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Sample records for 12-week exercise intervention

  1. Sustained improvements in fitness and exercise tolerance in obese adolescents after a 12 week exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Gow, Megan L; van Doorn, Nancy; Broderick, Carolyn R; Hardy, Louise L; Ho, Mandy; Baur, Louise A; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2016-01-01

    A 12 week exercise program was evaluated for its effect on aerobic fitness, anaerobic threshold, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels in obese insulin resistant adolescents post intervention and at follow up. 111 obese insulin resistant 10-17 year olds were recruited to a 12 month lifestyle intervention, known as RESIST. From months 4 to 6, adolescents participated in supervised exercise sessions twice per week (45-60min/session). Aerobic fitness and anaerobic threshold were measured by gas analysis at baseline, 6 months (post intervention) and 12 months (follow up). Self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior was measured using the CLASS questionnaire. At 6 months aerobic fitness and time to reach the anaerobic threshold had improved by 5.8% [95% CI: 0.8-11.3] and 19.7% [95% CI: 10.4-29.0], respectively compared with baseline. These improvements were maintained at 12 months. Compared to baseline, 6 month physical activity levels increased by 19min/day [95% CI: 5-33] and screen time decreased by 49min/day [95% CI: 23-74] but returned to baseline levels by 12 months. Improved fitness and anaerobic threshold can be sustained up to 6 months following completion of an exercise program possibly enhancing capacity to perform daily functional tasks. PMID:25959765

  2. Effect of a 12-Week Low vs. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training on Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Exercise Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Prado, Wagner Luiz; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Oyama, Lila Missae; Cardel, Michelle; Gomes, Priscyla Praxedes; Andrade, Maria Laura S S; Freitas, Camila R M; Balagopal, Prabhakaran; Hill, James O

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how the intensity of aerobic training influences appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Our goal was to assess the effect of low and high intensity aerobic trainings on food intake and appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Forty three obese adolescents (age: 13-18y, BMI: 34.48 ± 3.94 kg/m2) were randomized into high intensity training (HIT; n = 20) or low intensity training (LIT; n = 23) groups for 12 weeks. All participants also received the same nutritional, psychological and clinical counseling. Pre- and postintervention energy intake (EI) and circulating levels of insulin, leptin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and ghrelin were measured. Adolescents in the HIT showed a reduction in total EI and an increase in PYY3-36 (p < .05). Aerobic exercise training performed at ventilatory threshold 1 intensity, reduced EI and augmented PYY3-36 in obese adolescents, compared with LIT. The data suggest that HIT and LIT have differential effects in the regulation of appetite signals and subsequent EI in obese adolescents. PMID:26680421

  3. Exercise training versus diet-induced weight-loss on metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers in obese subjects: a 12-week randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren K; Bruun, Jens M; Pedersen, Steen B; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise training and diet-induced weight loss alone or in combination on inflammatory markers in circulation, in adipose tissue (AT) and in skeletal muscle (SM) in obese subjects. Seventy-nine obese subjects were randomized into a 12-wk intervention: 1) exercise only (EXO), 2) diet-induced weight loss using a very low energy diet (DIO), and 3) exercise and diet-induced weight-loss combined (DEX). Blood samples (metabolic and inflammatory markers) and AT and SM biopsies (mRNA expression) were collected at baseline and after 12 wk. In the EXO group the weight loss was 3.5 kg and in the DIO and DEX groups it was 12 kg in both. Vo(2max) was increased by 14-18% in the EXO and DEX groups with no changes in the DIO group. In the DIO and DEX groups, circulating levels of MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, IL-15, and IL-18 were decreased, and adiponectin was increased (P < 0.05 for all). In the EXO group, MCP-1 was decreased with 10% (P = 0.06). By combining the weight loss in all three groups, we found a correlation between the degree of weight loss and improvement in several of the inflammatory markers (P < 0.05). In AT biopsies, subjects in the DIO and DEX groups achieved a general beneficial but nonsignificant effect on the gene expression of inflammatory markers. In the EXO group, no changes in AT adipokine mRNA were found except for an increment of adiponectin (P < 0.05). In SM, the only observed change was that the gene expression of IL-6 was increased in all three groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, rather large weight losses (>5-7%) were found to have beneficial effects on circulating inflammatory markers in these obese subjects. Aerobic exercise for 12 wk, which increased Vo(2max), was found to have no effects on circulating inflammatory markers in these obese patients. It is suggested that more intensive exercise may be necessary to affect systemic inflammation. PMID:20086201

  4. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  5. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  6. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26157235

  7. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26157235

  8. Predictors of adherence to a 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer: ENGAGE study.

    PubMed

    Craike, Melinda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Courneya, Kerry S; Fraser, Steve F; Salmon, Jo; Owen, Patrick J; Broadbent, Suzanne; Livingston, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence adherence to exercise programs is necessary to develop effective interventions for people with cancer. We examined the predictors of adherence to a supervised exercise program for participants in the ENGAGE study - a cluster randomized controlled trial that assessed the efficacy of a clinician-referred 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer. Demographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial data from 52 participants in the intervention group were collected at baseline through self-report and medical records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was assessed through objective attendance records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was 80.3%. In the univariate analyses, cancer-specific quality of life subscales (role functioning r = 0.37, P = 0.01; sexual activity r = 0.26, P = 0.06; fatigue r = -0.26, P = 0.06, and hormonal symptoms r = -0.31, P = 0.03) and education (d = -0.60, P = 0.011) were associated with adherence. In the subsequent multivariate analysis, role functioning (B = 0.309, P = 0.019) and hormonal symptoms (B = -0.483, P = 0.054) independently predicted adherence. Men who experienced more severe hormonal symptoms had lower levels of adherence to the exercise program. Those who experienced more positive perceptions of their ability to perform daily tasks and leisure activities had higher levels of adherence to the exercise program. Hormonal symptoms and role functioning need to be considered when conducting exercise programs for men who have been treated for prostate cancer. PMID:26872005

  9. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Bibeau, Wendy S; Bartholomew, John B

    2011-06-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level (e.g., competence, certainty, importance, and ideal self-discrepancy). This allowed for an analysis of cognitive facets as possible contributors to changes in physical self-perceptions. We addressed these aims with a sample of 120 college-age adults who completed a 12-week resistance exercise program. Results indicated significant improvements in self-perception constructs at all levels of the EXSEM. The hierarchical structure of the EXSEM was partially supported, as we observed successively smaller improvements at each level of the model (e.g., self-esteem showed lesser improvements than physical self-worth). In addition, a path model developed to explain the impact of strength changes on self-esteem proved a good fit for the data. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-perception, potential mediators of exercise on self-esteem, and the need to consider cognitive facets of self-perception. PMID:21699109

  10. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  11. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  12. The effect of 12 weeks Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) on body stability and pain for fruit farmers with MSDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Nam, Sang-Nam; Bae, Ung Ryel; Hwang, Ryong; Lee, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jong-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible effects of 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) for the fruit farmers (grape, tomato, apple) with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) on body stability and pain. 131 fruit farmers with MSD were selected and asked to join a 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) from 2009 to 2012. The subjects (female=74, male=57) aged 50 to 65 years old voluntarily participated. As a result, it was found that lateral-medial and anterior-posterior of body stability significantly improved in male and female fruit farmers. It was found that pain index (VAS) after 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) showed a significant decrease. PMID:24704650

  13. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  14. Promoting healthful diets and exercise: efficacy of a 12-week after-school program in urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Engels, Hermann-J; Gretebeck, Randall J; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Jiménez, Linda

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a unique extracurricular after-school initiative designed to promote healthy diets and exercise in urban African Americans. The Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit after-school program was offered for 12 weeks to students and their parents/guardians at an urban middle school. Specific aims of the intervention were to increase participants' vegetable and fruit intake by using established 5 A Day for Better Health educational resource materials/activities and to affect their health-related fitness through dance, games, and fitness activities. Fifty-six children and 25 parents/guardians completed a standard battery of evaluations before and after the program. Pre-post pairwise t test revealed that both children and their parents/guardians showed an increase in fruit consumption and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P <.05). Moreover, children showed improvements in systolic blood pressure and fruit juice, salad, and nonfried potato consumption while parents/guardians showed a decrease in body fat, body mass index, and endurance walk/run time (P <.05). Overall, findings indicate that children tended to gain more diet-related benefits while parents/guardians tended to derive more fitness-related benefits. After-school programs like the Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit initiative can potentially contribute to improved health levels in urban African Americans. PMID:15746836

  15. Do soccer and Zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees? A 12-week RCT.

    PubMed

    Barene, S; Krustrup, P; Jackman, S R; Brekke, O L; Holtermann, A

    2014-12-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG). Intervention effects for the two training groups were compared with CG. The training was conducted outside working hours as 2-3 1-h sessions per week for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ), fat percentage, fat mass, bone mineral content, and plasma osteocalcin were measured before and after the intervention period. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses, SG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.02) and decreased heart rate during 100-W cycle exercise (-7 bpm; P = 0.01), total body fat percentage (-1.1%; P = 0.002), and total body fat mass (-1.0 kg; P = 0.001) compared with CG. ZG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.03) and decreased total fat mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05) compared with CG. Plasma osteocalcin increased in SG (21%; P < 0.001) and ZG (10%; P = 0.01) compared with CG. The present study indicates that workplace initiated short-term soccer training as well as Zumba outside working hours may result in fitness and modest health benefits among female hospital employees. PMID:24151956

  16. Effects of a 12-Week Resistance Exercise Program on Physical Self-Perceptions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Mitchell, Nathanael G.; Bibeau, Wendy S.; Bartholomew, John B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level…

  17. Changes in selected cardiorespiratory responses to exercise and in body composition following a 12-week aerobic dance programme.

    PubMed

    Williams, L D; Morton, A R

    1986-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory and body composition changes were evaluated in 25 sedentary females, aged 18 to 30 years, following 12 weeks of aerobic dance training (3 days a week, 45 min a session). Fifteen subjects, from the same population, comprised a control group: they maintained their normal activity and dietary habits over the course of the study. Analysis of variance of the values for selected cardiorespiratory responses revealed that the aerobic dance programme produced training effects in the experimental group. These training effects were indicated by significant improvements in O2 pulse, VE, heart rate and perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. Significant improvements were also noted in VO2 max, maximal O2 pulse, VE max, maximal heart rate and maximal running time on the treadmill. Additionally, increases in lean body mass and body density, together with decreases in percentage body fat and the sum of four skinfold thicknesses were found to be significant for the experimental group. No significant improvements in any of these variables were found for the control group. It was concluded that this 12-week aerobic dance programme was successful in promoting beneficial changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. PMID:3586112

  18. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  19. The Outcomes of a 12-Week Internet Intervention Aimed at Improving Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Overweight Adolescents: The Young & Active Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Riiser, Kirsti; Løndal, Knut; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Misvær, Nina; Helseth, Sølvi

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity among adolescents may have consequences, with potentially lasting effects on health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Excess weight is also associated with decreases in physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of the current study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-week Internet intervention in a primary care setting intended to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this controlled trial, participants (13–15 years) were non-randomly allocated to an intervention- or a control group. The intervention group received 12-weeks access to an online program providing tailored physical activity counseling based on principles from Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The control group received standard follow-up by the school nurses. The primary outcome measure of cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using a shuttle run test. The secondary outcomes: HRQoL, leisure time exercise, body image and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise, were assessed by self-report measures. Age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on measurements of height and weight. To compare pre-to post intervention differences within groups, a paired samples t-test was used while crude differences between groups were analyzed with an independent samples t-test. Results Of the 120 participants, 108 completed the study, 75 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Exposure to the intervention had a small effect on cardiorespiratory fitness (0.14; 95% CI [0.01;0.28]; P = 0.04), and a moderate effect on HRQoL (5.22; 95% CI [0.90; 9.53]; P = 0.02). Moreover, the control group increased significantly in BMI, yielding a moderate preventive effect on BMI (−0.39; 95% CI [−0.74;−0.03]; P = 0.03) for the intervention group. Conclusion The results suggest that the Internet

  20. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  1. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  2. Effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program with music & exercise groups on range of motion in young children with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared with standard of care (SOC). To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the SOC alone. This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages 2 and 6 years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared with 9 patients who received SOC. Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving SOC showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the SOC alone. PMID:18849852

  3. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  4. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Metabolic Risk and Quality of Life in Hong Kong Chinese Adults with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention to improve metabolic risk profiles and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We conducted a controlled trial within an university-affiliated hospital. 173 Chinese men and women aged 18 or above were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the control group (n = 86). Primary outcomes included 12-week change in metabolic risk factors and MetS z score. Secondary outcome was HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey at 12 weeks). Results The mean age of participants was 52.0 (SD 7.4, range 31-71) years. Analysis involving the entire study population revealed that the yoga group achieved greater decline in waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05), and MetS z score (p<0.01). Yoga training also improved general health perceptions (p<0.01), physical component score (p<0.01), and social functioning (p<0.01) domains score of HRQoL. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the mean change of systolic/diastolic blood pressures or high-density lipid protein cholesterol (all p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the intervention effects on waist circumference and MetS z score between the MetS subgroups (both p>0.05). Conclusion A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention improves metabolic risk profiles and HRQoL in Chinese adults with and without MetS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000816752 PMID:26111165

  5. A 12 week aerobic exercise program improves fitness, hepatic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in obese Hispanic adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Strictly controlled exercise programs might be useful tools to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose kinetics. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk aerobic exerci...

  6. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  7. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Muscular Strength and Endurance, and Flexibility in Hong Kong Chinese Adults: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. Methods. 173 adults (aged 52.0 ± 7.5 years) were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the waitlist control group (n = 86). 19 dropped out from the study. Primary outcomes were changes in cardiorespiratory endurance (resting heart rate (HR) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)), muscular strength and endurance (curl-up and push-up tests), and lower back and hamstring flexibility (the modified back-saver sit-and-reach (MBS) test). Results. Compared to controls, the yoga group achieved significant improvements in VO2max (P < 0.01), curl-up (P < 0.05) and push-up (P < 0.001) tests, and the MBS left and right leg tests (both P < 0.001) in both genders. Significant change was also found for resting HR between groups in women (P < 0.05) but not in men. Further analysis comparing participants between younger and older subgroups yielded similar findings, except that the older participants in the yoga group failed to improve resting HR or the curl-up test versus control. Adherence (89%) and attendance (94%) were high. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion. A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention has favorable effects on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. PMID:26167196

  8. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  9. Differences between men and women in dietary intakes and metabolic profile in response to a 12-week nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Vicky; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Bégin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared men and women in response to nutritional interventions but none has assessed differences between men and women in the response to a nutritional intervention programme based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and using the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) as a model of healthy eating, in a context of CVD prevention and within a non-Mediterranean population. The present study aimed to document differences between men and women in changes in dietary, anthropometric and metabolic variables, in response to a nutritional intervention programme promoting the adoption of the MedDiet and based on the SDT. A total of sixty-four men and fifty-nine premenopausal women presenting risk factors for CVD were recruited through different media advertisements in the Québec City Metropolitan area (Canada). The 12-week nutritional programme used a motivational interviewing approach and included individual and group sessions. A validated FFQ was administered to evaluate dietary intakes from which a Mediterranean score (Medscore) was derived. Both men and women significantly increased their Medscore in response to the intervention (P < 0·0001). Men showed a significantly greater decrease in red and processed meat (-0·4 (95 % CI -0·7, -0·1) portions per d) and a greater increase in fruit (0·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·6) portions per d) intakes than women. Significant decreases were observed for BMI and waist circumference in both men and women (P ≤ 0·04). Significant greater decreases were found for total cholesterol (total-C):HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·03) and TAG:HDL-C (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·04) ratios in men than in women. When adjusting for the baseline value of the response variable, differences between men and women became non-significant for red and processed meat and fruit intakes whereas significant differences between men and women (i.e. larger increases in men than women) were observed for legumes, nuts and seeds (0·6

  10. A 12 WEEKS EXERCISE PROGRAM RESULTED IN REDUCED VISCERAL FAT AND FASTING INSULIN BUT NOT TOTAL AND INTRAMYOCELLULAR FAT IN HISPANIC OBESE ADOLESCENTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a serious public health concern. Weight loss is known to improve insulin sensitivity but is difficult to achieve. The independent effects of exercise on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in the absence of overall w...

  11. A 12-Week Vigorous Exercise Protocol in a Healthy Group of Persons over 65: Study of Physical Function by means of the Senior Fitness Test.

    PubMed

    Todde, Francesco; Melis, Franco; Mura, Roberto; Pau, Massimiliano; Fois, Francesco; Magnani, Sara; Ibba, Gianfranco; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vigorous exercise on functional abilities by means of a Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in a group of elderly adults. Twenty healthy and inactive people performed vigorous exercise (VE: 12 men and 8 women, aged 69.6 ± 3.9 years). At the beginning of the study (T0) and after 3 months (T1), each subject's functional ability was tested for muscular strength, agility, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and balance. The VE was designed with continuous and interval exercise involving large muscle activities. Functional exercises were performed between 60% and 84% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for a duration of 65 minutes. Five out of the 6 SFTs performed were found significantly improved: Chair Stand (T0 12.4 ± 2.4, T1 13.5 ± 2.6, p < 0.01), Arm Curl (T0 14.2 ± 3.6, T1 16.6 ± 3.6, p < 0.01), 2 min step (T0 98.2 ± 15.7, T1 108.9 ± 16.2, p < 0.01), Chair Sit-and-Reach (T0 -9.9 ± 7.7 cm, T1 1.7 ± 6.3 cm, p < 0.01), and Back Scratch (T0 -15.8 ± 10.9 cm, T1 -8.4 ± 13.1 cm, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that a high intensity protocol and functional exercises can improve functional mobility and muscle endurance in those over 65 years of age. SFTs are an effective method for assessing improvements in the functional capacity of elderly adults. PMID:27243035

  12. A 12-Week Vigorous Exercise Protocol in a Healthy Group of Persons over 65: Study of Physical Function by means of the Senior Fitness Test

    PubMed Central

    Todde, Francesco; Melis, Franco; Mura, Roberto; Pau, Massimiliano; Fois, Francesco; Magnani, Sara; Ibba, Gianfranco; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vigorous exercise on functional abilities by means of a Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in a group of elderly adults. Twenty healthy and inactive people performed vigorous exercise (VE: 12 men and 8 women, aged 69.6 ± 3.9 years). At the beginning of the study (T0) and after 3 months (T1), each subject's functional ability was tested for muscular strength, agility, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and balance. The VE was designed with continuous and interval exercise involving large muscle activities. Functional exercises were performed between 60% and 84% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for a duration of 65 minutes. Five out of the 6 SFTs performed were found significantly improved: Chair Stand (T0 12.4 ± 2.4, T1 13.5 ± 2.6, p < 0.01), Arm Curl (T0 14.2 ± 3.6, T1 16.6 ± 3.6, p < 0.01), 2 min step (T0 98.2 ± 15.7, T1 108.9 ± 16.2, p < 0.01), Chair Sit-and-Reach (T0 −9.9 ± 7.7 cm, T1 1.7 ± 6.3 cm, p < 0.01), and Back Scratch (T0 −15.8 ± 10.9 cm, T1 −8.4 ± 13.1 cm, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that a high intensity protocol and functional exercises can improve functional mobility and muscle endurance in those over 65 years of age. SFTs are an effective method for assessing improvements in the functional capacity of elderly adults. PMID:27243035

  13. Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonski, Verna O.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of wellness counseling is to guide individuals to live a healthy life in which body, mind, and spirit are integrated in order to experience fulfillment and happiness. The purpose of this article is to provide counselors steps to follow when using exercise as a counseling intervention and to provide techniques that will encourage exercise…

  14. Physical Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)

  15. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interacted to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week, meal-controlled, weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Witbracht, Megan G; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0-45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food. PMID:23190756

  16. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  17. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention

  18. Effect of an Exercise Intervention on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Carrie; Marcus, Bess H.; Stanek, Edward J.; Braun, Barry; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Solomon, Caren G.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an individually-tailored, motivationally-matched prenatal exercise intervention on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other measures of glucose intolerance among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients at increased risk for GDM. Methods The Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study randomized eligible women at a mean (SD) of 18.2 (4.1) weeks gestation to a 12-week individually tailored, motivationally matched exercise intervention or a comparison health and wellness intervention. The goal of the exercise intervention was to achieve the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy. Diagnosis of GDM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), abnormal glucose screen, and screening glucose values (mg/dL) were abstracted from medical records. A sample size of 352 women (176 per group) was planned to have 80% power to detect reductions in risk of 35% or larger. Results From July, 2007 to December, 2012, a total of 251 (86.5%) women completed the intervention; n=124 and 127 in the exercise and comparison interventions, respectively. Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, no statistically significant differences between the intervention groups were observed; the relative odds of GDM in the exercise group was 0.61 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.28–1.32) as compared to the health and wellness comparison group. Odds ratios for IGT and abnormal glucose screen were 0.68 (95% CI 0.35–1.34) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.51–1.47), respectively. The intervention had no effect on birth outcomes. Conclusion In this randomized trial among ethnically diverse pregnant women at increased risk for GDM, we found that a prenatal exercise intervention implemented in the second trimester did not result in a statistically significant reduction in relative odds for GDM, IGT, or abnormal glucose screen. PMID:25932848

  19. Intervention of Collective Exercise on the Mental Health of Elderly Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    XU, Wenxin; LI, Menglong; YAO, Jiwei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety, depression, and other adverse psychological reactions are often observed in elderly hypertensive patients. Appropriate exercise is a safe form of adjuvant therapy without causing side effects among these patients, with consistent effects on patients’ mental health. In this study, a collective exercise intervention experiment was conducted to evaluate the mental health of elderly hypertensive patients and to verify the effect of the psychological intervention of collective exercise. Method: A total of 115 elderly hypertensive patients aged 60–70 years old were selected as study subjects from May 2012 to January 2015 in Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China. A total of 57 patients were included in the control group and 58 patients were assigned in the experimental group. Patients in the experimental group participated in a 12 weeks exercise intervention, while patients in the control group didn’t participate in any regular physical exercise. Results: After intervention, the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), total score, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptom, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoia scores of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The positive coping style score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05); by contrast, the negative coping style score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The mental health level and coping ability of elderly hypertensive patients can be effectively improved with the proposed treatment. PMID:27141493

  20. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT

  1. Combined diet and exercise intervention in the workplace: effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    White, Karen; Jacques, Paul H

    2007-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a 12-week pilot employee wellness program in reducing risk factors for coronary heart disease. Fifty university employees with at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor participated in the program. Interventions focused on diet, exercise, and monthly workshops. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included weight, body composition, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, and blood sugar. Twenty-five employees had post-intervention measurements. A survey was administered to assess adherence. The correlation between adherence and improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors was also tested. Significant differences were observed between pre- and post-intervention measurements of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, and weight. A significant correlation existed between self-reported level of participation in the diet aspect of the program and improvement in LDL levels. This multi-component, 12-week pilot employee wellness program was effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:17405587

  2. Effect of a 12-week aerobic training program on perceptual and affective responses in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Luís Alberto Garcia; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Freitas, Rosemari Queiroz; Henrique de Souza, Carlos; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to observe the effect of self-selected intensity or imposed intensity during aerobic training on perceptual and affective responses in obese women. [Subjects] The study included 26 obese women aged 30–60 years. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with 13 subjects in each group: self-selected intensity and imposed intensity (10% above ventilatory threshold) groups. All subjects completed an intervention program that lasted 12 weeks, with three exercise sessions a week. The rating of perceived exertion and affective responses (Feeling Scale and Felt Arousal Scale) were monitored in the first, sixth, and twelfth weeks. [Results] Significant differences were observed between groups in heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. The affective responses during exercise were more negative in the imposed intensity group. [Conclusion] Use of a self-selected exercise intensity can promote smaller negative affective responses during exercise and provide a sufficient stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26311958

  3. Exercise intervention for management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Deusinger, Susan S

    2012-01-01

    Obesity touches the lives of most Americans regardless of age. In adults, accrual of co-morbidities, including frank disability, impacts health in ways that mandate aggressive public health action. In children, the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity raises serious prospective concerns for life as these children enter adulthood. Action is imperative to provide medical interventions and preventive strategies to reduce the threat this condition poses to future generations. Obesity primarily results from an energy regulation imbalance within the body; understanding its origin and effects requires considering both the intake (via eating) and output (via moving) of energy. This article focuses on how exercise and physical activity (i.e., energy output) can influence the primary condition of obesity and its health sequelae. Components, strategies, and expected outcomes of exercise and lifestyle activity are addressed. Successful long-term participation in daily movement requires matching exercise regimens and physical activity outlets to individual preferences and environmental conditions. Activity habits of Americans must change at home and in the workplace, schools and the community to positively influence health. Although the goals of Healthy People 2010 to reduce sedentary behavior have not been met, success of other public health interventions (e.g., immunizations, use of bicycle helmets) suggests that social change to alter activity habits can be achieved. Failure to reach our public health goals should serve as a catalyst for broad-based action to help children, adolescents, and adults attain and maintain behaviors that reduce the risk of obesity and its health insults. PMID:22009641

  4. A Comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and Aquatic Training on the Dynamic Balance of Women with Mulitple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nejad, Vahid Shayegan; Shanazari, Zohreh; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling chronic disease of the nervous system in which the myelin system of the central nervous system is deteriorated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Pilates exercises and aquatic training for a 12 week period on the dynamic balance of MS patients. Methods: The research method is semi-experimental. As a result, among the female patients visiting the MS clinic of Kashani hospital in Esfahan, 57 patients with disease intensity levels between 0 and 4.5 were taken as samples. The average length of the disease was 8 ± 2 years, 20;40 years old, and they were randomly divided into three groups of Pilates exercise group, aquatic training group, and the control group. The exercise schedule for the experiment groups consisted of 12 weeks, three sessions per week, and 1 hour for each session. The dynamic balance of the patients, before and after the exercises was measured by Six Spot Step Test. Results: The adjusted mean differences of Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) scores of the experimental groups are significantly different (P<0.05). Therefore, it can be said that Pilates exercise interventions and aquatic training can significantly increase the dynamic balance of the examinees in the post-experiment stage. Conclusions: Performing the Pilate exercises and aquatic training increases dynamic balance of the MS patients. Considering the role of dynamic balance on physical fitness and enabling the person in doing is daily chores and routines, and its direct effect on the quality of life, it leads the specialists in applying these exercises as a supplementary treatment along with the medicinal treatments for MS patients. PMID:23717760

  5. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N.; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (V.O2max). Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved V.O2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively), v V.O2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively), and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively). Conclusions After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of V.O2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only partially, both

  6. Exposing college students to exercise: the training interventions and genetics of exercise response (TIGER) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age ...

  7. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  8. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Huang, Liang; Wu, Yanqiang; Zhang, Yanxin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60-80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. PMID:24453483

  9. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia. PMID:24143082

  10. Design of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise interventions after chemotherapy on physical fitness and fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preliminary studies suggest that physical exercise interventions can improve physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life in cancer patients after completion of chemotherapy. Additional research is needed to rigorously test the effects of exercise programmes among cancer patients and to determine optimal training intensity accordingly. The present paper presents the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a high intensity exercise programme compared to a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme and a waiting list control group on physical fitness and fatigue as primary outcomes. Methods After baseline measurements, cancer patients who completed chemotherapy are randomly assigned to either a 12-week high intensity exercise programme or a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme. Next, patients from both groups are randomly assigned to immediate training or a waiting list (i.e. waiting list control group). After 12 weeks, patients of the waiting list control group start with the exercise programme they have been allocated to. Both interventions consist of equal bouts of resistance and endurance interval exercises with the same frequency and duration, but differ in training intensity. Additionally, patients of both exercise programmes are counselled to improve compliance and achieve and maintain an active lifestyle, tailored to their individual preferences and capabilities. Measurements will be performed at baseline (t = 0), 12 weeks after randomization (t = 1), and 64 weeks after randomization (t = 2). The primary outcome measures are cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength assessed by means of objective performance indicators, and self-reported fatigue. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, self-reported physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood and sleep disturbances, and return to work. In addition, compliance and satisfaction with the

  11. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Middelkamp, Jan; van Rooijen, Maaike; Wolfhagen, Peter; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2). The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3). A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05) in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65) in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08) in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07) for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R2 = 0.18; p < 0.05). Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs. Key points Approximately 144 million individuals exercise in fitness clubs worldwide. About 50% participate in at least one group exercise program and 23% participate only in group exercise classes with instructor. Research on attendance and exercise behavior in fitness clubs is limited but

  12. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs.

    PubMed

    Middelkamp, Jan; van Rooijen, Maaike; Wolfhagen, Peter; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2). The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3). A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05) in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65) in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08) in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07) for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R(2) = 0.18; p < 0.05). Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs. Key pointsApproximately 144 million individuals exercise in fitness clubs worldwide.About 50% participate in at least one group exercise program and 23% participate only in group exercise classes with instructor.Research on attendance and exercise behavior in fitness clubs is limited but

  13. Rehabilitation training improves exercise tolerance after percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Ren, Yusheng; Jin, Heng; Cui, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of training on exercise tolerance of patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention. Fifty-seven cases of coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention were divided randomly into the rehabilitation training group (26 cases) and control group (31 cases). Patients in the rehabilitation training group received rehabilitation training at different stages and exercise intensities 3 d after percutaneous coronary intervention for 3 months. The heart rate, blood pressure, ECG changes in treadmill exercise test, and the frequency of anginal episodes were observed. The results showed that NST and ΣST of ECG and the frequency of anginal episodes were significantly reduced in the rehabilitation training group. In addition, exercise tolerance was improved and the total exercise time was lengthened in these patients. Moreover, ST segment depression time and emergence time of angina with exercise were also lengthened compared with controls (P < 0.05, or 0.01). However, the heart rate and blood pressure before and after exercise of the two groups were similar. The study indicated that rehabilitation training could significantly relieve angina, amend ischemic features of ECG, and improve exercise tolerance of coronary heart disease patients after percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:23554756

  14. Japanese 12-Week Course. Volume I, Introduction and Lessons 1-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Educational Systems Development Center.

    This first volume in the Defense Language Institute's 12-week course in Japanese presents an introduction to Japanese phonology for the non-linguist beginning student, and a description of the format used throughout the DLI series (perception drills, dialogues with English equivalents, grammar notes, and exercises and conversations). This volume…

  15. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Juriena D.; van Hooff, Madelon L. M.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning) were also investigated. Methods Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49) or wait list (no intervention, n = 48). All participants were measured before the intervention (T0), and immediately after the intervention (T1). Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3) after the intervention. Results Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery) as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3). At 12-week follow up (T3), 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality. Conclusions These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects

  16. Subsarcolemmal lipid droplet responses to a combined endurance and strength exercise intervention

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuchuan; Lee, Sindre; Langleite, Torgrim; Norheim, Frode; Pourteymour, Shirin; Jensen, Jørgen; Stadheim, Hans K.; Storås, Tryggve H.; Davanger, Svend; Gulseth, Hanne L.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Drevon, Christian A.; Holen, Torgeir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Muscle lipid stores and insulin sensitivity have a recognized association although the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated how a 12‐week supervised combined endurance and strength exercise intervention influenced muscle lipid stores in sedentary overweight dysglycemic subjects and normal weight control subjects (n = 18). Muscle lipid stores were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), electron microscopy (EM) point counting, and direct EM lipid droplet measurements of subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) regions, and indirectly, by deep sequencing and real‐time PCR of mRNA of lipid droplet‐associated proteins. Insulin sensitivity and VO2max increased significantly in both groups after 12 weeks of training. Muscle lipid stores were reduced according to MRS at baseline before and after the intervention, whereas EM point counting showed no change in LD stores post exercise, indicating a reduction in muscle adipocytes. Large‐scale EM quantification of LD parameters of the subsarcolemmal LD population demonstrated reductions in LD density and LD diameters. Lipid droplet volume in the subsarcolemmal LD population was reduced by ~80%, in both groups, while IMF LD volume was unchanged. Interestingly, the lipid droplet diameter (n = 10 958) distribution was skewed, with a lack of small diameter lipid droplets (smaller than ~200 nm), both in the SS and IMF regions. Our results show that the SS LD lipid store was sensitive to training, whereas the dominant IMF LD lipid store was not. Thus, net muscle lipid stores can be an insufficient measure for the effects of training. PMID:25413318

  17. Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Taheri, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers. Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two interventions was compared. Ergonomic modification consisted of correcting the arrangement of workstation and changing some equipment; workplace exercises included stretching exercises focusing on neck, shoulders, low back, and hand and wrist. Musculoskeletal complaints were assessed and compared before and after 1 month interventions. Results: The frequency of musculoskeletal complaints was high before the study. Both interventions significantly reduced complaints in a similar manner except for low back pain which was reduced in exercise group more than the other group. Conclusion: In this study we found a beneficial short-term effect for both ergonomic modifications and stretching work-place exercises on reducing musculoskeletal pain in office workers. PMID:25405134

  18. Effects of exercise interventions during different treatments in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Focht, Brian C; Lucas, Alexander R; Lustberg, Maryam B

    2016-05-01

    Previous findings suggest that exercise is a safe and efficacious means of improving physiological and psychosocial outcomes in female breast cancer survivors. To date, most research has focused on post-treatment interventions. However, given that the type and severity of treatment-related adverse effects may be dependent on the type of treatment, and that the effects are substantially more pronounced during treatment, an assessment of the safety and efficacy of exercise during treatment is warranted. In this review, we present and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted during breast cancer treatment. We conducted literature searches to identify studies examining exercise interventions in breast cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy or radiation. Data were extracted on physiological and psychosocial outcomes. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for each outcome. A total of 17 studies involving 1,175 participants undergoing active cancer therapy met the inclusion criteria. Findings revealed that, on average, exercise interventions resulted in moderate to large improvements in muscular strength: resistance exercise (RE, = 0.86), aerobic exercise (AE, = 0.55), small to moderate improvements in cardiovascular functioning (RE, = 0.45; AE, = 0.17, combination exercise (COMB, = 0.31) and quality of life (QoL; RE, = 0.30; AE, = 0.50; COMB, = 0.63). The results of this review suggest that exercise is a safe, feasible, and efficacious intervention in breast cancer patients who are undergoing different types of treatment. Additional research addressing the different modes of exercise during each type of treatment is warranted to assess the comparable efficacy of the various exercise modes during established breast cancer treatments. PMID:27258052

  19. Methodological Issues in Exercise Intervention Research in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Bernardine M.; Floyd, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that offered exercise interventions for adults diagnosed and treated for cancer related to design, sample, type of intervention and outcomes. Data sources Several electronic data-bases were searched and recent review papers were scanned to identify relevant publications. Conclusion Exercise adoption seems clearly feasible for early-stage cancer patients, particularly breast cancer patients. Data support positive effects for physical functioning, quality of life (QOL), and psychological well-being. Effects for patients with later-stage disease and other cancers are less clear. The impact of exercise adoption on biomarkers of disease status, immune functioning and hormone levels should also be examined. Implications for nursing practice There are many opportunities for nurses to promote exercise in clinical care and in a research context. PMID:18022057

  20. Effects of a 12-week strength training program on experimented fencers' movement time.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Juan C; Alonso, Cruz J; Sedano, Silvia; de Benito, Ana M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week strength training program on movement time (MT) on fencers of national level. Twelve male fencers were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (CG: N = 6; age, 22.3 ± 8.1 years) and the treatment group (TG: N = 6; age, 24.8 ± 7.2 years). The CG fencers followed the standard physical conditioning program, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in a 12-week strength training program divided into 2 parts: maximal strength training, including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks) and explosive strength training, with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, maximal strength, reaction time, and MT were measured on 4 separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in maximal strength and jumping ability after 6 weeks of training and in MT after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 4-week detraining period. It may be concluded that a 12-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength, and these increases can be transferred to MT performance. However, fencers need time to transfer the gains. PMID:24942170

  1. The Effects of Exercise Education Intervention on the Exercise Behaviour, Depression, and Fatigue Status of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an exercise education intervention on exercise behavior, depression and fatigue status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Design/methodology/approach: This was a pilot study using an exercise education program as an intervention for CKD patients. The authors used the…

  2. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Jomphe-Tremblay, Simon; Lamothe, Gilles; Stacey, Dawn; Szczotka, Agnieszka; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass) over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM). In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks), the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions. PMID:25988763

  3. Controlled exercise is a safe pregnancy intervention in mice.

    PubMed

    Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Kincer, Jeanie F; Dickens, Brett J; Pearson, Kevin J

    2013-09-01

    During pregnancy, women often show a willingness to make positive lifestyle changes, such as smoking cessation, initiation of a vitamin regimen, improvement of their diet, and increases in their levels of exercise or physical activity. To study health outcomes in both pregnant mice and their offspring, we developed a model of controlled maternal exercise during mouse pregnancy. Female ICR and C57BL/6 mice underwent controlled wheel walking for 1 h daily, 5 d each week, at a speed of 6 m/min prior to and during pregnancy and nursing. Dam body weight, food consumption, pregnancy rates, litter size, pup weights and litter survival were used as markers of pregnancy success and were not significantly affected by controlled maternal exercise. The proposed exercise paradigm is a safe pregnancy intervention and can be explored further. PMID:24041205

  4. Primary prevention for risk factors of ischemic stroke with Baduanjin exercise intervention in the community elder population: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the world, and the prevalence of stroke tends to increase with age. Despite advances in acute care and secondary preventive strategies, primary prevention should play the most significant role in the reduction of the burden of stroke. As an important component of traditional Chinese Qigong, Baduanjin exercise is a simple, safe exercise, especially suitable for older adults. However, current evidence is insufficient to inform the use of Baduanjin exercise in the prevention of stroke. The aim of this trail is to systematically evaluate the prevention effect of Baduanjin exercise on ischemic stroke in the community elder population with high risk factors. Methods A total of 170 eligible participants from the community elder population will be randomly allocated into the Baduanjin exercise group and usual physical activity control group in a 1:1 ratio. Besides usual physical activity, participants in the Baduanjin exercise group will accept a 12-week Baduanjin exercise training with a frequency of five days a week and 40 minutes a day. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, 13 weeks (at end of intervention) and 25 weeks (after additional 12-week follow-up period). Discussion This study will be the randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin exercise for primary prevention of stroke in community elder population with high risk factors of stroke. The results of this trial will help to establish the optimal approach for primary prevention of stroke. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003588. Registration date: 24 July, 2013. PMID:24712684

  5. Clinical exercise interventions in alcohol use disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Giesen, Esther S; Deimel, Hubertus; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2015-05-01

    The therapeutic impact of exercise interventions in psychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia has already been proven through several reviews whereas substance use disorders such as alcohol use disorders (AUD) have so far less frequently been a matter of investigation. Although several publications have summarized studies focusing on physical activities in substance use disorders, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of exercise interventions in AUD. A total of 14 studies using the Medline Database, CCMed, Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were identified and met the inclusion criteria. In order to evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (2011). Due to methodological flaws the overall evidence of the studies is rated level "3" but primarily findings confirm that exercise interventions as a complementary treatment component in AUD are feasible and safe. No adverse events were reported. This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects on certain domains of physical functioning including VO2max, basal heart rate, physical activity level and strength. Inconsistent effects with a slight trend towards a positive effect on anxiety, mood management, craving, and drinking behavior have been shown and need to be verified. Results must be interpreted cautiously due to the numerous methodological flaws and the heterogeneity of the interventions and measures. However, according to preclinical studies several mechanisms of action are conceivable, especially as to alcohol-related outcomes and additionally seem to be promising. RCTs with high methodological quality are urgently needed in future research to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations for the treatment of AUD. PMID:25641736

  6. Clinical exercise interventions in pediatric oncology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Freerk T; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beulertz, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Studies in pediatric oncology have shown a positive effect of physical activity on disease- and treatment-related side effects. Although several reviews have approved the benefits of therapeutic exercise for adult cancer patients, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of physical activity in pediatric oncology. We identified a total of 17 studies using the PubMed database and Cochrane library. To evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine 2001. The findings confirm that clinical exercise interventions are feasible and safe, especially with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and during medical treatment. No adverse effects have been reported. Positive effects were found on fatigue, strength, and quality of life. Single studies present positive effects on the immune system, body composition, sleep, activity levels, and various aspects of physical functioning. Child-specific aspects such as cognitive abilities, growth, adolescence, and reintegration into peer-groups, school, and sports have barely been taken into consideration. The evidence for exercise interventions in pediatric oncology is rated level "3." Although the results are very promising, future research of high methodological quality and focusing on child-specific aspects is needed to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations, particularly for childhood cancer patients. PMID:23857296

  7. Exercise interventions: defusing the world's osteoporosis time bomb.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Ming Chan; Anderson, Mary; Lau, Edith M. C.

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. The associated health care costs are growing in parallel with increases in elderly populations, and it is expected that the number of osteoporotic fractures will double over the next 50 years. The best way to address osteoporosis is prevention. Some interventions to maximize and preserve bone mass have multiple health benefits and are cost-effective. For example, modifications to diet and lifestyle can help to prevent osteoporosis, and could potentially lead to a significant decrease in fracture rates; and exercise is a valuable adjunct to programmes aimed at alleviating the risks and symptoms of osteoporosis. Practising exercise at a young age helps maximize the mineral density of bones while they are still growing and maturing, and continuing to excercise minimizes bone loss later in life. Not only does exercise improve bone health, it also increases muscle strength, coordination, balance, flexibility and leads to better overall health. Walking, aerobic exercise, and t'ai chi are the best forms of exercise to stimulate bone formation and strengthen the muscles that help support bones. Encouraging physical activity at all ages is therefore a top priority to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:14758410

  8. Getting the Balance Right: A randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy and Exercise Interventions for ambulatory people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Coote, Susan; Garrett, Maria; Hogan, Neasa; Larkin, Aidan; Saunders, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Background People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. Methods and design This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified Ashworth

  9. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions). Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol's independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22888415

  10. Effect of 12 Weeks of Periodized Resistance Training Upon Total Plasma Adiponectin Concentration in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Greggory R; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Nelson, Arnold G

    2015-11-01

    The effects of resistance training on adiponectin have thus far yielded equivocal results. However, the effect of periodized resistance training on plasma adiponectin in offspring of type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic (ND) parents (first-degree family history) has yet to be determined. Untrained healthy young men with and without a first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes were assigned to an exercise intervention group (E) or an active control group (C). The E group performed a 12-week periodized resistance training program, whereas the C group did not participate in any structured exercise program. Fasting plasma samples were obtained pre- and posttraining. Total plasma adiponectin changed significantly in the E group (33.7 ± 14.7%, p = 0.025) but not in the C group (10.8 ± 19.2%). Offspring of type 2 diabetic parents subjects had significantly greater improvements in plasma adiponectin (69.3 ± 34.8%) compared with ND subjects (-3.2 ± 29.9%, p = 0.046). Regular aerobic exercise was significantly correlated with average plasma adiponectin (r = 0.32), whereas first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes (r = -0.58) and decreases in body fat percentage (r = -0.77) were inversely correlated with average plasma adiponectin. Periodized high-intensity resistance training seems to increase plasma adiponectin, particularly in individuals with a first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes or those who experience a significant loss of fat mass. The direct correlation between regular aerobic exercise and adiponectin further suggests that a combination of aerobic and resistance training yields greater improvements in plasma adiponectin compared with resistance training alone. PMID:26274372

  11. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students.

  12. Home-based Exercise among Cancer Survivors: Adherence and its Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Bernardine M.; Rabin, Carolyn; Dunsiger, Shira

    2010-01-01

    Objective Evidence of the benefits of exercise for those treated for cancer has led to several exercise interventions for this population. Some have questioned whether cancer patients offered a home-based intervention adhere to the exercise prescribed. Method We examined exercise adherence in a randomized controlled trial of a 12-week, home-based exercise trial for breast cancer patients. Three adherence outcomes were examined: minutes of exercise participation during each week of the intervention, number of steps taken during planned exercise during each intervention week, and whether the participant met her weekly exercise goal. Predictors of adherence (e.g., demographic and medical variables, Transtheoretical Model variables, history of exercise) were examined. Results Findings indicate that participants significantly increased their minutes of exercise and steps taken during planned exercise from the first to the last week of the intervention. The percentage of participants achieving exercise goals was highest in the first few weeks of the intervention. Exercise self-efficacy significantly predicted each adherence outcome. Baseline PA predicted mean exercise session steps over the 12 weeks. Conclusion Adherence to a home-based exercise intervention for breast cancer patients changes over time and may be related to baseline levels of self-efficacy for exercise. PMID:19242921

  13. Development and delivery of an exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis: strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH) trial.

    PubMed

    Heine, P J; Williams, M A; Williamson, E; Bridle, C; Adams, J; O'Brien, A; Evans, D; Lamb, S E

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a hand exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial in a U.K. National Health Service (NHS) setting. Participants are eligible if diagnosed with RA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, have a history of disease activity, functional deficit or impairment in the hand and/or wrist, and have been on a stable medication regime for at least 3 months. The intervention development was informed by the current evidence base, published guidelines, clinician and expert opinion, and a pilot study. The exercise programme targets known, potentially modifiable physical impairments of the hand with 5 exercise sessions and a home exercise component over a 12 week period. The intervention will be provided to 240 participants along with usual care. A further 240 will receive usual care only as part of the control arm. Specific details of the treatments delivered are described. [ISRCTN no: 89936343]. PMID:22507362

  14. Impact of a worksite behavioral skills intervention.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J F; Wellman, E; Caparosa, S; Sallis, J F; Calfas, K J; Rowe, R

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-four male and female sedentary employees were randomly assigned to an intervention group or control group to determine the effects of behavioral skill training on adoption and maintenance of exercise. Both received a 9-month membership at a local fitness facility. The control group received a 12-week semistructured course, which included a facility orientation and three meetings with a personal trainer. The intervention group received a 12-week behavioral skills course and were encouraged to participate in a 12-week semistructured exercise course followed by a 3-month problem-solving support intervention. Both groups improved their daily energy expenditure, the amount of moderate and vigorous activity they performed, and their strength and flexibility. The study sample was too small to show substantial differences between the intervention and control group. Changes in mediator variables were mixed. PMID:10915531

  15. Wise Choices: Nutrition and Exercise for Older Adults: A Community-Based Health Promotion Intervention.

    PubMed

    Turk, Melanie T; Elci, Okan U; Resick, Lenore K; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interventions for older adults are needed to address lifestyle behaviors linked to chronic illnesses. We implemented a 12-week group behavioral intervention for 118 racially diverse older adults at 6 community-based senior centers to improve eating and physical activity. Assessments were completed pre- and postintervention, with 85.6% retention. We documented increases in fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; pace of walking; number of city blocks walked; daily steps walked; functional mobility; and self-rated general health (P < .05). Findings indicate that a relatively low-intensity lifestyle intervention can effectively be implemented for community-dwelling older adults. Further development of this approach is warranted. PMID:27536931

  16. Kinematic Measurement of 12-week Head Control Correlates with 12-month Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Jessica P; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Moreau, Noelle; Hope, Kathryn; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Brown, Truman; Mulvihill, Denise; Jenkins, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background Although new interventions treating neonatal brain injury show great promise, our current ability to predict clinical functional outcomes is poor. Quantitative biomarkers of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome are critically needed to gauge treatment efficacy. Kinematic measures derived from commonly used developmental tasks may serve as early objective markers of future motor outcomes. Aim To develop reliable kinematic markers of head control at 12 weeks corrected gestational age (CGA) from two motor tasks: head lifting in prone and pull-to-sit Study design and subjects Prospective observational study of 22 preterm infants born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation Outcome measures Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley) motor scores Results Intrarater and interrater reliability of prone head lift angles and pull-to-sit head angles were excellent. Prone head lift angles at 12 weeks CGA correlated with white matter NAA/Cho, concurrent Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) scores, and 12-month Bayley motor scores. Head angles during pull-to-sit at 12-weeks CGA correlated with TIMP scores. Conclusions Poor ability to lift the head in prone and an inability to align the head with the trunk during the pull-to-sit task were associated with poorer future motor outcome scores. Kinematic measurements of head control in early infancy may serve as reliable objective quantitative markers of future motor impairment and neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25621433

  17. A racket-sport intervention improves behavioral and cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Chu, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Lo, Shen-Yu; Cheng, Yun-Wen; Liu, Yu-Jen

    2016-10-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a 12-week table tennis exercise on motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the first 12-week phase, 16 children (group I) received the intervention, whereas 16 children (group II) did not. A second 12-week phase immediately followed with the treatments reversed. Improvements were observed in executive functions in both groups after the intervention. After the first 12-week phase, some motor and behavioral functions improved in group I. After the second 12-week phase, similar improvements were noted for group II, and the intervention effects achieved in the first phase were persisted in group I. The racket-sport intervention is valuable in promoting motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:27344348

  18. Transformative Lifestyle Change: key to sustainable weight loss among women in a post-partum diet and exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Winkvist, Anna

    2015-10-01

    The increase in overweight and obesity among women is a growing concern, and reproduction is associated with persistent weight gain. We have shown that dietary behavioural modification treatment, with or without exercise, results in weight loss and maintenance of weight loss. The aim of this study was to provide an explanatory model of how overweight and obese women achieve weight loss during, and after, participating in a post-partum diet and/or exercise intervention. Using Grounded Theory, we performed and analysed 29 interviews with 21 women in a 12-week Swedish post-partum lifestyle intervention with a 9-month follow-up. Interviews were made after the intervention and at the 9-month follow-up. To overcome initial barriers to weight loss, the women needed a 'Catalytic Interaction' (CI) from the care provider. It depended on individualised, concrete, specific and useful information, and an emotional bond through joint commitment, trust and accountability. Weight loss was underpinned by gradual introduction of conventional health behaviours. However, the implementation depended on the experience of the core category process 'Transformative Lifestyle Change' (TLC). This developed through a transformative process of reciprocal changes in cognitions, emotions, body, environment, behaviours and perceived self. Women accomplishing the stages of the TLC process were successful in weight loss, in contrast to those who did not. The TLC process, dependent on initiation through CI, led to implementation and integration of recognised health behaviours, resulting in sustainable weight loss. The TLC model, including the CI construct and definition of barriers, facilitators and strategies provides an explanatory model of this process. PMID:24750689

  19. A stage-matched intervention for exercise behavior change based on the transtheoretical model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngho

    2008-06-01

    The effectiveness of a stage-matched intervention for enhancing exercise behavior was investigated with related Transtheoretical Model constructs among young Korean adults. 265 university students (147 men, 118 women; M age=24.1 yr., SD=3.5) enrolled in Seoul National University of Technology voluntarily participated in an 8-wk. intervention study. In order to measure exercise behavior and its related psychological constructs, the Stages of Readiness for Exercise Behavior Scale, Decision Balance Scale for Exercise, Exercise Self-efficacy Scale, Processes of Change Scale, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were used. Results indicated that the participants' exercise readiness was significantly changed in a positive way after the 8-wk. intervention. There was a significant main effect of testing time and an interaction between testing time and exercise readiness stage at baseline. There were significant interactions between testing times and groups for all Transtheoretical Model measures, implying that the stage-matched intervention can be an effective tool for increasing exercise readiness and related psychological variables. The present study provides a starting point for stage-matched interventions aimed at increasing exercise levels, and a baseline level from which to evaluate interventions. PMID:18763468

  20. Ischemic Preconditioning and Placebo Intervention Improves Resistance Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Marocolo, Moacir; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Marocolo, Isabela C; Ribeiro da Mota, Gustavo; Simão, Roberto; Maior, Alex S

    2016-05-01

    Marocolo, M, Willardson, JM, Marocolo, IC, da Mota, GR, Simão, R, and Maior, AS. Ischemic preconditioning and PLACEBO intervention improves resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1462-1469, 2016-This study evaluated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on resistance exercise performance in the lower limbs. Thirteen men participated in a randomized crossover design that involved 3 separate sessions (IPC, PLACEBO, and control). A 12-repetition maximum (12RM) load for the leg extension exercise was assessed through test and retest sessions before the first experimental session. The IPC session consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of occlusion at 220 mm Hg of pressure alternated with 5 minutes of reperfusion at 0 mm Hg for a total of 40 minutes. The PLACEBO session consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of cuff administration at 20 mm Hg of pressure alternated with 5 minutes of pseudo-reperfusion at 0 mm Hg for a total of 40 minutes. The occlusion and reperfusion phases were conducted alternately between the thighs, with subjects remaining seated. No ischemic pressure was applied during the control (CON) session and subjects sat passively for 40 minutes. Eight minutes after IPC, PLACEBO, or CON, subjects performed 3 repetition maximum sets of the leg extension (2-minute rest between sets) with the predetermined 12RM load. Four minutes after the third set for each condition, blood lactate was assessed. The results showed that for the first set, the number of repetitions significantly increased for both the IPC (13.08 ± 2.11; p = 0.0036) and PLACEBO (13.15 ± 0.88; p = 0.0016) conditions, but not for the CON (11.88 ± 1.07; p > 0.99) condition. In addition, the IPC and PLACEBO conditions resulted insignificantly greater repetitions vs. the CON condition on the first set (p = 0.015; p = 0.007) and second set (p = 0.011; p = 0.019), but not on the third set (p = 0.68; p > 0.99). No difference (p = 0.465) was found in the fatigue index and lactate

  1. Exercise training combined with psychological interventions for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Louise; Cafarella, Paul; Williams, Marie T

    2015-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews have confirmed the benefits of both exercise training and psychological interventions in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effect of interventions which combine exercise training and psychological interventions for a range of health outcomes in people with COPD. Database searches identified randomized controlled trials of people with COPD participating in interventions that combined exercise training with a psychological strategy compared with control (usual care, waiting list) or active comparators (education, exercise, psychological interventions alone). Health outcomes included dyspnoea, anxiety, depression, quality of life or functional exercise capacity. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated for each intervention arm/control comparison. Across the 12 included studies (738 participants), compared with control conditions, SMD consistently favoured interventions which included both exercise + psychological components (SMD range dyspnoea -1.63 to -0.25; anxiety -0.50 to -0.20; depression -0.46 to -0.18; quality of life 0.09 to 1.16; functional exercise capacity 0.22 to 1.23). When compared with active comparators, SMD consistently favoured interventions that included exercise training + psychological component for dyspnoea (SMD range -0.35 to -0.97), anxiety (SMD range -0.13 to -1.00) and exercise capacity (SMD range 0.64 to 0.71) but were inconsistent for depression (-0.11 to 1.27) and quality of life (0.02 to -2.00). The magnitude of effect for most interventions was greater than the minimum required for clinical significance (i.e. > 0.32) in behavioural medicine. While interventions, outcomes and effect sizes differed substantially between studies, combining exercise training with a psychological intervention may provide a means of optimizing rehabilitation in people with COPD. PMID:25339508

  2. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kerkelä, Ellen Staveborg; Jonsson, Linus; Lindwall, Magnus; Strand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs. PMID:26282865

  3. Adherence to an Exercise Intervention Among Older Women Post Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Barbara; D’Adamo, Christopher; Shardell, Michelle; Orwig, Denise; Hawkes, William; Hebel, J. Richard; Golden, Justine; Magaziner, Jay; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Yu-Yahiro, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to home-based exercise interventions among older women post hip fracture that were randomized to one of three exercise intervention groups or a routine care group. A total of 157 female hip fracture patients provided data for the intervention analysis. Factors evaluated baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months post hip fracture included demographic variables, adherence to treatment visits, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, stage of change for exercise, social support for exercise, mood, health status, pain, and fear of falling. The hypothesized model tested the direct and indirect impact of all study variables on adherence to exercise intervention sessions. Different factors appeared to influence adherence to visits across the recovery trajectory. PMID:20428489

  4. THE POTENTIAL OF USING EXERCISE IN NATURE AS AN INTERVENTION TO ENHANCE EXERCISE BEHAVIOR: RESULTS FROM A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Nordtug, Hildegunn; Weydahl, Andi

    2015-10-01

    According to attention-restoration theory (ART), natural environments can provide restorative experiences. In this pilot study, a mixed-methods approach was used to examine the potential of using exercise in a natural environment to enhance exercise behaviors. The study included an assessment study and an intervention study (overall n = 19). The participants underwent a standardized exercise program including biking and circuit strength training, either indoors or outdoors in nature. Measurements included connectedness to nature, perceived exertion, perceived environmental restorativeness, enjoyment, affect, future exercise intention, and self-reported exercise behavior. The participants also wrote a brief text describing the way in which the environment influenced their feelings while exercising. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Spearman rank correlation and linear mixed-effects modeling. The qualitative information was analyzed thematically. The integrated results indicated that, in accordance with ART, exercising in nature was associated with a greater potential for restoration and affective responses, which in some participants led to enhanced intention to exercise and increased exercise behavior. However, some perceived that the indoor exercise provided a more effective workout. Further studies on larger samples are needed. PMID:26348226

  5. The Completeness of Intervention Descriptions in Randomised Trials of Supervised Exercise Training in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Garry A.; Brabyn, Sally; Cook, Liz; Peckham, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the use of supervised exercise training as a primary therapy for improving the functional status of people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Several reviews have focused on reporting the outcomes of exercise interventions, but none have critically examined the quality of intervention reporting. Adequate reporting of the exercise protocols used in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is central to interpreting study findings and translating effective interventions into practice. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the completeness of intervention descriptions in RCTs of supervised exercise training in people with PAD. A systematic search strategy was used to identify relevant trials published until June 2015. Intervention description completeness in the main trial publication was assessed using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist. Missing intervention details were then sought from additional published material and by emailing authors. Fifty-eight trials were included, reporting on 76 interventions. Within publications, none of the interventions were sufficiently described for all of the items required for replication; this increased to 24 (32%) after contacting authors. Although programme duration, and session frequency and duration were well-reported in publications, complete descriptions of the equipment used, intervention provider, and number of participants per session were missing for three quarters or more of interventions (missing for 75%, 93% and 80% of interventions, respectively). Furthermore, 20%, 24% and 26% of interventions were not sufficiently described for the mode of exercise, intensity of exercise, and tailoring/progression, respectively. Information on intervention adherence/fidelity was also frequently missing: attendance rates were adequately described for 29 (38%) interventions, whereas sufficient detail about the intensity of exercise performed was presented for only 8 (11

  6. The Completeness of Intervention Descriptions in Randomised Trials of Supervised Exercise Training in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Brabyn, Sally; Cook, Liz; Peckham, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the use of supervised exercise training as a primary therapy for improving the functional status of people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Several reviews have focused on reporting the outcomes of exercise interventions, but none have critically examined the quality of intervention reporting. Adequate reporting of the exercise protocols used in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is central to interpreting study findings and translating effective interventions into practice. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the completeness of intervention descriptions in RCTs of supervised exercise training in people with PAD. A systematic search strategy was used to identify relevant trials published until June 2015. Intervention description completeness in the main trial publication was assessed using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist. Missing intervention details were then sought from additional published material and by emailing authors. Fifty-eight trials were included, reporting on 76 interventions. Within publications, none of the interventions were sufficiently described for all of the items required for replication; this increased to 24 (32%) after contacting authors. Although programme duration, and session frequency and duration were well-reported in publications, complete descriptions of the equipment used, intervention provider, and number of participants per session were missing for three quarters or more of interventions (missing for 75%, 93% and 80% of interventions, respectively). Furthermore, 20%, 24% and 26% of interventions were not sufficiently described for the mode of exercise, intensity of exercise, and tailoring/progression, respectively. Information on intervention adherence/fidelity was also frequently missing: attendance rates were adequately described for 29 (38%) interventions, whereas sufficient detail about the intensity of exercise performed was presented for only 8 (11

  7. A Boxing-Oriented Exercise Intervention for Obese Adolescent Males: Findings from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sarah P.; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Lane, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m-2 vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese adolescent

  8. A boxing-oriented exercise intervention for obese adolescent males: findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    PubMed Central

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group). The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001). Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time. Conclusion Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms. PMID:26955293

  10. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  11. Psychological Need Fulfillment among Workers in an Exercise Intervention: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlog, Leslie; Dionigi, Rylee A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived factors affecting workers' participation in an exercise intervention and interpret the findings within self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000a; 2007). Research examining the impact of psychological need satisfaction on exercise outcomes is not well established (McDonough & Crocker, 2007;…

  12. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  13. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24611630

  14. Analysis on the Effect of Individualized Aerobic Exercise Intervention for Teenagers with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chun-qi, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intervention effect of individualized aerobic exercise on type 2 diabetes in teenagers. Method: To select 60 cases of teenager with type 2 diabetes in Zhoukou Hospital of Traditional Medicine in February 2013 to February 2014 as the research object, test all enrolled patients’ maximal oxygen and blood glucose fluctuation, and then give individualized aerobic exercise intervention, after 6 months intervention, compare the changes of patients’ indexes and evaluate the effect of individualized aerobic exercise intervention. Result: After the intervention, the patients’ plasma triglyceride and cholesterol content are significantly lower than before (P < 0.05); there’s no significant difference between high and low-density lipoprotein (P > 0.05). Moreover, the patients’ insulin and C-peptide level are significantly higher than those before intervention (P < 0.05); before intervention, their blood glucose and glycated hemogiobin level are higher than normal, after intervention, they are weakened, but there’s no significant difference (P > 0.05). The maximal oxygen uptake and different intensity of metabolic equivalents are higher than before, but there’s no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: For teenagers with type 2 diabetes, the implementation of individualized aerobic exercise intervention can effectively improve the patients’ lipid metabolism and cardio-pulmonary function, and effectively promote the insulin and C-peptide secretion, to provide scientific basis for effective control of blood glucose. PMID:26981161

  15. Group vs. individual exercise interventions for women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139

  16. Exploring outcome measures for exercise intervention in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    King, L A; Salarian, A; Mancini, M; Priest, K C; Nutt, J; Serdar, A; Wilhelm, J; Schlimgen, J; Smith, M; Horak, F B

    2013-01-01

    Background. It is widely believed that exercise improves mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to determine whether a specific type of exercise is the most effective. The purpose of this study was to determine which outcome measures were sensitive to exercise intervention and to explore the effects of two different exercise programs for improving mobility in patients with PD. Methods. Participants were randomized into either the Agility Boot Camp (ABC) or treadmill training; 4x/week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures were grouped by the International Classification of Function/Disability (ICF). To determine the responsiveness to exercise, we calculated the standardized response means. t-tests were used to compare the relative benefits of each exercise program. Results. Four of five variables at the structure/function level changed after exercise: turn duration (P = 0.03), stride velocity (P = 0.001), peak arm speed (P = 0.001), and horizontal trunk ROM during gait (P = 0.02). Most measures improved similarly for both interventions. The only variable that detected a difference between groups was postural sway in ABC group (F = 4.95; P = 0.03). Conclusion. Outcome measures at ICF body structure/function level were most effective at detecting change after exercise and revealing differences in improvement between interventions. PMID:23738230

  17. BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Leckie, Regina L; Oberlin, Lauren E; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika S; Szabo-Reed, Amanda; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Phillips, Siobhan M; Gothe, Neha P; Mailey, Emily; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Lin, Mingkuan; Parasuraman, Raja; Greenwood, Pamela M; Fryxell, Karl J; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-01-01

    Executive function declines with age, but engaging in aerobic exercise may attenuate decline. One mechanism by which aerobic exercise may preserve executive function is through the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), which also declines with age. The present study examined BDNF as a mediator of the effects of a 1-year walking intervention on executive function in 90 older adults (mean age = 66.82). Participants were randomized to a stretching and toning control group or a moderate intensity walking intervention group. BDNF serum levels and performance on a task-switching paradigm were collected at baseline and follow-up. We found that age moderated the effect of intervention group on changes in BDNF levels, with those in the highest age quartile showing the greatest increase in BDNF after 1-year of moderate intensity walking exercise (p = 0.036). The mediation analyses revealed that BDNF mediated the effect of the intervention on task-switch accuracy, but did so as a function of age, such that exercise-induced changes in BDNF mediated the effect of exercise on task-switch performance only for individuals over the age of 71. These results demonstrate that both age and BDNF serum levels are important factors to consider when investigating the mechanisms by which exercise interventions influence cognitive outcomes, particularly in elderly populations. PMID:25566019

  18. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  19. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  20. A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity--exercise--as an intervention for…

  1. Maintenance Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Olson, Erin A.; Motl, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Exercise training has been demonstrated to enhance physical function and to have a protective effect against functional limitations and disability in older adults. Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the effects of a home-based, DVD-delivered exercise intervention on functional performance and limitations were maintained 6-month postintervention termination. Methods. Follow-up assessments of functional performance and limitations were conducted in a sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 237) who participated in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Participants were initially randomized to a DVD-delivered exercise intervention or an attentional control condition. The Short Physical Performance Battery, measures of flexibility and strength, and functional limitations were assessed immediately before and after the intervention and then again 6 months later. Analyses of covariance were conducted to examine changes in physical function between the two conditions at the end of the intervention to 6-month follow-up. Results. There were statistically significant adjusted group differences in the Short Physical Performance Battery (η2 = 0.03, p = .01), upper-body strength (η2 = 0.03, p = .005), and lower-body flexibility (η2 = 0.02, p = .05), indicating that gains brought about by the intervention were maintained 6 months later. Conclusions. A DVD-delivered exercise program specifically designed to target elements of functional fitness in older adults can produce clinically meaningful gains in physical function that are maintained beyond intervention cessation. PMID:25324220

  2. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  3. A Randomized Trial of a Diet and Exercise Intervention for Overweight and Obese Women from Economically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS)

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Granner, Michelle; Hutto, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic status at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with increased health risks. Weight loss can reduce this risk, but few high quality weight loss studies target this population. Objectives STARS tests a culturally-appropriate, group-based behavioral and social support intervention on body weight and waist circumference in women from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods. Design A stratified (by BMI) randomized trial. Randomization to group was generated by a random numbers table with allocation concealment by opaque envelopes. Methods Participants 25–50 years who had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ≥ 88 cm were recruited from 18 census tracts in Columbia, SC with high rates of poverty between November 2008 and November 2010. All participants received a dietary and exercise counseling session. Intervention participants then receive 16 theoretically-based and tailored weekly group sessions followed by 8 weeks of telephone maintenance counseling. Control participants receive 16 weekly health education mailings. Measurements correspond to baseline, post-group intervention, and post-telephone counseling, and for intervention participants, after a 12-week no-contact period. Measurement staff was blinded to group assignment. Results Participants (N=155; n=80 intervention, n=75 minimal intervention control) were primarily African American (86.5%) and averaged 38.9 years with a mean BMI of 40.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 115.4 cm. Food insecurity was reported by 43% of participants. Summary STARS targets an underserved population with an innovative, tailored, and theoretically-grounded, group-based intervention followed by telephone maintenance. If effective, the approach has the potential to be feasible and cost-effective for community delivery. PMID:21864718

  4. Efficacy of Olibra: A 12-Week Randomized Controlled Trial and a Review of Earlier Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J; Martin, Corby K; Johnson, William D; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention strategies that harness the body's appetite and satiety regulating signals provide a means of countering excessive energy intake. Methods Eighty-two subjects were enrolled (18–60 years, body mass index: 25–40 kg/m2) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel trial. During a 12-week period, the effects of Olibra™ fat emulsion (2.1 g twice daily) on food intake, appetite, satiety, weight, and body composition were compared with those of a twice daily administered placebo (1.95 g milk fat). On days -7, 0, and 28, Olibra or the placebo added to 200 g of yogurt was served at breakfast and lunch. Food intake, appetite, and satiety were assessed after lunch and dinner. Body weight was measured on days -7, 0, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Body fat, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were determined on days 0 and 84. The Eating Inventory was administered at screening and on day 28. Data relating to 71 subjects were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results At 12 weeks, body weight was reduced in the test group (2.17 ± 0.46 kg standard error of the mean, p < .0001) and the control group (1.68 ± 0.42 kg, p < .0001). Waist circumference decreased by 2.93 ± 0.85 cm in the test group (p = .001) and by 1.78 ± 0.74 cm in the control group (p = .02). Differential weight and waist circumference reductions were not significant. Hunger scores (Eating Inventory) decreased more in the test group (p = .0082). Differential group effects were not significant for body fat, waist-hip ratio, food intake, appetite, and satiety. Conclusions At this dose, Olibra did not exert a consistent effect on food intake, appetite regulation, body weight, or body composition. PMID:22768902

  5. An Exercise Prescription Intervention Program with Periodic Ergometric Grading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, C. A.; Beard, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    A long term exercise prescription type of physical conditioning program has been available to executive personnel of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center for the past two years. Periodic ergometric testing with a heart rate controlled, automatically programmed, bicycle ergometer is used to follow the individual's progress and appropriately alter his exercise prescription from time to time. Such a program appears feasible, and acceptance is excellent, dropout rates small and periodic testing participation good. Subjects training diligently can maintain satisfactory levels of conditioning.

  6. Exercise as an intervention for sedentary hazardous drinking college students: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Capizzi, Jeffrey; Weber, Stefanie M.; Pescatello, Linda S.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults 18–24 years have the highest rates of problems associated with alcohol use among all age groups, and substance use is inversely related to engagement in substance-free activities. This pilot study investigated the promotion of one specific substance-free activity, exercise, on alcohol use in college students. Thirty-one sedentary college students who engaged in hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores ≥ 8) were randomized to one of two conditions: (a) one 50-minute session of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) focused on increasing exercise, or (b) one 50-minute session of MET focused on increasing exercise plus 8 weeks of contingency management (CM) for adhering to specific exercise activities. All participants completed evaluations at baseline and post-treatment (2-months later) assessing exercise participation and alcohol use. Results of the pilot study suggest the interventions were well received by participants, the MET+CM condition showed an increased self-reported frequency of exercise in comparison to the MET alone condition, but other indices of exercise, physical fitness, and alcohol use did not differ between the interventions over time. These results suggest that a larger scale trial could better assess efficacy of this well received combined intervention. Investigation in other clinically relevant populations is also warranted. PMID:24949085

  7. A Dyadic Exercise Intervention to Reduce Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; McMahon, James M.; Morrow, Gary R.; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Studies have found disparities in psychological distress between lesbian and gay cancer survivors and their heterosexual counterparts. Exercise and partner support are shown to reduce distress. However, exercise interventions haven't been delivered to lesbian and gay survivors with support by caregivers included. Methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), ten lesbian and gay and twelve heterosexual survivors and their caregivers were randomized as dyads to: Arm 1, a survivor-only, 6-week, home-based, aerobic and resistance training program (EXCAP©®); or Arm 2, a dyadic version of the same exercise program involving both the survivor and caregiver. Psychological distress, partner support, and exercise adherence, were measured at baseline and post-intervention (6 weeks later). We used t-tests to examine group differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors and between those randomized to survivor-only or dyadic exercise. Results: Twenty of the twenty-two recruited survivors were retained post-intervention. At baseline, lesbian and gay survivors reported significantly higher depressive symptoms (P = .03) and fewer average steps walked (P = .01) than heterosexual survivors. Post-intervention, these disparities were reduced and we detected no significant differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors. Participation in dyadic exercise resulted in a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in survivor-only exercise for all survivors (P = .03). No statistically significant differences emerged when looking across arm (survivor-only vs. dyadic) by subgroup (lesbian/gay vs. heterosexual). Conclusion: Exercise may be efficacious in ameliorating disparities in psychological distress among lesbian and gay cancer survivors, and dyadic exercise may be efficacious for survivors of diverse sexual orientations. Larger trials are needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26652029

  8. An 8-month Exercise Intervention Alters Fronto-temporal White Matter Integrity in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, David J.; Krafft, Cynthia E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    In childhood, excess adiposity and low fitness are linked to poor academic performance, lower cognitive function, and differences in brain structure. Identifying ways to mitigate obesity-related alterations is of current clinical importance. This study examined the effects of an 8-month exercise intervention on the uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber tract connecting frontal and temporal lobes. Participants consisted of 18 unfit, overweight 8–11 year-old children (94% Black) who were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise (n=10) or a sedentary control group (n=8). Before and after the intervention, all subjects participated in a diffusion tensor MRI scan. Tractography was conducted to isolate the uncinate fasciculus. The exercise group showed improved white matter integrity as compared to the control group. These findings are consistent with an emerging literature suggesting beneficial effects of exercise on white matter integrity. PMID:24797659

  9. Water-Based Exercise Improves Health-Related Aspects of Fitness in Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Watanabe, Eiji; Brechue, William F.; Okada, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Tadaki; Islam, Mohammod M.; Hayano, Jyunichirou

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physiological responses of elderly Japanese women to a well-rounded exercise program performed in water. Results indicated that the 12-week program elicited significant improvements in intervention group women's cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, agility, flexibility, body fat, and total cholesterol. Water-based exercise…

  10. High genetic-risk individuals benefit less from resistance exercise intervention

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Bea, Jennifer W.; Lohman, Timothy; Hsieh, Pei-Shan; Going, Scott; Chen, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Genetic factors play an important role in body mass index (BMI) variation, and also likely play a role in the weight-loss and body composition response to physical activity/exercise. With the recent identification of BMI–associated genetic variants, it is possible to investigate the interaction of these genetic factors with exercise on body composition outcomes. Subjects/Methods In a block-randomized clinical trial of resistance exercise among women (n=148), we examined whether the putative effect of exercise on weight and DXA-derived body composition measurements differs according to genetic risk for obesity. Approximately one-half of the sample was randomized to an intervention consisting of a supervised, intensive, resistance exercise program, lasting one year. Genetic risk for obesity was defined as a genetic risk score (GRS) comprised of 21 SNPs known to be associated with normal BMI variation. We examined the interaction of exercise intervention and the GRS on anthropometric and body composition measurements after one year of the exercise intervention. Results We found statistically significant interactions for body weight (p=0.01), body fat (p=0.01), body fat % (p=0.02), and abdominal fat (p=0.02), whereby the putative effect of exercise is greater among those with a lower level of genetic risk for obesity. No single SNP appears to be a major driver of these interactions. Conclusions The weight-loss response to resistance exercise, including changes in body composition, differs according to an individual’s genetic risk for obesity. PMID:25924711

  11. Exercise as an Intervention for the Age-Related Decline in Neural Metabolic Support

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brenda J.; Greenwood, Shayri J.; McCloskey, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging. PMID:20802804

  12. An Eight Month Randomized Controlled Exercise Intervention Alters Resting State Synchrony in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Krafft, Cynthia E.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Weinberger, Abby L.; Schaeffer, David J.; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Camchong, Jazmin; Allison, Jerry D.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) children 8–11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children. PMID:24096138

  13. An eight month randomized controlled exercise intervention alters resting state synchrony in overweight children.

    PubMed

    Krafft, C E; Pierce, J E; Schwarz, N F; Chi, L; Weinberger, A L; Schaeffer, D J; Rodrigue, A L; Camchong, J; Allison, J D; Yanasak, N E; Liu, T; Davis, C L; McDowell, J E

    2014-01-01

    Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children 8-11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children. PMID:24096138

  14. Exercise and relaxation intervention for patients with advanced lung cancer: a qualitative feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Adamsen, L; Stage, M; Laursen, J; Rørth, M; Quist, M

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home-based exercise program. An explorative study using individual semi-structured interviews (n=15) and one focus group interview (n=8) was conducted among the participants. Throughout the intervention the patients experienced increased muscle strength, improvement in wellbeing, breathlessness and energy. The group exercise and relaxation intervention showed an adherence rate of 76%, whereas the patients failed to comply with the home-based exercise. The hospital-based intervention initiated at time of diagnosis encouraged former sedentary lung cancer patients to participation and was undertaken safely by cancer patients with advanced stages of disease, during treatment. The patients experienced physical, functional and emotional benefits. This study confirmed that supervised training in peer-groups was beneficial, even in a cancer population with full-blown symptom burden and poor prognosis. PMID:21599754

  15. Effects of a Telephone-Based Exercise Intervention for Dementia Caregiving Wives: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Cathleen M; Janevic, Mary R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of self-care for dementia caregivers, few interventions have included a focus on health behaviors. The current study reports outcomes of a telephone-based exercise intervention designed for women caring for a spouse with dementia. Caregivers (N = 137) were randomized to intervention or control conditions. Participants with at or below-median exercise scores at baseline had a significantly greater increase in exercise at six-month follow-up compared to their control counterparts. At 6 months, participants had greater reductions in perceived stress relative to controls. Participants also reported significantly greater increases in exercise self-efficacy than caregivers in the control group at both follow-up points. . Results indicate that spouse caregivers are able to increase their physical activity and that a focus on exercise in multi-component interventions may be beneficial. Debate and discussion is needed to inform expectations for program impacts and their maintenance and to explore the interface between enhanced self-care and caregiving perceptions. PMID:21709757

  16. Active play exercise intervention in children with asthma: a PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Westergren, Thomas; Fegran, Liv; Nilsen, Tonje; Haraldstad, Kristin; Kittang, Ole Bjørn; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased physical activity (PA) may be beneficial for children with asthma. Knowledge about how to intervene and encourage children with asthma to be physically active is required. In the present study, we aimed to pilot a 6-week exercise intervention designed as active play and examine attendance rate, exercise intensity and children's perceptions of participating. Methods 6 children with asthma (4 boys, 2 girls) aged 10–12 years, participated in 60 min of active play exercise twice weekly. A mixed-methods design was applied. The data analysed included attendance rate, exercise intensity assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring during exercise sessions, registration and description of the active play exercise programme, 3 semistructured focus groups, field observations of 5 exercise sessions, and preintervention and postintervention testing. Findings The average attendance rate was 90%. Intensity ≥80% of maximal HR (HRmax) was recorded for a median (IQR) time of 22 (8) out of 60 min per session. Median (IQR) HR during the sessions was 146 (9; 74% of HRmax) bpm. Children reported increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-test compared with baseline. Children enjoyed participating and reported no limitations by asthma or serious asthma attacks. Instead, they perceived that their asthma and fitness had improved after the programme. The instructors created an inclusive atmosphere that was characterised by easy-to-master games, fair competition, humour and mutual participation. Conclusions The exercise intervention pilot focusing on active play had a high attendance rate, relatively high exercise intensity, and satisfaction; the children perceived that their fitness and asthma had improved, and reported increased HRQoL. A randomised controlled trial of active play exercise including children with asthma should be conducted to evaluate effect on PA level, physical fitness, asthma control and HRQoL. PMID:26733570

  17. 12 Weeks of Combined Endurance and Resistance Training Reduces Innate Markers of Inflammation in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wens, Inez; Nuyts, Amber H.; Hens, Niel; De Winter, Benedicte Y.; Koppen, Gudrun; Goossens, Herman; Van Damme, Pierre; Berneman, Zwi N.; Eijnde, Bert O.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrate improved muscle strength, exercise tolerance, and lean tissue mass following a combined endurance and resistance exercise program. However, the effect of exercise on the underlying disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Since recent evidence supports a crucial role of dendritic cells (DC) in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of a 12-week combined exercise program in MS patients on the number and function of DC. We demonstrate an increased number of plasmacytoid DC (pDC) following the exercise program. These pDC display an activated phenotype, as evidenced by increased numbers of circulating CD62L+ and CD80+ pDC. Interestingly, the number of CD80+ pDC positively correlates with the presence of IL-10-producing regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1), an important cell type for maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. In addition, decreased production of the inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MMP-9, upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation was found at the end of the exercise program. Overall, our findings suggest that the 12-week exercise program reduces the secretion of inflammatory mediators upon TLR stimulation and promotes the immunoregulatory function of circulating pDC, suggestive for a favorable impact of exercise on the underlying immunopathogenesis of MS. PMID:26903712

  18. Metabolomics unveils urinary changes in subjects with metabolic syndrome following 12-week nut consumption.

    PubMed

    Tulipani, Sara; Llorach, Rafael; Jáuregui, Olga; López-Uriarte, Patricia; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Bullo, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Through an HPLC-Q-TOF-MS-driven nontargeted metabolomics approach, we aimed to discriminate changes in the urinary metabolome of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), following 12 weeks of mixed nuts consumption (30 g/day), compared to sex- and age-matched individuals given a control diet. The urinary metabolome corresponding to the nut-enriched diet clearly clustered in a distinct group, and the multivariate data analysis discriminated relevant mass features in this separation. Metabolites corresponding to the discriminating ions (MS features) were then subjected to multiple tandem mass spectrometry experiments using LC-ITD-FT-MS, to confirm their putative identification. The metabolomics approach revealed 20 potential markers of nut intake, including fatty acid conjugated metabolites, phase II and microbial-derived phenolic metabolites, and serotonin metabolites. An increased excretion of serotonin metabolites was associated for the first time with nut consumption. Additionally, the detection of urinary markers of gut microbial and phase II metabolism of nut polyphenols confirmed the understanding of their bioavailability and bioactivity as a priority area of research in the determination of the health effects derived from nut consumption. The results confirmed how a nontargeted metabolomics strategy may help to access unexplored metabolic pathways impacted by diet, thereby raising prospects for new intervention targets. PMID:21905751

  19. Long-Term Effects of a Stage-Based Intervention for Changing Exercise Intentions and Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Mary L.; Riebe, Deborah; Garber, Carol Ewing; Rossi, Joseph S.; Lees, Faith D.; Burbank, Patricia A.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Ferrone, Christine L.; Clark, Phillip G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the efficacy of an intervention tailored to the individual's stage of change for exercise adoption on exercise stage of change, physical activity, and physical function in community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: We randomized participants to a print and telephone intervention or a contact comparison group. Through…

  20. Diet and exercise interventions following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a review and call to action

    PubMed Central

    Coyan, Garrett N.; Reeder, K. M.; Vacek, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has been used for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) for nearly 50 years, and has been performed for millions of people worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise, on long-term outcomes in patients who have had CABG surgery. While clinical practice guidelines on post-CABG surgery management have been available for nearly 2 decades, evidence regarding secondary prevention behavioral interventions, lifestyle modifications, and self-management to slow progressive worsening of CAD, reduce cardiac hospitalizations, and prevent the need for reoperation is virtually absent from the literature. Diet and exercise are modifiable factors that impact secondary CAD risk. This article reviews the relevant recent literature on long-term diet and exercise outcomes in patients who have had CABG surgery. The limited available literature showed positive impacts of exercise on psychosocial well-being and physical fitness. Current evidence indicates diet and exercise interventions are effective in the short-term, but intervention effects fade over time. Potential age and gender differences were found across the reviewed studies; however, further research is needed with more rigorous designs to replicate and confirm findings as well as to define optimal management regimens and cost-effective prevention strategies. PMID:24875979

  1. Combined dietary and exercise intervention for control of serum cholesterol in the workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Chan, W. T.; Sample, C. J.; Levine, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate a potential combined dietary and exercise intervention affect on cardiovascular risk reduction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters employees. DESIGN: A nonexperimental, longitudinal, clinical-chart review study (1987 to 1996) of an identified intervention group and a reference (not a control) group. SETTING: The study group worked in an office environment and participated in the annual medical examinations. SUBJECTS: An intervention group of 858 people with initially elevated serum cholesterol, and a reference group of 963 people randomly sampled from 10% of the study group. MEASURES: Serum cholesterol data were obtained for both groups, respectively, from pre- and postintervention and annual examinations. The reference group was adjusted by statistical exclusion of potential intervention participants. Regression equations (cholesterol vs. study years) for the unadjusted/adjusted reference groups were tested for statistical significance. INTERVENTION: An 8-week individualized, combined dietary and exercise program was instituted with annual follow-ups and was repeated where warranted. RESULTS: Only the unadjusted (but not the adjusted) reference group with initial mean total serum cholesterol levels above 200 mg/dL shows a significant 9-year decline trend and significant beta coefficient tests. An intervention effect is suggested. Mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol rose slightly in the intervention group but was maintained in the reference group. CONCLUSION: With potential design limitations, the NASA intervention program focusing on a high risk group may be associated to some degree, if not fully, with an overall cardiovascular risk profile improvement.

  2. Effects of post-exercise recovery interventions on physiological, psychological, and performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Cortis, C; Tessitore, A; D'Artibale, E; Meeusen, R; Capranica, L

    2010-05-01

    At present, there is no consensus on the effectiveness of post-exercise recovery interventions on subsequent daily performances. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 20 min low-intensity water exercises, supine electrostimulation, and passive (sitting rest) recovery modalities on physiological (oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, and percentage of hemoglobin saturation in the muscles), psychological (subjective ratings of perceived exertion, muscle pain, and feeling of recovery), and performance (countermovement, bouncing jumping) parameters. During three experimental sessions, 8 men (age: 21.9+/-1.3 yrs; height: 175.8+/-10.7 cm; body mass: 71.2+/-9.8 kg; VO(2max): 57.9+/-5.1 ml x kg x min(-1)) performed a morning and an afternoon submaximal running test. The recovery interventions were randomly administered after the first morning tests. Activity and dietary intake were replicated on each occasion. ANOVA for repeated measures (p<0.05) showed no difference between the morning and afternoon physiological (ratios: range 0.90-1.18) and performance parameters (ratios: range 0.80-1.24), demonstrating that post-exercise recovery interventions do not provide significant beneficial effects over a limited time period. Conversely, subjects perceived water exercises (60%) and electrostimulation (40%) as the most effective interventions, indicating that these recovery strategies might improve the subjective feelings of wellbeing of the individual. PMID:20180177

  3. Developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as interventions for mood and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, B M; Charney, D S

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for more effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders. As our understanding of the cognitive and affective neuroscience underlying psychiatric disorders expands, so do opportunities to develop novel interventions that capitalize on the capacity for brain plasticity. Cognitive training is one such strategy. This paper provides the background and rationale for developing cognitive-emotional training exercises as an intervention strategy, and proposes guidelines for the development and evaluation of cognitive training interventions with a specific focus on major depressive disorder as an example. PMID:25451246

  4. Swahili 12 Weeks Course. Volume VI, Vocabulary List: Swahili-English, English-Swahili.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This Swahili-English/English-Swahili vocabulary list accompanies the Defense Language Institute's 12-weeks course in Swahili. For a description of the first five volumes (55 lesson units), see ED 026 651. (AMM)

  5. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18-55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20-45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  6. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18–55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20–45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  7. Feasibility of an inpatient exercise intervention for children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Bogg, Tina Fung Ting; Broderick, Carolyn; Shaw, Peter; Cohn, Richard; Naumann, Fiona Leigh

    2015-12-01

    With improving survival rates following HSCT in children, QOL and management of short- and long-term effects need to be considered. Exercise may help mitigate fatigue and declines in fitness and strength. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of an inpatient exercise intervention for children undergoing HSCT and observe the changes in physical and psychological health. Fourteen patients were recruited, mean age 10 yr. A 6MWT, isometric upper and lower body strength, balance, fatigue, and QOL were assessed prior to Tx and six wk post-Tx. A supervised exercise program was offered five days per week during the inpatient period and feasibility assessed through uptake rate. The study had 100% program completion and 60% uptake rate of exercise sessions. The mean (± s.d.) weekly activity was 117.5 (± 79.3) minutes. Younger children performed significantly more minutes of exercise than adolescents. At reassessment, strength and fatigue were stabilized while aerobic fitness and balance decreased. QOL revealed a non-statistical trend towards improvement. No exercise-related adverse events were reported. A supervised inpatient exercise program is safe and feasible, with potential physiological and psychosocial benefits. PMID:26518227

  8. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  9. Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition, Exercise, and Supplements for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children.

    PubMed

    Africa, Jonathan A; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements; however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD. PMID:27041377

  10. Measures of Cardiovascular Health and Physical Function after an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in a Patient Fifteen Days Post-Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Angela A; Mattlage, Anna E; Ashenden, Abigail L; Rippee, Michael A; Billinger, Sandra A

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Study Background: Changes in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness post-stroke severely impact an individual's quality of life. The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate whether a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise program would improve cardiovascular fitness, and physical performance measures in a participant following discharge from acute stroke rehabilitation. The participant is a 58 year-old female who experienced an ischemic stroke 15 days prior to beginning the exercise intervention. Case Description: The participant was provided a supervised 8-week exercise intervention on a Total Body Recumbent Stepper (TBRS). The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week; the first 4 weeks the participant exercised at a moderate intensity of 50-59% heart rate reserve (HRR) calculated from the baseline exercise test; the last 4 weeks the intensity was increased to 60-69% HRR. Exercise duration began at 20 minutes with the goal of reaching 30 minutes of continuous exercise at a specified workload. Outcomes: Following 8-weeks of intervention, the participant showed improvement in cardiovascular measures including: resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR), VO2 peak, and the maximum distance walked (6-MWT). Conclusion: The use of a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise intervention may be effective for participants in the sub-acute phase of stroke recovery in order to improve cardiovascular health and physical function. PMID:24772455

  11. [Worksite health promotion and occupational physicians: interventional effects of exercises].

    PubMed

    Ohta, Masanori; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Results of annual health checkups at workplaces revealed a steady increase in the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and hypertension in Japan. With the aging of the workforce, the incidence is expected to increase further. These risk factors are modifiable through a lifestyle modification program including mild exercise and nutritional guidance. In 1988, the Japanese government revised the Industrial Safety and Health Law to promote health in the workplace and implemented the Total Health Promotion Plan (THP). However, only 5.0% of workplaces were implementing THP programs according to a survey conducted in 2007. Therefore, we have recommended some measures for worksite health promotion, such as collaboration between community health and occupational health for implementing health promotion activities especially in small and medium scale enterprises, environmental improvement to promote occupational health, and an approach to increase physical activity that includes walking to work and using the stairs. Worksite health promotion should be considered an important company initiative in terms of work-related outcomes such as job satisfaction, work ability, and absenteeism in addition to cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24107347

  12. Hippocampal-Brainstem Connectivity Associated with Vagal Modulation after an Intense Exercise Intervention in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Herbsleb, Marco; Schumann, Andy; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Gabriel, Holger W; Wagner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise leads to increased vagal modulation of the cardiovascular system. A combination of peripheral and central processes has been proposed to underlie this adaptation. However, specific changes in the central autonomic network have not been described in human in more detail. We hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus known to be influenced by regular physical activity might be involved in the development of increased vagal modulation after a 6 weeks high intensity intervention in young healthy men (exercise group: n = 17, control group: n = 17). In addition to the determination of physical capacity before and after the intervention, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous heart rate variability assessment. We detected a significant increase of the power output at the anaerobic threshold of 11.4% (p < 0.001), the maximum power output Pmax of 11.2% (p < 0.001), and VO2max adjusted for body weight of 4.7% (p < 0.001) in the exercise group (EG). Comparing baseline (T0) and post-exercise (T1) values of parasympathetic modulation of the exercise group, we observed a trend for a decrease in heart rate (p < 0.06) and a significant increase of vagal modulation as indicated by RMSSD (p < 0.026) during resting state. In the whole brain analysis, we found that the connectivity pattern of the right anterior hippocampus (aHC) was specifically altered to the ventromedial anterior cortex, the dorsal striatum and to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem. Moreover, we observed a highly significant negative correlation between increased RMSSD after exercise and decreased functional connectivity from the right aHC to DVC (r = -0.69, p = 0.003). This indicates that increased vagal modulation was associated with functional connectivity between aHC and the DVC. In conclusion, our findings suggest that exercise associated changes in anterior hippocampal function might be involved in increased vagal modulation. PMID

  13. Hippocampal-Brainstem Connectivity Associated with Vagal Modulation after an Intense Exercise Intervention in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Herbsleb, Marco; Schumann, Andy; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Gabriel, Holger W.; Wagner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise leads to increased vagal modulation of the cardiovascular system. A combination of peripheral and central processes has been proposed to underlie this adaptation. However, specific changes in the central autonomic network have not been described in human in more detail. We hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus known to be influenced by regular physical activity might be involved in the development of increased vagal modulation after a 6 weeks high intensity intervention in young healthy men (exercise group: n = 17, control group: n = 17). In addition to the determination of physical capacity before and after the intervention, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous heart rate variability assessment. We detected a significant increase of the power output at the anaerobic threshold of 11.4% (p < 0.001), the maximum power output Pmax of 11.2% (p < 0.001), and VO2max adjusted for body weight of 4.7% (p < 0.001) in the exercise group (EG). Comparing baseline (T0) and post-exercise (T1) values of parasympathetic modulation of the exercise group, we observed a trend for a decrease in heart rate (p < 0.06) and a significant increase of vagal modulation as indicated by RMSSD (p < 0.026) during resting state. In the whole brain analysis, we found that the connectivity pattern of the right anterior hippocampus (aHC) was specifically altered to the ventromedial anterior cortex, the dorsal striatum and to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem. Moreover, we observed a highly significant negative correlation between increased RMSSD after exercise and decreased functional connectivity from the right aHC to DVC (r = −0.69, p = 0.003). This indicates that increased vagal modulation was associated with functional connectivity between aHC and the DVC. In conclusion, our findings suggest that exercise associated changes in anterior hippocampal function might be involved in increased vagal modulation. PMID

  14. Kegel Exercises for Your Pelvic Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... control until after 6 to 12 weeks of daily exercises. Still, most women notice an improvement after just ... Weak pelvic muscles often lead to urine leakage. Daily exercises can strengthen pelvic muscles. These exercises often improve ...

  15. Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Given the rapidly increasing demographic of older adults, it is vital to implement effective behavioral strategies to improve physical function to maintain activities of daily living. However, changing physical activity in older adults remains extremely difficult. The current trial tested the efficacy of a novel, 6-month, home-based, DVD-delivered exercise program focusing on flexibility, balance, and toning on the physical function of older adults. Methods. Older adults (N = 307) were recruited from 83 towns and cities throughout central Illinois. The trial consisted of 4 waves of recruitment and randomization from May 2010 through January 2012. Inclusion criteria included being inactive, at least 65 years of age, English speaking, providing physician’s consent, and willingness to be randomized. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions: the exercise intervention or a healthy aging, attentional control. Functional assessments were completed at baseline and following the 6-month DVD intervention. Measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery, assessments of flexibility and strength, and self-reported functional limitations. Results. Participants in the DVD intervention condition demonstrated significant improvements in the Short Physical Performance Battery (p = .005), lower extremity flexibility (p = .04), and upper body strength (p = .003). There were no effects of the intervention on self-reported functional limitations. Conclusions. The exercise intervention produced a clinically significant improvement in the Short Physical Performance Battery and improvements in flexibility and strength, demonstrating the effectiveness of a low-cost DVD exercise program in improving physical function in older adults. PMID:23401566

  16. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, M.; Freund, J.; Boutcher, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P < 0.001) by 15% for the exercising group. Exercisers compared to controls experienced significant weight loss of 1.5 kg (P < 0.005) and a significant reduction in total fat mass of 2 kg (P < 0.001). Abdominal and trunk adiposity was also significantly reduced in the exercising group by 0.1 kg (P < 0.05) and 1.5 kg (P < 0.001). Also the exercise group had a significant (P < 0.01) 17% reduction in visceral fat after 12 weeks of HIIE, whereas waist circumference was significantly decreased by week six (P < 0.001). Fat free mass was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the exercising group by 0.4 kg for the leg and 0.7 kg for the trunk. No significant change (P > 0.05) occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power. PMID:22720138

  17. Daughters and Mothers Exercising Together (DAMET): Effects of Home- and University-Based Interventions on Physical Activity Behavior and Family Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransdell, Lynda B.; Eastep, Eric; Taylor, Alison; Oakland, Darcie; Schmidt, Jenny; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie; Shultz, Barry

    2003-01-01

    This study compared two interventions in terms of impact on physical activity participation and mother-daughter relations. Previously sedentary mothers and daughters (N = 34) were randomly assigned to a 12-week university-or home-based physical activity group. Program activities were designed using focus group information, aspects of the social…

  18. Effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors: a meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trails

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yulan; Xiong, Huizi; Zhao, Yinghui; Sun, Fenyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise is associated with favorable outcomes in cancer survivors. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to comprehensively summarize the effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, Elsevier, and Google scholar was conducted up to March 2015. References from relevant meta-analyses and reviews were also checked. Results Thirty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis, including 2,659 breast cancer survivors. Compared with the control group, quality of life was significantly improved in exercise intervention group, especially in mental health and general health subscales of short form 36 questionnaire, as well as emotion well-being and social well-being subscales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. Besides, exercise alleviated the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the exercise group. Furthermore, exercise was also associated with positive outcomes in body mass index, lean mass, and muscle strength. In addition, the serum concentration of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-II, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 was significantly reduced in exercise intervention group. However, based on the current data of this meta-analysis, there were no significant differences in sleep dysfunction or fatigue between groups. Conclusion Our study suggested that exercise intervention was beneficial to breast cancer survivors. Therefore, exercise should be recommended to this patient group. PMID:27110131

  19. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on cardiovascular response to mental and physical challenge.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on the cardiovascular and autonomic response of males to mental and physical challenge. Thirty four young overweight males were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The exercise group completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program three times per week for 12weeks. Cardiovascular response to the Stroop task was determined before and after the intervention by assessing heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), arterial stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and skeletal muscle blood flow. The exercise group improved their aerobic fitness levels by 17% and reduced their body weight by 1.6kg. Exercisers compared to controls experienced a significant reduction in HR (p<0.001) and a significant increase in SV (p<0.001) at rest and during Stroop and exercise. For exercisers, arterial stiffness significantly decreased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01), whereas BRS was increased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01). Forearm blood flow was significantly increased during the first two minutes of Stroop (p<0.05). HIIE induced significant cardiovascular and autonomic changes at rest and during mental and physical challenge after 12weeks of training. PMID:23220158

  20. The effects of a multisite aerobic exercise intervention on asthma morbidity in sedentary adults with asthma: the Ex-asthma study randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Simon L; Lavoie, Kim L; Bourbeau, Jean; Ernst, Pierre; Maghni, Karim; Gautrin, Denyse; Labrecque, Manon; Pepin, Veronique; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aerobic exercise can improve cardiovascular fitness and does not seem to be detrimental to patients with asthma, though its role in changing asthma control and inflammatory profiles is unclear. The main hypothesis of the current randomised controlled trial is that aerobic exercise will be superior to usual care in improving asthma control. Key secondary outcomes are asthma quality of life and inflammatory profiles. Design A total of 104 sedentary adults with physician-diagnosed asthma will be recruited. Eligible participants will undergo a series of baseline assessments including: the asthma control questionnaire; the asthma quality-of-life questionnaire and the inflammatory profile (assessed from both the blood and sputum samples). On completion of the assessments, participants will be randomised (1:1 allocation) to either 12-weeks of usual care or usual care plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise will consist of three supervised training sessions per week. Each session will consist of taking a short-acting bronchodilator, 10 min of warm-up, 40 min of aerobic exercise (50–75% of heart rate reserve for weeks 1–4, then 70–85% for weeks 5–12) and a 10 min cool-down. Within 1 week of completion, participants will be reassessed (same battery as at baseline). Analyses will assess the difference between the two intervention arms on postintervention levels of asthma control, quality of life and inflammation, adjusting for age, baseline inhaled corticosteroid prescription, body weight change and pretreatment dependent variable level. Missing data will be handled using standard multiple imputation techniques. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by all relevant research ethics boards. Written consent will be obtained from all participants who will be able to withdraw at any time. Results The result will be disseminated to three groups of stakeholder groups: (1) the scientific and professional community; (2) the research

  1. Effects of Exercise Interventions on Stereotypic Behaviours in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Christopher; Adamson, Sarah R.; Block, Laurie; Einarson, Sarah J.; Sharifnejad, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from studies examining the effect of exercise interventions on stereotypic behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Only exercise-related physical therapy (PT) interventions were included. A multifaceted search strategy identified studies published between 1980 and 2007. Quality was assessed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) Study Quality Scale, the Clinical Relevance Tool for Case Studies, and the Quality, Rigour or Evaluative Criteria tool. Results: Seven studies (1982–2003) met our inclusion criteria; four of these used single-subject research designs, two were group studies, and one was a case study. Ages and behavioural characteristics of the children (N = 25) varied among the studies. Levels of evidence ranged from II to V (of a possible I–V). Study quality scores ranged from 2 to 5 (range: 0 to 7); mean = 3.9, mode = 5. Few studies in this area of PT practice have been published, and those identified scored low levels of rigour on the AACPDM criteria. Conclusions: Research suggests that exercise provides short-term reductions of stereotypic behaviours in children with ASD. Future research with stronger evidence levels, greater rigour, and longer-term outcome assessment is required to determine specific exercise parameters. PMID:20145777

  2. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Dischiavi, Steven L; Hegedus, Eric J; Zuk, Emma F; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions. PMID:26346471

  3. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Dischiavi, Steven L; Hegedus, Eric J; Zuk, Emma F; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions. PMID:26346471

  4. Understanding nutritional interventions and physical exercise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, R; Carbajo-Pescador, S; Mauriz, J L; Gonzalez-Gallego, J

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in adults and its prevalence is rising around the world. This pathology is characterized by accumulation of liver fat, which exceeds 5% of liver weight in absence of alcohol consumption, viral infection or other hepatic etiology. Since NAFLD has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes or alteration of lipid profiles, it is considered as the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD have not been clearly elucidated, but different events such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are involved. Modifications in lifestyle constitute the first line for the management of NAFLD. Nutritional interventions include low fat and carbohydrate diet with higher polyunsaturated fatty acids ingestion. Moreover, supplementation with antioxidant and cytoprotective agents could be useful to decrease oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Physical activity enables to reduce the expression of lipogenic genes, fat accumulation, or insulin resistance and improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Benefits have been found following both aerobic exercise and resistance training, and remain even after exercise cessation. However, more studies are required to analyze the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in nutritional and physical intervention, and to define the volume of activity required and its association with weight loss. In this paper, we offer an updated overview of the mechanisms implicated in the progression of NAFLD, and analyze the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions and physical exercise in the prevention and treatment of this condition. PMID:25601465

  5. Outcomes of a Mobile Health Coaching Platform: 12-Week Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James K

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of mobile health coaching applications is expanding at a rapid rate. An application that uses a guiding intelligence to deliver an individualized structured program has the potential to provide a significant benefit. However, there are few studies of this approach that examine multiple clinical outcomes in a longitudinal manner. Objective The objective of the study was to conduct a 12-week evaluation of participants using the YouPlus Health mobile coaching platform, specifically examining the effects on body weight, waist measurement, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycohemoglobin (A1C), and maximum volume of oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Methods A quasi-experimental research design was used. This included a single-arm pre and post intervention assessment of outcomes. Participants underwent a 12-week intervention in which they received the entirety of the mobile health coaching program via an application on their mobile phones and were evaluated in the same physician’s office setting every two weeks. Data regarding app usage was continuously collected and maintained in a database. Results 10 subjects were enrolled in and completed the pilot study. The mean weight loss was 13.5 lbs. which represented 7.3% of baseline (P=.005). Mean waist circumference was reduced by 7.2 cm or 6.6% of baseline (P=.005). Both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure measures were significantly lower after 12 weeks of intervention. Mean SBP fell 18.6 mmHg (P=.005) and mean DBP declined 6.4 mmHg (P=.005). VO2 max increased by an average of 3.13 ml/kg/min from baseline to study end (P=.005). From baseline to end-of-study HDL levels increased significantly by 4.0 mg/dL (P=.04) Total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and glycohemoglobin (A1C) trended in the desired direction but did not meet statistical significance. All of the participants in the study completed the necessary in-app tutorials and also completed the in-app questions and received feedback

  6. Exercise Capacity and Idebenone Intervention in Children and Adolescents with Friedreich’s Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Drinkard, Bart E.; Keyser, Randall E.; Paul, Scott M; Arena, Ross; Plehn, Jonathan F.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of idebenone on exercise capacity in children and adolescents with Friedreich’s Ataxia. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled, phase II clinical trial. Setting Clinical research center, exercise physiology laboratory. Participants 42 subjects (ages 9–17) with genetically confirmed FA. Intervention Six-month idebenone regimens of approximately 5, 15, and 45 mg/kg/day or placebo. Main Outcome Variables Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and peak work rate (WR) were measured during incremental exercise tests before and after treatment. Echocardiography and neurological assessments were also completed before and after theidebenone regimen. Results Baseline peak VO2 was 746+246 ml/min (16.2 ± 5.8 ml/kg/min) and WR was 40+23 watts in all subjects combined. Peak VO2 and WR were correlated with short GAA repeat length and neurological assessments. Relative left ventricular wall thickness (RWT) was increased but left ventricular ejection fraction was normal in the majority of subjects; there was no relationship between any exercise and echocardiographic measure. There were no significant changes in peak VO2 or WR after idebenone treatment. Conclusions Exercise capacity was severely impaired in these children and adolescents with FA and after 6 months of idebenone treatment did not change by an amount thought to be clinically relevant. PMID:20599042

  7. Effects of an exercise intervention on bone mass in pediatric bone tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Winter, C; Boos, J; Gosheger, G; Hardes, J; Vieth, V; Rosenbaum, D

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of additional exercises during inpatient stays on bone mass in pediatric bone tumor patients. 21 patients were non-randomly allocated either to the exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 11). DXA of the lumbar spine, the non-affected femur and both calcanei was performed after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (baseline), as well as 6 and 12 months after baseline. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and height-corrected lumbar spine Z-scores were determined. Group changes after 6 and 12 months were compared by covariance analyses. Additionally, daily physical activities (PA) were assessed by means of accelerometry. After adjusting for initial age, height and weight, mean reductions in lumbar spine and femoral BMC were lower in the exercise group (not significant). Effect sizes during the observational period for lumbar spine and femur BMC were generally small (partial η² = 0.03). The exercise group demonstrated substantially higher PA levels in terms of gait cycles per day, per hour and moderate PA (activities above 40 gait cycles per minute). Additional exercises for bone tumor patients are feasible during hospitalization. Though the intervention did not influence BMC, it appeared beneficial regarding PA promotion with respect to volume and intensity. PMID:24408763

  8. Use of exercise testing in the evaluation of interventional efficacy: an official ERS statement.

    PubMed

    Puente-Maestu, Luis; Palange, Paolo; Casaburi, Richard; Laveneziana, Pierantonio; Maltais, François; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E; Onorati, Paolo; Porszasz, Janos; Rabinovich, Roberto; Rossiter, Harry B; Singh, Sally; Troosters, Thierry; Ward, Susan

    2016-02-01

    This document reviews 1) the measurement properties of commonly used exercise tests in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and 2) published studies on their utilty and/or evaluation obtained from MEDLINE and Cochrane Library searches between 1990 and March 2015.Exercise tests are reliable and consistently responsive to rehabilitative and pharmacological interventions. Thresholds for clinically important changes in performance are available for several tests. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, the 6-min walk test (6MWT), peak oxygen uptake and ventilation/carbon dioxide output indices appear to be the variables most responsive to vasodilators. While bronchodilators do not always show clinically relevant effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high-intensity constant work-rate (endurance) tests (CWRET) are considerably more responsive than incremental exercise tests and 6MWTs. High-intensity CWRETs need to be standardised to reduce interindividual variability. Additional physiological information and responsiveness can be obtained from isotime measurements, particularly of inspiratory capacity and dyspnoea. Less evidence is available for the endurance shuttle walk test. Although the incremental shuttle walk test and 6MWT are reliable and less expensive than cardiopulmonary exercise testing, two repetitions are needed at baseline. All exercise tests are safe when recommended precautions are followed, with evidence suggesting that no test is safer than others. PMID:26797036

  9. Managing Noncommunicable Diseases in an African Community: Effects, Compliance, and Barriers to Participation in a 4-Week Exercise Intervention.

    PubMed

    Onagbiye, Sunday O; Moss, Sarah J; Cameron, Melainie

    2016-04-01

    To determine the compliance, barriers, and effects of participation in a 4-week exercise intervention aimed at reducing risk factors for noncommunicable diseases among community-dwelling adults from a low-resourced area of South Africa. An exercise program and associated pre-posttest were performed by 76 participants (men, n = 26 and women, n = 50) aged 35 to 65 years. Baseline and end tests included height, weight, hip and waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, quality of life, and cardiorespiratory fitness measurements. The intervention consisted of 3 days/week combined aerobic and resistance exercise at an intensity of 70% heart rate reserved as determined at baseline. Compliance and barriers to participation were determined post-intervention by means of attendance registers and interviews. ANCOVA with adjustment for pretest was performed for all repeated variables. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for exercise benefits were 0.81 and for barriers 0.84. Of the 26 men (40.8 ± 5.45 years) and 50 women (43.6 ± 7.8 years) recruited, 54 completed the intervention (71% compliance). The 4-week aerobic exercise intervention significantly reduced body mass, rate of perceived exertion, and mental components summary in men, and body mass, body mass index, VO2max, rate of perceived exertion, glucose, physical components summary, and mental components summary in women. Participants reported that the exercise milieu as a major barrier to exercise compliance while the interviews reported lack of time. A 1-month exercise intervention elucidated positive changes in risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in a low-resource community. A drop-out rate of 29% in this study is consistent with other exercise intervention trials. Exploration of the reported barriers may be useful for planning to increase compliance with future programs. PMID:27154904

  10. The influence of a 12-week program of physical activity on changes in body composition and lipid and carbohydrate status in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294

  11. Effects of The Coach Approach Intervention on Adherence to Exercise in Obese Women: Assessing Mediation of Social Cognitive Theory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Unruh, Jennifer L.; Marti, C. Nathan; Gorjala, Srinivasa; Tennant, Gisele

    2011-01-01

    The link between physical activity and weight loss has precipitated interest in interventions to foster adherence to exercise. It has been suggested that treatment effects, when significant, should be analyzed to determine theory-based mediators. This research assessed possible mediation of changes in Physical Self-Concept, Exercise Self-Efficacy,…

  12. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  13. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  14. A pilot study of an exercise & cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for epithelial ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynaecologic cancers. Faced with poor prognoses, stressful treatment effects and a high likelihood of recurrence, survivors must confront significant physical and psychological morbidities that negatively impact health-related quality of life. Frequently reported side effects include cancer-related fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, and psychological distress. Exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions have counteracted such adverse effects in other cancer populations. Objective To investigate the feasibility and benefits of a 24-week home-based exercise intervention, coordinated with 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (two sessions per month), developed for two types of patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer: 1) those undergoing primary treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy after primary surgery; 2) those on surveillance after completing treatment within the last 2 years. Methods Participants were recruited from the Gynaecologic Oncology Clinic. Eligible participants completed baseline assessments and were provided with home-based exercise equipment. Cognitive behavioral therapy was provided every other week for patients via telephone. Assessments were completed at baseline (T1), 3 months (T2) and 6 months (T3). Results 19 of the 46 eligible patients approached were enrolled, with 7 patients in the treatment group and 12 in the surveillance group. There was a significant within group increase in peak VO2 from baseline to 6 months: F(2,16) = 5.531, p = 0.015, partial η2 = 0.409. Conclusion The combined 6-month exercise-cognitive behavioral therapy intervention was associated with significant increases in aerobic fitness in epithelial ovarian cancer patients assessed. These improvements were similar regardless of whether the patient was receiving chemotherapy or under surveillance. PMID:23557323

  15. Interventions to Address Chronic Disease and HIV: Strategies to Promote Exercise and Nutrition Among HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L.

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments. PMID:22933247

  16. Changes of Motivational Variables in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis in an Exercise Intervention: Associations between Physical Performance and Motivational Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Geertz, Wiebke; Dechow, Anna-Sophie; Patra, Stefan; Heesen, Christoph; Gold, Stefan M.; Schulz, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the effects of a standardized fitness training on motivational factors such as the intention to be physically active, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, counterstrategies, and exercise specific social support in patients with progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and the relation of these factors to physical performance. Methods. Moderately disabled patients with secondary or primary progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale of 4–6) were randomized to a training group or a waitlist control group. Patients completed on average 20 sessions of training tailored to their individual fitness at baseline over a course of 8–12 weeks. Motivational variables (stage of change according to the transtheoretical model (TTM), self-efficacy, perceived barriers, counterstrategies, and exercise specific social support) were assessed via questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Results. Forty patients completed the trial. We found significant effects on stages of change (p = .016) and self-efficacy (p = .014) and a trend in counterstrategies (p = .08). Significant correlations between change of physical performance during the exercise training and change in the TTM, perceived barriers, and counterstrategies were detected. Conclusion. This study indicates that tailored individual endurance training could stabilize self-efficacy and increase exercise motivation in patients with progressive MS. Motivational variables were related to the physical performance. PMID:26246692

  17. Achondrogenesis type 2 diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Soothill, P W; Vuthiwong, C; Rees, H

    1993-06-01

    Ultrasound examination at 12 weeks' gestation revealed severe generalised subcutaneous oedema in a pregnancy at risk for achondrogenesis type II. Transvaginal scanning confirmed the oedema and suggested abnormal limb development. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination after transvaginal termination. PMID:8372079

  18. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  19. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  20. Japanese 12-Week Course. Volume IV, Lessons 42-55. Volume V, Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Educational Systems Development Center.

    These two volumes comprise Lesson Units 42-55 (Volume IV), and a comprehensive Glossary (Volume V) which accompanies this 12-week Defense Language Institute course in beginning Japanese. (See AL 002 223 for Volume I--Introduction and Lesson Units 1-15, and AL 002 224 for Volumes II and III--Lesson Units 16-27 and 28-41.) (AMM)

  1. Japanese 12-Week Course. Volume II, Lessons 16-27. Volume III, Lessons 28-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Educational Systems Development Center.

    These two volumes contain Lesson Units 16-41 in the Defense Language Institute's 12-week course in Japanese. (See AL 002 223 for Volume I, Lessons Units 1-15 and AL 002 225 for Volume IV, Lesson Units 42-55 and Volume V, Glossary.) (AMM)

  2. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  3. Effect of supervised exercise intervention on metabolic risk factors and physical fitness in Chinese obese children in early puberty.

    PubMed

    Chang, C; Liu, W; Zhao, X; Li, S; Yu, C

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of long-term supervised exercise-induced weight maintenance on metabolic risk factors and physical fitness in obese children in early puberty. A total of 49 obese children aged 12-14 years were divided into control and exercise groups. The children in the exercise group accepted exercise intervention supervised by a professional sports teacher for 9 of the 12 months. All participants in both groups received health education once every 3 months. Anthropometry and fasting serum lipids, glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at months 0, 3, 9, 12 of the intervention. Physical fitness was determined before and after intervention. After the intervention (i) BMI was reduced by 0.6 (P < 0.05) in the exercise group, but increased by 0.5 (P < 0.05) in the control group, compared with the pre-intervention level at the end of 9-month intervention; (ii) Triglyceride levels in the exercise group significantly decreased by 23.1% by 3 months (P < 0.05), and by 30.2% after 9 months (P < 0.05), but increased by 50% (P < 0.05) in the control group; high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased more by 35% (P < 0.05) in the controls than in the exercise group (P < 0.05); (iii) Fasting serum glucose, insulin level and HOMA-IR decreased, respectively, by 23.1%, 36.6% and 48.5% in the exercise group at 9 months (P < 0.05), whereas glucose levels increased by 10.9% (P < 0.05) in the control group; (iv) Exercise performance, such as upper- and lower-limb strength, flexibility and endurance, were enhanced by 17.9%, 12.3%, 22.3% and 20.4% (P < 0.01), respectively and (v) At 12 months, i.e. 3 months after terminating the supervised exercise, serum triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR level all returned to the pre-intervention level. Supervised decrement exercise can effectively slow the progress of obesity, improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic risk factors, but once

  4. Comparison Among Aerobic Exercise and Other Types of Interventions to Treat Depression: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common and disabling disease that affects over 100 million people worldwide and can have a significant impact on physical and mental health, reducing their quality of life. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of chronic aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat depression, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. In this review, the data analyzed allows us to claim that alternative therapies, such as exercise, are effective on controlling and reducing symptoms. 69.3% of the studies that investigated the antidepressant effects of exercise on depressive were significant, and the other 30.7% of the studies improved only in general physiological aspects, such as increased oxygen uptake, increased use of blood glucose and decreased body fat percentage, with no improvement on symptoms of depression. From the sample analyzed, 71.4% was composed of women, and regarding the severity of symptoms, 85% had mild to moderate depression and only 15% had moderate to severe depression. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressants in symptomatology and cognitive function in depression, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556090

  5. The use of exercise interventions to overcome adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe; Faber, Jens; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2016-06-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces severe hypogonadism and is associated with several adverse effects that negatively affect health and quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. ADT changes body composition characterized by an increase in fat mass and a reduction in muscle mass and strength. Insulin sensitivity is also diminished and population-based studies indicate an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in men receiving ADT. Particularly the first 6 months of treatment seem to hold an additional risk of new cardiovascular events for patients with already existing cardiovascular disease. In this initial phase of ADT, metabolic changes are also most prominent. In addition, ADT increases the rate of bone loss and fracture risk. Currently available evidence supports the use of exercise interventions to improve physical function and mitigate ADT-induced fatigue. Some studies also indicate that exercise might moderate ADT-related changes in body composition. However, beneficial effects of exercise interventions on other ADT-related conditions have not been conclusively proven. Trials investigating the effects of ADT on fracture risk and development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease are still warranted. Furthermore, studies investigating safety and effects of physical activity in men with bone metastases are lacking. PMID:27112391

  6. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  7. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  8. Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercises in Post-Stroke Dysarthria Intervention: A Randomized Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, C.; Muir, M.; Allen, C.; Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been little robust evaluation of the outcome of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention for post-stroke dysarthria. Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are a common component of dysarthria intervention. A feasibility study was designed and executed, with participants randomized into two groups, in one of which…

  9. 12-Mo Intervention of Physical Exercise Improved Work Ability, Especially in Subjects with Low Baseline Work Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kettunen, Oili; Vuorimaa, Timo; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study’s objective was to assess the effects of a 12-month physical exercise intervention on work ability (WAI) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in healthy working adults. Methods: The study group had 371 participants, of which 338 (212 women and 126 men) were allocated in the exercise group and 33 (17 women and 16 men) in the control group. The exercise group underwent a 12-month exercise program followed by a 12-month follow-up. WAI and CRF were evaluated at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 study months, in both exercise and control groups. The exercise group was divided into subgroups according to baseline WAI classifications (poor/moderate, good, excellent). Results: During the 12-month exercise intervention, the exercise group increased their leisure-time physical activity by 71% (p = 0.016) and improved the mean WAI by 3% and CRF by 7% (p < 0.0001, in both), while WAI and CRF decreased in the control group (ANCOVA using age, sex and BMI as covariates, for WAI, p = 0.013 and for CRF, p = 0.008). The changes in WAI and CRF between the exercise group and control group were significantly different during the intervention (baseline vs. 12-months, p = 0.028 and p = 0.007) and after the follow-up (p = 0.001 and p = 0.040), respectively. A light positive correlation between the changes in WAI and in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01) existed. WAI improvement was the highest (13%, p < 0.0001) in the subgroup having poor/moderate WAI at baseline (ANCOVA, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The improvement of WAI associated with CRF. These results suggest that a physical exercise intervention may improve work ability. PMID:24714059

  10. Effects of individual and combined dietary weight loss and exercise interventions in postmenopausal women on adiponectin and leptin levels

    PubMed Central

    Abbenhardt, Clare; McTiernan, Anne; Alfano, Catherine M.; Wener, Mark H.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Kong, Angela; Toriola, Adetunji T; Potter, John D.; Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Blackburn, George L.; Bain, Carolyn; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excess body weight and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer in women. One proposed mechanism linking obesity to chronic diseases is an alteration in adipose-derived adiponectin and leptin levels. We investigated the effects of 12-month reduced calorie, weight loss and exercise interventions on adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Methods Overweight/obese postmenopausal women (n=439) were randomized as follows: 1) a reduced calorie, weight loss diet (diet; N=118); 2) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (exercise; N=117); 3) a combination of a reduced calorie, weight loss diet and moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (diet+exercise; N=117); or 4) control (N=87). The reduced calorie diet had a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention consisted of 45 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity 5 days/week. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured at baseline and after 12 months of intervention using a radioimmunoassay. Results Adiponectin increased by 9.5 % in the diet group and 6.6 % in the diet+exercise group (both p≤0.0001 vs. control). Compared with controls, leptin decreased with all interventions (diet+exercise, −40.1%, p<0.0001; diet, −27.1%, p<0.0001; exercise, −12.7%, p=0.005). The results were not influenced by the baseline body mass index (BMI). The degree of weight loss was inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin (diet, p-trend=0.0002; diet+exercise, p-trend=0.0005) and directly associated with leptin (diet, p-trend<0.0001; diet+exercise, p-trend<0.0001). Conclusion Weight loss through diet or diet+exercise increased adiponectin concentrations. Leptin concentrations decreased in all of the intervention groups, but the greatest reduction occurred with diet+exercise. Weight loss and exercise exerted some beneficial effects on chronic diseases via effects on adiponectin and leptin. PMID

  11. Effects of exercise on knee joints with osteoarthritis: a pilot study of biologic markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautch, J. C.; Malone, D. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low intensity weight-bearing exercise on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS: Synovial fluid keratan sulfate (KS) and hydroxyproline were measured as markers of cartilage degradation. The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) were used to measure health status, and a visual analog scale for pain assessment was used before and after intervention. An exercise (EX) group (n = 15) received a thrice-weekly 12-week low intensity exercise program and a weekly educational program, and a minimal treatment (Min RX) group (n = 15) received only the education program. RESULTS: Pain levels declined in the EX group, and the Min RX group showed improvement on the AIMS. Synovial fluid was obtained in 11 subjects before and after the intervention. Levels of KS and hydroxyproline did not change. CONCLUSION: Further study of exercise effects should include both clinical and biologic parameters to examine the outcome of exercise as a therapeutic intervention in OA of the knee.

  12. The Characterization of Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat Model Suitable for Exercise Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shuwei; Jiang, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model suitable for exercise intervention. Method Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24), PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6), and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6). Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6), sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6), exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FINS), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0. Results Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2), FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO. Conclusion By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention. PMID:24905232

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise intervention on serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and lymphocyte dna damage in obese elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the reported research was to investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and oxidative DNA damage in obese, elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen class I obese, elderly females, according to World Health Organization criteria, were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=8) or an exercise group (n=8). The exercise group participated in exercise sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 8 weeks. [Results] After aerobic exercise intervention, weight, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, and DNA damage (Tail moment) were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values. In contrast, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels were not significantly different among any groups or time-points. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for reducing obesity-induced high DNA damage levels in obese females, without causing the deformation or degradation of lower extremity articular cartilage. PMID:27390441

  14. Efficacy of Exercise Interventions in Patients with Acute Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinjie; Gu, Zejuan; Yin, Xiangguang

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased physical performance and impaired physiological and psychological fitness have been reported in patients with acute leukemia (AL). We performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of exercise in patients with AL. Methods In this meta-analysis, the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and PEDro were searched through November 2015. Three authors participated in the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. The instrument used for quality assessment was derived from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Analyses were performed according to the recommendations of The Cochrane Collaboration using Review Manager 5.3. Results Nine trials (8 randomized controlled trials and 1 quasi-experimental design trial) with 314 AL participants were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled standardized mean differences between the exercise and control groups were 0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09 to 0.80, P value = 0.01, P for heterogeneity = 0.23, I2 = 28%) for cardiorespiratory fitness and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.28 to 1.06, P value = 0.0007, P for heterogeneity = 0.14, I2 = 43%) for muscle strength. Based on the data for fatigue, anxiety, and depression, there were no significant differences in these parameters between the exercise and control groups. Conclusions Exercise has beneficial effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and functional mobility; however, no significant improvements in fatigue, anxiety, depression or quality of life were observed. Further large-scale randomized trials are needed to assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of exercise programs for AL patients. PMID:27463234

  15. Lateralization of infant holding by mothers: A longitudinal evaluation of variations over the first 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Todd, Brenda K; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The maternal preference to hold infants on the left rather than right side of the body was examined longitudinally, with attention to 4 explanations: maternal monitoring of infant state, maternal handedness, infant proximity to the mother's heartbeat, and preferred infant head position. The side and site of holding were measured over the first 12 weeks of the lives of 24 infants. Information about group and individual consistency in holding side allowed novel evaluation of the theories. A strong bias to hold on the left dropped below significance when the infants were aged 12 weeks and was limited to specific holding positions. Findings were generally consistent with the monitoring hypothesis, and little support was found for the 3 alternative explanations. PMID:26314871

  16. [The effect of yoga exercise intervention on health related physical fitness in school-age asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting-Lan; Mao, Hsin-Chun; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga exercise on the health-related physical fitness of school-age children with asthma. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design in which 31 voluntary children (exercise group 16; control group15) aged 7 to 12 years were purposively sampled from one public elementary school in Taipei County. The yoga exercise program was practiced by the exercise group three times per week for a consecutive 7 week period. Each 60-minute yoga session included 10 minutes of warm-up and breathing exercises, 40 minutes of yoga postures, and 10 minutes of cool down exercises. Fitness scores were assessed at pre-exercise (baseline) and at the seventh and ninth week after intervention completion. A total of 30 subjects (exercise group 16; control group 14) completed follow-up. Results included: 1. Compared with children in the general population, the study subjects (n = 30) all fell below the 50th percentile in all five physical fitness items of interest. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups at baseline (i.e., pre-exercise) for all five fitness items. 2. Research found a positive association between exercise habit after school and muscular strength and endurance among asthmatic children. 3. Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed favorable outcomes in terms of flexibility and muscular endurance. Such favorable outcomes remained evident even after adjusting for age, duration of disease and steroid use, values for which were unequally distributed between the two groups at baseline. 4. There was a tendency for all item-specific fitness scores to increase over time in the exercise group. The GEE analysis showed that yoga exercise indeed improved BMI, flexibility, and muscular endurance. After 2 weeks of self-practice at home, yoga exercise continued to improve BMI, flexibility, muscular strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness. PMID:19319803

  17. Immune Function Alterations during 12 Weeks of Abstinence in Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Yang, X-R; Song, H; Cao, B-R; Yin, F; An, Z-M; Kang, L; Li, J

    2015-01-01

    The intent of the study was to evaluate immune system changes during 12 weeks of abstinence in heroin users. We recruited men (N = 65) aged 18-45 years and collected demographic and heroin use pattern data. Serum blood levels of total interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM were assessed at five time points. The IL-2 level was increased on day 84 as compared to that in healthy controls. The IFN-γ level was higher in heroin users than in healthy controls between days 0 and 28, and was decreased on day 84. IgG and IgM levels in heroin users were higher than those in healthy controls in our 12-week study, and were in positive correlation with the way of using the drug, duration of heroin dependence, and daily heroin intake. Our data revealed that the immune system was not restored during the 12 weeks of heroin withdrawal. PMID:26789146

  18. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  19. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  20. Exercise intervention increases spontaneous locomotion but fails to attenuate dopaminergic system loss in a progressive MPTP model in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Hood, Rebecca L; Liguore, William A; Moore, Cynthia; Pflibsen, Lacey; Meshul, Charles K

    2016-09-01

    While exercise is commonly recommended for PD patients to improve motor function, little is known about the disease-altering potential of exercise. Although others have demonstrated neuroprotective or neurorestorative effects of exercise in animal models of PD, the majority of these studies utilize young animals. In order to assess the effects of exercise intervention in a more clinically relevant model, we have subjected aged mice to progressive 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesioning and daily treadmill exercise, initiated early in the course of the disease. The MPTP model elicited a 55% reduction in striatal TH as measured by immunohistochemistry compared to sedentary controls, and exercise did not attenuate this loss in exercised MPTP animals. Furthermore, striatal TH and DAT loss, as assessed by western blotting, were not significantly impacted by treadmill exercise in MPTP-lesioned mice. We did find an increase in spontaneous locomotion in exercised mice that was not decreased by MPTP lesioning. This finding may be due, in part, to an increase in TH expression in the motor cortex in exercised MPTP mice. PMID:27350080

  1. Exercise and nutrition interventions in advanced lung cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C.; Larkin, P.J.; McIlfatrick, S.; Dunwoody, L.; Gracey, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this systematic review, we sought to evaluate the effect of physical activity or nutrition interventions (or both) in adults with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Methods A systematic search for relevant clinical trials was conducted in 6 electronic databases, by hand searching, and by contacting key investigators. No limits were placed on study language. Information about recruitment rates, protocol adherence, patient-reported and clinical outcome measures, and study conclusions was extracted. Methodologic quality and risk of bias in each study was assessed using validated tools. Main Results Six papers detailing five studies involving 203 participants met the inclusion criteria. Two of the studies were single-cohort physical activity studies (54 participants), and three were controlled nutrition studies (149 participants). All were conducted in an outpatient setting. None of the included studies combined physical activity with nutrition interventions. Conclusions Our systematic review suggests that exercise and nutrition interventions are not harmful and may have beneficial effects on unintentional weight loss, physical strength, and functional performance in patients with advanced nsclc. However, the observed improvements must be interpreted with caution, because findings were not consistent across the included studies. Moreover, the included studies were small and at significant risk of bias. More research is required to ascertain the optimal physical activity and nutrition interventions in advanced inoperable nsclc. Specifically, the potential benefits of combining physical activity with nutrition counselling have yet to be adequately explored in this population. PMID:23904771

  2. Effects of a Short Physical Exercise Intervention on Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    Kerling, Arno; Keweloh, Karin; Tegtbur, Uwe; Kück, Momme; Grams, Lena; Horstmann, Hauke; Windhagen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective randomized controlled trial was to investigate if a short-term endurance or combined endurance/resistance exercise program was sufficient to improve aerobic capacity and maximum force in adult patients (18–65 years) with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: All patients performed a three-month exercise program consisting of two training sessions per week, lasting 40 min each, with moderate intensity. All patients had a maximum value of 6 (low to moderate disability) on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). One group (combined workout group (CWG); 15 females, 4 males) completed a combined endurance/resistance workout (20 min on a bicycle ergometer, followed by 20 min of resistance training), while the other group (endurance workout group (EWG); 13 females, 5 males) completed a 40 min endurance training program. Aerobic capacity was assessed as peak oxygen uptake, ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and workload expressed as Watts. Maximum force of knee and shoulder extensors and flexors was measured using isokinetic testing. Quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire, and fatigue was measured using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Results: Both training groups increased in aerobic capacity and maximum force. EWG, as well as CWG, showed improvement in several subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire and decrease of their fatigue. Conclusion: A short exercise intervention increased both aerobic capacity and maximum force independent of whether endurance or combined endurance/resistance workouts were performed. PMID:26184173

  3. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. Objective The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. Methods A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Results Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow

  4. Anatomy of culturally sensitive interventions promoting nutrition and exercise in hispanics: a critical examination of existing literature.

    PubMed

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Medina, Alvaro A

    2010-07-01

    Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics experience a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases. Understanding the factors influencing the success of health programs in Hispanics requires a clearer examination of the principles and components of tailored interventions. This research comprises a comprehensive literature review of randomized controlled trials testing nutrition and exercise interventions tailored for Hispanics and an examination of how these interventions were constructed. The review of 18 interventions meeting study criteria suggests that most tailored programs promoting nutrition and exercise in Hispanics are theory driven and are informed by formative research. Also, the findings indicate that salient culturally sensitive intervention components are (a) bilingual and bicultural facilitators and materials, (b) family-based activities, (c) literacy-appropriate materials, and (d) social support. A clear understanding of Hispanic cultural values is also required. Further empirical examination is warranted to determine the factors mediating or predicting the efficacy of culturally sensitive health programs for Hispanics. PMID:19193933

  5. Dry-needling and exercise for chronic whiplash-associated disorders: a randomized single-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Michele; Vicenzino, Bill; Souvlis, Tina; Connelly, Luke B

    2015-04-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dry-needling and exercise compared with sham dry-needling and exercise for chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The setting was a single university centre and 4 physiotherapy practices in Queensland, Australia. Eighty patients with chronic WAD (>3 months) were enrolled between June 2009 and August 2012 with 1-year follow-up completed in August 2013. The interventions were 6 weeks of dry-needling to posterior neck muscles (n = 40) and exercise or sham dry-needling and exercise (n = 40). The primary outcomes of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and self-rated recovery were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks, 6 and 12 months by a blinded assessor. Analysis was intention to treat. An economic evaluation was planned but missing data deemed further analysis unwarranted. Seventy-nine patients (99%) were followed up at 6 weeks, 78 (98%) at 12 weeks, 74 (93%) at 6 months, and 73 (91%) at 12 months. The dry-needling and exercise intervention was more effective than sham dry-needling and exercise in reducing disability at 6 and 12 months but not at 6 and 12 weeks. The treatment effects were small and not clinically worthwhile. At 6 weeks, the treatment effect on the 0-100 NDI was -0.3 (95% confidence interval -5.4 to 4.7), 12 weeks -0.3 (-5.2 to 4.9), 6 months -4.4 (-9.6 to -0.74), and 12 months -3.8 (-9.1 to -0.5). There was no effect for self-rated recovery. In patients with chronic WAD, dry-needling and exercise has no clinically worthwhile effects over sham dry-needling and exercise. PMID:25790454

  6. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Exercise Interventions on Body Composition in HIV+ Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leach, L.L; Bassett, S.H; Smithdorf, G; Andrews, B.S; Travill, A.L

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, physical activity and exercise have been used to positively impact the health and quality of life of persons infected with HIV and, more recently, has been associated with a spectrum of body composition changes. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various exercise interventions on body composition in HIV positive adults, using a search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by five independent reviewers using a predetermined protocol adapted from previous research for assessing the articles for inclusion, the extracted data, and methodological quality. Eight RCTs involving 430 (26% female) HIV positive adults performing exercise a minimum of thrice weekly for at least six weeks were finally selected: Four were progressive resistance training (PRT) studies, three were aerobic training (AT) studies, and one involved yoga. In the PRT studies, there were significant increases in three anthropometric measures, namely, body mass, sum of skinfolds and sum of limb girths. In the AT studies, significant decreases were found in seven anthropometric measures, namely, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body mass, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and sum of skinfolds. With yoga, the changes were non-significant. Exercise contributes to improved body composition and, when applied safely, appears to be beneficial for adults living with HIV/AIDS. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively few RCTs published to date. Future studies would benefit from increased attention to sample size, female participants, participant follow-up, complete statistical analysis and intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26587075

  7. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M.; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  8. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  9. The clinical effectiveness of self-care interventions with an exercise component to manage knee conditions: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Button, Kate; Roos, Paulien E.; Spasić, Irena; Adamson, Paul; van Deursen, Robert W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Treatment of knee conditions should include approaches to support self-care and exercise based interventions. The most effective way to combine self-care and exercise has however not been determined sufficiently. Therefore the aim was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-care programmes with an exercise component for individuals with any type of knee conditions. Methods A keyword search of Medline, CINAHL, Amed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases was conducted up until January 2015. Two reviewers independently assessed manuscript eligibility against inclusion/exclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black quality assessment tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Data were extracted about self-care and exercise intervention type, control intervention, participants, length of follow-up, outcome measures, and main findings. Results From the 7392 studies identified through the keyword search the title and abstract of 5498 were screened. The full text manuscripts of 106 studies were retrieved to evaluate their eligibility. Twenty-one manuscripts met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Conclusion The treatment potential of combined self-care and exercise interventions has not been maximised because of limitations in study design and failure to adequately define intervention content. Potentially the most beneficial self-care treatment components are training self-management skills, information delivery, and goal setting. Exercise treatment components could be strengthened by better attention to dose and progression. Modern technology to streamline delivery and support self-care should be considered. More emphasis is required on using self-care and exercise programmes for chronic condition prevention in addition to chronic condition management. PMID:26056046

  10. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Revdal, Anders; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M.; Ingul, Charlotte B.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 27 minutes/bout; 10x1-minute at 90 % of HRmax; n = 10) or extremely low volume sprint interval exercise (SIE; 10 minutes/bout; 2x20 seconds at maximum achievable intensity; n = 11) 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and body composition were measured at baseline and post test. Both HIIE and SIE improved VO2peak (3.3 mL·min-1·kg-1, 10.4 %), p < 0.01, and 1.4 mL·min-1·kg-1 (4.6 %), p = 0.03, respectively). Only HIIE reduced body fat percentage (4.5 %, p = 0.04) and two minute heart rate recovery (11.0 bpm, p = 0.02). Neither HIIE nor SIE improved HbA1c. In conclusion, this study indicates that substantially lower exercise volumes than recommended in current guidelines can improve aerobic exercise capacity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of time efficient high intensity exercise did not improve glycemic control, and interventions of longer duration should be investigated. Key points Low volume high-intensity interval exercise can improve peak oxygen uptake in previously sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes The weekly exercise volumes in the two intervention groups of 81 and 30 minutes respectively, is substantially lower than recommended in current exercise guidelines and could reduce the time-barrier associated with exercise among patients with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of structured, supervised low-volume exercise did not improve glycemic control, indicating a need for

  11. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Revdal, Anders; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M; Ingul, Charlotte B

    2016-06-01

    Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 27 minutes/bout; 10x1-minute at 90 % of HRmax; n = 10) or extremely low volume sprint interval exercise (SIE; 10 minutes/bout; 2x20 seconds at maximum achievable intensity; n = 11) 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and body composition were measured at baseline and post test. Both HIIE and SIE improved VO2peak (3.3 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1), 10.4 %), p < 0.01, and 1.4 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) (4.6 %), p = 0.03, respectively). Only HIIE reduced body fat percentage (4.5 %, p = 0.04) and two minute heart rate recovery (11.0 bpm, p = 0.02). Neither HIIE nor SIE improved HbA1c. In conclusion, this study indicates that substantially lower exercise volumes than recommended in current guidelines can improve aerobic exercise capacity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of time efficient high intensity exercise did not improve glycemic control, and interventions of longer duration should be investigated. Key pointsLow volume high-intensity interval exercise can improve peak oxygen uptake in previously sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetesThe weekly exercise volumes in the two intervention groups of 81 and 30 minutes respectively, is substantially lower than recommended in current exercise guidelines and could reduce the time-barrier associated with exercise among patients with type 2 diabetes.However, 12 weeks of structured, supervised low-volume exercise did not improve glycemic control, indicating a need for

  12. The Feasibility of an Exercise Intervention in Males at Risk of Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Winzer, Brooke M.; Paratz, Jennifer D.; Whitehead, Jonathan P.; Whiteman, David C.; Reeves, Marina M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of a 24-week exercise intervention, compared to control, in males with Barrett’s oesophagus, and to estimate the effect of the intervention, compared to control, on risk factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma development. Methods A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention (60 minutes moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions) versus attention control (45 minutes stretching five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions) in inactive, overweight/obese (25.0–34.9 kg/m2) males with Barrett’s oesophagus, aged 18–70 years. Primary outcomes were obesity-associated hormones relevant to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance [HOMA]). Secondary outcomes included waist circumference, body composition, fitness, strength and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 24-weeks. Intervention effects were analysed using generalised linear models, adjusting for baseline value. Results Recruitment was difficult in this population with a total of 33 participants recruited (target sample size: n = 80); 97% retention at 24-weeks. Adherence to the exercise protocol was moderate. No serious adverse events were reported. A statistically significant intervention effect (exercise minus control) was observed for waist circumference (-4.5 [95% CI -7.5, -1.4] cm; p < 0.01). Effects on primary outcomes were not statistically significant. Conclusion This small, exploratory trial provides important information to inform future trial development including recruitment rates and estimates of effect sizes on outcomes related to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Future trials should investigate a combined dietary and exercise intervention to

  13. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  14. Cognitive and mood effects in healthy children during 12 weeks' supplementation with multi-vitamin/minerals.

    PubMed

    Haskell, Crystal F; Scholey, Andrew B; Jackson, Philippa A; Elliott, Jade M; Defeyter, Margaret A; Greer, Joanna; Robertson, Bernadette C; Buchanan, Tom; Tiplady, Brian; Kennedy, David O

    2008-11-01

    Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are essential for optimal neural functioning. A high proportion of individuals, including children, suffer from deficiencies in one or more vitamins or minerals. This study investigated whether daily supplementation with vitamins/minerals could modulate cognitive performance and mood in healthy children. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation, eighty-one healthy children aged from 8 to 14 years underwent laboratory assessments of their cognitive performance and mood pre-dose and at 1 and 3 h post-dose on the first and last days of 12 weeks' supplementation with a commercially available vitamins/mineral product (Pharmaton Kiddi). Interim assessments were also completed at home after 4 and 8 weeks at 3 h post-dose. Each assessment comprised completion of a cognitive battery, delivered over the Internet, which included tasks assessing mood and the speed and accuracy of attention and aspects of memory (secondary, semantic and spatial working memory). The vitamin/mineral group performed more accurately on two attention tasks: 'Arrows' choice reaction time task at 4 and 8 weeks; 'Arrow Flankers' choice reaction time task at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A single task outcome (Picture Recognition errors) evinced significant decrements at 12 weeks. Mood was not modulated in any interpretable manner. Whilst it is possible that the significant improvements following treatment were due to non-significant numerical differences in performance at baseline, these results would seem to suggest that vitamin/mineral supplementation has the potential to improve brain function in healthy children. This proposition requires further investigation. PMID:18507881

  15. Health markers in obese adolescents improved by a 12-week recreational soccer program: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Seabra, Andre; Cunha, Felipe; Montenegro, Rafael; Penha, Jociene; Bouskela, Eliete; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Collett-Solberg, Paulo; Farinatti, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a recreational soccer program (RSP) upon body composition, heart rate variability (HRV), biochemical markers, cardio-respiratory fitness, and endothelial function in obese adolescents were investigated. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted with 30 adolescents aged 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) >2 standard deviations of WHO reference values, which were assigned to RSP (n = 10, 2 girls) and obese control (n = 10, 4 girls) groups. The 12-week RSP included 60-min sessions performed 3 times/week. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, HRV, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were evaluated following standardised procedures. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. After intervention, RSP exhibited significant reductions in BMI (-0.7 ± 0.2 kg · m(-2)), waist circumference (-8.2 ± 1.4 cm), %body fat (-2.2 ± 0.4%), systolic blood pressure (-5.0 ± 2.3 mmHg), total cholesterol (-16.2 ± 5.8 mg · dL(-1)), triglycerides (-20.5 ± 12.9 mg · dL(-1)), C-reactive protein (-0.06 ± 0.01 mg · dL(-1)), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -1.4 ± 0.6), and sympathetic activity (LF, -13.9 ± 6.6 un) vs. controls (P < 0.05). Significant increase was observed in parasympathetic activity (HF, 13.9 ± 6.6 un), VO2peak (7.9 ± 2.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.0 ± 6.3 mg · dL(-1)) (P < 0.05). Vascular conductance (19.5 ± 8.1 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.005) increased and vascular resistance (-5.9 ± 2.4 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.041) decreased in RSP, but not in controls. A 12-week recreational soccer intervention was effective to improve biochemical, cardiovascular, and fitness health markers in obese adolescents. PMID:26208409

  16. Relationship of radionuclide indexes of cardiac function during interventions: volume loading, afterload stress, exercise, and pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.A.

    1983-04-01

    We compared three radionuclide index of cardiac function: 1) the ejection fraction (EF), 2) the mean ejection rate (ER), and 3) the mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (MVCF) during volume loading, phenylephrine hydrochloride stress, exercise, and atrial pacing. All behaved in a similar (linear) fashion, allowing appropriate hemodynamic conclusions to be drawn using either index. During atrial pacing, the ejection fraction declined when velocity indexes increased, suggesting that the ejection fraction may not be a suitable index to characterize alterations in inotropic state during rapid alterations in heart rate, particular in the absence of angina pectoris. This may result from the reductions in cardiac volume for the duration of pacing, where the velocity index is preserved. In most circumstances excluding atrial pacing, ejection fraction during interventions is an adequate index of the change of myocardial contractile state. Overall, radionuclide angiography is an excellent technique to characterize acute hemodynamic interventions, with ejection fraction, in general, the simplest and most reliable of cardiac indexes during stress interventions.

  17. Comparison of Veteran experiences of low-cost, home-based diet and exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Bree; Krein, Sarah L; Bentley, Douglas R; Hughes, Maria E; Giardino, Nicholas D; Richardson, Caroline R

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a significant health problem among Veterans who receive care from the Department of Veterans Affairs, as it is for so many other Americans. Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) experience a myriad of chronic conditions, which can make it difficult to maintain a physically active lifestyle. This pilot study tested the feasibility and user satisfaction with three low-cost, home-based diet and exercise programs, as well as point-of-decision prompts among these Veterans. The three programs target mechanisms that have been shown to improve healthy behavior change, including (1) online mediated social support, (2) objective monitoring of physical activity, and (3) structured high-intensity workouts. This was a randomized crossover trial; each participant used two of the three programs, and all used the point-of-decision prompts. Our qualitative results identified five overall themes related to social support, objective monitoring, structured activity, awareness and understanding, and the point-of-decision prompts. In general, participants were satisfied with and lost weight with each of the interventions. This study demonstrated that these low-cost interventions could be successful with the OIF/OEF Veteran population. A larger and longer study is planned to further investigate the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:24805901

  18. The longitudinal effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention and a structured exercise intervention on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults.

    PubMed

    Opdenacker, Joke; Delecluse, Christophe; Boen, Filip

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention (n = 60) and a structured exercise intervention (n = 60) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults compared with a control group (n = 66), and (2) to test the longitudinal fit of the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Immediately after the 11-month interventions, the lifestyle group showed significant improvements in self-perceived physical condition, sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical self-worth. In the structured group, significant effects were found on physical condition and sport competence. One year later, the lifestyle program had significant effects on body attractiveness and global self-esteem, while the structured group showed significant improvements in physical condition, sport competence, and body attractiveness. Path analyses revealed a good fit for the EXSEM across the 2-year period. PMID:20384010

  19. Exercise protects against PCB-induced inflammation and associated cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret O; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB-induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12-week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 h before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12-week exercise intervention significantly reduced these proatherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs. PMID:25586614

  20. A theory-based exercise intervention in patients with heart failure: A protocol for randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Sadeghi, Masoomeh; Tavakol, Kamran; Feizi, Awat; Pashaei, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regular exercise has been associated with improved quality of life (QoL) in patients with heart failure (HF). However, less is known on the theoretical framework, depicting how educational intervention on psychological, social, and cognitive variables affects physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a social cognitive theory-based (SCT-based) exercise intervention in patients with HF. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and at 1, 3, and 6 months follow-up. Sixty patients who are referred to the cardiac rehabilitation (CR) unit and meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a usual-care control group. Data will be collected using various methods (i.e., questionnaires, physical tests, paraclinical tests, patients’ interviews, and focus groups). The patients in the intervention group will receive eight face-to-face counseling sessions, two focus groups, and six educational sessions over a 2-month period. The intervention will include watching videos, using book and pamphlets, and sending short massage services to the participants. The primary outcome measures are PA and QoL. The secondary outcome measures will be the components of SCT, heart rate and blood pressure at rest, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, exercise capacity, and maximum heart rate. Conclusion: The findings of this trial may assist with the development of a theoretical model for exercise intervention in CR. The intervention seems to be promising and has the potential to bridge the gap of the usually limited and incoherent provision of educational care in the CR setting. PMID:24379841

  1. The effects of exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a 3-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Yocheved; Shtraker, Haim; Elboim Gabyzon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Strengthening exercises of the quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) are beneficial for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Studies reporting short-term effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the QFM in this population support the use of this modality as an adjunct treatment. The objectives of this follow-up study are to compare the effects of an exercise program with and without NMES of the QFM on pain, functional performance, and muscle strength immediately posttreatment and 12 weeks after completion of the intervention. Methods Sixty-three participants with knee OA were randomly assigned into two groups receiving 12 biweekly treatments: An exercise-only program or an exercise program combined with NMES. Results A significantly greater reduction in knee pain was observed immediately after treatment in the NMES group, which was maintained 12 weeks postintervention in both groups. Although at this stage NMES had no additive effect, both groups demonstrated an immediate increase in muscle strength and in functional abilities, with no differences between groups. Although the improvements in gait velocity and in self-report functional ability were maintained at the follow-up session, the noted improvements in muscle strength, time to up and go, and stair negotiation were not maintained. Conclusion Supplementing an exercise program with NMES to the QFM increased pain modulation immediately after treatment in patients with knee OA. Maintenance of the positive posttreatment effects during a 12-week period was observed only for pain, self-reported functional ability, and walk velocity, with no difference between groups. Clinical rehabilitation effect The effects of a comprehensive group exercise program with or without NMES are partially maintained 12 weeks after completion of the intervention. The addition of NMES is recommended primarily for its immediate effect on pain. Further studies are necessary to determine the effects of repeated bouts

  2. Exercise for people with hip or knee osteoarthritis: a comparison of land-based and aquatic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rahmann, Ann E

    2010-01-01

    Expert opinion considers the referral of people with osteoarthritis (OA) for physiotherapy to be a core component of managing the functional disability and pain of the disease. Clinical guidelines for the physiotherapy management of people with OA focus on three main areas: exercise, pain relief, and specific manual therapy techniques. Land-based group and individual physiotherapy exercise programs, as well as manual therapy, have demonstrated a distinct benefit in favor of physiotherapy intervention. Similarly, both general and specific aquatic physiotherapy exercise programs have shown positive outcomes for people with OA. This review will focus primarily on therapeutic exercise to improve strength and fitness and reduce pain in people with hip or knee OA. An overview of the principles of hydrodynamics relevant to aquatic exercise is also included to facilitate an understanding of effective aquatic exercise programs. The issue of compliance with exercise programs will also be discussed. Clinicians will, therefore, gain an understanding of the benefits of land-based and aquatic exercise for people with OA. PMID:24198550

  3. Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

    2014-07-01

    Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800 μg and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5 years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18 weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks. PMID:24800660

  4. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  5. Exerciser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lem, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Mark I exerciser which was added for the second and third Skylab missions, was used for a number of arm and leg exercises. This unit is a modified version of a commercial device. This is an iso-kinetic, or constant velocity, exerciser which retards the speed at which the user is allowed to move. The user applies a maximum effort and the device automatically varies the opposing resistance to maintain speed of translation at a constant preselected value.

  6. Different Exercise Training Interventions and Drop-Landing Biomechanics in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pfile, Kate R.; Hart, Joseph M.; Herman, Daniel C.; Hertel, Jay; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in female athletes and are related to poor neuromuscular control. Comprehensive neuromuscular training has been shown to improve biomechanics; however, we do not know which component of neuromuscular training is most responsible for the changes. Objective: To assess the efficacy of either a 4-week core stability program or plyometric program in altering lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Design: Cohort study. Setting: High school athletic fields and motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-three high school female athletes (age = 14.8 ± 0.8 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 57.7 ± 8.5 kg). Intervention(s): Independent variables were group (core stability, plyometric, control) and time (pretest, posttest). Participants performed 5 DVJs at pretest and posttest. Intervention participants engaged in a 4-week core stability or plyometric program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were 3-dimensional hip, knee, and trunk kinetics and kinematics during the landing phase of a DVJ. We calculated the group means and associated 95% confidence intervals for the first 25% of landing. Cohen d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all differences. Results: We found within-group differences for lower extremity biomechanics for both intervention groups (P ≤ .05). The plyometric group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the knee-flexion and knee-abduction moments. The core stability group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the hip-flexion and hip internal-rotation moments. The control group decreased the knee external-rotation moment. All kinetic changes had a strong effect size (Cohen d > 0.80). Conclusions: Both programs resulted in biomechanical changes, suggesting that both types of exercises are warranted for ACL injury prevention and should be

  7. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons--a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071

  8. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons – a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071

  9. Intervention with education and exercise reverses the metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Mujica, Verónica; Urzúa, Alberto; Leiva, Elba; Díaz, Nora; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Vásquez, Marcela; Rojas, Edgardo; Icaza, Gloria; Toro, Carla; Orrego, Roxana; Palomo, Iván

    2010-01-01

    About 29% of the adult population of Talca, Chile, suffers from the metabolic syndrome (MS), a value higher than the national prevalence. Evidence indicates that exercise and nutritional changes reduce the predominance of this syndrome. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a structured interventional program of physical activity and nutritional counseling in adults with MS. Fifty-one subjects were studied: 27 were included in the interventional program (I-MS). The control group was formed by 24 individuals who did not participate in the program (NI-MS). We assessed body weight, corporal composition, arterial pressure, glycemia, and lipid profile at baseline and after 18 weeks of treatment. After this period, the I-SM group showed a significant decrease in triglycerides (geometric mean 202.2 to 110.5 mg/dL, P < .001), diastolic blood pressure (mean 85.4 to 79.6 mm Hg, P = .001), waist circumference (mean men 101.5 to 94.1 cm, P < .001; mean women 107.2 to 96.2 cm, P < .001), weight (mean 81.1 to 77.2 kg, P < .001), and body mass index (mean 31.8 to 30.2 kg/m(2), P < .001). In the NI-MS group, the individual parameters did not change significantly. Our results show that a non-pharmacological treatment based on exercise exerts an important beneficial effect in patients with MS, mainly on the waist circumference, blood pressure, and triglycerides. PMID:20471000

  10. Impact of a Six-Month Empowerment-Based Exercise Intervention Programme in Non-Physically Active Adolescent Swedish Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Baigi, Amir; Apitzsch, Erwin; Bergh, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated changes in self-efficacy in non-physically active adolescent girls (13-19 years old) who participated in a six-month, empowerment-based exercise intervention programme (EIP). Design: The study used a pre- and post-test randomized group design and included one pre- and one post-test (at six months) and non-physically…

  11. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  12. Do home-based exercise interventions improve outcomes for frail older people? Findings from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sally E; Young, John B; Forster, Anne; Iliffe, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty is common in older age, and is associated with important adverse health outcomes including increased risk of disability and long-term care admission. Objectives To evaluate whether home-based exercise interventions improve outcomes for frail older people. Data sources We searched systematically for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs, with literature searching to February 2010. Study selection All trials that evaluated home-based exercise interventions for frail older people were eligible. Primary outcomes were mobility, quality of life and daily living activities. Secondary outcomes included long-term care admission and hospitalisation. Results Six RCTs involving 987 participants met the inclusion criteria. Four trials were considered of high quality. One high quality trial reported improved disability in those with moderate but not severe frailty. Meta-analysis of long-term care admission rates identified a trend towards reduced risk. Inconsistent effects on other primary and secondary outcomes were reported in the other studies. Conclusions There is preliminary evidence that home-based exercise interventions may improve disability in older people with moderate, but not severe, frailty. There is considerable uncertainty regarding effects on important outcomes including quality of life and long-term care admission. Home-based exercises are a potentially simple, safe and widely applicable intervention to prevent dependency decline for frail older people.

  13. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  14. Implementation of efficacy enhancement nursing interventions with cardiac elders.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Elizabeth F; Winder, Patricia A; Rait, Michelle A; Buselli, Elizabeth F; Carroll, Diane L; Rankin, Sally H

    2005-01-01

    Intervention strategies based on social cognitive theory and encompassing the bio-psycho-behavioral domains are proposed to enhance self-efficacy in men and women 65 years and older recovering from myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting. This paper describes a study in which the theory-based development of efficacy enhancement (EE) nursing interventions and their implementation and utilization with interventions from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) were used with cardiac elders in the treatment group of the community-based randomized clinical, trial, "Improving Health Outcomes in Unpartnered Cardiac Elders." Advanced practice nurses (APNs) provided the nursing intervention to 110 participants (mean age = 76.2, SD = 6.0) for the first 12 weeks after discharge to home. After an initial introductory meeting in the acute-care setting, participant contacts by the APNs were made at a home visit and telephone calls at 2, 6, and 10 weeks. Results describe the number of participants receiving interventions at all contacts over 12 weeks, at specified contact points, and the intensity (nurse time) of the interventions. Verbal encouragement and mastery were EE interventions used with the greatest number of participants. Exercise promotion, energy management and active listening were NIC interventions used with the most participants. Variations in the use of interventions over 12 weeks and their intensities, suggest patterns of recovery in the elders. During rehabilitation EE interventions can be successfully implemented with men and women 65 years and older and individualized to the recovery trajectory. Nurses can integrate specific EE interventions with more general interventions from the bio-psycho-behavioral domains to enhance the recovery process for cardiac elders. PMID:16294801

  15. Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Exercise-Induced Repolarization Changes in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Anita; Carević, Vedran; Zekanović, Dražen; Stojanović-Stipić, Sanda; Runjić, Frane; Ljubković, Marko; Fabijanić, Damir

    2015-09-15

    Recent reports suggest T peak to T end (Tpe) interval and Tpe/QT ratio as valuable indicators of increased arrhythmogenic risk in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to examine the exercise-induced changes in these indexes in patients with stable CAD, before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Forty patients were consecutively included in the interventional group (n = 20), with significant lesions (≥75% luminal narrowing) suitable for PCI and in the control group (n = 20), with no significant coronary artery lesions (<50% luminal narrowing). One day before and 30 days after the coronarography, all patients performed treadmill exercise stress testing, and the electrocardiographic (ECG) indexes of repolarization were assessed during baseline and at peak exercise intensity. In the control group, the QT interval, QTc (QT-corrected) interval, Tpe interval, and Tpe/QT ratio measured at peak exercise significantly decreased from baseline values (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p <0.001, and p = 0.017, respectively). Conversely, in interventional patients before the PCI, an increase in the Tpe interval and the Tpe/QT ratio was observed at exercise (p = 0.009, and p <0.001, respectively), with only the QT interval exhibiting a significant decrease from baseline (p <0.001). Thirty days after the PCI, all the ECG arrhythmogenic indexes measured at peak exercise significantly decreased from baseline values, thus assuming the same trend as detected in controls. In conclusion, restoration of blood supply normalized exercise-induced repolarization changes, suggesting that revascularization of previously ischemic myocardium lowers the cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in patients with stable CAD. PMID:26174604

  16. Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students. PMID:25540518

  17. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI. PMID:27066256

  18. The Relationship between Age and Change in Physical Functions after Exercise Intervention. Trainability of Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Obuchi, Shuichi; Kojima, Motonaga; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yuko; Inaba, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between age and changes in physical measurements after exercise intervention and to investigate the trainability of the older elderly. Two hundred seventy-six community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older practiced exercise intervention for 3 months. The measurements of physical functions were one-legged standing with eyes open and closed (OLS-O, OLS-C), functional reach test (FR), timed up and go test (TUG), maximum walking velocity, flexibility, and muscle strength. We evaluated the associations between age and the changes in these physical measurements. All measurements except for OLS-C significantly improved after intervention. The magnitude of the changes in hand-grip strength and FR after the intervention showed weak negative correlations with the subject's age, but other measurements showed no correlations. In addition, there were no differences between younger elderly persons and older elderly persons with regard to changes in any measurements. These results suggested that the exercise intervention we applied could improve physical fitness in community-dwelling older people, regardless of their age. The older elderly were comparable to the younger elderly in trainability to improve physical fitness. PMID:25792887

  19. Menopausal Quality of Life: A RCT of Yoga, Exercise and Omega-3 Supplements

    PubMed Central

    REED, Susan D; GUTHRIE, Katherine A; NEWTON, Katherine M; ANDERSON, Garnet L; BOOTH-LAFORCE, Cathryn; CAAN, Bette; CARPENTER, Janet S; COHEN, Lee S; DUNN, Andrea L; ENSRUD, Kristine E; FREEMAN, Ellen W; HUNT, Julie R; JOFFE, Hadine; LARSON, Joseph C; LEARMAN, Lee A; ROTHENBERG, Robin; SEGUIN, Rebecca A; SHERMAN, Karen J; STERNFELD, Barbara S; LACROIX, Andrea Z

    2014-01-01

    Objective Determine efficacy of three non-hormonal therapies for improving menopause-related quality of life (QOL) in women with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Methods 12-week 3×2 randomized, controlled, factorial design trial. Peri- and postmenopausal women, ages 40-62 years, were randomized to yoga (n=107), exercise (n=106), or usual activity (n=142), and also randomized to double-blind comparison of omega-3 (n=177) or placebo (n=178) capsules. Interventions: 1) weekly 90-minute yoga classes with daily at-home practice; 2) individualized facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week; and 3) 0.615 gram omega-3 supplement, 3 times/day. Outcomes: Menopausal Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) total and domain (VMS, psychosocial, physical and sexual) scores. Results Among 355 randomized women, average age 54.7 years, 338 (95%) completed 12-week assessments. Mean baseline VMS frequency was 7.6/day and mean baseline total MENQOL score was 3.8 (range 1-8 from better to worse) with no between-group differences. For yoga compared to usual activity, baseline to 12-week improvements were seen for MENQOL total -0.3 (95% CI -0.6 to 0.0, p=0.02), and VMS (p=0.02) and sexuality (p=0.03) domain scores. For exercise and omega-3 compared to controls, improvements in baseline to 12-week total MENQOL scores were not observed. Exercise showed benefit in the MENQOL physical domain score at 12-weeks (p=0.02). Conclusion All women become menopausal and many seek medical advice on ways to improve quality of life; little evidence-based information exists. We found, among healthy sedentary menopausal women, yoga appears to improve menopausal QOL - the clinical significance of our finding is uncertain due to modest effect. PMID:24215858

  20. Variable effects of 12 weeks of omega-3 supplementation on resting skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Christopher J; Whitfield, Jamie; Mukai, Kazutaka; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2014-09-01

    Omega-3 supplementation has been purported to improve the function of several organs in the body, including reports of increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) and reliance on fat oxidation. However, the potential for omega-3s to modulate human skeletal muscle metabolism has received little attention. This study examined the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on whole-body RMR and the content of proteins involved in fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle. Recreationally active males supplemented with 3.0 g/day of EPA and DHA (n = 21) or olive oil (n = 9) for 12 weeks. Resting muscle biopsies were sampled in a subset of 10 subjects before (pre) and after (post) omega-3 supplementation. RMR significantly increased (5.3%, p = 0.040) following omega-3 supplementation (Pre, 1.33 ±0.05; Post, 1.40 ±0.04 kcal/min) with variable individual responses. When normalizing for body mass, this effect was lost (5.2%, p = 0.058). Omega-3s did not affect whole-body fat oxidation, and olive oil did not alter any parameter assessed. Omega-3 supplementation did not affect whole muscle, sarcolemmal, or mitochondrial FAT/CD36, FABPpm, FATP1 or FATP4 contents or mitochondrial electron chain and PDH proteins, but did increase the long form of UCP3 by 11%. In conclusion, supplementation with a high dose of omega-3s for 12 weeks increased RMR in a small and variable manner in a group of healthy young men. Omega-3 supplementation also had no effect on several proteins involved in skeletal muscle fat metabolism and did not cause mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25054452

  1. Do 12-Week Yoga Program Influence Respiratory Function of Elderly Women?

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-01-01

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  2. Clinical pharmacology study of cariprazine (MP-214) in patients with schizophrenia (12-week treatment)

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tadakatsu; Kubota, Tomoko; Iwakaji, Atsushi; Imada, Masayoshi; Kapás, Margit; Morio, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cariprazine is a potent dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist in development for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and depression. Pharmacokinetics of cariprazine and the two clinically relevant metabolites (desmethyl- and didesmethyl-cariprazine) was evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, fixed-dose (3, 6, or 9 mg/day) study of 28-week duration (≤4-week observation, 12-week open-label treatment, and 12-week follow-up). Once-daily cariprazine was administered to 38 adult patients with schizophrenia. The pharmacokinetics of cariprazine, metabolites, and total active moieties (sum of cariprazine and two metabolites) was evaluated; efficacy and safety were also assessed. Results Steady state was reached within 1–2 weeks for cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine, 4 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine, and 3 weeks for total active moieties. Cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine levels decreased >90% within 1 week after the last dose, didesmethyl-cariprazine decreased ~50% at 1 week, and total active moieties decreased ~90% within 4 weeks. Terminal half-lives of cariprazine, desmethyl-cariprazine, and didesmethyl-cariprazine ranged from 31.6 to 68.4, 29.7 to 37.5, and 314 to 446 hours, respectively. Effective half-life (calculated from time to steady state) of total active moieties was ~1 week. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 97.4%; 15.8% of patients discontinued due to adverse events. No abnormal laboratory values or major differences from baseline in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed. Conclusion Cariprazine and its active metabolites reached steady state within 4 weeks, and exposure was dose proportional over the range of 3–9 mg/day. Once-daily cariprazine was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26834462

  3. Increased periosteal circumference remains present 12 months after an exercise intervention in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa; Fahrenwald, Nancy

    2004-12-01

    We previously reported that calcium intake enhanced the leg bone response to physical activity of preschool children in a 12-month randomized trial of calcium supplementation and physical activity. To determine whether the intervention-induced changes in leg bone mineral content and size were maintained through the subsequent 12-month follow-up period, total body bone measurements by DXA and 20% distal tibia pQCT bone measurements were obtained at 24 months (12 months post-intervention). Children also were measured for height and weight, and accelerometer readings were obtained in a subset of children at 18 and 24 months (6 and 12 months post-intervention). Regression analyses were performed controlling for covariates and indicated that increases from 12 to 24 months were greater in the gross motor (GM) activity group (bone loading, large muscle exercises) vs. fine motor (FM) activity group (arts and crafts program) for arm bone area (BA) (P <0.01), total body (P=0.04) and arm (P <0.01) bone mineral content (BMC). There were no differences in BA or BMC changes from 12 to 24 months by calcium supplementation. Differences in tibia periosteal circumference by pQCT persisted at 24 months (GM 51.4 +/- 0.4 mm vs. FM 50.2 +/- 0.4 mm, P=0.03) with a trend for greater endosteal circumferences in the children in the GM vs. FM groups at both 12 and 24 months (both, P=0.08). There were no significant differences in cortical area or thickness by activity or supplement group at 24 months. Children in the GM group had greater accelerometer counts/day (P=0.04) and more time in vigorous activity (P=0.05) at 18 months compared to FM group. No differences in accelerometer readings were noted at 24 months. In conclusion, we found higher activity levels in children randomized to gross motor vs. fine motor activities 6 months after the intervention program ceased. Whether the greater periosteal circumference that was observed 12 months post-intervention was a persistent biological bone

  4. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  5. Development of an exercise intervention to improve cognition in people with mild to moderate dementia: Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) Trial, registration ISRCTN32612072.

    PubMed

    Brown, Deborah; Spanjers, Katie; Atherton, Nicky; Lowe, Janet; Stonehewer, Louisa; Bridle, Chris; Sheehan, Bart; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    More than 800000 people in the UK have dementia, and it is a government priority to improve dementia care. Drug treatment options are relatively limited. The Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) study is a randomised trial which targets cognition in people with dementia, using an exercise programme. There is evidence to suggest that both aerobic and resistance exercise may be useful in improving cognition. Hence the intervention comprises a supervised part of twice-weekly exercise classes of one hour duration for 4 months, including aerobic exercise at moderate intensity on static bicycles, and resistance (weight training) exercise using weight vests, weight belts and dumbbells. Thereafter participants progress to unsupervised, independent exercise. Aids to behaviour modification have been incorporated into the intervention. The DAPA intervention has been designed to maximise likelihood of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and for delivery in the UK National Health Service. PMID:25724322

  6. Improvement in low back movement control, decreased pain and disability, resulting from specific exercise intervention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study was conducted to assess whether patient-specific functional impairment and experienced daily disability improved after treatment to address active movement control of the low back. Method A prospective study was carried out in two outpatient physiotherapy practices in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) suffering from non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) and movement control impairment were treated. The study participants had an average age of 45 ± 13 years, an average height of 170 ± 8 cm and an average weight of 73 ± 15 kg. Patients were assessed prior and post treatment. Treatment was aimed at improving movement control of the lumbar spine, pain and disability. Six physiotherapists treated each patient on average nine times (SD 4.6). Treatment effects were evaluated using a set of six movement control tests (MCT), patient-specific functional pain scores (PSFS) and a Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ). Means, standard deviations, confidence intervals and paired t-tests were calculated. The effect size (d) was based on the change between t1 (time prior intervention) and t2 (time post intervention) using a significance level of p < 0.05, with d > 0.8 being considered a large effect. Power calculations were performed for type I & II error estimation. Results Movement control (MCT) showed a 59% improvement from 3.2 (max 6) to 1.3 positive tests (d = 1.3, p < 0.001), complaints (PSFS) decreased 41% from 5.9 points (max 10) to 3.5 (d = 1.3, p < 0.001), and disability (RMQ) decreased 43% from 8.9 to 5.1 points (d = 1.0, p < 0.001). Conclusions The results of this controlled case series study, based on prior and post intervention, showed that movement control, patient specific functional complaints and disability improved significantly following specific individual exercise programs, performed with physiotherapeutic intervention. The results obtained warrant performance of a randomized

  7. Efficacy of the long-acting nitro vasodilator pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris receiving anti-anginal background therapy with beta-blockers: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Meinertz, Thomas; Tebbe, Ulrich; Schneider, Heinrich Theodor; Stalleicken, Dirk; Wargenau, Manfred; Gori, Tommaso; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background The organic nitrate pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to have ancillary properties that prevent the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (‘CLEOPATRA’ study) was designed to investigate the anti-ischaemic efficacy of PETN 80 mg b.i.d. (morning and mid-day) over placebo in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Methods and results A total of 655 patients were evaluated in the intention-to-treat population, randomized to PETN (80 mg b.i.d., n = 328) or placebo (n = 327) and completed the study. Patients underwent treadmill exercise tests at randomization, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PETN over 12 weeks did not modify the primary endpoint total exercise duration (TED, P = 0.423). In a pre-specified sub-analysis of patients with reduced exercise capacity (TED at baseline ≤9 min, n = 257), PETN appeared more effective than placebo treatment (P = 0.054). Superiority of PETN over placebo was evident in patients who were symptomatic at low exercise levels (n = 120; P = 0.017). Pentaerithrityl tetranitrate 80 mg b.i.d. was well tolerated, and the overall safety profile was comparable with placebo. Conclusion Although providing no additional benefit in unselected patients with known coronary artery disease, PETN therapy, administered in addition to modern anti-ischaemic therapy, could increase exercise tolerance in symptomatic patients with reduced exercise capacity. PMID:24071762

  8. Effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    El-Mekawy, Hanan S; ElDeeb, Abeer M; Ghareib, Hassan O

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Twenty-eight obese post-menopausal women were randomly distributed to the control and laser acupuncture group. The control group received the diet-exercise intervention and the study group received the same intervention and sessions of laser acupuncture, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurement, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profile were assessed before and after the treatment course. Both groups showed a significant decrease in the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. However, laser acupuncture group showed a greater decrease in the waist (P = 0.001) and hip (P = 0.001) circumferences, cholesterol (P = 0.04), and insulin levels (P = 0.043) than the control group. These results suggest that laser acupuncture is a valuable approach that could be added to the diet-exercise intervention to correct features of the MetS. PMID:26425364

  9. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  10. Metabolic Changes Following a 1-Year Diet and Exercise Intervention in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine B.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Kelley, David E.; Smith, Steven R.; Azuma, Koichiro; Berk, Evan S.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Ravussin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the relationships among long-term improvements in peripheral insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate [GDR]), fasting glucose, and free fatty acids (FFAs) and concomitant changes in weight and adipose tissue mass and distribution induced by lifestyle intervention in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured GDR, fasting glucose, and FFAs during a euglycemic clamp and adipose tissue mass and distribution, organ fat, and adipocyte size by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, CT scan, and adipose tissue biopsy in 26 men and 32 women in the Look-AHEAD trial before and after 1 year of diet and exercise aimed at weight loss. RESULTS Weight and fasting glucose decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) and significantly more in men than in women (−12 vs. −8% and −16 vs. −7%, respectively; P < 0.05), while FFAs during hyperinsulinemia decreased and GDR increased significantly (P < 0.00001) and similarly in both sexes (−53 vs. −41% and 63 vs. 43%; P = NS). Men achieved a more favorable fat distribution by losing more from upper compared with lower and from deeper compared with superficial adipose tissue depots (P < 0.01). Decreases in weight and adipose tissue mass predicted improvements in GDR but not in fasting glucose or fasting FFAs; however, decreases in FFAs during hyperinsulinemia significantly determined GDR improvements. Hepatic fat was the only regional fat measure whose change contributed independently to changes in metabolic variables. CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing a 1-year lifestyle intervention had significant improvements in GDR, fasting glucose, FFAs and adipose tissue distribution. However, changes in overall weight (adipose tissue mass) and hepatic fat were the most important determinants of metabolic improvements. PMID:20028945

  11. Pilates for Better Sex: Changes in Sexual Functioning in Healthy Turkish Women After Pilates Exercise.

    PubMed

    Halis, Fikret; Yildirim, Pelin; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Cecen, Kursat; Gokce, Ahmet

    2016-05-18

    Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p <.0001). This is the first prospective study that quantifies the improvement in sexual function of healthy women after a 12-week Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field. PMID:25826474

  12. Magnesium Replacement Does Not Improve Insulin Resistance in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A 12-Week Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza e Silva, Maria de Lourdes; Cruz, Thomaz; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon; Ladeia, Ana Marice; Bomfim, Olivia; Olivieri, Lucas; Melo, Juliana; Correia, Raquel; Porto, Mirna; Cedro, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes. Methods This 12-week clinical randomized double-blind study compared the effects of 400 mg/day of Mg with those of a placebo (n = 72) on fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and CRP. Mg was measured in serum (SMg) and in mononuclear cells (MMg). Results Hypomagnesemia (SMg < 1.7 mg/dL) was seen in 23.2% of patients and intracellular depletion in 36.1% of patients. The MMg means were lower in patients with obesity (0.94 ± 0.54 μg/mg vs. 1.19 ± 0.6 μg/mg, P = 0.04), and insulin resistance (0.84 ± 0.33 μg/mg vs. 1.14 ± 0.69 µg/mg, P < 0.05). Mg replacement did not alter SMg (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/dL vs. 1.81 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P = 0.877) and tended to increment MMg (0.90 ± 0.40 μg/mg vs. 1.21 ± 0.73 μg/mg, P = 0.089). HOMA-IR did not alter in interventions nor in placebo group (3.2 ± 2.0 to 2.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.368; 3.6 ± 1.9 to 3.2 ± 1.8, respectively), neither did other metabolic parameters. Conclusion Serum and intracellular Mg depletion is common in patients with MS; however, Mg replacement in recommended dosage did not increase significantly Mg levels, neither reduced insulin resistance or metabolic control. PMID:25247020

  13. Trajectories of change in self-esteem in older adults: exercise intervention effects.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Mullen, Sean P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Olson, Erin A; Szabo, Amanda N; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2011-08-01

    This 12-month, 2 arm, single blind randomized controlled exercise trial examined relationships among changes in multidimensional self-esteem as a function of intervention mode (i.e., walking vs. flexibility-toning-balance). Data were collected on three equidistant occasions (baseline, 6 and 12 months). One-hundred seventy-nine older adults (M(age) = 66.38) began the study and 145 completed assessments at all time points. Participants completed measures of physical and global self-esteem as well as demographic information. There were no significant group differences at baseline on these demographic indicators or esteem variables. Data were analyzed using linear and parallel process growth modeling procedures. Results supported the position that across both groups, domain-level (i.e., physical self-worth) was dependent upon sub-domain-level (i.e., perceived attractiveness, strength, and condition) esteem change. Furthermore, greater improvements were observed in the flexibility-toning-balance group, in terms of perceived strength and attractiveness esteem, compared to the walking group. Our findings support theoretically-based predictions and extend the literature showing unique psychological responses conditional on specific types of physical activities. PMID:21222223

  14. Passive and active exercises are similarly effective in elderly nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Nicole L.; Rogers, Michael E.; Islam, Mohammod Monirul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of passive motion exercise and active motion exercise on functional fitness in elderly nursing home residents. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three (female 22 and male 1) nursing home residents (84.8±4.3 yr) volunteered for this study. They were divided into a passive motion exercise group (n=12) and an active motion exercise group (n=11) and performed 30-min sessions of training twice a week for 12 weeks. Functional fitness (Arm Curl, Chair Stand, Up & Go, Sit & Reach, Back Scratch, functional Reach, and 12-min Walk tests) was evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] No significant baseline difference was noted between the groups in measured variables. Following the 12 week intervention, no significant interaction (group × time) was noted in functional fitness variables between the groups, except for the functional reach scores (active motion exercise 40%, passive motion exercise 9%). Significant improvement over time was noted in passive motion exercise group in Arm Curl (19%), Chair Stand (15%), Up & Go (6%), and 12-min Walk (12%) scores; and in the active motion exercise group in Arm Curl (14%), Chair Stand (19%), Up & Go (11%), functional Reach (40%) and 12-min Walk (13%) scores. The adherence rates in the passive and active motion exercise groups were 95.8% and 93.1% respectively. [Conclusion] Passive motion exercise and active motion exercise were found to be similarly effective for improving the functional fitness of elderly nursing home residents. PMID:26504320

  15. Evolution of the electrocardiogram in young dogs during the first 12 weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Trautvetter, E; Detweiler, D K; Patterson, D F

    1981-07-01

    In 36 normal pups the evolution of the ECG during the first 12 weeks was studied. Sixteen pups were randomly selected, healthy pups; 20 were normal littermates from dog families with congenital heart disease. The direction of P, QRS, and T vectors was determined, and the modal QRS axis (vector) was constructed from lead I and AVF in the frontal, from lead I and V10 in the transverse, and from lead AVF and V10 in the sagittal plane. Except for the T wave directly after birth, no marked difference in the ECG evolution between the two groups was found. After birth the modal QRS vector was almost exclusively directed to the right. The modal QRS vectors in the first, second, and third weeks were significantly different from each other. By the twelfth week all vectors were directed to the left and the majority was oriented leftward and caudally. In the serial ECG tracings the change from right ventricular to left ventricular dominance was seen to be progressive. The R/S ratio in the left chest leads increased from less than 1.0 at week 1 to a multiple of 1.0 after the sixth week. The changes occurring in scaler ECG's were mirrored in VCG's recorded in selected pups. PMID:7264504

  16. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Shahar, Suzana; Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohd; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men) and 66.1±5.1 (women) years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women); and 2) the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women). Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB's model, attitude (β=0.60) and perceived behavioral control (β=0.24) were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (β=0.82) was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men's, β=0.68; women's, β=0.24) and subjective norm (men's, β=0.12; women's, β=0.87) were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. "Feels healthier with exercise" was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (β=0.36) and women (β=0.49). "Not motivated to perform exercise" was the main barrier among men's intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and to predict maintenance of exercise in the sarcopenic elderly. PMID:25258524

  17. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jassil, Friedrich C.; Manning, Sean; Lewis, Neville; Steinmo, Siri; Kingett, Helen; Lough, Fiona; Pucci, Andrea B. F.; Cheung, W. H.; Finer, Nicholas; Walker, Judith; Doyle, Jaqueline; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p = 0.043), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, p = 0.043), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.034), reduced consumption of ready meals (p = 0.034), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p = 0.039). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p = 0.027). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. PMID:26199740

  18. The Effect of Green Tea Ingestion and Interval Sprinting Exercise on the Body Composition of Overweight Males: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Gahreman, Daniel; Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m² and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone. PMID:27548216

  19. The Effect of Green Tea Ingestion and Interval Sprinting Exercise on the Body Composition of Overweight Males: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gahreman, Daniel; Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m2 and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone. PMID:27548216

  20. Personalized preventive medicine: genetics and the response to regular exercise in preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Claude; Antunes-Correa, Ligia M; Ashley, Euan A; Franklin, Nina; Hwang, Paul M; Mattsson, C Mikael; Negrao, Carlos E; Phillips, Shane A; Sarzynski, Mark A; Wang, Ping-Yuan; Wheeler, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise and a physically active lifestyle have favorable effects on health. Several issues related to this theme are addressed in this report. A comment on the requirements of personalized exercise medicine and in-depth biological profiling along with the opportunities that they offer is presented. This is followed by a brief overview of the evidence for the contributions of genetic differences to the ability to benefit from regular exercise. Subsequently, studies showing that mutations in TP53 influence exercise capacity in mice and humans are succinctly described. The evidence for effects of exercise on endothelial function in health and disease also is covered. Finally, changes in cardiac and skeletal muscle in response to exercise and their implications for patients with cardiac disease are summarized. Innovative research strategies are needed to define the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to exercise and to translate them into useful clinical and public health applications. PMID:25559061

  1. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  2. Acute aerobic exercise: an intervention for the selective visual attention and reading comprehension of low-income adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible and research-based interventions that target the cognitive performance and academic achievement of low-income adolescents. In response, this study utilized a randomized experimental design and assessed the selective visual attention (SVA) and reading comprehension abilities of low-income adolescents and, for comparison purposes, high-income adolescents after they engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that 12-min of aerobic exercise improved the SVA of low- and high-income adolescents and that the benefit lasted for 45-min for both groups. The SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was particularly large. In fact, the SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was substantial enough to eliminate a pre-existing income gap in SVA. The mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents who engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise was higher than the mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents in the control group. However, there was no difference between the mean reading comprehension scores of the high-income adolescents who did and did not engage in 12-min of aerobic exercise. Based on the results, schools serving low-income adolescents should consider implementing brief sessions of aerobic exercise during the school day. PMID:24966846

  3. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study. PMID:26542389

  4. A randomised placebo controlled 12 week trial of budesonide and prednisolone in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kirwan, J; Hallgren, R; Mielants, H; Wollheim, F; Bjorck, E; Persson, T; Book, C; Bowman, S; Byron, M; Cox, N; Field, M; Kanerud, L; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Malaise, M; Mohammad, A; Palmer, R; Petersson, I; Ringertz, B; Sheldon, P; Simonsson, M; Snowden, N; Van den Bosch, F

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare budesonide, a locally acting glucocorticoid with minimal systemic exposure, with conventional glucocorticoid treatment and placebo in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A double blind, randomised, controlled trial over 12 weeks in 143 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, comparing budesonide 3 mg daily, budesonide 9 mg daily, prednisolone 7.5 mg daily, and placebo. Particular attention was paid to the pattern of clinical response and to changes in the four week period following discontinuation of treatment. Results: There were improvements in tender joint count and swollen joint count on budesonide 9 mg compared with placebo (28% for tender and 34% for swollen joint counts, p<0.05). Prednisolone 7.5 mg gave similar results, while budesonide 3 mg was less effective. ACR20 response criteria were met by 25% of patients on placebo, 22% on budesonide 3 mg, 42% on budesonide 9 mg, and 56% on prednisolone 7.5 mg. A rapid and significant reduction in symptoms and signs in response to budesonide 9 mg and prednisolone 7.5 mg was evident by two weeks and maximal at eight weeks. There was no evidence that budesonide provided a different pattern of symptom control from prednisolone, or that symptoms became worse than placebo treatment levels after discontinuation of glucocorticoid treatment. Adverse effects attributable to glucocorticoids were equally common in all groups. Conclusions: The symptomatic benefits of budesonide 9 mg and prednisolone 7.5 mg are achieved within a short time of initiating treatment, are maintained for three months, and are not associated with any rebound in symptoms after stopping treatment. PMID:15140776

  5. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  6. Randomised controlled trial of graded exercise in patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, K. Y.; White, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a graded aerobic exercise programme in the chronic fatigue syndrome. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with control treatment crossover after the first follow up examination. SETTING: Chronic fatigue clinic in a general hospital department of psychiatry. SUBJECTS: 66 patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome who had neither a psychiatric disorder nor appreciable sleep disturbance. INTERVENTIONS: Random allocation to 12 weeks of either graded aerobic exercise or flexibility exercises and relaxation therapy. Patients who completed the flexibility programme were invited to cross over to the exercise programme afterwards. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The self rated clinical global impression change score, "very much better" or "much better" being considered as clinically important. RESULTS: Four patients receiving exercise and three receiving flexibility treatment dropped out before completion. 15 of 29 patients rated themselves as better after completing exercise treatment compared with eight of 30 patients who completed flexibility treatment. Analysis by intention to treat gave similar results (17/33 v 9/33 patients better). Fatigue, functional capacity, and fitness were significantly better after exercise than after flexibility treatment. 12 of 22 patients who crossed over to exercise after flexibility treatment rated themselves as better after completing exercise treatment 32 of 47 patients rated themselves as better three months after completing supervised exercise treatment 35 of 47 patients rated themselves as better one year after completing supervised exercise treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings support the use of appropriately prescribed graded aerobic exercise in the management of patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome. PMID:9180065

  7. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  8. Plasticity of Brain Networks in a Randomized Intervention Trial of Exercise Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Michelle W.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Basak, Chandramallika; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S.; Alves, Heloisa; Heo, Susie; Szabo, Amanda N.; White, Siobhan M.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown the human brain is organized into separable functional networks during rest and varied states of cognition, and that aging is associated with specific network dysfunctions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine low-frequency (0.008 < f < 0.08 Hz) coherence of cognitively relevant and sensory brain networks in older adults who participated in a 1-year intervention trial, comparing the effects of aerobic and non-aerobic fitness training on brain function and cognition. Results showed that aerobic training improved the aging brain's resting functional efficiency in higher-level cognitive networks. One year of walking increased functional connectivity between aspects of the frontal, posterior, and temporal cortices within the Default Mode Network and a Frontal Executive Network, two brain networks central to brain dysfunction in aging. Length of training was also an important factor. Effects in favor of the walking group were observed only after 12 months of training, compared to non-significant trends after 6 months. A non-aerobic stretching and toning group also showed increased functional connectivity in the DMN after 6 months and in a Frontal Parietal Network after 12 months, possibly reflecting experience-dependent plasticity. Finally, we found that changes in functional connectivity were behaviorally relevant. Increased functional connectivity was associated with greater improvement in executive function. Therefore the study provides the first evidence for exercise-induced functional plasticity in large-scale brain systems in the aging brain, using functional connectivity techniques, and offers new insight into the role of aerobic fitness in attenuating age-related brain dysfunction. PMID:20890449

  9. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-11-01

    Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling; or a reference intervention without physical activity. Maximal voluntary shoulder abductions were performed at static angles of 35 degrees and 115 degrees with simultaneous recording of electromyography (EMG) in the trapezius and deltoid. Maximal muscle strength and activation (peak torque and peak EMG) as well as rapid muscle strength and activation [rate of torque development (RTD) and rate of EMG rise] were subsequently determined. Trapezius muscle fiber characteristics were determined with ATPase histochemistry. Significant changes were observed only in the specific strength training group. Whereas peak torque increased 18-29% (P < 0.01), RTD increased 61-115% (P < 0.001). Peak EMG and rate of EMG rise increased correspondingly (P < 0.05-0.001), and trapezius type II muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is highly responsive to rehabilitation with specific strength training. The underlying mechanisms were related to both pain reduction and general neuromuscular adaptations to strength training. Potentially, the present method can be a useful clinical screening tool of muscle function in rehabilitation settings. PMID:19762523

  10. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. PMID:26380361

  11. A Pilot Study of Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunctive Treatment for Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Marcus, Bess H.; Jakicic, John; Strong, David R.; Oakley, Julie R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Stuart, Gregory G.; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A.

    2010-01-01

    Intervention to increase exercise in drug dependent patients represents a potentially useful yet unexplored strategy for preventing relapse. However, there are currently no established exercise interventions for use with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility of aerobic exercise as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment among drug dependent patients. Participants included 16 (31% female, 38.3 years old) drug dependent patients who participated in a 12-week, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention. Participants attended a mean of 8.6 sessions (out of 12). Participants demonstrated a significant increase in percent days abstinent for both alcohol and drugs at the end of treatment, and those who attended at least 75% of the exercise sessions had significantly better substance use outcomes than those who did not. In addition, participants showed a significant increase in their cardiorespiratory fitness by the end of treatment. While preliminary, this study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating aerobic exercise during drug abuse treatment. Future randomized control trials are a necessary next step to test the efficacy of a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention as an adjunct to drug abuse treatment in this patient population. PMID:20582151

  12. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations: Design and conduct of clinical trials of lifestyle diet and exercise interventions for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Messier, S P; Callahan, L F; Golightly, Y M; Keefe, F J

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to develop a set of "best practices" for use as a primer for those interested in entering the clinical trials field for lifestyle diet and/or exercise interventions in osteoarthritis (OA), and as a set of recommendations for experienced clinical trials investigators. A subcommittee of the non-pharmacologic therapies committee of the OARSI Clinical Trials Working Group was selected by the Steering Committee to develop a set of recommended principles for non-pharmacologic diet/exercise OA randomized clinical trials. Topics were identified for inclusion by co-authors and reviewed by the subcommittee. Resources included authors' expert opinions, traditional search methods including MEDLINE (via PubMed), and previously published guidelines. Suggested steps and considerations for study methods (e.g., recruitment and enrollment of participants, study design, intervention and assessment methods) were recommended. The recommendations set forth in this paper provide a guide from which a research group can design a lifestyle diet/exercise randomized clinical trial in patients with OA. PMID:25952349

  13. Combined exercise and transcranial direct current stimulation intervention for knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Ju; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W; Hinman, Rana S; Liston, Matthew B; Schabrun, Siobhan M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major health problem and a leading cause of disability. The knee joint is commonly affected, resulting in pain and physical dysfunction. Exercise is considered the cornerstone of conservative management, yet meta-analyses indicate, at best, moderate effect sizes. Treatments that bolster the effects of exercise, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), may improve outcomes in knee OA. The aims of this pilot study are to (1) determine the feasibility, safety and perceived patient response to a combined tDCS and exercise intervention in knee OA, and (2) provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully-powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. Methods and analysis A pilot randomised, assessor-blind and participant-blind, sham-controlled trial. 20 individuals with knee OA who report a pain score of 40 or more on a 100 mm visual analogue scale on walking, and meet a priori selection criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either: (1) active tDCS plus exercise, or (2) sham tDCS plus exercise. All participants will receive 20 min of either active or sham tDCS immediately prior to 30 min of supervised muscle strengthening exercise twice a week for 8 weeks. Participants in both groups will also complete unsupervised home exercises twice per week. Outcome measures of feasibility, safety, pain, disability and pain system function will be assessed immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. Analyses of feasibility and safety will be performed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses will be used to determine trends of effectiveness and will be based on intention-to-treat as well as per protocol. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee (H10184). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be submitted for peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number ANZCTR

  14. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  15. Effects of a Clinician Referral and Exercise Program for Men Who Have Completed Active Treatment for Prostate Cancer: A Multicenter Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (ENGAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Patricia M; Craike, Melinda J; Salmon, Jo; Courneya, Kerry S; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Fraser, Steve F; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Broadbent, Suzanne; Botti, Mari; Kent, Bridie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a clinician referral and exercise program in improving exercise levels and quality of life for men with prostate cancer. METHODS This was a multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial in Melbourne, Australia comprising 15 clinicians: 8 clinicians were randomized to refer eligible participants (n = 54) to a 12-week exercise program comprising 2 supervised gym sessions and 1 home-based session per week, and 7 clinicians were randomized to follow usual care (n = 93). The primary outcome was self-reported physical activity; the secondary outcomes were quality of life, anxiety, and symptoms of depression. RESULTS A significant intervention effect was observed for vigorous-intensity exercise (effect size: Cohen's d, 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.82; P = .010) but not for combined moderate and vigorous exercise levels (effect size: d, 0.08; 95% CI, −0.28 to 0.45; P = .48). Significant intervention effects were also observed for meeting exercise guidelines (≥150 min/wk; odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.9-7.8; P = .002); positive intervention effects were observed in the intervention group for cognitive functioning (effect size: d, 0.34; 95% CI, −0.02 to 0.70; P = .06) and depression symptoms (effect size: d, −0.35; 95% CI, −0.71 to 0.02; P = .06). Eighty percent of participants reported that the clinician's referral influenced their decision to participate in the exercise program. CONCLUSIONS The clinician referral and 12-week exercise program significantly improved vigorous exercise levels and had a positive impact on mental health outcomes for men living with prostate cancer. Further research is needed to determine the sustainability of the exercise program and its generalizability to other cancer populations. Cancer 2015;121:2646–2654. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:25877784

  16. Changes in structural and metabolic muscle characteristics following exercise-based interventions in patients with COPD: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Brandt, Jana; Spruit, Martijn A; Derave, Wim; Hansen, Dominique; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Burtin, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Patients with COPD suffer from lower-limb muscle dysfunction characterized by lower muscle oxidative capacity and muscle mass. Exercise-based training is expected to attenuate lower-limb intramuscular characteristics, but a detailed systematic approach to review the available evidence has not been performed yet. PUBMED and PEDro databases were searched. Twenty-five studies that implemented an exercise-based training program (aerobic and/or resistance training, high intensity interval training, electrical or magnetic stimulation) and reported muscle biopsy data of patients with COPD were critically appraised. The coverage of results includes changes in muscle structure, muscle protein turnover regulation, mitochondrial enzyme activity, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and inflammation after exercise-based training interventions. Study design and training modalities varied among studies, which partly explains the observed heterogeneous response in muscle characteristics. Gaps in the current knowledge are identified and recommendations for future research are made to enhance our knowledge on exercise training effects in patients with COPD. PMID:26901573

  17. Effects of Supervised Multimodal Exercise Interventions on Cancer-Related Fatigue: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and devastating problem in cancer patients even after successful treatment. This study aimed to determine the effects of supervised multimodal exercise interventions on cancer-related fatigue through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Design. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of multimodal exercise interventions on CRF. Databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and OVID were searched between January and March 2014 to retrieve randomized controlled trials. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Results. Nine studies (n = 772) were included in both systematic review and meta-analysis. Multimodal interventions including aerobic exercise, resistance training, and stretching improved CRF symptoms (SMD = −0.23; 95% CI: −0.37 to −0.09; P = 0.001). These effects were also significant in patients undergoing chemotherapy (P < 0.0001). Nonsignificant differences were found for resistance training interventions (P = 0.30). Slight evidence of publication bias was observed (P = 0.04). The studies had a low risk of bias (PEDro scale mean score of 6.4 (standard deviation (SD) ± 1.0)). Conclusion. Supervised multimodal exercise interventions including aerobic, resistance, and stretching exercises are effective in controlling CRF. These findings suggest that these exercise protocols should be included as a crucial part of the rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors and patients during anticancer treatments. PMID:26167483

  18. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Shahar, Suzana; Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohd; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men) and 66.1±5.1 (women) years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women); and 2) the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women). Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB’s model, attitude (β=0.60) and perceived behavioral control (β=0.24) were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (β=0.82) was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men’s, β=0.68; women’s, β=0.24) and subjective norm (men’s, β=0.12; women’s, β=0.87) were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. “Feels healthier with exercise” was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (β=0.36) and women (β=0.49). “Not motivated to perform exercise” was the main barrier among men’s intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and to predict maintenance of exercise in the sarcopenic elderly. PMID:25258524

  19. Exercise therapy after corticosteroid injection for moderate to severe shoulder pain: large pragmatic randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Crawshaw, Dickon P; Helliwell, Philip S; Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Hay, Elaine M; Aldous, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of subacromial corticosteroid injection combined with timely exercise and manual therapy (injection plus exercise) or exercise and manual therapy alone (exercise only) in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Design Pragmatic randomised clinical trial. Setting Primary care based musculoskeletal service. Patients Adults aged 40 or over with subacromial impingement syndrome with moderate or severe shoulder pain. Interventions Injection plus exercise or exercise only. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was the difference in improvement in the total shoulder pain and disability index at 12 weeks. Results 232 participants were randomised (115 to injection plus exercise, 117 to exercise only). The mean age was 56 (range 40-78), 127 were women, and all had had a median of 16 weeks of shoulder pain (interquartile range 12-28). At week 12 there was no significant difference between the groups in change in total pain and disability index (mean difference between change in groups 3.26 (95% confidence interval −0.81 to 7.34), P=0.116). Improvement was significantly greater in the injection plus exercise group at week 1 (6.56, 4.30 to 8.82) and week 6 (7.37, 4.34 to 10.39) for the total pain and disability index (P<0.001), with no differences at week 24 (−2.26, −6.77 to 2.25, P=0.324). Conclusions In the treatment of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, injection plus exercise and exercise only are similarly effective at 12 weeks. Trial registration ISRCT 25817033; EudraCT No 2005-003628-20. PMID:20584793

  20. Engaging South Asian women with type 2 diabetes in a culturally relevant exercise intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Alamelu; Nimbal, Vani C; Ivey, Susan L; Wang, Elsie J; Madsen, Kristine A; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the efficacy of a culturally relevant exercise program in improving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes, compared with usual care. Methods This was a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study of Bollywood dance among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes. The intervention consisted of 1 h Bollywood dance classes offered twice per week. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. The effect of attendance on this outcome was also examined. Results The intervention group demonstrated a decrease in HbA1c from baseline (−0.18% (0.2%); p=0.018) compared with a non-significant increase in the usual care group (+0.03% (0.2%)); p value for difference between groups was 0.032. Participants attending at least 10 of 16 sessions had a statistically significant reduction in weight (−0.69 kg (0.76 kg)) compared with those attending fewer sessions (+0.86 kg (0.71 kg)). Conclusions These results support culturally relevant dance as a successful exercise intervention to promote HbA1c control, compared with usual care. Trial registration number NCT02061618. PMID:26566446

  1. School promotion of healthful diet and exercise behavior: an integration of organizational change and social learning theory interventions.

    PubMed

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B G; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Kolbe, L J; Bee, D E

    1987-04-01

    In the Go For Health project, interventions based on organizational change and social learning theory facilitate changes in diet and exercise behavior by elementary school children. Baseline data documented the need for behavior change. Based on chemical analyses, average per meal amounts of total fat and sodium were higher than national recommendations: total fat was 29.3% higher than U.S. Dietary Goals; sodium was 107.4% greater than recommended levels. Observations of students in physical education class revealed children moved through space 50.1% of the time and moved continuously an average of 2.2 minutes per class period. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice changes in the school environment to enable children to engage in more healthful diet and exercise behavior. PMID:3646383

  2. Identification of structural interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention: the concept mapping exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Collins, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Structural interventions have been defined as those prevention interventions that include physical, social, cultural, organizational, community, economic, legal, and policy factors. In an effort to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a project that involved asking experts in HIV prevention and other areas of public health-including injury and violence prevention, tobacco control, drug abuse, and nutrition-to provide input on the identification of structural interventions based on the aforementioned definition. The process resulted in a list of 123 interventions that met the definition. The experts were asked to group these interventions into categories based on similarity of ideas. They were also asked to rate these interventions in terms of impact they would have, if implemented, on reducing HIV transmission. The findings highlight the need for conducting further research on structural interventions, including feasibility of implementation and effectiveness of reducing HIV transmission risks. PMID:22043093

  3. Social media interventions for diet and exercise behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gillian; Hamm, Michele P; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Vandermeer, Ben; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the use of social media to promote healthy diet and exercise in the general population. Data sources MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge and ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis (2000–2013). Study eligibility criteria RCTs of social media interventions promoting healthy diet and exercise behaviours in the general population were eligible. Interventions using social media, alone or as part of a complex intervention, were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. We describe the studies according to the target populations, objectives and nature of interventions, outcomes examined, and results and conclusions. We extracted data on the primary and secondary outcomes examined in each study. Where the same outcome was assessed in at least three studies, we combined data in a meta-analysis. Results 22 studies were included. Participants were typically middle-aged Caucasian women of mid-to-high socioeconomic status. There were a variety of interventions, comparison groups and outcomes. All studies showed a decrease in programme usage throughout the intervention period. Overall, no significant differences were found for primary outcomes which varied across studies. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences in changes in physical activity (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.13 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.30), 12 studies) and weight (SMD −0.00 (95% CI −0.19 to 0.19), 10 studies); however, pooled results from five studies showed a significant decrease in dietary fat consumption with social media (SMD −0.35 (95% CI −0.68 to −0.02)). Conclusions Social media may provide certain advantages for public health interventions; however, studies of social media interventions to date relating to healthy

  4. Exercise intervention designed to improve strength and dynamic balance among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    DiBrezzo, Ro; Shadden, Barbara B; Raybon, Blake H; Powers, Melissa

    2005-04-01

    Loss of balance and falling are critical concerns for older adults. Physical activity can improve balance and decrease the risk of falling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simple, low-cost exercise program for community-dwelling older adults. Sixteen senior adults were evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test for measures of functional strength, aerobic endurance, dynamic balance and agility, and flexibility. In addition, measures of height, weight, resting blood pressure, blood lipids, and cognitive function were obtained. Participants then attended a 10-week exercise class including stretching, strengthening, and balance-training exercises. At the completion of the program, significant improvements were observed in tests measuring dynamic balance and agility, lower and upper extremity strength, and upper extremity flexibility. The results indicate that exercise programs such as this are an effective, low-cost solution to improving health and factors that affect falling risk among older adults. PMID:15995265

  5. Effect of a six-month yoga exercise intervention on fitness outcomes for breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Daniel C; Darby, Nydia; Gonzalez, Krystle; Boggess, Terri; Morris, Ruth M; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-01-01

    Yoga-based exercise has proven to be beneficial for practitioners, including cancer survivors. This study reports on the improvements in physical fitness for 20 breast cancer survivors who participated in a six-month yoga-based exercise program (YE). Results are compared to a comprehensive exercise (CE) program group and a comparison (C) exercise group who chose their own exercises. "Pre" and "post" fitness assessments included measures of anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength and flexibility. Descriptive statistics, effect size (d), dependent sample 't' tests for all outcome measures were calculated for the YE group. Significant improvements included: decreased % body fat (-3.00%, d = -0.44, p < 0.001); increased sit to stand leg strength repetitions (2.05, d = 0.48, p = 0.003); forward reach (3.59 cm, d = 0.61, p = 0.01); and right arm sagittal range of motion (6.50°, d = 0.92, p = 0.05). To compare YE outcomes with the other two groups, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. YE participants significantly outperformed C participants on "forward reach" (3.59 cm gained versus -2.44 cm lost), (p = 0.009) and outperformed CE participants (3.59 cm gained versus 1.35 cm gained), but not statistically significant. Our results support yoga-based exercise modified for breast cancer survivors as safe and effective. PMID:26395825

  6. Effect of prenatal Qi exercise on mother-infant interaction and behavioral state.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun Sun; Lundeen, Sally P; Lee, Jia

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal Qi exercise on mother-infant interaction and the behavioral state of the infant. A prospective, quasi-experimental design was used in 70 healthy pregnant women of more than 18 weeks of gestation. Pregnant women in the intervention group received 90 minutes of prenatal Qi exercise twice a week for 12 weeks. Prenatal Qi exercise group's Nursing Child Assessment of Feeding Scale scores was higher in mother's sensitivity to cues, responses to distress, socioemotional growth fostering, and cognitive fostering and for children in responsiveness. There was no significant difference in Anderson Behavioral State Scoring System scores between groups. The results suggested that prenatal Qi exercise is a valuable approach to positively influence mother-infant interaction postdelivery. PMID:24619991

  7. Examination of a Telephone-Based Exercise Intervention for the Prevention of Postpartum Depression: Design, Methodology, and Baseline Data from The Healthy Mom Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Beth A; Gjerdingen, Dwenda K; Avery, Melissa D; Guo, Hongfei; Sirard, John R; Bonikowske, Amanda R; Marcus, Bess H

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that exercise is an efficacious intervention for depression among adults; however, little is known regarding its efficacy for preventing postpartum depression. The Healthy Mom study was a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an exercise intervention for the prevention of postpartum depression. Specifically, postpartum women with a history of depression or a maternal family history of depression (n=130) were randomly assigned to a telephone-based exercise intervention or a wellness/support contact control condition each lasting six months. The exercise intervention was designed to motivate postpartum women to exercise based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. The primary dependent variable was depression based on the Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview (SCID). Secondary dependent variables included scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the PHQ-9, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design, methodology, and baseline data for this trial. Upon completion of the trial, the results will yield important information about the efficacy of exercise in preventing postpartum depression. PMID:22890220

  8. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Materials and Methods Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. Results The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Conclusion Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. Trial Registration CRiS KCT0001771 PMID:27253526

  9. Right Breast Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Tissue Expander under Thoracic Paravertebral Blocks in a 12-Week Parturient

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Christopher Allen-John; Weyker, Paul David; Cohn, Shara; Wheeler, Amanda; Lee, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Paravertebral blocks are becoming increasingly utilized for breast surgery with studies showing improved postoperative pain control, decreased need for opioids, and less nausea and vomiting. We describe the anesthetic management of an otherwise healthy woman who was 12 weeks pregnant presenting for treatment of her breast cancer. For patients undergoing breast mastectomy and reconstruction with tissue expanders, paravertebral blocks offer an anesthetic alternative when general anesthesia is not desired. PMID:26229692

  10. Exercise intervention in New Zealand Polynesian peoples with type 2 diabetes: Cultural considerations and clinical trial recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Sukala, William R.; Page, Rachel A.; Rowlands, David S.; Lys, Isabelle; Krebs, Jeremy D.; Leikis, Murray J.; Cheema, Birinder S.

    2012-01-01

    The Maori and Pacific Islands peoples of New Zealand suffer a greater burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated comorbidities than their European counterparts. Empirical evidence supports the clinical application of aerobic and resistance training for effective diabetes management and potential remission, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in specific ethnic cohorts. We recently conducted the first trial to investigate the effect of prescribed exercise training in Polynesian people with T2DM. This article presents the cultural considerations undertaken to successfully implement the study. The research procedures were accepted and approved by cultural liaisons and potential participants. The approved methodology involved a trial evaluating and comparing the effects of two, 16-week exercise regimens (i.e. aerobic training and resistance training) on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), related diabetes markers (i.e. insulin resistance, blood lipids, relevant cytokines and anthropometric and hemodynamic indices) and health-related quality of life. Future exercise-related research or implementation strategies in this cohort should focus on cultural awareness and techniques to enhance participation and compliance. Our approach to cultural consultation could be considered by researchers undertaking trials in this and other ethnic populations suffering an extreme burden of T2DM, including indigenous Australians and Americans. PMID:23024717

  11. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  12. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β 2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%-8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6-12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6-12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6-12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  13. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465

  14. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Heart Rate Recovery from Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Paul M.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A.; Horton, Edward S.; Jakicic, John M.; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Knowler, William C.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Research Group, Look AHEAD

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  15. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Paul M; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A; Horton, Edward S; Jakicic, John M; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W; Knowler, William C; Stewart, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45-76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  16. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Efficacy of Physical Exercise Interventions on Cognition in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tan, Beron W Z; Pooley, Julie A; Speelman, Craig P

    2016-09-01

    This review evaluates the efficacy of using physical exercise interventions on improving cognitive functions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review includes a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model of data reported in 22 studies with 579 participants aged 3-25 year old. The results revealed an overall small to medium effect of exercise on cognition, supporting the efficacy of exercise interventions in enhancing certain aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with ASD and/or ADHD. Specifically, similar to the general population literature, the cognitive benefits of exercise are not consistent across all aspects of cognitive functions (i.e., some areas are not improved). The clinical significance of the reported effect sizes is also considered. PMID:27412579

  17. Insights for Exercise Adherence from a Minimal Planning Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janine; Campbell, Marianne; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the impact of a minimal, online planning intervention on physical activity in Australian office workers. Method: Employees were randomized to an implementation intention intervention (n = 124) or health information control group (n = 130). Measures of physical activity, past behavior, and motivation were taken at baseline and 6…

  18. Randomised controlled trial of a supervised exercise rehabilitation program for colorectal cancer survivors immediately after chemotherapy: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Rosalind R; Heesch, Kristiann C; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and the ensuing treatments can have a substantial impact on the physical and psychological health of survivors. As the number of CRC survivors increases, so too does the need to develop viable rehabilitation programs to help these survivors return to good health as quickly as possible. Exercise has the potential to address many of the adverse effects of CRC treatment; however, to date, the role of exercise in the rehabilitation of cancer patients immediately after the completion of treatment has received limited research attention. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial which will evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise program (ImPACT Program) on the physiological and psychological markers of rehabilitation, in addition to biomarkers of standard haematological outcomes and the IGF axis. Methods/Design Forty CRC patients will be recruited through oncology clinics and randomised to an exercise group or a usual care control group. Baseline assessment will take place within 4 weeks of the patient completing adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The exercise program for patients in the intervention group will commence a week after the baseline assessment. The program consists of three supervised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. All participants will have assessments at baseline (0 wks), mid-intervention (6 wks), post-intervention (12 wks) and at a 6-week follow-up (18 wks). Outcome measures include cardio-respiratory fitness, biomarkers associated with health and survival, and indices of fatigue and quality of life. Process measures are participants' acceptability of, adherence to, and compliance with the exercise program, in addition to the safety of the program. Discussion The results of this study will provide valuable insight into the role of supervised exercise in improving life after CRC. Additionally, process analyses will

  19. The effects of pilates mat exercise on the balance ability of elderly females.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Hwangbo, Kak; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on a mat and balance exercise on an unstable base of support for trunk stability on the balance ability of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly women aged 65 or older were equally assigned to a Pilates mat exercise (PME) group and an unstable support surface exercise (USSE) group. They conducted exercise three times per week for 12 weeks for 40 minutes each time. In order to examine balance, sway length and the speed of the center of foot pressure were measured for one minute, and in order to examine dynamic balance, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted. [Results] After the intervention, sway length, sway speed, and TUG significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway speed after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the PME group showed larger decreases than the USSE group. [Conclusion] PME and USSE elicited significant effects on the static and dynamic balance of elderly female subjects, suggesting that those exercises are effective at enhancing the balance ability of this group of subjects. However, the Pilates mat exercise is regarded as being safer than exercise on an unstable base of support. PMID:24648651

  20. An Evaluation of a Worksite Exercise Intervention Using the Social Cognitive Theory: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Megan; Petosa, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To increase exercise adherence among insufficiently active adult employees. Design: A quasi-experimental separate samples pre-test-post-test group design was used to compare treatment and comparison group. Setting: The worksite. Subjects: Employees (n = 127) who did not meet current American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)…

  1. Fat metabolism during exercise: a review--part III: effects of nutritional interventions.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Saris, W H; Wagenmakers, A J

    1998-08-01

    By changes in nutrition it is possible to manipulate fat oxidation. It is often theorized that increasing fat oxidation may reduce glycogen breakdown and thus enhance performance. Therefore, the effects of acute, short-term and long-term fat feeding have been subjects of investigation for many years. Ingestion of long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT) during exercise may reduce the gastric emptying rate and LCT will appear in the plasma only slowly. Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) do not have these disadvantages and they are rapidly oxidized. However, the contribution of MCT to energy expenditure is only small because they can only be ingested in small amounts without causing gastrointestinal distress. So at present, fat supplementation in the hours preceding to or during exercise (either long chain or medium chain triacylglycerols) cannot be recommended. High-fat diets and fasting have been suggested to increase fatty acid availability and spare muscle glycogen resulting in improved performance. Both fasting and short term high-fat diets will decrease muscle glycogen content and reduce fatigue resistance. Chronic high-fat diets may provoke adaptive responses preventing the decremental effects on exercise performance. However, at present, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. Also from a health perspective, caution should be exercised when recommending high-fat diets to athletes. PMID:9774203

  2. Effective diet and exercise treatments for overweight and recommendations for intervention.

    PubMed

    Miller, W C

    2001-01-01

    Traditional diet and exercise treatments for obesity have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of overweight in the population. Treatment outcomes for overweight can be measured in terms of physical parameters (e.g. bodyweight, percentage body fat, body mass index), medical terms (e.g. blood pressure, blood glucose control, blood lipid levels), psychological terms (e.g. eating pathology, self-esteem, mood state) and behavioural terms (e.g. frequency of exercise, eating patterns, self healthcare). Regardless of the specific outcome measures used to define successful treatment, the desired outcome must be maintained for several years to be considered effective. Energy restrictive diets cause significant initial bodyweight loss, but are plagued with high dropout- and relapse-rate. Low-fat diets have met with minimal success for bodyweight control, but nonetheless can significantly lower blood lipid levels. High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets are claimed to be the most effective in reducing bodyweight, but there are no scientific data to support these claims. Persons on these types of diets are also at the greatest risk for metabolic adverse effects. Nondieting approaches and programmes that stress 'health at any size' have not been researched rigorously, but preliminary data show minimal bodyweight loss with significant improvements in psychological state, eating pathology and well-being. Exercise is the only variable that consistently shows effectiveness in physiological, medical, psychological and behavioural outcomes. A treatment programme that has the greatest potential for success, regardless of outcome measure, is a programme that consists of 4 key components. These components are: (i) pre-evaluation, where historical information is gathered and used to set programme goals, objectives and outcome measures; (ii) exercise, wherein enjoyable exercise is encouraged for health, bodyweight control and well being; (iii) a behavioural plan, which is based on

  3. Attempts to Reach the Oldest and Frailest: Recruitment, Adherence, and Retention of Urban Elderly Persons to a Falls Reduction Exercise Program

    PubMed Central

    Stineman, Margaret G.; Strumpf, Neville; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Charles, Jeremy; Grisso, Jeane Ann; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To assess the recruitment, adherence, and retention of urban elderly, predominantly African Americans to a falls reduction exercise program. Design and methods: The randomized controlled trial was designed as an intervention development pilot study. The goal was to develop a culturally sensitive intervention for elderly persons who suffered a fall and visited an emergency department (ED). Participants were taught exercises during 4 on-site group classes and encouraged to continue exercising at home for 12 weeks and attend additional on-site monthly classes. The protocol included a specifically designed intervention for increasing retention through trained community interventionists drawn from the participants’ neighborhoods. Results: The screening of 1,521 ED records after falling yielded the recruitment of 204 patients aged 65 years and older. Half were randomized into the falls prevention program. Of the 102 people in the intervention group, 92 completed the final 6-month assessment, 68 attended all on-site sessions, but only 1 reported exercising at home all 12 weeks. Those who lived alone were more likely (p = .03) and those with symptoms of depression were less likely (p = .05) to attend all on-site exercise classes. The final recruitment rate was estimated as 31.8%. The final retention rates were 90.2% and 87.3% for the intervention and control groups, respectively. Implications: Recruitment of frail elderly African American patients is resource intensive. Adherence to the on-site exercise classes was better than to the home-based component of the program. These findings have implications for the design of future community-based exercise programs and trials. PMID:21565820

  4. Diet and exercise interventions reduce intrahepatic fat content and improve insulin sensitivity in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Stufflebam, Abby; Hilton, Tiffany N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Villareal, Dennis T

    2009-12-01

    Both obesity and aging increase intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, which leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of diet and diet in conjunction with exercise on IHF content and associated metabolic abnormalities in obese older adults. Eighteen obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) older (>or=65 years old) adults completed a 6-month clinical trial. Participants were randomized to diet (D group; n = 9) or diet + exercise (D+E group; n = 9). Primary outcome was IHF quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Secondary outcomes included insulin sensitivity (assessed by oral glucose tolerance), body composition (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical function (VO(2 peak) and strength), glucose, lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Body weight (D: -9 +/- 1%, D+E: -10 +/- 2%, both P < 0.05) and fat mass (D: -13 +/- 3%, D+E -16 +/- 3%, both P < 0.05) decreased in both groups but there was no difference between groups. IHF decreased to a similar extent in both groups (D: -46 +/- 11%, D+E: -45 +/- 8%, both P < 0.05), which was accompanied by comparable improvements in insulin sensitivity (D: 66 +/- 25%, D+E: 68 +/- 28%, both P < 0.05). The relative decreases in IHF correlated directly with relative increases in insulin sensitivity index (ISI) (r = -0.52; P < 0.05). Improvements in VO(2 peak), strength, plasma triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, and diastolic BP occurred in the D+E group (all P < 0.05) but not in the D group. Diet with or without exercise results in significant decreases in IHF content accompanied by considerable improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese older adults. The addition of exercise to diet therapy improves physical function and other obesity- and aging-related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:19390517

  5. The Intervention Effects of Acupuncture on Fatigue Induced by Exhaustive Physical Exercises: A Metabolomics Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haifeng; Liu, Xia; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Naixia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antifatigue effects of acupuncture had been investigated at the metabolic level on the young male athletes with exhaustive physical exercises. After a series of exhaustive physical exercises and a short-term rest, the athletes either were treated with needling acupuncture on selected acupoints (TA group) or enjoyed an extended rest (TR group). NMR-based metabolomics analysis was then applied to depict the metabolic profiles of urine samples, which were collected from the athletes at three time points including the time before exercises, the time before and after the treatment of acupuncture, or taking the extended rest. The results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the recoveries of disturbed metabolites in the athletes treated with acupuncture were significantly faster than in those only taking rest. After the treatment with acupuncture, the levels of distinguished metabolites, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, lactate, pyruvate, citrate, dimethylglycine, choline, glycine, hippurate, and hypoxanthine were recovered at an accelerated speed in the TA group in comparison with the TR group. The above-mentioned results indicated that the acupuncture treatment ameliorated fatigue by backregulating the perturbed energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and attenuating the ROS-induced stress at an accelerated speed, which demonstrated that acupuncture could serve as an alternative fatigue-relieving approach. PMID:26442121

  6. Testing the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention for adults with venous leg ulcers: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise and adequate self-management capacity may be important strategies in the management of venous leg ulcers. However, it remains unclear if exercise improves the healing rates of venous leg ulcers and if a self-management exercise program based on self-efficacy theory is well adhered to. Method/design This is a randomised controlled in adults with venous leg ulcers to determine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention. Participants with venous leg ulcers are recruited from 3 clinical sites in Australia. After collection of baseline data, participants are randomised to either an intervention group or control group. The control group receive usual care, as recommended by evidence based guidelines. The intervention group receive an individualised program of calf muscle exercises and walking. The twelve week exercise program integrates multiple elements, including up to six telephone delivered behavioural coaching and goal setting sessions, supported by written materials, a pedometer and two follow-up booster calls if required. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weekly steps and lower limb exercises. The control group are supported by a generic information sheet that the intervention group also receive encouraging lower limb exercises, a pedometer for self-management and phone calls at the same time points as the intervention group. The primary outcome is the healing rates of venous leg ulcers which are assessed at fortnightly clinic appointments. Secondary outcomes, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks: functional ability (range of ankle motion and Tinetti gait and balance score), quality of life and self-management scores. Discussion This study seeks to address a significant gap in current wound management practice by providing evidence for the effectiveness of a home-based exercise program for adults with venous leg ulcers. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies that can

  7. Serum levels of sex steroids and metabolites following 12 weeks of intravaginal 0.50% DHEA administration.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Labrie, Fernand; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Bergeron, Danielle; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Lavoie, Lyne; Archer, David F; Balser, John; Moyneur, Erick

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective and randomized study was to confirm the efficacy of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) ovules for 12 weeks on moderate to severe dyspareunia (or pain at sexual activity) as most bothersome symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) while having serum steroid concentrations within normal postmenopausal values. To this end, serum levels of DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), Androst-5-ene-diol-3β, 17β-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17β-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G) were measured by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology, all serum sex steroids and metabolites concentrations after 12 weeks of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA remain well within the limits of normal postmenopausal women. More specifically, the 12-week serum E2 concentration was measured at 22% below the average normal postmenopausal value (3.26 versus 4.17 pg/ml), thus eliminating any fear of E2 exposure outside the vagina. In addition, serum E1-S, a particularly reliable indicator of global estrogenic activity, shows serum levels practically superimposable to the value observed in normal postmenopausal women (219 versus 220 pg/ml). Similarly, serum ADT-G, the major metabolite of androgens, remains within normal postmenopausal values. The present data confirm the intracellular transformation of DHEA in the vagina resulting in local efficacy without any systemic exposure to sex steroids, observations which are in agreement with the physiological mechanisms of menopause. PMID:26291918

  8. Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Katrin; von Haaren, Birte; Löffler, Simone; Härtel, Sascha; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Werner, Christian; Stumpp, Jürgen; Bös, Klaus; Hey, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants' physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks. To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on 3 days a week at five times of measurement within 12 weeks. Participants' physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p = 0.07; η2 = 0.27). However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training. Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of

  9. Web-based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity by Sedentary Older Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gelatt, Vicky A; Seeley, John R; Macfarlane, Pamela; Gau, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) for older adults has well-documented physical and cognitive benefits, but most seniors do not meet recommended guidelines for PA, and interventions are lacking. Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy of a 12-week Internet intervention to help sedentary older adults over 55 years of age adopt and maintain an exercise regimen. Methods A total of 368 sedentary men and women (M=60.3; SD 4.9) were recruited, screened, and assessed online. They were randomized into treatment and control groups and assessed at pretest, at 12 weeks, and at 6 months. After treatment group participants rated their fitness level, activity goals, and barriers to exercise, the Internet intervention program helped them select exercise activities in the areas of endurance, flexibility, strengthening, and balance enhancement. They returned to the program weekly for automated video and text support and education, with the option to change or increase their exercise plan. The program also included ongoing problem solving to overcome user-identified barriers to exercise. Results The multivariate model indicated significant treatment effects at posttest (P=.001; large effect size) and at 6 months (P=.001; medium effect size). At posttest, intervention participation showed significant improvement on 13 of 14 outcome measures compared to the control participants. At 6 months, treatment participants maintained large gains compared to the control participants on all 14 outcome measures. Conclusions These results suggest that an online PA program has the potential to positively impact the physical activity of sedentary older adult participants. More research is needed to replicate the study results, which were based on self-report measures. Research is also needed on intervention effects with older populations. PMID:23470322

  10. The Effects of Long Duration Head Down Tilt Bed Rest on Neurocognitive Performance: The Effects of Exercise Interventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.; Erdeniz. B.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We are conducting ongoing experiments in which we are performing structural and functional magnetic resonance brain imaging to identify the relationships between changes in neurocognitive function and neural structural alterations following a six month International Space Station mission and following 70 days exposure to a spaceflight analog, head down tilt bedrest. Our central hypothesis is that measures of brain structure, function, and network integrity will change from pre to post intervention (spaceflight, bedrest). Moreover, we predict that these changes will correlate with indices of cognitive, sensory, and motor function in a neuroanatomically selective fashion. Our interdisciplinary approach utilizes cutting edge neuroimaging techniques and a broad ranging battery of sensory, motor, and cognitive assessments that will be conducted pre flight, during flight, and post flight to investigate potential neuroplastic and maladaptive brain changes in crewmembers following long-duration spaceflight. Success in this endeavor would 1) result in identification of the underlying neural mechanisms and operational risks of spaceflight-induced changes in behavior, and 2) identify whether a return to normative behavioral function following re-adaptation to Earth's gravitational environment is associated with a restitution of brain structure and function or instead is supported by substitution with compensatory brain processes. Our ongoing bed rest participants are also engaging in exercise studies directed by Dr. Lori Ploutz Snyder. In this presentation, I will briefly highlight the existing literature linking exercise and fitness to brain and behavioral functions. I will also overview the metrics from my study that could be investigated in relation to the exercise and control subgroups.

  11. Microcirculation of skeletal muscle adapts differently to a resistive exercise intervention with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations.

    PubMed

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; Weber, Tobias; Rosenberger, André; Gehlert, Sebastian; Herrera, Frankyn; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Zange, Jochen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2015-11-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0.76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P < 0.001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0.007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P < 0.01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P < 0.001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0.61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites. PMID:25041226

  12. Nutritional and exercise interventions variably affect estrogen receptor expression in the adipose tissue of male rats.

    PubMed

    Metz, Lore; Gerbaix, Maude; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Boisseau, Nathalie; Boirie, Yves; Courteix, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Energy-dense food consumption and lack of physical activity are implicated in the development of the current obesity epidemic. The role of estrogen in adiposity and fuel partitioning is mediated mainly though the estrogen receptor α (ERα) isoform. We hypothesized that nutritional adaptation and exercise training, either individually or combined, could impact ERα expression in adipose tissue relative to glucose tolerance. Seventy-two Wistar rats were submitted to a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF-HS) diet for 16weeks. The first phase of our study was to investigate the effect of an HF-HS diet on whole-body glucose tolerance, as well as on body composition and ERα expression in different adipose tissues. Second, we investigated the effect of switching to a well-balanced diet, with or without exercise training for 8 weeks, on those same parameters. After the first part of this study, HF-HS-fed rats were fatter (8%) than control rats. Despite a decrease in glucose tolerance, ERα expression in adipose tissues was not significantly altered by an HF-HS diet. The return to a well-balanced diet significantly increased ERα expression in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue, but there was no effect of diet or exercise training on whole-body glucose tolerance. The present findings suggest that diet is a powerful modulator of ERα expression in adipose tissue, as nutritional modulation after an HF-HS diet strongly affects ERα expression, particularly in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue. However, ERα expression in adipose tissue does not appear to be associated with whole-body glucose tolerance. PMID:26923515

  13. Effects of Four Years of Exercise, Language, and Social Interventions on Alzheimer Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahendra, Nidhi; Arkin, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic intervention program for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients that provided communication skills practice in the context of health-enhancing and esteem-building community-based activities, physical fitness training and supervised volunteer work. Effects for four participants…

  14. Team-Based Learning Exercise Efficiently Teaches Brief Intervention Skills to Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Batki, Steven L.; Satre, Derek D.; Satterfield, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of substance use screening and brief intervention (SBI) curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although effects on clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. Moreover, these curricula often require large amounts of training time and teaching resources. This study examined whether a 3-hour…

  15. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Quality of Life through Serial Mediation of Social Support and Exercise Motivation: The PESSOA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaresma, A. M.; Palmeira, A. L.; Martins, S. S.; Minderico, C. S.; Sardinha, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549…

  16. An Outcome-Based Action Study on Changes in Fitness, Blood Lipids, and Exercise Adherence, Using the Disconnected Values (Intervention) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.; Kang, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this action study was to examine the effect of a 10-week intervention, using the Disconnected Values Model (DVM), on changes in selected measures of fitness, blood lipids, and exercise adherence among 51 university faculty (10 men and 41 women) from a school in the southeastern United States. The DVM is an intervention…

  17. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  18. Exercise intervention for the treatment of trismus in head and neck cancer - a prospective two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Nina; Svensson, Ulrika; Karlsson, Therese; Finizia, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the long-term effects of structured trismus intervention in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) and trismus in terms of mouth opening, trismus-related symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Material and methods Fifty patients with HNC to receive radiotherapy ± chemotherapy were included in this prospective study along with a matched control group. The intervention group received a 10-week structured exercise with a jaw mobilizing device (TheraBite® jaw device or Engström device). Patients were assessed before and after trismus exercise intervention and at a two-year follow-up. Primary endpoint was maximum interincisal opening (MIO) and secondary endpoints included trismus-related symptoms and HRQL assessed with patient-reported outcome (PRO)-instruments [Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the related HNC-specific module the EORTC Head & Neck Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-H&N35)]. Results The intervention group had a higher MIO at the two-year follow-up compared to the control group (40.5 mm and 34.3 mm, respectively), which was statistically significant. The intervention group also reported less jaw-related problems according to the GTQ and higher functioning as measured by EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 compared to the control group. Conclusion A positive persistent effect of exercise intervention for trismus in HNC patients was found with regard to MIO, trismus-related symptoms and HRQL. Exercise intervention is important in long-term treatment of radiation-induced trismus in HNC patients. The trismus-specific questionnaire, GTQ, is a valuable tool for observing and evaluating trismus over time. PMID:26878553

  19. Effect of Yoga Exercise on Premenstrual Symptoms among Female Employees in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Yoga classes designed for women with premenstrual syndrome are available, but their efficacy is unclear. We investigated the effects of 12 weeks' yoga exercise (yoga intervention) on premenstrual symptoms in menstruating females in Taiwan. Sixty-four subjects completed the yoga intervention, and before and after the intervention filled out a structured self-report questionnaire about their demographics, personal lifestyle, menstrual status, baseline menstrual pain scores, premenstrual symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Of 64 subjects, 90.6% reported experiencing menstrual pain during menstruation. After the yoga intervention, subjects reported decreased use of analgesics during menstruation (p = 0.0290) and decreased moderate or severe effects of menstrual pain on work (p = 0.0011). The yoga exercise intervention was associated with the improvement of the scale of physical function (p = 0.0340) and bodily pain (p = 0.0087) of the SF-36, and significantly decreased abdominal swelling (p = 0.0011), breast tenderness (p = 0.0348), abdominal cramps (p = 0.0016), and cold sweats (p = 0.0143). Menstrual pain mitigation after yoga exercise correlated with improvement in six scales of the SF-36 (physical function, bodily pain, general health perception, vitality/energy, social function, mental health). Employers can educate female employees about the benefits of regular exercise such as yoga, which may decrease premenstrual distress and improve female employee health. PMID:27438845

  20. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). PMID:26867697

  1. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry KW; Lee, Edwin HM; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy LM; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia LW; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric YH

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  2. Aerobic exercise and yoga improve neurocognitive function in women with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingxia; Chan, Sherry Kw; Lee, Edwin Hm; Chang, Wing Chung; Tse, Michael; Su, Wayne Weizhong; Sham, Pak; Hui, Christy Lm; Joe, Glen; Chan, Cecilia Lw; Khong, P L; So, Kwok Fai; Honer, William G; Chen, Eric Yh

    2015-01-01

    Impairments of attention and memory are evident in early psychosis, and are associated with functional disability. In a group of stable, medicated women patients, we aimed to determine whether participating in aerobic exercise or yoga improved cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms. A total of 140 female patients were recruited, and 124 received the allocated intervention in a randomized controlled study of 12 weeks of yoga or aerobic exercise compared with a waitlist group. The primary outcomes were cognitive functions including memory and attention. Secondary outcome measures were the severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms, and hippocampal volume. Data from 124 patients were included in the final analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Both yoga and aerobic exercise groups demonstrated significant improvements in working memory (P<0.01) with moderate to large effect sizes compared with the waitlist control group. The yoga group showed additional benefits in verbal acquisition (P<0.01) and attention (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved overall and depressive symptoms (all P⩽0.01) after 12 weeks. Small increases in hippocampal volume were observed in the aerobic exercise group compared with waitlist (P=0.01). Both types of exercise improved working memory in early psychosis patients, with yoga having a larger effect on verbal acquisition and attention than aerobic exercise. The application of yoga and aerobic exercise as adjunctive treatments for early psychosis merits serious consideration. This study was supported by the Small Research Funding of the University of Hong Kong (201007176229), and RGC funding (C00240/762412) by the Authority of Research, Hong Kong. PMID:27336050

  3. Effects of exercise mode, energy, and macronutrient interventions on inflammation during military training.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; McClung, Holy L; Martini, Svein; Gundersen, Yngvar; Castellani, John W; Karl, James P; Teien, Hilde K; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Stenberg, Pal H; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; McClung, James P

    2016-06-01

    Load carriage (LC) exercise may exacerbate inflammation during training. Nutritional supplementation may mitigate this response by sparing endogenous carbohydrate stores, enhancing glycogen repletion, and attenuating negative energy balance. Two studies were conducted to assess inflammatory responses to acute LC and training, with or without nutritional supplementation. Study 1: 40 adults fed eucaloric diets performed 90-min of either LC (treadmill, mean ± SD 24 ± 3 kg LC) or cycle ergometry (CE) matched for intensity (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2peak L min(-1)) during which combined 10 g protein/46 g carbohydrate (223 kcal) or non-nutritive (22 kcal) control drinks were consumed. Study 2: 73 Soldiers received either combat rations alone or supplemented with 1000 kcal day(-1) from 20 g protein- or 48 g carbohydrate-based bars during a 4-day, 51 km ski march (~45 kg LC, energy expenditure 6155 ± 515 kcal day(-1) and intake 2866 ± 616 kcal day(-1)). IL-6, hepcidin, and ferritin were measured at baseline, 3-h post exercise (PE), 24-h PE, 48-h PE, and 72-h PE in study 1, and before (PRE) and after (POST) the 4-d ski march in study 2. Study 1: IL-6 was higher 3-h and 24-h post exercise (PE) for CE only (mode × time, P < 0.05), hepcidin increased 3-h PE and recovered by 48-h, and ferritin peaked 24-h and remained elevated 72-h PE (P < 0.05), regardless of mode and diet. Study 2: IL-6, hepcidin and ferritin were higher (P < 0.05) after training, regardless of group assignment. Energy expenditure (r = 0.40), intake (r = -0.26), and balance (r = -0.43) were associated (P < 0.05) with hepcidin after training. Inflammation after acute LC and CE was similar and not affected by supplemental nutrition during energy balance. The magnitude of hepcidin response was inversely related to energy balance suggesting that eating enough to balance energy expenditure might attenuate the inflammatory response to military training. PMID:27273884

  4. Lumbar instrumented fusion compared with cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brox, Jens Ivar; Reikerås, Olav; Nygaard, Øystein; Sørensen, Roger; Indahl, Aage; Holm, Inger; Keller, Anne; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Grundnes, Oliver; Lange, Johan Emil; Friis, Astrid

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of lumbar fusion for chronic low back pain after surgery for disc herniation has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of lumbar fusion with posterior transpedicular screws and cognitive intervention and exercises. Sixty patients aged 25-60 years with low back pain lasting longer than 1 year after previous surgery for disc herniation were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups. Experienced back surgeons performed transpedicular fusion. Cognitive intervention consisted of a lecture intended to give the patient an understanding that ordinary physical activity would not harm the disc and a recommendation to use the back and bend it. This was reinforced by three daily physical exercise sessions for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Outcome data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ninety-seven percent of the patients, including seven of eight patients who had either not attended treatment (n=5) or changed groups (n=2), completed 1-year follow-up. ODI was significantly improved from 47 to 38 after fusion and from 45 to 32 after cognitive intervention and exercises. The mean difference between treatments after adjustment for gender was -7.3 (95% CI -17.3 to 2.7, p=0.15). The success rate was 50% in the fusion group and 48% in the cognitive intervention/exercise group. For patients with chronic low back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation, lumbar fusion failed to show any benefit over cognitive intervention and exercises. PMID:16545523

  5. Exercise as a pro-cognitive, pro-neurogenic and anti-inflammatory intervention in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sinéad M; Kelly, Áine M

    2016-05-01

    It is now well established, at least in animal models, that exercise elicits potent pro-cognitive and pro-neurogenic effects. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia and represents one of the greatest burdens on healthcare systems worldwide, with no effective treatment for the disease to date. Exercise presents a promising non-pharmacological option to potentially delay the onset of or slow down the progression of AD. Exercise interventions in mouse models of AD have been explored and have been found to reduce amyloid pathology and improve cognitive function. More recent studies have expanded the research question by investigating potential pro-neurogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. In this review we summarise studies that have examined exercise-mediated effects on AD pathology, cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroinflammation in transgenic mouse models of AD. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the optimum exercise conditions required to elicit the greatest benefits, taking into account age and pathology of the model, as well as type and duration of exercise. PMID:27039886

  6. Turkish 12 Week Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This audiolingual beginner's course has been prepared for the Defense Language Institute intensive program in modern spoken Turkish. The course, consisting of six volumes of basic text in 55 units begins with an introductory section which presents the linguistic background, phonology, and distinguishing features of Turkish. The lesson format…

  7. Characterisation of the Mechanical Loads and Metabolic Intensity of the CAPO Kids Exercise Intervention for Healthy Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Rossana C.; Weeks, Benjamin K.; Beck, Belinda R.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old) from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was ‘vigorous’ to ‘very vigorous’ for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels) to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump). CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children. Key points Energy expenditure of a single bout of CAPO Kids yields 39.7±9.3 kcal and includes activities performed at a vigorous and very vigorous intensity. Mechanical loads associated with CAPO Kids surpass five times bodyweight and more than 140 bodyweights per second. CAPO Kids intervention represents a viable approach to stimulate musculoskeletal and metabolic adaptation in children. PMID:26336343

  8. Characterisation of the Mechanical Loads and Metabolic Intensity of the CAPO Kids Exercise Intervention for Healthy Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Rossana C; Weeks, Benjamin K; Beck, Belinda R

    2015-09-01

    Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old) from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was 'vigorous' to 'very vigorous' for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels) to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump). CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children. Key pointsEnergy expenditure of a single bout of CAPO Kids yields 39.7±9.3 kcal and includes activities performed at a vigorous and very vigorous intensity.Mechanical loads associated with CAPO Kids surpass five times bodyweight and more than 140 bodyweights per second.CAPO Kids intervention represents a viable approach to stimulate musculoskeletal and metabolic adaptation in children. PMID:26336343

  9. Effects of exercise and diet interventions on obesity-related sleep disorders in men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep is essential for normal and healthy living. Lack of good quality sleep affects physical, mental and emotional functions. Currently, the treatments of obesity-related sleep disorders focus more on suppressing sleep-related symptoms pharmaceutically and are often accompanied by side effects. Thus, there is urgent need for alternative ways to combat chronic sleep disorders. This study will investigate underlying mechanisms of the effects of exercise and diet intervention on obesity-related sleep disorders, the role of gut microbiota in relation to poor quality of sleep and day-time sleepiness, as well as the levels of hormones responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. Methods/design Participants consist of 330 (target sample) Finnish men aged 30 to 65 years. Among them, we attempt to randomize 180 (target sample) with sleep disorders into exercise and diet intervention. After screening and physician examination, 101 men with sleep disorders are included and are randomly assigned into three groups: exercise (n = 33), diet (n = 35), and control (n = 33). In addition, we attempt to recruit a target number of 150 healthy men without sleep disorders as the reference group. The exercise group undergoes a six-month individualized progressive aerobic exercise program based on initial fitness level. The diet group follows a six month specific individualized diet program. The control group and reference group are asked to maintain their normal activity and diet during intervention. Measurements are taken before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes include objective sleep measurements by polysomnography and a home-based non-contact sleep monitoring system, and subjective sleep evaluation by questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures include anthropometry, body composition, fitness, sleep disorder-related lifestyle risk factors, composition of gut microbiota and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as specific hormone and neurotranmitter levels and

  10. Enhancement of sleep stability with Tai Chi exercise in chronic heart failure: Preliminary findings using an ECG-based spectrogram method

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Gloria Y.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Phillips, Russell S.; Davis, Roger B.; Wayne, Peter M.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi exercise program on sleep using the sleep spectrogram, a method based on a single channel electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived estimation of cardiopulmonary coupling, previously shown to identify stable and unstable sleep states. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 24-h continuous ECG data obtained in a clinical trial of Tai Chi exercise in patients with heart failure. Eighteen patients with chronic stable heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% (mean [±standard deviation] age, 59 ± 14 years, mean baseline ejection fraction 24% ± 8%, mean) were randomly assigned to receive usual care (N = 10), which included pharmacological therapy and dietary and exercise counseling, or 12 weeks of Tai Chi training (N = 8) in addition to usual care. Using the ECG-based sleep spectrogram, we compared intervention and control groups by evaluating baseline and 12-week high (stable) and low (unstable) frequency coupling (HFC & LFC, respectively) as a percentage of estimated total sleep time (ETST). Results At 12 weeks, those who participated in Tai Chi showed a significant increase in HFC (+0.05 ± 0.10 vs. 0.06 ± 0.09 % ETST, p = 0.04) and significant reduction in LFC (−0.09 ± 0.09 vs. +0.13 ± 0.13 % ETST, p < 0.01), compared to patients in the control group. Correlations were seen between improved sleep stability and better disease-specific quality of life. Conclusions Tai Chi exercise may enhance sleep stability in patients with chronic heart failure. This sleep effect may have a beneficial impact on blood pressure, arrhythmogenesis and quality of life. PMID:17689142

  11. Malignant uveal schwannoma with peripheral nerve extension in a 12-week-old color-dilute Labrador Retriever.

    PubMed

    Duke, F D; Teixeira, L B C; Galle, L E; Green, N; Dubielzig, R R

    2015-01-01

    The formalin-fixed, amber-colored right globe from a 12-week-old female silver Labrador Retriever dog was submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for light microscopic evaluation. The clinical history described a collapsed anterior chamber and multifocal nodular lesions in the peripheral iris. Histologically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally, the uveal mass was consistent with a malignant schwannoma; there was extension along peripheral nerves within the sclera. The signalment and behavior of the neoplasm distinguish it from the uveal schwannoma of blue-eyed dogs and bear some resemblance to the ocular lesions in human neurofibromatosis. The dilute color mutation may contribute to the cause. Six weeks later, the dog did not develop any additional masses. PMID:24513800

  12. Effect of Different Types of Exercise in HIV + Mozambican Women Using Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mangona, Lucília; Daca, Timóteo; Tchonga, Francisco; Bule, Odete; Bhatt, Nilesh; Jani, Ilesh; Damasceno, Albertino; Prista, António

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two types of exercises interventions on the regularity and health-related physical fitness in HIV-infected individuals who use antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 53 HIV+ African women (mean age=39.5±8.4 years) on ART participated in the study. Subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely, formal exercise (FEG), playful exercise (PEG) and control (CG). During 12 weeks, the exercise groups underwent a program of 1-hour duration with a frequency of 3 times a week. The FEG performed a protocol that included 20 minutes of exercise, cycling at 60 % of V̇O2peak, increasing to 75 % and 85 % in the 4th and 8th weeks, respectively, and a muscular endurance circuit consisted of 6 exercises at 15 repetitions per minute (RM). The PEG followed a program consisting of active games. Before and after the intervention the participants were submitted to a clinical evaluation including immunological parameters (CD4+), cardiovascular risk factors, physical fitness and anthropometry. Comparison of somatic variables before and after the program showed no exercise effect. Immunological and cardiovascular variables were also independent of the exercise group. The main effect was found in cardiorespiratory fitness: exercise groups increased significantly in V̇O2peak (FEG=14.7 %; PEG=11.1 %) with no significant differences in CG. The percentage of high attendance was identical between the two groups. It was concluded that there is no contraindication for exercise in this type of population and the beneficial effect was mainly in cardiorespiratory fitness, regardless of the type of exercise performed. PMID:26587077

  13. Changes of Heart Rate Variability during Methylphenidate Treatment in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children: A 12-Week Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hayeon Jennifer; Yang, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scales and to evaluate the usefulness of heart rate variability (HRV) as a psychophysiological biomarker for ADHD. Materials and Methods Subjects were recruited from outpatients in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the Korea University Medical Center from August 2007 to December 2010. Subjects received methylphenidate. Time- and frequency-domain analyses of HRV, the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS), and computerized ADHD diagnostic system were evaluated before treatment. After a 12-week period of medication administration, we repeated the HRV measurements and K-ARS rating. Results Eighty-six subjects were initially enrolled and 37 participants completed the 12-week treatment and HRV measurements subsequent to the treatment. Significant correlations were found between the K-ARS inattention score and some HRV parameters. All of the HRV parameters, except the standard deviations of the normal-to-normal interval, very low frequency, and low frequency to high frequency, showed a significant positive correlation between baseline and endpoint measures in completers. High frequency (HF) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD), which are related to parasympathetic vagal tone, showed significant decreases from baseline to endpoint. Conclusion The HRV test was shown to be reproducible. The decrease in HF and RMSSD suggests that parasympathetic dominance in ADHD can be altered by methylphenidate treatment. It also shows the possibility that HRV parameters can be used as psychophysiological markers in the treatment of ADHD. PMID:26256981

  14. Effects of 12-week supervised treadmill training on spatio-temporal gait parameters in patients with claudication.

    PubMed

    Konik, Anita; Kuklewicz, Stanisław; Rosłoniec, Ewelina; Zając, Marcin; Spannbauer, Anna; Nowobilski, Roman; Mika, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate selected temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication after completion of 12-week supervised treadmill walking training. The study included 36 patients (26 males and 10 females) aged: mean 64 (SD 7.7) with intermittent claudication. All patients were tested on treadmill (Gait Trainer, Biodex). Before the programme and after its completion, the following gait biomechanical parameters were tested: step length (cm), step cycle (cycle/s), leg support time (%), coefficient of step variation (%) as well as pain-free walking time (PFWT) and maximal walking time (MWT) were measured. Training was conducted in accordance with the current TASC II guidelines. After 12 weeks of training, patients showed significant change in gait biomechanics consisting in decreased frequency of step cycle (p < 0.05) and extended step length (p < 0.05). PFWT increased by 96% (p < 0.05). MWT increased by 100% (p < 0.05). After completing the training, patients' gait was more regular, which was expressed via statistically significant decrease of coefficient of variation (p < 0.05) for both legs. No statistically significant relation between the post-training improvement of PFWT and MWT and step length increase and decreased frequency of step cycle was observed (p > 0.05). Implications for Rehabilitation Twelve-week treadmill walking training programme may lead to significant improvement of temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication. Twelve-week treadmill walking training programme may lead to significant improvement of pain-free walking time and maximum walking time in patients with intermittent claudication. PMID:26314413

  15. The impact of a 12-week resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept of Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Velez, Amelia; Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2010-04-01

    Current evidence suggests that a resistance training program may be physically and psychologically beneficial for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a structured resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept in normal and overweight Hispanic adolescents. Male and female participants (n = 28; 16.1 +/- 0.2 y; 164.5 +/- 1.4 cm; 63.3 +/- 2.5 kg; 20.0 +/- 1.7% body fat [BF]) were recruited from a predominantly Hispanic high school. Prior to the 12-week program, strength, body composition, and self-concept were assessed. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CON; n = 15) or to a resistance training group (RT; n = 13) that participated in supervised strength training 3 days/week. All measures were repeated at the end of the 12-week program. RT had significantly greater strength increases for bench press (p < 0.001), seated row (p = 0.002), shoulder press (p < 0.001), and squats (p = 0.002). RT had significant reductions in %BF (p = 0.001), whereas CON had slightly increased %BF. RT had an increase in condition/stamina competence (p = 0.008), attractive body adequacy (p = 0.017), and global self-worth (p = 0.013) from pretest to posttest, whereas no change was observed for CON. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in significant physiological and psychological improvements in Hispanic adolescents compared to typical school-based activities. These findings indicate that resistance training can be incorporated into the activities of Hispanic adolescents to promote improved health and fitness. PMID:20375719

  16. Initial response as a predictor of 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone treatment response in a prescription opioid dependent population

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Katherine A.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hilario, E. Yvette; Fiellin, David A.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Initial medication response has been shown to predict treatment outcome across a variety of substance use disorders, but no studies have examined the predictive power of initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of prescription opioid dependence. We therefore conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study to determine whether initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone predicted 12-week treatment outcome in a prescription opioid-dependent population. Method Using data from a multi-site, randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine-naloxone plus counseling for DSM-IV prescription opioid dependence (June 2006–July 2009), we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the relationship between initial medication response and 12-week treatment outcome to establish how soon the efficacy of buprenorphine-naloxone could be predicted. Outcomes were determined from the Substance Use Report, a self-report measure of substance use, and confirmatory urinalysis. Predictive values were calculated to determine the importance of abstinence vs. use at various time points within the first month of treatment (week 1, weeks 1–2, 1–3, or 1–4) in predicting successful vs. unsuccessful treatment outcome (based on abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) in the last 4 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (weeks 9–12). Results Outcome was best predicted by medication response after two weeks of treatment. Two weeks of initial abstinence was moderately predictive of treatment success (positive predictive value = 71%), while opioid use in both of the first two weeks was strongly predictive of unsuccessful treatment outcome (negative predictive value (NPV) = 84%), especially when successful outcome was defined as total abstinence from opioids in weeks 9–12 (NPV = 94%). Conclusion Evaluating prescription opioid-dependent patients after two weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment may help determine

  17. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Background Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results At the 12-week visit, half (52%) of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327) of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery. PMID:25160516

  18. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  19. Parental involvement in exercise and diet interventions for childhood cancer survivors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Raber, Margaret; Swartz, Maria C; Santa Maria, Diane; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Tom; Li, Rhea; Chandra, Joya

    2016-09-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk of becoming overweight or obese due to treatment effects and/or post-treatment behaviors. Parents are key agents influencing child diet and physical activity (PA), which are modifiable risk factors for obesity. A systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was undertaken to evaluate current interventions that include diet and PA elements for CCS to determine if and to what extent parents were included, and whether parent involvement had a significant effect on behavioral outcomes or adiposity. A total of 2,386 potential articles were reviewed and 25 individual studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Parental involvement was classified into three categories and varied across studies, although most had indirect or no parental involvement. The studies that included direct parental involvement showed positive outcomes on a variety of measures suggesting that increasing parental involvement in interventions for CCS may be one way to promote long-term lifestyle changes for pediatric cancer patients. However, additional research directly addressing parental involvement in obesity prevention and treatment among CCS is warranted. PMID:27064243

  20. Enhancing exercise tolerance and physical activity in COPD with combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions: PHYSACTO randomised, placebo-controlled study design

    PubMed Central

    Troosters, Thierry; Bourbeau, Jean; Maltais, François; Leidy, Nancy; Erzen, Damijan; De Sousa, Dorothy; Korducki, Lawrence; Hamilton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with exercise limitation and physical inactivity, which are believed to have significant long-term negative health consequences for patients. While a number of COPD treatments and exercise training programmes increase exercise capacity, there is limited evidence for their effects on physical activity levels, with no clear association between exercise capacity and physical activity in clinical trials. Physical activity depends on a number of behaviour, environmental and physiological factors. We describe the design of the PHYSACTO trial, which is investigating the effects of bronchodilators, either alone or with exercise training, in combination with a standardised behaviour-change self-management programme, on exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. It is hypothesised that bronchodilators in conjunction with a behaviour-change self-management programme will improve physical activity and that this effect will be amplified by the addition of exercise training. Methods and analysis Patients are being recruited from 34 sites in Australia, New Zealand, the USA, Canada and Europe. Patients receiving a multicomponent intervention designed to support behaviour change related to physical activity are randomised to four treatment arms: placebo, tiotropium, tiotropium+olodaterol, and tiotropium+olodaterol+exercise training. The primary outcome is improvement in exercise capacity after 8 weeks, measured by endurance time during a shuttle walk test. The secondary outcome is improvement in physical activity, including objective accelerometer assessment and patient-reported functioning using the Functional Performance Inventory—Short Form and the novel hybrid PROactive instrument. Additionally, the influence of moderating variables (ie, factors influencing a patient's choice to be physically active) on increases in physical activity is also explored. Ethics and dissemination The

  1. Improving physical functional and quality of life in older adults with multiple sclerosis via a DVD-delivered exercise intervention: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; Roberts, Sarah A; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominque; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is a need to identify innovative, low-cost and broad-reaching strategies for promoting exercise and improving physical function in older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods and analysis This randomised controlled pilot trial will test the efficacy of a 6-month, DVD-delivered exercise intervention to improve functional performance and quality of life in older adults with MS. Participants will be randomised either into a DVD-delivered exercise condition or an attentional control condition. This novel approach to programme delivery provides participants with detailed exercise instructions which are presented in a progressive manner and includes a variety of modifications to better meet varying levels of physical abilities. The targeted exercises focus on three critical elements of functional fitness: flexibility, strength and balance. It is hypothesised that participants who are randomised to the exercise DVD condition will demonstrate improvements in physical function compared with participants assigned to the attentional control condition. Data analysis will include a 2 (condition)×2 (time) mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) that follows intent-to-treat principles, as well as an examination of effect sizes. Participants will take part in qualitative interviews about perspectives on physical activity and programme participation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by a university institutional review board and registered with a federal database. Participants will be asked to read and sign a detailed informed consent document and will be required to provide a physician's approval to participate in the study. The exercise DVDs include an overview of safety-related concerns and recommendations relative to exercise participation, as well as detailed instructions highlighting the proper execution of each exercise presented on screen. Following completion of this trial, data will be immediately analysed and results

  2. Trunk muscle exercises as a means of improving postural stability in people with Parkinson's disease: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hubble, Ryan P; Naughton, Geraldine A; Silburn, Peter A; Cole, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exercise has been shown to improve clinical measures of strength, balance and mobility, and in some cases, has improved symptoms of tremor and rigidity in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, to date, no research has examined whether improvements in trunk control can remedy deficits in dynamic postural stability in this population. The proposed randomised controlled trial aims to establish whether a 12-week exercise programme aimed at improving dynamic postural stability in people with PD; (1) is more effective than education; (2) is more effective when training frequency is increased; and (3) provides greater long-term benefits than education. Methods/design Forty-five community-dwelling individuals diagnosed with idiopathic PD with a falls history will be recruited. Participants will complete baseline assessments including tests of cognition, vision, disease severity, fear of falling, mobility and quality of life. Additionally, participants will complete a series of standing balance tasks to evaluate static postural stability, while dynamic postural control will be measured during walking using head and trunk-mounted three-dimensional accelerometers. Following baseline testing, participants will be randomly-assigned to one of three intervention groups, who will receive either exercise once per week, exercise 3 days/week, or education. Participants will repeat the same battery of tests conducted at baseline after the 12-week intervention and again following a further 12-week sustainability period. Discussion This study has the potential to show that low-intensity and progressive trunk exercises can provide a non-invasive and effective means for maintaining or improving postural stability for people with PD. Importantly, if the programme is noted to be effective, it could be easily performed by patients within their home environment or under the guidance of available allied health professionals. Trial registration number The protocol for

  3. Efficacy of a whole-body vibration intervention to effect exercise tolerance and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory condition characterised by dyspnoea, excessive sputum production, chronic cough, bronchitis and emphysema. Functionally, exercise tolerance is poor for people with COPD and is linked to difficulty in performing daily tasks. More specifically, exercise difficulties are due partly to dyspnoea and lower limb skeletal muscle dysfunction. The benefit of exercise that does not exacerbate the disease while improving exercise tolerance is salient. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a mode of physical activity known to improve muscular function of the lower limbs, yet efficacy has not been investigated for a WBV intervention conducted in a home-based setting for people with COPD. Methods/design This clinically registered trial is a non-randomised placebo cross-over intervention based in the home of each participant (ACTRN12612000508875). Participants diagnosed with COPD will complete a six-week WBV intervention and then after a two-week washout period, will complete a six-week placebo training intervention. Participants will complete sessions twice a week. The duration of the trial is 14 weeks. Community-dwelling older adults with COPD will provide informed voluntary consent to participate. Outcome measures will include immediate, acute, and long-term responses to exercise. Discussion Quantifying responses to WBV among people with COPD will allow discussion of efficacy of WBV as a mode of physical activity. The skill required by the participant to perform physical activity with WBV is not demanding and may enhance habitual sustainability. The results of this trial could be used to support further research in both clinical and community settings. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR12612000508875) PMID:23181339

  4. Exercise and Environment as an Intervention for Neonatal Alcohol Effects on Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, G.F.; Jablonski, S.A.; Schiffino, F.L.; St. Cyr, S.A.; Stanton, M.E.; Klintsova, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal alcohol exposure impairs cognition and learning in adulthood and permanently damages the hippocampus. Wheel running (WR) improves hippocampus-associated learning and memory and increases the genesis and survival of newly generated neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. WR significantly increases proliferation of newly generated dentate granule cells in alcohol-exposed (AE) and control rats on Postnatal Day (PD) 42 but only control rats show an increased number of surviving cells thirty days after WR (Helfer et al., 2009b). The present studies examined whether proliferation-promoting WR followed by survival-enhancing environmental complexity (EC) during adolescence could increase survival of new neurons in AE rats. On PD4–9, pups were intubated with alcohol in a binge-like manner (5.25g/kg/day, AE), were sham-intubated (SI), or were reared normally (suckle control, SC). On PD30 animals were assigned to WR (PD30–42) followed by EC (PD42–72; WR/EC) or were socially housed (SH/SH) for the duration of the experiment. All animals were injected with 200 mg/kg BrdU on PD41. In Experiment 1, survival of newly generated cells was significantly enhanced in the AE-WR/EC group in comparison with AE-SH/SH group. Experiment 2A examined trace eyeblink conditioning. In the SH/SH condition, AE impaired trace eyeblink conditioning relative to SI and SC controls. In the WR/EC condition, AE rats performed as well as controls. In Experiment 2B, the same intervention was examined using the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE); a hippocampus-dependent variant of contextual fear conditioning. Again, the WR/EC intervention reversed the deficit in conditioned fear to the context that was evident in the SH/SH condition. Post-weaning environmental manipulations promote cell survival and reverse learning deficits in rats that were exposed to alcohol during development. These manipulations may provide a basis for developing interventions that ameliorate learning

  5. Resistance training exercise program for intervention to enhance gait function in elderly chronically ill patients: multivariate multiscale entropy for center of pressure signal analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shu; Jiang, Bernard C

    2014-01-01

    Falls are unpredictable accidents, and the resulting injuries can be serious in the elderly, particularly those with chronic diseases. Regular exercise is recommended to prevent and treat hypertension and other chronic diseases by reducing clinical blood pressure. The "complexity index" (CI), based on multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm, has been applied in recent studies to show a person's adaptability to intrinsic and external perturbations and widely used measure of postural sway or stability. The multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) was advanced algorithm used to calculate the complexity index (CI) values of the center of pressure (COP) data. In this study, we applied the MSE & MMSE to analyze gait function of 24 elderly, chronically ill patients (44% female; 56% male; mean age, 67.56 ± 10.70 years) with either cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or osteoporosis. After a 12-week training program, postural stability measurements showed significant improvements. Our results showed beneficial effects of resistance training, which can be used to improve postural stability in the elderly and indicated that MMSE algorithms to calculate CI of the COP data were superior to the multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm to identify the sense of balance in the elderly. PMID:25295070

  6. Resistance Training Exercise Program for Intervention to Enhance Gait Function in Elderly Chronically Ill Patients: Multivariate Multiscale Entropy for Center of Pressure Signal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bernard C.

    2014-01-01

    Falls are unpredictable accidents, and the resulting injuries can be serious in the elderly, particularly those with chronic diseases. Regular exercise is recommended to prevent and treat hypertension and other chronic diseases by reducing clinical blood pressure. The “complexity index” (CI), based on multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm, has been applied in recent studies to show a person's adaptability to intrinsic and external perturbations and widely used measure of postural sway or stability. The multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) was advanced algorithm used to calculate the complexity index (CI) values of the center of pressure (COP) data. In this study, we applied the MSE & MMSE to analyze gait function of 24 elderly, chronically ill patients (44% female; 56% male; mean age, 67.56 ± 10.70 years) with either cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or osteoporosis. After a 12-week training program, postural stability measurements showed significant improvements. Our results showed beneficial effects of resistance training, which can be used to improve postural stability in the elderly and indicated that MMSE algorithms to calculate CI of the COP data were superior to the multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm to identify the sense of balance in the elderly. PMID:25295070

  7. Neonatal Bathing and Massage Intervention with Fathers, Behavioural Effects 12 Weeks after Birth of the First Baby: The Sunraysia Australia Intervention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Kim; Samuels, Curtis A.

    1992-01-01

    Examined the effect on father-infant relationships of a parent training program on infant massage and bathing. Infants in the treatment group greeted fathers with more eye contact, smiles, vocalizing, reaching, and orienting responses and showed less avoidance behavior than did control group infants. Fathers in the treatment group showed greater…

  8. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.61 to -0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, -0.58; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with exercises and TNF inhibitors for

  9. Physiotherapy intervention as a complementary treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Pullen, Sara D; Chigbo, Nnenna Nina; Nwigwe, Emmanuel Chukwudi; Chukwuka, Chinwe J; Amah, Christopher Chim; Idu, Stanley C

    2014-01-01

    Background The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has dramatically extended the life expectancy of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Despite this increased longevity, HIV disease and its pharmacological treatment can cause long-term and acute health complications, many of which can be treated successfully by physiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 12-week rehabilitation program on several health-related markers in a 43-year-old woman living with HIV. Methods This case study examined the effect of a 12-week exercise and manual therapy intervention on morphology, pain, cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, neurological balance, immune markers (CD4 cell count), and quality of life in a 43-year-old woman living with HIV. Results The results showed complete elimination of pain and shortness of breath on exertion. There was also a reduction in resting heart rate, waist circumference, exercise duration, muscle strength, and endurance. The patient showed an increase in peak expiratory flow rate, maximal heart rate attained, upper arm, forearm, and thigh circumference, and CD4+ cell count. The patient also showed improvements in the quality of life domains of general health, pain, energy/fatigue, social and physical functioning, and emotional well-being. Conclusion Physiotherapy interventions consisting of exercise and manual therapy appear beneficial in several areas as an adjunct therapy in HIV management. PMID:24936132

  10. Circulating MicroRNA Responses between ‘High’ and ‘Low’ Responders to a 16-Wk Diet and Exercise Weight Loss Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Coffey, Vernon G.; Hawley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interactions between diet, physical activity and genetic predisposition contribute to variable body mass changes observed in response to weight loss interventions. Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) may act as ‘biomarkers’ that are associated with the rate of change in weight loss, and/or play a role in regulating the biological variation, in response to energy restriction. Objective To quantify targeted c-miRNAs with putative roles in energy metabolism and exercise adaptations following a 16 wk diet and exercise intervention in individuals with large (high responders; HiRes) versus small (low responders; LoRes) losses in body mass. Methods From 89 male and female overweight/obese participants who completed the intervention (energy restriction from diet, 250 kcal/d, and exercise, 250 kcal/d), subgroups of HiRes (>10% body mass loss, n = 22) and LoRes (<5% body mass loss, n = 18) were identified. From resting plasma samples collected after an overnight fast pre and post intervention, RNA was extracted, quantified and reverse transcribed. Thirteen c-miRNA selected a priori were analysed using a customised 96-well miScript miRNA PCR Array. Results Loss of body mass (-11.0 ± 2.3 kg vs. -3.0 ± 1.3 kg; P<0.01) and fat mass (-11.1 ± 2.6 kg vs. -3.9 ± 1.6 kg; P<0.01) was greater for HiRes than LoRes (P<0.001). Expression of c-miR-935 was higher in LoRes compared to HiRes pre- (~47%; P = 0.025) and post- (~100%; P<0.01) intervention and was the only c-miRNA differentially expressed at baseline between groups. The abundance of c-miR-221-3p and -223-3p increased pre- to post-intervention in both groups (~57–69% and ~25–90%, P<0.05). There was a post-intervention increase in c-miR-140 only in LoRes compared to HiRes (~23%, P = 0.016). Conclusion The differential expression and responses of selected c-miRNAs in overweight/obese individuals to an exercise and diet intervention suggests a putative role for these ‘biomarkers’ in the prediction or detection

  11. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  12. Oral Microbiota Shift after 12-Week Supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289; A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Romani Vestman, Nelly; Chen, Tsute; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus spp. potentially contribute to health by modulating bacterial biofilm formation, but their effects on the overall oral microbiota remain unclear. Methods and Findings Oral microbiota was characterized via 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA hypervariable region V3-V4 after 12 weeks of daily Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289 consumption. Forty-four adults were assigned to a test group (n = 22) that received lactobacilli lozenges (108 CFU of each strain/lozenge) or a control group that received placebo (n = 22). Presence of L. reuteri was confirmed by cultivation and species specific PCR. Tooth biofilm samples from 16 adults before, during, and after exposure were analyzed by pyrosequencing. A total of 1,310,292 sequences were quality filtered. After removing single reads, 257 species or phylotypes were identified at 98.5% identity in the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Streptococcus was the most common genus and the S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group comprised the dominant species. The number of observed species was unaffected by L. reuteri exposure. However, subjects who had consumed L. reuteri were clustered in a principal coordinates analysis relative to scattering at baseline, and multivariate modeling of pyrosequencing microbiota, and culture and PCR detected L. reuteri separated baseline from 12-week samples in test subjects. L. reuteri intake correlated with increased S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group and Campylobacter concisus, Granulicatella adiacens, Bergeyella sp. HOT322, Neisseria subflava, and SR1 [G-1] sp. HOT874 detection and reduced S. mutans, S. anginosus, N. mucosa, Fusobacterium periodicum, F. nucleatum ss vincentii, and Prevotella maculosa detection. This effect had disappeared 1 month after exposure was terminated. Conclusions L. reuteri consumption did not affect species

  13. Effect of 1-h moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on intramyocellular lipids in obese men before and after a lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Ipavec-Levasseur, Stephanie; Croci, Ilaria; Choquette, Stéphane; Byrne, Nuala M; Cowin, Gary; O'Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Prins, Johannes B; Hickman, Ingrid J

    2015-12-01

    Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are depleted in response to an acute bout of exercise in lean endurance-trained individuals; however, it is unclear whether changes in IMCL content are also seen in response to acute and chronic exercise in obese individuals. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 18 obese men and 5 normal-weight controls to assess IMCL content before and after an hour of cycling at the intensity corresponding with each participant's maximal whole-body rate of fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatmax was determined via indirect calorimetry during a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The same outcome measures were reassessed in the obese group after a 16-week lifestyle intervention comprising dietary calorie restriction and exercise training. At baseline, IMCL content decreased in response to 1 h of cycling at Fatmax in controls (2.8 ± 0.4 to 2.0 ± 0.3 A.U., -39%, p = 0.02), but not in obese (5.4 ± 2.1 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 A.U., p = 0.42). The lifestyle intervention lead to weight loss (-10.0 ± 5.4 kg, p < 0.001), improvements in maximal aerobic power (+5.2 ± 3.4 mL/(kg·min)), maximal fat oxidation rate (+0.19 ± 0.22 g/min), and a 29% decrease in homeostasis model assessment score (all p < 0.05). However, when the 1 h of cycling at Fatmax was repeated after the lifestyle intervention, there remained no observable change in IMCL (4.6 ± 1.8 vs. 4.6 ± 1.9 A.U., p = 0.92). In summary, there was no IMCL depletion in response to 1 h of cycling at moderate intensity either before or after the lifestyle intervention in obese men. An effective lifestyle intervention including moderate-intensity exercise training did not impact rate of utilisation of IMCL during acute exercise in obese men. PMID:26575100

  14. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach – ‘prevention is better than cure’ – would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would

  15. Longitudinal Patterns of Stages of Change for Exercise and Lifestyle Intervention Outcomes: An Application of Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ben; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M; Manson, Spero M; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Stages of change measure an individual's readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and distal outcomes. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify the longitudinal patterns of SoC for regular exercise reported at three time points. LCA with distal outcomes was performed to investigate the associations between latent class membership and behavioral changes after the intervention. The parameters and standard errors of the LCA with distal outcomes models were estimated using an improved three-step approach. Three latent classes were identified: Pre-action, Transition, and Maintenance classes. The Transition class, where stage progression occurred, had the greatest improvements in physical activity and weight outcomes at both time points post-baseline among female participants. It also had the largest improvements in weight outcomes among male participants. Furthermore, the Pre-action class had more attenuation in the improvements they had achieved initially than the other two classes. These findings suggest the potential importance of motivating participants to modify their readiness for behavioral change in future lifestyle interventions. PMID:26381430

  16. Predictors of adherence to supervised exercise in lymphoma patients participating in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Courneya, Kerry S; Stevinson, Clare; McNeely, Margaret L; Sellar, Christopher M; Peddle, Carolyn J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Mazurek, Alex; Chua, Neil; Tankel, Keith; Basi, Sanraj; Reiman, Tony

    2010-08-01

    Exercise improves health in lymphoma patients but the determinants of adherence in this population are unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine predictors of exercise adherence in lymphoma patients. In a randomized trial, 60 lymphoma patients were assigned to the exercise group and asked to attend three supervised exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. Baseline data were collected on demographic, medical, fitness, psychosocial, and motivational variables. Adherence was assessed by objective attendance. Adherence was 77.8% and was significantly predicted by age (beta = 0.29; p = 0.016) and past exercise (beta = 0.27; p = 0.024); and borderline significantly predicted by previous treatments (beta = 0.22; p = 0.053), body mass index (beta = -0.21; p = 0.076), and smoking (beta = -0.19; p = 0.092). Poorer exercise adherence was experienced by lymphoma patients under age 40, insufficiently active at baseline, previously treated with radiation therapy, overweight or obese, and smokers. Findings may facilitate the development of targeted interventions to improve exercise adherence in this understudied patient population. PMID:20563764

  17. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  18. Alcohol expectancy changes over a 12-week cognitive-behavioral therapy program are predictive of treatment success.

    PubMed

    Young, Ross McD; Connor, Jason P; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2011-01-01

    This study examines if outcome expectancies (perceived consequences of engaging in certain behavior) and self-efficacy expectancies (confidence in personal capacity to regulate behavior) contribute to treatment outcome for alcohol dependence. Few clinical studies have examined these constructs. The Drinking Expectancy Profile (DEP), a psychometric measure of alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy, was administered to 298 alcohol-dependent patients (207 males) at assessment and on completion of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral therapy alcohol abstinence program. Baseline measures of expectancy and self-efficacy were not strong predictors of outcome. However, for the 164 patients who completed treatment, all alcohol expectancy and self-efficacy factors of the DEP showed change over time. The DEP scores approximated community norms at the end of treatment. Discriminant analysis indicated that change in social pressure drinking refusal self-efficacy, sexual enhancement expectancies, and assertion expectancies successfully discriminated those who successfully completed treatment from those who did not. Future research should examine the basis of expectancies related to social functioning as a possible mechanism of treatment response and a means to enhance treatment outcome. PMID:20864294

  19. Treatment of feline lymphoma using a 12-week, maintenance-free combination chemotherapy protocol in 26 cats.

    PubMed

    Limmer, S; Eberle, N; Nerschbach, V; Nolte, I; Betz, D

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of a short-term, maintenance-free chemotherapy protocol in feline lymphoma. Twenty-six cats with confirmed diagnosis of high-/intermediate-grade lymphoma were treated with a 12-week protocol consisting of cyclic administration of l-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisolone. Complete (CR) and partial remission (PR) rates were 46 and 27%, respectively. Median duration of first CR was 394 days compared with a median PR duration of 41 days. No factor was identified to significantly influence the likelihood to reach CR. Overall survival amounted to 78 days (range: 9-2230 days). Median survival in CR cats was 454 days and in PR cats was 82 days. Toxicosis was mainly low grade with anorexia seen most frequently. In cats achieving CR, maintenance-free chemotherapy may be sufficient to attain long-term remission and survival. Factors aiding in prognosticating the likelihood for CR, strategies enhancing response and targeting chemotherapy-induced anorexia need to be identified in future. PMID:24548273

  20. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365

  1. Evaluating the effect of a haemoglobin spray on size reduction in chronic DFUs: clinical outcomes at 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Dawn Hunt, Sharon; Haycocks, Samantha; McCardle, Joanne; Guttormsen, Karl

    2016-06-23

    A recent multi-centre observational evaluation investigated the effect of a topical haemoglobin spray (Granulox, Infirst), used as an adjunct to standard care, on wound size reduction in 17 patients (4 females/13 males) with 20 chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) over a 4-week period. In 14 of the 18 wounds that completed the evaluation (one patient dropped out due to an infection) there was a mean reduction of 53.8% (range: 11.9-100%). The product was acceptable to both patients and clinicians, who all found it easy to use. This article describes the outcomes for the remaining 13 patients (with 15 wounds) who continued using the spray after the 4-week evaluation ended. (Data are not available for two patients and the one patient who healed during the 4-week evaluation.) By 12 weeks, three wounds (20%) had healed, eight (53%) were progressing towards healing, three (20%) increased in size and one (7%) was slow healing. PMID:27345086

  2. A 12-Week Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose Trial of Vilazodone in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Careri, Jason M.; Draine, Ann E.; Hanover, Rita; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vilazodone for subjects (aged 18–75 years) with generalized social anxiety disorder. Method: Forty-four subjects with generalized social anxiety disorder (DSM-IV-TR criteria) were randomized to vilazodone or placebo in a 12-week double-blind, flexible-dose trial. Change from baseline to endpoint on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included response and remission rates and changes in depression and anxiety. Data were collected between November 2012 and April 2014. The study was conducted at a private clinical trials facility in New York, New York. Results: The mean baseline LSAS score was 91.9 (SD = 17.5) and the mean Clinical Global Impressions–Severity scale score was 5.3 (SD = 0.56), indicating marked to severe illness. There were no significant baseline differences in severity of social anxiety between the treatment groups. At the end of treatment, in the intent-to-treat sample (n = 39), the vilazodone group had improved significantly more than the placebo group by 14.3 points on the LSAS (t = 1.80, P = .04, one-tail test) (Cohen d = 0.58). Conclusions: The findings suggest that vilazodone may be a promising treatment for social anxiety disorder. Further study is needed given the limited sample size. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01712321 PMID:27057414

  3. Effect of a diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation and monocyte adhesion in diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christian K; Won, Dean; Pruthi, Sandeep; Lin, San San; Barnard, R James

    2006-09-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of coronary artery disease. We examined the effects of lifestyle modification on key contributing factors to atherogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation and cell adhesion. Diabetic men (N=13) were placed on a high-fiber, low-fat diet in a 3-week residential program where food was provided ad libitum and daily aerobic exercise was performed. In each subject, pre- and post-intervention fasting blood was drawn for circulating levels of serum lipids, glucose and insulin, oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha), the inflammatory protein C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 and sE-selectin as indicators of endothelial activation. Using subject sera and human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) culture systems, serum-induced monocyte adhesion, ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and cell surface abundance, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) production were determined. Nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide production were measured in vitro by fluorometric detection. After 3 weeks, significant reductions (p<0.05) in BMI, all serum lipids including total cholesterol (pre: 188.9+/-10.1 mg/dL versus post: 146.3+/-3.8 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein (103.1+/-10.2 mg/dL versus 76.4+/-4.3 mg/dL), fasting serum glucose (157.5+/-10.1 mg/dL versus 126.7+/-8.7 mg/dL), insulin (33.8+/-4.0 microU/ml versus 23.8+/-3.4 microU/ml), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, 8-iso-PGF2alpha, CRP, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were noted. In vitro, serum-stimulated monocyte adhesion, cellular ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05), and fluorometric detection of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production decreased, while a concomitant increase in NO production was noted (all p<0.01). A combination of diet and exercise ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and monocyte-endothelial interaction. Intensive lifestyle modification may

  4. Effects of Qigong Exercise on Biomarkers and Mental and Physical Health in Adults With at Least One Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-05-01

    Current medical technology permits the early detection of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in adults, and interventions are available to prevent CAD-related morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Qigong exercise intervention in improving biomarker levels and mental and physical health outcomes in community-dwelling adults diagnosed with CAD risk factors, in a southern Taiwanese city. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n= 84) group that participated in a 60-min Qigong group session 3 times per week for 3 months or a control (n= 61) group that did not receive the intervention. Self-perceived mental and physical health assessed with the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12, and body fat percentage were measured at baseline and 6, 12, and 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 12 weeks for analysis of lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting plasma sugar. Linear mixed model analyses revealed that experimental participants had significantly improved perceived mental and physical health and body fat percentage compared to the control group at 6 and 12 weeks but not 16 weeks. The lipid profiles were significantly more improved in the Qigong group than in the control group at 12 weeks. Qigong exercise, however, had no significant effects on hs-CRP, HbA1c, or fasting plasma sugar. Findings suggest that Qigong exercise improves a limited number of CAD risk factors in community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and over. PMID:26590130

  5. 39-week toxicity and toxicokinetic study of ponezumab (PF-04360365) in cynomolgus monkeys with 12-week recovery period.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Gary B; Lin, John C; Pons, Jaume; Raha, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    Ponezumab (PF-04360365) is a novel humanized IgG2Δa monoclonal antibody that binds to amyloid-β (Aβ). It is designed to have reduced immune effector function compared to other passive immunotherapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Toxicity was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys treated intravenously with vehicle or 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg of ponezumab every 10th day for up to 39 weeks, and after a 12-week recovery phase. The Aβ peptide sequence of monkeys is identical to that of humans. No substantial difference in test article exposure between sexes was observed, and mean plasma Cmax and AUC0-n were approximately dose-proportional. Ponezumab was detectable approximately 9 weeks after cessation of dosing. All animals, except two males given 10 mg/kg, maintained exposure to test article. One of these males tested positive for anti-ponezumab antibodies. Ponezumab was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of animals given active treatment. The estimated CSF/plasma ponezumab concentration ratio was <0.008 after multiple doses. At the end of the dosing and recovery phases, plasma Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-x were increased in treated animals versus controls. No test article-related effects were seen after ophthalmogical, cardiovascular, physical examinations, and clinical and anatomic pathology evaluations. Plasma concentrations of ponezumab on day 261 at the no observed adverse effect level of 100 mg/kg were 22.4 and 5.3 times greater on a Cmax and AUC basis, respectively, than human exposures at the highest dose (10 mg/kg) in a single-dose Phase I trial. These data suggest an acceptable safety profile for ponezumab as an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:22045481

  6. Linagliptin monotherapy compared with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis: a 12-week randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Shoji, Tetsuo; Inaba, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Focusing on efficacy and tolerability, we compared linagliptin monotherapy with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Research design and methods In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study, 78 patients were randomized (1:1) to receive a 12-week treatment with 5 mg linagliptin once daily or 0.2 mg voglibose three times a day. To assess whether linagliptin was superior to voglibose, the primary efficacy end point was the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy end points included changes between baseline and week 12 in glycated albumin (GA) and casual plasma glucose (PG) levels. Results At week 12, the adjusted mean HbA1c levels had decreased by −0.60% after treatment with linagliptin and by −0.20% after treatment with voglibose (treatment difference: −0.40%, 95% CI −0.74% to −0.06%, p=0.022). A significant reduction in casual PG level was also observed after treatment with linagliptin compared with treatment with voglibose. Relative to voglibose, linagliptin tended to elicit reductions in GA, although without statistical significance. No hypoglycemic symptoms or severe hypoglycemia occurred during the study. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD, linagliptin monotherapy provided significantly better glycemic control without severe hypoglycemia than voglibose monotherapy. Linagliptin represents a promising agent for glycemic management in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD. Trial registration number UMIN000007635; results. PMID:27547421

  7. Effects of a 12 Week SAQ Training Programme on Agility with and without the Ball among Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša; James, Nic; Samija, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12 week conditioning programme involving speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) training and its effect on agility performance in young soccer players. Soccer players were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group (EG; n = 66, body mass: 71.3 ± 5.9 kg; body height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) and control group (CG; n = 66, body mass: 70.6 ± 4.9 kg; body height: 1.76 ± 0.06 m). Agility performance was assessed using field tests: Slalom; Slalom with ball; Sprint with 90° turns; Sprint with 90° turns with ball; Sprint with 180° turns; Sprint with backward and forward running; Sprint 4 x 5 m. Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) between pre and post training were evident for almost all measures of agility, with and without the ball, with the exception being the Sprint with backward and forward running. This suggests that SAQ training is an effective way of improving agility, with and without the ball, for young soccer players and can be included in physical conditioning programmes. Key pointsSAQ training appears to be an effective way of improving agility with and without the ball in young soccer playersSoccer coaches could use this training during pre-season and in-season trainingCompared with pre-training, there was a statistically significant improvement in all but one measure of agility, both with and without the ball after SAQ training. PMID:24149731

  8. Combination therapy with nifedipine GITS 60 mg: subanalysis of a prospective, 12-week observational study (AdADOSE)

    PubMed Central

    Motaweih, Ahmed K.; Usova, Elena; Hussain, Wajid; Dello, Ziad; Petri, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: AdADOSE was a 12-week, international, observational study conducted in the Middle East and Russia where patients received nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) at a daily dose of 30, 60, or 90 mg as part of an antihypertensive combination therapy. This subgroup analysis of the AdADOSE study assesses the efficacy and tolerability of nifedipine GITS combination therapy when used specifically at the 60-mg strength. Methods: Patients with hypertension who received a daily nifedipine GITS dose of 60 mg, either at constant dose (n = 686) or up-titrated from 30 mg (n = 392), were analyzed. Target blood pressure (BP) was <140/90 mmHg (or <130/80 mmHg for those at high/very high cardiovascular risk). Results: Following nifedipine GITS combination therapy, target BP was achieved by 33.7% patients in the 60 mg group (previously untreated, 42.5%; previously treated, 32.0%) and 32.4% patients in the 30–60 mg group (previously untreated, 45.2%; previously treated, 30.7%). Mean systolic BP/diastolic BP changes were −40.3/−20.7 mmHg and −35.6/−18.5 mmHg, respectively, and were similar regardless of previous antihypertensive treatment or the number of concomitant diseases. Incidences of drug-related adverse events (AEs) were low (3.2%, 60 mg; 2.0%, 30–60 mg group), few patients discontinued because of AEs (0.6% and 1.0%, respectively), and there were no serious AEs. Conclusion: Combination therapy with nifedipine GITS 60 mg in a real-life observational setting was effective and well tolerated in hypertensive patients, with low rates of treatment-related AEs. PMID:26331311

  9. Effects of a 12 Week SAQ Training Programme on Agility with and without the Ball among Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša; James, Nic; Šamija, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12 week conditioning programme involving speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) training and its effect on agility performance in young soccer players. Soccer players were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group (EG; n = 66, body mass: 71.3 ± 5.9 kg; body height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) and control group (CG; n = 66, body mass: 70.6 ± 4.9 kg; body height: 1.76 ± 0.06 m). Agility performance was assessed using field tests: Slalom; Slalom with ball; Sprint with 90° turns; Sprint with 90° turns with ball; Sprint with 180° turns; Sprint with backward and forward running; Sprint 4 x 5 m. Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) between pre and post training were evident for almost all measures of agility, with and without the ball, with the exception being the Sprint with backward and forward running. This suggests that SAQ training is an effective way of improving agility, with and without the ball, for young soccer players and can be included in physical conditioning programmes. Key points SAQ training appears to be an effective way of improving agility with and without the ball in young soccer players Soccer coaches could use this training during pre-season and in-season training Compared with pre-training, there was a statistically significant improvement in all but one measure of agility, both with and without the ball after SAQ training PMID:24149731

  10. A case report of recovery of menstrual function following a nutritional intervention in two exercising women with amenorrhea of varying duration.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Olmsted, Marion P; Scheid, Jennifer L; Riddle, Emily S; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Increasing caloric intake is a promising treatment for exercise-associated amenorrhea, but strategies have not been fully explored. The purpose of this case report was to compare and contrast the responses of two exercising women with amenorrhea of varying duration to an intervention of increased energy intake. Two exercising women with amenorrhea of short (3 months) and long (11 months) duration were chosen to demonstrate the impact of increased caloric intake on recovery of menstrual function and bone health. Repeated measures of dietary intake, eating behavior, body weight, body composition, bone mineral density, resting energy expenditure, exercise volume, serum metabolic hormones and markers of bone turnover, and daily urinary metabolites were obtained. Participant 1 was 19 years old and had a body mass index (BMI) of 20.4 kg/m(2) at baseline. She increased caloric intake by 276 kcal/day (1,155 kJ/day, 13%), on average, during the intervention, and her body mass increased by 4.2 kg (8%). Participant 2 was 24 years old and had a BMI of 19.7 kg/m(2). She increased caloric intake by 1,881 kcal/day (7,870 kJ/day, 27%) and increased body mass by 2.8 kg (5%). Resting energy expenditure, triiodothyronine, and leptin increased; whereas, ghrelin decreased in both women. Resumption of menses occurred 23 and 74 days into the intervention for the women with short-term and long-term amenorrhea, respectively. The onset of ovulation and regular cycles corresponded with changes in body weight. Recovery of menses coincided closely with increases in caloric intake, weight gain, and improvements in the metabolic environment; however, the nature of restoration of menstrual function differed between the women with short-term versus long-term amenorrhea. PMID:23914797

  11. EXERCISE AND MEDICATION EFFECTS ON PERSONS WITH PARKINSON DISEASE ACROSS THE DOMAINS OF DISABILITY: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Dibble, Leland E; Foreman, K. Bo; Addison, Odessa; Marcus, Robin L.; LaStayo, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypokinesia and Bradykinesia as movement deficits of Parkinson disease (PD) are thought to be mediated both by basal ganglia dysfunction as well as a loss of muscle mass and strength commensurate with aging and decreased levels of physical activity. For these reasons, we sought to utilize resistance training as a means to increase muscle force and minimize hypokinesia and bradykinesia in PD and examine the effects of exercise and medication on Body Structure and Function [muscle force production and muscle cross-sectional area], Activity [mobility], and Participation [Health Status]) outcomes. Methods Forty-two participants were enrolled in a 12-week randomized controlled trial that compared two active exercise interventions; a (standard care control group [Active Control] and an experimental group that underwent Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work [RENEW]). Results Participants in both groups improved in muscle force production and mobility as a result of exercise and medication (p < 0.02). There were no significant interaction or between group differences and no significant changes in muscle cross sectional area or health status were observed. Effect sizes for exercise and medication combined exceeded the effect sizes of either intervention in isolation. Discussion and Conclusions Taken together, these results point to the complementary effects of exercise and medication on the Body structure and Function and Activity outcomes but little effect on Participation outcomes. Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1). PMID:25742370

  12. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O'Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5-6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. -5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (-5 ± 9 vs. -11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  13. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study †

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Ives, Stephen J.; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O’Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  14. The effect of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic health in young women.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sarah L; Siu, Winnie; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing obesity rates in Western countries, an effective lifestyle intervention for fat reduction and metabolic benefits is needed. High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE), Mediterranean eating habits (Mediet), and fish oil (ω-3) consumption positively impact metabolic health and adiposity, although the combined effect has yet to be determined. A 12-week lifestyle intervention on adiposity, insulin resistance, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels of young overweight women was administered. Thirty women with a body mass index of 26.6±0.5 kg/m(2), blood pressure of 114/66±1.9/1.5 mmHg, and age of 22±0.8 years were randomly assigned to either an intervention group receiving Mediet advice, daily ω-3 supplementation, and HIIE 3 days/week for 12 weeks or a control group. The group receiving Mediet advice, daily ω-3 supplementation, and HIIE experienced a significant reduction in total body fat mass (P<0.001), abdominal adiposity (P<0.05), waist circumference (P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (P<0.05), fasting plasma insulin (P<0.05), IL-6 (P<0.001), and triglycerides (P<0.05). The greatest decreases in fasting plasma insulin (P<0.05) and IL-6 (P<0.001) occurred by week 6 of the intervention. Significant improvements in eating habits (P<0.05) and aerobic fitness (P<0.001) were also found following the intervention. A multifaceted 12-week lifestyle program comprising a Mediet, ω-3 supplementation, and HIIE induced significant improvements in fat loss, aerobic fitness, and insulin and IL-6 levels, positively influencing metabolic health. PMID:25278771

  15. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples. PMID:22739821

  16. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Gill, Pavan; Baser, Raymond; Leng, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the positive impact of pedometers and walking programs for increasing physical activity and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease among diverse populations. However, no interventions have been targeted towards South Asian taxi drivers, a population that may be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) was a 12-week pilot study among South Asian taxi drivers to increase their daily step counts. SSTEP assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of an exercise intervention employing pedometers, a step diary, written materials, and telephone follow-up to initiate or increase physical activity in this at-risk occupational group. Seventy-four drivers were recruited to participate at sites frequented by South Asian taxi drivers. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) age 18 or over; (2) birthplace in India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh; (3) fluent in English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, or Bengali; and (4) intention to remain in New York City for the 3-month study period. Comprehensive intake and exit questionnaires were administered to participants in their preferred languages. Intake and exit health screenings, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose were completed. Daily step counts were obtained 4 days after recruitment, and at the 4-, 8-, and 12-week mark via phone calls. To measure the impact of the intervention, step counts, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index were compared at intake and exit. Participants in SSTEP were sedentary at baseline. The SSTEP intervention resulted in a small increase in step counts among participants overall, and in a significant increase (>2,000 steps) among a subset ("Bigsteppers"). Drivers with higher baseline glucose values had significantly greater improvements in their step counts. Focused lifestyle interventions for drivers at high risk for cardiovascular disease may

  17. Strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH): design of a randomised controlled trial of a hand and upper limb exercise intervention - ISRCTN89936343

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) commonly affects the hands and wrists with inflammation, deformity, pain, weakness and restricted mobility leading to reduced function. The effectiveness of exercise for RA hands is uncertain, although evidence from small scale studies is promising. The Strengthening And Stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH) trial is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of adding an optimised exercise programme for hands and upper limbs to best practice usual care for patients with RA. Methods/design 480 participants with problematic RA hands will be recruited through 17 NHS trusts. Treatments will be provided by physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Participants will be individually randomised to receive either best practice usual care (joint protection advice, general exercise advice, functional splinting and assistive devices) or best practice usual care supplemented with an individualised exercise programme of strengthening and stretching exercises. The study assessors will be blinded to treatment allocation and will follow participants up at four and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Hand function subscale of the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire, and secondary outcomes include hand and wrist impairment measures, quality of life, and resource use. Economic and qualitative studies will also be carried out in parallel. Discussion This paper describes the design and development of a trial protocol of a complex intervention study based in therapy out-patient departments. The findings will provide evidence to support or refute the use of an optimised exercise programme for RA of the hand in addition to best practice usual care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89936343 PMID:23176133

  18. Body Composition, Lipid Profile, Adipokine Concentration, and Antioxidant Capacity Changes during Interventions to Treat Overweight with Exercise Programme and Whole-Body Cryostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Dudzińska, Wioleta; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Dołęgowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six-month-long physical exercise programme with a two-time exposure to whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) in 20 sessions on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid profile, and body composition changes in obese people (30 adult subjects; BMI = 30.39 ± 4.31 kg/m2). Blood samples were taken before the programme, one month following the exercise programme, before and after the first WBC treatment, six months following the exercise programme, after the second WBC treatment, and finally one month after the intervention. Six months of moderate aerobic activity combined with WBC did not change body mass or fat and lean body mass percentages, or circulating adiponectin, leptin, and resistin concentrations. In response to intervention a significant decrease in the level of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides was observed, with a slight increase in high-density lipoprotein concentration. The nature of changes in the activity of respective antioxidant enzymes was not identical. After one month of increased physical activity, a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities was observed (13%, 8%, and 70%, resp.). The SOD activity increased significantly after successive whole-body cryostimulation sessions. As regards catalase, a significant progressive decrease in its activity was observed. PMID:26171117

  19. Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James; Steele, James; McKinnon, Pat; McKinnon, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Resistance exercise has been shown to counter all of these effects of aging and, in turn, reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches. The aim of this research was to consider strength increases as a result of brief, infrequent resistance exercise. The present study offers data from 33 (14 male and 19 female) older adults (M = 55 years) who underwent brief (<15 minutes per exercise session), infrequent (2×/week), resistance exercise to a high intensity of effort (6-repetition maximum) at a controlled repetition duration (10 seconds concentric : 10 seconds eccentric) on 5 resistance machines (chest press, leg press, pull-down, seated row, and overhead press). Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male) and 19 weeks (female). Significant strength increases were identified for all exercises. With the detailed health benefits obtainable, the present study suggests that resistance exercise can be efficacious in much smaller volumes than previously considered. PMID:26464894

  20. Qigong and mindfulness-based mood recovery: exercise experiences from a single case.

    PubMed

    Jouper, John; Johansson, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    Sara, the participant in this single case study, had to leave work due to burnout. She is now recovered and working, but still complains of disturbed moods and worries about getting burned out again. The aim of this study was to, by way of Qigong and mindfulness exercise, increase the participant's positive mood to a functional level and to increase exercise experiences by combining mindfulness and Qigong practice. The professional practice intervention was planned to last twelve weeks, combining mindfulness practice and three different Qigong exercise techniques. Exercise behavior was noted daily, stress-energy and wellness were followed up weekly, and mindfulness was followed up after four, nine and 12 weeks. Sara feels that her moods (more energy, wellness and joy, as well as less stress and worry) have stabilized at a high level (good to very good), and her mindfulness score also improved to a high level (4.2 on a six-point scale). Sara also states that she enjoys life more: accepts stressful situations as they are, is less worried about becoming burned out again, and is more open to life. Exercise professionals may use mindfulness practice and Qigong exercise when recovering moods, probably even better in preventing burnout syndromes. PMID:23294686

  1. Effect of an IT-supported home-based exercise programme on metabolic syndrome in India.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Jeyasundar; Swaminathan, Narasimman; Pereira, Natasha; Henderson, Keiran; Brodie, David

    2014-05-14

    Summary We studied the effectiveness of a home-based exercise programme with information technology (IT) support in people with metabolic syndrome in India. Ninety-four participants with metabolic syndrome (mean age 50 years) were randomized into two groups. Both groups received a 12-week home exercise programme and Group 2 received additional IT support for health education. Before and after the exercise programme, participants were measured for arterial stiffness using applanation tonometry, exercise capacity using an incremental shuttle walk test and quality of life (QoL) using the SF-36 questionnaire. Sixty-one participants completed the post intervention tests. There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, mean pressure and aortic systolic pressure in both groups. Pulse wave velocity, aortic pulse pressure and aortic diastolic pressure showed significant reductions only in Group 2. There were no significant changes in QoL measures, except vitality in Group 2. There was significant improvement in fasting blood glucose in Group 2, cholesterol in Group 1 and triglycerides in both groups. The participants' exercise capacity did not change significantly, although the mean duration of regular exercise was 7.2 weeks for Group 1 and 10.0 weeks for Group 2 (P = 0.019). Metabolic syndrome was reversed in 16% of the participants in both groups. IT support, through mobile text messages and phone calls, may be helpful in metabolic syndrome. Longer-term studies are now required. PMID:24829259

  2. Inflammatory Marker Changes in Postmenopausal Women after a Year-long Exercise Intervention Comparing High Versus Moderate Volumes.

    PubMed

    Friedenreich, Christine M; O'Reilly, Rachel; Shaw, Eileen; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Yasui, Yutaka; Brenner, Darren R; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-02-01

    This randomized dose comparison trial examined if higher exercise volume decreased inflammatory biomarkers, associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, more than moderate exercise volume. The Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta was a two-center, two-armed randomized trial in 400 inactive, healthy, postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 74 years, with a body mass index of 22 to 40 kg/m(2). Participants were randomized to high (300 minutes/week) or moderate (150 minutes/week) volumes of aerobic exercise while maintaining usual diet. Fasting blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), IL6, and TNFα were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline biomarker concentrations. ITT analyses of 386 (97%) participants showed no statistically significant group differences for changes in biomarker levels at 6 and 12 months. In addition, we did not observe any modification of this effect by baseline characteristics of participants. In post hoc analyses based on self-selected exercise level (measured in minutes/week), CRP decreased by 22.45% for participants who exercised >246 minutes/week (highest quintile) and increased by 0.07% for those who exercised <110 minutes/week (lowest quintile, Ptrend = 0.04), adjusted for baseline covariates. When this analysis was restricted to include exercise time in the target heart rate zone only, statistically significant trends were observed for both CRP (P < 0.01) and IL6 (P = 0.04). Prescribing 300 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise did not improve inflammatory markers compared with 150 minutes/week in postmenopausal women. Decreases in CRP were observed with higher self-selected exercise volume. PMID:26603740

  3. Cloacal and surface temperatures of tom turkeys exposed to different rearing temperature regimes during the first 12 weeks of growth.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S L; Strawford, M L; Noble, S D; Classen, H L; Crowe, T G

    2015-06-01

    Years of genetic selection have caused an increase in growth rate and market body mass in agricultural poultry species compared to earlier genetic strains, potentially altering their physiological requirements. The objective of this study was to expose Hybrid Converter tom turkeys on a weekly basis to the recommended rearing temperature regime (TCON: control) or 4°C below the recommended standard (TTRT: treatment) to determine their thermal responses. Once per week for 12 weeks, 12 turkeys were individually exposed to either TCON or TTRT for a 2-h period. Surface temperatures of the breast (TBREAST), wing (TWING), drumstick (TDRUM), head (THEAD), and shank (TSHANK) were measured at 20-min intervals using an infrared camera, while a thermal data logger measured the skin surface temperature under the wing (TLOGGER) at 30-s intervals. The cloacal temperature (TCORE) was measured using a medical thermometer at the start and end of the exposure period. Regardless of exposure temperature, the TBREAST (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), TWING (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), and TDRUM (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) decreased from weeks 4 to 6 and remained constant from weeks 1 to 3 and 8 to 12. THEAD was elevated in week 2 (TCON: P<0.001) or week 3 (TTRT: P<0.001), TSHANK increased slightly during week 3 for both TCON (P<0.001) and TTRT (P<0.001), and TLOGGER (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P=0.001) and TCORE (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) were lower during the first week. Thereafter, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE remained constant. Exposure to TTRT resulted in lower TBREAST, TWING, and TDRUM compared to TCON. Generally, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE were not affected by the different exposure temperatures. The data demonstrated that the degree of thermal response expressed is dependent on the location of measurement, age, and exposure temperature. PMID:25589083

  4. Cervical spine disc prosthesis: radiographic, biomechanical and morphological post mortal findings 12 weeks after implantation. A retrieval example.

    PubMed

    Pitzen, Tobias; Kettler, Annette; Drumm, Joerg; Nabhan, Abdullah; Steudel, Wolf Ingo; Claes, Lutz; Wilke, Hans Joachim

    2007-07-01

    implant contact is probably rare, and that debris may be found after 12 weeks. PMID:17242873

  5. Fasting plasma glucose 6–12 weeks after starting insulin glargine predicts likelihood of treatment success: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karl, D; Zhou, R; Vlajnic, A; Riddle, M

    2012-01-01

    Aims To evaluate whether fasting plasma glucose values measured early during insulin therapy can identify patients with Type 2 diabetes who may not achieve adequate glycaemic control after 6 months and will require additional treatment. Methods Patient-level data from seven prospective, randomized, controlled studies using treat-to-target methods were pooled to evaluate the efficacy of insulin glargine. Fasting plasma glucose was measured at baseline, week 6 or 8 (6/8) and week 12. HbA1c was measured at week 24 to assess glycaemic control. Results One thousand and thirty-six patients (56% male, 81% white) were included in the analysis (mean age 56.3 years; duration of diabetes 8.4 years). Baseline mean fasting plasma glucose was 11.2 mmol/l and mean HbA1c was 73 mmol/mol (8.8%). After 24 weeks of treatment, mean HbA1c decreased to 53 mmol/mol (7.0%); 56% of patients reached a target HbA1c≤ 53 mmol/mol (7.0%). Significant correlations with week 24 HbA1c were obtained for fasting plasma glucose measured at week 6/8 and week 12 (r = 0.32; P < 0.0001 for both). Patients with fasting plasma glucose > 10 mmol/l at week 6/8 or week 12 were significantly less likely to achieve the HbA1c target at the end of treatment than patients with fasting plasma glucose < 8.9 mmol/l (P < 0.0001 for both). If fasting plasma glucose was > 10 mmol/l at week 6/8 or week 12, patients had only a 27% chance of reaching the HbA1c goal. Conclusions Fasting plasma glucose remaining > 10 mmol/l after 6–12 weeks of glargine therapy indicates that reaching target HbA1c≤ 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) is unlikely and calls for individualized attention to consider further therapeutic options. PMID:22413808

  6. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. Methods/Design The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. Discussion If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950. PMID:24964869

  7. Lifestyle modification decreases arterial stiffness in overweight and obese men: dietary modification vs. exercise training.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Seiji; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2015-02-01

    Obesity and increased arterial stiffness are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is increased in obese individuals than in age-matched nonobese individuals. We demonstrated that dietary modification and exercise training are effective in reducing arterial stiffness in obese persons. However, the differences in the effect on arterial stiffness between dietary modification and exercise training are unknown. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effect of dietary modification and aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and endothelial function in overweight and obese persons. Forty-five overweight and obese men (48 ± 1 year) completed either a dietary modification (well-balanced nutrient, 1680 kcal/day) or an exercise-training program (walking, 40-60 min/day, 3 days/week) for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, all participants underwent anthropometric measurements. Arterial stiffness was measured based on carotid arterial compliance, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and endothelial function was determined by circulating level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide metabolite (nitrites/nitrate as metabolite: NOx). Body mass and waist circumference significantly decreased after both intervention programs. Weight loss was greater after dietary modification than after exercise training (-10.1 ± 0.6 kg vs. -3.6 ± 0.5 kg, p < .01). Although arterial stiffness and the plasma levels of ET-1 and NOx were improved after dietary modification or exercise training, there were no differences in those improvements between the 2 types of interventions. Exercise training improves arterial function in obese men without as much weight loss as after dietary modification. PMID:25029200

  8. Effect of a High-Intensity Exercise Program on Physical Function and Mental Health in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: An Assessor Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Background Dementia is among the leading causes of functional loss and disability in older adults. Research has demonstrated that nursing home patients without dementia can improve their function in activities of daily living, strength, balance and mental well being by physical exercise. The evidence on effect of physical exercise among nursing home patients with dementia is scarce and ambiguous. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a high intensity functional exercise program on the performance of balance in nursing home residents with dementia. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of this exercise on muscle strength, mobility, activities of daily living, quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Design and Methods This single blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 170 persons with dementia living in nursing homes. Mean age was 86.7 years (SD = 7.4) and 74% were women. The participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 87) or a control group (n = 83). The intervention consisted of intensive strengthening and balance exercises in small groups twice a week for 12 weeks. The control condition was leisure activities. Results The intervention group improved the score on Bergs Balance Scale by 2.9 points, which was significantly more than the control group who improved by 1.2 points (p = 0.02). Having exercised 12 times or more was significantly associated with improved strength after intervention (p<0.05). The level of apathy was lower in the exercise group after the intervention, compared to the control group (p = 0.048). Conclusion The results from our study indicate that a high intensity functional exercise program improved balance and muscle strength as well as reduced apathy in nursing home patients with dementia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02262104 PMID:25974049

  9. A lifestyle intervention for primary care patients with depression and anxiety: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Adrienne; Deane, Frank P; Williams, Peter

    2015-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a diet and exercise lifestyle intervention on mental health outcomes for patients currently being treated for depression and/or anxiety in primary care. Patients (n=119) referred by general practitioners to the 12-week randomised controlled trial were assigned to either an intervention of six visits to a dual qualified dietitian/exercise physiologist (DEP) where motivational interviewing and activity scheduling were used to engage patients in individually-tailored lifestyle change (focussed on diet and physical activity), or an attention control with scheduled telephone contact. Assessments conducted at baseline (n=94) and 12 weeks (n=60) were analysed with an intent-to-treat approach using linear mixed modelling. Significant improvement was found for both groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) scores, measures of nutrient intake and total Australian modified Healthy Eating Index (Aust-HEI) scores. Significant differences between groups over time were found only for iron intake and body mass index. Patients participating in individual consultations with a dietitian were more likely to maintain or improve diet quality than those participating in an attention control. This study provides initial evidence to support the role of dietitians in the management of patients with depression and/or anxiety. PMID:26453120

  10. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): Part 4 – noninvasive interventions for chronic WAD

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, Robert W; McClure, J Andrew; Walton, David; Pretty, Jason; Salter, Katherine; Meyer, Matthew; Sequeira, Keith; Death, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence for various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed) were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks), subacute (two to 12 weeks) or chronic (longer than 12 weeks) WAD. The present article, the fourth in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for noninvasive interventions initiated during the chronic phase of WAD. Twenty-two studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, 12 of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodological quality (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6). For the treatment of chronic WAD, there is evidence to suggest that exercise programs are effective in relieving whiplash-related pain, at least over the short term. While the majority of a subset of nine studies supported the effectiveness of interdisciplinary interventions, the two randomized controlled trials provided conflicting results. Finally, there was limited evidence, consisting of one supportive case series each, that both manual joint manipulation and myofeedback training may provide some benefit. Based on the available research, exercise programs were the most effective noninvasive treatment for patients with chronic WAD, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various exercise regimens. PMID:21038010

  11. The Effects of Augmented Reality-based Otago Exercise on Balance, Gait, and Falls Efficacy of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha-na; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 elderly women, who were randomly divided into two groups: an augmented reality-based Otago exercise group of 10 subjects and an Otago exercise group of 11 subjects. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length), and falls efficacy. Within 12 weeks, Otago exercise for muscle strengthening and balance training was conducted three times, for a period of 60 minutes each, and subjects in the experimental group performed augmented reality-based Otago exercise. [Results] Following intervention, the augmented reality-based Otago exercise group showed significant increases in BBS, velocity, cadence, step length (right side), stride length (right side and left side) and falls efficacy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of this augmented reality-based Otago exercise for elderly women. PMID:24259856

  12. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  13. A 12 Week, Open Label, Phase I/IIa Study Using Apatone® for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have Failed Standard Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, Basir; Summers, Jack L.; Jamison, James M.; Neal, Deborah R.; McGuire, Karen; Gerson, Lowell; Diokno, Ananias

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral Apatone® (Vitamin C and Vitamin K3) administration in the treatment of prostate cancer in patients who failed standard therapy. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with 2 successive rises in PSA after failure of standard local therapy were treated with (5,000 mg of VC and 50 mg of VK3 each day) for a period of 12 weeks. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels, PSA velocity (PSAV) and PSA doubling times (PSADT) were calculated before and during treatment at 6 week intervals. Following the initial 12 week trial, 15 of 17 patients opted to continue treatment for an additional period ranging from 6 to 24 months. PSA values were followed for these patients. Results: At the conclusion of the 12 week treatment period, PSAV decreased and PSADT increased in 13 of 17 patients (p ≤ 0.05). There were no dose-limiting adverse effects. Of the 15 patients who continued on Apatone after 12 weeks, only 1 death occurred after 14 months of treatment. Conclusion: Apatone showed promise in delaying biochemical progression in this group of end stage prostate cancer patients. PMID:18392145

  14. A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors for prostate cancer patients from the RADAR trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy leads to a number of adverse effects including deterioration of the musculoskeletal system and increased risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects, efficacy, retention and compliance of a physical exercise intervention in a large established cohort of prostate cancer patients from the Randomised Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy (RADAR) study. Specifically, we aim to compare short- and long-term effects of a prostate cancer-specific supervised exercise program to a standard public health physical activity strategy utilizing printed resources on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Our primary outcomes are cardiorespiratory capacity, abdominal obesity, and lipid and glycemic control, while secondary outcomes include self-reported physical activity, quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 370 men from the RADAR study cohort undergoing treatment or previously treated for prostate cancer involving androgen deprivation therapy in the cities of Perth and Newcastle (Australia), and Wellington (New Zealand). Participants will be randomized to (1) supervised resistance/aerobic exercise or (2) printed material comprising general physical activity recommendations. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 6 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), and at 6 months follow-up. Discussion This study uses a large existent cohort of patients and will generate valuable information as to the continuing effects of exercise specifically targeting cardiovascular function and disease risk, insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, physical function, quality of life and psychological distress. We expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce risk factors for the development of co-morbid diseases

  15. 12 Weeks of Daclatasvir in Combination With Sofosbuvir for HIV-HCV Coinfection (ALLY-2 Study): Efficacy and Safety by HIV Combination Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; McDonald, Cheryl; Ramgopal, Moti; Noviello, Stephanie; Bhore, Rafia; Ackerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Highly effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapies that do not require modification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral regimens are needed. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir + sofosbuvir (DCV + SOF) for 12 weeks by antiretroviral (ARV) regimen in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Methods. In the randomized, open-label ALLY-2 study, HIV-HCV-coinfected patients received 8 or 12 weeks of once-daily DCV 60 mg (dose-adjusted as-necessary for concomitant ARVs) + SOF 400 mg. Results were stratified by ARV class for the 151 patients who received 12 weeks of DCV + SOF. Results. Fifty-one patients were HCV treatment experienced, 100 were treatment naive, 89% male and 33% black. HCV genotypes were: genotype 1a (GT1a; 69%), GT1b (15%), GT2 (8%), GT3 (6%), and GT4 (2%). Sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was 97% and was similar across ARV regimens (P = .774): protease inhibitor-based, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-99.7%); nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based, 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%); and integrase inhibitor based, 95% (95% CI, 83%-99.4%). SVR12 among patients receiving either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or abacavir as part of their antiretroviral therapy regimen was 98% (95% CI, 93%-99.5%) and 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%), respectively. Age, gender, race, cirrhosis, HCV treatment history, GT , and baseline HCV RNA did not affect SVR12. No discontinuations were attributed to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions. DCV + SOF x12 weeks is a highly efficacious, all-oral, pan-GT HCV treatment for HIV-HCV coinfected patients across a broad range of ARV regimens. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02032888. PMID:27025835

  16. Flexibility and Strength Measures in Children Participating in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Barbara M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A 12-week structured rehabilitation program featuring warm-up exercises, increased aerobic exercise, cool down, and home-based continuation of exercise helped 12 children with surgically corrected congenital heart disease improve lower extremity strength and flexibility. (Author/CB)

  17. An analysis of the "Effect of Olibra: a 12-week randomized control trial and a review of earlier studies".

    PubMed

    Heer, Martina

    2012-05-01

    Nutrients affect hunger and satiety. However, food structure, in particular that of emulsions, may also affect the body's satiety mechanisms. Olibra™ is a fat emulsion, a mixture of fractionated palm oil and fractionated oat oil manufactured by Lipid Technologies Provider AB, Sweden, which affects hunger sensation. However, up to now, no data have shown convincingly that reduced appetite or hunger sensations induced by Olibra lead, in the long run, to a significant and clinically relevant reduction in body mass. To clearly demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship of Olibra to weight loss, it seems that longer studies with strict control of energy intake and nutrient composition, as well as control of energy expenditure by exercise, are needed. PMID:22768903

  18. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (P<0.05) transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05) and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05) times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively. Conclusion Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  20. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Jesse W.; Zerfass, Kristy M.; Heckstall, Ebony M.; Evans, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. Methods: We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Results: Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p < 0.0001) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; 846.5 ± 1723.3%, p < 0.01). Mediation analyses showed that increases in chemerin explained a substantial amount of the diet-induced increases in insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin. PMID:26445641

  1. Effects of resistance exercise on fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Armbrust, Petra; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steindorf, Karen

    2015-07-15

    Multiple exercise interventions have shown beneficial effects on fatigue and quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients, but various psychosocial interventions as well. It is unclear to what extent the observed effects of exercise interventions are based on physical adaptations or rather on psychosocial factors associated with supervised, group-based programs. It needs to be determined which aspects of exercise programs are truly effective. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether resistance exercise during chemotherapy provides benefits on fatigue and QoL beyond potential psychosocial effects of group-based interventions. One-hundred-one breast cancer patients starting chemotherapy were randomly assigned to resistance exercise (EX) or a relaxation control (RC) group. Both interventions were supervised, group-based, 2/week over 12 weeks. The primary endpoint fatigue was assessed with a 20-item multidimensional questionnaire, QoL with the EORTC QLQ-C30/BR23. Analyses of covariance for individual changes from baseline to Week 13 were calculated. In RC, total and physical fatigue worsened during chemotherapy, whereas EX showed no such impairments (between-group p = 0.098 and 0.052 overall, and p = 0.038 and 0.034 among patients without severe baseline depression). Differences regarding affective or cognitive fatigue were not significant. Benefits of EX were also seen to affect role and social function. Effect sizes were between 0.43 and 0.48. Explorative analyses indicated significant effect modification by thyroxin use (p-interaction = 0.044). In conclusion, resistance exercise appeared to mitigate physical fatigue and maintain QoL during chemotherapy beyond psychosocial effects inherent to supervised group-based settings. Thus, resistance exercise could be an integral part of supportive care for breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:25484317

  2. The effect of thoracic spine mobilization and stabilization exercise on the muscular strength and flexibility of the trunk of chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seong-Rae; Kim, Kyung; Park, Sun-Ja; Kim, Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate whether thoracic spine mobilization added to stabilization exercises increases the muscular strength and range of motion of the thoracic vertebrae of chronic low-back pain patients. [Subjects] This study enrolled 20 patients with chronic low back pain, who were divided into two groups. Ten subjects were randomly selected for the stabilization exercise group and the remaining 10 subjects received thoracic spine mobilization in addition to performing the stabilization exercises. [Methods] The patients performed stabilization exercises and received thoracic spine mobilization for 12 weeks. The range of motion and isometric muscular strength of the vertebrae of all subjects were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] In the comparison of muscular strength before and after the intervention, the change in muscular strength of the trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 16.0±7.4 Nm, and that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 34.2±7.6 Nm, a significant difference in each group. In the post-intervention intergroup comparison, the muscular strength of trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 111.1±16.9 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 125.9±11.3 Nm, a significant difference. Also, the muscular strength of the trunk extensors in the stabilization exercise group was 148.9±31.8 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 182.9±37.2 Nm, a significant difference. The thoracic spine flexion in the stabilization exercise group was 29.8±9 degrees, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 38.7±6.9 degrees, a significant difference. However, there was no significant difference in lumbar flexion values between the two groups. [Conclusion] Thoracic spine mobilization added to a stabilization exercise increased the muscular strength of patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:26834367

  3. Exercise Improves Physical Function and Mental Health of Brain Cancer Survivors: Two Exploratory Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Levin, Gregory T; Greenwood, Kenneth M; Singh, Favil; Tsoi, Daphne; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Background Malignant brain tumors are unpredictable and incurable, with 5-year survival rates less than 30%. The poor prognosis combined with intensive treatment necessitates the inclusion of complementary and supportive therapies that optimize quality of life and reduce treatment-related declines in health. Exercise therapy has been shown to be beneficial in other cancer populations, but no evidence is available for brain cancer survivors. Therefore, we report results from 2 preliminary cases. Methods Two female patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme and oligodendroglioma participated in a structured and supervised 12-week exercise program. The program consisted of two 1-hour resistance and aerobic exercise sessions per week and additional self-managed aerobic sessions. Outcome measures of strength, cardiovascular fitness, and several psychological indicators (depression, anxiety, and quality of life) were recorded at baseline, after 6 weeks and at the conclusion of the intervention. Results Exercise was well tolerated; both participants completed all 24 sessions and the home-based component with no adverse effects. Objective outcome measures displayed positive responses relating to reduced morbidity. Similar positive responses were found for psychological outcomes. Scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale showed clinically meaningful improvements in depression and total distress. Conclusion These findings provide initial evidence that, despite the difficulties associated with brain cancer treatment and survivorship, exercise may be safe and beneficial and should be considered in the overall management of patients with brain cancer. PMID:26276806

  4. Role of microRNAs in the age-related changes in skeletal muscle and diet or exercise interventions to promote healthy aging in humans.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Robin A; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-09-01

    Progressive age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass and composition, underpin decreases in muscle function, which can inturn lead to impaired mobility and quality of life in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in skeletal muscle and are associated with aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNAs play an important role in the age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, composition and function. At the cellular level, miRNAs have been demonstrated to regulate muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, miRNAs are involved in the transitioning of muscle stem cells from a quiescent, to either an activated or senescence state. Evidence from animal and human studies has shown miRNAs are modulated in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. In addition, miRNAs have been implicated in changes in muscle fiber composition, fat infiltration and insulin resistance. Both exercise and dietary interventions can combat age-related changes in muscle mass, composition and function, which may be mediated by miRNA modulation in skeletal muscle. Circulating miRNA species derived from myogenic cell populations represent potential biomarkers of aging muscle and the molecular responses to exercise or diet interventions, but larger validation studies are required. In future therapeutic approaches targeting miRNAs, either through exercise, diet or drugs may be able to slow down or prevent the age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, composition, function, hence help maintain mobility and quality of life in old age. PMID:24833328

  5. Effects of Exercise and Weight Loss in Older Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Patil, Susheel; Schwartz, Alan R.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stewart, Kerry J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent among older individuals and is linked to increased cardiovascular disease morbidity. This study examined the change in OSA severity following exercise training and dietary induced weight loss in older adults and the association between the changes in OSA severity, body composition and aerobic capacity with arterial distensibility. Methods Obese adults (n=25) with OSA, aged 60 years or older, were instructed to participate in supervised exercise (3 days/week) and follow a calorie-restricted diet. Baseline assessments of OSA parameters, body weight and composition, aerobic capacity and arterial distensibility were repeated at 12 weeks. Results Nineteen participants completed the intervention. At 12 weeks, there were reductions in body weight (−9%) and percentage total body fat (−5%) and trunk fat (−8%), while aerobic capacity improved by 20% (all p’s<0.01). The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) decreased by 10 events per hour (p<0.01) and nocturnal SaO2 (mean SaO2) improved from 94.9% at baseline to 95.2% post intervention (p=0.01). Arterial distensibility for the group was not different from baseline (p=0.99), yet individual changes in distensibility were associated with the change in nocturnal desaturations (r=−0.49, p=0.03), but not with the change in body weight, AHI or aerobic capacity. Conclusion The severity of OSA was reduced following an exercise and weight loss program among older adults, suggesting that this lifestyle approach may be an effective first line non-surgical and non-pharmacological treatment for older patients with OSA. PMID:24870569

  6. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interact to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week meal-controlled weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy foods enhance weight loss in animal models possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study aimed to determine in overweight women (ages 20-45; n=51) whether inclusion of dairy foods in an energy-restricted diet affects basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, and whet...

  7. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  8. A 12-week worksite health promotion program reduces cardiovascular risk factors in male workers with the apolipoprotein E2 and apolipoprotein E3 genotypes, but not in apolipoprotein E4 genotype.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Woon; Kang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Yoo-Kyoung; Paek, Yun-Mi; Choi, Tae-In

    2009-08-01

    Worksite health promotion programs focusing on diet and lifestyle modification have been shown to improve health outcomes in workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a 12-week worksite health promotion program shows different response of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects according to apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype and obesity level in 141 male Korean industrial workers. We hypothesized that the health changes of a 12-week intervention may not be the same within Apo E genotypes in nonobese and obese subjects. They received 5 face-to-face meetings based on their health profiles. In obese group carrying Apo E3 genotype, body mass index, body fat (%), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and systolic blood pressure were decreased, as well as intakes of energy (P = .000) and carbohydrate (P = .005). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .004) level was improved in individuals with the Apo E2 genotype. These beneficial effects were only observed in individuals with the Apo E2 or Apo E3 genotype. Multiple linear regression revealed that obesity was strongly correlated with waist circumference (P = .002), plasma total cholesterol (P = .037), and changes in dietary cholesterol intake (P = .011) in individuals with the Apo E3 genotype, whereas only changes in dietary fat intake (P = .044) was correlated in those with the Apo E4 genotype. Overall, the results of this study suggest that a health promotion program can be a useful method of improving cardiovascular risk factors and dietary intake in industrial workers with certain genotypes only. Therefore, further research is needed to develop a tailored, long-term worksite health promotion program based on genetic background. PMID:19761888

  9. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  10. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  11. A cross-cultural comparison of the development of the social smile: a longitudinal study of maternal and infant imitation in 6- and 12-week-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants. PMID:22721734

  12. Effects of a 10-Week High-Intensity Exercise Intervention on College Staff with Psychological Burnout and Multiple Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, Lukas; Dreyer, Sonja; Rankin, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a 10-week physical exercise program on the health status of college staff. Eighty-one participants were pre-tested on 22 variables including physical fitness, biochemical status, psychological health, and morphological measures. Participants in an experimental group (n = 61) received a 10-week intervention…

  13. Translating Empirically Supported Strategies into Accessible Interventions: The Potential Utility of Exercise for the Treatment of Panic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Powers, Mark B.; Berry, Angela C.; Otto, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Many patients suffering from panic disorder do not receive adequate care. Advances in the conceptualization and treatment of panic disorder encourage innovative strategies for targeting core fears (fears of anxiety sensations) that underlie this disorder. In this article, we discuss the use of exercise as a potential strategy for therapeutic…

  14. Feasibility and benefits of group-based exercise in residential aged care adults: a pilot study for the GrACE programme

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Timothy; Climstein, Mike; Keogh, Justin William Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility and benefits of a group resistance training exercise programme for improving muscle function in institutionalised older adults. A feasibility and acceptability study was designed for a residential aged care (RAC) facility, based on the Gold Coast, Australia. Thirty-seven adults, mean age 86.8 ± 6.1 years (30 females) living in a RAC facility. Participants were allocated into an exercise (n = 20) or control (n = 17) group. The exercise group, the Group Aged Care Exercise (GrACE) programme, performed 12 weeks of twice weekly resistance exercises. Feasibility was measured via recruitment rate, measurement (physiological and surveys) completion rate, loss-to-follow-up, exercise session adherence, adverse events, and ratings of burden and acceptability. Muscle function was assessed using gait speed, sit-to-stand and handgrip strength assessments. All intervention participants completed pre- and post-assessments, and the exercise intervention, with 85% (n = 17) of the group attending ≥ 18 of the 24 sessions and 15% (n = 3) attending all sessions. Acceptability was 100% with exercise participants, and staff who had been involved with the programme strongly agreed that the participants “Benefited from the programme.” There were no adverse events reported by any participants during the exercise sessions. When compared to the control group, the exercise group experienced significant improvements in gait speed (F(4.078) = 8.265, p = 0.007), sit to stand performance (F(3.24) = 11.033, p = 0.002) and handgrip strength (F(3.697) = 26.359, p < 0.001). Resistance training via the GrACE programme is feasible, safe and significantly improves gait speed, sit-to-stand performance and handgrip strength in RAC adults. PMID:27231652

  15. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks. Abdominal ultrasonography measurements in transverse and longitudinal planes, the PERFECT scheme, perineometric evaluation, the stop test, the stress test, and the pad test were used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength in all cases. [Results] After training, the PERFECT, perineometry and transabdominal ultrasonography measurements were found to be significantly improved, and the stop test and pad test results were significantly decreased in the pelvic floor muscle training group, whereas no difference was observed in the control group. There was a positive correlation between the PERFECT force measurement scale and ultrasonography force measurement scale before and after the intervention in the control and pelvic floor muscle training groups (r=0.632 and r=0.642, respectively). [Conclusion] Ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive method to identify the change in pelvic floor muscle strength with exercise training. PMID:27065519

  16. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks. Abdominal ultrasonography measurements in transverse and longitudinal planes, the PERFECT scheme, perineometric evaluation, the stop test, the stress test, and the pad test were used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength in all cases. [Results] After training, the PERFECT, perineometry and transabdominal ultrasonography measurements were found to be significantly improved, and the stop test and pad test results were significantly decreased in the pelvic floor muscle training group, whereas no difference was observed in the control group. There was a positive correlation between the PERFECT force measurement scale and ultrasonography force measurement scale before and after the intervention in the control and pelvic floor muscle training groups (r=0.632 and r=0.642, respectively). [Conclusion] Ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive method to identify the change in pelvic floor muscle strength with exercise training. PMID:27065519

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Daniel M; Hill, Alison M; Howe, Peter R; Buckley, Jonathan D; Saint, David A

    2008-11-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation and regular physical activity can improve outcomes in patients with established CVD. Exercise has been shown to improve heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death, but whether fish oil benefits HRV is controversial. Obese adults at risk of future coronary disease have impaired HRV and may benefit from these interventions. We evaluated the effect of DHA-rich tuna fish oil supplementation with and without regular exercise on HRV in sedentary, overweight adults with risk factors for coronary disease. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel comparison, sixty-five volunteers consumed 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks. Half of each oil group also undertook regular moderate physical activity (3 d/week for 45 min, at 75 % of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR)). Resting HR and the HR response to submaximal exercise were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12. In forty-six subjects, HRV was also assessed by power spectrum analysis of 20 min electrocardiogram recordings taken supine at baseline and 12 weeks. Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise (P = 0.008; oil x time interaction). There were no significant fish oil x exercise interactions. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil reduced HR and modulated HRV in keeping with an improved parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in overweight adults with risk factors for future coronary disease. PMID:18339222

  18. Depressed Adolescents Treated with Exercise (DATE): A pilot randomized controlled trial to test feasibility and establish preliminary effect sizes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Carroll W.; Barnes, Shauna; Barnes, Conrad; DeFina, Laura F.; Nakonezny, Paul; Emslie, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    The Depressed Adolescents Treated with Exercise (DATE) study evaluated a standardized aerobic exercise protocol to treat nonmedicated adolescents that met DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder. From an initial screen of 90 individuals, 30 adolescents aged 12-18 years were randomized to either vigorous exercise (EXER) (>12 kg/kcal/week [KKW]) or a control stretching (STRETCH) activity (< 4 KKW) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the blinded clinician rating of the Children's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) to assess depression severity and Actical (KKW) accelerometry 24hr/7days a week to assess energy expenditure and adherence. Follow-up evaluations occurred at weeks 26 and 52. The EXER group averaged 77% adherence and the STRETCH group 81% for meeting weekly target goals for the 12 week intervention based on weekly sessions completed and meeting KKW requirements. There was a significant increase in overall weekly KKW expenditures (p < .001) for both groups with the EXER group doubling the STRETCH group in weekly energy expenditure. Depressive symptoms were significantly reduced from baseline for both groups with the EXER group improving more rapidly than STRETCH after six weeks (p < .016) and nine weeks (p < .001). Both groups continued to improve such that there were no group differences after 12 weeks (p = .07). By week 12, the exercise group had a 100% response rate (86% remission), whereas the stretch group response rate was 67% (50% remission) (p = .02). Both groups had improvements in multiple areas of psychosocial functioning related to school and relationships with parents and peers. Anthropometry reflected decreased waist, hip and thigh measurements (p = .02), more so for females than males (p = .05), but there were no weight changes for either gender. The EXER group sustained 100% remission at week 26 and 52. The STRETCH group had 80% response and 70% remission rates at week 26 and by week 52 only one had not fully

  19. Effecting change in primary care management of respiratory conditions: a global scoping exercise and literature review of educational interventions to inform the IPCRG's E-Quality initiative.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Juliet; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Fardy, H John; Fletcher, Monica; Stout, James; Tomlins, Ron; Yusuf, Osman M; Pinnock, Hilary

    2012-12-01

    This discussion paper describes a scoping exercise and literature review commissioned by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) to inform their E-Quality programme which seeks to support small-scale educational projects to improve respiratory management in primary care. Our narrative review synthesises information from three sources: publications concerning the global context and health systems development; a literature search of Medline, CINAHL and Cochrane databases; and a series of eight interviews conducted with members of the IPCRG faculty. Educational interventions sit within complex healthcare, economic, and policy contexts. It is essential that any development project considers the local circumstances in terms of economic resources, political circumstances, organisation and administrative capacities, as well as the specific quality issue to be addressed. There is limited evidence (in terms of changed clinician behaviour and/or improved health outcomes) regarding the merits of different educational and quality improvement approaches. Features of educational interventions that were most likely to show some evidence of effectiveness included being carefully designed, multifaceted, engaged health professionals in their learning, provided ongoing support, were sensitive to local circumstances, and delivered in combination with other quality improvement strategies. To be effective, educational interventions must consider the complex healthcare systems within which they operate. The criteria for the IPCRG E-Quality awards thus require applicants not only to describe their proposed educational initiative but also to consider the practical and local barriers to successful implementation, and to propose a robust evaluation in terms of changed clinician behaviour or improved health outcomes. PMID:22875141

  20. The effects of exercise using PNF in patients with a supraspinatus muscle tear

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Lee, Sang-yeol; Ha, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and simple exercise on subjective pain reduction and blood flow velocity in supraspinatus tear patients and to evaluate muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] The 20 subjects of this study were diagnosed with supraspinatus tears by MRI. The subjects have performed PNF techniques and Simple exercise for 12 weeks. [Results] After 12 weeks of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and simple exercise, the blood flow velocity, Visual Analogue Scale, and disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand score showed statistically significant difference. Also, the difference between the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and simple exercise was statistically significant. [Conclusion] In conclusion, 12 weeks of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation treatment and simple exercise therapy had no effect on pain reduction in patients with supraspinatus tear, but in terms of functionality, the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation treatment was effective. PMID:26356542

  1. Evaluation of Immediate and 12-Week Effects of a Smartphone Sun-Safety Mobile Application: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Importance Mobile apps on smart phones can communicate a large amount of personalized, real-time health information, including advice on skin cancer prevention, but their effectiveness may be affected by whether Americans can be convinced to use them. Objective A smart phone mobile application delivering real-time sun protection advice was evaluated for a second time in a randomized trial. Design The trial conducted in 2013 utilized a randomized pretest-posttest controlled design. Screening procedures and a 3-week run-in period were added to increase use of the mobile app. Also, follow-ups at 3- and 8-weeks after randomization were conducted to examine immediate and longer-term effects. Setting Data was collected from participants recruited nationwide through online promotions. Participants A volunteer sample of adults aged 18 or older who owned an Android or iPhone smart phones. Intervention The mobile application gave feedback on sun protection (i.e., sun safety practices and sunburn risk) and alerted users to apply/reapply sunscreen and get out of the sun. Also, it displayed the hourly UV Index and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, time, and location. Main Outcomes and Measures Percent of days using sun protection and days and minutes outdoors in the midday sun and number of sunburns in the past 3 months were assesed. Results Treatment group participants used wide-brimmed hats more at 7-weeks than controls. Women who used Solar Cell reported using all sun protection combined more than men but men and older individuals used sunscreen and hats less. Conclusions and Relevance The mobile application appeared to weakly improve sun protection initially. Use of the mobile application was higher than in a previous trial and associated with greater sun protection especially by women. Strategies to increase use are needed if the mobile app is to be effective deployed to the general adult population. PMID:25629819

  2. Effectiveness of Home Exercise on Pain, Function, and Strength of Manual Wheelchair Users With Spinal Cord Injury: A High-Dose Shoulder Program With Telerehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Van Straaten, Meegan; Cloud, Beth A.; Morrow, Melissa M.; Ludewig, Paula M.; Zhao, Kristin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a high-dose home exercise/telerehabilitation program for manual wheelchair users who have a spinal cord injury (SCI) and determine whether the intervention would reduce pain and increase function, as we hypothesized. Design A pre-post trial with outcomes measured at 3 time points: baseline, postintervention (12wk), and follow-up (24+ weeks). Setting Subjects performed an exercise program at their homes using telerehabilitation for therapist monitoring of technique and exercise advancement. Baseline and postintervention data were collected at a motion analysis laboratory in a tertiary medical center. Participants A convenience sample of manual wheelchair users (N = 16, 3 women; average age, 41y; average time in a wheelchair, 16y) with shoulder pain (average pain duration, 9y) and mechanical impingement signs on physical examination. Interventions A 12-week home exercise program of rotator cuff and scapular stabilization exercises was given to each participant. The program included a high dose of 3 sets of 30 repetitions, 3 times weekly, and regular physical therapist supervision via videoconferencing. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes of pain and function were measured with the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Index, and Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). Secondary outcomes of strength were measured with isometric strength tests of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral muscles, and a static fatigue test of the lower trapezius. Results Pain was reduced and function improved after the intervention. There was a significant main effect for pain and function between the 3 time points based on the Friedman signed-ranked test, WUSPI (χ22 = 5.10, P = .014), DASH Index (χ22 = 5.41, P = .012), and SRQ (χ22 = 23.71, P ≤.001). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests demonstrated that isometric strength measurements of the serratus anterior and scapular retractors increased after the

  3. Enhancing Adherence in Clinical Exercise Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Heather A.; Blair, Steven N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses exercise adherence from the perspective of adhering to an exercise treatment in a controlled trial, focusing on: adherence (to intervention and measurement); the development of randomized clinical trials; exemplary randomized clinical trials in exercise science (exercise training studies and physical activity interventions); and study…

  4. Evaluation of the effects of exercise and a mild hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular risk factors in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Himeno, E; Nishino, K; Nanri, H; Okazaki, T; Komatsu, T; Ikeda, M

    2001-03-01

    A weight reduction program to improve cardiovascular risk factors was implemented in obese subjects. The program consisted of exercise training corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (AT) and a mild hypocaloric diet for 12 weeks. In this program, we evaluated the effects of a combination of exercise training and a diet on cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and poor exercise performance in obese subjects. In addition, we also evaluated the independent effects of exercise training and dietary modification. For this purpose, we adopted a relative training time and a diet score. A relative training time was calculated as the number of times that the subject performed exercises divided by all of the training sessions scheduled, and the diet score was calculated from information which each subject provided on a self-assessment questionnaire. Twenty three obese subjects (Age: 24-54 years old, 19 men and 4 women, body mass index (BMI) > 26 kg/m2) participated in this study. After the 12-week intervention, the mean reductions in body weight, body mass index and body fat were 4.7 kg, 1.7 kg/m2 and 2.9%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The % change in body weight was significantly associated with the diet score and with the relative training time. The mean reductions in total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were 21 mg/dl (P < 0.002), 34 mg/dl (P < 0.01) and 15.9 mg/dl (P < 0.01), respectively, and the % change in triglyceride was significantly associated with the diet score (P = 0.0056) and tended to correlate with the relative training time (P = 0.0596). Oxygen uptake at AT and at peak exercise were increased from 14.1 +/- 1.6 to 16.0 +/- 3.1 ml/min/kg (P < 0.005) and from 26.3 +/- 4.8 to 28.4 +/- 4.9 ml/min/kg (P < 0.002), respectively. A combination of aerobic exercise and a mild hypocaloric diet significantly contributed not only to weight loss but also to the improvement of dyslipidemia and exercise performance, but

  5. Effects of a Renal Rehabilitation Exercise Program in Patients with CKD: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ana P.; Burris, Debra D.; Lucas, F. Leslie; Crocker, Gail A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Patients with CKD have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease associated with or exacerbated by inactivity. This randomized, controlled study investigated whether a renal rehabilitation exercise program for patients with stages 3 or 4 CKD would improve their physical function and quality of life. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In total, 119 adults with CKD stages 3 and 4 were randomized, and 107 of these patients proceeded to usual care or the renal rehabilitation exercise intervention consisting of usual care plus guided exercise two times per week for 12 weeks (24 sessions). Physical function was determined by three well established performance-based tests: 6-minute walk test, sit-to-stand test, and gait-speed test. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Results At baseline, no differences in self-reported level of activity, 6-minute walk test, and sit-to-stand test scores were observed between the usual care (n=48) and renal rehabilitation exercise (n=59) groups, although baseline gait-speed test score was higher in the renal rehabilitation exercise group (P<0.001). At follow-up, the renal rehabilitation exercise group but not the usual care group showed significant improvements in the 6-minute walk test (+210.4±266.0 ft [19% improvement] versus −10±219.9 ft; P<0.001), the sit-to-stand test (+26.9±27% of age prediction [29% improvement] versus +0.7±12.1% of age prediction; P<0.001), and the RAND-36 physical measures of role functioning (P<0.01), physical functioning (P<0.01), energy/fatigue levels (P=0.01), and general health (P=0.03) and mental measure of pain scale (P=0.04). The renal rehabilitation exercise regimen was generally well tolerated. Conclusions A 12-week/24-session renal rehabilitation exercise program improved physical capacity and quality of life in patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Longer follow-up is needed to determine if these findings will

  6. Cardiac adaptation to endurance exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Fenning, Andrew; Harrison, Glenn; Dwyer, Dan; Rose'Meyer, Roselyn; Brown, Lindsay

    2003-09-01

    Endurance exercise is widely assumed to improve cardiac function in humans. This project has determined cardiac function following endurance exercise for 6 (n = 30) or 12 (n = 25) weeks in male Wistar rats (8 weeks old). The exercise protocol was 30 min/day at 0.8 km/h for 5 days/week with an endurance test on the 6th day by running at 1.2 km/h until exhaustion. Exercise endurance increased by 318% after 6 weeks and 609% after 12 weeks. Heart weight/kg body weight increased by 10.2% after 6 weeks and 24.1% after 12 weeks. Echocardiography after 12 weeks showed increases in left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (6.39 +/- 0.32 to 7.90 +/- 0.17 mm), systolic volume (49 +/- 7 to 83 +/- 11 miccrol) and cardiac output (75 +/- 3 to 107 +/- 8 ml/min) but not left wall thickness in diastole (1.74 +/- 0.07 to 1.80 +/- 0.06 mm). Isolated Langendorff hearts from trained rats displayed decreased left ventricular myocardial stiffness (22 +/- 1.1 to 19.1 +/- 0.3) and reduced purine efflux during pacing-induced workload increases. 31P-NMR spectroscopy in isolated hearts from trained rats showed decreased PCr and PCr/ATP ratios with increased creatine, AMP and ADP concentrations. Thus, this endurance exercise protocol resulted in physiological hypertrophy while maintaining or improving cardiac function. PMID:14575304

  7. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  8. [Physical exercise as a supplement to diet. Effect on body composition, resting metabolic rate and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal overweight women].

    PubMed

    Svendsen, O L; Hassager, C; Christiansen, C

    1994-10-10

    One hundred and twenty-one healthy, overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to three groups: controls (no intervention), a 4200 kJ/day diet, or 4200 kJ/day diet with combined aerobic and anaerobic exercise, for 12 weeks. One hundred and eighteen women completed the study. The loss of weight was similar in the two intervention groups, but compared with the diet-only group, the diet-plus-exercise group lost significantly more fat (7.8 vs 9.6 kg) and no lean tissue mass (1.2 vs 0.0 kg). The resting metabolic rate was increased in the diet-plus-exercise group as compared to the controls (11% vs 4%, p < 0.009). The cardiovascular risk factors (serum lipids and lipoproteins (except high density lipoprotein), systolic blood pressure, and the waist-to-hip ratio) decreased significantly in both intervention groups, as compared to the controls. There were no consistent, major differences between groups in changes in total body, spinal, or forearm bone mineral density. In conclusion, overweight postmenopausal women benefit from addition of combined aerobic and anaerobic exercise to an energy-restrictive diet. PMID:7992446

  9. Attitudes towards exercise and physical activity behaviours in Greek schoolchildren after a year long health education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulos, A D; Douda, H T; Polykratis, M; Tokmakidis, S P

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the short term effects of a health education programme on Greek primary schoolchildren Methods The school based intervention programme was applied to 29 children in the 6th grade of the 2nd Primary School of Agios Stefanos (∼12 000 inhabitants); 49 pupils from the 1st Primary School constituted the control group. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, attitude and behavioural variables were measured before and after the intervention. Results After adjustment for initial differences in the assessed variables, pupils who took part in the intervention had more positive attitudes towards physical activity than the control group and scored significantly more highly on their intention to participate in physical activity. Moreover, pupils in the intervention group reported more hours/week spent in organised physical activities than pupils in the control group (mean (SD) 3.54 (0.32) v 2.54 (0.26), p<0.020). Finally, a higher proportion of pupils in the intervention classes matched the recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily (77.4% v 55.1%, p<0.043). Conclusions Within the limitations of the study, the data show that school health education programmes have the potential to slow the age related decline in physical activity and help pupils establish lifelong, healthy physical activity patterns. Promoting healthy habits and physical activity behaviours during childhood may prevent some of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Greek population, and also decrease direct healthcare costs and improve quality of life. PMID:16556796

  10. The effect of exercise intervention on frail elderly in need of care: half-day program in a senior day-care service facility specializing in functional training.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Miura, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the long-term effect of a half-day exercise intervention program on health-related quality of life, life function, and physical function in frail elderly in need of care. The program was conducted at a senior day-care facility specializing in functional training. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 41 elderly in need of care who had visited the service facility for at least 1 year. Physical function and life function were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form-36 at baseline and 12 months. [Results] Improvements in balance, walking speed and endurance, complex performance abilities, self-efficacy during the activities, and the level and sphere of activity were observed at 6 months and maintained up to 12 months. Moreover, improvements in agility, activities of daily living, life function, and quality of life were also observed at 12 months. Improvements in muscle strength, walking ability, self-efficacy over an action, and activities of daily living were related to the improvement in quality of life. [Conclusion] The use of individualized exercise programs developed by physiotherapists led to improvements in activities of daily living and quality of life among elderly in need of care. PMID:27512243

  11. The effect of exercise intervention on frail elderly in need of care: half-day program in a senior day-care service facility specializing in functional training

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Miura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the long-term effect of a half-day exercise intervention program on health-related quality of life, life function, and physical function in frail elderly in need of care. The program was conducted at a senior day-care facility specializing in functional training. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 41 elderly in need of care who had visited the service facility for at least 1 year. Physical function and life function were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Quality of life was evaluated with the Short Form-36 at baseline and 12 months. [Results] Improvements in balance, walking speed and endurance, complex performance abilities, self-efficacy during the activities, and the level and sphere of activity were observed at 6 months and maintained up to 12 months. Moreover, improvements in agility, activities of daily living, life function, and quality of life were also observed at 12 months. Improvements in muscle strength, walking ability, self-efficacy over an action, and activities of daily living were related to the improvement in quality of life. [Conclusion] The use of individualized exercise programs developed by physiotherapists led to improvements in activities of daily living and quality of life among elderly in need of care. PMID:27512243

  12. Research staff training in a multisite randomized clinical trial: Methods and recommendations from the Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robrina; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2014-01-01

    Background Descriptions of and recommendations for meeting the challenges of training research staff for multisite studies are limited despite the recognized importance of training on trial outcomes. The STRIDE (STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise) study is a multisite randomized clinical trial that was conducted at nine addiction treatment programs across the United States within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and evaluated the addition of exercise to addiction treatment as usual (TAU), compared to health education added to TAU, for individuals with stimulant abuse or dependence. Research staff administered a variety of measures that required a range of interviewing, technical, and clinical skills. Purpose In order to address the absence of information on how research staff are trained for multisite clinical studies, the current manuscript describes the conceptual process of training and certifying research assistants for STRIDE. Methods Training was conducted using a three-stage process to allow staff sufficient time for distributive learning, practice, and calibration leading up to implementation of this complex study. Results Training was successfully implemented with staff across nine sites. Staff demonstrated evidence of study and procedural knowledge via quizzes and skill demonstration on six measures requiring certification. Overall, while the majority of staff had little to no experience in the six measures, all research assistants demonstrated ability to correctly and reliably administer the measures throughout the study. Conclusions Practical recommendations are provided for training research staff and are particularly applicable to the challenges encountered with large, multisite trials. PMID:25379036

  13. Nutritional Approach for Relief of Joint Discomfort: A 12-week, Open-case Series and Illustrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Robert H.; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Konda, Veera; Desai, Anuradha; Montalto, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Context Tetrahydro iso-α acids (THIAAs), derived from Humulus lupulus (hops), have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Undenatured type 2 collagen has been found to be effective in clinical studies in RA and osteoarthritis (OA). Objective The study intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a proprietary tablet containing 150 mg of n-enriched THIAA (nTHIAA) and 10 mg of undenatured type 2 collagen (UC-II) (containing 25% UC-II) in patients with arthritis. Design The study was an open-label case series. This article also includes a case history for 1 participant. Setting The study was conducted at the Functional Medicine Research Center (FMRC) in Gig Harbor, WA, USA, from February 2013–June 2013. Participants Participants were 17 adults, 12 women, and 5 men aged 39–69 y, who had chronic joint pain involving various joints, 13 with probable OA and 4 with possible RA. Intervention Participants took 2 tablets of nTHIAA + UC-II 2 ×/d with meals for 12 wk. Outcome Measures Participants completed arthritis-related and quality-of-life questionnaires, at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12: (1) the visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P); (2) the medical symptoms questionnaire (MSQ), with the analysis particularly focusing on the joint/muscle subscale and total scores; (3) the health and wellness outcome questionnaire (MOS-SF36), with the analysis particularly focusing on the physical and mental subscales; (4) the arthritis impact questionnaire (AIQ), with the analysis particularly focusing on the arthritis symptoms and daily living subscales; (5) the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ-DI) with the analysis particularly focusing on question 26 (Q26), which indicates overall pain during the week prior to the survey; and (6) the arthritis impact measurement scales 2 (AIMS2). At 12 wk, participants also completed the visual analog scale for efficacy (VAS-E). Results All participants completed the 12-wk evaluation

  14. Comparative effect of 12 weeks of slow and fast pranayama training on pulmonary function in young, healthy volunteers: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, T; Gaur, GS; Sharma, VK; Madanmohan, T; Harichandra Kumar, KT; Bhavanani, AB

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pranayamas are breathing techniques that exert profound physiological effects on pulmonary, cardiovascular, and mental functions. Previous studies demonstrate that different types of pranayamas produce divergent effects. Aim: The aim was to compare the effect of 12 weeks of slow and fast pranayama training on pulmonary function in young, healthy volunteers. Settings and Design: This study was carried out in Departments of Physiology and ACYTER, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Ninety one healthy volunteers were randomized into slow pranayama group (SPG), n =29, fast pranayama group (FPG), n = 32 and control groups (CG) (n = 30). Supervised pranayama training (SPG: Nadisodhana, Pranav pranayama and Savitri pranayama; FPG: Kapalabhati, Bhastrika and Kukkriya pranayama) was given for 30 min/day, thrice/week for 12 weeks by certified yoga instructors. Pulmonary function parameters (PFT) such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), ratio between FEV1 and FVC (FEV1 /FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and forced expiratory flow25-75 (FEF25-75), were recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks of pranayama training using the computerized spirometer (Micro laboratory V1.32, England). Results: In SPG, PEFR, and FEF25-75 improved significantly (P < 0.05) while other parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1 /FVC, and MVV) showed only marginal improvements. In FPG, FEV1 /FVC, PEFR, and FEF25-75 parameters improved significantly (P < 0.05), while FVC, FEV1, and MVV did not show significant (P > 0.05) change. No significant change was observed in CG. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of pranayama training in young subjects showed improvement in the commonly measured PFT. This indicates that pranayama training improved pulmonary function and that this was more pronounced in the FPG. PMID:25558130

  15. A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Jae-Hak; Hong, Ju; Choi, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment. PMID:24678503

  16. Sofosbuvir with peginterferon-ribavirin for 12 weeks in previously treated patients with hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lawitz, Eric; Poordad, Fred; Brainard, Diana M; Hyland, Robert H; An, Di; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Symonds, William T; McHutchison, John G; Membreno, Fernando E

    2015-01-01

    Sofosbuvir (SOF) in combination with ribavirin (RBV) for 12 or 24 weeks is the current standard of care for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 2 and 3, respectively. However, in clinical trials treatment-experienced patients, particularly those with cirrhosis, had suboptimal sustained virological response (SVR) rates. We assessed the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus peginterferon and ribavirin (SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV) administered for 12 weeks to treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, with and without cirrhosis. We enrolled 47 patients in this open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled phase 2 study. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with SVR at 12 weeks after cessation of study treatment (SVR12). The overall rate of SVR12 was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77-97). Rates of SVR12 were higher in patients with genotype 2 than in those with genotype 3, 96% (95% CI: 78-100) and 83% (95% CI: 62-95), respectively. Rates of SVR12 were similar in patients with and without cirrhosis: for genotype 2, 93% of patients with cirrhosis and 100% of patients without cirrhosis achieved SVR12, and for genotype 3, the SVR12 rate was 83% in patients both with and without cirrhosis. One patient discontinued study treatment because of an adverse event and four patients experienced serious adverse events. The most common adverse events were influenza-like illness, fatigue, anemia, and neutropenia. Conclusion: In treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, 12-week administration of SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV provided high SVR rates, irrespective of cirrhosis status. No safety concerns were identified. (Hepatology 2015;61:769–775) PMID:25322962

  17. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%). PMID:23652638

  18. Residual {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao; Widder, Joachim; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically inoperable patients with proven Stage I NSCLC or FDG-PET-positive primary lung tumors were analyzed retrospectively. SABR consisted of 60 Gy delivered in 3 to 8 fractions. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the treated lesion was assessed 12 weeks after SABR, using FDG-PET. Patients were subsequently followed at regular intervals using computed tomography (CT) scans. Association between post-SABR SUV{sub max} and local control (LC), mediastinal failure, distant failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 3-40 months). Median lesion size was 25 mm (range, 9-70 mm). There were 6 local failures: 15 mediastinal failures, 15 distant failures, 13 disease-related deaths, and 16 deaths from intercurrent diseases. Glucose corrected post-SABR median SUV{sub max} was 3.0 (range, 0.55-14.50). Using SUV{sub max} 5.0 as a cutoff, the 2-year LC was 80% versus 97.7% for high versus low SUV{sub max}, yielding an adjusted subhazard ratio (SHR) for high post-SABR SUV{sub max} of 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-38.5; p = 0.019). Two-year DSS rates were 74% versus 91%, respectively, for high and low SUV{sub max} values (SHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.3; p = 0.113). Two-year OS was 62% versus 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.7; p = 0.268). Conclusions: Residual FDG uptake (SUV{sub max} {>=}5.0) 12 weeks after SABR signifies increased risk of local failure. A single FDG-PET scan at 12 weeks could be used to tailor further follow-up according to the risk of failure, especially in patients potentially eligible for salvage surgery.

  19. Dietary Intervention Restored Menses in Female Athletes with Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction with Limited Impact on Bone and Muscle Health

    PubMed Central

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Guebels, Charlotte P.; Maddalozzo, Gianni F.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) is associated with low energy availability (EA), decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. We investigated whether a 6-month carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO) supplement (360 kcal/day, 54 g CHO/day, 20 g PRO/day) intervention would improve energy status and musculoskeletal health and restore menses in female athletes (n = 8) with ExMD. At pre/post-intervention, reproductive and thyroid hormones, bone health (BMD, bone mineral content, bone markers), muscle strength/power and protein metabolism markers, profile of mood state (POMS), and energy intake (EI)/energy expenditure (7 day food/activity records) were measured. Eumenorrheic athlete controls with normal menses (Eumen); n = 10) were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate differences between groups and pre/post-intervention blocking on participants. Improvements in EI (+382 kcal/day; p = 0.12), EA (+417 kcal/day; p = 0.17) and energy balance (EB; +466 kcal/day; p = 0.14) were observed with the intervention but were not statistically significant. ExMD resumed menses (2.6 ± 2.2-months to first menses; 3.5 ± 1.9 cycles); one remaining anovulatory with menses. Female athletes with ExMD for >8 months took longer to resume menses/ovulation and had lower BMD (low spine (ExMD = 3; Eumen = 1); low hip (ExMD = 2)) than those with ExMD for <8 months; for 2 ExMD the intervention improved spinal BMD. POMS fatigue scores were 15% lower in ExMD vs. Eumen (p = 0.17); POMS depression scores improved by 8% in ExMD (p = 0.12). EI, EA, and EB were similar between groups, but the intervention (+360 kcal/day) improved energy status enough to reverse ExMD despite no statistically significant changes in EI. Similar baseline EA and EB between groups suggests that some ExMD athletes are more sensitive to EA and EB fluctuations. PMID:25090245

  20. Effects of spinal manipulation versus therapeutic exercise on adults with chronic low back pain: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Merepeza, Alban

    2014-01-01

    Background Context: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a prevalent disorder that has a significant burden to society in terms of loss of work time and increased economic cost. Two common treatment choices of intervention for CLBP are spinal manipulation and prescribed exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of spinal manipulation vs prescribed exercise for patients diagnosed with CLBP. Studies that compared head-to-head spinal manipulation to an exercise group were included in this review. Methods: A search of the current literature was conducted using a keyword process in CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials Database, Medline, and Embase. The search was conducted on, and included studies available up to August 29th 2014. Studies were included based on PICOS criteria 1) individuals with CLBP defined as lasting 12 weeks or longer; 2) spinal manipulation performed by a health care practitioner; 3) prescribed exercise for the treatment of CLBP and monitored by a health care practitioner; 4) measurable clinical outcomes for reducing pain, disability or improving function; 5) randomized controlled trials. The quality of included articles was determined by the author using the criteria developed and used by the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Results: Three randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria of this systematic review and were included in this review. The outcomes used in these studies included Disability Indexes, Pain Scales and function improvement scales. The results included a mix of effects with one study finding spinal manipulation as more effective and another finding the exercises more so. The third study found both interventions offering equal effects in the long term. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this systematic review there is no conclusive evidence that clearly favours spinal manipulation or exercise as more effective in treatment of CLBP. More studies are needed to

  1. Behaviour-change intervention in a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled COPD study: methodological considerations and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Bourbeau, Jean; Lavoie, Kim L; De Sousa, Dorothy; Erzen, Damijan; Hamilton, Alan; Maltais, François; Troosters, Thierry; Leidy, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is generally progressive and associated with reduced physical activity. Both pharmacological therapy and exercise training can improve exercise capacity; however, these are often not sufficient to change the amount of daily physical activity a patient undertakes. Behaviour-change self-management programmes are designed to address this, including setting motivational goals and providing social support. We present and discuss the necessary methodological considerations when integrating behaviour-change interventions into a multicentre study. Methods and analysis PHYSACTO is a 12-week phase IIIb study assessing the effects on exercise capacity and physical activity of once-daily tiotropium+olodaterol 5/5 µg with exercise training, tiotropium+olodaterol 5/5 µg without exercise training, tiotropium 5 µg or placebo, with all pharmacological interventions administered via the Respimat inhaler. Patients in all intervention arms receive a behaviour-change self-management programme to provide an optimal environment for translating improvements in exercise capacity into increases in daily physical activity. To maximise the likelihood of success, special attention is given in the programme to: (1) the Site Case Manager, with careful monitoring of programme delivery; (2) the patient, incorporating patient-evaluation/programme-evaluation measures to guide the Site Case Manager in the self-management intervention; and (3) quality assurance, to help identify and correct any problems or shortcomings in programme delivery and ensure the effectiveness of any corrective steps. This paper documents the comprehensive methods used to optimise and standardise the behaviour-change self-management programme used in the study to facilitate dialogue on the inclusion of this type of programme in multicentre studies. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the relevant Institutional Review Boards, Independent Ethics

  2. The relationship between stress, HPA axis functioning and brain structure in first episode psychosis over the first 12 weeks of treatment.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Garner, Belinda; Phassouliotis, Christina; Phillips, Lisa J; Markulev, Connie; Pantelis, Christos; Bendall, Sarah; McGorry, Patrick D; Wood, Stephen J

    2015-02-28

    Stress and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning have been implicated in the early phase of psychosis and may partly explain reported changes in brain structure. This study used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether biological measures of stress were related to brain structure at baseline and to structural changes over the first 12 weeks of treatment in first episode patients (n=22) compared with matched healthy controls (n=22). At baseline, no significant group differences in biological measures of stress, cortical thickness or hippocampal volume were observed, but a significantly stronger relationship between baseline levels of cortisol and smaller white matter volumes of the cuneus and anterior cingulate was found in patients compared with controls. Over the first 12 weeks of treatment, patients showed a significant reduction in thickness of the posterior cingulate compared with controls. Patients also showed a significant positive relationship between baseline cortisol and increases in hippocampal volume over time, suggestive of brain swelling in association with psychotic exacerbation, while no such relationship was observed in controls. The current findings provide some support for the involvement of stress mechanisms in the pathophysiology of early psychosis, but the changes are subtle and warrant further investigation. PMID:25492856

  3. Low-dose memantine attenuated methadone dose in opioid-dependent patients: a 12-week double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose memantine might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. We investigated whether add-on memantine reduced cytokine levels and benefitted patients with opioid dependence undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a group: Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 53) or Placebo (n = 75). The methadone dose required and retention in treatment were monitored. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12. General linear mixed models were used to examine therapeutic effect. After 12 weeks, Memantine-group required a somewhat lower methadone dose than did Placebo-group (P = 0.039). They also had significantly lower plasma TNF-α and significantly higher TGF-β1 levels. We provide evidence of the benefit of add-on memantine in opioid dependent patients undergoing MMT. PMID:25988317

  4. The immediate and long-term effects of exercise and patient education on physical, functional, and quality-of-life outcome measures after single-level lumbar microdiscectomy: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Selkowitz, David M; Kulig, Kornelia; Poppert, Elizabeth M; Flanagan, Sean P; Matthews, Ndidiamaka D; Beneck, George J; Popovich, John M; Lona, Jose R; Yamada, Kimiko A; Burke, Wendy S; Ervin, Carolyn; Powers, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Background Low back pain remains a costly quality-of-life-related health problem. Microdiscectomy is often the surgical procedure of choice for a symptomatic, single-level, lumbar disc herniation in younger and middle-aged adults. The question of whether a post-microdiscectomy exercise program enhances function, quality of life, and disability status has not been systematically explored. Thus, the overall purpose of this study is to assess immediate and long-term outcomes of an exercise program, developed at University of Southern California (USC), targeting the trunk and lower extremities (USC Spine Exercise Program) for persons who have undergone a single-level microdiscectomy for the first time. Methods/design One hundred individuals between the ages of 18 and 60 who consent to undergo lumbar microdiscectomy will be recruited to participate in this study. Subjects will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1) one session of back care education, or 2) a back care education session followed by the 12-week USC Spine Exercise Program. The outcome examiners (evaluators), as well as the data managers, will be blinded to group allocation. Education will consist of a one-hour "one-on-one" session with the intervention therapist, guided by an educational booklet specifically designed for post-microdiscectomy care. This session will occur four to six weeks after surgery. The USC Spine Exercise Program consists of two parts: back extensor strength and endurance, and mat and upright therapeutic exercises. This exercise program is goal-oriented, performance-based, and periodized. It will begin two to three days after the education session, and will occur three times a week for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures include the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, SF-36® quality of life assessment, Subjective Quality of Life Scale, 50-foot Walk, Repeated Sit-to-Stand, and a modified Sorensen test. The outcome measures in the study will

  5. Identification of relevant ICF categories for indication, intervention planning and evaluation of health resort programs: a Delphi exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, E.; Weigl, M.; Schuh, A.; Stucki, G.

    2006-01-01

    Health resort programs have a long tradition, mainly in European countries and Japan. They rely on local resources and the physical environment, physical medicine interventions and traditional medicine to optimise functioning and health. Arguably because of the long tradition, there is only a limited number of high-quality studies that examine the effectiveness of health resort programs. Specific challenges to the evaluation of health resort programs are to randomise the holistic approach with a varying number of specific interventions but also the reliance on the effect of the physical environment. Reference standards for the planning and reporting of health resort studies would be highly beneficial. With the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF), we now have such a standard that allows us to describe body functions and structures, activities and participation and interaction with environmental factors. A major challenge when applying the ICF in practice is its length. Therefore, the objective of this project was to identify the ICF categories most relevant for health resort programs. We conducted a consensus-building, three-round, e-mail survey using the Delphi technique. Based on the consensus of the experts, it was possible to come up with an ICF Core Set that can serve as reference standards for the indication, intervention planning and evaluation of health resort programs. This preliminary ICF Core Set should be tested in different regions and in subsets of health resort visitors with varying conditions.

  6. Coronary atheroma regression and plaque characteristics assessed by grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound after aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Madssen, Erik; Moholdt, Trine; Videm, Vibeke; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hegbom, Knut; Wiseth, Rune

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of aerobic interval training (AIT) versus moderate continuous training (MCT) on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with significant coronary artery disease on optimal medical treatment. Thirty-six patients were randomized to AIT (intervals at ≈ 90% of peak heart rate) or MCT (continuous exercise at ≈ 70% of peak heart rate) 3 times a week for 12 weeks after intracoronary stent implantation. Grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasounds (IVUS) were performed at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was the change in plaque burden, and the secondary end points were change in necrotic core and plaque vulnerability. Separate lesions were classified using radiofrequency IVUS criteria. We demonstrated that necrotic core was reduced in both groups in defined coronary segments (AIT -3.2%, MCT -2.7%, p <0.05) and in separate lesions (median change -2.3% and -0.15 mm(3), p <0.05). Plaque burden was reduced by 10.7% in separate lesions independent of intervention group (p = 0.06). No significant differences in IVUS parameters were found between exercise groups. A minority of separate lesions were transformed in terms of plaque vulnerability during follow-up with large individual differences between and within patients. In conclusion, changes in coronary artery plaque structure or morphology did not differ between patients who underwent AIT or MCT. The combination of regular aerobic exercise and optimal medical treatment for 12 weeks induced a moderate regression of necrotic core and plaque burden in IVUS-defined coronary lesions. PMID:25248813

  7. Safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise program in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bankolé, Landry-Cyrille; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Temesi, John; Bachasson, Damien; Ravelojaona, Marion; Wuyam, Bernard; Verges, Samuel; Ponsot, Elodie; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Kadi, Fawzi; Féasson, Léonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous randomized controlled trials investigating exercise training programs in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients are scarce and of short duration only. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise training program on fitness, muscle, and motor function in FSHD patients. Methods: Sixteen FSHD patients were randomly assigned to training (TG) and control (CG) groups (both n = 8) in a home-based exercise intervention. Training consisted of cycling 3 times weekly for 35 minutes (combination of strength, high-intensity interval, and low-intensity aerobic) at home for 24 weeks. Patients in CG also performed an identical training program (CTG) after 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured every 6 weeks. The principal secondary outcomes were maximal quadriceps strength (MVC) and local quadriceps endurance every 12 weeks. Other outcome measures included maximal aerobic power (MAP) and experienced fatigue every 6 weeks, 6-minute walking distance every 12 weeks, and muscle characteristics from vastus lateralis biopsies taken pre- and postintervention. Results: The compliance rate was 91% in TG. Significant improvements with training were observed in the VO2 peak (+19%, P = 0.002) and MAP by week 6 and further to week 24. Muscle endurance, MVC, and 6-minute walking distance increased and experienced fatigue decreased. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area and citrate synthase activity increased by 34% (P = 0.008) and 46% (P = 0.003), respectively. Dystrophic pathophysiologic patterns were not exacerbated. Similar improvements were experienced by TG and CTG. Conclusions: A combined strength and interval cycling exercise-training program compatible with patients’ daily professional and social activities leads to significant functional benefits without compromising muscle tissue. PMID:27495097

  8. Design of the EXercise Intervention after Stem cell Transplantation (EXIST) study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individualized high intensity physical exercise program on fitness and fatigue in patients with multiple myeloma or (non-) Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of high-dose chemotherapy combined with autologous stem cell transplantation has improved the outcome of hematologic malignancies. Nevertheless, this treatment can cause persistent fatigue and a reduced global quality of life, role and physical function. Physical exercise interventions may be beneficial for physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life. However, the trials conducted so far to test the effects of physical exercise interventions in this group of patients were of poor to moderate methodological quality and economic evaluations are lacking. Hence there is need for a rigorous, appropriately controlled assessment of the effectiveness of exercise programs in these patients. The aims of the present study are (1) to determine the effectiveness of an individualized high intensity strength and interval training program with respect to physiological and psychological health status in patients with multiple myeloma or (non-)Hodgkin's lymphoma who have recently undergone high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation; and (2) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program. Methods A multicenter, prospective, single blind randomized controlled trial will be performed. We aim to recruit 120 patients within an inclusion period of 2 years at 7 hospitals in the Netherlands. The patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) intervention plus usual care; or (2) usual care. The intervention consists of an 18-week individualized supervised high-intensity exercise program and counselling. The primary outcomes (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and fatigue) and secondary outcomes are assessed at baseline, at completion of the intervention and at 12 months follow-up. Discussion The strengths of this study include the solid trial design with clearly defined research groups and standardized outcome measures, the inclusion of an economic evaluation and the inclusion of both resistance and endurance

  9. Effects of two programs of exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seron, Bruna Barboza; Silva, Renan Alvarenga C.; Greguol, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of a 12 week aerobic and resistance exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with 41 adolescents with Down syndrome, aged 15.5±2.7 years, divided into three groups: Aerobic Training Group (ATG; n=16), Resisted Training Group (RTG; n=15) and Control Group (CG; n=10). There were two types of training: aerobic, with intensity of 50-70% of the heart rate reserve 3 times/week, and resisted, with intensity of 12 maximum repetitions 2 times week. Both trainings were applied during a 12-week period. The percentage of fat evaluation was performed using plethysmography with Bod Pod(r) equipment. Waist circumference (WC), body weight and height were also measured. Paired t-test was used to compare variables before and after the exercise program. Results: The percentage of body fat did not change significantly for both groups that participated in the training intervention. However, CG showed a significant increase in this variable (31.3±7.2 versus 34.0±7.9). On the other hand, body mass index (BMI) and WC were significantly reduced for ATG (BMI: 27.0±4.4 and 26.5±4.2; WC: 87.3±11.1 and 86.2±9.7), while RTG and GC showed no differences in these variables. Conclusions: The aerobic and resisted training programs maintained body fat levels. ATG significantly reduced BMI and WC measures. Individuals who did not attend the training intervention increased their percentage of fat. PMID:24676196

  10. A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise is consistently recommended for older adults with knee pain related to osteoarthritis. However, the effects from exercise are typically small and short-term, likely linked to insufficient individualisation of the exercise programme and limited attention to supporting exercise adherence over time. The BEEP randomised trial aims to improve patients’ short and long-term outcomes from exercise. It will test the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two physiotherapy-led exercise interventions (Individually Tailored Exercise and Targeted Exercise Adherence) to improve the individual tailoring of, and adherence to exercise, compared with usual physiotherapy care. Methods/design Based on the learning from a pilot study (ISRCTN 23294263), the BEEP trial is a multi-centre, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with embedded longitudinal qualitative interviews. 500 adults in primary care, aged 45 years and over with knee pain will be randomised to 1 of 3 treatment groups delivered by fully trained physiotherapists in up to 6 NHS services. These are: Usual Physiotherapy Care (control group consisting of up to 4 treatment sessions of advice and exercise), Individually Tailored Exercise (an individualised, supervised and progressed lower-limb exercise programme) or Targeted Exercise Adherence (supporting patients to adhere to exercise and to engage in general physical activity over the longer-term). The primary outcomes are pain and function as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis index. A comprehensive range of secondary outcomes are also included. Outcomes are measured at 3, 6 (primary outcome time-point), 9, 18 and 36 months. Data on adverse events will also be collected. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a subsample of 30 participants (10 from each treatment group) will be undertaken at two time-points (end of treatment and 12 to 18 months later) and analysed thematically

  11. Effect of physical activity intervention based on a pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with weight gain in women, and retention of weight gained during pregnancy can lead to obesity in later life. Diet and physical activity are factors that can influence the loss of retained pregnancy weight after birth. Exercise guidelines exist for pregnancy, but recommendations for exercise after childbirth are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity intervention based on pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures of women after childbirth. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 66 women who had given birth 6 weeks to 6 months prior were randomly assigned to receive either a 12 week tailored program encouraging increased walking using a pedometer (intervention group, n = 32) or routine postpartum care (control group, n = 34). During the 12-week study period, each woman in the intervention group wore a pedometer and recorded her daily step count. The women were advised to increase their steps by 500 per week until they achieved the first target of 5000 steps per day and then continued to increase it to minimum of 10,000 steps per day by the end of 12th week. Assessed outcomes included anthropometric measures, physical activity level, and energy expenditure per week. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Wilcoxon, covariance analysis, and the general linear model repeated measures procedure as appropriate. Results After 12 weeks, women in the intervention group had significantly increased their physical activity and energy expenditure per week (4394 vs. 1651 calorie, p < 0.001). Significant differences between-group in weight (P = 0.001), Body Mass Index (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.001), hip circumference (P = 0.032) and waist-hip ratio (P = 0.02) were presented after the intervention. The intervention group significantly increased their mean daily step count

  12. Participation in a Twelve-Week Moderate Exercise Program--Selected Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyness, G. B. Jerry

    1990-01-01

    Adults (N=142) who engaged in a 12-week moderate exercise program requiring the maintenance of training state exercise heart rates for a minimum of 20 minutes, 3 times a week, experienced an improvement in cardiovascular functioning regardless of age and/or sex. (Author/IAH)

  13. Exercise training improves cardiopulmonary and endothelial function in women with breast cancer: findings from the Diana-5 dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Vitelli, Alessandra; Maresca, Luigi; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Gentile, Marco; Mancini, Maria; Grieco, Alessandra; Russo, Angelo; Lucci, Rosa; Torella, Giorgio; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether exercise training (ET) improves cardiopulmonary and endothelial function in women with breast cancer (BC). Fifty-one female patients (aged between 39 and 72 years) with a history of primary invasive BC within the previous 5 years and enrolled in the Mediterranean diet-based DIANA (diet and androgens)-5 Trial were subdivided into 2 groups: an ET group (n = 25) followed a formal ET program of moderate intensity (3 session/week on a bicycle at 60-70 % VO2peak for 3 months, followed by one session/week until 1-year follow-up), while a control group (n = 26) did not perform any formal ET. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, all patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise stress test (CPET) and measurements of vascular endothelial function by peripheral artery tonometry (Reactive Hyperemia Index, RHI). There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline anthropometrical, BC characteristics, and metabolic profile. No differences in baseline CPET and RHI parameters were found. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) significantly increased in ET group (from 12.4 ± 2.9 to 14.3 ± 3.3 mL/kg/min, p < 0.001) compared to the control group (from 12.8 ± 2.5 to 12.6 ± 2.8 mL/kg/min, p = 0.55; p < 0.001 between groups). Compared to the control group (from 2.0 ± 0.4 to 1.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.62), the ET group showed a significant improvement of RHI after 1 year (from 2.1 ± 0.7 to 2.5 ± 0.8, p < 0.001). Changes in VO2peak were correlated with changes in RHI (ΔVO2peak vs. ΔRHI: r = 0.47, p = 0.017). In BC survivors, ET program improves cardiopulmonary functional capacity and vascular endothelial function after 12 months. Whether these changes may favorably modulate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms implied in cancer evolution should be investigated. PMID:26016834

  14. Serum steroid concentrations remain within normal postmenopausal values in women receiving daily 6.5mg intravaginal prasterone for 12weeks.

    PubMed

    Martel, Céline; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Lavoie, Lyne; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-05-01

    This study integrates all data obtained in women aged 40-80years enrolled with moderate to severe symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) who received daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5mg) dehydroepiandr