Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R
This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.
Herring, L Y; Wagstaff, C; Scott, A
The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of adding either aerobic training (AT) or resistance training (RT) to a multidisciplinary teamed (MDT) educational weight management programme on the health-related fitness of morbidly obese individuals. Males (n = 9) and females (n = 24) aged between 24 and 68 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥40 kg m(2) (≥35 kg m(2) with comorbidities) undertaking a weight management programme were recruited (Completion: M = 8, F = 19). Participants were randomly allocated to either AT (n = 12), RT (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). AT and RT undertook three structured ∼60 min moderate intensity sessions weekly, two supervised gym-based and one structured home-based session for 12 weeks; CON undertook usual care alone. Anthropometric, psychological and functional capacity measures were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Both exercise interventions elicited improvements compared with CON in the: shuttle walk test (AT [Δ 207.0 ± 123.0 metres, 68.0%, P = 0.04], RT [Δ 165.0 ± 183.3 m, 48.8%, P = 0.06], CON [Δ -14.3 ± 38.7 m, -6.2%]), triceps skin-fold (P ≤ 0.001), self-efficacy (P = 0.005) and interest/enjoyment (P = 0.006). RT displayed additional improvements compared with CON in BMI (RT [Δ -1.02 ± 0.91 kg·m(2) , -2.5%, P = 0.033], AT [Δ -1.84 ± 2.70 kg·m(2) , -4.3%, P = 0.142], CON [Δ -0.31 ± 1.47 kg·m(2) , -0.6%]), waist circumference (P = 0.022), competence (P = 0.019), biceps skin-fold (P = 0.012) and medial calf skin-fold (P = 0.013). No significant differences were observed between exercise modalities. Regardless of exercise mode, the addition of supervised and structured exercise to a MDT weight management programme significantly improved anthropometric, functional and psychological measures in obese participants with a BMI of ≥35 kg·m(2) .
Roh, Su Yeon
The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly.
Pearson, Erin S; Hall, Craig R; Gammage, Kimberley L
Self-presentational concerns, shown to influence exercise-related cognitions and behaviours, are evaluated frequently in the absence of exercise or following a single bout of physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally, the extent to which participating in a structured 12-week cardiovascular exercise intervention elicited changes in self-presentational efficacy expectancy (SPEE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). Participants were 80 sedentary women with overweight or obesity (mean body mass index 29.02 kg/m(2), SD=4.71) between the ages of 19 and 45 wanting to begin an exercise programme (mean age 33.4 years, SD=7.6). The Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) were completed by each participant prior to commencing the study, and at the 6- and 12-week time points. For those who completed the programme, repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant increases in SPEE between baseline and week 6 (P<0.001, η(2)=0.37), and week 6 to 12 (P<0.05, η(2)=0.10), while SPA decreased significantly between baseline and week 6 (P<0.01, η(2)=0.16). Bivariate correlation analyses revealed that length of participation in the study was positively related to SPEE and negatively related to SPA. Implications of focusing on these variables within a physical activity intervention are discussed with respect to exercise behaviour, programme development and adherence.
Sarıfakıoğlu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Yıldırım; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Savaş; Kızıler, Ali Rıza
The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load.
Patil, Radhika; Karinkanta, Saija; Tokola, Kari; Kannus, Pekka
Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is one of the major causes of pain and disability in the older population. Although exercise is an effective treatment for knee OA, there is lack of evidence regarding hip OA. The aim of this trial was to test the safety and feasibility of a specifically designed exercise program in relieving hip pain and improving function in hip OA participants and to evaluate various methods to measure changes in their physical functioning. Materials and Methods. 13 women aged ≥ 65 years with hip OA were recruited in this 12-week pilot study. Results. Pain declined significantly over 30% from baseline, and joint function and health-related quality of life improved slightly. Objective assessment of physical functioning showed statistically significant improvement in the maximal isometric leg extensor strength by 20% and in the hip extension range of motion by 30%. Conclusions. The exercise program was found to be safe and feasible. The present evidence indicates that the exercise program is effective in the short term. However, adequate powered RCTs are needed to determine effects of long-term exercise therapy on pain and progression of hip OA. PMID:28116214
Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26157235
Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271
Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo
[Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.
Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo
Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471
Engels, Hermann-J; Gretebeck, Randall J; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Jiménez, Linda
This study examined the effectiveness of a unique extracurricular after-school initiative designed to promote healthy diets and exercise in urban African Americans. The Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit after-school program was offered for 12 weeks to students and their parents/guardians at an urban middle school. Specific aims of the intervention were to increase participants' vegetable and fruit intake by using established 5 A Day for Better Health educational resource materials/activities and to affect their health-related fitness through dance, games, and fitness activities. Fifty-six children and 25 parents/guardians completed a standard battery of evaluations before and after the program. Pre-post pairwise t test revealed that both children and their parents/guardians showed an increase in fruit consumption and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P <.05). Moreover, children showed improvements in systolic blood pressure and fruit juice, salad, and nonfried potato consumption while parents/guardians showed a decrease in body fat, body mass index, and endurance walk/run time (P <.05). Overall, findings indicate that children tended to gain more diet-related benefits while parents/guardians tended to derive more fitness-related benefits. After-school programs like the Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit initiative can potentially contribute to improved health levels in urban African Americans.
Rebold, Michael J; Kobak, Mallory S; Peroutky, Kylene; Glickman, Ellen L
The obesity epidemic has grown in the past decade due to physical inactivity (i.e., having a sedentary job) and an increase in caloric intake. This problem combined with the reluctance of many faculty and staff members exercising in the same environment as student's presents a unique challenge in an academic setting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12-week exercise program focused toward the faculty and staff in improving several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. Fifty-seven faculty and staff participated in the current study. Participants engaged in a variety of exercise classes taught by certified instructors three days a week for 12-weeks. Paired samples t-tests illustrated a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in body mass and significant (p ≤ 0.001) improvements in curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. This data demonstrates that a 12-week faculty and staff exercise program has the potential to improve performance in several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. The ability of this program to improve health-related variables and possibly delay or prevent the development of overweight and/or obesity, sarcopenia, and other chronic diseases is encouraging.
Barene, S; Krustrup, P; Jackman, S R; Brekke, O L; Holtermann, A
This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG). Intervention effects for the two training groups were compared with CG. The training was conducted outside working hours as 2-3 1-h sessions per week for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ), fat percentage, fat mass, bone mineral content, and plasma osteocalcin were measured before and after the intervention period. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses, SG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.02) and decreased heart rate during 100-W cycle exercise (-7 bpm; P = 0.01), total body fat percentage (-1.1%; P = 0.002), and total body fat mass (-1.0 kg; P = 0.001) compared with CG. ZG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.03) and decreased total fat mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05) compared with CG. Plasma osteocalcin increased in SG (21%; P < 0.001) and ZG (10%; P = 0.01) compared with CG. The present study indicates that workplace initiated short-term soccer training as well as Zumba outside working hours may result in fitness and modest health benefits among female hospital employees.
Jeng, Shiau-Chian; Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Alice M K; Lin, Yang-Hua
Physical fitness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is lower than in their peers. A 12-week individualized home-based exercise program completed by 11 children with CP 10 years earlier showed a favorable effect on physical fitness performance. We follow-up the physical fitness of those 11 children with CP, and compare their physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) to children with CP without exercise training matched with age and motor levels. Eleven children with CP in the 2003 program as a follow-up group (FUG) and 12 volunteers recruited as a control group (CG) participated in this study. Physical fitness measures, including cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle strength, body mass index (BMI), flexibility, agility, balance, and the SF-36 Taiwan version, were assessed in both groups. After 10 years, the FUG showed better physical fitness in cardiopulmonary endurance and muscle strength (p<.05). Compared to the CG, the FUG demonstrated better muscle strength, agility, and balance (p<.05). However, the HRQoL did not show a significant difference between the FUG and the CG. Individualized home-based exercise training is beneficial for children with CP. Over 10 years, the FUG was more devoted to physical activity than was the CG. Physical exercise may not directly affect the HRQoL in this study.
Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...
Dahjio, Yves; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Essouma, Mickael; Loni, Gabriel Ekali; Onana, Arnold Ewane; Dehayem, Mesmin; Mvom, Angeline; Tadjore, Maurice Njock
Background We examined whether aerobic exercise could have an impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. Methods We enrolled 23 T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years regularly followed at the National Obesity Center of Yaounde, Cameroon, in a 12-week aerobic exercise program monitored by a pedometer. Exercise intensity was progressively set between 55% and 75% of maximum heart rate. We measured weight, body mass index (BMI), fat, lean mass, visceral fat, maximum oxygen uptake, glycaemia and insulin tolerance index at baseline, after six and twelve weeks. A mixed ANOVA model was used to evaluate changes of outcome measures over time. Results Total body weight was significantly reduced after 12 weeks (P<0.05), waist circumference after 6 and 12 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase of the lean mass from 6 weeks (P<0.001) and a reduction of the mean visceral fat at 12 weeks (P<0.001). At the end of the program, the mean glycaemia was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the maximum oxygen uptake was enhanced (P<0.05). Conclusions The 12-week aerobic exercise program improved the anthropometric and metabolic parameters as well as the aerobic capacity of T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. PMID:27826567
Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.
Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402
Prophylactic exercises among head and neck cancer patients during and after swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation: adherence and exercise performance levels of a 12-week guided home-based program.
Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Witte, Birgit I; Aalders, Yke J; de Goede, Cees J T; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H F; Buter, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M
The background and purpose of this paper is to investigate adherence, exercise performance levels and associated factors in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients participating in a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program during and after treatment [swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (SW-IMRT)]. Fifty patients were included in the study. Adherence was defined as the percentage of patients who kept up exercising; exercise performance level was categorized as low: ≤1, moderate: 1-2, and high: ≥2 time(s) per day, on average. Associations between 6- and 12-week exercise performance levels and age, gender, tumour site and stage, treatment, intervention format (online or booklet), number of coaching sessions, and baseline HNC symptoms (EORTC-QLQ-H&N35) were investigated. Adherence rate at 6 weeks was 70% and decreased to 38% at 12 weeks. In addition, exercise performance levels decreased over time (during 6 weeks: 34% moderate and 26% high; during 12 weeks: 28% moderate and 18% high). The addition of chemotherapy to SW-IMRT [(C)SW-IMRT] significantly deteriorated exercise performance level. Adherence to a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program was high during (C)SW-IMRT, but dropped afterwards. Exercise performance level was negatively affected by chemotherapy in combination with SW-IMRT.
Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.
Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.
Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852
Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E
Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared with standard of care (SOC). To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the SOC alone. This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages 2 and 6 years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared with 9 patients who received SOC. Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving SOC showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the SOC alone.
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…
The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...
The rise in obesity related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Strictly controlled exercise programs might be useful tools to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose kinetics. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk aerobic exerci...
Ogwumike, O O; Arowojolu, A O; Sanya, A O
Menopause is a sign of aging in the woman. Loss of ovarian function induces a reduction in resting metabolic rate, physical energy expenditure, fat-free mass and abdominal adipose tissue accumulation. Location of adipose tissue deposit in abdominal region plays an important role in occurrence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although regular participation in physical exercise have been suggested to improve adiposity and body flexibility which are important health related components of physical fitness, few published studies are available on the effect of exercise on Nigerian menopausal women. This study investigated effects of a twelve-week endurance exercise program (EEP) on central and abdominal obesity as well as flexibility of perimenopausal and postmenopausal Nigerian women. The study employed a pretest- posttest control group design comprising a sample of 175 apparently healthy, literate, sedentary women within age range 40-59 years. They were workers in state and federal establishments in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Based on history of their last menstrual period, women with regular or irregular menstrual cycle status were allocated into perimenopausal group and those who no longer menstruated into postmenopausal group. A table of random numbers was used for further allocation into perimenopausal exercise group (PEMEG, 45), postmenopausal exercise group (POMEG, 45) perimenopausal control group (PEMCG, 42) and postmenopausal control group (POMCG, 43). Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Mass Index (BMI) as well as Hip and Trunk Flexibility (HTF) were evaluated at baseline and 4weekly intervals until end of 12th week. EEP consisted of a 10-station circuit of cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, coordination, abdominal and pelvic floor muscle exercises. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean age of participants was 52.3±4.1 years, 95% C.I (51.64-52.88) years. Significant
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
Volumes 1 and 2 (Lesson Units 1-55) of this beginning course in Arabic follow the Defense Language Institute format for intensive 12-week language courses, designed for native-speaker instructors using audiolingual methodology in the classroom. The third (and final) volume in this series constitutes a reference guide to pronunciation and grammar…
Currie, Katharine D; Rosen, Lee M; Millar, Philip J; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J
Decreased heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise are associated with an increased risk of mortality in cardiac patients. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) and a novel low-volume high-intensity interval exercise protocol (HIT) on measures of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fourteen males with CAD participated in 12 weeks of END or HIT training, each consisting of 2 supervised exercise sessions per week. END consisted of 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO). HIT involved ten 1-min intervals at 88% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO. Heart rate recovery at 1 min and 2 min was measured before and after training (pre- and post-training, respectively) using a submaximal exercise bout. Resting time and spectral and nonlinear domain measures of heart rate variability were calculated. Following 12 weeks of END and HIT, there was no change in heart rate recovery at 1 min (END, 40 ± 12 beats·min(-1) vs. 37 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 31 ± 8 beats·min(-1) vs. 35 ± 8 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training) or 2 min (END, 44 ± 18 beats·min(-1) vs. 43 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 42 ± 10 beats·min(-1) vs. 50 ± 6 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training). All heart rate variability indices were unchanged following END and HIT training. In conclusion, neither END nor HIT exercise programs elicited training-induced improvements in cardiac autonomic function in patients with CAD. The absence of improvements with training may be attributed to the optimal medical management and normative pretraining state of our sample.
Logan, Samantha L; Spriet, Lawrence L
Critical among the changes that occur with aging are decreases in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass. These changes may predispose older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment; ultimately resulting in a decrease in the quality of life. Research has suggested that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, found predominantly in fatty fish, may assist in reducing these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females on 1) metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2) resting blood pressure and resting and exercise heart rates; 3) body composition; 4) strength and physical function, and; 5) blood measures of insulin, glucose, c-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either 3g/d of EPA and DHA or a placebo (PL, olive oil) for 12 wk. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 wk of supplementation and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 wk of supplementation. The results demonstrated that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. In addition, FO consumption lowered triglyceride levels by 29% and increased lean mass by 4% and functional capacity by 7%, while no changes occurred in the PL group. In conclusion, FO may be a strategy to improve age-related physical and metabolic changes in healthy older females. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01734538.
Todde, Francesco; Melis, Franco; Mura, Roberto; Pau, Massimiliano; Fois, Francesco; Magnani, Sara; Ibba, Gianfranco; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vigorous exercise on functional abilities by means of a Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in a group of elderly adults. Twenty healthy and inactive people performed vigorous exercise (VE: 12 men and 8 women, aged 69.6 ± 3.9 years). At the beginning of the study (T0) and after 3 months (T1), each subject's functional ability was tested for muscular strength, agility, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and balance. The VE was designed with continuous and interval exercise involving large muscle activities. Functional exercises were performed between 60% and 84% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for a duration of 65 minutes. Five out of the 6 SFTs performed were found significantly improved: Chair Stand (T0 12.4 ± 2.4, T1 13.5 ± 2.6, p < 0.01), Arm Curl (T0 14.2 ± 3.6, T1 16.6 ± 3.6, p < 0.01), 2 min step (T0 98.2 ± 15.7, T1 108.9 ± 16.2, p < 0.01), Chair Sit-and-Reach (T0 -9.9 ± 7.7 cm, T1 1.7 ± 6.3 cm, p < 0.01), and Back Scratch (T0 -15.8 ± 10.9 cm, T1 -8.4 ± 13.1 cm, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that a high intensity protocol and functional exercises can improve functional mobility and muscle endurance in those over 65 years of age. SFTs are an effective method for assessing improvements in the functional capacity of elderly adults.
Todde, Francesco; Melis, Franco; Mura, Roberto; Pau, Massimiliano; Fois, Francesco; Magnani, Sara; Ibba, Gianfranco; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vigorous exercise on functional abilities by means of a Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in a group of elderly adults. Twenty healthy and inactive people performed vigorous exercise (VE: 12 men and 8 women, aged 69.6 ± 3.9 years). At the beginning of the study (T0) and after 3 months (T1), each subject's functional ability was tested for muscular strength, agility, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and balance. The VE was designed with continuous and interval exercise involving large muscle activities. Functional exercises were performed between 60% and 84% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for a duration of 65 minutes. Five out of the 6 SFTs performed were found significantly improved: Chair Stand (T0 12.4 ± 2.4, T1 13.5 ± 2.6, p < 0.01), Arm Curl (T0 14.2 ± 3.6, T1 16.6 ± 3.6, p < 0.01), 2 min step (T0 98.2 ± 15.7, T1 108.9 ± 16.2, p < 0.01), Chair Sit-and-Reach (T0 −9.9 ± 7.7 cm, T1 1.7 ± 6.3 cm, p < 0.01), and Back Scratch (T0 −15.8 ± 10.9 cm, T1 −8.4 ± 13.1 cm, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that a high intensity protocol and functional exercises can improve functional mobility and muscle endurance in those over 65 years of age. SFTs are an effective method for assessing improvements in the functional capacity of elderly adults. PMID:27243035
Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg; Ross, Alastair B; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne
Observational studies show inverse associations between intake of whole grain and adiposity and cardiovascular risk; however, only a few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole-grain consumption on health outcomes. We studied the effect of replacing refined wheat (RW) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of ~1250 kJ/d) with RW or WW foods providing 2 MJ/d. Body weight and composition, blood pressure, and concentration of circulating risk markers were measured at wk 0, 6, and 12. Fecal output and energy excretion were assessed during run-in and wk 12. Plasma alkylresorcinol analysis indicated good compliance with the intervention diets. Body weight decreased significantly from baseline in both the RW (-2.7 ± 1.9 kg) and WW (-3.6 ± 3.2 kg) groups, but the decreases did not differ between the groups (P = 0.11). The reduction in body fat percentage was greater in the WW group (-3.0%) than in the RW group (-2.1%) (P = 0.04). Serum total and LDL cholesterol increased by ~5% (P < 0.01) in the RW group but did not change in the WW group; hence, the changes differed between the groups (P = 0.02). In conclusion, consumption of whole-grain products resulted in a greater reduction in the percentage fat mass, whereas body weight changes did not differ between the RW and WW groups. Serum total and LDL cholesterol, two important risk factors of cardiovascular disease, increased with RW but not WW consumption, which may suggest a cardioprotective role for whole grain.
Witbracht, Megan G.; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.; Laugero, Kevin D.
Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0–45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal–stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal–stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food. PMID:23190756
Archer, T; Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Rapp-Ricciardi, M
Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being. Both animal models and human studies support the premise of manifest gains from regular exercise within several domains, besides cognitive function and mood, notably as the agency of a noninvasive, readily available therapeutic intervention.
Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H
Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention
Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen
Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)
Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris
Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items.
Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan
Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = −0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults. PMID:28382004
Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776
Crosson, Bruce; Mammino, Kevin; McGregor, Keith M.
Previous work has shown that older adults who evidence increased right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity during language tasks show decreased sematic verbal fluency performance. The current study sought to evaluate if an aerobic exercise intervention can alter patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-two community-dwelling, sedentary older adults were enrolled to a 12-week aerobic “Spin” exercise group or a 12-week nonaerobic exercise control condition (Balance). Thirty participants completed their assigned intervention (16 Spin; 14 Balance) with pre- and postintervention assessments of a semantic verbal fluency task during fMRI and estimated VO2max testing. There was a significant increase in the change scores for estimated VO2max of the Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Semantic verbal fluency output within the scanner was also improved in the Spin group as compared to controls at postassessment. Group fMRI comparisons of IFG activity showed lower activity in the right IFG following the intervention in the aerobic Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Regression analysis of imaging data with change in both estimated VO2max and semantic verbal fluency was negatively correlated with activity in right IFG. The current work is registered as clinical trial with NCT01787292 and NCT02787655. PMID:28367334
Freitas, Luís Alberto Garcia; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Freitas, Rosemari Queiroz; Henrique de Souza, Carlos; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to observe the effect of self-selected intensity or imposed intensity during aerobic training on perceptual and affective responses in obese women. [Subjects] The study included 26 obese women aged 30–60 years. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with 13 subjects in each group: self-selected intensity and imposed intensity (10% above ventilatory threshold) groups. All subjects completed an intervention program that lasted 12 weeks, with three exercise sessions a week. The rating of perceived exertion and affective responses (Feeling Scale and Felt Arousal Scale) were monitored in the first, sixth, and twelfth weeks. [Results] Significant differences were observed between groups in heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. The affective responses during exercise were more negative in the imposed intensity group. [Conclusion] Use of a self-selected exercise intensity can promote smaller negative affective responses during exercise and provide a sufficient stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26311958
XU, Wenxin; LI, Menglong; YAO, Jiwei
Background: Anxiety, depression, and other adverse psychological reactions are often observed in elderly hypertensive patients. Appropriate exercise is a safe form of adjuvant therapy without causing side effects among these patients, with consistent effects on patients’ mental health. In this study, a collective exercise intervention experiment was conducted to evaluate the mental health of elderly hypertensive patients and to verify the effect of the psychological intervention of collective exercise. Method: A total of 115 elderly hypertensive patients aged 60–70 years old were selected as study subjects from May 2012 to January 2015 in Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China. A total of 57 patients were included in the control group and 58 patients were assigned in the experimental group. Patients in the experimental group participated in a 12 weeks exercise intervention, while patients in the control group didn’t participate in any regular physical exercise. Results: After intervention, the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), total score, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptom, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoia scores of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The positive coping style score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05); by contrast, the negative coping style score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The mental health level and coping ability of elderly hypertensive patients can be effectively improved with the proposed treatment. PMID:27141493
Wilson, A Justine; Jung, Mary E; Cramp, Anita; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Prapavessis, Harry; Clarson, Cheril
This feasibility study assessed the effects of an exercise plus group-based self-regulatory skills intervention on obese youths' physical activity, social cognitions, body composition and strength. Forty-three obese youth (male = 13, BMI > 95th percentile; 10-16 yrs) completed this 12-week intervention. Assessments were taken at baseline, week 6, 13 and 12 weeks post-intervention (week 24). Although no attention control group (i.e. exercise only) was included in this study, participants engaged in significantly more self-reported physical activity at weeks 13 and 24 as compared to baseline. Social cognitions, body composition and strength were also positively impacted suggesting this intervention technique may be feasible for treating obese adolescents.
Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT
Background There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study. Methods/Design STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI) or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI). Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care). The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual) sessions, although other
Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Verber, Matthew D
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed an fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged 0.048 to 0.0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD.
Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J.; Butts, Alissa M.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Verber, Matthew D.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed a fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged .048 to .0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298
Deusinger, Susan S
Obesity touches the lives of most Americans regardless of age. In adults, accrual of co-morbidities, including frank disability, impacts health in ways that mandate aggressive public health action. In children, the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity raises serious prospective concerns for life as these children enter adulthood. Action is imperative to provide medical interventions and preventive strategies to reduce the threat this condition poses to future generations. Obesity primarily results from an energy regulation imbalance within the body; understanding its origin and effects requires considering both the intake (via eating) and output (via moving) of energy. This article focuses on how exercise and physical activity (i.e., energy output) can influence the primary condition of obesity and its health sequelae. Components, strategies, and expected outcomes of exercise and lifestyle activity are addressed. Successful long-term participation in daily movement requires matching exercise regimens and physical activity outlets to individual preferences and environmental conditions. Activity habits of Americans must change at home and in the workplace, schools and the community to positively influence health. Although the goals of Healthy People 2010 to reduce sedentary behavior have not been met, success of other public health interventions (e.g., immunizations, use of bicycle helmets) suggests that social change to alter activity habits can be achieved. Failure to reach our public health goals should serve as a catalyst for broad-based action to help children, adolescents, and adults attain and maintain behaviors that reduce the risk of obesity and its health insults.
Palu, Afa K.; West, Brett J.; Jensen, Jarakae
Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Unites States has reached unprecedented levels, and so has the need for effective exercise and nutritional programs for prevention of unhealthy weight gain or safe weight loss. Aims: The present study was conducted in overweight men and women to assess the impact of noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions on body composition. Materials and Methods: Twenty two participants (16 women and 6 men), ages 18-65, were enrolled in a 12-week, open-label trial of a weight-loss program involving noni-based dietary supplements, gender-specific daily calorie restriction, and exercise interventions. Weight, percent body fat, and body mass index were measured before and after the trial. Results: All participants experienced weight loss. The average decrease in fat mass was highly significant (P < 0.0001), as were decreases in percent body fat and body mass index. Individual weight and fat mass losses were 17.55 ± 9.73 and 21.78 ± 8.34 lbs., respectively, and individual percent body fat and body mass index decreases were 8.91 ± 3.58 % and 2.6 ± 1.32, respectively. Conclusion: The nutritional and exercise interventions significantly influenced body composition among participants. PMID:22363077
Alkatan, Mohammed; Machin, Daniel R; Baker, Jeffrey R; Akkari, Amanda S; Park, Wonil; Tanaka, Hirofumi
Swimming exercise is an ideal and excellent form of exercise for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is no scientific evidence that regular swimming reduces vascular dysfunction and inflammation and elicits similar benefits compared with land-based exercises such as cycling in terms of reducing vascular dysfunction and inflammation in patients with OA. Forty-eight middle-aged and older patients with OA were randomly assigned to swimming or cycling training groups. Cycling training was included as a non-weight-bearing land-based comparison group. After 12 weeks of supervised exercise training, central arterial stiffness, as determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and carotid artery stiffness, through simultaneous ultrasound and applanation tonometry, decreased significantly after both swimming and cycling training. Vascular endothelial function, as determined by brachial flow-mediated dilation, increased significantly after swimming but not after cycling training. Both swimming and cycling interventions reduced interleukin-6 levels, whereas no changes were observed in other inflammatory markers. In conclusion, these results indicate that regular swimming exercise can exert similar or even superior effects on vascular function and inflammatory markers compared with land-based cycling exercise in patients with OA who often has an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Arbane, Gill; Tropman, David; Jackson, David; Garrod, Rachel
Deterioration in exercise tolerance and impairment in quality of life (QoL) are common consequences of lobectomy. This study evaluates additional exercise and strength training after lung resection on QoL, exercise tolerance and muscle strength. Fifty-three (28 male) patients attending thoracotomy for lung cancer, mean age, range 64 (32-82) years; mean pack years (SD) 31.9 (26.8); BMI 25.6 (4.2); FEV1 2.0 (0.7) l were randomised to control (usual care) or intervention (twice daily training plus usual care). After discharge the intervention group received monthly home visits and weekly telephone calls, the control group received monthly telephone calls up to 12 weeks. Assessment pre-operatively, 5 day and 12 weeks post-operatively consisted of quadriceps strength using magnetic stimulation, 6 Minute Walking Distance (6MWD) and QoL-EORTC-QLQ-LC13. QoL was unchanged over 12 weeks; 6MWD showed significant deterioration at 5 days post-operatively compared with pre-operatively, mean difference (SD)-131.6 (101.8) m and -128.0 (90.7) m in active and control groups respectively (p=0.89 between groups) which returned to pre-operative levels by 12 weeks in both groups. Quadriceps strength over the 5 day in-patient period showed a decrease of -8.3 (11.3) kg in the control group compared to increase of 4.0 (21.2) kg in the intervention group (p=0.04 between groups). Strength training after thoracotomy successfully prevented the fall in quadriceps strength seen in controls, however, there was no effect on 6MWD or QoL. 6MWD returned to pre-operative levels by 12 weeks regardless of additional support offered.
Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya; Foster, Kim; Buettner, Petra
Aim To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background Weight gain and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population with the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome reaching 20–25% of the global population. People with serious mental illness are at even higher risk, particularly those taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Design An experimental randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Method The control group received a 12-week healthy lifestyle booklet. In addition to the booklet, the intervention group received weekly nutrition and exercise education, exercise sessions, and nurse support. Participants (n = 101) were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Data were collected between March 2008–December 2010. Seven outcome measures were used: body measurements included girth (cm), weight (kg), height (cm), and body mass index (kg/m2); questionnaires included the medication compliance questionnaire, the Drug Attitude Inventory, the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36. Differences in primary outcome measures between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were compared between intervention and control groups using standard bi-variate statistical tests. The study was conducted between 2008–2010. Results The analysis of outcome measures for the control group (n = 50) and intervention group (n = 51) was not statistically significant. There was a mean weight change of −0·74 kg at 12 weeks for the intervention group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 50) had a mean weight change of −0·17 kg at 12 weeks. Conclusion The results were not statistically significant. PMID:22973945
Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.
Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…
The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age ...
Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard
Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia.
Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Manaf, Zahara Abd; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard
Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60–74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (−2.1% body weight, −1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (−4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia. PMID:24143082
Middelkamp, Jan; van Rooijen, Maaike; Wolfhagen, Peter; Steenbergen, Bert
Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2). The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3). A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05) in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65) in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08) in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07) for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R2 = 0.18; p < 0.05). Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs. Key points Approximately 144 million individuals exercise in fitness clubs worldwide. About 50% participate in at least one group exercise program and 23% participate only in group exercise classes with instructor. Research on attendance and exercise behavior in fitness clubs is limited but
Middelkamp, Jan; van Rooijen, Maaike; Wolfhagen, Peter; Steenbergen, Bert
Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2). The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3). A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05) in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65) in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08) in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07) for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R(2) = 0.18; p < 0.05). Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs. Key pointsApproximately 144 million individuals exercise in fitness clubs worldwide.About 50% participate in at least one group exercise program and 23% participate only in group exercise classes with instructor.Research on attendance and exercise behavior in fitness clubs is limited but
de Vries, Juriena D.; van Hooff, Madelon L. M.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.
Background Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning) were also investigated. Methods Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49) or wait list (no intervention, n = 48). All participants were measured before the intervention (T0), and immediately after the intervention (T1). Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3) after the intervention. Results Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery) as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3). At 12-week follow up (T3), 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality. Conclusions These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects
Sandroff, Brian M
Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training represents a promising approach for managing this clinical symptom of the disease. However, results from early randomized controlled trials of exercise on cognition in MS are equivocal, perhaps due to methodological concerns. This underscores the importance of considering the well-established literature in the general population that documents robust, beneficial effects of exercise training on cognition across the lifespan. The development of such successful interventions is based on examinations of fitness, physical activity, and acute exercise effects on cognition. Applying such an evidence-based approach in MS serves as a way of better informing exercise training interventions for improving cognition in this population. To that end, this paper provides a focused, updated review on the evidence describing exercise effects on cognition in MS, and develops a rationale and framework for examining acute exercise on cognitive outcomes in this population. This will provide keen insight for better developing exercise interventions for managing cognitive impairment in MS.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a self-management exercise intervention on wound healing, functional ability and health-related quality of life outcomes in adults with venous leg ulcers: a randomised controlled trial.
O'Brien, Jane; Finlayson, Kathleen; Kerr, Graham; Edwards, Helen
Exercise that targets ankle joint mobility may lead to improvement in calf muscle pump function and subsequent healing. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of an exercise intervention in addition to routine evidence-based care on the healing rates, functional ability and health-related quality of life for adults with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). This study included 63 patients with VLUs. Patients were randomised to receive either a 12-week exercise intervention with a telephone coaching component or usual care plus telephone calls at the same timepoints. The primary outcome evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention in relation to wound healing. The secondary outcomes evaluated physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life measures between groups at the end of the 12 weeks. A per protocol analysis complemented the effectiveness (intention-to-treat) analysis to highlight the importance of adherence to an exercise intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses for the primary outcome showed 77% of those in the intervention group healed by 12 weeks compared to 53% of those in the usual care group. Although this difference was not statistically significant due to a smaller than expected sample size, a 24% difference in healing rates could be considered clinically significant. The per protocol analysis for wound healing, however, showed that those in the intervention group who adhered to the exercise protocol 75% or more of the time were significantly more likely to heal and showed higher rates for wound healing than the control group (P = 0·01), that is, 95% of those who adhered in the intervention group healed in 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes of physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life were not significantly altered by the intervention. Among the secondary outcomes (physical activity, functional ability and health-related quality of life), intention-to-treat analyses did not support the
Biondolillo, Mathew J; Pillemer, David B
This study tested a novel memory-based experimental intervention to increase exercise activity. Undergraduate students completed a two-part online survey ostensibly regarding college activity choices. At Time 1, they completed questionnaires that included assessments of exercise-related attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviours. Next, they described a memory of a positive or negative experience that would increase their motivation to exercise; students in a control condition did not receive a memory prompt. Finally, they rated their intentions to exercise in the future. Eight days following Time 1, students received a Time 2 survey that included an assessment of their self-reported exercise during the prior week. Students in the positive memory condition reported higher levels of subsequent exercise than those in the control condition; students in the negative memory condition reported intermediate levels of exercise. Activating a positive motivational memory had a significant effect on students' self-reported exercise activity even after controlling for prior attitudes, motivation and exercise activity.
Forbes, Scott C; Little, Jonathan P; Candow, Darren G
Skeletal muscle mass declines with age (i.e., sarcopenia) resulting in muscle weakness and functional limitations. Sarcopenia has been associated with physiological changes in muscle morphology, protein and hormonal kinetics, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutritional intervention strategies may benefit aging muscle. It is well known that resistance exercise training increases muscle strength and size and evidence also suggests that resistance training can increase mitochondrial content and decrease oxidative stress in older adults. Recent findings suggest that fast-velocity resistance exercise may be an effective intervention for older adults to enhance muscle power and functional capacity. Aerobic exercise training may also benefit aging skeletal muscle by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, improving insulin sensitivity, and/or decreasing oxidative stress. In addition to exercise, creatine monohydrate, milk-based proteins, and essential fatty acids all have biological effects which could enhance some of the physiological adaptations from exercise training in older adults. Additional research is needed to determine whether skeletal muscle adaptations to increased activity in older adults are further enhanced with effective nutritional interventions and whether this is due to enhanced muscle protein synthesis, improved mitochondrial function, and/or a reduced inflammatory response.
Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students. PMID:27630436
Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Ming
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an exercise education intervention on exercise behavior, depression and fatigue status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Design/methodology/approach: This was a pilot study using an exercise education program as an intervention for CKD patients. The authors used the…
Nasstasia, Yasmina; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Lewin, Terry J; Hides, Leanne; Kelly, Brian J; Callister, Robin
This study assesses the feasibility of integrating motivational interviewing (MI) with an exercise intervention. It also explores patterns of depressive symptom changes (cognitive, affective, and somatic subscales) and their relationship to cognitive, behavioral, and immunological factors (interleukin 6, IL-6, a marker for inflammation) across the exercise intervention. Twelve young adults (20.8 ± 1.7 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder received a brief MI intervention followed by a 12-week exercise intervention. Assessments were conducted preintervention, postintervention, throughout the intervention, and at follow-up. Preliminary results show differential effects of exercise, with the largest standardized mean improvements for the affective subscale (-1.71), followed by cognitive (-1.56) and somatic (-1.39) subscales. A significant relationship was observed between increased behavioral activation and lower levels of IL-6. Despite study limitations, the magnitude of changes suggests that natural remission of depressive symptoms is an unlikely explanation for the findings. A randomized controlled trial has commenced to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention.
Riou, Marie-Ève; Jomphe-Tremblay, Simon; Lamothe, Gilles; Stacey, Dawn; Szczotka, Agnieszka; Doucet, Éric
Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass) over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM). In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks), the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions. PMID:25988763
Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H; Martinmäki, K
Methodological problems have limited the number of studies on heart rate variability (HRV) dynamics immediately after exercise. We used the short-time Fourier transform method to study immediate (5 min) and slow (30 min) recovery of HRV after different high-intensity exercise interventions. Eight male athletes performed two interval interventions at 85% and 93% (IV(85) and IV(93)) and two continuous interventions at 80% and 85% (CO(80) and CO(85)) of the velocity at VO2max (vVO2max). We found no increase in high frequency power (HFP), but low frequency (LFP) and total power (TP) increased (P<0.05) during the first 5 min of the recovery after each intervention. During the 30-min recovery, HFP, LFP and TP (1) increased slowly toward resting values, but HFP remained lower (P<0.01) than at rest, (2) were lower (P<0.05) after IV(93) and CO(85) when compared with IV(85) and CO(80), respectively and (3) were lower (P<0.01) after CO(85) when compared with IV(85). HRV recovery was detected during the immediate recovery after interventions. Increased exercise intensity resulted in lower HRV both in interval and in continuous interventions. In addition, when interval and continuous interventions were performed at a similar workload, HRV was lower after continuous intervention.
Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Kincer, Jeanie F; Dickens, Brett J; Pearson, Kevin J
During pregnancy, women often show a willingness to make positive lifestyle changes, such as smoking cessation, initiation of a vitamin regimen, improvement of their diet, and increases in their levels of exercise or physical activity. To study health outcomes in both pregnant mice and their offspring, we developed a model of controlled maternal exercise during mouse pregnancy. Female ICR and C57BL/6 mice underwent controlled wheel walking for 1 h daily, 5 d each week, at a speed of 6 m/min prior to and during pregnancy and nursing. Dam body weight, food consumption, pregnancy rates, litter size, pup weights and litter survival were used as markers of pregnancy success and were not significantly affected by controlled maternal exercise. The proposed exercise paradigm is a safe pregnancy intervention and can be explored further.
Background Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the world, and the prevalence of stroke tends to increase with age. Despite advances in acute care and secondary preventive strategies, primary prevention should play the most significant role in the reduction of the burden of stroke. As an important component of traditional Chinese Qigong, Baduanjin exercise is a simple, safe exercise, especially suitable for older adults. However, current evidence is insufficient to inform the use of Baduanjin exercise in the prevention of stroke. The aim of this trail is to systematically evaluate the prevention effect of Baduanjin exercise on ischemic stroke in the community elder population with high risk factors. Methods A total of 170 eligible participants from the community elder population will be randomly allocated into the Baduanjin exercise group and usual physical activity control group in a 1:1 ratio. Besides usual physical activity, participants in the Baduanjin exercise group will accept a 12-week Baduanjin exercise training with a frequency of five days a week and 40 minutes a day. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, 13 weeks (at end of intervention) and 25 weeks (after additional 12-week follow-up period). Discussion This study will be the randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin exercise for primary prevention of stroke in community elder population with high risk factors of stroke. The results of this trial will help to establish the optimal approach for primary prevention of stroke. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003588. Registration date: 24 July, 2013. PMID:24712684
Kai, Ming Chan; Anderson, Mary; Lau, Edith M. C.
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. The associated health care costs are growing in parallel with increases in elderly populations, and it is expected that the number of osteoporotic fractures will double over the next 50 years. The best way to address osteoporosis is prevention. Some interventions to maximize and preserve bone mass have multiple health benefits and are cost-effective. For example, modifications to diet and lifestyle can help to prevent osteoporosis, and could potentially lead to a significant decrease in fracture rates; and exercise is a valuable adjunct to programmes aimed at alleviating the risks and symptoms of osteoporosis. Practising exercise at a young age helps maximize the mineral density of bones while they are still growing and maturing, and continuing to excercise minimizes bone loss later in life. Not only does exercise improve bone health, it also increases muscle strength, coordination, balance, flexibility and leads to better overall health. Walking, aerobic exercise, and t'ai chi are the best forms of exercise to stimulate bone formation and strengthen the muscles that help support bones. Encouraging physical activity at all ages is therefore a top priority to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:14758410
Coote, Susan; Garrett, Maria; Hogan, Neasa; Larkin, Aidan; Saunders, Jean
Background People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. Methods and design This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified Ashworth
McCarthy, C; Fleming, N; Donne, B; Blanksby, B
To investigate the effect of a transition program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinematics and foot-strike patterns, female recreational athletes (n=9, age 29 ± 3 yrs) without SBR experience gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers SBR footwear over 12 weeks. Matched controls (n=10, age 30 ± 4 yrs) continued running in standard footwear. A 3-D motion analysis of treadmill running at 12 km/h(-1) was performed by both groups, barefoot and shod, pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention data indicated a more-forefoot strike pattern in the SBR group compared to controls; both running barefoot (P>0.05), and shod (P<0.001). When assessed barefoot, there were significant kinematic differences across time in the SBR group for ankle flexion angle at toe-off (P<0.01). When assessed shod, significant kinematic changes occurred across time, for ankle flexion angles at foot-strike (P<0.001) and toe-off (P<0.01), and for range of motion (ROM) in the absorptive phase of stance (P<0.01). A knee effect was recorded in the SBR group for flexion ROM in the absorptive phase of stance (P<0.05). No significant changes occurred in controls. Therefore, a 12-week transition program in SBR could assist athletes seeking a more-forefoot strike pattern and "barefoot" kinematics, regardless of preferred footwear.
Greco, Camila C; Oliveira, Anderson S; Pereira, Marcelo P; Figueira, Tiago R; Ruas, Vinícius D; Gonçalves, Mauro; Denadai, Benedito S
Greco, CC, Oliveira, AS, Pereira, MP, Figueira, TR, Ruas, VD, Gonçalves, M, and Denadai, BS. Improvements in metabolic and neuromuscular fitness after 12-week Bodypump® training. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3422-3431, 2011-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week group fitness training program (Bodypump®) on anthropometry, muscle strength, and aerobic fitness. Nineteen women (21.4 ± 2.0 years old) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) and to a control group (n = 10). We show that this training program improved the 1 repetition maximum squats by 33.1% (p < 0.001) and the maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) by 13.6% (p < 0.05). Additionally, decreases in knee extensor electromyographic activity during the MVC (30%, p < 0.01) and during the squats (15%, p < 0.05) and lunges of a simulated Bodypump® session were observed after the training. Concomitantly, blood lactate and heart rate after squats of a simulated Bodypump® session were decreased by 33 and 7% (p < 0.05), respectively. Body mass, body fat, and the running velocity at the onset of blood lactate accumulation did not change significantly in response to this training program. We conclude that Bodypump® training improves muscular strength and decreases metabolic stress during lower limb exercises. However, no significant improvements in running aerobic fitness nor in body mass and body fat were observed. Practitioners of Bodypump® training may benefit from the increased muscular strength and the decreased muscular fatigability during exercise tasks whose motor patterns are related to those involved in this training program. However, these functional gains do not seem to be transferable into running aerobic fitness.
Heine, P J; Williams, M A; Williamson, E; Bridle, C; Adams, J; O'Brien, A; Evans, D; Lamb, S E
This paper describes the development and implementation of a hand exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial in a U.K. National Health Service (NHS) setting. Participants are eligible if diagnosed with RA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, have a history of disease activity, functional deficit or impairment in the hand and/or wrist, and have been on a stable medication regime for at least 3 months. The intervention development was informed by the current evidence base, published guidelines, clinician and expert opinion, and a pilot study. The exercise programme targets known, potentially modifiable physical impairments of the hand with 5 exercise sessions and a home exercise component over a 12 week period. The intervention will be provided to 240 participants along with usual care. A further 240 will receive usual care only as part of the control arm. Specific details of the treatments delivered are described. [ISRCTN no: 89936343].
Pan, Chien-Yu; Chu, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Lo, Shen-Yu; Cheng, Yun-Wen; Liu, Yu-Jen
The present study assessed the effects of a 12-week table tennis exercise on motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the first 12-week phase, 16 children (group I) received the intervention, whereas 16 children (group II) did not. A second 12-week phase immediately followed with the treatments reversed. Improvements were observed in executive functions in both groups after the intervention. After the first 12-week phase, some motor and behavioral functions improved in group I. After the second 12-week phase, similar improvements were noted for group II, and the intervention effects achieved in the first phase were persisted in group I. The racket-sport intervention is valuable in promoting motor skills, social behaviors, and executive functions and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ADHD.
Bronas, Ulf G; Hirsch, Alan T; Murphy, Timothy; Badenhop, Dalynn; Collins, Tracie C; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Ershow, Abby G; Lewis, Beth; Treat-Jacobson, Diane J; Walsh, M Eileen; Oldenburg, Niki; Regensteiner, Judith G
The CLaudication: Exercise Vs Endoluminal Revascularization (CLEVER) study is the first randomized, controlled, clinical, multicenter trial that is evaluating a supervised exercise program compared with revascularization procedures to treat claudication. In this report, the methods and dissemination techniques of the supervised exercise training intervention are described. A total of 217 participants are being recruited and randomized to one of three arms: (1) optimal medical care; (2) aortoiliac revascularization with stent; or (3) supervised exercise training. Of the enrolled patients, 84 will receive supervised exercise therapy. Supervised exercise will be administered according to a protocol designed by a central CLEVER exercise training committee based on validated methods previously used in single center randomized control trials. The protocol will be implemented at each site by an exercise committee member using training methods developed and standardized by the exercise training committee. The exercise training committee reviews progress and compliance with the protocol of each participant weekly. In conclusion, a multicenter approach to disseminate the supervised exercise training technique and to evaluate its efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness for patients with claudication due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is being evaluated for the first time in CLEVER. The CLEVER study will further establish the role of supervised exercise training in the treatment of claudication resulting from PAD and provide standardized methods for use of supervised exercise training in future PAD clinical trials as well as in clinical practice.
Bertz, Fredrik; Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Winkvist, Anna
The increase in overweight and obesity among women is a growing concern, and reproduction is associated with persistent weight gain. We have shown that dietary behavioural modification treatment, with or without exercise, results in weight loss and maintenance of weight loss. The aim of this study was to provide an explanatory model of how overweight and obese women achieve weight loss during, and after, participating in a post-partum diet and/or exercise intervention. Using Grounded Theory, we performed and analysed 29 interviews with 21 women in a 12-week Swedish post-partum lifestyle intervention with a 9-month follow-up. Interviews were made after the intervention and at the 9-month follow-up. To overcome initial barriers to weight loss, the women needed a 'Catalytic Interaction' (CI) from the care provider. It depended on individualised, concrete, specific and useful information, and an emotional bond through joint commitment, trust and accountability. Weight loss was underpinned by gradual introduction of conventional health behaviours. However, the implementation depended on the experience of the core category process 'Transformative Lifestyle Change' (TLC). This developed through a transformative process of reciprocal changes in cognitions, emotions, body, environment, behaviours and perceived self. Women accomplishing the stages of the TLC process were successful in weight loss, in contrast to those who did not. The TLC process, dependent on initiation through CI, led to implementation and integration of recognised health behaviours, resulting in sustainable weight loss. The TLC model, including the CI construct and definition of barriers, facilitators and strategies provides an explanatory model of this process.
Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming
Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.
Wiles, Louise; Cafarella, Paul; Williams, Marie T
Previous systematic reviews have confirmed the benefits of both exercise training and psychological interventions in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effect of interventions which combine exercise training and psychological interventions for a range of health outcomes in people with COPD. Database searches identified randomized controlled trials of people with COPD participating in interventions that combined exercise training with a psychological strategy compared with control (usual care, waiting list) or active comparators (education, exercise, psychological interventions alone). Health outcomes included dyspnoea, anxiety, depression, quality of life or functional exercise capacity. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated for each intervention arm/control comparison. Across the 12 included studies (738 participants), compared with control conditions, SMD consistently favoured interventions which included both exercise + psychological components (SMD range dyspnoea -1.63 to -0.25; anxiety -0.50 to -0.20; depression -0.46 to -0.18; quality of life 0.09 to 1.16; functional exercise capacity 0.22 to 1.23). When compared with active comparators, SMD consistently favoured interventions that included exercise training + psychological component for dyspnoea (SMD range -0.35 to -0.97), anxiety (SMD range -0.13 to -1.00) and exercise capacity (SMD range 0.64 to 0.71) but were inconsistent for depression (-0.11 to 1.27) and quality of life (0.02 to -2.00). The magnitude of effect for most interventions was greater than the minimum required for clinical significance (i.e. > 0.32) in behavioural medicine. While interventions, outcomes and effect sizes differed substantially between studies, combining exercise training with a psychological intervention may provide a means of optimizing rehabilitation in people with COPD.
Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543
Richert, Jana; Lippke, Sonia; Ziegelmann, Jochen P
Intervention-engagement has received little attention in sports medicine as well as research and promotion of physical exercise. The construct is important, however, in the understanding of why interventions work. This study aimed at shedding more light on the interplay of engagement and the subsequent effectiveness of physical exercise interventions. A three-stage model differentiating among nonintenders, intenders, and actors informed the intervention design in this study. In an Internet-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two measurement points, N = 326 participants received a stage-matched, stage-mismatched, or control treatment. Assessed variables were goal setting, planning, behavior, and intervention-engagement. It was found that regarding goal setting, nonintenders in the stage-matched intervention and those who engaged highly in the stage-matched intervention improved significantly over time. Regarding planning, intenders in the matched condition as well as all actors increased their levels over time. Regarding behavior, nonintenders and intenders having engaged highly in the intervention improved more than those having engaged little. In order to help nonintenders progress on their way toward goal behavior, it is necessary that they engage highly in a stage-matched intervention. Implications for exercise promotion are that interventions should also aim at increasing participants' intervention-engagement.
Kerkelä, Ellen Staveborg; Jonsson, Linus; Lindwall, Magnus; Strand, Jennifer
Purpose Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs. PMID:26282865
Calogiuri, Giovanna; Nordtug, Hildegunn; Weydahl, Andi
According to attention-restoration theory (ART), natural environments can provide restorative experiences. In this pilot study, a mixed-methods approach was used to examine the potential of using exercise in a natural environment to enhance exercise behaviors. The study included an assessment study and an intervention study (overall n = 19). The participants underwent a standardized exercise program including biking and circuit strength training, either indoors or outdoors in nature. Measurements included connectedness to nature, perceived exertion, perceived environmental restorativeness, enjoyment, affect, future exercise intention, and self-reported exercise behavior. The participants also wrote a brief text describing the way in which the environment influenced their feelings while exercising. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Spearman rank correlation and linear mixed-effects modeling. The qualitative information was analyzed thematically. The integrated results indicated that, in accordance with ART, exercising in nature was associated with a greater potential for restoration and affective responses, which in some participants led to enhanced intention to exercise and increased exercise behavior. However, some perceived that the indoor exercise provided a more effective workout. Further studies on larger samples are needed.
Shultz, Sarah P.; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Lane, Andrew M.
In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m-2 vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese adolescent
Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M
In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese
El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G
Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group). The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001). Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time. Conclusion Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms. PMID:26955293
Davis, Jaimie N; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Gatto, Nicole M.
Objective To evaluate the effect of an exploratory 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening RCT (“LA Sprouts”) on preference for fruit and vegetables (FV); willingness to try FV; identification of FV; self-efficacy to garden/eat/cook FV; motivation to garden/eat/cook FV; attitudes towards FV; nutrition and gardening knowledge; and home gardening habits. Design and Participants Four elementary schools with 304 predominately Hispanic/Latino 3rd–5th grade students were randomized to either the LA Sprouts (n=167 students) or Control group (n=137 students). LA Sprouts participants received 12 weeks of weekly 90-minute culturally tailored gardening, nutrition, and cooking classes after school. Questionnaire data examining dietary determinants were obtained at baseline and post-intervention. Results After the 12-week program, LA Sprouts participants compared with controls improved scores for identification of vegetables (+11% vs. +5%; P=.001), nutrition and gardening knowledge (+14.5% vs. −5.0%; P =.003), and were more likely to garden at home (+7.5% vs. −4.4%; P=.003). Conclusions The LA Sprouts program positively impacted a number of determinants of dietary behaviors, which suggest possible mechanisms by which gardening and nutrition education act to improve dietary intake and health outcomes. PMID:26453367
Patten, Christi A; Vickers, Kristin S; Martin, John E; Williams, Carl D
This study examined the adherence rates and the effect of depression on adherence in two studies conducted among smokers with a past history of alcoholism. In both studies, subjects participated in a 12-session group-based exercise intervention for smoking cessation. The target quit date (TQD) was Session 8. Participants in Study 1 were 73 smokers (43% female). Exercise instructions began at Session 8 and continued through Session 12. Mean frequency and number of minutes of exercise decreased during the 4 weeks of exercise treatment (P<.001). Study 2, conducted with 18 smokers (50% female), examined the feasibility of commencing exercise at Session 1, well before the TQD. The mean number of minutes exercised increased from Sessions 1 to 12 (P=.013). In both studies, average session attendance was high (82%). Combining subjects from both studies, depressed smokers at baseline reported greater mean frequency of exercise per week than nondepressed smokers (P=.05). The results suggest that depressed smokers can be engaged in an exercise program. Further research is needed to determine if commencing exercise early during treatment, prior to the TQD, improves adherence.
Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine
Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three
Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck
[Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu's were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this study
Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…
Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.
Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p < .05, on EXSE; g = 0.128, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20], p < .05 on BSE; and g = 0.335 95% CI [0.196, 0.475], p < .001, on physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904
Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Caballero-Martínez, Isabel; Alvarez, Pablo J; Martínez-López, Emilio
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week-specific proprioceptive training program on postural stability, gait, balance, and fall prevention in adults older than 65 years. The present study was a controlled clinical trial. Forty-four community dwelling elderly subjects (61-90 years; mean age, 78.07 ± 5.7 years) divided into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 24) groups. The participants performed the Berg balance test before and after the training program, and we assessed participants' gait, balance, and the risk of falling, using the Tinetti scale. Medial-lateral plane and anterior-posterior plane displacements of the center of pressure, Sway area, length and speed, and the Romberg quotient about surface, speed, and distance were calculated in static posturography analysis (EPS pressure platform) under 2 conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. After a first clinical evaluation, patients were submitted to 12 weeks proprioception training program, 2 sessions of 50 minutes every week. This program includes 6 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to program proprioceptive training. The training program improved postural balance of older adults in mediolateral plane with eyes open (p < 0.05) and anterior-posterior plane with eyes closed (p < 0.01). Significant improvements were observed in Romberg quotient about surface (p < 0.05) and speed (p < 0.01) but not about distance (p > 0.05). After proprioception training, gait (Tinetti), and balance (Berg) test scores improved 14.66% and 11.47% respectively. These results show that 12 weeks proprioception training program in older adults is effective in postural stability, static, and dynamic balance and could lead to an improvement in gait and balance capacity, and to a decrease in the risk of falling in adults aged 65 years and older.
Kirkham, Amy A; Bland, Kelcey A; Sayyari, Sarah; Campbell, Kristin L; Davis, Margot K
Evidence is currently limited for the effect of exercise on breast cancer clinical outcomes. However, several of the reported physical benefits of exercise, including peak oxygen consumption, functional capacity, muscle strength and lean mass, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone health, have established associations with disability, cardiovascular disease risk, morbidity, and mortality. This review will summarize the clinically relevant physical benefits of exercise interventions in breast cancer survivors and discuss recommendations for achieving these benefits. It will also describe potential differences in intervention delivery that may impact outcomes and, lastly, describe current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors.
Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139
King, L. A.; Salarian, A.; Mancini, M.; Priest, K. C.; Nutt, J.; Serdar, A.; Wilhelm, J.; Schlimgen, J.; Smith, M.; Horak, F. B.
Background. It is widely believed that exercise improves mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to determine whether a specific type of exercise is the most effective. The purpose of this study was to determine which outcome measures were sensitive to exercise intervention and to explore the effects of two different exercise programs for improving mobility in patients with PD. Methods. Participants were randomized into either the Agility Boot Camp (ABC) or treadmill training; 4x/week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures were grouped by the International Classification of Function/Disability (ICF). To determine the responsiveness to exercise, we calculated the standardized response means. t-tests were used to compare the relative benefits of each exercise program. Results. Four of five variables at the structure/function level changed after exercise: turn duration (P = 0.03), stride velocity (P = 0.001), peak arm speed (P = 0.001), and horizontal trunk ROM during gait (P = 0.02). Most measures improved similarly for both interventions. The only variable that detected a difference between groups was postural sway in ABC group (F = 4.95; P = 0.03). Conclusion. Outcome measures at ICF body structure/function level were most effective at detecting change after exercise and revealing differences in improvement between interventions. PMID:23738230
Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena
Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. PMID:26182835
Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena
Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies.
Tiainen, Sanna; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi
During acute exercise, the concentration of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipids (ox-HDL) is reported to increase suggesting that HDL may function in decreasing the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipids. However, the effect of exercise intervention on the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL is unknown. A randomized controlled trial with sedentary women (N = 161), aged 43-63, with no current use of hormone therapy, were randomized into a 6-month (mo) exercise group and a control group. During the 6-mo intervention, the concentration of ox-HDL increased in the exercise group by 5% and decreased in the control group by 2% (p = .003). Also, the ratio of ox-HDL to HDL-cholesterol increased by 5% in the exercise group and decreased by 1.5% in the control group (p = .036). The concentrations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and adiponectin did not change during the intervention. The concentration of serum triglycerides trended to decrease by 6% in the intervention group (p = .051). We found that the concentration of ox-HDL increased during the 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention, but the increase was not related to changes in the levels of CETP or adiponectin. These results, together with earlier studies, suggest that HDL has an active role in the reverse transport of lipid peroxides.
Cao, Si-Fan; Hu, Wen-Long; Wu, Min-Min; Jiang, Li-Yan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrinological disorder in reproductive-age women and is often associated with a metabolic syndrome. To investigate whether exercise intervention promotes PCOS prevention, a rat model was used. Polycystic ovary syndrome was induced by letrozole administration, and animals presented with obesity, sex hormone disorder, no ovulation, large cystic follicles, and increasing fasting insulin (FINS) and leptin levels. The intervention was set at 3 different intensities of swimming exercise: low (0.5 h/d), moderate (1 h/d), and high (2 h/d), and compared with a PCOS model group (letrozole administration without exercise intervention) and a control group. The exercise intervention in the low-intensity group did not produce changes in obesity, testosterone, progesterone (P), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Moderate-intensity exercise reduced body weight, retained ovulation, and P levels were increased but remained lower than those in the control group. The FSH levels were significantly higher, and FINS and leptin levels were lower than in the model group ( P < 0.05) but not in the control group. The high-intensity group demonstrated the greatest effect of PCOS prevention. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone, FINS, and leptin levels were significantly lower in the high-intensity group, and FSH and P levels were higher compared with the model group. These results suggest that high-intensity exercise intervention can effectively prevent PCOS development.
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding exercise. Manipulating group dynamics may be a promising intervention tool in the promotion of leisure-time physical activity.
Hsiao, HaoYuan; Knarr, Brian A.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Higginson, Jill S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.
Current rehabilitation efforts for individuals poststroke focus on increasing walking speed because it is a predictor of community ambulation and participation. Greater propulsive force is required to increase walking speed. Previous studies have identified that trailing limb angle (TLA) and ankle moment are key factors to increases in propulsive force during gait. However, no studies have determined the relative contribution of these two factors to increase propulsive force following intervention. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relative contribution of ankle moment and TLA to increases in propulsive force following 12-weeks of gait training for individuals poststroke. Forty-five participants were assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: training at self-selected speeds (SS), at fastest comfortable speeds (Fast), and Fast with functional electrical stimulation (FastFES). For participants who gained paretic propulsive force following training, a biomechanical-based model previously developed for individuals poststroke was used to calculate the relative contributions of ankle moment and TLA. A two-way, mixed-model design, analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline walking speed was performed to analyze changes in TLA and ankle moment across groups. The model showed that TLA was the major contributor to increases in propulsive force following training. Although the paretic TLA increased from pre-training to post-training, no differences were observed between groups. In contrast, increases in paretic ankle moment were observed only in the FastFES group. Our findings suggested that specific targeting may be needed to increase ankle moment. PMID:26776931
O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen
Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control.
College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity--exercise--as an intervention for…
Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj
The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…
Brenner, Ingrid; Parry, Monica; Brown, C Ann
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common chronic cardiovascular condition that affects the lower extremities and can substantially limit daily activities and quality of life. Lifestyle interventions, including smoking cessation, diet modification, regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, are often prescribed to treat patients with PAD. Exercise interventions can be effective in increasing claudication onset time and maximal walking distance. Of the various types of exercise interventions available for patients with PAD, little is known about the differences that may exist between men and women in patient response to such interventions. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the current knowledge of exercise interventions for individuals with mild (Fontaine stages I-II) PAD and to consider any differences that may exist between men and women. Women with PAD present with a different clinical profile compared with men, but respond similarly to an acute bout of exercise and a training program. Patients with PAD should be encouraged to walk regularly; however, more research is needed to determine differences between men and women in their response to various exercise interventions.
Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Olson, Erin A.; Motl, Robert W.
Background. Exercise training has been demonstrated to enhance physical function and to have a protective effect against functional limitations and disability in older adults. Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the effects of a home-based, DVD-delivered exercise intervention on functional performance and limitations were maintained 6-month postintervention termination. Methods. Follow-up assessments of functional performance and limitations were conducted in a sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 237) who participated in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Participants were initially randomized to a DVD-delivered exercise intervention or an attentional control condition. The Short Physical Performance Battery, measures of flexibility and strength, and functional limitations were assessed immediately before and after the intervention and then again 6 months later. Analyses of covariance were conducted to examine changes in physical function between the two conditions at the end of the intervention to 6-month follow-up. Results. There were statistically significant adjusted group differences in the Short Physical Performance Battery (η2 = 0.03, p = .01), upper-body strength (η2 = 0.03, p = .005), and lower-body flexibility (η2 = 0.02, p = .05), indicating that gains brought about by the intervention were maintained 6 months later. Conclusions. A DVD-delivered exercise program specifically designed to target elements of functional fitness in older adults can produce clinically meaningful gains in physical function that are maintained beyond intervention cessation. PMID:25324220
Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya
The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963
Miyazaki, Ryo; Takeshima, Taro; Kotani, Kazuhiko
Sarcopenia is an age-related health problem in general communities. Effective exercise programs against sarcopenia remain necessary for community-dwelling older people. In order to summarize the available knowledge on this subject, we collected English articles from a MEDLINE/Pubmed database examining the effects of exercise interventions on sarcopenia-related outcome measures in community-dwelling older people. When nine articles, including eight randomized controlled trials, were reviewed, most studies demonstrated significant improvements in some outcome measures. Indeed, a significant improvement in the muscle mass in one study, muscle strength in two studies and physical performance in two studies was reported among five studies using exercise (E) alone. A significant improvement in the muscle mass in two studies, muscle strength in one study and physical performance in two studies was also reported among four studies using exercise plus nutritional supplementation (EN). Notably, the EN studies appeared to have less extensive exercise interventions than the E studies. One EN study further exhibited significant improvements in all outcome measures. Collectively, exercise could be used as anti-sarcopenic strategies and nutritional interventions when combined with exercise might play a compensated or perhaps a comprehensive role among community-dwelling older people. Limited studies exist and more studies are required for the optimum programs in the community settings. PMID:27829949
Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; McMahon, James M.; Morrow, Gary R.; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen
Abstract Purpose: Studies have found disparities in psychological distress between lesbian and gay cancer survivors and their heterosexual counterparts. Exercise and partner support are shown to reduce distress. However, exercise interventions haven't been delivered to lesbian and gay survivors with support by caregivers included. Methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), ten lesbian and gay and twelve heterosexual survivors and their caregivers were randomized as dyads to: Arm 1, a survivor-only, 6-week, home-based, aerobic and resistance training program (EXCAP©®); or Arm 2, a dyadic version of the same exercise program involving both the survivor and caregiver. Psychological distress, partner support, and exercise adherence, were measured at baseline and post-intervention (6 weeks later). We used t-tests to examine group differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors and between those randomized to survivor-only or dyadic exercise. Results: Twenty of the twenty-two recruited survivors were retained post-intervention. At baseline, lesbian and gay survivors reported significantly higher depressive symptoms (P = .03) and fewer average steps walked (P = .01) than heterosexual survivors. Post-intervention, these disparities were reduced and we detected no significant differences between lesbian/gay and heterosexual survivors. Participation in dyadic exercise resulted in a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than participation in survivor-only exercise for all survivors (P = .03). No statistically significant differences emerged when looking across arm (survivor-only vs. dyadic) by subgroup (lesbian/gay vs. heterosexual). Conclusion: Exercise may be efficacious in ameliorating disparities in psychological distress among lesbian and gay cancer survivors, and dyadic exercise may be efficacious for survivors of diverse sexual orientations. Larger trials are needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26652029
Nam, Soohyun; Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Stewart, Kerry J.
PURPOSE While the benefits of exercise in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is well-known, knowledge of factors associated with dropouts of exercise intervention trials is limited. Examining clinical and psychosocial factors related to dropout is a necessary first step to developing effective exercise program. We examined the predictors of a randomized trial of exercise intervention dropout among sedentary individuals with T2D. METHODS Participants (n=140) were randomly allocated to a 6-month, 3 times per week exercise intervention, or to a control group. Psychological well-being was assessed using a 36-Item Short Form, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and an Exercise Self-Efficacy scale. Total percent body fat, and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. Fitness was expressed as VO2 peak during treadmill testing. RESULTS There were significantly more dropouts in the exercise group than the control group (ρ=−0.220, P<.01). Those who dropped out of the study had less exercise self-efficacy for lifting weight (ρ =0.187, P<.05). Physiological parameters associated with dropouts included low fitness (ρ =0.255, P<.01); higher insulin resistance (ρ =0.167, P<.05); higher total percent body fat (ρ =−0.213, P<.05); and higher subcutaneous abdominal fat (ρ =−0.220, P<.05). In the multiple logistic regression model, exercise group assignment, insulin resistance, and fitness remained significant predictors of dropouts. CONCLUSIONS Special attention to the sedentary individuals with high insulin resistance and poor fitness should be incorporated into implementing exercise programs to improve diabetes treatment. PMID:23011489
Haynes, Andrew; Linden, Matthew D; Robey, Elisa; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, Hugh; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J
The exercise paradox infers that, despite the well-established cardioprotective effects of repeated episodic exercise (training), the risk of acute atherothrombotic events may be transiently increased during and soon after an exercise bout. However, the acute impact of different exercise modalities on platelet function has not previously been addressed. We hypothesized that distinct modalities of exercise would have differing effects on in vivo platelet activation and reactivity to agonists which induce monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation. Eight middle-aged (53.5 ± 1.6 years) male participants took part in four 30 min experimental interventions (aerobic AE, resistance RE, combined aerobic/resistance exercise CARE, or no-exercise NE), in random order. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after each intervention, and incubated with one of three agonists of physiologically/clinically relevant pathways of platelet activation (thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 TRAP, arachidonic acid AA, and cross-linked collagen-related peptide xCRP). In the presence of AA, TRAP, and xCRP, both RE and CARE evoked increases in MPAs immediately post-exercise (P < 0.01), whereas only AA significantly increased MPAs immediately after AE (P < 0.01). These increases in platelet activation post-exercise were transient, as responses approached pre-exercise levels by 1 h. These are the first data to suggest that exercise involving a resistance component in humans may transiently increase platelet-mediated thrombotic risk more than aerobic modalities.
Camillo, Carlos A; Osadnik, Christian R; van Remoortel, Hans; Burtin, Chris; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry
The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus "add-on" therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V'O2peak), work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of "high" quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10). 74 studies (2506 subjects) met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V'O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of "add-on" therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring "add-on" therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation). The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of "add-on" interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as "one size fits all" eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of "add-on" therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct clinical phenotypes.
Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E.; Watanabe, Eiji; Brechue, William F.; Okada, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Tadaki; Islam, Mohammod M.; Hayano, Jyunichirou
Examined the physiological responses of elderly Japanese women to a well-rounded exercise program performed in water. Results indicated that the 12-week program elicited significant improvements in intervention group women's cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, agility, flexibility, body fat, and total cholesterol. Water-based exercise…
Krafft, C E; Pierce, J E; Schwarz, N F; Chi, L; Weinberger, A L; Schaeffer, D J; Rodrigue, A L; Camchong, J; Allison, J D; Yanasak, N E; Liu, T; Davis, C L; McDowell, J E
Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children 8-11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children.
Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael
This study explored the relationship between the mother-infant interaction and the concurrent perceptual-cognitive and intellectual status of the infant. One hundred and eight-nine 12-week-old infants were given a battery of perceptual-cognitive tasks, including the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales, the Corman-Escalona Scales…
Meric, Odemis; Ilhan, Adilogullari
In this research, it is aimed to investigate the effect of 12-week Latin dance training on the self-confidence of university students. This research was conducted with a total of 60 students, including 30 students as control and 30 students as the working group. A 33-item self-confidence scale developed by Akin (2007) was applied to both control…
Soothill, P W; Vuthiwong, C; Rees, H
Ultrasound examination at 12 weeks' gestation revealed severe generalised subcutaneous oedema in a pregnancy at risk for achondrogenesis type II. Transvaginal scanning confirmed the oedema and suggested abnormal limb development. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination after transvaginal termination.
Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju
Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…
March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto
Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…
Adamsen, L; Stage, M; Laursen, J; Rørth, M; Quist, M
Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home-based exercise program. An explorative study using individual semi-structured interviews (n=15) and one focus group interview (n=8) was conducted among the participants. Throughout the intervention the patients experienced increased muscle strength, improvement in wellbeing, breathlessness and energy. The group exercise and relaxation intervention showed an adherence rate of 76%, whereas the patients failed to comply with the home-based exercise. The hospital-based intervention initiated at time of diagnosis encouraged former sedentary lung cancer patients to participation and was undertaken safely by cancer patients with advanced stages of disease, during treatment. The patients experienced physical, functional and emotional benefits. This study confirmed that supervised training in peer-groups was beneficial, even in a cancer population with full-blown symptom burden and poor prognosis.
Joseph, Michael F; Denegar, Craig R
Tendinopathy is a common and complex disorder. Once viewed as an inflammatory condition labeled tendinitis, it is now viewed along a continuum that can lead to tissue necrosis and risk of tendon rupture. Anti-inflammatory medications can alter symptoms but may also promote tissue degeneration. Loading of the tendon through exercise, especially exercise involving eccentric muscle contraction, has been shown to promote symptom resolution and functional recovery in many patients. This article reviews the pathoetiology of tendinopathy and the role anti-inflammatory interventions and therapeutic exercise in treatment of active patients.
Westergren, Thomas; Fegran, Liv; Nilsen, Tonje; Haraldstad, Kristin; Kittang, Ole Bjørn; Berntsen, Sveinung
Objective Increased physical activity (PA) may be beneficial for children with asthma. Knowledge about how to intervene and encourage children with asthma to be physically active is required. In the present study, we aimed to pilot a 6-week exercise intervention designed as active play and examine attendance rate, exercise intensity and children's perceptions of participating. Methods 6 children with asthma (4 boys, 2 girls) aged 10–12 years, participated in 60 min of active play exercise twice weekly. A mixed-methods design was applied. The data analysed included attendance rate, exercise intensity assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring during exercise sessions, registration and description of the active play exercise programme, 3 semistructured focus groups, field observations of 5 exercise sessions, and preintervention and postintervention testing. Findings The average attendance rate was 90%. Intensity ≥80% of maximal HR (HRmax) was recorded for a median (IQR) time of 22 (8) out of 60 min per session. Median (IQR) HR during the sessions was 146 (9; 74% of HRmax) bpm. Children reported increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-test compared with baseline. Children enjoyed participating and reported no limitations by asthma or serious asthma attacks. Instead, they perceived that their asthma and fitness had improved after the programme. The instructors created an inclusive atmosphere that was characterised by easy-to-master games, fair competition, humour and mutual participation. Conclusions The exercise intervention pilot focusing on active play had a high attendance rate, relatively high exercise intensity, and satisfaction; the children perceived that their fitness and asthma had improved, and reported increased HRQoL. A randomised controlled trial of active play exercise including children with asthma should be conducted to evaluate effect on PA level, physical fitness, asthma control and HRQoL. PMID:26733570
Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz
Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294
Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Brandt, M; Andersen, L L
The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with musculo-skeletal pain reduction during workplace-based or home-based physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0-10) from three hospitals participated. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level (18 departments) to 10 weeks of (i) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (ii) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure-time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Linear mixed models accounting for cluster identified factors affecting pain reduction. On average 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. The multi-adjusted analysis showed a significant effect on pain reduction of both training adherence (P=.04) and intervention group (P=.04) with participants in WORK experiencing greater reductions compared with HOME. Obesity at baseline was associated with better outcome. Leisure-time exercise, daily patient transfer, age, and chronic pain did not affect the changes in pain. In conclusion, even when adjusted for training adherence, performing physical exercise at the workplace is more effective than home-based exercise in reducing musculo-skeletal pain in healthcare workers. Noteworthy, obese individuals may especially benefit from physical exercise interventions targeting musculo-skeletal pain.
Mercier, Joanie; Savard, Josée; Bernard, Paquito
Exercise leads to several positive outcomes in oncology. However, the question as to whether exercise is a valuable option for improving patients' sleep, which is frequently disturbed in cancer patients, remains unanswered. The aims of this study were to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized clinical trials that have investigated the effect of exercise on sleep outcomes, assessed subjectively and objectively. Relevant studies, published before May 2016, were traced through a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, SportDiscus and Cochrane library databases. The review looked at twenty one trials, including 17 randomized controlled trials. Most interventions were home-based aerobic walking programs and breast cancer patients were the subgroup most represented. Sleep variables were most commonly used as secondary outcomes in the reviewed studies. Studies were highly heterogeneous in terms of methodology. The qualitative review of available evidence suggested a beneficial effect of exercise interventions on sleep in several studies (48%). However, the meta-analysis conducted on RCTs revealed no significant effect either on subjective or on objective sleep measures. This lack of significant effect could be due, at least in part, to a floor effect. More rigorous studies are needed to assess the effect of exercise interventions in cancer patients, in particular randomized controlled trials conducted in patients with clinically significant sleep disturbances at baseline.
Josefsson, T; Lindwall, M; Archer, T
Previous meta-analyses investigating the effect of exercise on depression have included trials where the control condition has been categorized as placebo despite the fact that this particular placebo intervention (e.g., meditation, relaxation) has been recognized as having an antidepressant effect. Because meditation and mindfulness-based interventions are associated with depression reduction, it is impossible to separate the effect of the physical exercise from the meditation-related parts. The present study determined the efficacy of exercise in reducing symptoms of depression compared with no treatment, placebo conditions or usual care among clinically defined depressed adults. Of 89 retrieved studies, 15 passed the inclusion criteria of which 13 studies presented sufficient information for calculating effect sizes. The main result showed a significant large overall effect favoring exercise intervention. The effect size was even larger when only trials that had used no treatment or placebo conditions were analyzed. Nevertheless, effect size was reduced to a moderate level when only studies with high methodological quality were included in the analysis. Exercise may be recommended for people with mild and moderate depression who are willing, motivated, and physically healthy enough to engage in such a program.
Angotti, C. M.; Chan, W. T.; Sample, C. J.; Levine, M. S.
PURPOSE: To elucidate a potential combined dietary and exercise intervention affect on cardiovascular risk reduction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters employees. DESIGN: A nonexperimental, longitudinal, clinical-chart review study (1987 to 1996) of an identified intervention group and a reference (not a control) group. SETTING: The study group worked in an office environment and participated in the annual medical examinations. SUBJECTS: An intervention group of 858 people with initially elevated serum cholesterol, and a reference group of 963 people randomly sampled from 10% of the study group. MEASURES: Serum cholesterol data were obtained for both groups, respectively, from pre- and postintervention and annual examinations. The reference group was adjusted by statistical exclusion of potential intervention participants. Regression equations (cholesterol vs. study years) for the unadjusted/adjusted reference groups were tested for statistical significance. INTERVENTION: An 8-week individualized, combined dietary and exercise program was instituted with annual follow-ups and was repeated where warranted. RESULTS: Only the unadjusted (but not the adjusted) reference group with initial mean total serum cholesterol levels above 200 mg/dL shows a significant 9-year decline trend and significant beta coefficient tests. An intervention effect is suggested. Mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol rose slightly in the intervention group but was maintained in the reference group. CONCLUSION: With potential design limitations, the NASA intervention program focusing on a high risk group may be associated to some degree, if not fully, with an overall cardiovascular risk profile improvement.
Focht, Brian C; Clinton, Steven K; Devor, Steven T; Garver, Matthew J; Lucas, Alexander R; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Grainger, Elizabeth
Findings from prior systematic reviews suggest that exercise results in meaningful improvements in many clinically relevant physiologic and quality of life (QOL) outcomes during and following cancer treatment. However, the majority of exercise-cancer studies have focused upon the benefits of aerobic exercise (AE) and knowledge of the efficacy of resistance exercise (RE) alone as a supportive care intervention for cancer patients and survivors remains limited. Consequently, the purpose of this review was to provide the first systematic evaluation of the effects of RE alone upon clinically relevant physiologic and QOL outcomes during and following cancer treatment. Literature searches were conducted to identify studies examining RE interventions in cancer patients and survivors. Data were extracted on physiologic (fitness, physical function, and body composition) and QOL (fatigue, psychological well-being, and cancer-specific and global QOL outcomes. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for each outcome. A total of 15 studies (6 in samples undergoing active cancer treatment and 9 in samples having completed cancer treatment) involving 1,077 participants met the inclusion criteria. Findings revealed that, on average, RE resulted in large effect-size improvements in muscular strength (d = 0.86), moderate effect-size improvements in physical function (d = 0.66), and small effect-size improvements in body composition (d = 0.28) and QOL (d = 0.25) outcomes. The effect sizes observed following RE are comparable in magnitude to the effects of exercise interventions reported in prior comprehensive reviews of the exercise-cancer literature which primarily focused upon AE. Additionally, the methodologic quality of the studies was generally strong. Taken collectively, results of this systematic review suggest that RE is a promising supportive care intervention that results in meaningful improvements in clinically relevant physiologic and QOL outcomes during and following
Marocolo, Moacir; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Marocolo, Isabela C; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Simão, Roberto; Maior, Alex S
This study evaluated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on resistance exercise performance in the lower limbs. Thirteen men participated in a randomized crossover design that involved 3 separate sessions (IPC, PLACEBO, and control). A 12-repetition maximum (12RM) load for the leg extension exercise was assessed through test and retest sessions before the first experimental session. The IPC session consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of occlusion at 220 mm Hg of pressure alternated with 5 minutes of reperfusion at 0 mm Hg for a total of 40 minutes. The PLACEBO session consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of cuff administration at 20 mm Hg of pressure alternated with 5 minutes of pseudo-reperfusion at 0 mm Hg for a total of 40 minutes. The occlusion and reperfusion phases were conducted alternately between the thighs, with subjects remaining seated. No ischemic pressure was applied during the control (CON) session and subjects sat passively for 40 minutes. Eight minutes after IPC, PLACEBO, or CON, subjects performed 3 repetition maximum sets of the leg extension (2-minute rest between sets) with the predetermined 12RM load. Four minutes after the third set for each condition, blood lactate was assessed. The results showed that for the first set, the number of repetitions significantly increased for both the IPC (13.08 ± 2.11; p = 0.0036) and PLACEBO (13.15 ± 0.88; p = 0.0016) conditions, but not for the CON (11.88 ± 1.07; p > 0.99) condition. In addition, the IPC and PLACEBO conditions resulted insignificantly greater repetitions vs. the CON condition on the first set (p = 0.015; p = 0.007) and second set (p = 0.011; p = 0.019), but not on the third set (p = 0.68; p > 0.99). No difference (p = 0.465) was found in the fatigue index and lactate concentration between conditions. These results indicate that IPC and PLACEBO IPC may have small beneficial effects on repetition performance over a CON condition. Owing to potential for greater discomfort associated
Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.
[Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18–55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20–45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398
Bernard, Paquito Philippe Noel; Esseul, Elodie Christine; Raymond, Laurent; Dandonneau, Loic; Xambo, Jean-Jacques; Carayol, Marion Sara; Ninot, Gregory Jean-Marie Guilyn
Smoking cessation is possible for individuals with schizophrenia but the relapse rate is high. It is necessary to develop more flexible approaches to help these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of an intervention approach that integrates counseling and exercise for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A single group prospective design was used in this study. A sample of inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in a program called "oxygen group", a program combining five sessions of smoking reduction counseling and three sessions of moderate intensity exercise over an 8-week period. Tobacco consumption, motivation, carbon monoxide level, anxiety and depression, smoking self-efficacy, nicotine dependence and waist circumference were measured pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported their satisfaction with the study characteristics after completion of the intervention. Smoking consumption and CO level were assessed at 6-week post-intervention follow-up. Twelve individuals (mean age 45.7±10.8years) were recruited. Participant attendance was 81.3%. There were no dropouts. Significant decreases were found for tobacco consumption (P=.04) and CO rate (P=.003) at the end of the intervention and were maintained at 6-week follow-up. Compared to baseline levels, there were no changes in depression and anxiety. Smoking cessation motivation increased significantly. This intervention appears feasible and acceptable to patients with schizophrenia and there were promising findings regarding smoking reduction. Larger trials to test the intervention are warranted.
Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm
Background Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. Objective The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. Methods A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Results Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow
Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John
Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss. PMID:20886014
Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John
Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.
Rawson, Richard A.; Chudzynski, Joy; Mooney, Larissa; Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; Dickerson, Daniel; Penate, Jose; Salem, Bilal A.; Dolezal, Brett; Cooper, Christopher B.
Background We examined the efficacy of an 8-week exercise intervention on posttreatment methamphetamine (MA) use among MA-dependent individuals following residential treatment. Methods 135 individuals newly enrolled in treatment were randomly assigned to a structured 8-week exercise intervention or health education control group. Approximately 1 week after completion of the intervention, participants were discharged to the community. Interview data and urine samples were collected at 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-residential care. Of the sample, 54.8% were classified as higher severity users (using MA more than 18 days in the month before admission) and 45.2% as lower severity users (using MA for up to 18 days in the month before admission). Group differences in MA use outcomes were examined over the 3 timepoints using mixed-multivariate modeling. Results While fewer exercise participants returned to MA use compared to education participants at 1-, 3- and 6-months post-discharge, differences were not statistically significant. A significant interaction for self-reported MA use and MA urine drug test results by condition and MA severity was found: lower severity users in the exercise group reported using MA significantly fewer days at the three post-discharge timepoints than lower severity users in the education group. Lower severity users in the exercise group also had a lower percentage of positive urine results at the three timepoints than lower severity users in the education group. These relationships were not present in the comparison of the higher severity conditions. Conclusion Results support the value of exercise as a treatment component for individuals using MA 18 or fewer days/month. PMID:26371404
Miller, W C
Health care professionals have used restrictive dieting and exercise intervention strategies in an effort to combat the rising prevalence of obesity in affluent countries. In spite of these efforts, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise. This apparent ineffectiveness of diet and exercise programming to reduce obesity has caused many health care providers, obesity researchers, and lay persons to challenge the further use of diet and exercise for the sole purpose of reducing body weight in the obese. The purposes of this paper were to examine the history and effectiveness of diet and exercise in obesity therapy and to determine the best future approach for health promotion in the obese population. A brief survey of the most popular dieting techniques used over the past 40 yr shows that most techniques cycle in and out of popularity and that many of these techniques may be hazardous to health. Data from the scientific community indicate that a 15-wk diet or diet plus exercise program produces a weight loss of about 11 kg with a 60-80% maintenance after 1 yr. Although long-term follow-up data are meager, the data that do exist suggest almost complete relapse after 3-5 yr. The paucity of data provided by the weight-loss industry has been inadequate or inconclusive. Those who challenge the use of diet and exercise solely for weight control purposes base their position on the absence of weight-loss effectiveness data and on the presence of harmful effects of restrictive dieting. Any intervention strategy for the obese should be one that would promote the development of a healthy lifestyle. The outcome parameters used to evaluate the success of such an intervention should be specific to chronic disease risk and symptomatologies and not limited to medically ambiguous variables like body weight or body composition.
Bird, M; Hill, K D; Ball, M; Hetherington, S; Williams, A D
We examined the long-term effects of a multi-component exercise program on balance, mobility and exercise behavior. The benefits of a community-based resistance and flexibility exercise intervention in a group of healthy older (60-75 years) individuals were recorded 12 months after completion of the randomized control intervention. Differences between those participants who continued to exercise and those who discontinued were investigated. Significant improvements from baseline in sit to stand (p<0.001), timed up and go (p=0.001), and sway (p<0.001) remained at follow up in the exercise intervention group, with a control group unchanged. Participants who continued exercising had significantly greater improvements in strength immediately after the intervention, compared to those who discontinued (p=0.004). Those who continued regular resistance training performed better in the step test at 12-month follow up (p=0.009) and believed that the program was of more benefit to their physical activity (p<0.001) than those who discontinued exercising. Benefits to balance and mobility persist 1 year after participation in a multi-component exercise program, due in part to some continuing participation in resistance training. Motivation to continue resistance training may be related real and perceived benefits attained from the intervention as well as the environmental context of the intervention.
Mainini, Carlotta; Rebelo, Patrícia Fs; Bardelli, Roberta; Kopliku, Besa; Tenconi, Sara; Costi, Stefania; Tedeschi, Claudio; Fugazzaro, Stefania
Surgical resection appears to be the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent studies suggest that perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation improves functional capacity, reduces mortality and postoperative complications and enhances recovery and quality of life in operated patients. Our aim is to analyse and identify the most recent evidence-based physical exercise interventions, performed before or after surgery. We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. We included randomised controlled trials aimed at assessing efficacy of exercise-training programmes; physical therapy interventions had to be described in detail in order to be reproducible. Characteristics of studies and programmes, results and outcome data were extracted. Six studies were included, one describing preoperative rehabilitation and three assessing postoperative intervention. It seems that the best preoperative physical therapy training should include aerobic and strength training with a duration of 2-4 weeks. Although results showed improvement in exercise performance after preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, it was not possible to identify the best preoperative intervention due to paucity of clinical trials in this area. Physical training programmes differed in every postoperative study with conflicting results, so comparison is difficult. Current literature shows inconsistent results regarding preoperative or postoperative physical exercise in patients undergoing lung resection. Even though few randomised trials were retrieved, treatment protocols were difficult to compare due to variability in design and implementation. Further studies with larger samples and better methodological quality are urgently needed to assess efficacy of both preoperative and postoperative exercise programmes.
Mainini, Carlotta; Rebelo, Patrícia FS; Bardelli, Roberta; Kopliku, Besa; Tenconi, Sara; Costi, Stefania; Tedeschi, Claudio; Fugazzaro, Stefania
Surgical resection appears to be the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent studies suggest that perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation improves functional capacity, reduces mortality and postoperative complications and enhances recovery and quality of life in operated patients. Our aim is to analyse and identify the most recent evidence-based physical exercise interventions, performed before or after surgery. We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. We included randomised controlled trials aimed at assessing efficacy of exercise-training programmes; physical therapy interventions had to be described in detail in order to be reproducible. Characteristics of studies and programmes, results and outcome data were extracted. Six studies were included, one describing preoperative rehabilitation and three assessing postoperative intervention. It seems that the best preoperative physical therapy training should include aerobic and strength training with a duration of 2–4 weeks. Although results showed improvement in exercise performance after preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, it was not possible to identify the best preoperative intervention due to paucity of clinical trials in this area. Physical training programmes differed in every postoperative study with conflicting results, so comparison is difficult. Current literature shows inconsistent results regarding preoperative or postoperative physical exercise in patients undergoing lung resection. Even though few randomised trials were retrieved, treatment protocols were difficult to compare due to variability in design and implementation. Further studies with larger samples and better methodological quality are urgently needed to assess efficacy of both preoperative and postoperative exercise programmes. PMID:27803808
Nguyen, Huong Q; Gill, Dawn P; Wolpin, Seth; Steele, Bonnie G; Benditt, Joshua O
Objective To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a six-month, cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following pulmonary rehabilitation. Methods Participants who completed a two-week run-in were randomly assigned to either MOBILE-Coached (n = 9) or MOBILE-Self-Monitored (n = 8). All participants met with a nurse to develop an individualized exercise plan, were issued a pedometer and exercise booklet, and instructed to continue to log their daily exercise and symptoms. MOBILE-Coached also received weekly reinforcement text messages on their cell phones; reports of worsening symptoms were automatically flagged for follow-up. Usability and satisfaction were assessed. Participants completed incremental cycle and six minute walk (6MW) tests, wore an activity monitor for 14 days, and reported their health-related quality of life (HRQL) at baseline, three, and six months. Results The sample had a mean age of 68 ±11 and forced expiratory volume in one second 18% predicted. Participants reported that logging their exercise and symptoms (FEV1) of 40 ± was easy and that keeping track of their exercise helped them remain active. There were no differences between groups over time in maximal workload, 6MW distance, or HRQL (p > 0.05); however, MOBILE-Self-Monitored increased total steps/day whereas MOBILE-Coached logged fewer steps over six months (p =0.04). Conclusions We showed that it is feasible to deliver a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention to patients with COPD post-rehabilitation and that the addition of coaching appeared to be no better than self-monitoring. The latter finding needs to be interpreted with caution since this was a purely exploratory study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00373932). PMID:19750190
Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Herbsleb, Marco; Schumann, Andy; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Gabriel, Holger W.; Wagner, Gerd
Regular physical exercise leads to increased vagal modulation of the cardiovascular system. A combination of peripheral and central processes has been proposed to underlie this adaptation. However, specific changes in the central autonomic network have not been described in human in more detail. We hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus known to be influenced by regular physical activity might be involved in the development of increased vagal modulation after a 6 weeks high intensity intervention in young healthy men (exercise group: n = 17, control group: n = 17). In addition to the determination of physical capacity before and after the intervention, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous heart rate variability assessment. We detected a significant increase of the power output at the anaerobic threshold of 11.4% (p < 0.001), the maximum power output Pmax of 11.2% (p < 0.001), and VO2max adjusted for body weight of 4.7% (p < 0.001) in the exercise group (EG). Comparing baseline (T0) and post-exercise (T1) values of parasympathetic modulation of the exercise group, we observed a trend for a decrease in heart rate (p < 0.06) and a significant increase of vagal modulation as indicated by RMSSD (p < 0.026) during resting state. In the whole brain analysis, we found that the connectivity pattern of the right anterior hippocampus (aHC) was specifically altered to the ventromedial anterior cortex, the dorsal striatum and to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem. Moreover, we observed a highly significant negative correlation between increased RMSSD after exercise and decreased functional connectivity from the right aHC to DVC (r = −0.69, p = 0.003). This indicates that increased vagal modulation was associated with functional connectivity between aHC and the DVC. In conclusion, our findings suggest that exercise associated changes in anterior hippocampal function might be involved in increased vagal modulation. PMID
Mohamad, Hamdan; McNeill, Geraldine; Haseen, Farhana; N'Dow, James; Craig, Leone C A; Heys, Steven D
Prostate cancer prognosis may therefore be improved by maintaining healthy weight through diet and physical activity. This systematic review looked at the effect of diet and exercise interventions on body weight among men treated for prostate cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from the earliest record to August 2013. Randomized controlled trials of diet and exercise interventions in prostate cancer patients that reported body weight or body composition changes were included. A total of 20 trials were included in the review. Because of the heterogeneity of intervention components, a narrative review was conducted. Interventions were categorized as diet (n = 6), exercise (n = 8), or a combination of both diet and exercise (n = 6). The sample size ranged from 8 to 155 and the duration from 3 wk to 4 yr. Four diet interventions and 1 combined diet and exercise intervention achieved significant weight loss with mean values ranging from 0.8 kg to 6.1 kg (median 4.5 kg). Exercise alone did not lead to weight loss, though most of these trials aimed to increase fitness and quality of life rather than decrease body weight. Diet intervention, alone or in combination with exercise, can lead to weight loss in men treated for prostate cancer.
Sainz de Baranda, P; Ayala, F
The ACSM flexibility training recommendations emphasize proper stretching of muscles supporting the major joints, but there is a little evidence to support this recommendation in terms of effectiveness, and which stretching parameters (technique and single stretch duration) are more adequate. A randomized controlled clinical trial design was use to investigate whether the ACSM flexibility training recommendation parameters improve hip flexion range of motion. A total of 173 subjects, 122 men (21.3+/-2.5 years; 176.33+/-8.35 cm; 74.42+/-10.80 kg) and 51 women (20.7+/-1.6 years; 163.43+/-6.57 cm; 60.12+/-7.88 kg), classified as recreationally active young adult university students were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: 1 control group (no stretching) or 1 of 6 stretching groups. All stretching groups performed 12 weeks of flexibility training with a consistent stretch daily dose (180 s) and frequency (3 days per week) parameters and different stretch technique (passive or active) and single stretch duration (15, 30, or 45 s). Hip flexion passive range of motion (PROM) was determined through the bilateral straight-leg raise test before, during (at 4 and 8 weeks), and after the program (12 weeks). All stretching groups performed hip flexion PROM after flexibility training. A significant improvement was identified in mean PROM for each stretching group, but no significant differences were found between stretch technique and single stretch duration (p>0.05). The control group's mean PROM decreased (Delta PROM: -0.08 degrees, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-2.3 to 5.3), whereas all stretching groups increased PROM (Delta PROM: 15.14 degrees, 95% CI=10.19 to 23.56) in hip flexion after 12 weeks of stretching (p<0.05). The present study suggests that the current ACSM flexibility training recommendations are effective for improving hip flexion ROM in recreationally active young adults.
Heydari, M; Freund, J; Boutcher, S H
To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P < 0.001) by 15% for the exercising group. Exercisers compared to controls experienced significant weight loss of 1.5 kg (P < 0.005) and a significant reduction in total fat mass of 2 kg (P < 0.001). Abdominal and trunk adiposity was also significantly reduced in the exercising group by 0.1 kg (P < 0.05) and 1.5 kg (P < 0.001). Also the exercise group had a significant (P < 0.01) 17% reduction in visceral fat after 12 weeks of HIIE, whereas waist circumference was significantly decreased by week six (P < 0.001). Fat free mass was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the exercising group by 0.4 kg for the leg and 0.7 kg for the trunk. No significant change (P > 0.05) occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.
Sung, Paul S.
Background The level of disability and endurance of back muscles have been investigated, but there is conflicting evidence following specific exercise interventions for participants with recurrent low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to compare the level of disability and slope of median frequency (MF) of thoracic and lumbar erector spinae (ES) muscles following core stabilization exercise (CSE) and spinal flexibility exercise (SFE). Material/Methods In total, 46 individuals participated in this study. There were 25 participants in the CSE intervention group (average age of 47.7±8.9 years) and 21 participants in the SFE group (average age of 53.1±9.0 years). Each group participated in the specific exercise intervention program for 4 weeks while maintaining their current activity and/or exercise levels. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to measure the level of disability changes. The fatigability of the ES back muscles was measured by the slope of MF, using a modified Sorensen test. Results The disability level decreased significantly following CSE intervention (t=2.23, p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in muscle fatigability changes in the 4-week intervention period for either group. Conclusions The CSE intervention reduced disability level following the 4-week intervention period. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of specific back muscle exercises in longer intervention periods for back muscle fatigability. PMID:23314589
Zhu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yulan; Xiong, Huizi; Zhao, Yinghui; Sun, Fenyong
Background Exercise is associated with favorable outcomes in cancer survivors. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to comprehensively summarize the effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, Elsevier, and Google scholar was conducted up to March 2015. References from relevant meta-analyses and reviews were also checked. Results Thirty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis, including 2,659 breast cancer survivors. Compared with the control group, quality of life was significantly improved in exercise intervention group, especially in mental health and general health subscales of short form 36 questionnaire, as well as emotion well-being and social well-being subscales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. Besides, exercise alleviated the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the exercise group. Furthermore, exercise was also associated with positive outcomes in body mass index, lean mass, and muscle strength. In addition, the serum concentration of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-II, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 was significantly reduced in exercise intervention group. However, based on the current data of this meta-analysis, there were no significant differences in sleep dysfunction or fatigue between groups. Conclusion Our study suggested that exercise intervention was beneficial to breast cancer survivors. Therefore, exercise should be recommended to this patient group. PMID:27110131
Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H
The purpose was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on the cardiovascular and autonomic response of males to mental and physical challenge. Thirty four young overweight males were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The exercise group completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program three times per week for 12weeks. Cardiovascular response to the Stroop task was determined before and after the intervention by assessing heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), arterial stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and skeletal muscle blood flow. The exercise group improved their aerobic fitness levels by 17% and reduced their body weight by 1.6kg. Exercisers compared to controls experienced a significant reduction in HR (p<0.001) and a significant increase in SV (p<0.001) at rest and during Stroop and exercise. For exercisers, arterial stiffness significantly decreased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01), whereas BRS was increased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01). Forearm blood flow was significantly increased during the first two minutes of Stroop (p<0.05). HIIE induced significant cardiovascular and autonomic changes at rest and during mental and physical challenge after 12weeks of training.
Bacon, Simon L; Lavoie, Kim L; Bourbeau, Jean; Ernst, Pierre; Maghni, Karim; Gautrin, Denyse; Labrecque, Manon; Pepin, Veronique; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund
Objective Aerobic exercise can improve cardiovascular fitness and does not seem to be detrimental to patients with asthma, though its role in changing asthma control and inflammatory profiles is unclear. The main hypothesis of the current randomised controlled trial is that aerobic exercise will be superior to usual care in improving asthma control. Key secondary outcomes are asthma quality of life and inflammatory profiles. Design A total of 104 sedentary adults with physician-diagnosed asthma will be recruited. Eligible participants will undergo a series of baseline assessments including: the asthma control questionnaire; the asthma quality-of-life questionnaire and the inflammatory profile (assessed from both the blood and sputum samples). On completion of the assessments, participants will be randomised (1:1 allocation) to either 12-weeks of usual care or usual care plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise will consist of three supervised training sessions per week. Each session will consist of taking a short-acting bronchodilator, 10 min of warm-up, 40 min of aerobic exercise (50–75% of heart rate reserve for weeks 1–4, then 70–85% for weeks 5–12) and a 10 min cool-down. Within 1 week of completion, participants will be reassessed (same battery as at baseline). Analyses will assess the difference between the two intervention arms on postintervention levels of asthma control, quality of life and inflammation, adjusting for age, baseline inhaled corticosteroid prescription, body weight change and pretreatment dependent variable level. Missing data will be handled using standard multiple imputation techniques. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by all relevant research ethics boards. Written consent will be obtained from all participants who will be able to withdraw at any time. Results The result will be disseminated to three groups of stakeholder groups: (1) the scientific and professional community; (2) the research
Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel
In elderly populations, diabetes is associated with reduced muscle strength, poor muscle quality, and accelerated loss of muscle mass. In addition, diabetes mellitus increases risk for accelerated aging and for the development of frailty syndrome. This disease is also associated with a polypathological condition, and its complications progressively affect quality of life and survival. Exercise interventions, including resistance training, represent the cornerstones of diabetes management, especially in patients at severe functional decline. This review manuscript aimed to describe the beneficial effects of different exercise interventions on the functional capacity of elderly diabetics, including those at polypathological condition. The SciELO, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1980 to 2015 for articles published from original scientific investigations. In addition to the beneficial effects of exercise interventions on glycemic control, and on the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes, physical exercise is an effective intervention to improve muscle strength, power output, and aerobic power and functional capacity in elderly diabetic patients. Thus, a combination of resistance and endurance training is the most effective exercise intervention to promote overall physical fitness in these patients. In addition, in diabetic patients with frailty and severe functional decline, a multicomponent exercise program including strength and power training, balance exercises, and gait retraining may be an effective intervention to reduce falls and improve functional capacity and quality of life in these patients.
Effect of energy restriction and physical exercise intervention on phenotypic flexibility as examined by transcriptomics analyses of mRNA from adipose tissue and whole body magnetic resonance imaging.
Lee, Sindre; Norheim, Frode; Langleite, Torgrim M; Noreng, Hans J; Storås, Trygve H; Afman, Lydia A; Frost, Gary; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Kolnes, Kristoffer J; Tangen, Daniel S; Stadheim, Hans K; Gilfillan, Gregor D; Gulseth, Hanne L; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jensen, Jørgen; Drevon, Christian A; Holen, Torgeir
Overweight and obesity lead to changes in adipose tissue such as inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to assess how altered energy balance by reduced food intake or enhanced physical activity affect these processes. We studied sedentary subjects with overweight/obesity in two intervention studies, each lasting 12 weeks affecting energy balance either by energy restriction (~20% reduced intake of energy from food) in one group, or by enhanced energy expenditure due to physical exercise (combined endurance- and strength-training) in the other group. We monitored mRNA expression by microarray and mRNA sequencing from adipose tissue biopsies. We also measured several plasma parameters as well as fat distribution with magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Comparison of microarray and mRNA sequencing showed strong correlations, which were also confirmed using RT-PCR In the energy restricted subjects (body weight reduced by 5% during a 12 weeks intervention), there were clear signs of enhanced lipolysis as monitored by mRNA in adipose tissue as well as plasma concentration of free-fatty acids. This increase was strongly related to increased expression of markers for M1-like macrophages in adipose tissue. In the exercising subjects (glucose infusion rate increased by 29% during a 12-week intervention), there was a marked reduction in the expression of markers of M2-like macrophages and T cells, suggesting that physical exercise was especially important for reducing inflammation in adipose tissue with insignificant reduction in total body weight. Our data indicate that energy restriction and physical exercise affect energy-related pathways as well as inflammatory processes in different ways, probably related to macrophages in adipose tissue.
Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X
Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800 μg and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5 years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18 weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks.
Mackey, A L; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T G; Doessing, S; Kadi, F; Kjaer, M
There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry. A significant main effect of time was observed (P<0.001) for the number of CD56+ cells per fiber (L: from 0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.13 ± 0.03; H: from 0.12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells reveals a new aspect of myogenic precursor cell activation and suggests that satellite cells may play a role in skeletal muscle adaptation over a broad physiological range.
Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix
Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926
Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Seabra, Andre; Cunha, Felipe; Montenegro, Rafael; Penha, Jociene; Bouskela, Eliete; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Collett-Solberg, Paulo; Farinatti, Paulo
The effects of a recreational soccer program (RSP) upon body composition, heart rate variability (HRV), biochemical markers, cardio-respiratory fitness, and endothelial function in obese adolescents were investigated. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted with 30 adolescents aged 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) >2 standard deviations of WHO reference values, which were assigned to RSP (n = 10, 2 girls) and obese control (n = 10, 4 girls) groups. The 12-week RSP included 60-min sessions performed 3 times/week. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, HRV, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were evaluated following standardised procedures. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. After intervention, RSP exhibited significant reductions in BMI (-0.7 ± 0.2 kg · m(-2)), waist circumference (-8.2 ± 1.4 cm), %body fat (-2.2 ± 0.4%), systolic blood pressure (-5.0 ± 2.3 mmHg), total cholesterol (-16.2 ± 5.8 mg · dL(-1)), triglycerides (-20.5 ± 12.9 mg · dL(-1)), C-reactive protein (-0.06 ± 0.01 mg · dL(-1)), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -1.4 ± 0.6), and sympathetic activity (LF, -13.9 ± 6.6 un) vs. controls (P < 0.05). Significant increase was observed in parasympathetic activity (HF, 13.9 ± 6.6 un), VO2peak (7.9 ± 2.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.0 ± 6.3 mg · dL(-1)) (P < 0.05). Vascular conductance (19.5 ± 8.1 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.005) increased and vascular resistance (-5.9 ± 2.4 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.041) decreased in RSP, but not in controls. A 12-week recreational soccer intervention was effective to improve biochemical, cardiovascular, and fitness health markers in obese adolescents.
Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas S.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea and supervised exercise training interventions on improvement of disease activity and bone metabolism markers in rheumatoid arthritis patients. [Subjects and Methods] One-hundred and twenty subjects who had a mean age of (60.7 ± 2.53 years) and had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at least ten years previously were randomly included in this study. Patients were treated with infliximab, green tea, or a supervised exercise program for six months. Disease activity markers as well as antioxidant activity of green tea extracts were estimated before supplementation using in vitro assays. [Results] Rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with green tea for 6 months alone or in combination with infliximab or an exercise program showed significant improvement in disease activity parameters, including C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen and tender joints counts, and modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire score, along with an increase in serum levels of bone resorption markers, i.e., deoxypyridinoline, amino-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, and bone alkaline phosphatase, at 6 months of after initial treatment. The European League Against Rheumatism and American College of Rheumatology scores revealed more clinical improvement in the disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with green tea along with exercise compared with rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab or exercise combinations. This may have been due to the higher potential antioxidant activity of green tea (89.6% to 96.5%). [Conclusion] Both exercise and green tea interventions appeared to be beneficial as nondrug modulates for rheumatoid arthritis disorders. PMID:27821943
Hausswirth, Christophe; Duffield, Rob; Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Castagna, Olivier
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cool water immersion (20 °C; CWI) while wearing a cooling jacket (Cryovest;V) and a passive control (PAS) as recovery methods on physiological and thermoregulatory responses between 2 exercise bouts in temperate conditions. Nine well-trained male cyclists performed 2 successive bouts of 45 min of endurance cycling exercise in a temperate environment (20 °C) separated by 25 min of the respective recovery interventions. Capillary blood samples were obtained to measure lactate (La⁻), sodium (Na⁺), bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) concentrations and pH, whilst body mass loss (BML), core temperature (T(core)), skin temperature (T(skin)), heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake , and minute ventilation were measured before (Pre), immediately after the first exercise bout (Ex1), the recovery (R), and after the second exercise bout (Ex2). V and CWI both resulted in a reduction of T(skin) at R (-2.1 ± 0.01 °C and -11.6 ± 0.01 °C, respectively, p < 0.01). Despite no difference in final values post-Ex2 (p > 0.05), V attenuated the rise in HR, minute ventilation, and oxygen uptake from Ex1 to Ex2, while T(core) and T(skin) were significantly lower following the second session (p < 0.05). Further, CWI was also beneficial in lowering T(core), T(skin), and BML, while a rise in Na⁺ was observed following Ex2 (p < 0.05). Overall results indicate that cooling interventions (V and CWI) following exercise in a temperate environment provide a reduction in thermal strain during ensuing exercise bouts.
Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea and supervised exercise training interventions on improvement of disease activity and bone metabolism markers in rheumatoid arthritis patients. [Subjects and Methods] One-hundred and twenty subjects who had a mean age of (60.7 ± 2.53 years) and had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at least ten years previously were randomly included in this study. Patients were treated with infliximab, green tea, or a supervised exercise program for six months. Disease activity markers as well as antioxidant activity of green tea extracts were estimated before supplementation using in vitro assays. [Results] Rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with green tea for 6 months alone or in combination with infliximab or an exercise program showed significant improvement in disease activity parameters, including C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen and tender joints counts, and modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire score, along with an increase in serum levels of bone resorption markers, i.e., deoxypyridinoline, amino-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, and bone alkaline phosphatase, at 6 months of after initial treatment. The European League Against Rheumatism and American College of Rheumatology scores revealed more clinical improvement in the disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with green tea along with exercise compared with rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab or exercise combinations. This may have been due to the higher potential antioxidant activity of green tea (89.6% to 96.5%). [Conclusion] Both exercise and green tea interventions appeared to be beneficial as nondrug modulates for rheumatoid arthritis disorders.
Petrus, Christopher; Adamson, Sarah R.; Block, Laurie; Einarson, Sarah J.; Sharifnejad, Maryam
Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from studies examining the effect of exercise interventions on stereotypic behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Only exercise-related physical therapy (PT) interventions were included. A multifaceted search strategy identified studies published between 1980 and 2007. Quality was assessed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) Study Quality Scale, the Clinical Relevance Tool for Case Studies, and the Quality, Rigour or Evaluative Criteria tool. Results: Seven studies (1982–2003) met our inclusion criteria; four of these used single-subject research designs, two were group studies, and one was a case study. Ages and behavioural characteristics of the children (N = 25) varied among the studies. Levels of evidence ranged from II to V (of a possible I–V). Study quality scores ranged from 2 to 5 (range: 0 to 7); mean = 3.9, mode = 5. Few studies in this area of PT practice have been published, and those identified scored low levels of rigour on the AACPDM criteria. Conclusions: Research suggests that exercise provides short-term reductions of stereotypic behaviours in children with ASD. Future research with stronger evidence levels, greater rigour, and longer-term outcome assessment is required to determine specific exercise parameters. PMID:20145777
Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Dischiavi, Steven L; Hegedus, Eric J; Zuk, Emma F; Taylor, Jeffrey B
Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions. PMID:26346471
Puente-Maestu, Luis; Palange, Paolo; Casaburi, Richard; Laveneziana, Pierantonio; Maltais, François; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E; Onorati, Paolo; Porszasz, Janos; Rabinovich, Roberto; Rossiter, Harry B; Singh, Sally; Troosters, Thierry; Ward, Susan
This document reviews 1) the measurement properties of commonly used exercise tests in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and 2) published studies on their utilty and/or evaluation obtained from MEDLINE and Cochrane Library searches between 1990 and March 2015.Exercise tests are reliable and consistently responsive to rehabilitative and pharmacological interventions. Thresholds for clinically important changes in performance are available for several tests. In pulmonary arterial hypertension, the 6-min walk test (6MWT), peak oxygen uptake and ventilation/carbon dioxide output indices appear to be the variables most responsive to vasodilators. While bronchodilators do not always show clinically relevant effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high-intensity constant work-rate (endurance) tests (CWRET) are considerably more responsive than incremental exercise tests and 6MWTs. High-intensity CWRETs need to be standardised to reduce interindividual variability. Additional physiological information and responsiveness can be obtained from isotime measurements, particularly of inspiratory capacity and dyspnoea. Less evidence is available for the endurance shuttle walk test. Although the incremental shuttle walk test and 6MWT are reliable and less expensive than cardiopulmonary exercise testing, two repetitions are needed at baseline. All exercise tests are safe when recommended precautions are followed, with evidence suggesting that no test is safer than others.
MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R
Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.
Iuliano, Enzo; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Aquino, Giovanna; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on memory performance and memory complaint after 12-week intervention. Eighty community-dwelling volunteers, aged 66.96 ± 11.73 years, were randomly divided into four groups: resistance, cardiovascular, postural and control groups (20 participants for each group). All participants were tested for their cognitive functions before and after their respective 12-weeks intervention using Rey memory words test, Prose memory test, and Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). Statistical analysis showed that the three experimental groups significantly improved MAC-Q scores in comparison with control group (p <.05). The variation of MAC-Q scores and the variations of Rey and Prose memory tests scores were not correlated. These results indicate that the 12-week interventions exclusively influenced memory complaint but not memory performance. Further investigations are needed to understand the relation between memory complaint and memory performance, and the factors that can influence this relationship.
The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...
The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...
Annesi, James J.; Unruh, Jennifer L.; Marti, C. Nathan; Gorjala, Srinivasa; Tennant, Gisele
The link between physical activity and weight loss has precipitated interest in interventions to foster adherence to exercise. It has been suggested that treatment effects, when significant, should be analyzed to determine theory-based mediators. This research assessed possible mediation of changes in Physical Self-Concept, Exercise Self-Efficacy,…
Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima
The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea.
Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó
Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women.
Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó
Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658
Wu, T; Gao, X; Chen, M; van Dam, R M
Diet and exercise are two of the commonest strategies to reduce weight. Whether a diet-plus-exercise intervention is more effective for weight loss than a diet-only intervention in the long-term has not been conclusively established. The objective of this study was to systemically review the effect of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs. diet-only interventions on both long-term and short-term weight loss. Studies were retrieved by searching MEDLINE and Cochrane Library (1966 - June 2008). Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs. diet-only interventions on weight loss for a minimum of 6 months among obese or overweight adults. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Data were independently extracted by two investigators using a standardized protocol. We found that the overall standardized mean differences between diet-plus-exercise interventions and diet-only interventions at the end of follow-up were -0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI]-0.36 to -0.14), with a P-value for heterogeneity of 0.4. Because there were two outcome measurements, weight (kg) and body mass index (kg m(-2)), we also stratified the results by weight and body mass index outcome. The pooled weight loss was 1.14 kg (95% CI 0.21 to 2.07) or 0.50 kg m(-2) (95% CI 0.21 to 0.79) greater for the diet-plus-exercise group than the diet-only group. We did not detect significant heterogeneity in either stratum. Even in studies lasting 2 years or longer, diet-plus-exercise interventions provided significantly greater weight loss than diet-only interventions. In summary, a combined diet-plus-exercise programme provided greater long-term weight loss than a diet-only programme. However, both diet-only and diet-plus-exercise programmes are associated with partial weight regain, and future studies should explore better strategies to limit weight regain and achieve greater long-term weight loss.
Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L.
Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments. PMID:22933247
Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L
Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments.
Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko
To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P < 0.0001) from 0.9 ± 0.2 METs･hr/week in the pre-intervention period to 6.6 ± 0.7 METs･hr /week during the intervention period. The exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P < 0.01) and increased the whole-body muscle mass (Pre, 69.1 ± 0.5%; Post, 70.8 ± 0.4%, P < 0.01). The results of physical fitness tests showed that the intervention promoted muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, and muscular power. The scores for mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.
de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio
Depression is a common and disabling disease that affects over 100 million people worldwide and can have a significant impact on physical and mental health, reducing their quality of life. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of chronic aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat depression, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. In this review, the data analyzed allows us to claim that alternative therapies, such as exercise, are effective on controlling and reducing symptoms. 69.3% of the studies that investigated the antidepressant effects of exercise on depressive were significant, and the other 30.7% of the studies improved only in general physiological aspects, such as increased oxygen uptake, increased use of blood glucose and decreased body fat percentage, with no improvement on symptoms of depression. From the sample analyzed, 71.4% was composed of women, and regarding the severity of symptoms, 85% had mild to moderate depression and only 15% had moderate to severe depression. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressants in symptomatology and cognitive function in depression, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.
Rethorst, C D; Toups, M S; Greer, T L; Nakonezny, P A; Carmody, T J; Grannemann, B D; Huebinger, R M; Barber, R C; Trivedi, M H
Exercise is an efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) and has independently been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in non-depressed subjects. Patients with MDD have elevated inflammatory cytokines but it is not known if exercise affects inflammation in MDD patients and whether these changes are clinically relevant. In the TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD) study, participants who were partial responders to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor were randomized to receive one of two doses of exercise: 16 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per week (KKW), or 4 KKW for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected before initiation and again at the end of the 12-week exercise intervention. Serum was analyzed using a multiplexed ELISA for interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Higher baseline levels of TNF-α were associated with greater decrease in depression symptoms over the 12-week exercise period (P<0.0001). In addition, a significant positive correlation between change in IL-1β and change in depression symptom scores was observed (P=0.04). There were no significant changes in mean level of any cytokine following the 12-week intervention, and no significant relationship between exercise dose and change in mean cytokine level. Results suggest that high TNF-α may differentially predict better outcomes with exercise treatment as opposed to antidepressant medications for which high TNF-α is linked to poor response. Our results also confirm findings from studies of antidepressant medications that tie decreasing IL-1β to positive depression treatment outcomes.
Furto, Eric S; Cleland, Joshua A; Whitman, Julie M; Olson, Kenneth A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of a series of consecutive patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) who were treated with manual physical therapy interventions and exercise. Consecutive patients with the clinical presentation of TMD completed several self-report measures and underwent a standardized historical and physical examination. Following the examination, patients received a multimodal treatment approach incorporating manual physical therapy and exercise. All self-report questionnaires were completed at a 2-week follow-up. Paired t-tests were performed between the baseline and 2-week follow-up scores. The mean TMD Disability Index scores were 32.1% (15.4%) at baseline and 18.3% (12.5%) at the 2-week follow-up, representing an improvement of 13.9% (CI: 8.2%, 19.5%) (p < 0.05). Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) scores improved 3.1 points (CI: 2.3, 3.9) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that patients with TMD who are treated with a rehabilitation program including manual physical therapy interventions plus exercise, with or without iontophoresis with dexamethasone, can demonstrate clinically meaningful improvements in disability and overall perceived change in a relatively short period of time.
Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian
This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158
Casla, Soraya; López-Tarruella, Sara; Jerez, Yolanda; Marquez-Rodas, Iván; Galvão, Daniel A; Newton, Robert U; Cubedo, Ricardo; Calvo, Isabel; Sampedro, Javier; Barakat, Rubén; Martín, Miguel
Breast cancer patients suffer impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness after treatment for primary disease, affecting patients' health and survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a pragmatic exercise intervention to improve cardiorespiratory fitness of breast cancer patients after primary treatment. Between February 2013 and December 2014, 94 women with early stage (I-III) breast cancer, 1-36 months post-chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were randomly assigned to an intervention program (EX) combining supervised aerobic and resistance exercise (n = 44) or usual care (CON) (n = 45) for 12 weeks. Primary study endpoint was VO2max. Secondary endpoints were muscle strength, shoulder range of motion, body composition, and quality of life (QoL). Assessments were undertaken at baseline, 12-week, and 6-month follow-ups. Eighty-nine patients aged 29-69 years were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. The EX group showed significant improvements in VO2max, muscle strength, percent fat, and lean mass (p ≤ 0.001 in all cases) and QoL compared with usual care (CON). Apart from body composition, improvements were maintained for the EX at 6-month follow-up. There were no adverse events during the testing or exercise intervention program. A combined exercise intervention produced considerable improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, physical function, and quality of life in breast cancer patients previously treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Importantly, most of these benefits were maintained 6 months after ceasing the supervised exercise intervention.
Mackenzie, C.; Muir, M.; Allen, C.; Jensen, A.
Background: There has been little robust evaluation of the outcome of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention for post-stroke dysarthria. Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are a common component of dysarthria intervention. A feasibility study was designed and executed, with participants randomized into two groups, in one of which…
Zebis, Mette K.
Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12 min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2 min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67–92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. PMID:25574172
Qiu, Shuwei; Jiang, Zhongli
Objective To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model suitable for exercise intervention. Method Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24), PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6), and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6). Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6), sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6), exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FINS), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0. Results Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2), FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO. Conclusion By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention. PMID:24905232
Bautch, J. C.; Malone, D. G.; Vailas, A. C.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low intensity weight-bearing exercise on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS: Synovial fluid keratan sulfate (KS) and hydroxyproline were measured as markers of cartilage degradation. The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) were used to measure health status, and a visual analog scale for pain assessment was used before and after intervention. An exercise (EX) group (n = 15) received a thrice-weekly 12-week low intensity exercise program and a weekly educational program, and a minimal treatment (Min RX) group (n = 15) received only the education program. RESULTS: Pain levels declined in the EX group, and the Min RX group showed improvement on the AIMS. Synovial fluid was obtained in 11 subjects before and after the intervention. Levels of KS and hydroxyproline did not change. CONCLUSION: Further study of exercise effects should include both clinical and biologic parameters to examine the outcome of exercise as a therapeutic intervention in OA of the knee.
Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae
[Purpose] The aim of the reported research was to investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and oxidative DNA damage in obese, elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen class I obese, elderly females, according to World Health Organization criteria, were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=8) or an exercise group (n=8). The exercise group participated in exercise sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 8 weeks. [Results] After aerobic exercise intervention, weight, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, and DNA damage (Tail moment) were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values. In contrast, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels were not significantly different among any groups or time-points. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for reducing obesity-induced high DNA damage levels in obese females, without causing the deformation or degradation of lower extremity articular cartilage. PMID:27390441
Li, Ming; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Hu, Xiaomei; Hu, Fuquan; Rao, Xiancai
Homologous recombination, a central concept in biology, is defined as the exchange of DNA strands between two similar or identical nucleotide sequences. Unfortunately, undergraduate students majoring in biotechnology often experience difficulties in understanding the molecular basis of homologous recombination. In this study, we developed and implemented a 12-week laboratory course for biotechnology undergraduates in which gene targeting in Streptococcus suis was used to facilitate their understanding of the basic concept and process of homologous recombination. Students worked in teams of two to select a gene of interest to create a knockout mutant using methods that relied on homologous recombination. By integrating abstract knowledge and practice in the process of scientific research, students gained hands-on experience in molecular biology techniques while learning about the principle and process of homologous recombination. The learning outcomes and survey-based assessment demonstrated that students substantially enhanced their understanding of how homologous recombination could be used to study gene function. Overall, the course was very effective for helping biotechnology undergraduates learn the theory and application of homologous recombination, while also yielding positive effects in developing confidence and scientific skills for future work in research. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.
Hurdiel, Rémy; Watier, Timothée; Honn, Kimberly; Pezé, Thierry; Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis
Lack of sleep is known to negatively affect adolescent's health and the links between regular physical activity and sleep are unclear.This pilot study investigated whether the regular practice of physical activities among sedentary female students would improve their sleep. Nineteen female students, identified as sedentary and having poor subjective sleep quality were assigned in two groups to a 12-week university physical activities programme in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organisation (N = 10) or to a control condition (N = 9). Sleep was assessed with actigraphy before and after the study and with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality 15 Index (PSQI) at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. The intensity of physical activities was controlled by heart rate monitor. The analysis showed that sleep quality in the physical activities group improved, with the mean ± SD PSQI score decreasing from 9.1 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 2.0. Despite some limitations, these pilot data indicate that a physical activities programme is feasible to implement in students, and that participation in such a programme improves sleep in 18- 24 -year-old female adolescents. Further potential benefits remain to be investigated in follow-up research.
Background Despite its frequent use as a hypnotic, trazodone has not been systematically assessed in fibromyalgia patients. In the present study have we evaluated the potential effectiveness and tolerability of trazodone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Methods A flexible dose of trazodone (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Secondary outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement Scale (PGI). Trazodone's emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test. Results Trazodone markedly improved sleep quality, with large effect sizes in total PSQI score as well on sleep quality, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Significant improvement, although with moderate effect sizes, were also observed in total FIQ scores, anxiety and depression scores (both HADS and BDI), and pain interference with daily activities. Unexpectedly, the most frequent and severe side effect associated with trazodone in our sample was tachycardia, which was reported by 14 (21.2%) patients. Conclusions In doses higher than those usually prescribed as hypnotic, the utility of trazodone in fibromyalgia management surpasses its hypnotic activity. However, the emergence of tachycardia should be closely monitored. Trial registration This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT-00791739. PMID:20831796
Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Mathur, Sunita; Konidis, Stacey; Tansey, Catherine M; Beaurepaire, Cecile
AIM To identify the outcome measures that have been used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise training in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and to link these outcomes to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. METHODS Electronic literature searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science were performed. We sought RCTs that investigated the effect of exercise training in SOT recipients. Reference lists of all eligible publications were searched for other appropriate studies not identified by the electronic search. A complete list of outcome measures used in the RCTs was generated and each of these was linked to an ICF category. RESULTS Four hundred and thirteen articles were retrieved, of which 35 met our inclusion criteria. The studies included were designed to compare the effects of exercise training programs to usual care or to another exercise training program and reported on recipients of heart (n = 21), kidney (n = 9), lung (n = 3) or liver (n = 2) transplant. Of the 126 outcome measures identified, 62 were used as primary outcome measures. The most commonly occurring primary outcomes were aerobic capacity using the peak VO2 (n = 13), quality of life using the short-form-36 (n = 8), and muscle strength (n = 7). These outcome measures were linked to 113 ICF categories and the majority of outcomes fall into the body function domain (n = 93). CONCLUSION There is little standardization in outcome measures used in RCTs of exercise interventions in SOT recipients. The ICF framework can be used to select a core set of outcomes that cross all domains of ICF and that would be appropriate to all SOT recipients. PMID:28058230
Zhu, Jinjie; Gu, Zejuan; Yin, Xiangguang
Background Decreased physical performance and impaired physiological and psychological fitness have been reported in patients with acute leukemia (AL). We performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of exercise in patients with AL. Methods In this meta-analysis, the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and PEDro were searched through November 2015. Three authors participated in the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. The instrument used for quality assessment was derived from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Analyses were performed according to the recommendations of The Cochrane Collaboration using Review Manager 5.3. Results Nine trials (8 randomized controlled trials and 1 quasi-experimental design trial) with 314 AL participants were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled standardized mean differences between the exercise and control groups were 0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09 to 0.80, P value = 0.01, P for heterogeneity = 0.23, I2 = 28%) for cardiorespiratory fitness and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.28 to 1.06, P value = 0.0007, P for heterogeneity = 0.14, I2 = 43%) for muscle strength. Based on the data for fatigue, anxiety, and depression, there were no significant differences in these parameters between the exercise and control groups. Conclusions Exercise has beneficial effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and functional mobility; however, no significant improvements in fatigue, anxiety, depression or quality of life were observed. Further large-scale randomized trials are needed to assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of exercise programs for AL patients. PMID:27463234
Wu, Jian; Wang, Xinxiang; Chiba, Hiroshige; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Nakatani, Teruyo; Ezaki, Osamu; Cui, Hongbin; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Ishimi, Yoshiko
Body fat accumulation and bone loss are both often associated with estrogen deficiency following menopause. In this study, we examined whether soy isoflavone, one of the phytoestrogens, and moderate exercise interventions exhibit cooperative effects on body composition and bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Eight-week-old female mice were assigned to 6 groups: (1) sham-operated (sham); (2) OVX; (3) OVX with received a soy isoflavone diet (OVX+ISO); (4) OVX with exercised on a treadmill (OVX+EX); (5) OVX with given both isoflavone and exercise (OVX+ISO&EX ); and (6) OVX with treated with 17 beta-estradiol subcutaneously (OVX+E2). Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). After the 6-week intervention, whole body fat (%) in the OVX group showed significantly higher than that in the sham group. Intervention of exercise and isoflavone alone partially inhibited OVX-induced body fat gain, and the combined intervention as well as E2 treatment completely restored fat mass to the sham level. Lean body mass in the whole body was not different in OVX group compared with that in OVX+ISO, OVX+EX, and OVX+E2 groups, but it was significantly higher in OVX+ISO&EX than in other groups. BMD of the whole body, lumbar spine, or femur showed significantly reduced by OVX, and the bone loss was partially inhibited by intervention of exercise or isoflavone alone. However, the combined intervention completely restored the bone mass to the level of sham, as did E2. Serum total cholesterol was significantly increased by OVX, which was normalized by the combined intervention or E2 treatment. These results demonstrate that combined intervention of soybean isoflavone and exercise prevented body fat accumulation in the whole body with an increase in lean body mass and restoration of bone mass, and reduced high serum cholesterol in OVX mice.
BAUER, ISABELLE E.; GÁLVEZ, JUAN F.; HAMILTON, JANE E.; BALANZÁ-MARTÍNEZ, VICENT; ZUNTA-SOARES, GIOVANA; SOARES, JAIR C.; MEYER, THOMAS D.
Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness associated with a high risk of medical comorbidities, long-term disability and premature death. This systematic review examined the current literature on therapeutic interventions targeting nutrition and physical activity in BD and collecting health-related measures such as mood and course of illness. Methods Scopus (all databases), Pubmed and Ovid Medline were systematically searched with no language or year restrictions, up to June 2015, for studies focusing on lifestyle interventions in BD. Search terms were related to bipolar disorder, nutrition, physical activity, wellbeing, psychosocial interventions and course of illness. We hand searched content pages of Bipolar Disorders and Journal of Affective Disorders and checked references of relevant reviews and dissertations to identify additional papers. Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to identified hits, this literature search retrieved six papers. Overall findings point towards a beneficial role of lifestyle interventions on mood, weight, blood pressure, lipid profile, physical activity and overall wellbeing. Methodological limitations include small sample size, gender ratio imbalance, inconsistencies in terms of laboratory measures, and lack of randomized control trials and absence of follow-up and longitudinal studies to determine the benefits of these factors on clinical and functional outcomes over time Conclusions Lifestyle interventions in BD targeting nutrition, exercise, wellbeing alongside beliefs, coping strategies and attitudes towards health show promise in reducing the risk of comorbid ailments in BD. There is still a strong need for studies a) developing interventions which are informed by the patient’s input and b) examining the effectiveness of such interventions targeting general wellness using well-controlled trials. PMID:26724541
Chen, Ting-Lan; Mao, Hsin-Chun; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga exercise on the health-related physical fitness of school-age children with asthma. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design in which 31 voluntary children (exercise group 16; control group15) aged 7 to 12 years were purposively sampled from one public elementary school in Taipei County. The yoga exercise program was practiced by the exercise group three times per week for a consecutive 7 week period. Each 60-minute yoga session included 10 minutes of warm-up and breathing exercises, 40 minutes of yoga postures, and 10 minutes of cool down exercises. Fitness scores were assessed at pre-exercise (baseline) and at the seventh and ninth week after intervention completion. A total of 30 subjects (exercise group 16; control group 14) completed follow-up. Results included: 1. Compared with children in the general population, the study subjects (n = 30) all fell below the 50th percentile in all five physical fitness items of interest. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups at baseline (i.e., pre-exercise) for all five fitness items. 2. Research found a positive association between exercise habit after school and muscular strength and endurance among asthmatic children. 3. Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed favorable outcomes in terms of flexibility and muscular endurance. Such favorable outcomes remained evident even after adjusting for age, duration of disease and steroid use, values for which were unequally distributed between the two groups at baseline. 4. There was a tendency for all item-specific fitness scores to increase over time in the exercise group. The GEE analysis showed that yoga exercise indeed improved BMI, flexibility, and muscular endurance. After 2 weeks of self-practice at home, yoga exercise continued to improve BMI, flexibility, muscular strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness.
Paulseth, John E.; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P.; Hicks, Audrey L.
Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0–8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS. PMID:27803637
Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter
The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401
Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni
The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.
Lima de Souza e Silva, Maria de Lourdes; Cruz, Thomaz; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon; Ladeia, Ana Marice; Bomfim, Olivia; Olivieri, Lucas; Melo, Juliana; Correia, Raquel; Porto, Mirna; Cedro, Alexandre
Background To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes. Methods This 12-week clinical randomized double-blind study compared the effects of 400 mg/day of Mg with those of a placebo (n = 72) on fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and CRP. Mg was measured in serum (SMg) and in mononuclear cells (MMg). Results Hypomagnesemia (SMg < 1.7 mg/dL) was seen in 23.2% of patients and intracellular depletion in 36.1% of patients. The MMg means were lower in patients with obesity (0.94 ± 0.54 μg/mg vs. 1.19 ± 0.6 μg/mg, P = 0.04), and insulin resistance (0.84 ± 0.33 μg/mg vs. 1.14 ± 0.69 µg/mg, P < 0.05). Mg replacement did not alter SMg (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/dL vs. 1.81 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P = 0.877) and tended to increment MMg (0.90 ± 0.40 μg/mg vs. 1.21 ± 0.73 μg/mg, P = 0.089). HOMA-IR did not alter in interventions nor in placebo group (3.2 ± 2.0 to 2.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.368; 3.6 ± 1.9 to 3.2 ± 1.8, respectively), neither did other metabolic parameters. Conclusion Serum and intracellular Mg depletion is common in patients with MS; however, Mg replacement in recommended dosage did not increase significantly Mg levels, neither reduced insulin resistance or metabolic control. PMID:25247020
Gaston, Anca; Prapavessis, Harry
Despite the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many expectant mothers are inactive. This study examined whether augmenting a protection motivation theory (PMT) intervention with a Health Action Process Approach can enhance exercise behavior change among pregnant women. Sixty inactive pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: PMT-only, PMT + action-planning, and PMT + action-and-coping-planning. Week-long objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) exercise measures were collected at baseline, and at 1- and 4-weeks post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that while all participants reported increased exercise from baseline to 1-week post-intervention, participants in both planning groups were significantly more active (p < .001) than those in the PMT-only group by 4-weeks post-intervention (η (2) = .13 and .15 for accelerometer and self-report data, respectively). In conclusion, augmenting a PMT intervention with action or action-and-coping-planning can enhance exercise behavior change in pregnant women.
Li, Chunxiao; Chen, Shihui; Meng How, Yew; Zhang, Anthony L
This study systematically reviewed the impact of physical exercise interventions on physical fitness for individuals with Down syndrome. Articles published in English were searched from five major electronic databases, namely, CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro from inception until April 2013. These studies were screened through predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were then extracted and synthesized from the studies included. Meta-analyses were carried out where appropriate. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies, five studies were found to have high quality research methodology according to the PEDro scale. Varying exercise programs were used and four different fitness outcomes were evaluated: (i) balance, (ii) muscle strength and endurance, (iii) cardiovascular fitness, and (iv) body composition. Exercise interventions led to moderate to high effects on improving muscular strength and balance ((Equation is included in full-text article.)=0.74-1.10) whereas other outcomes showed less conclusive or limited positive evidence. Trends in the results suggest that exercise interventions improve muscular strength and balance. Suggestions for future research include follow-ups to the intervention to examine the longitudinal effects of exercise as well as controlling for confounding factors such as participants' compliance rate and severity levels of Down syndrome to enhance the effectiveness of the interventions.
Bruno, Antonio; Micò, Umberto; Lorusso, Simona; Cogliandro, Nadia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Caminiti, Maurizio; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria R A
Pharmacological therapy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is actually unsatisfactory; analgetic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not very effective. On the other hand, it is opportune to underline that antidepressant drugs produce positive response on pain in patients with FMS. Furthermore, many studies showed that using variable doses of melatonin (3-6 mg/d) in subjects affected from FMS had significantly been effective on pain, sleep, daytime fatigue, and depression. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of agomelatine on depression, anxiety, cognition, and pain in a sample of drug-free FMS patients. Agomelatine was administered at the single daily dose of 25 mg/d to 15 fibromyalgia "drug-free" female subjects during 12 weeks. Outcome measures included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Visual Analog Scale of Pain, the Quality of Life Index, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Verbal Fluency Task-Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and the Stroop Color-Word Test. Treatment with agomelatine significantly improved depression, anxiety, and pain in patients with FMS. Regarding executive/cognitive symptoms, treatment with agomelatine did not have a significant impact on the explored neuropsychological domains, although there was a trend toward the improvement of performances. The findings showed that agomelatine was effective and well tolerated in patients with FMS. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the role of agomelatine as a potential pharmacological strategy for the treatment of FMS.
Kerling, Arno; Keweloh, Karin; Tegtbur, Uwe; Kück, Momme; Grams, Lena; Horstmann, Hauke; Windhagen, Anja
Background: The aim of this prospective randomized controlled trial was to investigate if a short-term endurance or combined endurance/resistance exercise program was sufficient to improve aerobic capacity and maximum force in adult patients (18–65 years) with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: All patients performed a three-month exercise program consisting of two training sessions per week, lasting 40 min each, with moderate intensity. All patients had a maximum value of 6 (low to moderate disability) on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). One group (combined workout group (CWG); 15 females, 4 males) completed a combined endurance/resistance workout (20 min on a bicycle ergometer, followed by 20 min of resistance training), while the other group (endurance workout group (EWG); 13 females, 5 males) completed a 40 min endurance training program. Aerobic capacity was assessed as peak oxygen uptake, ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and workload expressed as Watts. Maximum force of knee and shoulder extensors and flexors was measured using isokinetic testing. Quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire, and fatigue was measured using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Results: Both training groups increased in aerobic capacity and maximum force. EWG, as well as CWG, showed improvement in several subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire and decrease of their fatigue. Conclusion: A short exercise intervention increased both aerobic capacity and maximum force independent of whether endurance or combined endurance/resistance workouts were performed. PMID:26184173
Payne, C.; Larkin, P.J.; McIlfatrick, S.; Dunwoody, L.; Gracey, J.H.
In this systematic review, we sought to evaluate the effect of physical activity or nutrition interventions (or both) in adults with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Methods A systematic search for relevant clinical trials was conducted in 6 electronic databases, by hand searching, and by contacting key investigators. No limits were placed on study language. Information about recruitment rates, protocol adherence, patient-reported and clinical outcome measures, and study conclusions was extracted. Methodologic quality and risk of bias in each study was assessed using validated tools. Main Results Six papers detailing five studies involving 203 participants met the inclusion criteria. Two of the studies were single-cohort physical activity studies (54 participants), and three were controlled nutrition studies (149 participants). All were conducted in an outpatient setting. None of the included studies combined physical activity with nutrition interventions. Conclusions Our systematic review suggests that exercise and nutrition interventions are not harmful and may have beneficial effects on unintentional weight loss, physical strength, and functional performance in patients with advanced nsclc. However, the observed improvements must be interpreted with caution, because findings were not consistent across the included studies. Moreover, the included studies were small and at significant risk of bias. More research is required to ascertain the optimal physical activity and nutrition interventions in advanced inoperable nsclc. Specifically, the potential benefits of combining physical activity with nutrition counselling have yet to be adequately explored in this population. PMID:23904771
Murphy, Margaret O.; Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB- induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE−/− mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12 week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 hours before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12 week exercise intervention significantly reduced these pro-atherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs. Keywords: exercise, polychlorinated biphenyl, endothelial function, antioxidant response, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, oxidative stress PMID:25586614
Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J. A.; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J. M.
Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety, and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living. PMID:27920744
Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J A; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J M
Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety, and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.
Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G.; Medina, Alvaro A.
Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics experience a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases. Understanding the factors influencing the success of health programs in Hispanics requires a clearer examination of the principles and components of tailored interventions. This research comprises a comprehensive literature review of randomized controlled trials testing nutrition and exercise interventions tailored for Hispanics and an examination of how these interventions were constructed. The review of 18 interventions meeting study criteria suggests that most tailored programs promoting nutrition and exercise in Hispanics are theory driven and are informed by formative research. Also, the findings indicate that salient culturally sensitive intervention components are (a) bilingual and bicultural facilitators and materials, (b) family-based activities, (c) literacy-appropriate materials, and (d) social support. A clear understanding of Hispanic cultural values is also required. Further empirical examination is warranted to determine the factors mediating or predicting the efficacy of culturally sensitive health programs for Hispanics. PMID:19193933
Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni
Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).
Efficacy of the long-acting nitro vasodilator pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris receiving anti-anginal background therapy with beta-blockers: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Münzel, Thomas; Meinertz, Thomas; Tebbe, Ulrich; Schneider, Heinrich Theodor; Stalleicken, Dirk; Wargenau, Manfred; Gori, Tommaso; Klingmann, Ingrid
Background The organic nitrate pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to have ancillary properties that prevent the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (‘CLEOPATRA’ study) was designed to investigate the anti-ischaemic efficacy of PETN 80 mg b.i.d. (morning and mid-day) over placebo in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Methods and results A total of 655 patients were evaluated in the intention-to-treat population, randomized to PETN (80 mg b.i.d., n = 328) or placebo (n = 327) and completed the study. Patients underwent treadmill exercise tests at randomization, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PETN over 12 weeks did not modify the primary endpoint total exercise duration (TED, P = 0.423). In a pre-specified sub-analysis of patients with reduced exercise capacity (TED at baseline ≤9 min, n = 257), PETN appeared more effective than placebo treatment (P = 0.054). Superiority of PETN over placebo was evident in patients who were symptomatic at low exercise levels (n = 120; P = 0.017). Pentaerithrityl tetranitrate 80 mg b.i.d. was well tolerated, and the overall safety profile was comparable with placebo. Conclusion Although providing no additional benefit in unselected patients with known coronary artery disease, PETN therapy, administered in addition to modern anti-ischaemic therapy, could increase exercise tolerance in symptomatic patients with reduced exercise capacity. PMID:24071762
Barnard, R J; Kobayashi, N; Aronson, W J
Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between nutrient intake, hyperinsulinemia and risk of Benign prostatic hyperplasis (BPH). This study tests the hypothesis that a low-fat, high-fiber diet and daily exercise would lower serum insulin and reduce the growth of serum-stimulated primary prostate epithelial cells in culture. Serum samples were obtained from eight overweight men before and after the Pritikin residential, 2-week diet and exercise intervention and from seven men who were long-term followers of the low-fat, high-fiber diet and regular exercise lifestyle. The serum was used to stimulate primary prostate epithelial cells in culture. Growth was measured after 48 and 96 h and apoptosis after 96 h. At 48 h there was no significant difference in growth within the Pre, 2-week or Long-Term groups. At 96 h growth was significantly reduced in the 2-week (13%) and in the Long-Term (14%) groups compared to the Pre data. At 96 h, apoptosis was not significantly different among the three groups. Fasting insulin was reduced by 30% in the 2-week group and by 52% in the Long-Term group compared to the Pre data. Testosterone was unchanged in the 2-week group. The results of this study indicate that a low-fat, high-fiber diet and daily exercise lowers insulin and reduces growth of prostate primary epithelial cells and suggests that lifestyle may be an important factor in the development or progression of BPH. Future prospective trials should address the effects of this lifestyle modification on BPH symptomatology and progression.
Leach, L.L; Bassett, S.H; Smithdorf, G; Andrews, B.S; Travill, A.L
Over the years, physical activity and exercise have been used to positively impact the health and quality of life of persons infected with HIV and, more recently, has been associated with a spectrum of body composition changes. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various exercise interventions on body composition in HIV positive adults, using a search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by five independent reviewers using a predetermined protocol adapted from previous research for assessing the articles for inclusion, the extracted data, and methodological quality. Eight RCTs involving 430 (26% female) HIV positive adults performing exercise a minimum of thrice weekly for at least six weeks were finally selected: Four were progressive resistance training (PRT) studies, three were aerobic training (AT) studies, and one involved yoga. In the PRT studies, there were significant increases in three anthropometric measures, namely, body mass, sum of skinfolds and sum of limb girths. In the AT studies, significant decreases were found in seven anthropometric measures, namely, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body mass, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and sum of skinfolds. With yoga, the changes were non-significant. Exercise contributes to improved body composition and, when applied safely, appears to be beneficial for adults living with HIV/AIDS. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively few RCTs published to date. Future studies would benefit from increased attention to sample size, female participants, participant follow-up, complete statistical analysis and intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26587075
Leach, L L; Bassett, S H; Smithdorf, G; Andrews, B S; Travill, A L
Over the years, physical activity and exercise have been used to positively impact the health and quality of life of persons infected with HIV and, more recently, has been associated with a spectrum of body composition changes. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various exercise interventions on body composition in HIV positive adults, using a search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by five independent reviewers using a predetermined protocol adapted from previous research for assessing the articles for inclusion, the extracted data, and methodological quality. Eight RCTs involving 430 (26% female) HIV positive adults performing exercise a minimum of thrice weekly for at least six weeks were finally selected: Four were progressive resistance training (PRT) studies, three were aerobic training (AT) studies, and one involved yoga. In the PRT studies, there were significant increases in three anthropometric measures, namely, body mass, sum of skinfolds and sum of limb girths. In the AT studies, significant decreases were found in seven anthropometric measures, namely, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body mass, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and sum of skinfolds. With yoga, the changes were non-significant. Exercise contributes to improved body composition and, when applied safely, appears to be beneficial for adults living with HIV/AIDS. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively few RCTs published to date. Future studies would benefit from increased attention to sample size, female participants, participant follow-up, complete statistical analysis and intention-to-treat analysis.
Camillo, Carlos A.; van Remoortel, Hans; Burtin, Chris; Janssens, Wim
The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak), work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10). 74 studies (2506 subjects) met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation). The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct clinical
O'Shea, S D; Taylor, N F; Paratz, J D
The outcomes of quantitative investigations examining the effectiveness of exercise interventions for people with COPD are limited by the small number of measurement tools that can be included. In contrast, qualitative inquiry allows broader exploration of the perceived outcomes of an intervention. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the qualitative outcomes of a progressive resistance exercise (PRE) program for people with COPD. People with COPD, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of PRE, were invited to participate in two semi-structured interviews conducted at the end (12 weeks) and 12 weeks after the training intervention (24 weeks). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and then coded independently by two researchers. Themes relating to training outcomes were then developed and described. Twenty-two participants were interviewed at 12 weeks, and 19 participants at 24 weeks. After PRE, participants reported a range of physical gains, particularly with regard to improved strength and reduced breathlessness during daily activities. Improved control and confidence during activities of daily living were important psychological benefits perceived by people with COPD, as was the social support experienced during group training sessions. At 24 weeks, confidence persisted despite a perceived plateau or dissipation of physical gains. People with COPD reported physical, psychological and social benefits after PRE, which had a positive effect on activity performance. Although the perceived physical benefits of training were not prominent at 24 weeks, feelings of increased confidence and control persisted.
Revdal, Anders; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M.; Ingul, Charlotte B.
Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 27 minutes/bout; 10x1-minute at 90 % of HRmax; n = 10) or extremely low volume sprint interval exercise (SIE; 10 minutes/bout; 2x20 seconds at maximum achievable intensity; n = 11) 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and body composition were measured at baseline and post test. Both HIIE and SIE improved VO2peak (3.3 mL·min-1·kg-1, 10.4 %), p < 0.01, and 1.4 mL·min-1·kg-1 (4.6 %), p = 0.03, respectively). Only HIIE reduced body fat percentage (4.5 %, p = 0.04) and two minute heart rate recovery (11.0 bpm, p = 0.02). Neither HIIE nor SIE improved HbA1c. In conclusion, this study indicates that substantially lower exercise volumes than recommended in current guidelines can improve aerobic exercise capacity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of time efficient high intensity exercise did not improve glycemic control, and interventions of longer duration should be investigated. Key points Low volume high-intensity interval exercise can improve peak oxygen uptake in previously sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes The weekly exercise volumes in the two intervention groups of 81 and 30 minutes respectively, is substantially lower than recommended in current exercise guidelines and could reduce the time-barrier associated with exercise among patients with type 2 diabetes. However, 12 weeks of structured, supervised low-volume exercise did not improve glycemic control, indicating a need for
Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M.; Montgomery, Susanne
The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015
Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne
The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.
Naylor, P J; Simmonds, G; Riddoch, C; Velleman, G; Turton, P
This study examined the effectiveness of stages of change-based counselling for exercise delivered by nurses in four primary care centres. Two-hundred and ninety-four subjects enrolled, recruited from patients attending 30-min health checks. The average age of participants was 42.4 years (SD = 15.1) and 77% were female. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing stage of exercise adoption, self-efficacy and exercise levels. Each centre was assigned to either one of three experimental conditions or to a control condition. Participants were counselled accordingly, receiving either stage-oriented exercise materials with counselling (stage plus counselling), stage-oriented materials without counselling (stage no counselling), non-staged materials with counselling (counselling only) or the current level of advice (control). Sixty-one percent (n = 180) returned follow-up questionnaires. When baseline differences in self-efficacy, age and gender were controlled for, there was no significant group or interaction effect for stage. There was a significant time effect (F = 3.55, P = 0.031). Post hoc analyses showed that significant differences were between baseline and 2 (t = -3.02, P = 0.003) and 6 months (t = -2.67, P = 0.009). No changes in self-efficacy and exercise levels were observed. Stage-based interventions were not superior to the other interventions. All single-contact interventions, while having no impact on exercise behaviour and self-efficacy, did enhance motivation to change.
Winzer, Brooke M.; Paratz, Jennifer D.; Whitehead, Jonathan P.; Whiteman, David C.; Reeves, Marina M.
Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of a 24-week exercise intervention, compared to control, in males with Barrett’s oesophagus, and to estimate the effect of the intervention, compared to control, on risk factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma development. Methods A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention (60 minutes moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions) versus attention control (45 minutes stretching five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions) in inactive, overweight/obese (25.0–34.9 kg/m2) males with Barrett’s oesophagus, aged 18–70 years. Primary outcomes were obesity-associated hormones relevant to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance [HOMA]). Secondary outcomes included waist circumference, body composition, fitness, strength and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 24-weeks. Intervention effects were analysed using generalised linear models, adjusting for baseline value. Results Recruitment was difficult in this population with a total of 33 participants recruited (target sample size: n = 80); 97% retention at 24-weeks. Adherence to the exercise protocol was moderate. No serious adverse events were reported. A statistically significant intervention effect (exercise minus control) was observed for waist circumference (-4.5 [95% CI -7.5, -1.4] cm; p < 0.01). Effects on primary outcomes were not statistically significant. Conclusion This small, exploratory trial provides important information to inform future trial development including recruitment rates and estimates of effect sizes on outcomes related to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Future trials should investigate a combined dietary and exercise intervention to
Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P
The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential
Wagner, Gerd; Herbsleb, Marco; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Schumann, Andy; Köhler, Stefanie; Puta, Christian; Gabriel, Holger W; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Bär, Karl-Jürgen
Strong evidence indicates that regular aerobic training induces beneficial effects on cognitive functions. The present controlled fMRI study was designed to investigate the impact of a short-term intense aerobic exercise on the pattern of functional activation during the retrieval of learned pair-associates in 17 young and healthy male adults compared to 17 matched control subjects. We further aimed to relate putative changes in hippocampal activation to postulated changes in the exercised-induced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The supervised exercise program was performed on a bicycle ergometer and lasted six weeks, with three aerobic sessions per week. We found profound improvement of physical fitness in most subjects indicated by the target parameter 'individual anaerobic threshold'. Significant improvements in the cognitive performance were detected in the exercise group, but also in the control group. We observed significant differences in the activation pattern of the left anterior hippocampus during the pair-associates task after the intervention. We could also show a significant positive correlation between changes in exercise-induced BDNF and left anterior hippocampal activation. Moreover, we observed the brain's motor network to be significantly stronger activated after the exercise intervention. Thus, our results suggest BDNF dependent activation changes of the hippocampus in addition to previously described structural changes after exercise.
We compared three radionuclide index of cardiac function: 1) the ejection fraction (EF), 2) the mean ejection rate (ER), and 3) the mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (MVCF) during volume loading, phenylephrine hydrochloride stress, exercise, and atrial pacing. All behaved in a similar (linear) fashion, allowing appropriate hemodynamic conclusions to be drawn using either index. During atrial pacing, the ejection fraction declined when velocity indexes increased, suggesting that the ejection fraction may not be a suitable index to characterize alterations in inotropic state during rapid alterations in heart rate, particular in the absence of angina pectoris. This may result from the reductions in cardiac volume for the duration of pacing, where the velocity index is preserved. In most circumstances excluding atrial pacing, ejection fraction during interventions is an adequate index of the change of myocardial contractile state. Overall, radionuclide angiography is an excellent technique to characterize acute hemodynamic interventions, with ejection fraction, in general, the simplest and most reliable of cardiac indexes during stress interventions.
Holtz, Bree; Krein, Sarah L; Bentley, Douglas R; Hughes, Maria E; Giardino, Nicholas D; Richardson, Caroline R
Obesity is a significant health problem among Veterans who receive care from the Department of Veterans Affairs, as it is for so many other Americans. Veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) experience a myriad of chronic conditions, which can make it difficult to maintain a physically active lifestyle. This pilot study tested the feasibility and user satisfaction with three low-cost, home-based diet and exercise programs, as well as point-of-decision prompts among these Veterans. The three programs target mechanisms that have been shown to improve healthy behavior change, including (1) online mediated social support, (2) objective monitoring of physical activity, and (3) structured high-intensity workouts. This was a randomized crossover trial; each participant used two of the three programs, and all used the point-of-decision prompts. Our qualitative results identified five overall themes related to social support, objective monitoring, structured activity, awareness and understanding, and the point-of-decision prompts. In general, participants were satisfied with and lost weight with each of the interventions. This study demonstrated that these low-cost interventions could be successful with the OIF/OEF Veteran population. A larger and longer study is planned to further investigate the effectiveness of these interventions.
García-Pinillos, Felipe; Laredo-Aguilera, José A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro A
This study aimed to analyse the effect of 12-week low-volume HIIT-based concurrent training programme on body composition, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, mobility and balance in older adults, as well as to compare it with a low- moderate-intensity continuous training. 90 active older adults were randomly assigned to experimental (EG, n=47), and control (CG, n=43) groups. Body composition and physical functioning were assessed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 12-week intervention. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for an interaction between training programme and groups. The time x group interaction revealed no significant between-group differences at pre-test (p≥0.05). The group x time interaction showed significant improvements for the EG in body composition parameters (p<0.05) and physical functioning (muscle strength: p<0.001; mobility: p<0.001; and balance: p<0.05); while the CG remained unchanged (p≥0.05). This HIIT-based concurrent training programme led to greater improvements in body composition, muscle strength, mobility and balance in healthy older people than a regular low- moderate-intensity continuous training, despite the reduction in overall training volume.
Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break. PMID:28377791
Fu, You; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Burns, Ryan D
Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break.
Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone
Endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness occur early in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and they are both powerful independent predictors of cardiovascular risk. A high-fibre diet has been correlated with lower BMI and a lower incidence of hyperlipidaemia, CVD, hypertension and diabetes. The present randomised, parallel-design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. fibre supplement diets on blood pressure (BP) and vascular function over 12 weeks. Overweight and obese adults were randomised to one of three groups: control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB) or healthy eating group with placebo (HLT). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the FIB group compared with the control group at week 6, but not at week 12. However, SBP was lower in the HLT group compared with control group at week 12. At week 6, the FIB group presented lower diastolic blood pressure and augmentation index compared with the control group, but this result did not persist to the end of the study. The present study did not show any improvements in BP or vascular function in overweight and obese individuals with psyllium fibre supplementation over 12 weeks of intervention. However, a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in BP in overweight and obese subjects. Further research with hypertensive individuals is necessary to elucidate whether increased fibre consumption in the form of psyllium supplementation may provide a safe and acceptable means to reduce BP, vascular function and the risk of developing CVD.
Ooyama, Katsuhiko; Wu, Jian; Nosaka, Naohisa; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Kasai, Michio
Previous studies indicated that a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) diet could inhibit body fat accumulation. It is also well established that exercise can reduce fat mass. However, the effects of a combination of MCT diet and exercise on reduction of fat mass have not been studied. Here we examined whether MCT diet and exercise intervention exert cooperative effects on body composition. Rats were assigned to 4 groups: 1. LCT diet, control (LCT-C); 2. MCT diet, control (MCT-C); 3. LCT diet, exercise (LCT-E); 4. MCT diet, exercise (MCT-E). After the 6-wk intervention, visceral fat mass was measured by CT scan and dissection, and energy expenditure was estimated for 24 h. The value of the visceral fat mass showed a significant correlation between CT scan and dissection (r=0.995, p<0.001). Visceral fat mass in the MCT-C group was lower than that in the LCT-C group. Furthermore, the fat-lowering effects were greater in the MCT-E group than that in either intervention alone. Thus significant effects of the MCT diet and exercise on the reduction of visceral fat mass were observed. Energy expenditure was significantly higher in the MCT-E group than in the other groups. Our present findings suggest that combined intervention of MCT diet and exercise has an additive effect on reduction of visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and that this effect may be partially related to increased energy expenditure. However, future studies are necessary to define the relationship between energy expenditure and fat mass accumulation.
Nadeau, Alexandra; Lungu, Ovidiu; Duchesne, Catherine; Robillard, Marie-Ève; Bore, Arnaud; Bobeuf, Florian; Plamondon, Réjean; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Gheysen, Freja; Bherer, Louis; Doyon, Julien
Background: There is increasing evidence that executive functions and attention are associated with gait and balance, and that this link is especially prominent in older individuals or those who are aﬄicted by neurodegenerative diseases that affect cognition and/or motor functions. People with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often present gait disturbances, which can be reduced when PD patients engage in different types of physical exercise (PE), such as walking on a treadmill. Similarly, PE has also been found to improve executive functions in this population. Yet, no exercise intervention investigated simultaneously gait and non-motor symptoms (executive functions, motor learning) in PD patients. Objective: To assess the impact of aerobic exercise training (AET) using a stationary bicycle on a set of gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, step length, step width, single and double support time, as well as variability of step length, step width and double support time) and executive functions (cognitive inhibition and flexibility) in sedentary PD patients and healthy controls. Methods: Two groups, 19 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr ≤2) and 20 healthy adults, matched on age and sedentary level, followed a 3-month stationary bicycle AET regimen. Results: Aerobic capacity, as well as performance of motor learning and on cognitive inhibition, increased significantly in both groups after the training regimen, but only PD patients improved their walking speed and cadence (all p < 0.05; with no change in the step length). Moreover, in PD patients, training-related improvements in aerobic capacity correlated positively with improvements in walking speed (r = 0.461, p < 0.05). Conclusion: AET using stationary bicycle can independently improve gait and cognitive inhibition in sedentary PD patients. Given that increases in walking speed were obtained through increases in cadence, with no change in step length, our findings suggest that gait improvements are specific to the type
Nadeau, Alexandra; Lungu, Ovidiu; Duchesne, Catherine; Robillard, Marie-Ève; Bore, Arnaud; Bobeuf, Florian; Plamondon, Réjean; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Gheysen, Freja; Bherer, Louis; Doyon, Julien
Background: There is increasing evidence that executive functions and attention are associated with gait and balance, and that this link is especially prominent in older individuals or those who are aﬄicted by neurodegenerative diseases that affect cognition and/or motor functions. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present gait disturbances, which can be reduced when PD patients engage in different types of physical exercise (PE), such as walking on a treadmill. Similarly, PE has also been found to improve executive functions in this population. Yet, no exercise intervention investigated simultaneously gait and non-motor symptoms (executive functions, motor learning) in PD patients. Objective: To assess the impact of aerobic exercise training (AET) using a stationary bicycle on a set of gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, step length, step width, single and double support time, as well as variability of step length, step width and double support time) and executive functions (cognitive inhibition and flexibility) in sedentary PD patients and healthy controls. Methods: Two groups, 19 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr ≤2) and 20 healthy adults, matched on age and sedentary level, followed a 3-month stationary bicycle AET regimen. Results: Aerobic capacity, as well as performance of motor learning and on cognitive inhibition, increased significantly in both groups after the training regimen, but only PD patients improved their walking speed and cadence (all p < 0.05; with no change in the step length). Moreover, in PD patients, training-related improvements in aerobic capacity correlated positively with improvements in walking speed (r = 0.461, p < 0.05). Conclusion: AET using stationary bicycle can independently improve gait and cognitive inhibition in sedentary PD patients. Given that increases in walking speed were obtained through increases in cadence, with no change in step length, our findings suggest that gait improvements are specific to the type
Murphy, Margaret O; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB-induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12-week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 h before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12-week exercise intervention significantly reduced these proatherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs.
Rahmann, Ann E
Expert opinion considers the referral of people with osteoarthritis (OA) for physiotherapy to be a core component of managing the functional disability and pain of the disease. Clinical guidelines for the physiotherapy management of people with OA focus on three main areas: exercise, pain relief, and specific manual therapy techniques. Land-based group and individual physiotherapy exercise programs, as well as manual therapy, have demonstrated a distinct benefit in favor of physiotherapy intervention. Similarly, both general and specific aquatic physiotherapy exercise programs have shown positive outcomes for people with OA. This review will focus primarily on therapeutic exercise to improve strength and fitness and reduce pain in people with hip or knee OA. An overview of the principles of hydrodynamics relevant to aquatic exercise is also included to facilitate an understanding of effective aquatic exercise programs. The issue of compliance with exercise programs will also be discussed. Clinicians will, therefore, gain an understanding of the benefits of land-based and aquatic exercise for people with OA. PMID:24198550
Rahmann, Ann E
Expert opinion considers the referral of people with osteoarthritis (OA) for physiotherapy to be a core component of managing the functional disability and pain of the disease. Clinical guidelines for the physiotherapy management of people with OA focus on three main areas: exercise, pain relief, and specific manual therapy techniques. Land-based group and individual physiotherapy exercise programs, as well as manual therapy, have demonstrated a distinct benefit in favor of physiotherapy intervention. Similarly, both general and specific aquatic physiotherapy exercise programs have shown positive outcomes for people with OA. This review will focus primarily on therapeutic exercise to improve strength and fitness and reduce pain in people with hip or knee OA. An overview of the principles of hydrodynamics relevant to aquatic exercise is also included to facilitate an understanding of effective aquatic exercise programs. The issue of compliance with exercise programs will also be discussed. Clinicians will, therefore, gain an understanding of the benefits of land-based and aquatic exercise for people with OA.
Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen
One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071
Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen
One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity.
Pfile, Kate R.; Hart, Joseph M.; Herman, Daniel C.; Hertel, Jay; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D.
Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in female athletes and are related to poor neuromuscular control. Comprehensive neuromuscular training has been shown to improve biomechanics; however, we do not know which component of neuromuscular training is most responsible for the changes. Objective: To assess the efficacy of either a 4-week core stability program or plyometric program in altering lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Design: Cohort study. Setting: High school athletic fields and motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-three high school female athletes (age = 14.8 ± 0.8 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 57.7 ± 8.5 kg). Intervention(s): Independent variables were group (core stability, plyometric, control) and time (pretest, posttest). Participants performed 5 DVJs at pretest and posttest. Intervention participants engaged in a 4-week core stability or plyometric program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were 3-dimensional hip, knee, and trunk kinetics and kinematics during the landing phase of a DVJ. We calculated the group means and associated 95% confidence intervals for the first 25% of landing. Cohen d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all differences. Results: We found within-group differences for lower extremity biomechanics for both intervention groups (P ≤ .05). The plyometric group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the knee-flexion and knee-abduction moments. The core stability group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the hip-flexion and hip internal-rotation moments. The control group decreased the knee external-rotation moment. All kinetic changes had a strong effect size (Cohen d > 0.80). Conclusions: Both programs resulted in biomechanical changes, suggesting that both types of exercises are warranted for ACL injury prevention and should be
Roberts, Sarah; Awick, Elizabeth; Fanning, Jason T; Ehlers, Diane; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward
Previous evidence suggests physical activity interventions effectively produce short-term improvements in physical function for older adults. The present study examined whether improvements in physical function after a DVD-delivered exercise intervention were maintained 18 months postintervention. Older adults (n = 153) randomized to a 6-month DVD-delivered exercise intervention or an attentional control condition were contacted 18 months postintervention. Participants completed the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and measures of flexibility, strength, and functional limitations were taken. Analyses of variance were conducted to determine if improvements in physical function as a result of the intervention were maintained at follow-up. Improvements in the SPPB, F (1,125) = 3.70, p = .06, η(2) = .03, and upper body strength, F (1,121) = 3.04, p = .08, η(2) = .03 were maintained for the intervention condition. Home-based DVD exercise training interventions may hold promise for long-term maintenance of physical function in older adults.
Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan
The influence of light and maternal activity on early infant activity rhythm were studied in 43 healthy, maternal-infant pairs. Aims included description of infant and maternal circadian rhythm of environmental light, assessing relations among of activity and light circadian rhythm parameters, and exploring the influence of light on infant activity independent of maternal activity. Three-day light and activity records were obtained using actigraphy monitors at infant ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Circadian rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, rhythm center, and regularity were determined using cosinor and nonparametric circadian rhythm analyses (NPCRA). All maternal and infant circadian parameters for light were highly correlated. When maternal activity was controlled, the partial correlations between infant activity and light rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, and rhythm center demonstrated significant relation (r = .338 to .662) at infant age 12 weeks, suggesting entrainment. In contrast, when maternal light was controlled there was significant relation between maternal and infant activity rhythm (r = 0.470, 0.500, and 0.638 at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) suggesting the influence of maternal-infant interaction independent of photo entrainment of cycle timing over the first 12 weeks of life. Both light and maternal activity may offer avenues for shaping infant activity rhythm during early infancy.
Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel
Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…
Sandroff, Brian M; Balto, Julia M; Klaren, Rachel E; Sommer, Sarah K; DeLuca, John; Motl, Robert W
Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of a systematically developed, progressive treadmill walking exercise training intervention on cognition among fully ambulatory persons with MS. Ten fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions. The intervention condition involved 12 weeks of supervised, progressive chronic treadmill walking exercise training. Participants underwent measures of cognition (i.e., cognitive processing speed (CPS), executive function), walking performance, and cardiorespiratory fitness before and after the 12-week period; baseline and follow-up assessments were performed by blinded assessors. Overall, there were large intervention effects on CPS (d = 0.95), walking performance (d = 0.76), and cardiorespiratory fitness (d > 1.08). The change in cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly associated with change in CPS (r = .60), but not walking performance. This small pilot RCT provides preliminary proof-of-concept data supporting progressive treadmill walking exercise training for potentially improving CPS, walking performance, and cardiorespiratory fitness in fully ambulatory persons with MS, and that improved fitness might be a possible mechanism for improved CPS.
Bruno, E; Roveda, E; Vitale, J; Montaruli, A; Berrino, F; Villarini, A; Venturelli, E; Gargano, G; Galasso, L; Caumo, A; Carandente, F; Pasanisi, P
Insulin may affect breast cancer (BC) risk and prognosis. Exercise reduces insulin in obese BC survivors. We designed a randomised controlled trial to test the effect of an aerobic exercise intervention (AEI) on insulin parameters and body composition in non-obese BC women without insulin resistance. Thirty-eight BC women were randomised into an intervention group (IG = 18) or control group (CG = 20). IG participated in a structured AEI for 3 months, while CG received only the Word Cancer Research Fund/American Institute Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendation to be physically active. Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, metabolic parameters and body composition were collected at baseline and after the AEI. IG reduced insulin and HOMA-IR index by 15% and 14%, while CG increased these parameters (+12% and +16%). Insulin changed differently over time in the two randomised groups (pinteraction = .04). The between-group differences in the change of insulin (IG = -1.2 μU/ml versus CG = +0.8 μU/ml) and HOMA-IR index (IG = -0.26 versus CG = +0.25) were respectively significant (p = .04) and non-significant (p = .06). IG significantly improved lower limb muscle mass in comparison with CG (p = .03). A structured AEI may improve insulin, HOMA-IR index and body composition in non-obese BC survivors without insulin resistance.
Background Previous studies have shown that the practice of yoga reduces perceived stress and negative feelings and that it improves psychological symptoms. Our previous study also suggested that long-term yoga training improves stress-related psychological symptoms such as anxiety and anger. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of yoga practice on somatization, the most common stress-related physical symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. We performed a prospective, single arm study to examine the beneficial effects of 12 weeks of yoga training on somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. Methods We recruited healthy women who had no experience with yoga. The data of 24 participants who were followed during 12 weeks of yoga training were analyzed. Somatization and psychological symptoms were assessed before and after 12 weeks of yoga training using the Profile of Mood State (POMS) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaires. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), biopyrrin, and cortisol levels were measured as stress-related biomarkers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the stress-related biomarkers and the scores of questionnaires before and after 12 weeks of yoga training. Results After 12 weeks of yoga training, all negative subscale scores (tension-anxiety, depression, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion) from the POMS and somatization, anxiety, depression, and hostility from the SCL-90-R were significantly decreased compared with those before starting yoga training. Contrary to our expectation, the urinary 8-OHdG concentration after 12 weeks of yoga training showed a significant increase compared with that before starting yoga training. No significant changes were observed in the levels of urinary biopyrrin and cortisol after the 12 weeks of yoga training. Conclusions Yoga training has the potential to reduce the somatization score and the scores related to mental health
McNeilly, Andrea M; Davison, Gareth W; Murphy, Marie H; Nadeem, Nida; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Novials, Anna; McEneny, Jane
Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise). The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p < 0.05 vs. pre intervention), although total oxidant status was lower post intervention (p < 0.05 vs. baseline) in this group. However, exercise and α-lipoic acid in combination attenuates LDL oxidation. Furthermore, in the α-lipoic acid supplement plus exercise training group, total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p < 0.05 vs. baseline and pre intervention). Body fat percentage and waist and hip circumference decreased following exercise training (p < 0.05 vs. post intervention). There were no selective treatment differences for a range of other clinical outcomes including glycaemic regulation (p > 0.05). These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate
Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik
Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.
Balakrishnan, Naviyn Prabhu; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Rangaiah, Gade Pandu
Personalized mechanistic models involving exercise, meal and insulin interventions for type 1 diabetic children and adolescents are not commonly seen in the literature. Patient specific variations in blood glucose homeostasis and adverse effects of exercise-induced hypoglycemia emphasize the need for personalized models. Hence, a modified mechanistic model for exercise, meal and insulin interventions is proposed and tailored as personalized models for 34 type 1 diabetic children and adolescents. This is achieved via a 3-stage methodology comprising of modification, a priori identifiability analysis, and personalized parameter estimation and validation using the clinical data. Rate of perceived exertion is introduced as a marker quantifying exercise intensity. Six out of 16 parameters in the modified model are identified to be estimable and are estimated for each subject as personalized parameters. The R(2) values for both fitness and validation vary between 0.7 and 0.96 in 97% of the patients, indicating the goodness of the proposed model in explaining the glucose dynamics. For most of the estimated parameters, values of personalized point estimates and their confidence intervals are found to be within physiological ranges reported in the modeling literature. Personalized values of appearance rate of exercise effect on glucose uptake in 34 subjects are 54-250% higher than the nominal values of adults. This is expected for children and adolescents as the literature shows that they exhibit higher fat and exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise when compared to adults.
Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina; Møller, Tom; Herrstedt, Jørn; Kronborg, Dorte; Baadsgaard, Marie T; Vistisen, Kirsten; Midtgaard, Julie; Christiansen, Birgitte; Stage, Maria; Kronborg, Morten T; Rørth, Mikael
Objective To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for advanced disease. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 269 patients with cancer; 73 men, 196 women, mean age 47 years (range 20-65) representing 21 diagnoses. Main exclusion criteria were brain or bone metastases. 235 patients completed follow-up. Intervention Supervised exercise comprising high intensity cardiovascular and resistance training, relaxation and body awareness training, massage, nine hours weekly for six weeks in addition to conventional care, compared with conventional care. Main outcome measures European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS SF-36), Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, muscular strength (one repetition maximum), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max). Statistical methods The general linear model was used for continuous outcome while analysis of associates between categorical outcomes was performed as analysis of marginal homogeneity in contingency tables. Results Adjusted for baseline score, disease, and demographic covariates, the intervention group showed an estimated improvement at six weeks for the primary outcome, fatigue, of −6.6 points (95% confidence interval −12.3 to −0.9, P=0.02; effect size=0.33, 0.04 to 0.61). Significant effects were seen on vitality (effect size 0.55, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.82), physical functioning (0.37, 0.09 to 0.65), role physical (0.37, 0.10 to 0.64), role emotional (0.32, 0.05 to 0.59), and mental health (0.28, 0.02 to 0.56) scores. Improvement was noted in physical capacity: estimated mean difference between groups for maximum oxygen consumption
Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…
Bremer, Emily; Crozier, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann
The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ?16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical…
Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro
Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134
Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Sedgwick, Whitney A; Crocker, Peter R E
In this study we explored the experiences of women who were classified as overweight while they participated in a physical activity intervention. In line with interpretative phenomenological analysis, eight women were interviewed prior to and following a 12-week dragon boat physical activity intervention. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to individual-level content analysis to explore change that informed group-level idiographic analysis. From the idiographic analysis three distinct profiles were created: (a) women who consistently struggled with negative self-perceptions; (b) women who consistently experienced positive self-perceptions; and (c) women who began with negative self-perceptions and developed more positive self-images. These profiles appeared to be associated with age, since the youngest women placed significant emphasis on the body and physical appearance, whereas the oldest participants reported the most significant shift from importance of body to a greater emphasis on health and well-being. The findings, which are reported in the context of self-determination theory, suggest that women in each of these profiles had unique physical and social self-perceptions and distinct social interactions within the dragon boat intervention.
Hiltunen, Elizabeth F; Winder, Patricia A; Rait, Michelle A; Buselli, Elizabeth F; Carroll, Diane L; Rankin, Sally H
Intervention strategies based on social cognitive theory and encompassing the bio-psycho-behavioral domains are proposed to enhance self-efficacy in men and women 65 years and older recovering from myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting. This paper describes a study in which the theory-based development of efficacy enhancement (EE) nursing interventions and their implementation and utilization with interventions from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) were used with cardiac elders in the treatment group of the community-based randomized clinical, trial, "Improving Health Outcomes in Unpartnered Cardiac Elders." Advanced practice nurses (APNs) provided the nursing intervention to 110 participants (mean age = 76.2, SD = 6.0) for the first 12 weeks after discharge to home. After an initial introductory meeting in the acute-care setting, participant contacts by the APNs were made at a home visit and telephone calls at 2, 6, and 10 weeks. Results describe the number of participants receiving interventions at all contacts over 12 weeks, at specified contact points, and the intensity (nurse time) of the interventions. Verbal encouragement and mastery were EE interventions used with the greatest number of participants. Exercise promotion, energy management and active listening were NIC interventions used with the most participants. Variations in the use of interventions over 12 weeks and their intensities, suggest patterns of recovery in the elders. During rehabilitation EE interventions can be successfully implemented with men and women 65 years and older and individualized to the recovery trajectory. Nurses can integrate specific EE interventions with more general interventions from the bio-psycho-behavioral domains to enhance the recovery process for cardiac elders.
Combs, Kory; Smith, Patrick J; Sherwood, Andrew; Hoffman, Benson; Carney, Robert M; Freedland, Kenneth; Craighead, W Edward; Blumenthal, James A
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise and sertraline on disordered sleep in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The Standard Medical Intervention and Long-term Exercise study randomized the patients with MDD (n = 202) to one of four arms: a) supervised exercise, b) home-based exercise, c) sertraline therapy, and d) placebo pill. Sleep disturbance was assessed with three sleep-related items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) before and after 4 months of treatment. The patients were followed for 12 months to assess the prognostic value of sleep disturbance on MDD relapse and recovery.Results Comparison of the active treatment and placebo groups showed no treatment differences in HAM-D sleep complaints after 4 months (p = 0.758). However, residual insomnia symptoms after treatment were strongly associated with elevated depressive symptoms assessed by the HAM-D after 4 months (β = 0.342, p < 0.0001) and MDD relapse (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.10; p = 0.004) assessed at 1-year follow-up (16 months after randomization). Neither exercise nor sertraline was associated with greater improvements in sleep disturbance compared with the placebo controls. However, residual symptoms of insomnia after successful treatment of MDD predicted relapse, highlighting the clinical importance of addressing insomnia in patients with MDD.
Sudhakar, S.; Radhakrishnan, R.
The case report has been presented to show the effects of thoracic correction exercises on flexed posture in older men with upper body dysfunction using posture analysis software and pectoralis minor muscle length test. The present case is that of a 94-year-old male. He was guided for a specific thoracic correction exercises for 12 weeks. The program included breathing correction, thorax mobility, scapular stability and passive stretching of Pectoralis major and minor, performed thrice a week, 30 min each session, for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included the upper body dysfunction changes by posture analysis software and pectoralis minor muscle length test. The Pre and Post–test of the patient demonstrated significantly greater improvements in hyperkyphosis (forward head posture) and pectoralis minor muscle length. This case study provides a promising exercise intervention that may improve flexed posture in older men with age-related upper body dysfunction. PMID:28208991
Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs
Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI.
REED, Susan D; GUTHRIE, Katherine A; NEWTON, Katherine M; ANDERSON, Garnet L; BOOTH-LAFORCE, Cathryn; CAAN, Bette; CARPENTER, Janet S; COHEN, Lee S; DUNN, Andrea L; ENSRUD, Kristine E; FREEMAN, Ellen W; HUNT, Julie R; JOFFE, Hadine; LARSON, Joseph C; LEARMAN, Lee A; ROTHENBERG, Robin; SEGUIN, Rebecca A; SHERMAN, Karen J; STERNFELD, Barbara S; LACROIX, Andrea Z
Objective Determine efficacy of three non-hormonal therapies for improving menopause-related quality of life (QOL) in women with vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Methods 12-week 3×2 randomized, controlled, factorial design trial. Peri- and postmenopausal women, ages 40-62 years, were randomized to yoga (n=107), exercise (n=106), or usual activity (n=142), and also randomized to double-blind comparison of omega-3 (n=177) or placebo (n=178) capsules. Interventions: 1) weekly 90-minute yoga classes with daily at-home practice; 2) individualized facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week; and 3) 0.615 gram omega-3 supplement, 3 times/day. Outcomes: Menopausal Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) total and domain (VMS, psychosocial, physical and sexual) scores. Results Among 355 randomized women, average age 54.7 years, 338 (95%) completed 12-week assessments. Mean baseline VMS frequency was 7.6/day and mean baseline total MENQOL score was 3.8 (range 1-8 from better to worse) with no between-group differences. For yoga compared to usual activity, baseline to 12-week improvements were seen for MENQOL total -0.3 (95% CI -0.6 to 0.0, p=0.02), and VMS (p=0.02) and sexuality (p=0.03) domain scores. For exercise and omega-3 compared to controls, improvements in baseline to 12-week total MENQOL scores were not observed. Exercise showed benefit in the MENQOL physical domain score at 12-weeks (p=0.02). Conclusion All women become menopausal and many seek medical advice on ways to improve quality of life; little evidence-based information exists. We found, among healthy sedentary menopausal women, yoga appears to improve menopausal QOL - the clinical significance of our finding is uncertain due to modest effect. PMID:24215858
Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito
[Purpose] To examine the effects of intervention combining individualized and group rhythm (To-balance) exercises on the mental and physical functions of the elderly requiring low level care. [Subjects] A total of 29 elderly persons requiring level 2 assistance to level 2 who were and using outpatient care services participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: To-balance, and Sitting. The former group performed individualized and To-balance group exercises, while the latter group performed individualized exercise, as well as group exercise while sitting on a chair. The effects were evaluated through somatometric, physical fitness, and mental function measurements before and 3, 6, and 9 months after the initiation of the intervention. [Results] The lower-limb muscle strength and mental function significantly improved in both groups. Particularly, in the To-balance group, early improvement in balance and gait ability were observed. [Conclusion] The To-balance exercise may be useful for quickly improving the elderly’s static balance ability. PMID:25202176
Snowden, Mark; Steinman, Lesley; Mochan, Kara; Grodstein, Francine; Prohaska, Thomas R; Thurman, David J; Brown, David R; Laditka, James N; Soares, Jesus; Zweiback, Damita J; Little, Deborah; Anderson, Lynda A
There is evidence from observational studies that increasing physical activity may reduce the risk of cognitive decline in older adults. Exercise intervention trials have found conflicting results. A systematic review of physical activity and exercise intervention trials on cognition in older adults was conducted. Six scientific databases and reference lists of previous reviews were searched. Thirty studies were eligible for inclusion. Articles were grouped into intervention-outcome pairings. Interventions were grouped as cardiorespiratory, strength, and multicomponent exercises. Cognitive outcomes were general cognition, executive function, memory, reaction time, attention, cognitive processing, visuospatial, and language. An eight-member multidisciplinary panel rated the quality and effectiveness of each pairing. Although there were some positive studies, the panel did not find sufficient evidence that physical activity or exercise improved cognition in older adults. Future research should report exercise adherence, use longer study durations, and determine the clinical relevance of measures used.
Honda, Takuya; Kamioka, Hiroharu
Background The purpose of this study was to report on the health benefits and curative effects of aquatic exercise. Methods We adopted the results of high-grade study designs (ie, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials), for which there were many studies on aquatic exercise. Aquatic exercise, in this study, means walking in all directions, stretching, and various exercises and conditioning performed with the feet grounded on the floor of a swimming pool. We excluded swimming. We decided to treat aquatic exercise, underwater exercise, hydrotherapy, and pool exercise as all having the same meaning. Results Aquatic exercise had significant effects on pain relief and related outcome measurements for locomotor diseases. Conclusion Patients may become more active, and improve their quality of life, as a result of aquatic exercise. PMID:24198584
Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Hu, S; Ippolito, E
This registry study assessed the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia extract in capsules) in the management of symptoms associated to osteoarthritis (OA) also managed with the 'standard management' (SM) in comparison with a group of patients managed only with SM. The 12- week registry included patients with symptomatic knee arthrosis. They were able to walk on a treadmill for a walking test and to complete the WOMAC questionnaire.
In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.
... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...
Grant, R W; Mariani, R A; Vieira, V J; Fleshner, M; Smith, T P; Keylock, K T; Lowder, T W; McAuley, E; Hu, L; Chapman-Novakofski, K; Woods, J A
Based upon a prior cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that an aerobic exercise intervention in sedentary older adults would improve a primary T cell-dependent immune response. Participants were a subset of older subjects from a large, ongoing exercise intervention study who were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise (Cardio, n=30, 68.9+0.8 years) or flexibility/balance (Flex, n=20, 69.9+1.2 years) intervention. The intervention consisted of either three aerobic sessions for 30-60 min at 55-70% VO(2 max) or two 60 min flexibility/balance sessions weekly for 10 months. Eight months into the intervention, samples were collected before intramuscular administration of KLH (125 microg), followed by sampling at 2, 3, and 6 weeks post-KLH. Serum anti-KLH IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 was measured by ELISA. Physiological and psychosocial measures were also assessed pre- and post-intervention. While there was no difference in the anti-KLH IgG2 response between groups, Cardio displayed significantly (p<0.05) higher anti-KLH IgG1 (at weeks 2, 3, and 6 post) and IgM responses when compared to Flex. Despite cardiovascular intervention-induced improvement in physical fitness (approximately 11% vs. 1% change in VO(2 peak) in Cardio vs. Flex, respectively), we found no relationship between improved fitness and enhanced anti-KLH antibody responses. Optimism, perceived stress, and affect were all associated with enhanced immune response. We have shown for the first time that cardiovascular training in previously sedentary elderly results in significantly higher primary IgG1 and IgM antibody responses, while having no effect on IgG2 production.
Soliman, Sherry; Aronson, William J.; Barnard, R. James
Serum from men undergoing a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise intervention has previously been shown to decrease growth and increase apoptosis in serum-stimulated, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells associated with a reduction in serum IGF-I. Here we sought to determine the underlying mechanisms for these anticancer effects. Again, the intervention slowed growth and increased apoptosis in LNCaP cells; responses that were eliminated when IGF-I was added back to the post-intervention samples. The p53 protein content was increased and NFκB activation reduced in the post serum-stimulated LNCaP cells. Similar results were observed when the IGF-I receptor was blocked in the pre-intervention serum. In androgen-independent PC-3 cells, growth was reduced while none of the other factors were changed by the intervention. We conclude that diet and exercise intervention might help prevent clinical PCa as well as aid in the treatment of PCa during the early stages of development. PMID:19376839
Scott, Kelly; Posmontier, Bobbie
Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and debilitating side effect of patients receiving treatment of cancer. It is reported that 60% to 100% of patients will develop CRF as a result of the treatment or the cancer itself. The effects last for years posttreatment and lower overall quality of life. The purpose of this integrative review was to determine whether exercise interventions could reduce CRF and improve overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among selected cancer patients. Clinical Key, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, Cochrane Library, Mosby's Nursing Consult, and MEDLINE (Ovid) were the databases searched. Key terms searched were fatigue, exercise, cancer fatigue, holistic, spiritual, quality of life, and prevention. Findings from most studies suggest that exercise can decrease the effects of CRF among cancer patients, leading to an overall improved HRQOL. No negative results on the effects of exercise on CRF were reported. Nurses can be instrumental in developing holistic multidisciplinary exercise programs to assist in the management of CRF and improve HRQOL among cancer patients during and after cancer treatment. Recommendations for future research include the need for larger study sample sizes, a universal definition of fatigue, determination of the best exercise regimens, more consistent fatigue measures to facilitate better comparison across studies, and specifically assess patient improvements in overall mental and spiritual well-being within a holistic framework.
Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei
Abstract Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, −0.99; 95% CI, −1.61 to −0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, −0.58; 95% CI, −1.10 to −0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, −0.31; 95% CI, −0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, −0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with
Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101
Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.
O'Brien, Kelly K; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Solomon, Patricia; Tang, Ada; Murzin, Kate; Chan Carusone, Soo; Zobeiry, Mehdi; Nayar, Ayesha; Davis, Aileen M
Introduction Our aim was to evaluate a community-based exercise (CBE) intervention with the goal of reducing disability and enhancing health for community-dwelling people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods and analysis We will use a mixed-methods implementation science study design, including a prospective longitudinal interrupted time series study, to evaluate a CBE intervention with PLWH in Toronto, Canada. We will recruit PLWH who consider themselves medically stable and safe to participate in exercise. In the baseline phase (0–8 months), participants will be monitored bimonthly. In the intervention phase (8–14 months), participants will take part in a 24-week CBE intervention that includes aerobic, resistance, balance and flexibility exercise at the YMCA 3 times per week, with weekly supervision by a fitness instructor, and monthly educational sessions. In the follow-up phase (14–22 months), participants will be encouraged to continue to engage in unsupervised exercise 3 times per week. Quantitative assessment: We will assess cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, weight, body composition and flexibility outcomes followed by the administration of self-reported questionnaires to assess disability and contextual factor outcomes (coping, mastery, stigma, social support) bimonthly. We will use time series regression analysis to determine the level and trend of outcomes across each phase in relation to the intervention. Qualitative assessment: We will conduct a series of face-to-face interviews with a subsample of participants and recreation providers at initiation, midpoint and completion of the 24-week CBE intervention. We will explore experiences and anticipated benefits with exercise, perceived impact of CBE for PLWH and the strengths and challenges of implementing a CBE intervention. Interviews will be audio recorded and analysed thematically. Ethics and dissemination Protocol approved by the University of Toronto HIV/AIDS Research Ethics Board. Knowledge
De Jesus, Stefanie; Fitzgeorge, Lyndsay; Unsworth, Karen; Massel, David; Suskin, Neville; Prapavessis, Harry; Sanatani, Michael
Purpose Exercise is beneficial to quality of life after cancer treatment, yet few cancer survivors meet exercise guidelines. Our study sought to determine the feasibility of an oncology rehabilitation exercise program embedded within a cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods Patients who rated their fatigue >4/10 after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer were screened for eligibility and the outcomes were assessed (Piper Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast [FACT-B], Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, body composition, stress test, and physical activity measurement [accelerometer]). Participants received individualized exercise prescription. Following the 16-week program, repeat assessment plus patient acceptance and satisfaction survey was completed. The primary end point was the composite of accrual rate >25%, program adherence >80%, and mean compliance with accelerometer use >80%. Results Twenty of 24 screened patients consented to the study and completed the baseline assessment. Adherence was 30.3%. Mean accelerometer use was 3.88/7 days (78%). Fatigue at baseline was rated at 4.82/10, and at 3.59 (p = 0.09) after the intervention. Overall well-being (FACT-B) score changed from 92.7 to 98.3 (p = 0.05). There were no significant changes in body composition (except for bone mineral content), aerobic exercise capacity, or activity patterns. Conclusion Although the primary outcome was not met, our study indicates that an oncology exercise rehabilitation program can be incorporated into an existing cardiac rehabilitation program. Based on feedback received, we propose that in order to achieve exercise goals, frequent, encouraging, and tailored feedback and group sessions to foster a sense of community may additionally be needed to strengthen adherence to a prescribed exercise program. PMID:28228661
Sconce, M D; Churchill, M J; Greene, R E; Meshul, C K
Many studies have investigated exercise therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have shown benefits in improving motor deficits. However, exercise does not slow down the progression of the disease or induce the revival of lost nigrostriatal neurons. To examine the dichotomy of behavioral improvement without the slowing or recovery of dopaminergic cell or terminal loss, we tested exercise therapy in an intervention paradigm where voluntary running wheels were installed half-way through our progressive PD mouse model. In our model, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is administered over 4 weeks with increased doses each week (8, 16, 24, 32-kg/mg). We found that after 4 weeks of MPTP treatment, mice that volunteered to exercise had behavioral recovery in several measures despite the loss of 73% and 53% tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) within the dorsolateral (DL) striatum and the substantia nigra (SN), respectively which was equivalent to the loss seen in the mice that did not exercise but were also administered MPTP for 4 weeks. Mice treated with 4 weeks of MPTP showed a 41% loss of vesicular monoamine transporter II (VMAT2), a 71% increase in the ratio of glycosylated/non-glycosylated dopamine transporter (DAT), and significant increases in glutamate transporters including VGLUT1, GLT-1, and excitatory amino acid carrier 1. MPTP mice that exercised showed recovery of all these biomarkers back to the levels seen in the vehicle group and showed less inflammation compared to the mice treated with MPTP for 4 weeks. Even though we did not measure tissue dopamine (DA) concentration, our data suggest that exercise does not alleviate motor deficits by sparing nigrostriatal neurons, but perhaps by stabilizing the extraneuronal neurotransmitters, as evident by a recovery of DA and glutamate transporters. However, suppressing inflammation could be another mechanism of this locomotor recovery. Although exercise will not be a successful treatment alone, it could
Halis, Fikret; Yildirim, Pelin; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Cecen, Kursat; Gokce, Ahmet
Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p <.0001). This is the first prospective study that quantifies the improvement in sexual function of healthy women after a 12-week Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field.
Henwood, Tim; Neville, Christine; Baguley, Chantelle; Clifton, Karen; Beattie, Elizabeth
Exercise has reported benefits for those with dementia. In the current study we investigated the feasibility of delivery and the physical and functional benefits of an innovative aquatic exercise program for adults with moderate to severe dementia living in a nursing home aged care facility. Ten adults (88.4 years, inter quartile range 12.3) participated twice weekly for 12 weeks. Anthropometric and grip strength data, and measures of physical function and balance were collected at baseline and post-intervention. Feasibility was assessed by attendance, participation, enjoyment and recruitment. Following exercise, participant's left hand grip strength had improved significantly (p = .017). Small to moderate effect sizes were observed for other measures. A number of delivery challenges emerged, but participant enjoyment, benefits and attendance suggest feasibility. Aquatic exercise shows promise as an intervention among those with dementia who live in a nursing home aged care facility. Greater program investigation is warranted.
Li, Haocheng; Kozey Keadle, Sarah; Staudenmayer, John; Assaad, Houssein; Huang, Jianhua Z; Carroll, Raymond J
Motivated by data recording the effects of an exercise intervention on subjects' physical activity over time, we develop a model to assess the effects of a treatment when the data are functional with 3 levels (subjects, weeks and days in our application) and possibly incomplete. We develop a model with 3-level mean structure effects, all stratified by treatment and subject random effects, including a general subject effect and nested effects for the 3 levels. The mean and random structures are specified as smooth curves measured at various time points. The association structure of the 3-level data is induced through the random curves, which are summarized using a few important principal components. We use penalized splines to model the mean curves and the principal component curves, and cast the proposed model into a mixed effects model framework for model fitting, prediction and inference. We develop an algorithm to fit the model iteratively with the Expectation/Conditional Maximization Either (ECME) version of the EM algorithm and eigenvalue decompositions. Selection of the number of principal components and handling incomplete data issues are incorporated into the algorithm. The performance of the Wald-type hypothesis test is also discussed. The method is applied to the physical activity data and evaluated empirically by a simulation study.
Laybourne, A H; Biggs, S; Martin, F C
Falls are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in older adults. Physical, psychological and social consequences include injury, fall-related fear and loss of self-efficacy. In turn, these may result in decreased physical activity, reduced functional capacity, and increased risk of institutionalisation. Falls prevention exercise programmes (FPEP) are now widespread within the National Health Service, often part of multifactorial interventions, and are designed to minimise impairments that impact physical function, such as strength and balance. Assessment of the clinical efficacy of FPEPs has therefore focused on the measurement of physical function and rate of falls. Whilst important, this approach may be too narrow to capture the highly variable and multidimensional responses that individuals make to a fall and to a FPEP. We argue that the current focus may miss a paradoxical lack of or even deleterious impact on quality of life, despite a reduction in physical performance-related falls risk. We draw upon the Selective Optimisation and Compensation (SOC) model, developed by Paul and Margret Baltes, to explore how this paradox may be a result of the coping strategies adopted by individuals in response to a fall.
Gothe, Neha P; Mullen, Sean P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Olson, Erin A; Szabo, Amanda N; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward
This 12-month, 2 arm, single blind randomized controlled exercise trial examined relationships among changes in multidimensional self-esteem as a function of intervention mode (i.e., walking vs. flexibility-toning-balance). Data were collected on three equidistant occasions (baseline, 6 and 12 months). One-hundred seventy-nine older adults (M(age) = 66.38) began the study and 145 completed assessments at all time points. Participants completed measures of physical and global self-esteem as well as demographic information. There were no significant group differences at baseline on these demographic indicators or esteem variables. Data were analyzed using linear and parallel process growth modeling procedures. Results supported the position that across both groups, domain-level (i.e., physical self-worth) was dependent upon sub-domain-level (i.e., perceived attractiveness, strength, and condition) esteem change. Furthermore, greater improvements were observed in the flexibility-toning-balance group, in terms of perceived strength and attractiveness esteem, compared to the walking group. Our findings support theoretically-based predictions and extend the literature showing unique psychological responses conditional on specific types of physical activities.
Bani Salameh, Ayman; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; El-Hneiti, Mamdouh; Shaheen, Abeer; Williams, Leonie M; Gallagher, Robyn
To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive program for type 2 diabetes by change in weight and fasting blood glucose level in Jordanian adolescents. Sixteen percent of Jordanian adults have obesity-related type 2 diabetes and 5.6% of obese adolescents examined, however one-third unexamined. Rates in Arabic countries will double in 20 years, but this can be prevented and reversed by controlling obesity. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2 unisex high schools in Irbid, Jordan, in 2012. Intervention and control participants, aged 12 to 18 years, were visibly overweight/obese. They were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 205) or control (n = 196) groups. At-risk students were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention, for change in weight and fasting blood glucose level following preventive instruction and parent-supported changes. Mean age of participants was 15.3 years with equal percentages of both males (49.4%) and females. Post intervention, the intervention group, demonstrated statistically significant reductions: mean difference of 3.3 kg in weight (P < .000) and 1.36 mg/dL (0.075 mmol/L) in fasting blood glucose (P < .000). School-based early prevention intervention effectively reduced weight and fasting blood glucose in Jordanian at-risk adolescents.
Park, Sang Hyuk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook
Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β 2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%-8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6-12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6-12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6-12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks.
Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook
Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369
Ridgel, Angela L.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Walter, Ellen M.; Colón-Zimmermann, Kari; Welter, Elisabeth; Sajatovic, Martha
Objectives Exercise can improve motor function in people with Parkinson’s disease but depression reduces the motivation to participate in regular exercise. The aim of this study was to develop a novel Enhanced Exercise Therapy program that uses manual-driven guided exercise and peer-facilitated psychoeducation for individuals with Parkinson’s disease and depression. Design 24 week randomized controlled design. Methods Thirty individuals were randomized to Enhanced Exercise Therapy or self-guided therapy, and evaluated at baseline, 12-weeks and at 24-weeks. Enhanced Exercise Therapy included group exercise and group psychoeducation for 12 weeks. Between 13–24 weeks, individuals had access to the fitness facility but group sessions were not held. Self-guided therapy included written guidelines for a self-paced exercise program and psychoeducation. Primary outcome measures included the number of exercise sessions and International Physical Activity Questionnaire score. Secondary measures included resting heart rate, supine blood pressure, estimated VO2max and incidence of orthostatic hypotension. Results Twenty four individuals completed the study (80% retention) and both groups attended similar number of exercise sessions. There were no significant changes in cardiovascular fitness measures but there was a significant increase in the amount of physical activity in the Enhanced Exercise Therapy group and a decrease in the self-guided therapy group during the post-intervention period. Conclusions Enhanced exercise therapy appears to promote engagement in an exercise program and more physical activity, even after group sessions were concluded in individuals with Parkinson’s disease and depression. PMID:25709055
Jassil, Friedrich C.; Manning, Sean; Lewis, Neville; Steinmo, Siri; Kingett, Helen; Lough, Fiona; Pucci, Andrea B. F.; Cheung, W. H.; Finer, Nicholas; Walker, Judith; Doyle, Jaqueline; Batterham, Rachel L.
Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p = 0.043), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, p = 0.043), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.034), reduced consumption of ready meals (p = 0.034), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p = 0.039). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p = 0.027). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. PMID:26199740
Yi, Jaehee; McClellan, Jessica; Kim, Jonghee; Tian, Tian; Grahmann, Bridget; Kirchhoff, Anne C.; Holton, Avery; Wright, Jennifer
Purpose: This study uses qualitative methods to identify barriers to and facilitators of exercise and healthy eating among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (survivors currently aged 18–39 years and diagnosed with cancer anytime in their lives), as reported by survivors and their primary supporters. Methods: Survivors (Mage = 27.6 years, SD = 6.6 years) had completed active cancer therapy. Survivors and supporters (i.e., nominated by survivors as someone who was a main source of support) attended separate focus group sessions (five survivor focus groups, five supporter focus groups) and were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire assessing demographic and cancer history and engagement in exercise and healthy eating. Results: In total, 25 survivors and 19 supporters participated. The three overarching themes identified were barriers to exercise and healthy eating (e.g., lack of resources, negative thoughts and feelings, negative social and environmental influences), facilitators of exercise and healthy eating (e.g., cognitive motivators, tools for health behavior implementation, social relationships), and intervention implications (e.g., informational needs, desire for social support). Conclusion: AYA cancer survivors and their supporters identified barriers to and facilitators of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which should be considered when designing interventions to improve the long-term health of survivors. PMID:26697268
Kogan, Alexis Coulourides; Gonzalez, Jorge; Hart, Bonita; Halloran, Skip; Thomason, Brenda; Levine, Morgan; Enguidanos, Susan
The objective of this article is to test the effectiveness of a multifaceted exercise and nutritional education intervention for chronically ill, community-dwelling older adults. A pre/post cohort design was implemented with measures of physical activity, fitness, depression, and anthropometry collected via 4-month in-person interview and telephone follow-up. The study was conducted at two community-based senior centers in the Los Angeles area and participants (n=62) were older adults aged 60 or older, with multiple chronic conditions, with one or more emergency department visits or hospital admissions in the previous 6 months, and at nutritionally moderate to high risk. The intervention was a fitness program providing nutritional counseling, low-impact exercise, and weight management. Results revealed significant improvements for hours of weekly exercise (Z = -4.3, p < .001), daily walking distance (Z = -5.7, p < .001), performance on fitness tests, depression (Z = 3.9, p < .001), and body measurements were observed. Findings speak to the healthy benefits of exercise and good nutrition as possible alternatives or adjuncts to pharmacotherapy for weight loss and depression.
de Roon, Martijn; van Gemert, Willemijn A; Peeters, Petra H; Schuit, Albertine J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M
The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without an exercise component on body weight and physical activity. Women were randomized to diet (n = 97) or exercise (N = 98) for 16 weeks. During the intervention, both groups had achieved the set goal of 5-6 kg weight loss. All women were re-contacted twelve months after study cessation for follow-up where body weight and physical activity were measured (PASE questionnaire and ActiGraph accelerometer). At follow-up, body weight and physical activity (measured by the PASE questionnaire and accelerometer) were measured again. At follow-up, both mainly exercise (- 4.3 kg, p < 0.001) and diet (- 3.4 kg, p < 0.001) showed significantly reduced body weight compared to baseline. Both the mainly exercise and diet group were significantly more physically active at one year follow-up compared to baseline (PASE: + 33%, p < 0.001 and + 12%, p = 0.040, respectively; ActiGraph: + 16%, p = 0.012. and + 2.2%, p = 0.695 moderate-to-vigorous activity, respectively). Moreover, the increase in physical activity was statistically significantly when comparing exercise to diet (+ 0.6%, p = 0.035). ActiGraph data also showed significantly less sedentary time in mainly exercise group compared to baseline (- 2.1%, p = 0.018) and when comparing exercise to diet (- 1.8%, p = 0.023). No significant within group differences were found for the diet group. This study shows largely sustained weight loss one year after completing a weight loss program with and without exercise in overweight postmenopausal women. Although the mainly exercise group maintained more physically active compared to the diet group, maintenance of weight loss did not differ between groups.
Schneider, Carole M; Hsieh, City C; Sprod, Lisa K; Carter, Susan D; Hayward, Reid
This investigation determined the cardiopulmonary function and fatigue alterations in male cancer survivors during treatment as well as following treatment utilizing similar exercise assessment protocols and individualized, prescriptive exercise interventions. The study included 45 male cancer survivors that were referred by local oncologists. Following a comprehensive screening and physical examination, cardiovascular endurance, pulmonary function, and fatigue were assessed leading to the development of 12-week individualized exercise prescriptions and exercise interventions. The cancer survivors were divided into during treatment (DTm) and following treatment (FTm) groups. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and analyses of covariance were used to compare pre- versus postintervention and between groups. Cardiopulmonary function was maintained in the DTm, whereas the FTm showed significant reductions in resting heart rate (P < .05) with concurrent increases in predicted VO2max and time on treadmill ( P < .05) postexercise intervention. Fatigue levels did not increase in the DTm group, whereas the FTm group showed significant reductions in behavioral fatigue, affective fatigue, sensory fatigue, cognitive/mood fatigue, and total fatigue (P < .05) after the exercise intervention. The results of the current study suggest that moderate intensity, individualized, prescriptive exercise intervention maintains or improves cardiovascular and pulmonary function with concomitant reductions in fatigue in cancer survivors during and following cancer treatment. Exercise appears to be a safe, efficacious strategy for improving physical fitness in cancer survivors during and following treatment.
Gahreman, Daniel; Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen
The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m2 and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone. PMID:27548216
Gahreman, Daniel; Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen
The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m² and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone.
Bremer, Emily; Crozier, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann
The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ⩽16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical appraisal, which resulted in the inclusion of 13 studies. Results demonstrated that exercise interventions consisting individually of jogging, horseback riding, martial arts, swimming or yoga/dance can result in improvements to numerous behavioural outcomes including stereotypic behaviours, social-emotional functioning, cognition and attention. Horseback riding and martial arts interventions may produce the greatest results with moderate to large effect sizes, respectively. Future research with well-controlled designs, standardized assessments, larger sample sizes and longitudinal follow-ups is necessary, in addition to a greater focus on early childhood (aged 0-5 years) and adolescence (aged 12-16 years), to better understand the extent of the behavioural benefits that exercise may provide these populations.
Hong, Hye-Ryun; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Kong, Ji-Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Seung-Hun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Kang, Hyun-Sik
[Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-week walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women. [Methods] Following baseline measurements, obese women (N = 20) who met obesity criterion of BMI at 25 kg/m2 or greater were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10) or exercise groups (n = 10). Women assigned to the exercise group participated in a walking exercise (with an intensity of 50-60% of predetermined VO2max, a frequency of 3 days per week and duration of 50-70 minutes targeting 400 kcal of energy expenditure per session) for 12 weeks, while women assigned to the control group maintained their sedentary lifestyle. After the 12-week walking intervention, post-test measurements were conducted using the same procedure as the baseline measurement. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to evaluate any significant time by group interactions for the measured variables. [Results] With respect to body fat parameters, significant time-by-group interactions were found in the abdominal subcutaneous (p = < 0.001) and visceral adipose tissues (p = 0.011). The exercise group had significant reductions in both subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, and the control group had no significant changes in those parameters. Similarly, there were significant time by group interactions in fasting glucose (p = 0.008), HOMA-IR (p = 0.029), serum TNF-α (p = 0.027), and IL-6 (p = 0.048) such that the exercise group had significant reductions in those parameters, with no such significant changes found in the control group. The exercise group also had a significant increase in serum adiponectin (p = 0.002), whereas the control group had no significant change in the parameter. [Conclusion] In summary, the current findings suggest that walking exercise can provide a safe and effective lifestyle strategy against abdominal obesity and serum insulin resistance markers in obese women. PMID:25566464
Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem
The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.
Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D
Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study.
Fuller, C M; Raizner, A E; Chahine, R A; Nahormek, P; Ishimori, T; Verani, M; Nitishin, A; Mokotoff, D; Luchi, R J
Exercise-induced coronary arterial spasm is an infrequently recognized phemonemon whose mechanism and management are not well established. In two patients with reproducible exercise-induced S-T segment elevation and angina pectoris thallium-201 scintigraphy showed areas of reversible anteroapical hypoperfusion, and gated radionuclide ventriculography revealed anteroapical hypokinesia with a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction at peak exercise. During coronary arteriography supine exercise provoked occlusive spasm of the left anterior descending coronary artery, which at rest had only minimal plaques. Consequently, treadmill testing was performed with five different pharmacologically provoked interventions: direct vasodilatation (nitrates), alpha adrenergic blockade (phenmoxybenzamine), beta adrenergic blockade (propranolol), calcium flux blockade (verapamil), and prostaglandin inhibition (indomethacin). Exercise-induced coronary arterial spasm, manifested as S-T segment elevation and angina, was prevented by nitrates, but was not eliminated by short-term oral administration of an alpha or beta blocking agent, a calcium antagonist or a prostaglandin inhibitor. Further, beta adrenergic blockade appeared to be detrimental. Thus, this study demonstrates (1) that coronary arterial spasm may be the underlying mechanism of at least some cases of exertional angina associated with transient perfusion deficits and left ventricular dysfunction, and (2) that it may be prevented by oral nitrates.
There is a need for feasible and research-based interventions that target the cognitive performance and academic achievement of low-income adolescents. In response, this study utilized a randomized experimental design and assessed the selective visual attention (SVA) and reading comprehension abilities of low-income adolescents and, for comparison purposes, high-income adolescents after they engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that 12-min of aerobic exercise improved the SVA of low- and high-income adolescents and that the benefit lasted for 45-min for both groups. The SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was particularly large. In fact, the SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was substantial enough to eliminate a pre-existing income gap in SVA. The mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents who engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise was higher than the mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents in the control group. However, there was no difference between the mean reading comprehension scores of the high-income adolescents who did and did not engage in 12-min of aerobic exercise. Based on the results, schools serving low-income adolescents should consider implementing brief sessions of aerobic exercise during the school day. PMID:24966846
Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke
Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465
Kohut, M L; Lee, W; Martin, A; Arnston, B; Russell, D W; Ekkekakis, P; Yoon, K J; Bishop, A; Cunnick, J E
The primary goal of this study was to determine whether exercise-associated improvements of the immune response to influenza vaccination were mediated by improvements in psychosocial factors in older adults. At baseline, prior to the exercise intervention, older adult participants were immunized with influenza vaccine. Blood samples collected pre-immunization, 1, 4, and 12 weeks post-immunization were analyzed for anti-influenza antibody, whereas influenza-specific cytokine (IFNgamma) was evaluated at 1 week post-immunization. Depression and sense of coherence were measured pre-immunization. Four weeks post-immunization, participants were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise group (n=14) or a control group (n=14). After a 10-month exercise intervention, the immunization, blood collections, and psychosocial measures were repeated. At the post-intervention evaluation, exercise participants had improved scores on depression and sense of coherence. Also post-intervention, exercise participants had a greater increase in antibody and IFNgamma production. After controlling for the effect of both psychosocial measures, the exercise treatment remained significant with respect to antibody titer suggesting that the increases in antibody were not mediated by improvement in the psychosocial factors. In contrast, the enhancement of IFNgamma appeared to be mediated at least in part by the psychosocial factors. After controlling for psychosocial factors, exercise treatment was no longer significantly related to the change in IFNgamma. Taken together, our findings may suggest that the mechanism(s) of exercise-induced improvement in immunocompetence involve both physiological and psychological pathways.
Fulcher, K. Y.; White, P. D.
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a graded aerobic exercise programme in the chronic fatigue syndrome. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with control treatment crossover after the first follow up examination. SETTING: Chronic fatigue clinic in a general hospital department of psychiatry. SUBJECTS: 66 patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome who had neither a psychiatric disorder nor appreciable sleep disturbance. INTERVENTIONS: Random allocation to 12 weeks of either graded aerobic exercise or flexibility exercises and relaxation therapy. Patients who completed the flexibility programme were invited to cross over to the exercise programme afterwards. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The self rated clinical global impression change score, "very much better" or "much better" being considered as clinically important. RESULTS: Four patients receiving exercise and three receiving flexibility treatment dropped out before completion. 15 of 29 patients rated themselves as better after completing exercise treatment compared with eight of 30 patients who completed flexibility treatment. Analysis by intention to treat gave similar results (17/33 v 9/33 patients better). Fatigue, functional capacity, and fitness were significantly better after exercise than after flexibility treatment. 12 of 22 patients who crossed over to exercise after flexibility treatment rated themselves as better after completing exercise treatment 32 of 47 patients rated themselves as better three months after completing supervised exercise treatment 35 of 47 patients rated themselves as better one year after completing supervised exercise treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings support the use of appropriately prescribed graded aerobic exercise in the management of patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome. PMID:9180065
Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah
[Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270
Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Særvoll, Charlotte Ahlgren; Kirkelund, Lasse; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars Louis
Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management's implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. PMID:26380361
Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.
This audiolingual beginner's course has been prepared for the Defense Language Institute intensive program in modern spoken Turkish. The course, consisting of six volumes of basic text in 55 units begins with an introductory section which presents the linguistic background, phonology, and distinguishing features of Turkish. The lesson format…
Blanchard, Chris M.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Bell, Gordon J.
This study offers novel information to the acute exercise-feeling state literature, by using a community sample of exercisers participating in a 12-week exercise program to compare feeling state changes of those who exercised at a HISD versus a LILD. Within this study, pre- and post-exercise feelings states were compared between the two different…
Magnan, Renee E; Nilsson, Renea; Marcus, Bess H; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Bryan, Angela D
A transdisciplinary approach incorporating biological, psychological, behavioral, and genetic factors was taken to better identify proposed moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to increase physical activity. This paper illustrates how theory-based individual difference variables can be integrated into a complex randomized controlled trial. The transdisciplinary framework guiding the selection of moderators, the COSTRIDE intervention study and sample, and the relationships among baseline variables are provided. Participants were non-active individuals randomly assigned to either the STRIDE exercise or health-and-wellness contact control condition. Structural equation modeling was utilized to demonstrate that relationships among baseline variables confirm hypothesized relationships in the transdisciplinary framework. Preliminary data from COSTRIDE suggest that interventions among sedentary individuals may be more effective if a broader range of factors influencing physical activity are considered.
Claes, Jomme; Buys, Roselien; Budts, Werner; Smart, Neil; Cornelissen, Véronique A
Background Exercise-based cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) improves exercise capacity (EC), lowers cardiovascular risk profile and increases physical functioning in the short term. However, uptake of and adherence to a physically active lifestyle in the long run remain problematic. Home-based (HB) exercise programmes have been introduced in an attempt to enhance long-term adherence to recommended levels of physical activity (PA). The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the longer-term effects of HB exercise programmes with usual care (UC) or centre-based (CB) CR in patients referred for CR. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or randomised trials comparing the effects of HB exercise programmes with UC or CB rehabilitation on EC and/or PA, with a follow-up period of ≥12 months and performed in coronary artery disease patients, were searched in four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL)) from their inception until September 7, 2016. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and pooled by means of random effects models. Risk of bias, publication bias and heterogeneity among trials were also assessed. Results Seven studies could be included in the meta-analysis on EC, but only two studies could be included in the meta-analysis on PA (total number of 1440 patients). The results showed no significant differences in EC between HB rehabilitation and UC (SMD 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.13 to 0.33). There was a small but significant difference in EC in favour of HB compared to CB rehabilitation (SMD 0.25, 95% CI 0.02-0.48). No differences were found for PA (SMD 0.37, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.92). Conclusions HB exercise is slightly more effective than CB rehabilitation in terms of maintaining EC. The small number of studies warrants the need for more
Röhling, M; Herder, C; Roden, M; Stemper, T; Müssig, K
Aim: Physical activity is one of the cornerstones in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus, but the effects of different training forms on metabolic control still remain unclear. The aims of this review are to summarize the recommendations of 5 selected diabetes associations and to systematically review the effects of long-term supervised exercise interventions without calorie-restriction on glycemic control in people with type 1 and 2 diabetes focusing on resistance, endurance and combined training consisting of both endurance and resistance training. Methods: Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE for articles published between January 1, 2000 and March 17, 2015. Of 76 articles retrieved, 15 randomized and controlled studies met the inclusion criteria and allowed for examining the effect of exercise training in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Results: Diabetes associations recommend volume-focused exercise in their guidelines. In our analysis, all 3 training forms have the potential to improve the glycemic control, as assessed by HbA1c (absolute changes in HbA1c ranging from -0.1% to -1.1% (-1.1 to -12 mmol/mol) in resistance training, from -0.2% to -1.6% (-2.2 to -17.5 mmol/mol) in endurance training and from +0.1% to -1.5% (+1.1 to -16.4 mmol/mol) in combined training, respectively). Conclusions: There is evidence that combined exercise training may improve glycemic control to a greater extent than single forms of exercise, especially under moderate-intensive training conditions with equal training durations. In addition, intensity of training appears to be an important determinant of the degree of metabolic improvement. Nonetheless, it is still unknown to what extent exercise effects glycemic homeostasis.
Marcus, B H; Stanton, A L
An experimental design was employed to assess the effectiveness of a relapse prevention program, a reinforcement program, and an exercise-only control group in increasing exercise program adherence and short-term maintenance in 120 previously sedentary female university employees. The subjects participated in an 18-week exercise program composed of stretching, calisthenics, and aerobic dance. Attendance during the first half of the program was significantly higher for subjects in the relapse prevention group than for those in the control group. A nonsignificant trend in this direction emerged during the second half of the program and at 2-month follow-up. For all treatment groups, attrition (attendance at less than two thirds of the exercise sessions) was substantial, averaging 72% at the end of the 18-week program. These findings indicate that relapse prevention and reinforcement programs may not assist previously sedentary females in long-term adherence to an exercise program.
Messier, S P; Callahan, L F; Golightly, Y M; Keefe, F J
The objective was to develop a set of "best practices" for use as a primer for those interested in entering the clinical trials field for lifestyle diet and/or exercise interventions in osteoarthritis (OA), and as a set of recommendations for experienced clinical trials investigators. A subcommittee of the non-pharmacologic therapies committee of the OARSI Clinical Trials Working Group was selected by the Steering Committee to develop a set of recommended principles for non-pharmacologic diet/exercise OA randomized clinical trials. Topics were identified for inclusion by co-authors and reviewed by the subcommittee. Resources included authors' expert opinions, traditional search methods including MEDLINE (via PubMed), and previously published guidelines. Suggested steps and considerations for study methods (e.g., recruitment and enrollment of participants, study design, intervention and assessment methods) were recommended. The recommendations set forth in this paper provide a guide from which a research group can design a lifestyle diet/exercise randomized clinical trial in patients with OA.
Forsyth, Adrienne; Deane, Frank P; Williams, Peter
Mental illness affects one in five Australians in any given year and depression, anxiety and substance abuse are the most prevalent of the mental health problems. Mental illness is traditionally managed with medication and psychological intervention but exercise and diet have also been shown to be related to mental illness and are associated with improvements in mental health. The present article aims to describe the background and practical issues arising from the establishment of diet and exercise assessments and intervention for people receiving treatment for depression and anxiety in general practice settings. Patients were referred by their general practitioners, and attended sessions either in rooms at their practitioner's surgery or at a central clinic location. The program involved an initial assessment, four individual consultations with a dually qualified dietitian and exercise physiologist, and a final assessment. Issues in the process of assessing mental health, diet quality, physical fitness and physical activity behaviours are described as are key components of the tailored treatment programs. Strategies for improving motivation and adherence such as adjusting frequency of sessions, use of homework and means of communication are highlighted.
Chang, Wei-Ju; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W; Hinman, Rana S; Liston, Matthew B; Schabrun, Siobhan M
Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major health problem and a leading cause of disability. The knee joint is commonly affected, resulting in pain and physical dysfunction. Exercise is considered the cornerstone of conservative management, yet meta-analyses indicate, at best, moderate effect sizes. Treatments that bolster the effects of exercise, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), may improve outcomes in knee OA. The aims of this pilot study are to (1) determine the feasibility, safety and perceived patient response to a combined tDCS and exercise intervention in knee OA, and (2) provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully-powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. Methods and analysis A pilot randomised, assessor-blind and participant-blind, sham-controlled trial. 20 individuals with knee OA who report a pain score of 40 or more on a 100 mm visual analogue scale on walking, and meet a priori selection criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either: (1) active tDCS plus exercise, or (2) sham tDCS plus exercise. All participants will receive 20 min of either active or sham tDCS immediately prior to 30 min of supervised muscle strengthening exercise twice a week for 8 weeks. Participants in both groups will also complete unsupervised home exercises twice per week. Outcome measures of feasibility, safety, pain, disability and pain system function will be assessed immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. Analyses of feasibility and safety will be performed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses will be used to determine trends of effectiveness and will be based on intention-to-treat as well as per protocol. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee (H10184). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be submitted for peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number ANZCTR
Livingston, Patricia M; Craike, Melinda J; Salmon, Jo; Courneya, Kerry S; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Fraser, Steve F; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Broadbent, Suzanne; Botti, Mari; Kent, Bridie
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a clinician referral and exercise program in improving exercise levels and quality of life for men with prostate cancer. METHODS This was a multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial in Melbourne, Australia comprising 15 clinicians: 8 clinicians were randomized to refer eligible participants (n = 54) to a 12-week exercise program comprising 2 supervised gym sessions and 1 home-based session per week, and 7 clinicians were randomized to follow usual care (n = 93). The primary outcome was self-reported physical activity; the secondary outcomes were quality of life, anxiety, and symptoms of depression. RESULTS A significant intervention effect was observed for vigorous-intensity exercise (effect size: Cohen's d, 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.82; P = .010) but not for combined moderate and vigorous exercise levels (effect size: d, 0.08; 95% CI, −0.28 to 0.45; P = .48). Significant intervention effects were also observed for meeting exercise guidelines (≥150 min/wk; odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.9-7.8; P = .002); positive intervention effects were observed in the intervention group for cognitive functioning (effect size: d, 0.34; 95% CI, −0.02 to 0.70; P = .06) and depression symptoms (effect size: d, −0.35; 95% CI, −0.71 to 0.02; P = .06). Eighty percent of participants reported that the clinician's referral influenced their decision to participate in the exercise program. CONCLUSIONS The clinician referral and 12-week exercise program significantly improved vigorous exercise levels and had a positive impact on mental health outcomes for men living with prostate cancer. Further research is needed to determine the sustainability of the exercise program and its generalizability to other cancer populations. Cancer 2015;121:2646–2654. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:25877784
Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Malakooti, Jamileh; Babapoor, Jalil; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh
This study aims to determine the effectiveness of home-based low-intensity stretching and breathing exercises on the reduction of 1 and 2 month post-partum depression (primary outcome) and fatigue (secondary outcome) scores. In this randomized controlled trial, 127 women at 26-32 weeks' gestation with Edinburgh score less than 15, who attended 14 selected health centres in Tabriz, Iran, were randomly allocated into one of the following three groups: no intervention group, group receiving training for exercise during pregnancy, and group receiving training for exercise during pregnancy and post-partum period until 2 months after delivery. Depression and fatigue scores were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Fatigue Identification Form, respectively, at baseline, 1 month and 2 months after delivery. The data were analysed with SPSS-ver. 13.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) using chi-square, Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Mean rank of the difference scores of depression and fatigue were not significantly different among the groups, both at 1 and 2 months post-partum (P > 0.05). Therefore, this study did not provide evidence to show that training women to do the home-based exercises during pregnancy or during pregnancy and post-partum period have a preventive effect on post-partum depression and fatigue. However, more studies are needed for making precise judgment.
Rogers, Anna; Furler, Barbara-Lynne; Brinks, Stephen; Darrah, Johanna
The aim of this review was to assess the evidence regarding the effectiveness of aerobic training interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The target population included children with CP of any severity, aged 2 to 17 years. The following databases were searched for English language studies from 1960 to 2006: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Pascal, Cochrane Library, CSA Neuroscience Abstracts, The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Sport Discus. Search terms included 'cerebral palsy', 'athetoid', 'ataxic', 'spastic diplegia', 'hemiplegia', 'quadriplegia', 'aerobic', 'exercise', 'training', 'physical activity', 'aquatic/water/pool therapy', and 'continuous exercise'. The American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine systematic review guidelines were used to format the review. One thousand, four hundred and eighty nine articles were identified and examined for the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirteen articles met the criteria for inclusion. The evidence suggests that aerobic exercise with children with CP can improve physiological outcomes, but the influence of these changes on outcomes representing activity and participation are unknown. Future research needs improved methodological rigour in order to determine a specific set of exercise guidelines and safety considerations.
Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
Objective. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common and devastating problem in cancer patients even after successful treatment. This study aimed to determine the effects of supervised multimodal exercise interventions on cancer-related fatigue through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Design. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of multimodal exercise interventions on CRF. Databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and OVID were searched between January and March 2014 to retrieve randomized controlled trials. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Results. Nine studies (n = 772) were included in both systematic review and meta-analysis. Multimodal interventions including aerobic exercise, resistance training, and stretching improved CRF symptoms (SMD = −0.23; 95% CI: −0.37 to −0.09; P = 0.001). These effects were also significant in patients undergoing chemotherapy (P < 0.0001). Nonsignificant differences were found for resistance training interventions (P = 0.30). Slight evidence of publication bias was observed (P = 0.04). The studies had a low risk of bias (PEDro scale mean score of 6.4 (standard deviation (SD) ± 1.0)). Conclusion. Supervised multimodal exercise interventions including aerobic, resistance, and stretching exercises are effective in controlling CRF. These findings suggest that these exercise protocols should be included as a crucial part of the rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors and patients during anticancer treatments. PMID:26167483
Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Shahar, Suzana; Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohd; Omar, Baharudin
This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men) and 66.1±5.1 (women) years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women); and 2) the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women). Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB’s model, attitude (β=0.60) and perceived behavioral control (β=0.24) were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (β=0.82) was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men’s, β=0.68; women’s, β=0.24) and subjective norm (men’s, β=0.12; women’s, β=0.87) were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. “Feels healthier with exercise” was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (β=0.36) and women (β=0.49). “Not motivated to perform exercise” was the main barrier among men’s intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and to predict maintenance of exercise in the sarcopenic elderly. PMID:25258524
Güçlü, Zeynep Aslı; Alaçam, Alev
This 12-week clinical study evaluated the impact of 10% CPP-ACP and 5% sodium fluoride varnish regimes on the regression of nonorthodontic white spot lesions (WSLs). The study included 21 children with 101 WSLs who were randomised into four treatment regimes: weekly clinical applications of fluoride varnish for the first month (FV); twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP); weekly applications of fluoride varnish for the first month and twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP-FV); and no intervention (control). All groups undertook a standard oral hygiene protocol and weekly consultation. Visual appraisals and laser fluorescence (LF) measurements were made in weeks one and twelve. The majority of WSLs in the control and FV groups exhibited no shift in appearance, whereas, in the CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP-FV groups, the lesions predominantly regressed. The visual and LF assessments indicated that the extent of remineralisation afforded by the treatments was of the following order: control ~ FV < CPP-ACP ~ CPP-ACP-FV. Self-applications of CPP-ACP paste as an adjunct to standard oral hygiene significantly improved the appearance and remineralisation of WSLs. No advantage was observed for the use of fluoride varnish as a supplement to either the standard or CPP-ACP-enhanced oral hygiene regimes. PMID:27843950
Lee, Fung-Kam Iris; Lee, Tze-Fan Diana; So, Winnie Kwok-Wei
Introduction Previous studies showed that exercise intervention was effective in symptoms control of knee osteoarthritis (OA) but poor intervention adherence reduced the exercise effect. It has been suspected that the design of exercise intervention mainly from the health care professionals’ perspective could not address the patients’ barriers to exercise. Therefore, a tailor-made exercise program which incorporated the patient’s perspective in the design was developed and ready for evaluation. Objectives This pilot study estimated the effects of a tailor-made exercise program on exercise adherence and health outcomes, and explored the participants’ perception and experience of the program. Methods The intervention of this study was a 4-week community-based group exercise program, which required the participants to attend a 1-hour session each week. Thirty-four older people with knee OA were recruited to the program. Mixed-methods study design was used to estimate the effects of this program and explore the participants’ perception and experience of the program. Exercise adherence and performance in return-demonstration of the exercise were assessed at 12 weeks after the program. Disease-specific health status (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), general health status (12-item Short Form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire), knee range of motion, muscle strength, and endurance of the lower extremities (Timed-Stands Test) were measured at the beginning of the program and 12 weeks after. Six participants were interviewed individually on the 12th week. Results Thirty-three participants (75.0±7.3 years) completed the one-group pretest and post-test study. The participants’ exercise adherence was 91.4%±14.54%, and their correct performance in return-demonstration was 76.7%±21.75%. Most of the participants’ health outcomes significantly improved at posttests except the 12-item Short Form of the Medical Outcome Study
Natesan, Alamelu; Nimbal, Vani C; Ivey, Susan L; Wang, Elsie J; Madsen, Kristine A; Palaniappan, Latha P
Background We examined the efficacy of a culturally relevant exercise program in improving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes, compared with usual care. Methods This was a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study of Bollywood dance among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes. The intervention consisted of 1 h Bollywood dance classes offered twice per week. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. The effect of attendance on this outcome was also examined. Results The intervention group demonstrated a decrease in HbA1c from baseline (−0.18% (0.2%); p=0.018) compared with a non-significant increase in the usual care group (+0.03% (0.2%)); p value for difference between groups was 0.032. Participants attending at least 10 of 16 sessions had a statistically significant reduction in weight (−0.69 kg (0.76 kg)) compared with those attending fewer sessions (+0.86 kg (0.71 kg)). Conclusions These results support culturally relevant dance as a successful exercise intervention to promote HbA1c control, compared with usual care. Trial registration number NCT02061618. PMID:26566446
PURPOSE Early loading of implant can be determined by excellent primary stability and characteristic of implant surface. The implant system with recently improved surface can have load application 4-6 weeks after installing in maxilla and mandible. This study evaluated the effect of healing period to the stability of hydrophilic tapered-type implant at maxillary posterior area. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 30 patients treated by hydrophilic tapered-type implants (total 41 implants at maxilla) and classified by two groups depending on healing period. Group 1 (11 patients, 15 implants) was a control group and the healing period was 12 weeks, and Group 2 (19 patients, 26 implants) was test group and the healing period was 6 weeks. Immediately after implant placement, at the first impression taking, implant stability was measured using Osstell Mentor. The patients also took periapical radiographs after restoration delivery, 12 months after restoration and final followup period. The marginal bone loss around the implants was measured using the periapical radiographs. RESULTS All implants were survived and success rate was 97.56%. The marginal bone loss was less than 1mm after 1 year postoperatively except the one implant. The stabilities of the implants were not correlated with age, healing period until loading, insertion torque (IT), the diameter of fixture and the location of implant. Only the quality of bone in group 2 (6 week) was correlated with the stability of implant. CONCLUSION Healing period of 6 weeks can make the similar clinical prognosis of implants to that of healing period of 12 weeks if bone quality is carefully considered in case of early loading. PMID:27826390
Ramanathan, Meena; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Trakroo, Madanmohan
Aim and Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of yoga on the mental health status of elderly women inmates residing in a hospice in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: Forty elderly women were randomly divided into yoga and wait-listed control group. A yoga therapy program of 60 min was given twice a week for 12 weeks. This protocol was specially designed for senior citizens, keeping in mind their health status and physical limitations that included simple warm-up and breath-body movement coordination practices (jathis and kriyas), static stretching postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayamas), and relaxation. Hamilton anxiety scale for measuring anxiety, Hamilton rating scale for depression, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure self-esteem were administered to both groups before and after the 12-week study period. Data were assessed for normality, and appropriate parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were applied for intra- and inter-group comparisons. Results: Overall, intra- and inter-group comparison of prepost data showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) differences for all three parameters. There was an overall improvement in the scores indicating decreased levels of depression and anxiety coupled with an increase in the level of self-esteem after the yoga therapy program. Discussion: The influence of yoga in the reduction of depression and anxiety scores and improvement in self-esteem scores in elderly women subjects is evident from this study. As reported in earlier studies, this may be attributed to changes in central neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric-acid coupled with increased parasympathetic tone and decreased sympatho-adrenal activity. Conclusion: It is recommended that yoga should be a part of health-care facilities for elderly as it can enhance the quality of life by improving their overall mental health status. It could provide a healthy and positive alternative from depressing
Dong, Mi Sook; Choi, Ji-Yoon; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Jin Sik; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ryu, Hyun Ryol; Lee, Ji Hyun; Bang, In Seok; An, Kangho; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Nam Woong; Yu, Il Je
The specific properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), such as antimicrobial activity and electrical conductivity, allow them to be used in many fields. However, their expanding application is also raising health, environmental and safety concerns. Previous in vivo AgNP toxicity studies have indicated a gender-different accumulation of silver in the kidneys, with 2-3 times more silver in female kidneys compared to male kidneys. However, no other studies have further addressed this gender difference. Accordingly, the current study investigated the gender-dependent effect of AgNPs on the kidney gene level based on toxicogenomic studies of kidneys obtained from rats exposed to AgNPs via inhalation for 12 weeks. When compared with the fresh air control, the silver nanoparticle-exposed kidneys included 104 genes with a more than 1.3-fold expression increase. For the male rat kidneys exposed to a low or high dose of silver nanoparticles, 96 genes exhibited expression changes, where six genes changed with both the low and high dose; four increased and two decreased. Meanwhile, for the female rat kidneys exposed to a low or high dose of silver nanoparticles, 66 genes exhibited expression changes, where 11 genes changed with both the low and high dose; nine increased and two decreased. Gender-dependent gene expression changes of more than 2-fold were linked to 163 genes, with 79 genes in the male kidneys and 84 genes in the female kidneys, plus gender-dependent gene expression changes of more than 5-fold were linked to 21 genes. However, no genes involved in apoptosis or the cell cycle were activated by the 12-week silver nanoparticle inhalation exposure. Overall, the male rat kidneys showed a higher expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, while the female rat kidneys showed a higher expression of genes involved in extracellular signaling.
DiBrezzo, Ro; Shadden, Barbara B; Raybon, Blake H; Powers, Melissa
Loss of balance and falling are critical concerns for older adults. Physical activity can improve balance and decrease the risk of falling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simple, low-cost exercise program for community-dwelling older adults. Sixteen senior adults were evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test for measures of functional strength, aerobic endurance, dynamic balance and agility, and flexibility. In addition, measures of height, weight, resting blood pressure, blood lipids, and cognitive function were obtained. Participants then attended a 10-week exercise class including stretching, strengthening, and balance-training exercises. At the completion of the program, significant improvements were observed in tests measuring dynamic balance and agility, lower and upper extremity strength, and upper extremity flexibility. The results indicate that exercise programs such as this are an effective, low-cost solution to improving health and factors that affect falling risk among older adults.
Williams, Gillian; Hamm, Michele P; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Vandermeer, Ben; Hartling, Lisa
Objectives To conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the use of social media to promote healthy diet and exercise in the general population. Data sources MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge and ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis (2000–2013). Study eligibility criteria RCTs of social media interventions promoting healthy diet and exercise behaviours in the general population were eligible. Interventions using social media, alone or as part of a complex intervention, were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. We describe the studies according to the target populations, objectives and nature of interventions, outcomes examined, and results and conclusions. We extracted data on the primary and secondary outcomes examined in each study. Where the same outcome was assessed in at least three studies, we combined data in a meta-analysis. Results 22 studies were included. Participants were typically middle-aged Caucasian women of mid-to-high socioeconomic status. There were a variety of interventions, comparison groups and outcomes. All studies showed a decrease in programme usage throughout the intervention period. Overall, no significant differences were found for primary outcomes which varied across studies. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences in changes in physical activity (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.13 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.30), 12 studies) and weight (SMD −0.00 (95% CI −0.19 to 0.19), 10 studies); however, pooled results from five studies showed a significant decrease in dietary fat consumption with social media (SMD −0.35 (95% CI −0.68 to −0.02)). Conclusions Social media may provide certain advantages for public health interventions; however, studies of social media interventions to date relating to healthy
Jonasson, Lars S.; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F.; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher “Cognitive score,” a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, “Cognitive score” was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in “Cognitive score” and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in “Cognitive score” in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in
Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64-78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, "Cognitive score" was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in "Cognitive score" and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in "Cognitive score" in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why
Hughes, Daniel C; Darby, Nydia; Gonzalez, Krystle; Boggess, Terri; Morris, Ruth M; Ramirez, Amelie G
Yoga-based exercise has proven to be beneficial for practitioners, including cancer survivors. This study reports on the improvements in physical fitness for 20 breast cancer survivors who participated in a six-month yoga-based exercise program (YE). Results are compared to a comprehensive exercise (CE) program group and a comparison (C) exercise group who chose their own exercises. "Pre" and "post" fitness assessments included measures of anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength and flexibility. Descriptive statistics, effect size (d), dependent sample 't' tests for all outcome measures were calculated for the YE group. Significant improvements included: decreased % body fat (-3.00%, d = -0.44, p < 0.001); increased sit to stand leg strength repetitions (2.05, d = 0.48, p = 0.003); forward reach (3.59 cm, d = 0.61, p = 0.01); and right arm sagittal range of motion (6.50°, d = 0.92, p = 0.05). To compare YE outcomes with the other two groups, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. YE participants significantly outperformed C participants on "forward reach" (3.59 cm gained versus -2.44 cm lost), (p = 0.009) and outperformed CE participants (3.59 cm gained versus 1.35 cm gained), but not statistically significant. Our results support yoga-based exercise modified for breast cancer survivors as safe and effective.
Hughes, Daniel C.; Darby, Nydia; Gonzalez, Krystle; Boggess, Terri; Morris, Ruth M.; Ramirez, Amelie G.
Yoga-based exercise has proven to be beneficial for practitioners, including cancer survivors. This study reports on the improvements in physical fitness for 20 breast cancer survivors who participated in a six-month yoga-based (YE) exercise program. Results are compared to a comprehensive exercise (CE) program group and a comparison (C) exercise group who chose their own exercises. “Pre” and “post” fitness assessments included measures of anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength and flexibility. Descriptive statistics, effect size (d), dependent sample ‘t’ tests for all outcome measures were calculated for the YE group. Significant improvements included: decreased % body fat (−3.00%, d = −0.44, p < 0.001); increased sit to stand leg strength repetitions (2.05, d = 0.48, p = 0.003); forward reach (3.59 cm, d = 0.61, p = 0.01); and right arm sagittal range of motion (6.50°, d = 0.92, p= 0.05). To compare YE outcomes with the other two groups, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. YE participants significantly outperformed C participants on “forward reach” (3.59 cm gained versus −2.44 cm lost), (p = 0.009) and outperformed CE participants (3.59 cm gained versus 1.35 cm gained), but not statistically significant. Our results support yoga-based exercise modified for breast cancer survivors as safe and effective. PMID:26395825
Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Penelope; Fletcher, Kate; Martin, Julia; Aguiar, Elroy J; Lucas, Ashlee; Neve, Melinda J; Callister, Robin
Background The development and use of Web-based programs for weight loss is increasing rapidly, yet they have rarely been evaluated using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Interestingly, most people who attempt weight loss use commercially available programs, yet it is very uncommon for commercial programs to be evaluated independently or rigorously. Objective To compare the efficacy of a standard commercial Web-based weight-loss program (basic) versus an enhanced version of this Web program that provided additional personalized e-feedback and contact from the provider (enhanced) versus a wait-list control group (control) on weight outcomes in overweight and obese adults. Methods This purely Web-based trial using a closed online user group was an assessor-blinded RCT with participants randomly allocated to the basic or enhanced 12-week Web-based program, based on social cognitive theory, or the control, with body mass index (BMI) as the primary outcome. Results We enrolled 309 adults (129/309, 41.8% male, BMI mean 32.3, SD 4 kg/m2) with 84.1% (260/309) retention at 12 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that both intervention groups reduced their BMI compared with the controls (basic: –0.72, SD 1.1 kg/m2, enhanced: –1.0, SD 1.4, control: 0.15, SD 0.82; P < .001) and lost significant weight (basic: –2.1, SD 3.3 kg, enhanced: –3.0, SD 4.1, control: 0.4, SD 2.3; P < .001) with changes in waist circumference (basic: –2.0, SD 3.5 cm, enhanced: –3.2, SD 4.7, control: 0.5, SD 3.0; P < .001) and waist-to-height ratio (basic: –0.01, SD 0.02, enhanced: –0.02, SD 0.03, control: 0.0, SD 0.02; P < .001), but no differences were observed between the basic and enhanced groups. The addition of personalized e-feedback and contact provided limited additional benefits compared with the basic program. Conclusions A commercial Web-based weight-loss program can be efficacious across a range of weight-related outcomes and lifestyle behaviors and achieve
Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł
Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474
Ji, Eun Sun; Lundeen, Sally P; Lee, Jia
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal Qi exercise on mother-infant interaction and the behavioral state of the infant. A prospective, quasi-experimental design was used in 70 healthy pregnant women of more than 18 weeks of gestation. Pregnant women in the intervention group received 90 minutes of prenatal Qi exercise twice a week for 12 weeks. Prenatal Qi exercise group's Nursing Child Assessment of Feeding Scale scores was higher in mother's sensitivity to cues, responses to distress, socioemotional growth fostering, and cognitive fostering and for children in responsiveness. There was no significant difference in Anderson Behavioral State Scoring System scores between groups. The results suggested that prenatal Qi exercise is a valuable approach to positively influence mother-infant interaction postdelivery.
Smith, Webb A; Ness, Kirsten K; Joshi, Vijaya; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Green, Daniel M
Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) treated with anthracyclines are at risk for cardiomyopathy. This case series evaluated the response of anthracycline exposed CCS with subclinical cardiomyopathy to aerobic and strength training. Body composition, strength and cardiopulmonary fitness were evaluated before and after the 12-week intervention. All equipment and materials were provided to five 10+ year CCS (3 males, mean age 38.0 ± 3.3 years) for a guideline-based home exercise program. All five completed the study with no adverse events. Compliance with exercise was 86%. These results suggest that exercise training may improve exercise capacity of CCS with subclinical cardiomyopathy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sternfeld, Barbara; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Larson, Joseph C.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Roberts, Melanie; Caan, Bette J.
OBJECTIVE To determine efficacy of exercise training for alleviating vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. METHODS Late-peri and post-menopausal, sedentary women with frequent vasomotor symptoms (VMS) participated in a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites: 106 to exercise and 142 to usual activity. The exercise intervention consisted of individual, facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week for 12 weeks. VMS frequency and bother were recorded on daily diaries at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Intent to treat analyses compared between group differences in changes in VMS frequency and bother, sleep symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and mood (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire). RESULTS At the end of week 12, changes in VMS frequency in the exercise group (mean change of −2.4/day, 95% CI −3.0, −1.7) and VMS bother (mean change of −0.5 on a 4 point scale, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4) were not significantly different from those in the control group (−2.6 VMS/day, 95% CI −3.2, −2.0, p=0.43; −0.5 points, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4, p=0.75). The exercise group reported greater improvement in insomnia symptoms (p=0.03), subjective sleep quality (p=0.01), and depressive symptoms (p=0.04), but differences were small and not statistically significant when p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results were similar when considering treatment-adherent women only. CONCLUSION These findings provide strong evidence that 12-weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise does not alleviate VMS but may result in small improvements in sleep quality, insomnia and depression in midlife, sedentary women. PMID:23899828
Lewis, Beth A; Gjerdingen, Dwenda K; Avery, Melissa D; Guo, Hongfei; Sirard, John R; Bonikowske, Amanda R; Marcus, Bess H
Research indicates that exercise is an efficacious intervention for depression among adults; however, little is known regarding its efficacy for preventing postpartum depression. The Healthy Mom study was a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an exercise intervention for the prevention of postpartum depression. Specifically, postpartum women with a history of depression or a maternal family history of depression (n=130) were randomly assigned to a telephone-based exercise intervention or a wellness/support contact control condition each lasting six months. The exercise intervention was designed to motivate postpartum women to exercise based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. The primary dependent variable was depression based on the Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview (SCID). Secondary dependent variables included scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the PHQ-9, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design, methodology, and baseline data for this trial. Upon completion of the trial, the results will yield important information about the efficacy of exercise in preventing postpartum depression.
Yang, Xinyu; Li, Yanda; Ren, Xiaomeng; Xiong, Xingjiang; Wu, Lijun; Li, Jie; Wang, Jie; Gao, Yonghong; Shang, Hongcai; Xing, Yanwei
In this study, we assessed the effect of rehabilitation exercise after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We performed a meta-analysis to determine the effects of exercise in patients after PCI. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, the Embase database, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), China Biology Medicine (CBM), and the Wanfang Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The key words used for the searches were PCI, exercise, walking, jogging, Tai Chi, and yoga. Six studies with 682 patients met our inclusion criteria; we chose the primary endpoint events of cardiac death, recurrence of myocardial infarction (MI), repeated PCI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and restenosis, and the secondary endpoint measures included recurrent angina, treadmill exercise (total exercise time, ST-segment decline, angina, and maximum exercise tolerance). The results showed that exercise was not clearly associated with reductions in cardiac death, recurrence of MI, repeated PCI, CABG, or restenosis. However, the exercise group exhibited greater improvements in recurrent angina, total exercise time, ST-segment decline, angina, and maximum exercise tolerance than did the control group. Future studies need to expand the sample size and improve the quality of reporting of RCTs. PMID:28303967
de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C
Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women.
Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Jae, Hyun Dong; Jeong, Ji Hoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Tai Chi (TC)-based exercise on dynamic postural control during obstacle negotiation by subjects with mild or moderate Parkinson's disease (PD). [Subjects] Twelve subjects (mean age, 65.3±6.1 years) diagnosed with idiopathic PD were enrolled for this study. [Methods] All the subjects were tested a week before and 12 weeks after the initiation of the TC exercise. In the test, they were instructed to negotiate an obstacle from the position of quiet stance at a normal speed. They were trained with TC exercise that emphasized multidirectional shift in weight bearing from bilateral to unilateral support, challenging the postural stability, three times per week for 12 weeks. Center of pressure (COP) trajectory variables before and after TC exercise were measured using two force plates. [Results] A comparison of the results between pre- and post-intervention showed a statistically significant improvement in anteroposterior and mediolateral displacement of COP. [Conclusion] Twelve weeks of TC exercise may be an effective and safe form of stand-alone behavioral intervention for improving the dynamic postural stability of patients with PD.
Scholz, Kim; Samuels, Curtis A.
Examined the effect on father-infant relationships of a parent training program on infant massage and bathing. Infants in the treatment group greeted fathers with more eye contact, smiles, vocalizing, reaching, and orienting responses and showed less avoidance behavior than did control group infants. Fathers in the treatment group showed greater…
Liu, Yueh-Min; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chung, Yu-Chu
Exercise training during hemodialysis has been found to improve functional capacity, nutritional status, cardiovascular risk factors, depression, and well being in hemodialysis patients. This report describes a nursing experience that applied exercise training to improve activity intolerance, powerlessness, and ineffective health maintenance in a hemodialysis patient. The care period was from May 11 to July 27, 2012. The author collected information using observation, interview, physical examination, and medical record review and identified patient care problems including activity intolerance, powerlessness, and ineffective health maintenance. In addition to providing individual nursing interventions, the author designed a stationary bicycle installed at the end of the bed. The patient was asked use the bicycle to exercise 30 mins per time, three times per week for a period of 12 weeks during the patient's hemodialysis period. Before and after a 12-week of exercise training, collected the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), self-perceived improvement, and self-reported depression scales were performed prior to and after completion of the intervention. Hematological triglyceride, albumin, and hemoglobin data were collected each week. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were examined prior to and after the intervention to ensure patient safety. After the 12-week intervention, the average heart rate achieved 40-60% of the maximum heart rate and the heart rate peaked between 85 and 121 bpm. Moreover, the 6MWT distance increased from 210 m to 255 m, triglyceride decreased from 622 mg/dL to 173 mg/dL, and self-perceived fatigue and depression markedly improved. This nursing experience is shared with nurses caring for patients with similar conditions.
Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei
Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712
Ochi, Akira; Abe, Tomokazu; Yamada, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Satoko; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki
This study investigated the effects of balance exercise combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) on step performance and lower limb muscle activity during simulated forward falls using the tether-release method in older women. Twenty older women were assigned to either a WBV plus balance exercise group (WBV, n=10) or a balance exercise without vibration group (standard balance exercise group [STE], n=10). WBV performed weight-bearing exercises on a WBV platform combined with other balance exercises as a home program, whereas STE performed the same exercises without WBV. The exercise volume was equal in both intervention groups (3×/week for 12 weeks×30 min/session). The EMG and kinematic data of the stepping leg from the balance recovery step were examined before and after the intervention. While both groups extended step length during forward falls after the intervention, only WBV increased step velocity. EMG analysis of the balance recovery step showed that both groups increased peak EMG of knee flexor and extensor muscles after intervention. After intervention, WBV increased peak EMG of the plantar flexors, which are used to exert the push-off forces just before the leg swing. Balance exercise in older women resulted in significant improvements in the balance recovery step after a simulated forward fall. WBV also had the additional benefit of improved step velocity, which was reflected in increased activity of the plantar flexors in the stepping leg.
Tan, Beron W Z; Pooley, Julie A; Speelman, Craig P
This review evaluates the efficacy of using physical exercise interventions on improving cognitive functions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review includes a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model of data reported in 22 studies with 579 participants aged 3-25 year old. The results revealed an overall small to medium effect of exercise on cognition, supporting the efficacy of exercise interventions in enhancing certain aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with ASD and/or ADHD. Specifically, similar to the general population literature, the cognitive benefits of exercise are not consistent across all aspects of cognitive functions (i.e., some areas are not improved). The clinical significance of the reported effect sizes is also considered.
Ribisl, Paul M.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A.; Horton, Edward S.; Jakicic, John M.; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Knowler, William C.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Research Group, Look AHEAD
The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314
Ribisl, Paul M; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A; Horton, Edward S; Jakicic, John M; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W; Knowler, William C; Stewart, Kerry J
The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45-76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR.
Meyers, Laura; Voller, Emily K; McCallum, Ethan B; Thuras, Paul; Shallcross, Sandra; Velasquez, Tina; Meis, Laura
Rates of comorbidity between borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are high in veteran populations, and clinicians are hesitant to treat PTSD given high rates of suicidality. Given promising early work integrating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy, we created a 12-week intensive outpatient program combining these two treatments. PE and DBT were provided concurrently to 33 veterans with PTSD symptoms and BPD symptoms at a large, midwestern Veteran Affairs medical center. Approximately half of the participants were male, with the majority identifying as Caucasian. Participants' ages ranged from 23 to 58 years, with a mean age of 43.21 years. The full-model of DBT was provided; PE was provided twice weekly for approximately 6 weeks of the program. Of participants, 22 veterans successfully completed the program with no dropout during PE. Large pre- to posttreatment effect sizes were found for decreases in PTSD symptoms (d = 1.61) and dysfunctional coping styles (d = 1.55), and an increase in the use of DBT skills (d = 1.02). A moderate effect size was found in the decrease of suicidal ideation (d = 0.64). The results of this pilot program suggest that PTSD can be safely and effectively treated among veterans with comorbid symptoms of borderline personality disorder through the combination of concurrent intensive DBT and PE.
Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.
Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365
Wood, Paola S; Krüger, Pieter E; Grant, Catharina C
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to assess whole body and regional soft tissue mass, fat mass and lean body mass compositional changes in 68 female recruits (age 20.8 +/- 1.14 years; body mass 59.5 +/- 8.79 kg; stature 159.57 +/- 5.53 cm) pre- and post 12-weeks of military basic training. A decrease in total body fat tissue mass (10.2%) and regional percent fat (10.9%) was measured with an increase in total lean body mass (8.7%). Of interest were the differences in the responses in the tissue composition of the arms (16.2% loss in fat mass with an 11.6% gain in lean mass), trunk (17.0% decrease in fat mass with a 10.4% increase in lean mass) and the legs (10.5% increase in lean mass but no change in fat mass). These findings show the importance of considering regional rather than whole body composition changes when assessing the effects of a training programme. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Female soldiers experienced a change in total body fat tissue (-10.2%) and lean body mass (+8.7%) after basic training; however, no significant fat mass decrease was evident in the leg region. Regional rather than whole body composition changes need to be considered when assessing the effects of a training programme.
Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M
Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m²) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%-20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation.
Amaya, Megan; Petosa, R. L.
Purpose: To increase exercise adherence among insufficiently active adult employees. Design: A quasi-experimental separate samples pre-test-post-test group design was used to compare treatment and comparison group. Setting: The worksite. Subjects: Employees (n = 127) who did not meet current American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)…
DeNysschen, C A; Burton, H; Ademuyiwa, F; Levine, E; Tetewsky, S; O'Connor, T
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) block estrogen synthesis and are commonly used as adjuvant treatments for breast cancer patients. A common side effect is joint pain. This was a pilot study to examine implementation of an exercise program in reducing joint pain and improving quality of life (QoL) and functional performance in breast cancer patients treated with AIs. Twenty-six participants completed an 8-week, home-based program that combined upper and lower body resistance exercises with self-selected aerobic exercises. We measured: (1) anthropometry (2) functional performance (grip strength, biceps curl to exhaustion, and sit-to-stand and cardiovascular endurance (3-min step test). Joint pain and QoL were assessed using self-administered surveys. Participants reported a significantly lower number of painful joints, an improvement in QoL and a reduction in depressive symptoms. Significant improvements in grip strength, biceps curl, and sit-to-stand (by 14%, 51% and 15% respectively) were also observed. However, we found no significant changes in cardiovascular endurance or in anthropometric measures. An 8-week, home-based exercise program may provide potential benefit to the breast cancer patients undergoing AI treatment by reducing joint pain, improving functional performance and QoL, and reducing depressive symptoms. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.
Rehabilitation in patients with chronic respiratory disease other than chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: exercise and physical activity interventions in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.
Burtin, Chris; Hebestreit, Helge
A relevant proportion of children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a marked decrease in exercise tolerance, which can be partly related to impaired muscle function and decreased physical activity levels in daily life, in addition to lung disease. Preliminary findings suggest that patients with non-CF bronchiectasis face the same problems. These patients might be excellent candidates for exercise and physical activity interventions. This review elaborates on the rationale for exercise training and activity behaviour changes and summarizes the existing evidence for these rehabilitation strategies in patients with bronchiectasis, both CF and non-CF bronchiectasis. Furthermore, practical considerations and safety aspects are discussed.
Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.
Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061
Akpınar, Esma; Cerit, Cem; Talas, Anıl; Tural, Ümit
Objective In this open-labeled, 12 weeks follow-up study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine with sertraline Methods The outpatients of adult psychiatry clinic who have a new onset of depression and diagnosed as ‘major depressive episode’ by clinician according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition and prescribed agomelatine (25 mg/day) or sertraline (50 mg/day) were included in the study. Results The decline of mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores of agomelatine group was significantly higher than the sertraline group at the end of 2nd week; however, the difference was not significant at the end of 3 months. Mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I) scores of agomelatine group was lower than sertraline group at first week. Mean CGI-Severity scale and CGI-I scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Remission rates were 46.7% for sertraline group and 33.3% for agomelatine group while response rates were 76.7% for both groups. Any patient from agomelatine group dropped-out due to adverse effects. The amount of side effects was also less with agomelatine. Conclusion Agomelatine has a rapid onset efficacy on depressive symptoms and this can be beneficial for some critical cases. Considering MADRS scores, agomelatine seems to have similar efficacy with sertraline but we also point the need for long term studies since CGI scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Agomelatine has a favourable tolerability profile both in terms of discontinuation and the amount of side effects compared to sertraline. PMID:27776387
Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Shoji, Tetsuo; Inaba, Masaaki
Objective Focusing on efficacy and tolerability, we compared linagliptin monotherapy with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Research design and methods In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study, 78 patients were randomized (1:1) to receive a 12-week treatment with 5 mg linagliptin once daily or 0.2 mg voglibose three times a day. To assess whether linagliptin was superior to voglibose, the primary efficacy end point was the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy end points included changes between baseline and week 12 in glycated albumin (GA) and casual plasma glucose (PG) levels. Results At week 12, the adjusted mean HbA1c levels had decreased by −0.60% after treatment with linagliptin and by −0.20% after treatment with voglibose (treatment difference: −0.40%, 95% CI −0.74% to −0.06%, p=0.022). A significant reduction in casual PG level was also observed after treatment with linagliptin compared with treatment with voglibose. Relative to voglibose, linagliptin tended to elicit reductions in GA, although without statistical significance. No hypoglycemic symptoms or severe hypoglycemia occurred during the study. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD, linagliptin monotherapy provided significantly better glycemic control without severe hypoglycemia than voglibose monotherapy. Linagliptin represents a promising agent for glycemic management in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD. Trial registration number UMIN000007635; results. PMID:27547421
Sills, Robert C; Morgan, Daniel L; Herr, David W; Little, Peter B; George, Nneka M; Ton, Thai Vu; Love, Nancy E; Maronpot, Robert R; Johnson, G Allan
In this carbonyl sulfide (COS) study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and detailed light microscopic evaluation effectively functioned in parallel to assure that the distribution and degree of pathology in the brain was accurately represented. MRM is a powerful imaging modality that allows for excellent identification of neuroanatomical structures coupled with the ability to acquire 200 or more cross-sectional images of the brain, and the ability to display them in multiple planes. F344 rats were exposed to 200-600 ppm COS for up to 12 weeks. Prior to MRM, rats were anesthetized and cardiac perfused with McDowell Trump's fixative containing a gadolinium MR contrast medium. Fixed specimens were scanned at the Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy on a 9.4 Tesla magnetic resonance system adapted explicitly for microscopic imaging. An advantage of MRM in this study was the ability to identify lesions in rats that appeared clinically normal prior to sacrifice and the opportunity to identify lesions in areas of the brain which would not be included in conventional studies. Other advantages include the ability to examine the brain in multiple planes (transverse, dorsal, sagittal) and obtain and save the MRM images in a digital format that allows for postexperimental data processing and manipulation. MRM images were correlated with neuroanatomical and neuropathological findings. All suspected MRM images were compared to corresponding H&E slides. An important aspect of this study was that MRM was critical in defining our strategy for sectioning the brain, and for designing mechanistic studies (cytochrome oxidase evaluations) and functional assessments (electrophysiology studies) on specifically targeted anatomical sites following COS exposure.
Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša; James, Nic; Šamija, Krešimir
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12 week conditioning programme involving speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) training and its effect on agility performance in young soccer players. Soccer players were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group (EG; n = 66, body mass: 71.3 ± 5.9 kg; body height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) and control group (CG; n = 66, body mass: 70.6 ± 4.9 kg; body height: 1.76 ± 0.06 m). Agility performance was assessed using field tests: Slalom; Slalom with ball; Sprint with 90° turns; Sprint with 90° turns with ball; Sprint with 180° turns; Sprint with backward and forward running; Sprint 4 x 5 m. Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) between pre and post training were evident for almost all measures of agility, with and without the ball, with the exception being the Sprint with backward and forward running. This suggests that SAQ training is an effective way of improving agility, with and without the ball, for young soccer players and can be included in physical conditioning programmes. Key points SAQ training appears to be an effective way of improving agility with and without the ball in young soccer players Soccer coaches could use this training during pre-season and in-season training Compared with pre-training, there was a statistically significant improvement in all but one measure of agility, both with and without the ball after SAQ training PMID:24149731
Hwang, Gyu-Seok; Jung, Hye-Sun; Yi, Yunjeong; Yoon, Chungsik; Choi, Jae-Wook
The authors developed a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program as one of the workplace health promotion program. The aim of this study is to evaluate the program offered in an electronics company in Korea. A total of 109 electronics company employees were recruited. Participants were surveyed for smoking history, nicotine dependence, and job stress. They received smoking cessation education and were provided with a stepwise fitness center ticket. Of 109 participants, 58 (53.2%) successfully ceased smoking for 3 months. Significant differences between success and fail groups were apparent in cigarettes smoked per day (P = .002) and nicotine dependence score (P = .049). However, there was no significant difference in job stress between success and fail groups. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, there were no identifiable factors associated with smoking cessation. In conclusion, a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program was highly effective when applied in a workplace setting.
Smith, Stuart Trevor; Bird, Marie-Louise
Over the past few decades there has been a wealth of published scientific evidence for the physical, cognitive and social health-related benefits of increased physical activity, especially in older adults and people living with chronic disease. Despite the clear evidence base demonstrating the health-related benefits of physical activity, uptake and adherence is often disappointing. Therefore, methods for remote delivery of guided exercise programs are required, both to maximise the reach of physical activity promotion initiatives and programs across the older community and to minimise attrition once people begin to be physically active. One method by which we can increase understanding of the importance of, and compliance with, exercise programs involves the use of fun and engaging videogames. In the following we outline two ways in which we are using games technology in an Australian context.
Ma, Haifeng; Liu, Xia; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Naixia
In this study, the antifatigue effects of acupuncture had been investigated at the metabolic level on the young male athletes with exhaustive physical exercises. After a series of exhaustive physical exercises and a short-term rest, the athletes either were treated with needling acupuncture on selected acupoints (TA group) or enjoyed an extended rest (TR group). NMR-based metabolomics analysis was then applied to depict the metabolic profiles of urine samples, which were collected from the athletes at three time points including the time before exercises, the time before and after the treatment of acupuncture, or taking the extended rest. The results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the recoveries of disturbed metabolites in the athletes treated with acupuncture were significantly faster than in those only taking rest. After the treatment with acupuncture, the levels of distinguished metabolites, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, lactate, pyruvate, citrate, dimethylglycine, choline, glycine, hippurate, and hypoxanthine were recovered at an accelerated speed in the TA group in comparison with the TR group. The above-mentioned results indicated that the acupuncture treatment ameliorated fatigue by backregulating the perturbed energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and attenuating the ROS-induced stress at an accelerated speed, which demonstrated that acupuncture could serve as an alternative fatigue-relieving approach. PMID:26442121
Background Exercise and adequate self-management capacity may be important strategies in the management of venous leg ulcers. However, it remains unclear if exercise improves the healing rates of venous leg ulcers and if a self-management exercise program based on self-efficacy theory is well adhered to. Method/design This is a randomised controlled in adults with venous leg ulcers to determine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy based exercise intervention. Participants with venous leg ulcers are recruited from 3 clinical sites in Australia. After collection of baseline data, participants are randomised to either an intervention group or control group. The control group receive usual care, as recommended by evidence based guidelines. The intervention group receive an individualised program of calf muscle exercises and walking. The twelve week exercise program integrates multiple elements, including up to six telephone delivered behavioural coaching and goal setting sessions, supported by written materials, a pedometer and two follow-up booster calls if required. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weekly steps and lower limb exercises. The control group are supported by a generic information sheet that the intervention group also receive encouraging lower limb exercises, a pedometer for self-management and phone calls at the same time points as the intervention group. The primary outcome is the healing rates of venous leg ulcers which are assessed at fortnightly clinic appointments. Secondary outcomes, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks: functional ability (range of ankle motion and Tinetti gait and balance score), quality of life and self-management scores. Discussion This study seeks to address a significant gap in current wound management practice by providing evidence for the effectiveness of a home-based exercise program for adults with venous leg ulcers. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies that can
Otero, Montserrat; Esain, Izaro; González-Suarez, Ángel M; Gil, Susana M
Objective To determine the effects of a simple exercise program on the balance and strength of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods This program was based on low intensity strength and balance exercises, and was carried out with simple, readily available equipment. Sixty five women were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (EG; n=33, age: 57.4±4.8 years) or the control group (CG; n=32, age: 58.8±4.5 years). Participants in the EG underwent balance and strength training for 60 min, three times/week for 6 months. Each session consisted of warm-up exercises (10 min), balance training (20 min), strength training (20 min), and cooldown (10 min). Participants from the CG were asked not to modify their usual habits during the course of the study. Static balance was evaluated using the blind monopodal stance static balance test. In contrast, dynamic balance was assessed using the “8-foot up and go” test, whereas the strength of the upper and lower limbs was measured using the “arm curl” and “30 s chair stand” tests, respectively. All these variables were assessed at baseline and upon program completion. Results The EG showed significant improvements (P<0.001) in static balance (21%), dynamic balance (36%), and in the strength of the upper (80%) and lower (47%) limbs in comparison to the CG after the sixth month. Participants in the CG showed significantly lower values (P<0.001) in the four tests. In addition, a significant inverse relationship between static balance and the strength of the upper (r=−0.390; P=0.001) and lower (r=−0.317; P=0.01) limbs was found. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that a physical exercise program based on balance and strength exercises, carried out with simple and readily available equipment, is capable of significantly improving the strength and balance of women with osteoporosis. PMID:28352163
Campbell, John P; Edwards, Kate M; Ring, Christopher; Drayson, Mark T; Bosch, Jos A; Inskip, Andrew; Long, Joanna E; Pulsford, Daniel; Burns, Victoria E
An acute bout of exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody and cell-mediated responses to influenza vaccination. The mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear, and further investigation to determine the optimal exercise protocol is warranted. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise augmented the immune response to vaccination, and whether the timing of exercise relative to vaccination affected the efficacy of the intervention. One hundred and fifty-six (76 men) healthy participants were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three intervention groups who exercised immediately, 6h or 48 h prior to administration of a standard trivalent influenza vaccine. The exercise groups performed 50 repetitions of the eccentric portion of both the bicep curl and lateral raise movements at an intensity eliciting 85% of each participant's pre-determined concentric one repetition maxima. Antigen-specific serum antibody titres were measured at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination as indicators of the humoral response. All three viral strains elicited strong antibody responses; however, eccentric exercise did not further augment any antibody responses compared to the control group. Cell-mediated immunity at 28 days post-vaccination was determined by measuring the IFN-gamma response to in vitro stimulation of the blood with whole vaccine. There were no differences in cell-mediated immunity among the groups. Although these null findings were unexpected, they are consistent with previous research showing that exercise-induced immunoenhancement was only observed when the control group had relatively poor responses. In conclusion, it is likely that the robust immune responses to the vaccine observed in this study may have limited any further immune enhancement by exercise.
Seidler, R. D.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.; Erdeniz. B.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.
We are conducting ongoing experiments in which we are performing structural and functional magnetic resonance brain imaging to identify the relationships between changes in neurocognitive function and neural structural alterations following a six month International Space Station mission and following 70 days exposure to a spaceflight analog, head down tilt bedrest. Our central hypothesis is that measures of brain structure, function, and network integrity will change from pre to post intervention (spaceflight, bedrest). Moreover, we predict that these changes will correlate with indices of cognitive, sensory, and motor function in a neuroanatomically selective fashion. Our interdisciplinary approach utilizes cutting edge neuroimaging techniques and a broad ranging battery of sensory, motor, and cognitive assessments that will be conducted pre flight, during flight, and post flight to investigate potential neuroplastic and maladaptive brain changes in crewmembers following long-duration spaceflight. Success in this endeavor would 1) result in identification of the underlying neural mechanisms and operational risks of spaceflight-induced changes in behavior, and 2) identify whether a return to normative behavioral function following re-adaptation to Earth's gravitational environment is associated with a restitution of brain structure and function or instead is supported by substitution with compensatory brain processes. Our ongoing bed rest participants are also engaging in exercise studies directed by Dr. Lori Ploutz Snyder. In this presentation, I will briefly highlight the existing literature linking exercise and fitness to brain and behavioral functions. I will also overview the metrics from my study that could be investigated in relation to the exercise and control subgroups.
Yaqoob, Noreen; Evans, Andrew; Foster, John R; Lock, Edward A
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is widely used as a cleaning and decreasing agent and has been shown to cause liver tumours in rodents and a small incidence of renal tubule tumours in male rats. The basis for the renal tubule injury is believed to be related to metabolism of TCE via glutathione conjugation to yield the cysteine conjugate that can be activated by the enzyme cysteine conjugate β-lyase in the kidney. More recently TCE and its major metabolite trichloroethanol (TCE-OH) have been shown to cause formic aciduria which can cause renal injury after chronic exposure in rats. In this study we have compared the renal toxicity of TCE and TCE-OH in rats to try and ascertain whether the glutathione pathway or formic aciduria can account for the toxicity. Male rats were given TCE (500mg/kg/day) or TCE-OH at (100mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks and the extent of renal injury measured at several time points using biomarkers of nephrotoxicity and prior to termination assessing renal tubule cell proliferation. The extent of formic aciduria was also determined at several time points, while renal pathology and plasma urea and creatinine were determined at the end of the study. TCE produced a very mild increase in biomarkers of renal injury, total protein, and glucose over the first two weeks of exposure and increased Kim-1 and NAG in urine after 1 and 5 weeks exposure, while TCE-OH did not produce a consistent increase in these biomarkers in urine. However, both chemicals produced a marked and sustained increase in the excretion of formic acid in urine to a very similar extent. The activity of methionine synthase in the liver of TCE and TCE-OH treated rats was inhibited by about 50% indicative of a block in folate synthesis. Both renal pathology and renal tubule cell proliferation were reduced after TCE and TCE-OH treatment compared to controls. Our findings do not clearly identify the pathway which is responsible for the renal toxicity of TCE but do provide some support for metabolism
Mayes, S L; Strawford, M L; Noble, S D; Classen, H L; Crowe, T G
Years of genetic selection have caused an increase in growth rate and market body mass in agricultural poultry species compared to earlier genetic strains, potentially altering their physiological requirements. The objective of this study was to expose Hybrid Converter tom turkeys on a weekly basis to the recommended rearing temperature regime (TCON: control) or 4°C below the recommended standard (TTRT: treatment) to determine their thermal responses. Once per week for 12 weeks, 12 turkeys were individually exposed to either TCON or TTRT for a 2-h period. Surface temperatures of the breast (TBREAST), wing (TWING), drumstick (TDRUM), head (THEAD), and shank (TSHANK) were measured at 20-min intervals using an infrared camera, while a thermal data logger measured the skin surface temperature under the wing (TLOGGER) at 30-s intervals. The cloacal temperature (TCORE) was measured using a medical thermometer at the start and end of the exposure period. Regardless of exposure temperature, the TBREAST (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), TWING (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), and TDRUM (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) decreased from weeks 4 to 6 and remained constant from weeks 1 to 3 and 8 to 12. THEAD was elevated in week 2 (TCON: P<0.001) or week 3 (TTRT: P<0.001), TSHANK increased slightly during week 3 for both TCON (P<0.001) and TTRT (P<0.001), and TLOGGER (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P=0.001) and TCORE (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) were lower during the first week. Thereafter, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE remained constant. Exposure to TTRT resulted in lower TBREAST, TWING, and TDRUM compared to TCON. Generally, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE were not affected by the different exposure temperatures. The data demonstrated that the degree of thermal response expressed is dependent on the location of measurement, age, and exposure temperature.
Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Liou, Ying-Jay; Wang, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Bai, Ya-Mei
Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia, but many adverse effects are noted. Clinicians usually hesitate to switch from clozapine to other antipsychotics because of the risk of a re-emergence or worsening of the psychosis, although empirical studies are very limited. Zotepine, an atypical antipsychotic with a pharmacologic profile similar to clozapine, was found to be an effective treatment for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia in Japan. This 12-week study is the first prospective, randomized, and rater-blind study to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of switching from clozapine to zotepine. Fifty-nine patients with schizophrenia, who had taken clozapine for at least 6 months with a Clinical Global Impression-Severity score of at least 3, were randomly allocated to the zotepine and the clozapine groups. At the end of the study, 52 patients (88%) had completed the trial. The 7 withdrawal cases were all in the zotepine group. The final mean (SD) dose of zotepine and clozapine was 397.1 (75.7) versus 377.1 (62.5) mg/d, respectively. Patients in the zotepine group showed a significant increase in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [mean (SD), 4.7 (8.7) vs -1.3 (6.3); P = 0.005], more general adverse effects as revealed by the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Rating Scale [mean (SD), 1.74 (3.9) vs -0.2 (2.8); P = 0.039], more extrapyramidal adverse effects as demonstrated by the Simpson and Angus Scale [mean (SD), 1.29 (3.5) vs 0.17 (2.1); P = 0.022], an increased use of propranolol (37.1% vs 0%, P < 0.0001) and anticholinergics (25.7% vs 0%, P = 0.008), and an increased level of prolactin (29.6 vs -3.8 ng/ mL, P < 0.0005), compared with the clozapine group. The results suggested that switching from clozapine to zotepine treatment should be done with caution.
Lee, Jung-Seok; Kang, Suh-Jung
The beneficial effects of a strength exercise program and a combined exercise program of strength training plus walking were examined in overweight with chronic back pain patients. The participants were randomly placed in the strength exercise group (SEG, n=15), combined exercise group (CEG, n=15), and control group (CG, n=6). All subjects performed exercise twice per week, 50 min per session with a professional instructors for 12 weeks. In order to evaluate exercise intervention effects, lumbar function was measured by back strength and flexibility. Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to evaluate pain level. Fat and muscle mass were measured to compare body composition changes. All measurements were performed before and after 12 weeks of exercise program. Lumbar function: Back strength was significantly different over time, and significant time×group differences were found between SEG and CG and, CEG and CG. Pain disorder degree: VAS showed a significant group difference, and significant time×group differences were shown between SEG and CG, and CEG and CG. Also, RMDG showed a significant difference between CEG and CG. Body composition: Fat mass was significantly different over time×group between SEG and CG. In conclusion, participating in strength and walking exercises were beneficial to improve lumbar function. Also, the combined exercise program was more effective for reducing pain levels than the strength exercise. Finally, fat mass was reduced in this study and this may play a possible role in the improvement of lumbar function and reduction in low back pain. PMID:27807526
Macananey, Oscar; O'Shea, Donal; Warmington, Stuart A; Green, Simon; Egaña, Mikel
Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were maintained after a subsequent 12-week unsupervised exercise (UE). The involvement of cardiac output (CO) in these improvements was also tested. Nineteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Oxygen uptake kinetics and CO (inert gas rebreathing) responses to constant-load cycling at 50% ventilatory threshold (V(T)), 80% V(T), and mid-point between V(T) and peak workload (50% Δ) were examined at baseline (on 2 occasions) and following each 12-week training period. Participants decided to exercise at a local gymnasium during the UE. Thirteen subjects completed all the interventions. The time constant of phase 2 of oxygen uptake was significantly faster (p < 0.05) post-SE and post-UE compared with baseline at 50% V(T) (17.3 ± 10.7 s and 17.5 ± 5.9 s vs. 29.9 ± 10.7 s), 80% V(T) (18.9 ± 4.7 and 20.9 ± 8.4 vs. 34.3 ± 12.7s), and 50% Δ (20.4 ± 8.2 s and 20.2 ± 6.0 s vs. 27.6 ± 3.7 s). SE also induced faster heart rate kinetics at all 3 intensities and a larger increase in CO at 30 s in relation to 240 s at 80% V(T); and these responses were maintained post-UE. Unsupervised exercise maintained benefits in oxygen uptake kinetics obtained during a supervised exercise in subjects with diabetes, and these benefits were associated with a faster dynamic response of heart rate after training.
El Raziky, M; Gamil, M; Ashour, M K; Sameea, E A; Doss, W; Hamada, Y; Van Dooren, G; DeMasi, R; Keim, S; Lonjon-Domanec, I; Hammad, R; Hashim, M S; Hassany, M; Waked, I
The OSIRIS study investigated efficacy and safety of simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for eight or 12 weeks in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4-infected patients with METAVIR F0-F4 fibrosis. Sixty-three patients (33 treatment-naïve and 30 peg-interferon/ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV)-experienced) enrolled in a partly randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase IIa study. Patients with F0-F3 fibrosis were randomized (1:1) into two groups (A1 and A2), stratified according to treatment experience and METAVIR score, to receive either eight weeks (Group A1, n=20) or 12 weeks (Group A2, n=20) of treatment. Patients with compensated cirrhosis (METAVIR F4) received 12 weeks of treatment (Group B, n=23). Treatment comprised simeprevir 150 mg and sofosbuvir 400 mg daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after planned end of treatment (SVR12). Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout. Overall, 92% (95% CI: 82-97) of patients achieved SVR12; 75% (15/20) in Group A1 and 100% in groups A2 and B. Patients who did not achieve SVR12 (n=5) experienced viral relapse during the first 32 days following treatment and were all prior Peg-IFN/RBV null responders. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were asymptomatic lipase increase (14%), pruritus (14%), headache (13%) and hyperbilirubinaemia (11%). No patients discontinued due to TEAEs. In conclusion, simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks achieved a 100% SVR rate in HCV genotype 4-infected patients with or without compensated cirrhosis (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02278419). The AE and laboratory profile were favourable and consistent with previous data for simeprevir plus sofosbuvir in eight- and 12-week regimens.
Wamsley, Maria A.; Julian, Katherine A.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Batki, Steven L.; Satre, Derek D.; Satterfield, Jason
Background: Evaluations of substance use screening and brief intervention (SBI) curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although effects on clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. Moreover, these curricula often require large amounts of training time and teaching resources. This study examined whether a 3-hour…
Mahendra, Nidhi; Arkin, Sharon
This article describes a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic intervention program for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients that provided communication skills practice in the context of health-enhancing and esteem-building community-based activities, physical fitness training and supervised volunteer work. Effects for four participants…
Tan, Beron W. Z.; Pooley, Julie A.; Speelman, Craig P.
This review evaluates the efficacy of using physical exercise interventions on improving cognitive functions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review includes a meta-analysis based on a random-effects model of data reported in 22 studies with 579 participants aged…
Anshel, Mark H.; Kang, Minsoo
The authors' purpose in this action study was to examine the effect of a 10-week intervention, using the Disconnected Values Model (DVM), on changes in selected measures of fitness, blood lipids, and exercise adherence among 51 university faculty (10 men and 41 women) from a school in the southeastern United States. The DVM is an intervention…
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer
This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…
Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer
Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414).
Denison, Hayley J; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Robinson, Sian M
The growing recognition of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has highlighted the need to understand more about its etiology. Declines in muscle mass and strength are expected aspects of aging, but there is significant variability between individuals in rates of loss. Although some of these differences can be explained by fixed factors, such as sex, much of the remaining variation is unexplained. This has led to increasing interest in the influence of adult lifestyle, particularly in the effects of modifiable factors such as physical activity and diet, and in identifying intervention opportunities both to prevent and manage sarcopenia. A number of trials have examined the separate effects of increased exercise or dietary supplementation on muscle mass and physical performance of older adults, but less is known about the extent to which benefits of exercise training could be enhanced when these interventions are combined. In a comprehensive review of the literature, we consider 17 studies of older adults (≥65 years) in which combined nutrition and exercise interventions were used to increase muscle strength and/or mass, and achieve improvements in physical performance. The studies were diverse in terms of the participants included (nutritional status, degree of physical frailty), supplementation strategies (differences in nutrients, doses), exercise training (type, frequency), as well as design (duration, setting). The main message is that enhanced benefits of exercise training, when combined with dietary supplementation, have been shown in some trials – indicating potential for future interventions, but that existing evidence is inconsistent. Further studies are needed, particularly of exercise training combined with dietary strategies that increase intakes of a range of nutrients, as well as bioactive non-nutrients, to provide the evidence on which public health and clinical recommendations can be based. PMID:25999704
Denison, Hayley J; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Robinson, Sian M
The growing recognition of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has highlighted the need to understand more about its etiology. Declines in muscle mass and strength are expected aspects of aging, but there is significant variability between individuals in rates of loss. Although some of these differences can be explained by fixed factors, such as sex, much of the remaining variation is unexplained. This has led to increasing interest in the influence of adult lifestyle, particularly in the effects of modifiable factors such as physical activity and diet, and in identifying intervention opportunities both to prevent and manage sarcopenia. A number of trials have examined the separate effects of increased exercise or dietary supplementation on muscle mass and physical performance of older adults, but less is known about the extent to which benefits of exercise training could be enhanced when these interventions are combined. In a comprehensive review of the literature, we consider 17 studies of older adults (≥65 years) in which combined nutrition and exercise interventions were used to increase muscle strength and/or mass, and achieve improvements in physical performance. The studies were diverse in terms of the participants included (nutritional status, degree of physical frailty), supplementation strategies (differences in nutrients, doses), exercise training (type, frequency), as well as design (duration, setting). The main message is that enhanced benefits of exercise training, when combined with dietary supplementation, have been shown in some trials - indicating potential for future interventions, but that existing evidence is inconsistent. Further studies are needed, particularly of exercise training combined with dietary strategies that increase intakes of a range of nutrients, as well as bioactive non-nutrients, to provide the evidence on which public health and clinical recommendations can be based.
Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Larsson, Britt; Kosek, Eva; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar
Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD) can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention. Methods All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined. Results FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance. Conclusion This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished), and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral. PMID:27695113
Yoga classes designed for women with premenstrual syndrome are available, but their efficacy is unclear. We investigated the effects of 12 weeks' yoga exercise (yoga intervention) on premenstrual symptoms in menstruating females in Taiwan. Sixty-four subjects completed the yoga intervention, and before and after the intervention filled out a structured self-report questionnaire about their demographics, personal lifestyle, menstrual status, baseline menstrual pain scores, premenstrual symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Of 64 subjects, 90.6% reported experiencing menstrual pain during menstruation. After the yoga intervention, subjects reported decreased use of analgesics during menstruation (p = 0.0290) and decreased moderate or severe effects of menstrual pain on work (p = 0.0011). The yoga exercise intervention was associated with the improvement of the scale of physical function (p = 0.0340) and bodily pain (p = 0.0087) of the SF-36, and significantly decreased abdominal swelling (p = 0.0011), breast tenderness (p = 0.0348), abdominal cramps (p = 0.0016), and cold sweats (p = 0.0143). Menstrual pain mitigation after yoga exercise correlated with improvement in six scales of the SF-36 (physical function, bodily pain, general health perception, vitality/energy, social function, mental health). Employers can educate female employees about the benefits of regular exercise such as yoga, which may decrease premenstrual distress and improve female employee health.
Pasiakos, Stefan M; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; McClung, Holy L; Martini, Svein; Gundersen, Yngvar; Castellani, John W; Karl, James P; Teien, Hilde K; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Stenberg, Pal H; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; McClung, James P
Load carriage (LC) exercise may exacerbate inflammation during training. Nutritional supplementation may mitigate this response by sparing endogenous carbohydrate stores, enhancing glycogen repletion, and attenuating negative energy balance. Two studies were conducted to assess inflammatory responses to acute LC and training, with or without nutritional supplementation. Study 1: 40 adults fed eucaloric diets performed 90-min of either LC (treadmill, mean ± SD 24 ± 3 kg LC) or cycle ergometry (CE) matched for intensity (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2peak L min(-1)) during which combined 10 g protein/46 g carbohydrate (223 kcal) or non-nutritive (22 kcal) control drinks were consumed. Study 2: 73 Soldiers received either combat rations alone or supplemented with 1000 kcal day(-1) from 20 g protein- or 48 g carbohydrate-based bars during a 4-day, 51 km ski march (~45 kg LC, energy expenditure 6155 ± 515 kcal day(-1) and intake 2866 ± 616 kcal day(-1)). IL-6, hepcidin, and ferritin were measured at baseline, 3-h post exercise (PE), 24-h PE, 48-h PE, and 72-h PE in study 1, and before (PRE) and after (POST) the 4-d ski march in study 2. Study 1: IL-6 was higher 3-h and 24-h post exercise (PE) for CE only (mode × time, P < 0.05), hepcidin increased 3-h PE and recovered by 48-h, and ferritin peaked 24-h and remained elevated 72-h PE (P < 0.05), regardless of mode and diet. Study 2: IL-6, hepcidin and ferritin were higher (P < 0.05) after training, regardless of group assignment. Energy expenditure (r = 0.40), intake (r = -0.26), and balance (r = -0.43) were associated (P < 0.05) with hepcidin after training. Inflammation after acute LC and CE was similar and not affected by supplemental nutrition during energy balance. The magnitude of hepcidin response was inversely related to energy balance suggesting that eating enough to balance energy expenditure might attenuate the inflammatory response to military training.
Liang, Hui; Zhang, Hua; Ji, Haiyan; Wang, Chunmei
The objective of this paper was to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of home-based exercise interventions for improving health-related quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Ovid-Medline, and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched published from inception through October 2014 involving home-based exercise intervention in AS patients. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), depression and pain as outcomes were included. Studies involving patients with multiple diseases or received combinations of other interventions were excluded. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Qualitative descriptions were conducted, and quantitative analysis was performed with RevMan software (version 5.2). A total of six studies comprising 1098 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that home-based exercise interventions significantly reduced the BASFI scores (MD = -0.39, 95 % CI -0.57, -0.20, p = 0.001), BASDAI scores (MD = -0.50, 95 % CI -0.99, -0.02, p = 0.04), depression scores (MD = -2.31, 95 % CI -3.33, -1.30, p = 0.001), and for pain scores because of different evaluation methods among these studies; therefore, a subgroup analysis should be conducted for comparison. The results show that home-based exercise interventions can effectively improve the health-related quality of life in patients with AS. The benefit and clinical performance of home-based exercise care requires further investigation by a series of multicenter, large-sample size randomized controlled trails.
Liu-Ambrose, Teresa YL; Khan, Karim M; Eng, Janice J; Gillies, Graham L; Lord, Stephen R; McKay, Heather A
OBJECTIVE To determine whether exercise-induced reductions in fall risk are maintained in older women one year following the cessation of three types of interventions – resistance training, agility training, and general stretching. DESIGN One-year observational study. PARTICIPANTS 98 women aged 75–85 years with low bone mass. MEASUREMENTS Primary outcome measure was fall risk as measured by the Physiological Profile Assessment tool. Secondary outcome measures were current physical activity level as assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and formal exercise participation as assessed by interview. RESULTS At the end of the follow-up, the fall risk among former participants of all three exercise programs was maintained (i.e., still reduced) from trial completion. Mean fall risk value at the end of follow-up was 43.3% reduced compared with the mean baseline value among former participants of the Resistance Training group, 40.1% reduced in the Agility Training group, and 37.4% reduced in the general Stretching group. Physical activity levels were also maintained from trial completion. Specifically, there was a 3.8% increase in physical activity from baseline for the Resistance Training group, a 29.2% increase for the Agility Training group, and 37.7% increase for the general Stretching group. CONCLUSION After three types of group-based exercise programs, benefits are sustained for at least 12 months without further formal exercise intervention. Thus, these six-month exercise interventions appeared to act as a catalyst for increasing physical activity with resultant reductions in fall risk profile that were maintained for at least 18 months among older women with low bone mass. PMID:16181178
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer
This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum.
Cannell, L; Taunton, J; Clement, D; Smith, C; Khan, K
Objectives—To compare the therapeutic effect of two different exercise protocols in athletes with jumper's knee. Methods—Randomised clinical trial comparing a 12 week programme of either drop squat exercises or leg extension/leg curl exercises. Measurement was performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain (visual analogue scale 1–10) and return to sport. Secondary outcome measures included quadriceps and hamstring moment of force using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/second. Differences in pain response between the drop squat and leg extension/curl treatment groups were assessed by 2 (group) x 3 (time) analysis of variance. Two by two contingency tables were used to test differences in rates of return to sport. Analysis of variance (2 (injured versus non-injured leg) x 2 (group) x 3 (time)) was also used to determine differences for secondary outcome measures. Results—Over the 12 week intervention, pain diminished by 2.3 points (36%) in the leg extension/curl group and 3.2 points (57%) in the squat group. There was a significant main effect of both exercise protocols on pain (p<0.01) with no interaction effect. Nine of 10 subjects in the drop squat group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks, but five of those subjects still had low level pain. Six of nine of the leg extension/curl group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks and four patients had low level pain. There was no significant difference between groups in numbers returning to sporting activity. There were no differences in the change in quadriceps or hamstring muscle moment of force between groups. Conclusions—Progressive drop squats and leg extension/curl exercises can reduce the pain of jumper's knee in a 12 week period and permit a high proportion of patients to return to sport. Not all patients, however, return to sport by that time. Key Words: knee; patellar tendon; tendinopathy; tendinosis; eccentric strengthening; strength training
Nogueira, Rossana C.; Weeks, Benjamin K.; Beck, Belinda R.
Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old) from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was ‘vigorous’ to ‘very vigorous’ for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels) to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump). CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children. Key points Energy expenditure of a single bout of CAPO Kids yields 39.7±9.3 kcal and includes activities performed at a vigorous and very vigorous intensity. Mechanical loads associated with CAPO Kids surpass five times bodyweight and more than 140 bodyweights per second. CAPO Kids intervention represents a viable approach to stimulate musculoskeletal and metabolic adaptation in children. PMID:26336343
Nogueira, Rossana C; Weeks, Benjamin K; Beck, Belinda R
Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old) from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was 'vigorous' to 'very vigorous' for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels) to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump). CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children. Key pointsEnergy expenditure of a single bout of CAPO Kids yields 39.7±9.3 kcal and includes activities performed at a vigorous and very vigorous intensity.Mechanical loads associated with CAPO Kids surpass five times bodyweight and more than 140 bodyweights per second.CAPO Kids intervention represents a viable approach to stimulate musculoskeletal and metabolic adaptation in children.
Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Yoshizawa, Mutsuko; Misono, Maiko; Saito, Yoko; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kim, Maeng-Kyu; Nakata, Yoshio; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ajisaka, Ryuichi
The effect of habitual exercise on vascular function, including central arterial distensibility and endothelial function, in obese subjects has not yet been clarified. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training affects central arterial distensibility and endothelial function in middle-age overweight and obese men. A total of 21 overweight and obese men (age 50 +/- 2 years, body mass index 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) completed a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention. Aerobic exercise training significantly reduced their body weight and resulted in a significant decrease in body mass index. After the weight-reduction exercise program, carotid arterial compliance (determined by simultaneous B-mode ultrasonography and arterial applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery) significantly increased; and the beta-stiffness index, an index of arterial compliance adjusted for distending pressure, significantly decreased. The concentrations of plasma endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly decreased and plasma nitric oxide (measured as the stable end product [nitrite/nitrate]), a potent vasodilator produced by vascular endothelial cells, significantly increased after the weight-reduction exercise program. In conclusion, weight reduction by aerobic exercise training in overweight and obese men increased the central arterial distensibility. This increase might contribute to the improvement in endothelial function, as assessed by a decrease in endothelin-1 and an increase in nitric oxide, after exercise training-induced weight loss.
Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Chance-Larsen, Ken
Exercise is widely regarded as an effective intervention for symptomatic rotator cuff tendinopathy but the prescription is diverse and the important components of such programmes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to systematically review the contextual factors and prescription parameters of published exercise programmes for rotator cuff tendinopathy, to generate recommendations based on current evidence. An electronic search of AMED, CiNAHL, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PEDro and SPORTDiscus was undertaken from their inception to June 2014 and supplemented by hand searching. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of exercise in participants with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and synthesized narratively. Fourteen studies were included, and suggested that exercise programmes are widely applicable and can be successfully designed by physiotherapists with varying experience; whether the exercise is completed at home or within a clinic setting does not appear to matter and neither does pain production or pain avoidance during exercise; inclusion of some level of resistance does seem to matter although the optimal level is unclear, the optimal number of repetitions is also unclear but higher repetitions might confer superior outcomes; three sets of exercise are preferable to two or one set but the optimal frequency is unknown; most programmes should demonstrate clinically significant outcomes by 12 weeks. This systematic review has offered preliminary guidance in relation to contextual factors and prescription parameters to aid development and application of exercise programmes for rotator cuff tendinopathy.
Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; McDonald, Cheryl; Ramgopal, Moti; Noviello, Stephanie; Bhore, Rafia; Ackerman, Peter
Background. Highly effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapies that do not require modification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral regimens are needed. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir + sofosbuvir (DCV + SOF) for 12 weeks by antiretroviral (ARV) regimen in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Methods. In the randomized, open-label ALLY-2 study, HIV-HCV-coinfected patients received 8 or 12 weeks of once-daily DCV 60 mg (dose-adjusted as-necessary for concomitant ARVs) + SOF 400 mg. Results were stratified by ARV class for the 151 patients who received 12 weeks of DCV + SOF. Results. Fifty-one patients were HCV treatment experienced, 100 were treatment naive, 89% male and 33% black. HCV genotypes were: genotype 1a (GT1a; 69%), GT1b (15%), GT2 (8%), GT3 (6%), and GT4 (2%). Sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was 97% and was similar across ARV regimens (P = .774): protease inhibitor-based, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-99.7%); nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based, 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%); and integrase inhibitor based, 95% (95% CI, 83%-99.4%). SVR12 among patients receiving either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or abacavir as part of their antiretroviral therapy regimen was 98% (95% CI, 93%-99.5%) and 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%), respectively. Age, gender, race, cirrhosis, HCV treatment history, GT , and baseline HCV RNA did not affect SVR12. No discontinuations were attributed to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions. DCV + SOF x12 weeks is a highly efficacious, all-oral, pan-GT HCV treatment for HIV-HCV coinfected patients across a broad range of ARV regimens. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02032888. PMID:27025835
Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio
(1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each
Mangona, Lucília; Daca, Timóteo; Tchonga, Francisco; Bule, Odete; Bhatt, Nilesh; Jani, Ilesh; Damasceno, Albertino; Prista, António
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two types of exercises interventions on the regularity and health-related physical fitness in HIV-infected individuals who use antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 53 HIV+ African women (mean age=39.5±8.4 years) on ART participated in the study. Subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely, formal exercise (FEG), playful exercise (PEG) and control (CG). During 12 weeks, the exercise groups underwent a program of 1-hour duration with a frequency of 3 times a week. The FEG performed a protocol that included 20 minutes of exercise, cycling at 60 % of V̇O2peak, increasing to 75 % and 85 % in the 4th and 8th weeks, respectively, and a muscular endurance circuit consisted of 6 exercises at 15 repetitions per minute (RM). The PEG followed a program consisting of active games. Before and after the intervention the participants were submitted to a clinical evaluation including immunological parameters (CD4+), cardiovascular risk factors, physical fitness and anthropometry. Comparison of somatic variables before and after the program showed no exercise effect. Immunological and cardiovascular variables were also independent of the exercise group. The main effect was found in cardiorespiratory fitness: exercise groups increased significantly in V̇O2peak (FEG=14.7 %; PEG=11.1 %) with no significant differences in CG. The percentage of high attendance was identical between the two groups. It was concluded that there is no contraindication for exercise in this type of population and the beneficial effect was mainly in cardiorespiratory fitness, regardless of the type of exercise performed. PMID:26587077
Wójcicki, Thomas R; Roberts, Sarah A; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominque; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward
Introduction There is a need to identify innovative, low-cost and broad-reaching strategies for promoting exercise and improving physical function in older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods and analysis This randomised controlled pilot trial will test the efficacy of a 6-month, DVD-delivered exercise intervention to improve functional performance and quality of life in older adults with MS. Participants will be randomised either into a DVD-delivered exercise condition or an attentional control condition. This novel approach to programme delivery provides participants with detailed exercise instructions which are presented in a progressive manner and includes a variety of modifications to better meet varying levels of physical abilities. The targeted exercises focus on three critical elements of functional fitness: flexibility, strength and balance. It is hypothesised that participants who are randomised to the exercise DVD condition will demonstrate improvements in physical function compared with participants assigned to the attentional control condition. Data analysis will include a 2 (condition)×2 (time) mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) that follows intent-to-treat principles, as well as an examination of effect sizes. Participants will take part in qualitative interviews about perspectives on physical activity and programme participation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by a university institutional review board and registered with a federal database. Participants will be asked to read and sign a detailed informed consent document and will be required to provide a physician's approval to participate in the study. The exercise DVDs include an overview of safety-related concerns and recommendations relative to exercise participation, as well as detailed instructions highlighting the proper execution of each exercise presented on screen. Following completion of this trial, data will be immediately analysed and results
Troosters, Thierry; Bourbeau, Jean; Maltais, François; Leidy, Nancy; Erzen, Damijan; De Sousa, Dorothy; Korducki, Lawrence; Hamilton, Alan
Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with exercise limitation and physical inactivity, which are believed to have significant long-term negative health consequences for patients. While a number of COPD treatments and exercise training programmes increase exercise capacity, there is limited evidence for their effects on physical activity levels, with no clear association between exercise capacity and physical activity in clinical trials. Physical activity depends on a number of behaviour, environmental and physiological factors. We describe the design of the PHYSACTO trial, which is investigating the effects of bronchodilators, either alone or with exercise training, in combination with a standardised behaviour-change self-management programme, on exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. It is hypothesised that bronchodilators in conjunction with a behaviour-change self-management programme will improve physical activity and that this effect will be amplified by the addition of exercise training. Methods and analysis Patients are being recruited from 34 sites in Australia, New Zealand, the USA, Canada and Europe. Patients receiving a multicomponent intervention designed to support behaviour change related to physical activity are randomised to four treatment arms: placebo, tiotropium, tiotropium+olodaterol, and tiotropium+olodaterol+exercise training. The primary outcome is improvement in exercise capacity after 8 weeks, measured by endurance time during a shuttle walk test. The secondary outcome is improvement in physical activity, including objective accelerometer assessment and patient-reported functioning using the Functional Performance Inventory—Short Form and the novel hybrid PROactive instrument. Additionally, the influence of moderating variables (ie, factors influencing a patient's choice to be physically active) on increases in physical activity is also explored. Ethics and dissemination The
Guidon, Marie; McGee, Hannah
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic, progressive disease with significant cardiovascular risk. Symptoms include pain in leg muscles on walking, relieved by rest (intermittent claudication). Treatment aims to maintain or improve quality of life (QoL) by minimising ischaemic symptoms and preventing progression to vascular occlusion. Management strategies include exercise-based interventions. Research from 1989 to 2008 was systematically reviewed to identify the QoL impact of exercise-based interventions in patients with intermittent claudication. Twenty-three studies were identified. Five were randomized controlled trials. Studies were summarized in terms of exercise interventions, QoL measures used and QoL findings. The majority used a generic QoL instrument; most commonly the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Eleven studies reported beneficial effects on the SF-36 Physical Functioning scale. Some also reported positive effects on the scales of Bodily Pain, Role-Physical, Vitality, General Health and the Physical Component Score. In seven studies, a disease-specific measure was used. In six of these, both generic and disease-specific questionnaires were used. Disease-specific measures demonstrated greater improvements across a range of QoL domains. Greater use of disease-specific measures and an extended follow-up period may enable a more definitive picture to emerge regarding effects of exercise on QoL in intermittent claudication.
Raber, Margaret; Swartz, Maria C; Santa Maria, Diane; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Tom; Li, Rhea; Chandra, Joya
Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk of becoming overweight or obese due to treatment effects and/or post-treatment behaviors. Parents are key agents influencing child diet and physical activity (PA), which are modifiable risk factors for obesity. A systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was undertaken to evaluate current interventions that include diet and PA elements for CCS to determine if and to what extent parents were included, and whether parent involvement had a significant effect on behavioral outcomes or adiposity. A total of 2,386 potential articles were reviewed and 25 individual studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Parental involvement was classified into three categories and varied across studies, although most had indirect or no parental involvement. The studies that included direct parental involvement showed positive outcomes on a variety of measures suggesting that increasing parental involvement in interventions for CCS may be one way to promote long-term lifestyle changes for pediatric cancer patients. However, additional research directly addressing parental involvement in obesity prevention and treatment among CCS is warranted.
Celano, C. M.; Beale, E. E.; Mastromauro, C. A.; Stewart, J. G.; Millstein, R. A.; Auerbach, R. P.; Bedoya, C. A.; Huffman, J. C.
Background Positive psychological constructs have been associated with reduced suicidal ideation, and interventions to cultivate positive feelings have the potential to reduce suicide risk. This study compares the efficacy of a 6-week, telephone-based positive psychology (PP) intervention against a cognition-focused (CF) control intervention among patients recently hospitalized for depression and suicidal ideation or behavior. Method A total of 65 adults with a current major depressive episode reporting suicidal ideation or a recent suicide attempt were enrolled from participating in-patient psychiatric units. Prior to discharge, participants were randomized to the PP (n = 32) or CF (n = 33) intervention. In both interventions, participants received a treatment manual, performed weekly PP (e.g. gratitude letter) or CF (e.g. recalling daily events) exercises, and completed weekly one-on-one telephone sessions over 6 weeks. Between-group differences in hopelessness (primary outcome), depression, suicidality and positive psychological constructs at 6 and 12 weeks were tested using mixed-effects models accounting for intensity of post-hospitalization psychiatric treatment. Results Compared with PP, the CF intervention was associated with significantly greater improvements in hopelessness at 6 weeks (β = −3.15, 95% confidence interval −6.18 to −0.12, effect size = −0.84, p = 0.04), but not 12 weeks. Similarly, the CF intervention led to greater improvements in depression, suicidal ideation, optimism and gratitude at 6 and 12 weeks. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, the CF intervention was superior to PP in improving hopelessness, other suicide risk factors and positive psychological constructs during a key post-discharge period among suicidal patients with depression. Further study of this CF intervention is warranted in populations at high suicide risk. PMID:27876105
Background Accumulation of excess body fat increases breast cancer risk after menopause. Whether the localized breast is differently influenced by adipose tissue compared to the rest of the body, has not been well studied. Our purpose was to demonstrate feasibility and preliminarily evaluate serum-based and localized breast biomarker changes resulting from a weight loss intervention among obese postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a 12-week pilot controlled dietary and exercise intervention among healthy obese postmenopausal women, collected serum and breast ductal fluid before and after the intervention, and estimated the association with systemic and localized biomarker changes. We recruited 7 obese (mean body mass index = 33.6 kg/m2) postmenopausal women. We collected samples at baseline and the 12th week for: anthropometry; phlebotomy; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (lean and fat mass); exercise fitness (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2Max); 1-repetition strength maximum); and breast ductal lavage. Results Changes from baseline occurred in body composition and exercise performance including fat mass loss (14% average drop), VO2Max (+36% increase) and strength improvement (+26%). Breast ductal fluid markers declined from baseline with estradiol showing a 24% reduction and IL-6 a 20% reduction. We also observed serum biomarker reductions from baseline including leptin (36% decline), estrone sulfate (−10%), estradiol (−25%), and Il-6 (−33%). Conclusions Conduct of the diet and exercise intervention, collection of ductal fluid, and measurement of hormones and cytokines contained in the ductal fluid were all feasible. We preliminarily demonstrated estradiol and IL-6 reductions from baseline in both serum and breast ductal fluid among obese postmenopausal women who participated in the 12-week weight loss diet and exercise intervention. PMID:23217221
Jiang, Bernard C.
Falls are unpredictable accidents, and the resulting injuries can be serious in the elderly, particularly those with chronic diseases. Regular exercise is recommended to prevent and treat hypertension and other chronic diseases by reducing clinical blood pressure. The “complexity index” (CI), based on multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm, has been applied in recent studies to show a person's adaptability to intrinsic and external perturbations and widely used measure of postural sway or stability. The multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) was advanced algorithm used to calculate the complexity index (CI) values of the center of pressure (COP) data. In this study, we applied the MSE & MMSE to analyze gait function of 24 elderly, chronically ill patients (44% female; 56% male; mean age, 67.56 ± 10.70 years) with either cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or osteoporosis. After a 12-week training program, postural stability measurements showed significant improvements. Our results showed beneficial effects of resistance training, which can be used to improve postural stability in the elderly and indicated that MMSE algorithms to calculate CI of the COP data were superior to the multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm to identify the sense of balance in the elderly. PMID:25295070
Quaresma, A M; Palmeira, A L; Martins, S S; Minderico, C S; Sardinha, L B
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549 boys), aged 10-16 years, BMI = 19.31 ± 3.51, allocated to two groups of schools: control (n = 207) and intervention (n = 835). This study will report the 24 months results of the program, which aimed to develop healthy lifestyles. Questionnaires were used to measure PA, QoL, motivation to exercise and social support. There was no direct impact of the intervention on QoL or PA. Serial mediation analyses were conducted. Social support (P < 0.019) and intrinsic motivation (P = 0.085) increased more on intervention group. Indirect effects were observed in all serial mediation models. The positive indirect effects on PA and QoL were explained by the increase on peer/parent support in serial with the increase in intrinsic motivation (P < 0.01). Parental support led to an increase on external motivation (P < 0.05), which buffered the effects of the intervention. This school-based intervention promoted the development of social support and motivational mechanisms that explained higher levels of PA and QoL.
Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M.; Mason, Caitlin; Wang, Chiachi; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L.; Kong, Angela; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Blackburn, George L.; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne
Objective Antidepressants may attenuate the effects of diet and exercise programs. We compared adherence and changes in body measures and biomarkers of glucose metabolism and inflammation between antidepressant users and non-users in a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Methods Overweight or obese, postmenopausal women were assigned to: diet (10% weight loss goal, N=118); moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise (225 minutes/week, N=117); diet+exercise (N=117); and control (N=87) in Seattle, WA 2005–2009. Women using antidepressants at baseline were classified as users (N=109). ANCOVA and generalized estimating equation approaches, respectively, were used to compare adherence (exercise amount, diet session attendance, and changes in percent calorie intake from fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, and pedometer steps) and changes in body measures (weight, waist and percent body fat) and serum biomarkers (glucose, insulin, homeostasis assessment-insulin resistance, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) between users and non-users. An interaction term (intervention × antidepressant use) tested effect modification. Results There were no differences in adherence except diet session attendance was lower among users in the diet+exercise group (P<0.05 vs. non-users). Changes in body measures and serum biomarkers did not differ by antidepressant use (Pinteraction>0.05). Conclusion Dietary weight loss and exercise improved body measures and biomarkers of glucose metabolism and inflammation independent of antidepressant use. PMID:23859929
Parr, Evelyn B.; Camera, Donny M.; Burke, Louise M.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Coffey, Vernon G.; Hawley, John A.
Background Interactions between diet, physical activity and genetic predisposition contribute to variable body mass changes observed in response to weight loss interventions. Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) may act as ‘biomarkers’ that are associated with the rate of change in weight loss, and/or play a role in regulating the biological variation, in response to energy restriction. Objective To quantify targeted c-miRNAs with putative roles in energy metabolism and exercise adaptations following a 16 wk diet and exercise intervention in individuals with large (high responders; HiRes) versus small (low responders; LoRes) losses in body mass. Methods From 89 male and female overweight/obese participants who completed the intervention (energy restriction from diet, 250 kcal/d, and exercise, 250 kcal/d), subgroups of HiRes (>10% body mass loss, n = 22) and LoRes (<5% body mass loss, n = 18) were identified. From resting plasma samples collected after an overnight fast pre and post intervention, RNA was extracted, quantified and reverse transcribed. Thirteen c-miRNA selected a priori were analysed using a customised 96-well miScript miRNA PCR Array. Results Loss of body mass (-11.0 ± 2.3 kg vs. -3.0 ± 1.3 kg; P<0.01) and fat mass (-11.1 ± 2.6 kg vs. -3.9 ± 1.6 kg; P<0.01) was greater for HiRes than LoRes (P<0.001). Expression of c-miR-935 was higher in LoRes compared to HiRes pre- (~47%; P = 0.025) and post- (~100%; P<0.01) intervention and was the only c-miRNA differentially expressed at baseline between groups. The abundance of c-miR-221-3p and -223-3p increased pre- to post-intervention in both groups (~57–69% and ~25–90%, P<0.05). There was a post-intervention increase in c-miR-140 only in LoRes compared to HiRes (~23%, P = 0.016). Conclusion The differential expression and responses of selected c-miRNAs in overweight/obese individuals to an exercise and diet intervention suggests a putative role for these ‘biomarkers’ in the prediction or detection
Dairy foods enhance weight loss in animal models possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study aimed to determine in overweight women (ages 20-45; n=51) whether inclusion of dairy foods in an energy-restricted diet affects basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, and whet...
Izadpanah, Ali; Angadi, Siddhartha S.; Barnard, R. James
Lifestyle intervention programs currently emphasize weight loss secondary to obesity as the primary determinant of phenotypic changes. We examined whether the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention program differ in normal-weight versus overweight/obese children. Nineteen overweight/obese (O; BMI = 33.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 14 normal-weight (N; BMI = 19.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) children participated in a 2-wk program consisting of an ad libitum high-fiber, low-fat diet and daily exercise (2–2.5 h). Fasting serum samples were taken pre- and postintervention for determination of lipids, glucose homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines. Only the O group lost weight (3.9%) but remained overweight/obese (32.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Both groups exhibited significant intervention-induced decreases (P < 0.05) in serum insulin (N: 52.5% vs. O: 28.1%; between groups, P = 0.38), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (N: 53.1% vs. O: 28.4%, P = 0.43), leptin (N: 69.3% vs. O: 44.1%, P = 0.10), amylin (N: 28.7% vs. O: 26.1%, P = 0.80), resistin (N: 40.0% vs. O: 35.1%, P = 0.99), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (N: 30.8% vs. O: 25.6%, P = 0.59), IL-6 (N: 58.8% vs. O: 48.5%, P = 0.78), IL-8 (N: 46.0% vs. O: 42.2%, P = 0.49), and TNFα (N: 45.8% vs. O: 40.8%, P = 0.99). No associations between indices of weight change and phenotypic changes were noted. A short-term, intensive lifestyle modification program is effective in ameliorating metabolic risk factors in N and O children. These results suggest that obesity per se was not the primary driver of the phenotypes noted and that dietary intake and physical inactivity induce the phenotypic abnormalities. These data may have implications for the weight loss-independent management of cardiometabolic risk in pediatric populations. PMID:23883675
Ipavec-Levasseur, Stephanie; Croci, Ilaria; Choquette, Stéphane; Byrne, Nuala M; Cowin, Gary; O'Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Prins, Johannes B; Hickman, Ingrid J
Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are depleted in response to an acute bout of exercise in lean endurance-trained individuals; however, it is unclear whether changes in IMCL content are also seen in response to acute and chronic exercise in obese individuals. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 18 obese men and 5 normal-weight controls to assess IMCL content before and after an hour of cycling at the intensity corresponding with each participant's maximal whole-body rate of fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatmax was determined via indirect calorimetry during a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The same outcome measures were reassessed in the obese group after a 16-week lifestyle intervention comprising dietary calorie restriction and exercise training. At baseline, IMCL content decreased in response to 1 h of cycling at Fatmax in controls (2.8 ± 0.4 to 2.0 ± 0.3 A.U., -39%, p = 0.02), but not in obese (5.4 ± 2.1 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 A.U., p = 0.42). The lifestyle intervention lead to weight loss (-10.0 ± 5.4 kg, p < 0.001), improvements in maximal aerobic power (+5.2 ± 3.4 mL/(kg·min)), maximal fat oxidation rate (+0.19 ± 0.22 g/min), and a 29% decrease in homeostasis model assessment score (all p < 0.05). However, when the 1 h of cycling at Fatmax was repeated after the lifestyle intervention, there remained no observable change in IMCL (4.6 ± 1.8 vs. 4.6 ± 1.9 A.U., p = 0.92). In summary, there was no IMCL depletion in response to 1 h of cycling at moderate intensity either before or after the lifestyle intervention in obese men. An effective lifestyle intervention including moderate-intensity exercise training did not impact rate of utilisation of IMCL during acute exercise in obese men.
Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita
Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach – ‘prevention is better than cure’ – would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would
Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Misawa, Eriko; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Saito, Marie; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Furukawa, Fukumi
Background/objective Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol) significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. Methods We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30–59 years; average: 45 years). The subjects were instructed to expose the measurement position of the arms to the sunlight outdoors every day for 12 weeks. The skin parameters were measured at 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Results Depending on the time for the revelation of the sunlight, the b* value and melanin index increased and the skin moisture decreased. After taking an Aloe sterol tablet daily for 12 weeks, the skin elasticity index (R2, R5, and R7) levels were significantly higher than the baseline value. There were no differences between the groups in these skin elasticity values. In the subgroup analysis of subjects aged <46 years, the change in the R5 and R7 was significantly higher in the Aloe group than in the placebo group at 8 weeks (P=0.0412 and P=0.0410, respectively). There was a difference in the quantity of sun exposure between each subject, and an additional clinical study that standardizes the amount of ultraviolet rays is warranted. No Aloe sterol intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion Aloe sterol ingestion increased skin elasticity in the photodamaged skin of men aged <46 years. PMID:27877061
Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ben; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M; Manson, Spero M; Roubideaux, Yvette
Stages of change measure an individual's readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and distal outcomes. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify the longitudinal patterns of SoC for regular exercise reported at three time points. LCA with distal outcomes was performed to investigate the associations between latent class membership and behavioral changes after the intervention. The parameters and standard errors of the LCA with distal outcomes models were estimated using an improved three-step approach. Three latent classes were identified: Pre-action, Transition, and Maintenance classes. The Transition class, where stage progression occurred, had the greatest improvements in physical activity and weight outcomes at both time points post-baseline among female participants. It also had the largest improvements in weight outcomes among male participants. Furthermore, the Pre-action class had more attenuation in the improvements they had achieved initially than the other two classes. These findings suggest the potential importance of motivating participants to modify their readiness for behavioral change in future lifestyle interventions.
Groover, Anna L; Ryals, Janelle M; Guilford, Brianne L; Wilson, Natalie M; Christianson, Julie A; Wright, Douglas E
Recent research suggests that exercise can be effective in reducing pain in animals and humans with neuropathic pain. To investigate mechanisms in which exercise may improve hyperalgesia associated with prediabetes, C57Bl/6 mice were fed either standard chow or a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and were provided access to running wheels (exercised) or without access (sedentary). The high-fat diet induced a number of prediabetic symptoms, including increased weight, blood glucose, and insulin levels. Exercise reduced but did not restore these metabolic abnormalities to normal levels. In addition, mice fed a high-fat diet developed significant cutaneous and visceral hyperalgesia, similar to mice that develop neuropathy associated with diabetes. Finally, a high-fat diet significantly modulated neurotrophin protein expression in peripheral tissues and altered the composition of epidermal innervation. Over time, mice that exercised normalized with regards to their behavioral hypersensitivity, neurotrophin levels, and epidermal innervation. These results confirm that elevated hypersensitivity and associated neuropathic changes can be induced by a high-fat diet and exercise may alleviate these neuropathic symptoms. These findings suggest that exercise intervention could significantly improve aspects of neuropathy and pain associated with obesity and diabetes. Additionally, this work could potentially help clinicians determine those patients who will develop painful versus insensate neuropathy using intraepidermal nerve fiber quantification.
Groover, Anna L.; Ryals, Janelle M.; Guilford, Brianne L.; Wilson, Natalie M.; Christianson, Julie A.; Wright, Doug E.
Recent research suggests that exercise can be effective in reducing pain in animals and humans with neuropathic pain. To investigate mechanisms in which exercise may improve hyperalgesia associated with prediabetes, C57Bl/6 mice were fed either standard chow or a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and were provided access to running wheels (exercised) or without access (sedentary). The high-fat diet induced a number of prediabetic symptoms, including increased weight, blood glucose, and insulin levels. Exercise reduced but did not restore these metabolic abnormalities to normal levels. In addition, mice fed a high-fat diet developed significant cutaneous and visceral hyperalgesia, similar to mice that develop neuropathy associated with diabetes. Finally, a high-fat diet significantly modulated neurotrophin protein expression in peripheral tissues and altered the composition of epidermal innervation. Over time, mice that exercised normalized with regards to their behavioral hypersensitivity, neurotrophin levels, and epidermal innervation. These results confirm that elevated hypersensitivity and associated neuropathic changes can be induced by a high-fat diet and exercise may alleviate these neuropathic symptoms. These findings suggest that exercise intervention could significantly improve aspects of neuropathy and pain associated with obesity and diabetes. Additionally, this work could potentially help clinicians determine those patients which will develop painful versus insensate neuropathy using intraepidermal nerve fiber quantification. PMID:23932909
Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran
This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300
Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung
This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit.
Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi
Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants.
In a prospective study (Cytotoxic Drug Study II), 18 children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and steroid toxicity were treated with cyclophosphamide (2 mg/kg body weight/day) for 12 weeks in combination with reducing doses of prednisone (group A). This group was compared retrospectively with 18 children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome, studied as part of the Cytotoxic Drug Study I, and who had received cyclophosphamide for eight weeks (group B). There were no differences between the groups in age at the onset of the nephrotic syndrome, age at entry into the study, and duration of the nephrotic syndrome before entry into the study. The number of relapses during the six months before the treatment was the same in both groups. Two years after treatment 12 of 18 children treated with cyclophosphamide for 12 weeks were still in remission. By contrast, only four of of 18 children treated with cyclophosphamide for eight weeks were still in remission. The cumulative rates of sustained remissions were significantly higher (67% and 22%, respectively) in group A. All relapses were observed within 400 days of stopping cytotoxic treatment. No severe side effects of cyclophosphamide occurred up to two years after treatment had been stopped. We conclude that for children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and steroid toxicity cyclophosphamide treatment should be prolonged to 12 weeks to increase the likelihood of a prolonged remission. PMID:3688915
Wallman, Karen E.; Morton, Alan R.; Goodman, Carmel; Grove, Robert
The objective of this study was to assess variability in symptoms and physical capabilities in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) participants both before and after a graded exercise intervention. Sixty-one CFS subjects participated in a 12-week randomized controlled trial of either graded exercise (n =32) or relaxation/stretching therapy (n = 29). Specific physiological, psychological and cognitive variables were assessed once weekly over a four-week period both prior to and after the intervention period. All scores were assessed for reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Apart from mental and physical fatigue, baseline ICC scores for all variables assessed were moderately to highly reliable, indicating minimal variability. Baseline scores for mental and physical fatigue were of questionable reliability, indicating a fluctuating nature to these symptoms (R1 = 0.64 and 0.60, respectively). Variability in scores for mental fatigue was reduced after graded exercise to an acceptable classification (R1 = 0.76). Results from this study support a variable nature to the symptoms of mental and physical fatigue only. Consequently, in order to more accurately report the nature of mental and physical fatigue in CFS, future studies should consider using repeated-measures analysis when assessing these symptoms. Graded exercise resulted in the reclassification of scores for mental fatigue from questionable to acceptable reliability. Key Points Chronic fatigue syndrome sufferers often report a fluctuating nature to their symptoms and physical capabilities. Weekly assessment over a four-week period of psychological, physiological and cognitive variables demonstrated that only mental and physical fatigues were of questionable reliability. A 12-week graded exercise intervention resulted in the improvement of ICC scores for mental fatigue to that of acceptable reliability. PMID:24501561
Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio
(1) Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each
Lerman, Robert H.; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Konda, Veera; Desai, Anuradha; Montalto, Michael B.
Context Tetrahydro iso-α acids (THIAAs), derived from Humulus lupulus (hops), have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Undenatured type 2 collagen has been found to be effective in clinical studies in RA and osteoarthritis (OA). Objective The study intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a proprietary tablet containing 150 mg of n-enriched THIAA (nTHIAA) and 10 mg of undenatured type 2 collagen (UC-II) (containing 25% UC-II) in patients with arthritis. Design The study was an open-label case series. This article also includes a case history for 1 participant. Setting The study was conducted at the Functional Medicine Research Center (FMRC) in Gig Harbor, WA, USA, from February 2013–June 2013. Participants Participants were 17 adults, 12 women, and 5 men aged 39–69 y, who had chronic joint pain involving various joints, 13 with probable OA and 4 with possible RA. Intervention Participants took 2 tablets of nTHIAA + UC-II 2 ×/d with meals for 12 wk. Outcome Measures Participants completed arthritis-related and quality-of-life questionnaires, at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12: (1) the visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P); (2) the medical symptoms questionnaire (MSQ), with the analysis particularly focusing on the joint/muscle subscale and total scores; (3) the health and wellness outcome questionnaire (MOS-SF36), with the analysis particularly focusing on the physical and mental subscales; (4) the arthritis impact questionnaire (AIQ), with the analysis particularly focusing on the arthritis symptoms and daily living subscales; (5) the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ-DI) with the analysis particularly focusing on question 26 (Q26), which indicates overall pain during the week prior to the survey; and (6) the arthritis impact measurement scales 2 (AIMS2). At 12 wk, participants also completed the visual analog scale for efficacy (VAS-E). Results All participants completed the 12-wk evaluation
van der Linden, Noreen; Klinkenberg, Lieke J. J.; Leenders, Marika; Tieland, Michael; Verdijk, Lex B.; Niens, Marijke; van Suijlen, Jeroen D. E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Bekers, Otto; van Loon, Luc J. C.; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P.; Meex, Steven J. R.
With the introduction of high-sensitive assays, cardiac troponins became potential biomarkers for risk stratification and prognostic medicine. Observational studies have reported an inverse association between physical activity and basal cardiac troponin levels. However, causality has never been demonstrated. This study investigated whether basal cardiac troponin concentrations are receptive to lifestyle interventions such as exercise training. Basal high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (cTnT ) and I (cTnI) were monitored in two resistance-type exercise training programs (12-week (study 1) and 24-week (study 2)) in older adults (≥65 years). In addition, a retrospective analysis for high sensitive troponin I in a 24-week exercise controlled trial in (pre)frail older adults was performed (study 3). In total, 91 subjects were included in the final data analyses. There were no significant changes in cardiac troponin levels over time in study 1 and 2 (study 1: cTnT −0.13 (−0.33–+0.08) ng/L/12-weeks, cTnI −0.10 (−0.33–+0.12) ng/L/12-weeks; study 2: cTnT −1.99 (−4.79–+0.81) ng/L/24-weeks, cTnI −1.59 (−5.70–+2.51) ng/L/24-weeks). Neither was there a significant interaction between training and the course of cardiac troponin in study 3 (p = 0.27). In conclusion, this study provides no evidence that prolonged resistance-type exercise training can modulate basal cardiac troponin levels. PMID:26671282
Hung, Hsuan-Man; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Chen, Chung-Hey
Current medical technology permits the early detection of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in adults, and interventions are available to prevent CAD-related morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Qigong exercise intervention in improving biomarker levels and mental and physical health outcomes in community-dwelling adults diagnosed with CAD risk factors, in a southern Taiwanese city. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n= 84) group that participated in a 60-min Qigong group session 3 times per week for 3 months or a control (n= 61) group that did not receive the intervention. Self-perceived mental and physical health assessed with the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12, and body fat percentage were measured at baseline and 6, 12, and 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 12 weeks for analysis of lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting plasma sugar. Linear mixed model analyses revealed that experimental participants had significantly improved perceived mental and physical health and body fat percentage compared to the control group at 6 and 12