was centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed are results of solid state studies.

  7. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  8. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  9. Polyimide Precursor Solid Residuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A polyimide precursor solid residuum is an admixture of an aromatic dianhydride or derivative thereof and an aromatic diamine or derivative thereof plus a complexing agent, which is complexed with the admixture by hydrogen bonding. The polyimide precursor solid residuum is effectively employed in the preparation of polyimide foam and the fabrication of polyimide foam structures.

  10. Solid adenocarcinoma —

    Cancer.gov

    Uniformly solid character of the lesions is usually indicative of a well differentiated tumor. No solid adenocarcinomas have observed in our series. However, rare cases have been described by others. In human pathology this diagnosis is usually based on detection of mucin after periodic acid-Schiff reaction with diastase (α-amylase) digestion.

  11. Solid Waste: Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Ward

    1975-01-01

    In this article the means of disposing solid wastes are discussed with reference to their health hazards and environmental desirability. Included in the discussion are solid waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, and grinders. Some attention is given to the reclamation of mineral resources from trash. (MA)

  12. Influence of vanadium on static recrystallization in warm worked microalloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Mateo, C.; Lopez, B.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J.M.

    1999-12-31

    Warm forging of steels, in the range from 600 to 900 C, offers some important advantages over traditional forging procedures, with a better dimensional accuracy as well as surface quality in comparison with hot forging, and lower flow stress and therefore lower press loads in comparison with cold forging. It is well established that in hot working of V microalloyed steels, the vanadium in solid solution has a little effect on the static recrystallization kinetics between passes. In contrast, if strain induced precipitation takes place the static recrystallization is notably modified. The objective of this work is to study the effects that the application of warm working can have on the austenite static recrystallization process of vanadium microalloyed steels, considering a range of temperatures in which different precipitate volume fractions can remain undissolved in the austenite prior to deformation. The static recrystallization kinetics were determined by stress relaxation tests following the deformation by plain strain compression.

  13. Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

  14. Interfacial interactions between an alkali-free borosilicate viscous sealing glass and aluminized ferritic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jen-Hsien; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Brow, Richard K.

    2014-03-01

    An alkali-free, alkaline earth borosilicate glass (designated G73) has been developed as a viscous sealant for use with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In this work, the interfacial interactions that occur between this viscous sealant and aluminized ferritic stainless steel (SS441) under SOFC operational conditions are described. YSZ/glass/aluminized SS441 sandwich seals were held at 800 °C in air for up to 1000 h, and the interfaces were analyzed using analytical scanning electron microscopy (ASEM). Interfacial reactions were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of heat-treated mixtures of glass and alumina powders. The results show that the glass reacted with aluminum from the steel to form BaAl2Si2O8 crystals at the glass/metal interface and that the aluminum concentration in the aluminized steel was significantly depleted with time.

  15. 60 Years of duplex stainless steel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, J.; Liljas, M.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the history of wrought duplex stainless steel development and applications is described. Ferritic-austenitic stainless steels were introduced only a few decades after stainless steels were developed. The paper gives details from the first duplex stainless steels in the 1930`s to the super duplex stainless steel development during the 1980`s. During the years much effort has been devoted to production and welding metallurgy as well as corrosion research of the duplex stainless steels. Therefore, duplex stainless steels are to-day established in a wide product range. Numerous important applications are exemplified. In most cases the selection of a duplex steel has been a result of the combination high strength excellent corrosion resistance. In the pulp and paper industry the most interesting use is as vessel material in digesters. For chemical process industry, the duplex steels are currently used in heat exchangers. The largest application of duplex steels exists in the oil and gas/offshore industry. Hundreds of kms of pipelines are installed and are still being installed. An increased use of duplex steels is foreseen in areas where the strength is of prime importance.

  16. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  17. Dendritic inhomogeneity of stainless maraging steels

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.; Shmelev, A.Y.; Vukelich, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated dendritic inhomogeneity in industrial ingots 630 mm (steel I) in diameter and 500 mm (steel II) in diameter. The variation in the degree of dendritic inhomogeneity was investigated over the height of the ingots and across the sections on an MS-46 microprobe. It was established that the elements can be placed in the following order in accordance with the degree of reduction in the liquation factor: titanium, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Titanium and molybdenum exhibit forward liquation in both steels, and chromium in steel II. The distribution of nickel and chromium in the steel I ingots and cobalt in the steel II ingots is unconventional. Dendritic inhomogeneity, which must be considered in assigning the heat treatment for finished articles, develops during the crystallization of stainless maraging steels.

  18. Thermal contact conductance between solid interfaces under low temperature and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Youming; Sun, Heng; Xu, Lie; Feng, Haidong; Zhu, Hongmei

    2004-09-01

    In this article, an experimental device used for thermal contact conductance tests under low temperature and vacuum was demonstrated in detail, which may be used to simulate the real environment of some solid materials, such as stainless steel, or aluminum in a space satellite. Thermal contact conductance experiments of stainless steel, of aluminum, and between stainless steel and aluminum were made for 0.02 Pa and 100-330 K. The relationships of thermal contact conductance to the contact loading pressure and to the temperature were measured. It is demonstrated that the thermal contact conductance between stainless steel, aluminum, between stainless steel, and aluminum contacts rises with the temperature increase of the contact interface, as well as the loading pressure increase of the contact interface. The thermal contact conductance of aluminum is larger than that of stainless steel for the same temperature and same loading pressure of the contact interface. The thermal contact conductance between stainless steel and aluminum is close to that between aluminum contacts at the same temperature and same loading pressure of the contact interface.

  19. Lubrication with solids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

  20. Phase Stability under Irradiation of Precipitates and Solid Solutions in Model ALloys and in ODS Alloys Relevant for Gen IV

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur T. Motta; Robert C. Birtcher

    2007-10-17

    The overall objective of this program is to investigate the irradiation-altered phase stability of oxide precipitates in ODS steels and of model alloy solid solutions of associated systems. This information can be used to determine whether the favorable mechanical propertiies of these steels are maintained under irradiation, thus addressing one of the main materials research issues for this class of steels as identified by the GenIV working groups. The research program will also create fundamental understanding of the irradiation precipitation/dissolution problem by studying a "model" system in which the variables can be controlled and their effects understood individually.

  1. Development of 18Cr-9Ni-W-Nb-V-N Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube for Thermal Power Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, Tetsuo; Mimura, Hiroyuki

    An 18Cr-9Ni-W-Nb-V-N austenitic stainless steel tube for thermal power boilers has been newly developed. The high temperature mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the steel were investigated. The creep rupture strength of the developed steel is about 1.5 times as high as that of SUS347HTB, and is almost the same as that of Ka-SUS310J2TB at 650°C. This excellent creep strength of the steel is mainly due to solid solution strengthening by tungsten and nitrogen, and precipitation strengthening by nitrides of niobium and vanadium. The carbon content of the steel is reduced to 0.03% to improve intergranular corrosion resistance. The steam oxidation resistance and the high temperature corrosion resistance of the tube are almost the same as those of SUS347HTB. Weldability of the developed steel is superior to that of SUS304HTB and SUS310TB. Thus the developed steel is suitable for use as a material for superheater and reheater tubes of thermal power boilers.

  2. Comparison of Strength and Serration at Cryogenic Temperatures among 304L, 316L and 310S Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, K.; Ogata, T.; Nyilas, A.; Yuri, T.; Fujii, H.; Ohmiya, S.; Onishi, T.; Weiss, K. P.

    2008-03-01

    Tensile tests of 310S steel were performed at temperatures below 300 K and the yield strength and deformation behavior were compared with those of 304L and 316L steels. Computer simulations were also carried out to graph stress-elongation curves in order to discuss the effects of martensitic transformations induced during deformation on their strengths and deformation behavior at low temperatures. Tensile tests showed that yield strength of 310S steel is highest and that of 304L is lowest. The differences in yield strengths between 316L and 310S steels and between 304L and 316L steels are larger than those expected from the differences in solid solution strengthening. This can be explained by the effect of the strain through γ to ɛ martensitic transformation induced by elastic stress in 304L and 316L steels. The strength level and the shape of stress-elongation curves at cryogenic temperatures excluding serration can be qualitatively revealed by simulation when higher strength of ɛ phase comparing to α' phase and the window effect of α' were considered simultaneously. In liquid hydrogen, the three steels exhibit large serrations on the stress-elongation curves after the deformation near to the ultimate stress, while the curves are smooth before the onset of the serration. Such serrations in liquid hydrogen could not be revealed by simulation.

  3. Oxidation and electrical behavior of ferritic stainless steel interconnect with Fe-Co-Ni coating by electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Shujiang; Qi, Shaojun; Xiang, Dong; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui

    2012-10-01

    Fe-Co-Ni coating is deposited on ferritic stainless steel using a cost-effective technique of electroplating for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnects application. The steel with Fe-Co-Ni coating has been evaluated in air at 800 °C corresponding to the cathode environment of SOFC. The results indicate that the steel with Fe-Co-Ni coating experiences an initially large mass gain, and then the mass gain increases slightly after the first-week rapid oxidation stage. After thermal exposure in air at 800 °C, the Fe-Co-Ni coating has been converted into (Fe,Co,Ni)3O4 spinel layer underneath which a Cr2O3 layer is developed from the steel substrate. The outer layer of (Fe,Co,Ni)3O4 spinel has not only suppressed Cr migration outward but also reduced the growth rate of the inner layer of Cr2O3. The steel with Fe-Co-Ni coating exhibits a stable surface oxide scale area specific resistance (ASR) which is much lower than that of the bare steel. (Fe,Co,Ni)3O4 spinel is a promising protective coating for SOFC steel interconnect.

  4. Solid phase microextraction device using aerogel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Fred S.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-06-14

    A sample collection substrate of aerogel and/or xerogel materials bound to a support structure is used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device. The xerogels and aerogels may be organic or inorganic and doped with metals or other compounds to target specific chemical analytes. The support structure is typically formed of a glass fiber or a metal wire (stainless steel or kovar). The devices are made by applying gel solution to the support structures and drying the solution to form aerogel or xerogel. Aerogel particles may be attached to the wet layer before drying to increase sample collection surface area. These devices are robust, stable in fields of high radiation, and highly effective at collecting gas and liquid samples while maintaining superior mechanical and thermal stability during routine use. Aerogel SPME devices are advantageous for use in GC/MS analyses due to their lack of interfering background and tolerance of GC thermal cycling.

  5. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  6. Thixoforming of Steel: New Tools Conception to Analyse Thermal Exchanges and Strain Rate Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cezard, P.; Bigot, R.; Becker, E.; Mathieu, S.; Pierret, J. C.; Rassili, A.

    2007-04-07

    Through different papers, authors shown that the influence of thermal exchanges was a first order parameter on the semi-solid steel behaviour, and certainly for every semi-solid metallic materials. These thermal exchanges hide other parameters effect like, for example, the strain rate influence. This paper tries to determine the influence of these two parameters by using a new extrusion device on a hydraulic press. This new tools conception annihilated the influence of the decrease of the punch speed before stopping and permitted to have a constant speed during the experiment. This work also deals with the homogeneous flow during thixoforming of steel and shows the importance to couple initial temperature of the slug with punch speed. This paper presents different conditions which permitted to have a homogeneous flow by keeping a low load.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOEpatents

    Riley, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

  8. Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Cladded Stainless Steels with Tungsten Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raghuvir; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Suman K.

    2012-11-01

    Laser cladding of tungsten carbide (WC) on stainless steels 13Cr-4Ni and AISI 304 substrates has been performed using high power diode laser. The cladded stainless steels were characterized for microstructural changes, hardness, solid particle erosion resistance and corrosion behavior. Resistance of the clad to solid particle erosion was evaluated using alumina particles according to ASTM G76 and corrosion behavior was studied by employing the anodic polarization and open circuit potential measurement in 3.5% NaCl solution and tap water. The hardness of laser cladded AISI 304 and 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel was increased up to 815 and 725Hv100 g, respectively. The erosion resistance of the modified surface was improved significantly such that the erosion rate of cladded AISI 304 (at 114 W/mm2) was observed ~0.74 mg/cm2/h as compared to ~1.16 and 0.97 mg/cm2/h for untreated AISI 304 and 13Cr-4Ni, respectively. Laser cladding of both the stainless steels, however, reduced the corrosion resistance in both NaCl and tap water.

  9. Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

  10. Self-Passivating Lithium/Solid Electrolyte/Iodine Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar; Whitcare, Jay; Narayanan, Sekharipuram; West, William

    2006-01-01

    Robust lithium/solid electrolyte/iodine electrochemical cells that offer significant advantages over commercial lithium/ iodine cells have been developed. At room temperature, these cells can be discharged at current densities 10 to 30 times those of commercial lithium/iodine cells. Moreover, from room temperature up to 80 C, the maximum discharge-current densities of these cells exceed those of all other solid-electrolyte-based cells. A cell of this type includes a metallic lithium anode in contact with a commercial flexible solid electrolyte film that, in turn, is in contact with an iodine/ graphite cathode. The solid electrolyte (the chemical composition of which has not been reported) offers the high ionic conductivity needed for high cell performance. However, the solid electrolyte exhibits an undesirable chemical reactivity to lithium that, if not mitigated, would render the solid electrolyte unsuitable for use in a lithium cell. In this cell, such mitigation is affected by the formation of a thin passivating layer of lithium iodide at the anode/electrolyte interface. Test cells of this type were fabricated from iodine/graphite cathode pellets, free-standing solid-electrolyte films, and lithium-foil anodes. The cathode mixtures were made by grinding together blends of nominally 10 weight percent graphite and 90 weight percent iodine. The cathode mixtures were then pressed into pellets at 36 kpsi (248 MPa) and inserted into coin-shaped stainless-steel cell cases that were coated with graphite paste to minimize corrosion. The solid-electrolyte film material was stamped to form circular pieces to fit in the coin cell cases, inserted in the cases, and pressed against the cathode pellets with polyethylene gaskets. Lithium-foil anodes were placed directly onto the electrolyte films. The layers described thus far were pressed and held together by stainless- steel shims, wave springs, and coin cell caps. The assembled cells were then crimped to form hermetic seals

  11. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  12. Low density solid ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Teolis, B. D.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2007-08-21

    We report a very low density ({approx}0.5 g/cm{sup 3}) structure of solid ozone. It is produced by irradiation of solid oxygen with 100 keV protons at 20 K followed by heating to sublime unconverted oxygen. Upon heating to 47 K the porous ozone compacts to a density of {approx}1.6 g/cm{sup 3} and crystallizes. We use a detailed analysis of the main infrared absorption band of the porous ozone to interpret previous research, where solid oxygen was irradiated by UV light and keV electrons.

  13. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Anton, Donald L.; Lemkey, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  14. Enhanced humification by carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag--I. Characterization of humic-like acids produced from humic precursors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Fukushima, Masami; Fukuchi, Shigeki; Nie, Yongfeng

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag (hereinafter referred to as "steel slag") is generated during iron and steel manufacturing and is often classified as waste. The effect of steel slag on humification process was investigated. Catechol, glycine and glucose were used as model humic precursors from degraded biowastes. To verify that humification occurred in the system, humic-like acids (HLAs) were isolated and characterized structurally by elemental analysis, FTIR spectra, solid-state CP-MAS (13)C NMR spectra, and TMAH-Py-GC/MS. Characteristics of the steel slag-HLA were compared with those of HLAs formed in the presence of zeolite and birnessite, and with that of mature compost humic acid. The results showed that steel slag-HLA, like zeolite- and birnessite-HLA, is complex organic material containing prominent aromatic structures. Steel slag substantially accelerated the humification process, which would be highly significant for accelerating the stabilization of biowastes during composting (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and food waste). PMID:22130079

  15. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  16. The Solidification Mode of Fe-Mn-Al-C Lightweight Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chan-Young; Lee, Young-Kook

    2014-09-01

    Solidification behavior and solid-state transformation were investigated in Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight steel. The solidification mode of the Fe-9.3Mn-5.6Al-0.2C (wt.%) lightweight steel was predicted to be the F mode (liquid → liquid + δ-ferrite → δ-ferrite → δ-ferrite + γ-austenite), according to the classification of the solidification modes of stainless steels. However, the microstructures of an ingot of the lightweight steel showed that the solidification occurred by the FA mode (liquid → liquid + δ-ferrite → liquid + δ-ferrite + γ-austenite → δ-ferrite + γ-austenite). To examine the difference between predicted and actual solidification modes, some specimens were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 1200°C to 1450°C for 10 min and then quenched. The microstructures of the annealed specimens exhibited that there were the narrow ranges of single δ-ferrite and solidification sections. This result indicates that the solidification mode of the present steel was the F mode, matching well with the predicted solidification mode. The reason for the FA mode, which was observed in the ingot, was because the liquid passed by a narrow solidification section and a single δ-ferrite region, and it directly entered the dual-phase region of δ-ferrite and γ-austenite during cooling.

  17. Comparing flat top and Gaussian focal beam shapes when micromachining steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest

    2011-10-01

    Laser micromachining, drilling and marking is extensively used within the aerospace, automotive and firearms industries. The unique properties of lasers make them ideal tools for micromachining a wide diversity of materials, including steel alloys [1]. We describe the results of micromachining of low carbon steel and stainless steel alloys, using a high powered diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser operating at a wavelength of 355nm. The laser was configured with beam conditioning optics to produce either a flat top beam or a Gaussian output which was then sent through a galvanometer scanner and telecentric lens beam delivery system. This paper outlines the interrelationship of process variables when micromachining fine features in steel and stainless steel alloys. Process variables measured included the optimum laser focus plane, energy density, galvanometer scan rate, and pulse overlap and focal spot diameter. Optimum process performance was evaluated based on a dimensional comparison of the micromachined features from each test coupon, including uniformity and surface roughness of the micromachined surface and the minimization of surface irregularities (stalagmite type slag / debris / corn row patterns) and taper angle of the micromachined feature side walls.

  18. Microstructural characterization of 5-9% chromium reduced-activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaram, R.; Klueh, R.L.

    1997-08-01

    The microstructures of a 9Cr-2W-0.25-0.1C (9Cr-2WV), a 9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa), a 7Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (7Cr-2WVTa), and a 5Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (5Cr-2WVTa) steel (all compositions are in weight percent) have been characterized by Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) and Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy (APFIM). The matrix in all four reduced-activation steels was 100% martensite. In the two 9Cr steels, the stable precipitates were blocky M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and small spherical MC. The two lower-chromium steels contained blocky M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and small needle-shaped carbonitrides in addition to M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. AEM and APFIM analysis revealed that in the steels containing tantalum, the majority of the tantalum was in solid solution. The experimental observations were in good agreement with phases and compositions predicted by phase equilibria calculations.

  19. A mortality study among mild steel and stainless steel welders.

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Haguenoer, J M; Faucon, D; De Gaudemaris, R; Mur, J M; Mereau, M; Gary, Y; Toamain, J P; Birembaut, Y

    1993-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in conjunction with the European mortality study among welders coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The study was aimed at assessing risks for lung cancer in relation to exposure to asbestos, welding fumes containing chromium and nickel, and tobacco smoke. The study included a cohort of 2721 welders and an internal comparison group of 6683 manual workers employed in 13 factories in France. The mortality of the two cohorts was studied from 1975 to 1988 by the historical prospective method. Job histories of welders were traced including welding processes used, metals welded, and proportion of worktime spent in welding. Data on smoking habits were collected from medical records. The observed number of deaths were compared with those expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)) based on national rates with adjustments for age, sex, and calendar time. The smoking habits of 87% of the whole study population were known. The distribution of welders and controls according to smoking was not statistically different. The overall mortality was slightly higher for welders (SMR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89-1.18) than for controls (SMR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99). For lung cancer, the SMR was 1.24 (95% CI 0.75-1.94) for welders, whereas the corresponding value was lower for controls (SMR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.68-1.26). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.59 among non-shipyard mild steel welders (95% CI 0.73-3.02). This contrasted with the results for all stainless steel welders (SMR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.19-2.69), and for stainless steel welders predominantly exposed to chromium VI (SMR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.12-3.71). Moreover, SMRs for lung cancer for mild steel welders tended to increase with duration of exposure and time since first exposure, leading to significant excesses for duration > or = 20 years and latency > or = 20 years. Such a pattern was not found for stainless steel welders. PMID:8457490

  20. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  1. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  2. Longer Life for Steel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    IC 531 is a coating manufactured and marketed by Inorganic Coatings, Inc. The coating was developed by Goddard to protect structures at Kennedy Space Center. It is a high ratio potassium silicate formula. The coating is water based, nontoxic, and nonflammable. It generates no volatile organic compounds nor hazardous chemical waste, and bonds to steel in 30 minutes. At the present time, no one can say for sure how long IC 531's effective lifetime is. Some of the original Goddard test applications of 1976 are still going strong after lengthy exposure to the Sun, salt and moisture. Says IC in company literature: 'IC 531 offers virtually permanent protection for steel. We predict it will protect structures for well beyond 25 years. If necessary, it is infinitely maintainable; if damaged, it can easily be touched up with more IC 531.'

  3. Welding of high chromium steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W B

    1928-01-01

    A brief description is given of different groups of high chromium steels (rustless iron and stainless steels) according to their composition and more generally accepted names. The welding procedure for a given group will be much the same regardless of the slight variations in chemical composition which may exist within a certain group. Information is given for the tensile properties (yield point and ultimate strength) of metal sheets and welds before and after annealing on coupons one and one-half inches wide. Since welds in rustless iron containing 16 to 18 percent chromium and 7 to 12 percent nickel show the best combination of strength and ductility in the 'as welded' or annealed condition, it is considered the best alloy to use for welded construction.

  4. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  5. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  6. Solid and Gaseous Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Hyman; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids and methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels. The review covers from October 1986, to September 1988. (MVL)

  7. The solid waste dilemma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Russell, J.A.; Hurdelbrink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. Solid adenoma —

    Cancer.gov

    Round to oval cells fill alveolar spaces. Fixation of the lung without inflation results in predominance of solid over alveolar pattern. Cells usually have abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with fine granularity and/or vacuoles.

  9. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  10. Why solid modeling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulter, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The potentials of solid modeling to permit truly automated CAD/CAM are explored in comparisons with the limitations of wire frame (WF) and surface (SM) models. WF cannot differentiate between inner and outer surfaces and SM does not permit computation of mass properties. Solid models eliminate ambiguity and require large computer storage capabilities and fast processing. Physical properties such as moments of inertia, mass, center of gravity, and kinematical behavior can be calculated. The models are built from primitive solids and connected by Boolean operators or from solid segments (SS). SS permits storage of physical data for each segment while the PS must be calculated from the entire shape. Research directions being followed to display dynamic situations, cross-sections, and composite structure components are discussed.

  11. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  12. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  13. What Are Solid Fats?

    MedlinePlus

    ... animal foods and can also be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation. Some common solid ... that are liquid at room temperature, like the vegetable oils used in cooking. Oils come from many different ...

  14. A study of Damascus steel

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.

    1995-02-16

    The Damascus sword has been an article of fascination for many years to blade collectors and metallurgists alike. The blades were given their name by Europeans who encountered these blades which originated from Damascus, Syria. They are best known for the appearance of the blade face. Genuine Damascus blades show swirling patterns of alternating light and dark regions which are due to the microstructure of the steel. The microstructure consists of arrays of well rounded cementite patterns in a matrix of either pearlite, bainite, or martensite. When this structure is etched the matrix will turn dark leaving the cementite particles light. Although many blades were produced over the centuries, while some of the process is known the making of a genuine Damascus blade today is generally considered a lost art. Many scientists have studied the subject in an attempt to understand the complex process by which the clustered arrays of cementite particles develop in the steel blades. The most prominent theories to date are presented in the General Introduction to this thesis. The thesis is divided into four main parts. In the first part, four proposed mechanisms of cementite cluster sheet formation as they relate to the banding theory are introduced. Experiments to investigate these mechanisms are presented. In Part II, collaborative research focused on the methodology of the reconstructed process for making Damascus steel is presented. In the third part, a study into the graphitization of the reconstructed blades is presented. In Part IV, experimental attempts at producing Damascus steel ingots in the laboratory are presented.

  15. Steel Collet For Welding Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Fogul, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Improved steel collet holds electrode for tungsten inert-gas welding but allows quick and easy replacement. Also ensures reliable arc starting. Slip-on compression ring compresses tapered section of body of collet around inner end of welding electrode. Collet mounted in receptacle below stack of lenses and filters in coaxial-vision welding torch. Blind hole in collet protects outermost lens from damage by electrode.

  16. Determination of zirconium in steels.

    PubMed

    Iyer, C S; Asari, T P

    1989-03-01

    The determination of zirconium in the range 0.01-0.20% is required for some special alloy steels. A method has been developed, based on initial removal of iron as its chloro-complex by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone, followed by further extraction after addition of potassium thiocyanate, and determination of the zirconium left in the aqueous phase, with Arsenazo III. The absorbance is measured at 665 nm. PMID:18964725

  17. Nano-composite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  18. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  19. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  20. Solid electrolyte cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A solid electrolyte cell including a body of solid ionized gas-conductive electrolyte having mutually spaced surfaces and on which is deposited a multiplicity of mutually spaced electrodes is described. Strips and of bare substances are interposed between electrodes, so that currents of ionic gas may be established between the electrodes via the bare strips, whereby electrical resistance for the cells is lowered and the gas conductivity is enhanced.

  1. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  2. Solid model design simplification

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.; Rivera, J.J.; Webb, A.J.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper documents an investigation of approaches to improving the quality of Pro/Engineer-created solid model data for use by downstream applications. The investigation identified a number of sources of problems caused by deficiencies in Pro/Engineer`s geometric engine, and developed prototype software capable of detecting many of these problems and guiding users towards simplified, useable models. The prototype software was tested using Sandia production solid models, and provided significant leverage in attacking the simplification problem.

  3. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  4. Effect of ITER components manufacturing cycle on the irradiation behaviour of 316L(N)-IG steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodchenkov, B. S.; Prokhorov, V. I.; Makarov, O. Yu; Shamardin, V. K.; Kalinin, G. M.; Strebkov, Yu. S.; Golosov, O. A.

    2000-12-01

    The main options for the manufacturing of high heat flux (HHF) components is hot isostatic pressing (HIP) using either solid pieces or powder. There was no database on the radiation behaviour of these materials, and in particular stainless steel (SS) 316L(N)-IG with ITER components manufacturing thermal cycle. Irradiation of wrought steel, powder-HIP, solid-HIP and HIPed joints has been performed within the framework of an ITER task. Specimens cut from 316L(N)-IG plate, HIP products, and solid-HIP joints were irradiated in the SM-3 reactor in Dimitrovgrad up to 4 and 10 dpa at 175°C and 265°C. The paper describes the results of post-irradiation tensile and fracture toughness tests.

  5. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  6. DWPF DECON FRIT: SUMP AND SLURRY SOLIDS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Peeler, D.; Click, D.

    2010-10-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. In this report, the physical and chemical characterization results of the slurry solids and sump solids are reported. Crawford et al. (2010) provide the results of the supernate analysis. The results of the sump solids are reported on a mass basis given the samples were essentially dry upon receipt. The results of the slurry solids were converted to a volume basis given approximately 2.4 grams of slurry solids were obtained from the {approx}4 liters of liquid slurry sample. Although there were slight differences in the analytical results between the sump solids and slurry solids the following general summary statements can be made. Slight differences in the results are also captured for specific analysis. (1) Physical characterization - (a) SEM/EDS analysis suggested that the samples were enriched in Li and Si (B and Na not detectable using the current EDS system) which is consistent with two of the four principle oxides of Frit 418 (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}). (b) SEM/EDS analysis also identified impurities which were elementally consistent with stainless steel (i.e., Fe, Ni, Cr contamination). (c) XRD results indicated that the sump solids samples were amorphous which is consistent with XRD results expected for a Frit 418 based sample. (d) For the sump solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size of the sump solids were consistent with that of an as received Frit 418 sample from a current DWPF vendor. (e) For the slurry solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size range

  7. Keep solids in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Gladki, H.Z.

    1997-10-01

    Mixing is an important operation in the CPI. It is not synonymous with agitation. Mixing is a random distribution into and through one another of two or more initially separate phases. Within that broad definition is the important specialty area of liquid-solid dispersion. This paper addresses the dispersion of solids in lower concentrations that don`t affect the rheological properties of the fluid. The just suspended condition represents the lowest grade of complete suspension, but this level of agitation is the most efficient for solids-liquid agitation. Higher mixing speeds waste energy. Undersized mixers need replacing. The top-entering mixer has a long history in the CPI and the environmental area. Many suspension studies were run with this type. These papers result in empirical correlations for just suspension conditions to scale up from laboratory measurement. Variables considered are the agitation speed, liquid and solids physical properties, solids concentration, system geometry and impeller type. Lately, submersible mixers are becoming more popular, but there are no published sizing methods. This article will explain how to define the critical hydraulic conditions in the tank to reach just solids suspension for a submersible agitator of the type described here as FJFA (Free Jet Flow Agitator).

  8. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  9. Microstructures in laser welded high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, P.; Bellingeri, S.; Massimino, F.; Baldissin, D.; Battezzati, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effect of laser welding on the microstructure was studied for three Advanced High Strength Steels: transformation induced plasticity steel (TRIP), dual phase steel (DP) and martensitic steel. Two sheets of the same steel were laser welded and a microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. For all samples the welded zone was constituted by martensite and the heat affected zone shows a continuous change in microstructure depending on temperatures reached and on the different cooling rates. The change in mechanical properties in the welded area was followed by Vickers micro-hardness measurements. Quasi binary phase diagrams were calculated and, according to position of T0 lines, it was deduced that austenite is the primary phase forming during rapid solidification for all steels.

  10. A Method for Imaging Steel Bars Behind a Ferrous Steel Boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, B.; Miller, G.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.

    2006-03-06

    A system for detecting steel objects behind ferrous steel boundaries is described. It may be used to image steel reinforcing bars in concrete, where a steel sheet exists between the bars and the surface. The sensor comprises a transmitter, receiver and a dummy coil, which cancels cross-talk and enhances the signal from the bars. It is possible to penetrate a 2mm thick sheet at 125 Hz and image 16 mm diameter bars placed underneath.

  11. A Method for Imaging Steel Bars Behind a Ferrous Steel Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, B.; Miller, G.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.

    2006-03-01

    A system for detecting steel objects behind ferrous steel boundaries is described. It may be used to image steel reinforcing bars in concrete, where a steel sheet exists between the bars and the surface. The sensor comprises a transmitter, receiver and a dummy coil, which cancels cross-talk and enhances the signal from the bars. It is possible to penetrate a 2mm thick sheet at 125 Hz and image 16 mm diameter bars placed underneath.

  12. Solidification Microstructure, Segregation, and Shrinkage of Fe-Mn-C Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel by Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Peng; Tang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2016-06-01

    A 3D cellular automaton finite element model with full coupling of heat, flow, and solute transfer incorporating solidification grain nucleation and growth was developed for a multicomponent system. The predicted solidification process, shrinkage porosity, macrosegregation, grain orientation, and microstructure evolution of Fe-22Mn-0.7C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel match well with the experimental observation and measurement. Based on a new solute microsegregation model using the finite difference method, the thermophysical parameters including solid fraction, thermal conductivity, density, and enthalpy were predicted and compared with the results from thermodynamics and experiment. The effects of flow and solute transfer in the liquid phase on the solidification microstructure of Fe-22Mn-0.7C TWIP steel were compared numerically. Thermal convection decreases the temperature gradient in the liquid steel, leading to the enlargement of the equiaxed zone. Solute enrichment in front of the solid/liquid interface weakens the thermal convection, resulting in a little postponement of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The CET behavior of Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel during solidification was fully described and mathematically quantized by grain morphology statistics for the first time. A new methodology to figure out the CET location by linear regression of grain mean size with least-squares arithmetic was established, by which a composition design strategy for Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel according to solidification microstructure, matrix compactness, and homogeneity was developed.

  13. Solidification Microstructure, Segregation, and Shrinkage of Fe-Mn-C Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel by Simulation and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Peng; Tang, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2016-04-01

    A 3D cellular automaton finite element model with full coupling of heat, flow, and solute transfer incorporating solidification grain nucleation and growth was developed for a multicomponent system. The predicted solidification process, shrinkage porosity, macrosegregation, grain orientation, and microstructure evolution of Fe-22Mn-0.7C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel match well with the experimental observation and measurement. Based on a new solute microsegregation model using the finite difference method, the thermophysical parameters including solid fraction, thermal conductivity, density, and enthalpy were predicted and compared with the results from thermodynamics and experiment. The effects of flow and solute transfer in the liquid phase on the solidification microstructure of Fe-22Mn-0.7C TWIP steel were compared numerically. Thermal convection decreases the temperature gradient in the liquid steel, leading to the enlargement of the equiaxed zone. Solute enrichment in front of the solid/liquid interface weakens the thermal convection, resulting in a little postponement of columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The CET behavior of Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel during solidification was fully described and mathematically quantized by grain morphology statistics for the first time. A new methodology to figure out the CET location by linear regression of grain mean size with least-squares arithmetic was established, by which a composition design strategy for Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel according to solidification microstructure, matrix compactness, and homogeneity was developed.

  14. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Bridge Steel Weldings With Glass-Steel Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzalev, V. N.; Semukhin, B. S.; Danilov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    A new technology is developed for welding multi-span bridge constructions. The mechanical properties and structure of the low-carbon bridge steel welds have been studied. The welding parameters and application of steel-glass liners provide for long-term service of steel constructions in conformity with the welding industry specifications.

  15. Fracture Toughness of Functionally Graded Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Ali; Mohandesi, Jamshid Aghazadeh; Riahi, Shadi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in both crack divider and crack arrester configurations has been studied. Spot-welded plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses and arrangements were used as electrodes of electroslag remelting to produce functionally graded steels. Fracture toughness of the specimens in crack divider configuration was found to depend on the arrangements of the primary electrodes' pieces together with the type of the containing phases. In crack arrester configuration, the fracture toughness was found to depend on the crack tip position and the distance of the crack tip with respect to the bainitic or martensitic intermediate layers.

  16. Corrosion of stainless steel, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The book describes corrosion characteristics in all the major and minor groups of stainless steels, namely, in austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardenable steels. Several chapters are spent on those special forms of corrosion that are investigated in the great detail in stainless steels, namely, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. The influences of thermal treatment (heat affected zone cases), composition, and microstructure on corrosion are given good coverage. Corrosive environments include high temperature oxidation, sulfidation as well as acids, alkalis, various different petroleum plant environments, and even human body fluids (stainless steels are commonly used prosthetic materials).

  17. Strengthening Mechanisms in Thermomechanically Processed NbTi-Microalloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostryzhev, Andrii G.; Marenych, Olexandra O.; Killmore, Chris R.; Pereloma, Elena V.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of deformation temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated for thermomechanically processed NbTi-microalloyed steel with ferrite-pearlite microstructure. With a decrease in the finish deformation temperature at 1348 K to 1098 K (1075 °C to 825 °C) temperature range, the ambient temperature yield stress did not vary significantly, work hardening rate decreased, ultimate tensile strength decreased, and elongation to failure increased. These variations in mechanical properties were correlated to the variations in microstructural parameters (such as ferrite grain size, solid solution concentrations, precipitate number density and dislocation density). Calculations based on the measured microstructural parameters suggested the grain refinement, solid solution strengthening, precipitation strengthening, and work hardening contributed up to 32 pct, up to 48 pct, up to 25 pct, and less than 3 pct to the yield stress, respectively. With a decrease in the finish deformation temperature, both the grain size strengthening and solid solution strengthening increased, the precipitation strengthening decreased, and the work hardening contribution did not vary significantly.

  18. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  19. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  20. 30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  1. Use of ferritic steels in breeder reactors worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Patriarca, P.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of LMFBR reactor steam generator materials is reviewed. Tensile properties of stainless steel-304, stainless steel-316, chromium-molybdenum steels, and Incoloy 800H are presented for elevated temperatures.

  2. Fluorous receptor-facilitated solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dujuan; Weber, Stephen

    2014-09-19

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is a widely accepted solvent-free extraction technique that usually uses a polymer sorbent as the extraction phase. In this work, we have developed receptor-doped fluorous films for solid phase microextraction. The hydrophobic and lipophobic properties of the fluorous films in principle reduce the polymer-water distribution coefficients of solutes other than those that can form noncovalent interactions with the fluorous receptor. This strategy should improve extraction selectivity. We found that the addition of a fluorous carboxylic acid (Krytox 157 FSH) to a fluorous film (Teflon AF 2400) increased the polymer-water distribution coefficients of quinoline, a nitrogen heterocycle. We studied the effects of receptor concentration and solute concentration on the distribution coefficients based on 96-well vessel SPME. We then coated this receptor doped fluorous polymer on a stainless steel fiber for SPME. Compared to a commonly used SPME fiber made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), it showed a preference for the nitrogen heterocyclic compound over a non-heterocyclic control, phenol. To our knowledge, this is the first reported receptor-doped fluorous SPME. PMID:25092595

  3. Structural analysis of solids formed by reacting U(VI) with Fe(0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharmasarkar, S.

    2004-12-01

    Structural elucidation of uranium associated with iron is critical in understanding the chemistry of the passivity layers. Uranyl (VI) solutions were reacted with zerovalent iron (0) powder as a function of molality and pH, and the resulting solids were characterized using SEM and EXAFS techniques. Lower pH (3-5) favored up to 99 percent solid formation from the solution U. The solid phase formation appeared to be a combination of partial reduction, adsorption and precipitation processes, depending on the pH condition. Schoepite at different hydration levels and also alpha- and beta- oxides were the predominant U solids. The morphology and structural coordination of the solids varied as a function of the boundary conditions. Results of these studies can be utilized in optimizing an efficient decontamination design of the corroded steels.

  4. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it

    2013-08-01

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(φ)F{sup 2} model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton φ and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(φ)F{sup 2} model.

  5. Defects in flexoelectric solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Sheng; Purohit, Prashant K.

    2015-11-01

    A solid is said to be flexoelectric when it polarizes in proportion to strain gradients. Since strain gradients are large near defects, we expect the flexoelectric effect to be prominent there and decay away at distances much larger than a flexoelectric length scale. Here, we quantify this expectation by computing displacement, stress and polarization fields near defects in flexoelectric solids. For point defects we recover some well known results from strain gradient elasticity and non-local piezoelectric theories, but with different length scales in the final expressions. For edge dislocations we show that the electric potential is a maximum in the vicinity of the dislocation core. We also estimate the polarized line charge density of an edge dislocation in an isotropic flexoelectric solid which is in agreement with some measurements in ice. We perform an asymptotic analysis of the crack tip fields in flexoelectric solids and show that our results share some features from solutions in strain gradient elasticity and piezoelectricity. We also compute the energy release rate for cracks using simple crack face boundary conditions and use them in classical criteria for crack growth to make predictions. Our analysis can serve as a starting point for more sophisticated analytic and computational treatments of defects in flexoelectric solids which are gaining increasing prominence in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  6. Experimental Methods to Estimate Accumulated Solids in Nuclear Waste Tanks - 13313

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, Mark R.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Steimke, John L.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: - Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream. - Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel. - Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas. - Laser range finders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds. - Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. - Computer driven positioner that placed the laser range finders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities

  7. Steel shear walls, behavior, modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only 'strip model', forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of

  8. Impact ignition of new and aged solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Lee, C.G.

    1998-07-01

    The critical impact velocities of 60.1 mm diameter steel projectiles required to produce ignition are measured for new and aged confined charges of the HMX-based solid explosives LX-10, LX-04, PBX-9404, and PBX-9501. External blast overpressure gauges are employed to determine the relative violence of the explosive reactions. The experiment is modeled in DYNA2D using recently developed material strength models, and thermal energy deposition thresholds for impact ignition are found. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture and failure in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, E.P.

    1994-05-01

    Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture and failure processes in solid continua using Lagrangian finite element techniques is the subject of discussion in this investigation. The specific configurations in this study include penetration of steel projectiles into aluminum blocks and concrete slabs. The failure mode in the aluminum block is excessive deformation while the concrete slab fails by hole growth, spallation, and scabbing. The transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA2D was used for the numerical analysis. The erosion capability in LS-DYNA2D was exercised to carry out the fracture and failure simulations. Calculated results were compared to the experimental data. Good correlations were obtained.

  10. Silver solid-state bonding: a review and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.

    1986-07-07

    Silver solid-state bonding is a joining process which has been largely developed at Rocky Flats and used successfully in a number of programs. The implementation of this technology has generally been successful, but significant problems have been encountered in 316 stainless steel-to-1100 aluminum transition joints. In this paper, the known information about the effect of variables in the various steps in the bonding process on final bond strength is reviewed. On the basis of this information, processing steps or variables with the greatest potential for causing large reductions in the final bond strength are identified. 54 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Characterization of solid waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Three basic technologies for recovering energy from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) were considered: direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which the heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized or pelleted refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource recovery and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described include both energy and resource recovery systems as well as necessary pollution control equipment for gaseous emissions.

  12. Systems design of high-performance stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Carelyn Elizabeth

    A systems approach has been applied to the design of high performance stainless steels. Quantitative property objectives were addressed integrating processing/structure/property relations with mechanistic models. Martensitic transformation behavior was described using the Olson-Cohen model for heterogeneous nucleation and the Ghosh-Olson solid-solution strengthening model for interfacial mobility, and incorporating an improved description of Fe-Co-Cr thermodynamic interaction. Coherent Msb2C precipitation in a BCC matrix was described, taking into account initial paraequilibrium with cementite. Using available SANS data, a composition dependent strain energy was calibrated and a composition independent interfacial energy was evaluated to predict the critical particle size versus the fraction of the reaction completed as input to strengthening theory. Multicomponent Pourbaix diagrams provided an effective tool for evaluating oxide stability; constrained equilibrium calculations correlated oxide stability to Cr enrichment in the oxide film to allow more efficient use of alloy Cr content. Multicomponent solidification simulations provided composition constraints to improve castability. Using the Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software packages, the models were integrated to design a carburizing, secondary-hardening martensitic stainless steel. Initial characterization of the prototype showed good agreement with the design models and achievement of the desired property objectives. Prototype evaluation confirmed the predicted martensitic transformation temperature and the desired carburizing response, achieving a case hardness of Rsb{c} 64 in the secondary-hardened condition without case primary carbides. Decarburization experiments suggest that the design core toughness objective (Ksb{IC} = 65 MPasurdm) can be achieved by reducing the core carbon level to 0.05 weight percent. To achieve the core toughness objective at high core strength levels requires further analysis of an

  13. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  14. Solid handling valve

    DOEpatents

    Williams, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a solids handling valve for use in combination with lock hoppers utilized for conveying pulverized coal to a coal gasifier. The valve comprises a fluid-actuated flow control piston disposed within a housing and provided with a tapered primary seal having a recessed seat on the housing and a radially expandable fluid-actuated secondary seal. The valve seals are highly resistive to corrosion, erosion and abrasion by the solids, liquids, and gases associated with the gasification process so as to minimize valve failure.

  15. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1999-07-01

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and requires accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained.

  16. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1998-03-30

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and may require accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained.

  17. Laser cooling of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2010-08-01

    Laser cooling of solids, sometimes also known as optical refrigeration, is a fast developing area of optical science, investigating the interaction of light with condensed matter. Apart from being of fundamental scientific interest, this topic addresses a very important practical issue: design and construction of laser pumped solid-state cryocoolers, which are compact, free from mechanical vibrations, moving parts, fluids and can cause only low electromagnetic interference in the cooled area. The optical cryocooler has a broad area of applications such as in the development of magnetometers for geophysical sensors, in biomedical sensing and can be beneficial for satellite instrumentations and small sensors, where compactness and the lack of vibrations are very important. Simply, a laser cooler works on the conversion of low energy pump photons into high-energy anti-Stokes fluorescence photons by extracting some of the phonons (heat energy) in a material. That is, the process of laser cooling of solids is based on anti-Stokes fluorescence also known as luminescence upconversion, when light quanta in the red tail of the absorption spectrum are absorbed from a pump laser, and blue-shifted photons are spontaneously emitted. The extra energy extracted from the solid-state lattice in the form of the phonons is the quanta of vibrational energy which generates heat. The idea to cool solids with anti-Stokes fluorescence was proposed in 1929 by Peter Pringsheim and first demonstrated experimentally by Epstein's research team in 1995. In 1999, Steven Bowman proposed to use the optical refrigeration by anti-Stokes fluorescence within the laser medium to balance the heat generated by the Stokes shifted stimulated emission in a high-power solid-state bulk laser. Such a laser without internal heating named radiation-balanced or athermal laser was experimentally demonstrated for the first time in 2002. At the present time laser cooling of solids can be largely divided into three

  18. Is stainless steel really "stainless"?

    PubMed

    Porteous, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Initial purchase and replacement costs for surgical instrumentation are significant components in today's operating room budgets. OR staff and medical device reprocessing personnel work together as a team to ensure effective management of this valuable commodity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the composition of stainless steel surgical instruments, to identify processes to minimize damage to instruments caused by staining, corrosion, and pitting, and to utilize that information to describe effective measures to manage instrumentation in both the OR and reprocessing areas. PMID:21823503

  19. Chromizing of 3Cr Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Harrison, Bradley; Koch, Jordan; Ly, Alexander; Schissler, Andrew; Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2011-01-01

    Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N) was chromized by the halide-activated pack cementation (HAPC) process. Key process parameters, i.e., coating temperatures and pack compositions, were investigated. Ammonium chloride-activated packs in the 700-1000 C range produced coatings nominally in the 1-8 {micro}m range, as determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Coatings applied in the 900-1000 C temperature range resulted in Cr-rich coatings. The predominant phase in the coating was identified as Cr23C6 by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the presence of chromium nitride, Cr2N, was observed in the coating. The power generation industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for energy while simultaneously having to reduce carbon emissions. These goals can be facilitated by increasing plant efficiency through the use of higher operating temperatures and pressures. Traditional construction materials, e.g., the ferritic Grade 22 high strength low alloy steel, are limited to operations below {approx} 550 C. Therefore, new materials are required for future plants designed to operate up to 650 C and possibly higher. These new materials need to have improved tensile strength, ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, and creep properties at elevated temperatures. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating the oxidation and creep behavior of various coatings on Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N), a super-bainitic steel developed for superior creep properties. Thin, chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) aluminide coatings were used to compensate for the reduced corrosion and oxidation resistance that resulted from the low chromium content of the alloy. However, the aluminized Grade 315 alloys performed less-than-favorably under conditions relevant to fossil boilers, leading to the conclusion that higher chromium contents are required for the formation of

  20. Help for the Steel Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA Lewis Research Center (LRC) and Gladwin Engineering resulted in the adaptation of aerospace high temperature metal technology to the continuous casting of steel. The continuous process is more efficient because it takes less time and labor. A high temperature material, once used on the X-15 research plane, was applied to metal rollers by a LRC developed spraying technique. Lewis Research Center also supplied mold prototype of metal composites, reducing erosion and promoting thermal conductivity. Rollers that previously cracked due to thermal fatigue, lasted longer. Gladwin's sales have increased, and additional NASA-developed innovations are anticipated.

  1. Co-extrusion of Discontinuously, Non-centric Steel-reinforced Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Foydl, A.; Haase, M.; Khalifa, N. Ben; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2011-05-04

    The process of manufacturing discontinuously non-centric steel reinforced aluminum by means of co-extrusion has been examined. By this process semi-finished reinforced profiles can be fabricated for further treatment through forging techniques. Therefore, steel reinforcement elements consisting of E295GC were inserted into conventional aluminum billets and co-extruded into two different solid profiles; a rectangle one by an extrusion ratio of 10.1:1 and a round one by 4.8:1. The used aluminum alloy is EN AW-6060. The billet temperature as well as the ram speed were varied to investigate their influence on the position of the reinforcement elements inside the strand. The measurement was done by a video measurement system, called Optomess A250, after milling off the strand. The distances between the elements in longitudinal direction were nearly constant, apart from the rear part of the strand. The same was observed for the distance of the steel elements to the profile edge. This due to the inhomogeneous material flow in the transverse weld, related to the billet-to-billet extrusion. The rotation of the reinforcement elements occurs because the elements flow nearby the shear zone. Further, micrographs were made to investigate the embedding situation and the grain size distribution. The embedding of the reinforcement elements were good in the solid round profile, but in the rectangle profile were found some kind of air pocket. The grain size of the aluminum alloy close to the steel elements is much smaller than in the other parts of the solid round profile.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution: AC impedance study and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrini, M.; Fontaine, G.; Gengembre, L.; Traisnel, M.; Lerasle, O.; Genet, N.

    2008-08-01

    The efficiency of a new triazole derivative, namely, 2-{(2-hydroxyethyl)[(4-methyl-1 H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amino}ethanol (TTA) has been studied for corrosion inhibition of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution. Corrosion inhibition was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These studies have shown that TTA was a very good inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution was also investigated in the presence of 4-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (TTA unsubstituted) by EIS. These studies have shown that the ability of the molecule to adsorb on the steel surface was dependent on the group in triazole ring substituent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with TTA shows that it chemisorbed on surface of galvanized steel and electroplating steel.

  3. Clean steel technology -- Fundamental to the development of high performance steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.D.

    1999-07-01

    The use of clean steel technology (low sulfur with calcium treatment for inclusion shape control) is a fundamental building block in the development of high performance plate steels. A brief review will be presented of the benefits of calcium treatment and its effect on non-metallic inclusions (sulfides and oxides) and reducing sulfur levels. During the past thirty years the requirements for low sulfur levels have been reduced from 0.010% maximum to 0.001% maximum. The effects of clean steel practices on specific properties will be reviewed including tensile ductility, Charpy V-notch and fracture toughness, fatigue crack propagation and hydrogen-induced-cracking resistance. Traditional low sulfur plate steel applications have included pressure vessels. offshore platforms, plastic injection molds and line-pipe skelp. More recent applications will be discussed including bridge steels, high strength structural steels to 130 ksi (897 MPa) minimum yield strength, 9% nickel steels for cryogenic applications, and military armor.

  4. XDT in HTPB propellant from steel flyer plate impact tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumi; Noda, Keiichiro; Hyodo, Yukio; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kosaka, Katsuaki; Nakayama, Takashi; Katayama, Masahide; Takeba, Atsushi

    2000-04-01

    Several experiments simulating ground impact explosion following the command destruction of a launch vehicle have been performed using HTPB propellant samples of mass 460 to 940 kg impacted by a steel flyer plate. Impact velocities were varied from 135 m/s to 170 m/s. Strong explosions were observed at impact velocities higher than 150 m/s for tests of solid rocket propellant weighting 460 kg. The XDT (Unknown to Detonation Transition) is studied using a bulk failure reaction model including strain rate effect. Computational results are compared with observed blast waves for various impact velocities. The present model has been successfully applied to 22 inch Critical Diameter tests for SRMU HTPB propellant.

  5. Forsterite film formation and grain growth in 3% Si steel

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, M.A.; Cesar, M.G.M.M. )

    1994-11-01

    The forsterite film in 3% Si steel is formed by a solid state reaction of the annealing separator, MgO, with SiO[sub 2] that results from the reduction of the fayalite layer in the hydrogen atmosphere in the high temperature anneal. In this work, secondary recrystallization was about complete at 1,000 C. After that temperature tertiary recrystallization can occur if the boundary drag of the second phase particles can be overcome. Addition of phosphates to the annealing separator affects the morphology of the forsterite film and can have an important effect on tertiary recrystallization by affecting the rate of decrease of the boundary-drag and/or the surface energy relationship.

  6. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. ); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. )

    1992-01-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  7. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J.

    1992-08-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  8. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  9. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  10. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  11. Low Mn alloy steel for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Niikura, M.

    A ferritic cryogenic steel which has a relatively low (about 4 to 6%) manganese content and which has been made suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures by a thermal cycling treatment followed by a final tempering. The steel includes 4 to 6% manganese, 0.02 to 0.06% carbon, 0.1 to 0.4% molybdenum and 0 to 3% nickel.

  12. Development of low activation Ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, T.; Abe, F.; Araki, H.; Okada, M.

    1986-11-01

    Fe-(2-15)%Cr-(0-4)%W-0.1%C and Fe-9%Cr-(0-l)%V-0.1%C steels were prepared on the basis of reduced activation of ferritic steels. Tempering characteristics of these alloys were studied as a preliminary evaluation of mechanical properties. Alloys except for 12-15%Cr, 9%Cr-4%W, and 9%Cr-1%V showed a single phase of martensite. Carbides which precipitated in as-tempered steels are M 23C 6, M 6C, and W 2C for Cr-W steels and M 23C 6 and V 4C 3 for Cr-V steels. The toughness of the alloys was examined with Charpy impact test. The minimum DBTT (ductile-brittle transition temperature) was observed at around 0.25 at% of W or V concentration for 9%Cr steels. 9%Cr-V steels were superior to commercial 9%Cr-2%Mo steel in the point of toughness. The order of alloying element with a low DBTT was V > Mo > W.

  13. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry of Steel Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Neal

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the chemistry of steel making applicable to teaching secondary school science. Generalized chemical reactions describe the manufacture of steel from iron ore. Also discussed are raw materials, processing choices, and how various furnaces (blast, direct reduction, open hearth, basic oxygen, electric) work. (CS)

  14. VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  15. Forming "dynamic" membranes on stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, C. A.; Gaddis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    "Dynamic" zirconium polyacrylic membrane is formed directly on stainless steel substrate without excessive corrosion of steel. Membrane is potentially useful in removal of contaminated chemicals from solution through reversed osmosis. Application includes use in filtration and desalination equipment, and in textile industry for separation of dyes from aqueous solvents.

  16. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  17. Instabilities in stabilized austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayer, Raghavan; Klein, C. F.; Marzinsky, C. N.

    1992-09-01

    The effect of aging on the precipitation of grain boundary phases in three austenitic stainless steels (AISI 347, 347AP, and an experimental steel stabilized with hafnium) was investigated. Aging was performed both on bulk steels as well as on samples which were subjected to a thermal treatment to simulate the coarse grain region of the heat affected zone (HAZ) during welding. Aging of the bulk steels at 866 K for 8000 hours resulted in the precipitation of Cr23C6 carbides, σ, and Fe2Nb phases; the propensity for precipitation was least for the hafnium-stabilized steel. Weld simulation of the HAZ resulted in dissolution of the phases present in the as-received 347 and 347AP steels, leading to grain coarsening. Subsequent aging caused extensive grain boundary Cr23C6 carbides and inhomogeneous matrix precipitation. In addition, steel 347AP formed a precipitate free zone (PFZ) along the grain boundaries. The steel containing hafnium showed the best microstructural stability to aging and welding.

  18. Diffusion bonding of the oxide dispersion strengthened steel PM2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittel, Wiebke; Basuki, Widodo W.; Aktaa, Jarir

    2013-11-01

    Ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are well suited as structural materials, e.g. for claddings in fission reactors and for plasma facing components in fusion power plants due to their high mechanical and oxidation stability at high temperatures and their high irradiation resistance. PM2000 is an iron based ODS ferritic steel with homogeneously distributed nanometric yttria particles. Melting joining techniques are not suitable for such ODS materials because of the precipitation and agglomeration of the oxide particles and hence the loss of their strengthening effect. Solid state diffusion bonding is thus chosen to join PM2000 and is investigated in this work with a focus on oxide particles. The diffusion bonding process is aided by the computational modeling, including the influence of the ODS particles. For modeling the microstructure stability and the creep behavior of PM2000 at various, diffusion bonding relevant temperatures (50-80% Tm) are investigated. Particle distribution (TEM), strength (tensile test) and toughness (Charpy impact test) obtained at temperatures relevant for bonding serve as input for the prediction of optimal diffusion bonding parameters. The optimally bonded specimens show comparable strength and toughness relative to the base material.

  19. CORROSION TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN OXALIC ACID CHEMICAL CLEANING SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Mickalonis, J.; Subramanian, K.; Ketusky, E.

    2011-10-14

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid has been selected for this purpose because it is an effective chelating agent for the solids and is not as corrosive as other acids. Electrochemical and immersion studies were conducted to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in simulated chemical cleaning environments. The effects of temperature, agitation, and the presence of sludge solids in the oxalic acid on the corrosion rate and the likelihood of hydrogen evolution were determined. The testing showed that the corrosion rates decreased significantly in the presence of the sludge solids. Corrosion rates increased with agitation, however, the changes were less noticeable.

  20. Influence of process parameters to composite interface organization and performance of liquid/solid bimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, S. F.; Zhu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. H.; Yang, P. H.; Duan, X. L.; Zhou, H. T.

    2015-12-01

    The liquid-solid composite technique was used to prepare the high carbon high chromium steel (HCHCS) and low alloy steel (LCS) bimetal composite materials by means of insert casting method. The influence of some process parameters such as liquid-solid ratio, preheat temperature, pouring temperature on the interface microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. Interface microstructure and element distribution were analyzed. The results show that the interface microstructure becomes better, and bonding area becomes thicker with the increase of the volume of liquid to solid ratio, preheating temperature and pouring temperature. When the liquid-solid ratio is 8:1, the preheating temperature is 300 °C and the pouring temperature is 1565 °C, a good metallurgical bonding area without any hole can be obtained with the interface combination of diffusion and fusion. The composite interface structure was composed of a core material diffusion layer, a cooling solidification layer, a direction growth layer and some cell particles. The elements of C, Cr and Mn diffuse from the HCHCS side to the alloy steel side. The microhardness increased in the gradient from the LCS side to the HCHCS. The microhardness of the interface is significantly higher than that of LCS.

  1. Hydrogen transport in iron and steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Derrick, R. G.; Donovan, J. A.; Caskey, G. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in foil specimens of Marz grade iron, 4130 steel, Armco iron, HP-9-4-20, and T-1 steels were studied at hydrogen pressures between 0.02 and 0.5 MPa over the temperature range 260-700 K. The permeability was measured by a pressure-rise method, deuterium counting with a detector, and radioactivity counting. Good agreement is found between the measurement techniques used. It is shown that the permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in iron and T-1 steel at temperatures as low as 260 K are in good agreement with the equation proposed by Gonzalez (1967). However, the permeabilities of HP-9-4-20 and 4130 steel to hydrogen are typically lower than predicted. The isotope effect on hydrogen permeability of HP-9-4-20, 4130 and T-1 steels, and high-purity iron can be estimated by an inverse square root of mass correction.

  2. Advances in crosswell electromagnetics steel cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P

    1999-03-01

    The Crosswell electromagnetic (EM) induction technique ideally measures the resistivity distribution between boreholes which may often be cased with carbon steel. Quantification of the effect of such steel casing on the induced field is the most significant limitation of the technique. Recent data acquired at a site in Richmond, California quantify the effect of steel casing on induction measurements and demonstrate this effect to be separable. This unique site contains adjacent steel and plastic wells in which frequency soundings demonstrate low spectrum (1.0 - 50 Hz) measurements an effective means of isolating the casing response from, the formation response. It is also shown that the steel casing effect on the induction coil is highly localized, and limited to less than 0.30 meters above and below the coil.

  3. Fatigue of stainless steel in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G.; Altstetter, C.

    1983-10-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates of two austenitic stainless steel alloys, AISI 301 and 302, were compared in air, argon, and hydrogen environments at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Under the stresses at the crack tip the austenite in type 301 steel transformed martensitically to a’ to a greater extent than in type 302 steel. The steels were also tested in the cold worked condition under hydrogen or argon. Hydrogen was found to have a deleterious effect on both steels, but the effect was stronger in the unstable than in the stable alloy. Cold work decreased fatigue crack growth rates in argon and hydrogen, but the decrease was less marked in hydrogen than in argon. Metallographic, fractographic, and microhardness surveys in the vicinity of the fatigue crack were used to try to understand the reasons for the observed fatigue behavior.

  4. Aerosol filtration with steel fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.

    1993-04-01

    We have conducted an experimental study of aerosol penetration through a new high efficiency steel fiber filter and filter media that we developed in cooperation with Pall Corporation. Our previous studies have shown that sintered steel fiber media have significant improvements in higher filter efficiency and lower pressure drop than the previous steel filter technology based on sintered powder metal media. In the present study, we have measured the penetration of dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols through flat sheet samples, pleated cartridge filters and a 1000 cfm filter having 64 cartridges housed in a 2 {times} 2 {times} 1 ft. frame. The steel fiber media used in our study consists of 2 {mu}m diameter stainless steel (316L) fibers sintered together into sheets.

  5. Aerosol filtration with steel fiber filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental study has been conducted of aerosol penetration through a new high efficiency steel fiber filter and filter media that was developed in cooperation with Pall Corporation. Previous studies have shown that sintered steel fiber media have significant improvements in higher filter efficiency and lower pressure drop than the previous steel filter technology based on sintered powder metal media. In the present study, measurements were made of the penetration of dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols through flat sheet samples, pleated cartridge filters, and a 1000 cfm filter having 64 cartridges housed in a 2 x 2 x 1 ft. frame. The steel fiber media used in our study consists of 2 micron diameter stainless steel (316 L) fibers sintered together into sheets.

  6. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, John T; Mason, Richard E; Freibert, Franz J; Willson, Stephen P; Veirs, Douglas K; Worl, Laura A; Archuleta, Alonso; Conger, Donald J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  7. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Syed Altaf; Kumar, Vadivel; Jayaram, Prithviraj

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets – titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel – using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated canine retraction was undertaken to evaluate the difference in frictional resistance between titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires. Results and Conclusion: We compared the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires, with the help of Instron Universal Testing Machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's “t” test, and post hoc multiple range test at level of <0.05 showed statistically significant difference in the mean values of all groups. Results demonstrated that the titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot had no significant variations in frictional résistance. The self-ligating bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the other groups. The titanium bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the stainless steel brackets. PMID:23066253

  8. Effects of strain and strain-induced α'-martensite on passive films in AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinlong; Luo, Hongyun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of strain and heat treatment on strain-induced α'-martensite of AISI 304 stainless steel tubes were measured by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the effects of strain and content of α'-martensite on passivated property on the surface of the material in borate buffer solution were evaluated by electrochemical technique. The results showed that the volume fraction of α'-martensite increased gradually with the increase of tensile strain for as-received and solid solution samples. However, α'-martensite in as-received sample was more than that in the solid solution sample. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that the solid solution treatment improved corrosion resistance of the steel, especially for samples with small strain. Moreover, acceptor densities were always higher than donor densities for as-received and solid solution samples. With the increase of strain, the increase tendency of acceptor density was more significant than that of donor density. We also found that the total density of the acceptor and donor almost increased linearly with the increase of α'-martensite. The present results indicated that the increased acceptor density might lead to the decreased corrosion resistance of the steel. PMID:24268285

  9. Liquid Steel at Low Pressure: Experimental Investigation of a Downward Water Air Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumfart, Maria

    2016-07-01

    In the continuous casting of steel controlling the steel flow rate to the mould is critical because a well-defined flow field at the mould level is essential for a good quality of the cast product. The stopper rod is a commonly used device to control this flow rate. Agglomeration of solid material near the stopper rod can lead to a reduced cross section and thus to a decreased casting speed or even total blockage (“clogging”). The mechanisms causing clogging are still not fully understood. Single phase considerations of the flow in the region of the stopper rod result in a low or even negative pressure at the smallest cross section. This can cause degassing of dissolved gases from the melt, evaporation of alloys and entrainment of air through the porous refractory material. It can be shown that the degassing process in liquid steel is taking place mainly at the stopper rod tip and its surrounding. The steel flow around the stopper rod tip is highly turbulent. In addition refractory material has a low wettability to liquid steel. So the first step to understand the flow situation and transport phenomena which occur near the stopper is to understand the behaviour of this two phase (steel, gas) flow. To simulate the flow situation near the stopper rod tip, water experiments are conducted using a convergent divergent nozzle with three different wall materials and three different contact angles respectively. These experiments show the high impact of the wettability of the wall material on the actual flow structure at a constant gas flow rate.

  10. Residual stresses and microstructure of H13 steel formed by combining two different direct fabrication methods

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Payzant, E.A.; Schlienger, M.E.; McHugh, K.M.

    1998-10-13

    Direct fabrication (DF) of tool and die steels by rapid solidification techniques can produce near-net-shape parts and components with unique properties, and without the distortions caused by conventional normalizing and tempering heat-treatments. When combined with sophisticated 3-dimensional computer control to build complex solid metallic shapes, one has the capability of using DF for rapid prototyping. Spray forming using a circular converging/diverging atomizer is a DF process being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for rapid manufacturing of tool and die steels like H-13. Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) is a DF process being developed at Sandia National laboratory (SNL). LENS involves laser-processing fine powder metal sprays into complex, fully-dense 3-dimensional shapes with fine-detail control that would allow rapid prototyping of tools or dies. One logical combination of the two processes is to combine spray forming to replicate most of the die surface and backing, and then t o build other die-surface fine-features with LENS. Premium H-13 steel was used because it belongs to the widely used group of hot-work steels that have good resistance to heat, pressure and abrasion for metal-forging and aluminum die-casting applications. The microstructure and residual stresses that exist across the interface of a composite metal produced by these two DF methods are critical parameters in producing crack-free components with functional properties. The purpose of this work is to combine unique neutron-diffraction facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for measuring bulk residual stresses with these two different DF processes to characterize LENS deposits of H-13 steel made on a spray-formed base of that same steel.

  11. Galvanizing and Galvannealing Behavior of CMnSiCr Dual-Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ko-Chun; Chu, Peng-Wei; Lin, Chao-Sung; Chen, Hon-Bor

    2013-06-01

    Alloying elements, such as Mn, Mo, Si, and Cr, are commonly used to enhance the strength of advanced high-strength steels. Those elements also play an important role in the hot-dip galvanizing (GI) and galvannealing (GA) process. In this study, two kinds of CMnSiCr dual-phase steels were galvanized and galvannealed using a hot-dip simulator to investigate the effect of the alloying elements on the microstructure of the GI and GA coatings. The results showed that the dual-phase steels had good galvanizability because no bare spots were observed and the Fe-Zn phases were readily formed at the interface. However, the alloying reaction during the GA process was significantly hindered. XPS analysis showed that external oxidation occurred under an extremely low dew point [213 K to 203 K (-60 °C to -70 °C)] atmosphere during the annealing prior to hot dipping. However, most of the oxides were reduced during the GI process. After the GI process, the Al was present as solid solutes in the Fe-Zn phase, suggesting that the Fe-Zn phase was formed from the transformation of the Fe-Al inhibition alloy. Meanwhile, the solubility of Si in the ζ phase was extremely low. With continued GA reaction, the ζ phase transformed into the δ phase, which contained approximately 1.0 at.pct Si. The Si also diffused into the Zn layer during the GA reaction. Hence, the ζ phase did not homogeneously nucleate at the steel substrate/Zn coating interface, but was found at the area away from the interface. Therefore, the Fe-Zn phases on the CMnSiCr dual-phase steels were relatively non-uniform compared to those on interstitial-free steel.

  12. Detection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Steel Billets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Seetharaman, Sridhar; Yang, Shufeng; Yang, Wen; Wang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, automated particle analysis was employed to detect non-metallic inclusions in steel during a centrifugal continuous casting process of a high-strength low alloy steel. The morphology, composition, size, area fraction, amount, and spatial distribution of inclusions in steel were obtained. Etching experiment was performed to reveal the dendrite structure of the billet and to discuss the effect of centrifugal force on the distribution of oxide inclusions in the final solidified steel by comparing the solidification velocity with the critical velocity reported in literature. It was found that the amount of inclusions was highest in samples from the tundish (~250 per mm2), followed by samples from the mold (~200 per mm2), and lowest in billet samples (~86 per mm2). In all samples, over 90 pct of the inclusions were smaller than 2μm. In steel billets, the content of oxides, dual-phase oxide-sulfides, and sulfides in inclusions were found to be 10, 30, and 60 pct, respectively. The dual-phase inclusions were oxides with sulfides precipitated on the outer surface. Oxide inclusions consisted of high Al2O3 and high MnO which were solid at the molten steel temperature, implying that the calcium treatment was insufficient. Small oxide inclusions very uniformly distributed on the cross section of the billet, while there were more sulfide inclusions showing a banded structure at the outside 25 mm layer of the billet. The calculated solidification velocity was higher than the upper limit at which inclusions were entrapped by the solidifying front, revealing that for oxide inclusions smaller than 8μm in this study, the centrifugal force had little influence on its final distribution in billets. Instead, oxide inclusions were rapidly entrapped by solidifying front.

  13. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOEpatents

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  15. Silicone containing solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The addition of a small amount, for example 1% by weight, of a liquid silicone oil to a metal containing solid rocket propellant provides a significant reduction in heat transfer to the inert nozzle walls. Metal oxide slag collection and blockage of the nozzle are eliminated and the burning rate is increased by about 5% to 10% thus improving ballistic performance.

  16. A new solid lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

    1969-01-01

    Friction and wear life studies on burnished films of the compound graphite fluoride have demonstrated its potential as a solid lubricant material. It is effective in moist air, dry air, or in dry argon at temperatures up to approximately 400 degrees C.

  17. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  18. Solid-State Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  19. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  20. Solid-Waste Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  1. Solid electrolyte structure

    DOEpatents

    Fraioli, Anthony V.

    1984-01-01

    A solid electrolyte structure for fuel cells and other electrochemical devices providing oxygen ion transfer by a multiplicity of exposed internal surfaces made of a composition containing an oxide of a multivalent transition metal and forming small pore-like passages sized to permit oxygen ion transfer while limiting the transfer of oxygen gas.

  2. INCINERATION OF SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concern over solid waste disposal and dump-site clean-up has resulted in the passage of three major U.S. environmental laws. They are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, Public Law 94-580, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976, Public Law 94-4...

  3. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-01-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  4. Conjugate (solid/fluid) computational fluid dynamics analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor nozzle/case and case field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, D.; Keeton, L. W.; Dionne, P. J.; Singhal, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional, conjugate (solid/fluid) heat transfer analyses of new designs of the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle/case and case field joints are described. The main focus was to predict the consequences of multiple rips (or debonds) in the ambient cure adhesive packed between the nozzle/case joint surfaces and the bond line between the mating field joint surfaces. The models calculate the transient temperature responses of the various materials neighboring postulated flow/leakpaths into, past, and out from the nozzle/case primary O-ring cavity and case field capture O-ring cavity. These results were used to assess if the design was failsafe (i.e., no potential O-ring erosion) and reusable (i.e., no excessive steel temperatures). The models are adaptions and extensions of the general purpose PHOENICS fluid dynamics code. A non-orthogonal coordinate system was employed and 11,592 control cells for the nozzle/case and 20,088 for the case field joints are used with non-uniform distribution. Physical properties of both fluid and solids are temperature dependent. A number of parametric studies were run for both joints with results showing temperature limits for reuse for the steel case on the nozzle joint being exceeded while the steel case temperatures for the field joint were not. O-ring temperatures for the nozzle joint predicted erosion while for the field joint they did not.

  5. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  6. Transformation plasticity in ductile solids

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.B.

    1993-02-01

    Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing conditions have been established to achieve a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has been reformulated to allow a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Preliminary results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability.

  7. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Casuccio; Michael Potter; Fred Schwerer; Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. Scott Story

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet

  8. Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2004-01-01

    The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. The present study investigates the use of a sandwich foam fan blade mae up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The resulting structures possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and a detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of kin thickness and core volume are presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

  9. [Characteristic of Mercury Emissions and Mass Balance of the Typical Iron and Steel Industry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-hui; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ding-yong; Luo, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    To preliminarily discuss the mercury emission characteristics and its mass balance in each process of the iron and steel production, a typical iron and steel enterprise was chosen to study the total mercury in all employed materials and estimate the input and output of mercury during the steel production process. The results showed that the mercury concentrations of input materials in each technology ranged 2.93-159.11 µg · kg⁻¹ with the highest level observed in ore used in blast furnace, followed by coal of sintering and blast furnace. The mercury concentrations of output materials ranged 3.09-18.13 µg · kg⁻¹ and the mercury concentration of dust was the highest, followed by converter slag. The mercury input and the output in the coking plant were 1346.74 g · d⁻¹ ± 36.95 g · d⁻¹ and 177.42 g · d⁻¹ ± 13.73 g · d⁻¹, respectively. In coking process, mercury mainly came from the burning of coking coal. The sintering process was the biggest contributor for mercury input during the iron and steel production with the mercury input of 1075. 27 g · d⁻¹ ± 60.89 g · d⁻¹ accounting for 68.06% of the total mercury input during this production process, and the ore powder was considered as the main mercury source. For the solid output material, the output in the sintering process was 14.15 g · d⁻¹ ± 0.38 g · d⁻¹, accounting for 22.61% of the total solid output. The mercury emission amount from this studied iron and steel enterprise was estimated to be 553.83 kg in 2013 with the emission factor of 0.092 g · t⁻¹ steel production. Thus, to control the mercury emissions, iron and steel enterprises should combine with production practice, further reduce energy consumption of coking and sintering, or improve the quality of raw materials and reduce the input of mercury. PMID:27011969

  10. Solid Collection Efforts: Ta Collimator Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gostic, J M

    2011-11-21

    Ta collimator sets that were part of the gated x-ray detector diagnostic (GXD) at NIF were analyzed for debris distribution and damage in 2011. These disks (ranging in thickness from 250 to 750 {mu}m) were fielded approximately 10 cm from target chamber center (TCC) on various symcap, THD and re-emit shots. The nose cone holder and forward Ta collimator (facing target chamber center, TCC) from all shots show evidence of surface melt. Non-destructive analysis techniques such as optical microscopy, surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to determine debris composition and degree of deformation associated with each Ta disk. Molten debris from the stainless steel nose cone contaminated the surface of the collimators along with other debris associated with the target assembly (Al, Si, Cu, Au and In). Surface elemental analysis of the forward collimator Ta disks indicates that Au hohlraum debris is less concentrated on these samples versus those fielded 50 cm from TCC in the wedge range filter (WRF) assembly. It is possible that the Au is distributed below or within the stainless steel melt layer covering the disk, as most of the foreign debris is captured in the melted coating. The other disks (fielded directly behind the forward collimator in a sandwiched configuration) have visible forms of deformation and warping. The degree of warping increases as the shock wave penetrates the assembly with the most damage sustained on the back collimator. In terms of developing a solid collection capability, the collimator analyses suggests that close proximity may cause more interference with capsule debris collection and more damage to the surface of the collector diagnostic. The analyses of the Ta collimators were presented to the Target and Laser Interaction Sphere (TaLIS) group; a representative presentation is attached to this document.

  11. Combined geochemical and electrochemical methodology to quantify corrosion of carbon steel by bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marta K; Moreira, Rebeca; Bildstein, Olivier; Lartigue, Jean-Eric; Schlegel, Michel L; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent; Libert, Marie

    2014-06-01

    The availability of respiratory substrates, such as H2 and Fe(II,III) solid corrosion products within nuclear waste repository, will sustain the activities of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). This may have a direct effect on the rate of carbon steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of Shewanella oneidensis (an HOB and IRB model organism) on the corrosion rate by looking at carbon steel dissolution in the presence of H2 as the sole electron donor. Bacterial effect is evaluated by means of geochemical and electrochemical techniques. Both showed that the corrosion rate is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in the presence of bacteria. The geochemical experiments indicated that the composition and crystallinity of the solid corrosion products (magnetite and vivianite) are modified by bacteria. Moreover, the electrochemical experiments evidenced that the bacterial activity can be stimulated when H2 is generated in a small confinement volume. In this case, a higher corrosion rate and mineralization (vivianite) on the carbon steel surface were observed. The results suggest that the mechanism likely to influence the corrosion rate is the bioreduction of Fe(III) from magnetite coupled to the H2 oxidation. PMID:24064199

  12. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-15

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  13. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  14. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  15. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  16. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  17. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  18. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  19. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  20. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  1. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  2. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  3. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  4. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  5. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are...

  7. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  8. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  9. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  10. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are...

  13. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  14. Cryogenic treatment of steels. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of cryogenic temperatures to improve the properties of steels. Stainless steels, tool steels, electrical steels, and metal matrix composites are discussed. Citations cover fatigue life, wear resistance, tool life, and increased high temperature ductility. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Cryogenic treatment of steels. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of cryogenic temperatures to improve the properties of steels. Stainless steels, tool steels, electrical steels, and metal matrix composites are discussed. Citations cover fatigue life, wear resistance, tool life, and increased high temperature ductility. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Retained austenite characteristics in thermomechanically processed Si-Mn transformation-induced plasticity steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hanzaki, A.Z.; Hodgson, P.D.; Yue, S.

    1997-11-01

    It is well known that a significant amount of retained austenite can be obtained in steels containing high additions (>1 pct) of Si, where bainite is the predominant microconstituent. Furthermore, retained austenite with optimum characteristics (volume fraction, composition, morphology, size, and distribution), when present in ferrite plus bainite microstructures, can potentially increase strength and ductility, such that formability and final properties are greatly improved. These beneficial properties can be obtained largely by transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP). In this work, the effect of a microalloy addition (0.035 pct Nb) in a 0.22 pct C-1.55 pct Si-1.55 pct Mn TRIP steel was investigated. Niobium was added to enable the steel to be processed by a variety of thermomechanical processing (TMP) routes, thus allowing the effects of prior austenite grain size, austenite recrystallization temperature, Nb in austenite solid solution, and Nb as a precipitate to be studied. The results, which were compared with those of the same steel without Nb, indicate that the retained austenite volume fraction is strongly influenced by both prior austenite grain size and the state of Nb in austenite. Promoting Nb(CN) precipitation by the change in TMP conditions resulted in a decrease in the V{sub RA}. These findings are rationalized by considering the effects of changes in the TMP conditions on the subsequent transformation characteristics of the parent austenite.

  17. Role of microstructure and heat treatments on the desorption kinetics of tritium from austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chêne, J.; Brass, A.-M.; Trabuc, P.; Gastaldi, O.

    2007-02-01

    The liquid scintillation counting of solid samples (LSC-SS technique) was successfully used to study the role of microstructure and heat treatments on the behavior of residual tritium in several austenitic stainless steels (as-cast remelted tritiated waste, 316LN and 321 steels). The role of desorption annealing in the 100-600 °C range on the residual amount of tritium in tritiated waste was investigated. The residual tritium concentration computed from surface activity measurements is in good agreement with experimental values measured by liquid scintillation counting after full dissolution of the samples. The kinetics of tritium desorption recorded with the LSC-SS technique shows a significant desorption of residual tritium at room temperature, a strong barrier effect of thermal oxide films on the tritium desorption and a dependance of the tritium release on the steels microstructure. Annealing in the 300-600 °C range allows to desorb a large fraction of the residual tritium. However a significant trapping of tritium is evidenced. The influence of trapping phenomena on the concentration of residual tritium and on its dependance with the annealing temperature was investigated with different recrystallized and sensitized microstructures. Trapping is evidenced mainly below 150 °C and concerns a small fraction of the total amount of tritium introduced in austenitic steels. It presumably occurs preferentially on precipitates such as Ti(CN) or on intermetallic phases.

  18. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. The spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 μm/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separate experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (Edes = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (Edes = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium-lithium bonding.

  19. HRTEM Study of the Role of Nanoparticles in ODS Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Tumey, S; Fluss, M; Serruys, Y; Willaime, F

    2011-08-30

    Structures of nanoparticles and their role in dual-ion irradiated Fe-16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (K3) ODS ferritic steel produced by mechanical alloying (MA) were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The observation of Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} complex-oxide nanoparticles in the ODS steel imply that decomposition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in association with internal oxidation of Al occurred during mechanical alloying. HRTEM observations of crystalline and partially crystalline nanoparticles larger than {approx}2 nm and amorphous cluster-domains smaller than {approx}2 nm provide an insight into the formation mechanism of nanoparticles/clusters in MA/ODS steels, which we believe involves solid-state amorphization and re-crystallization. The role of nanoparticles/clusters in suppressing radiation-induced swelling is revealed through TEM examinations of cavity distributions in (Fe + He) dual-ion irradiated K3-ODS steel. HRTEM observations of helium-filled cavities (helium bubbles) preferably trapped at nanoparticle/clusters in dual-ion irradiated K3-ODS are presented.

  20. Softening Kinetics in High Al and High Al-Nb-Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereda, B.; Aretxabaleta, Z.; López, B.

    2015-03-01

    Double-hit torsion tests were performed in order to study the effect of high Al levels (up to 2 wt.%) and Nb microalloying (up to 0.07 wt.%) on the static softening kinetics of 0.2%C-2%Mn steels. The addition of 1%Al leads to a delay in the softening kinetics due to solute-drag effect, equivalent to that exerted by 0.027%Nb. For the 2%Al steels, at temperatures below 1000 °C, γ → α phase transformation occurs after deformation, resulting in a larger retardation of the softening kinetics. At temperatures higher than 1000 °C, Nb in solid solution also contributes to the retardation of the static softening kinetics, and at lower temperatures NbC strain-induced precipitation leads to incomplete softening for the 1%Al steel, and to a complex interaction between softening, phase transformation, and NbC strain-induced precipitation for the 2%Al-Nb steels. The effect of Al on the static softening kinetics was quantified and introduced in a model developed in previous works for the prediction of the austenite microstructural evolution. In order to validate the results of the model, multipass torsion tests were carried out at conditions representative of hot strip and plate rolling mills. Model predictions show reasonable agreement with the results obtained at different deformation conditions.

  1. Improving Cleanliness of 95CrMo Drill Rod Steel by Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Wu, Tuo; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Jiaze

    2016-02-01

    Industrial experiments were performed to improve the cleanliness of 95CrMo drill rod steel by slag refining. Higher steel cleanliness, lower corrosion, and small inclusions were obtained using the optimal slag composition (pctCaO/pctSiO2 = 3.7 to 4, pctCaO/pctAl2O3 = 6 to 8). Layered composite inclusions formed during vacuum decarburizing refining. CaS first precipitated around the spinel and subsequently formed inclusions in which solid CaS-CaO wrapped around the Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-CaO system as the modification and diffusion progressed. The thermodynamic equilibrium between slag and liquid 95CrMo steel at 1873 K (1600 °C) was also studied to understand the effect of slag composition on the oxygen content and absorption capacity for Al2O3. A mathematical model based on an investigation of slag viscosity and the interfacial tension between slag and inclusions was used to predict the size of critical inclusions for different slags. The evolution of typical inclusions is discussed in terms of the study of reactions between slag and steel.

  2. Joining techniques for a reduced activation 12Cr steel for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R. M.; El-Dasher, B.; Choi, B. W.; Torres, S. G.

    2014-10-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel that is based on the ferritic martensitic steel HT-9. As a part of the development of this steel, we tested a series of welding processes for characterization, including conventional welds (electron beam, tungsten inert gas, and laser) as well as solid-state welds (hot isostatic pressing). We also heat treated the joints at various temperatures between 750 °C and 1050 °C to find a suitable normalization scheme. The modified HT-9 reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel appears highly suitable to welding and diffusion bonding. All welds showed good quality fusion zones with insignificant cracking or porosity. Additionally, a heat treatment schedule of 950 °C for one hour caused minimal grain growth while still converging the hardness of the base metal with that of the fusion and heat-affected zones. Also, modified HT-9 diffusion bonds that were created at temperatures of at least 950 °C for two hours at 103 MPa had interface tensile strengths of greater than 600 MPa. The diffusion bonds showed no evidence of increased hardness nor void formation at the diffusion bonded interface.

  3. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2015-11-10

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. Here, the spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 μm/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separate experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (Edes = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (Edes = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding.

  4. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2015-11-10

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. Here, the spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 μm/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separatemore » experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (Edes = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (Edes = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding.« less

  5. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. The spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 mu m/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separate experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (E-des = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (E-des = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1981 HELD AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON OCTOBER 6-8, 1981

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents presentations at the Symposium on Iron and Steel Pollution Abatement Technology for 1981, Chicago, IL, October 6-8. The Symposium provided a forum for the exchange of information on technology problems related to air, water, and solid waste pollution abatemen...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY (1ST), HELD AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON OCTOBER 30-NOVEMBER 1, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    The symposium was organized into air, water, and solids sessions. Air pollution topics included: emission standards, assessment of coke quench tower and by-product recovery plant emissions, sealing of coke-oven doors, volatilization of hydrocarbons in steel rolling operations, de...

  8. General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Solid Rocket Booster's (SRB) Solid Rocket Motor Segments in the Surge Building of the Rotation Processing and Surge Facility at Kennedy Space Center awaiting transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building and subsequent mounting and assembly on the Mobile Launch Platform. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Gary A.

    2015-03-09

    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  10. Duplex stainless steels for osteosynthesis devices.

    PubMed

    Cigada, A; Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B; Giacomazzi, M; Roos, A

    1989-09-01

    The austenitic stainless steels used today for the manufacture of osteosynthesis devices are sensitive to crevice corrosion. In this study the corrosion properties of some duplex stainless steels were evaluated and compared to traditional austenitic stainless steels. According to our results the following ranking was established: 23Cr-4Ni less than AISI 316L less than ASTM F138 less than 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo less than 27Cr-31Ni-3.5Mo less than 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N. In particular the results showed that the high-performance 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel, with high molybdenum and nitrogen contents, can be considered not susceptible to crevice corrosion in the human body. The duplex stainless steels have also better mechanical properties at the same degree of cold working compared with austenitic stainless steels. Hence the 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel can be considered a convenient substitute of ASTM F138 for orthopedic and osteosynthesis devices. PMID:2777835

  11. Magnetic sheet steel lamination detection, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, F. J.; Syniuta, W. D.

    1980-08-01

    Research to assess the feasibility of a nondestructive magnetic inspection technique for detecting defective sheet steel is reported. A major problem in the deep drawing and stamping industry is the failure of sheet steel due to laminations which occur when the steel is formed into various shapes or processed further. A continuous nondestructive testing method was developed based upon differences in magnetic properties of acceptable steel and defective steel. The technique assumes an increase in the magnetic hardness of the defect compared to the base material. Experimental results obtained with the artificial flaw demonstrate that it is possible to sense magnetic differences in sheet steel if the differences are large enough. However, as the differences in magnetic hardness diminish, or where thin surface defects or internal laminations occur, detection becomes increasingly difficult. Moreoever, it has not been established that all sheet steel defects are magnetically harder than unflawed material. It was concluded that the technique, which can detect only some flaws and is incapable of detecting many important defects, would be only marginally useful.

  12. Surface decontamination of Type 304L stainless steel with electrolytically generated hydrogen: Design and operation of the electrolyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Bellanger, G. )

    1993-11-01

    The surface of tritiated Type 304L stainless steel is decontaminated by isotopic exchange with the hydrogen generated in an electrolyzer. This steel had previously been exposed to tritium in a tritium gas facility for several years. The electrolyzer for the decontamination uses a conducting solid polymer electrolyte made of a Nafion membrane. The cathode where the hydrogen is formed is nickel deposited on one of the polymer surfaces. This cathode is placed next to the region of the steel to be decontaminated. The decontamination involves, essentially, the tritiated oxide layers of which the initial radioactivity is [approximately] 5 kBq/cm[sup 2]. After treatment for 1 h, the decontamination factor is 8. 9 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  14. How to Reduce Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, George; Clapp, Leallyn B.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the problem of solid waste disposal in the United States, suggests ways in which solid wastes might be reduced, and proposes a number of related topics for student debate in classes or in science clubs. (JR)

  15. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  16. Edge remap for solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C.; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  17. Solid polymer membrane program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell development program. Failure mechanism was identified and resolution of the mechanism experienced in small stack testing was demonstrated. The effect included laboratory analysis and evaluation of a matrix of configurations and operational variables for effects on the degree of hydrogen fluoride released from the cell and on the degree of blistering/delamination occurring in the reactant inlet areas of the cell and to correlate these conditions with cell life capabilities. The laboratory evaluation tests were run at conditions intended to accelerate the degradation of the solid polymer electrolyte in order to obtain relative evaluations as quick as possible. Evaluation of the resolutions for the identified failure mechanism in space shuttle configuration cell assemblies was achieved with the fabrication and life testing of two small stack buildups of four cell assemblies and eight cells each.

  18. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  19. Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-05-01

    Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

  20. Reducing corrosion in aluminum-steel joints

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This article examines how galvanic corrosion in aluminum-intensive steel structures can be controlled, without losing performance, by using transition materials. The topics of the article include the transition material concept, corrosion resistance, experimental conditions, and the results of the experiment including mass loss of lap joints, strength retention, joining methods. The results show how use of steel-clad aluminum transition material in joining aluminum and steel deals successfully addresses the problems of joining and durability associated with increasing use of aluminum on automobiles.