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Sample records for 12-week study period

  1. 39-week toxicity and toxicokinetic study of ponezumab (PF-04360365) in cynomolgus monkeys with 12-week recovery period.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Gary B; Lin, John C; Pons, Jaume; Raha, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    Ponezumab (PF-04360365) is a novel humanized IgG2Δa monoclonal antibody that binds to amyloid-β (Aβ). It is designed to have reduced immune effector function compared to other passive immunotherapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Toxicity was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys treated intravenously with vehicle or 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg of ponezumab every 10th day for up to 39 weeks, and after a 12-week recovery phase. The Aβ peptide sequence of monkeys is identical to that of humans. No substantial difference in test article exposure between sexes was observed, and mean plasma Cmax and AUC0-n were approximately dose-proportional. Ponezumab was detectable approximately 9 weeks after cessation of dosing. All animals, except two males given 10 mg/kg, maintained exposure to test article. One of these males tested positive for anti-ponezumab antibodies. Ponezumab was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of animals given active treatment. The estimated CSF/plasma ponezumab concentration ratio was <0.008 after multiple doses. At the end of the dosing and recovery phases, plasma Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-x were increased in treated animals versus controls. No test article-related effects were seen after ophthalmogical, cardiovascular, physical examinations, and clinical and anatomic pathology evaluations. Plasma concentrations of ponezumab on day 261 at the no observed adverse effect level of 100 mg/kg were 22.4 and 5.3 times greater on a Cmax and AUC basis, respectively, than human exposures at the highest dose (10 mg/kg) in a single-dose Phase I trial. These data suggest an acceptable safety profile for ponezumab as an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:22045481

  2. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  3. Efficacy of Olibra: A 12-Week Randomized Controlled Trial and a Review of Earlier Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J; Martin, Corby K; Johnson, William D; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention strategies that harness the body's appetite and satiety regulating signals provide a means of countering excessive energy intake. Methods Eighty-two subjects were enrolled (18–60 years, body mass index: 25–40 kg/m2) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel trial. During a 12-week period, the effects of Olibra™ fat emulsion (2.1 g twice daily) on food intake, appetite, satiety, weight, and body composition were compared with those of a twice daily administered placebo (1.95 g milk fat). On days -7, 0, and 28, Olibra or the placebo added to 200 g of yogurt was served at breakfast and lunch. Food intake, appetite, and satiety were assessed after lunch and dinner. Body weight was measured on days -7, 0, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Body fat, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were determined on days 0 and 84. The Eating Inventory was administered at screening and on day 28. Data relating to 71 subjects were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results At 12 weeks, body weight was reduced in the test group (2.17 ± 0.46 kg standard error of the mean, p < .0001) and the control group (1.68 ± 0.42 kg, p < .0001). Waist circumference decreased by 2.93 ± 0.85 cm in the test group (p = .001) and by 1.78 ± 0.74 cm in the control group (p = .02). Differential weight and waist circumference reductions were not significant. Hunger scores (Eating Inventory) decreased more in the test group (p = .0082). Differential group effects were not significant for body fat, waist-hip ratio, food intake, appetite, and satiety. Conclusions At this dose, Olibra did not exert a consistent effect on food intake, appetite regulation, body weight, or body composition. PMID:22768902

  4. Clinical pharmacology study of cariprazine (MP-214) in patients with schizophrenia (12-week treatment)

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tadakatsu; Kubota, Tomoko; Iwakaji, Atsushi; Imada, Masayoshi; Kapás, Margit; Morio, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cariprazine is a potent dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist in development for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and depression. Pharmacokinetics of cariprazine and the two clinically relevant metabolites (desmethyl- and didesmethyl-cariprazine) was evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, fixed-dose (3, 6, or 9 mg/day) study of 28-week duration (≤4-week observation, 12-week open-label treatment, and 12-week follow-up). Once-daily cariprazine was administered to 38 adult patients with schizophrenia. The pharmacokinetics of cariprazine, metabolites, and total active moieties (sum of cariprazine and two metabolites) was evaluated; efficacy and safety were also assessed. Results Steady state was reached within 1–2 weeks for cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine, 4 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine, and 3 weeks for total active moieties. Cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine levels decreased >90% within 1 week after the last dose, didesmethyl-cariprazine decreased ~50% at 1 week, and total active moieties decreased ~90% within 4 weeks. Terminal half-lives of cariprazine, desmethyl-cariprazine, and didesmethyl-cariprazine ranged from 31.6 to 68.4, 29.7 to 37.5, and 314 to 446 hours, respectively. Effective half-life (calculated from time to steady state) of total active moieties was ~1 week. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 97.4%; 15.8% of patients discontinued due to adverse events. No abnormal laboratory values or major differences from baseline in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed. Conclusion Cariprazine and its active metabolites reached steady state within 4 weeks, and exposure was dose proportional over the range of 3–9 mg/day. Once-daily cariprazine was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26834462

  5. Effect of 12 Weeks of Periodized Resistance Training Upon Total Plasma Adiponectin Concentration in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Greggory R; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Nelson, Arnold G

    2015-11-01

    The effects of resistance training on adiponectin have thus far yielded equivocal results. However, the effect of periodized resistance training on plasma adiponectin in offspring of type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic (ND) parents (first-degree family history) has yet to be determined. Untrained healthy young men with and without a first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes were assigned to an exercise intervention group (E) or an active control group (C). The E group performed a 12-week periodized resistance training program, whereas the C group did not participate in any structured exercise program. Fasting plasma samples were obtained pre- and posttraining. Total plasma adiponectin changed significantly in the E group (33.7 ± 14.7%, p = 0.025) but not in the C group (10.8 ± 19.2%). Offspring of type 2 diabetic parents subjects had significantly greater improvements in plasma adiponectin (69.3 ± 34.8%) compared with ND subjects (-3.2 ± 29.9%, p = 0.046). Regular aerobic exercise was significantly correlated with average plasma adiponectin (r = 0.32), whereas first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes (r = -0.58) and decreases in body fat percentage (r = -0.77) were inversely correlated with average plasma adiponectin. Periodized high-intensity resistance training seems to increase plasma adiponectin, particularly in individuals with a first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes or those who experience a significant loss of fat mass. The direct correlation between regular aerobic exercise and adiponectin further suggests that a combination of aerobic and resistance training yields greater improvements in plasma adiponectin compared with resistance training alone. PMID:26274372

  6. Changes of Heart Rate Variability during Methylphenidate Treatment in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children: A 12-Week Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hayeon Jennifer; Yang, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scales and to evaluate the usefulness of heart rate variability (HRV) as a psychophysiological biomarker for ADHD. Materials and Methods Subjects were recruited from outpatients in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the Korea University Medical Center from August 2007 to December 2010. Subjects received methylphenidate. Time- and frequency-domain analyses of HRV, the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS), and computerized ADHD diagnostic system were evaluated before treatment. After a 12-week period of medication administration, we repeated the HRV measurements and K-ARS rating. Results Eighty-six subjects were initially enrolled and 37 participants completed the 12-week treatment and HRV measurements subsequent to the treatment. Significant correlations were found between the K-ARS inattention score and some HRV parameters. All of the HRV parameters, except the standard deviations of the normal-to-normal interval, very low frequency, and low frequency to high frequency, showed a significant positive correlation between baseline and endpoint measures in completers. High frequency (HF) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD), which are related to parasympathetic vagal tone, showed significant decreases from baseline to endpoint. Conclusion The HRV test was shown to be reproducible. The decrease in HF and RMSSD suggests that parasympathetic dominance in ADHD can be altered by methylphenidate treatment. It also shows the possibility that HRV parameters can be used as psychophysiological markers in the treatment of ADHD. PMID:26256981

  7. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. Objective The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. Methods A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Results Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow

  8. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  9. A 12-week intramuscular toxicity study of risperidone-loaded microspheres in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Tian, J; Wang, W; Ye, L; Cen, X; Guan, X; Zhang, J; Yu, P; Du, G; Liu, W; Li, Y

    2014-05-01

    Long-acting formulations of antipsychotics are important treatment options to increase the compliance of schizophrenic patients. Risperidone, a 5-HT2 and dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist, was developed as long-acting sustained-release microspheres with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as a drug carrier for the treatment of schizophrenia. In the present study, the main objective is to determine the nonclinical safety profile of risperidone-loaded microspheres (RM) in Beagle dogs after intramuscular administration for 3 months, once in 2 weeks, followed by 8-week recovery phase. No animal death was found and no special toxicological findings were observed. The findings, such as hypoactivity, ptosis, increased heart rate, and elevated serum and pituitary prolactin levels, were observed and related to the pharmacological effects of risperidone. The changes in the reproductive system (uterus, ovary, vagina, cervix, and mammary gland) were considered secondary to the prolactin elevation, and the congestion of spleen was related to risperidone. The foreign body granulomas at injection sites might be caused by PLGA. At the end of recovery phase, the above changes mostly recovered to normal, and on administering 3 mg/kg dose level once in 2 weeks on Beagle dogs showed no observed adverse effect. Taken together, RM had exhibited the acceptable safety. PMID:23925946

  10. Outcomes of a Mobile Health Coaching Platform: 12-Week Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James K

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of mobile health coaching applications is expanding at a rapid rate. An application that uses a guiding intelligence to deliver an individualized structured program has the potential to provide a significant benefit. However, there are few studies of this approach that examine multiple clinical outcomes in a longitudinal manner. Objective The objective of the study was to conduct a 12-week evaluation of participants using the YouPlus Health mobile coaching platform, specifically examining the effects on body weight, waist measurement, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycohemoglobin (A1C), and maximum volume of oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Methods A quasi-experimental research design was used. This included a single-arm pre and post intervention assessment of outcomes. Participants underwent a 12-week intervention in which they received the entirety of the mobile health coaching program via an application on their mobile phones and were evaluated in the same physician’s office setting every two weeks. Data regarding app usage was continuously collected and maintained in a database. Results 10 subjects were enrolled in and completed the pilot study. The mean weight loss was 13.5 lbs. which represented 7.3% of baseline (P=.005). Mean waist circumference was reduced by 7.2 cm or 6.6% of baseline (P=.005). Both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure measures were significantly lower after 12 weeks of intervention. Mean SBP fell 18.6 mmHg (P=.005) and mean DBP declined 6.4 mmHg (P=.005). VO2 max increased by an average of 3.13 ml/kg/min from baseline to study end (P=.005). From baseline to end-of-study HDL levels increased significantly by 4.0 mg/dL (P=.04) Total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and glycohemoglobin (A1C) trended in the desired direction but did not meet statistical significance. All of the participants in the study completed the necessary in-app tutorials and also completed the in-app questions and received feedback

  11. Analysis of inflammatory periimplant lesions during a 12-week period of undisturbed plaque accumulation--a comparison between flapless and flap surgery in the mini-pig.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Cornelia K; Thorwarth, Michael; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2012-04-01

    This study's aim was to clarify the influence of soft tissue management on the development of periimplant infection. Four weeks after removal of all maxillary premolars in 12 mini-pigs, four BEGO Semados RI implants were inserted in each maxillary quadrant. Employing a split-mouth design, one quadrant was randomized to flapless insertion while the contralateral side was chosen for flap surgery. Following 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks of transmucosal implant, healing biopsies were retrieved from the periimplant soft tissue and subjected to further analysis. Histomorphometrically, a significant reduction of transmigration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (week 1, p = 0.007; week 2, p = 0.021; week 4, p = 0.023; week 12, p = 0.013) as well as the density of the subepithelial inflammatory infiltrates (week 1, p = 0.007; week 2, p = 0.046; week 4, p = 0.003; week 12, p = 0.032) was verified following flapless surgery. Quantification of inducible nitric oxide synthase showed significantly reduced expression in the flapless group 2 (p = 0.027), 4 (p = 0.005) and 12 (p = 0.004) weeks post-insertion. Analysis of CD31 and collagen I immunostained sections revealed more regular capillary distribution as well as higher vessel and collagen density in the flapless group. The data of the present study indicate that flapless placement reduces the incidence of inflammatory periimplant soft tissue lesions during a 12-week period. Considering the beneficial effects of flapless placement on early soft tissue healing and stability, the technique might be preferred in case of an uncomplicated locoregional anatomy with sufficient hard and soft tissue. However, this positive effect might disappear after manipulation of the implant and soft tissue during impression taking or try in of the prosthodontic supraconstruction. PMID:22186942

  12. Combination therapy with nifedipine GITS 60 mg: subanalysis of a prospective, 12-week observational study (AdADOSE)

    PubMed Central

    Motaweih, Ahmed K.; Usova, Elena; Hussain, Wajid; Dello, Ziad; Petri, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: AdADOSE was a 12-week, international, observational study conducted in the Middle East and Russia where patients received nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) at a daily dose of 30, 60, or 90 mg as part of an antihypertensive combination therapy. This subgroup analysis of the AdADOSE study assesses the efficacy and tolerability of nifedipine GITS combination therapy when used specifically at the 60-mg strength. Methods: Patients with hypertension who received a daily nifedipine GITS dose of 60 mg, either at constant dose (n = 686) or up-titrated from 30 mg (n = 392), were analyzed. Target blood pressure (BP) was <140/90 mmHg (or <130/80 mmHg for those at high/very high cardiovascular risk). Results: Following nifedipine GITS combination therapy, target BP was achieved by 33.7% patients in the 60 mg group (previously untreated, 42.5%; previously treated, 32.0%) and 32.4% patients in the 30–60 mg group (previously untreated, 45.2%; previously treated, 30.7%). Mean systolic BP/diastolic BP changes were −40.3/−20.7 mmHg and −35.6/−18.5 mmHg, respectively, and were similar regardless of previous antihypertensive treatment or the number of concomitant diseases. Incidences of drug-related adverse events (AEs) were low (3.2%, 60 mg; 2.0%, 30–60 mg group), few patients discontinued because of AEs (0.6% and 1.0%, respectively), and there were no serious AEs. Conclusion: Combination therapy with nifedipine GITS 60 mg in a real-life observational setting was effective and well tolerated in hypertensive patients, with low rates of treatment-related AEs. PMID:26331311

  13. A 12 Week, Open Label, Phase I/IIa Study Using Apatone® for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have Failed Standard Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, Basir; Summers, Jack L.; Jamison, James M.; Neal, Deborah R.; McGuire, Karen; Gerson, Lowell; Diokno, Ananias

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral Apatone® (Vitamin C and Vitamin K3) administration in the treatment of prostate cancer in patients who failed standard therapy. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with 2 successive rises in PSA after failure of standard local therapy were treated with (5,000 mg of VC and 50 mg of VK3 each day) for a period of 12 weeks. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels, PSA velocity (PSAV) and PSA doubling times (PSADT) were calculated before and during treatment at 6 week intervals. Following the initial 12 week trial, 15 of 17 patients opted to continue treatment for an additional period ranging from 6 to 24 months. PSA values were followed for these patients. Results: At the conclusion of the 12 week treatment period, PSAV decreased and PSADT increased in 13 of 17 patients (p ≤ 0.05). There were no dose-limiting adverse effects. Of the 15 patients who continued on Apatone after 12 weeks, only 1 death occurred after 14 months of treatment. Conclusion: Apatone showed promise in delaying biochemical progression in this group of end stage prostate cancer patients. PMID:18392145

  14. Predictors of adherence to a 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer: ENGAGE study.

    PubMed

    Craike, Melinda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Courneya, Kerry S; Fraser, Steve F; Salmon, Jo; Owen, Patrick J; Broadbent, Suzanne; Livingston, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence adherence to exercise programs is necessary to develop effective interventions for people with cancer. We examined the predictors of adherence to a supervised exercise program for participants in the ENGAGE study - a cluster randomized controlled trial that assessed the efficacy of a clinician-referred 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer. Demographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial data from 52 participants in the intervention group were collected at baseline through self-report and medical records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was assessed through objective attendance records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was 80.3%. In the univariate analyses, cancer-specific quality of life subscales (role functioning r = 0.37, P = 0.01; sexual activity r = 0.26, P = 0.06; fatigue r = -0.26, P = 0.06, and hormonal symptoms r = -0.31, P = 0.03) and education (d = -0.60, P = 0.011) were associated with adherence. In the subsequent multivariate analysis, role functioning (B = 0.309, P = 0.019) and hormonal symptoms (B = -0.483, P = 0.054) independently predicted adherence. Men who experienced more severe hormonal symptoms had lower levels of adherence to the exercise program. Those who experienced more positive perceptions of their ability to perform daily tasks and leisure activities had higher levels of adherence to the exercise program. Hormonal symptoms and role functioning need to be considered when conducting exercise programs for men who have been treated for prostate cancer. PMID:26872005

  15. Magnesium Replacement Does Not Improve Insulin Resistance in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A 12-Week Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza e Silva, Maria de Lourdes; Cruz, Thomaz; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon; Ladeia, Ana Marice; Bomfim, Olivia; Olivieri, Lucas; Melo, Juliana; Correia, Raquel; Porto, Mirna; Cedro, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes. Methods This 12-week clinical randomized double-blind study compared the effects of 400 mg/day of Mg with those of a placebo (n = 72) on fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and CRP. Mg was measured in serum (SMg) and in mononuclear cells (MMg). Results Hypomagnesemia (SMg < 1.7 mg/dL) was seen in 23.2% of patients and intracellular depletion in 36.1% of patients. The MMg means were lower in patients with obesity (0.94 ± 0.54 μg/mg vs. 1.19 ± 0.6 μg/mg, P = 0.04), and insulin resistance (0.84 ± 0.33 μg/mg vs. 1.14 ± 0.69 µg/mg, P < 0.05). Mg replacement did not alter SMg (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/dL vs. 1.81 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P = 0.877) and tended to increment MMg (0.90 ± 0.40 μg/mg vs. 1.21 ± 0.73 μg/mg, P = 0.089). HOMA-IR did not alter in interventions nor in placebo group (3.2 ± 2.0 to 2.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.368; 3.6 ± 1.9 to 3.2 ± 1.8, respectively), neither did other metabolic parameters. Conclusion Serum and intracellular Mg depletion is common in patients with MS; however, Mg replacement in recommended dosage did not increase significantly Mg levels, neither reduced insulin resistance or metabolic control. PMID:25247020

  16. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  17. 12 Weeks of Daclatasvir in Combination With Sofosbuvir for HIV-HCV Coinfection (ALLY-2 Study): Efficacy and Safety by HIV Combination Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; McDonald, Cheryl; Ramgopal, Moti; Noviello, Stephanie; Bhore, Rafia; Ackerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Highly effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapies that do not require modification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral regimens are needed. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir + sofosbuvir (DCV + SOF) for 12 weeks by antiretroviral (ARV) regimen in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Methods. In the randomized, open-label ALLY-2 study, HIV-HCV-coinfected patients received 8 or 12 weeks of once-daily DCV 60 mg (dose-adjusted as-necessary for concomitant ARVs) + SOF 400 mg. Results were stratified by ARV class for the 151 patients who received 12 weeks of DCV + SOF. Results. Fifty-one patients were HCV treatment experienced, 100 were treatment naive, 89% male and 33% black. HCV genotypes were: genotype 1a (GT1a; 69%), GT1b (15%), GT2 (8%), GT3 (6%), and GT4 (2%). Sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was 97% and was similar across ARV regimens (P = .774): protease inhibitor-based, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-99.7%); nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based, 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%); and integrase inhibitor based, 95% (95% CI, 83%-99.4%). SVR12 among patients receiving either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or abacavir as part of their antiretroviral therapy regimen was 98% (95% CI, 93%-99.5%) and 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%), respectively. Age, gender, race, cirrhosis, HCV treatment history, GT , and baseline HCV RNA did not affect SVR12. No discontinuations were attributed to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions. DCV + SOF x12 weeks is a highly efficacious, all-oral, pan-GT HCV treatment for HIV-HCV coinfected patients across a broad range of ARV regimens. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02032888. PMID:27025835

  18. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  19. An analysis of the "Effect of Olibra: a 12-week randomized control trial and a review of earlier studies".

    PubMed

    Heer, Martina

    2012-05-01

    Nutrients affect hunger and satiety. However, food structure, in particular that of emulsions, may also affect the body's satiety mechanisms. Olibra™ is a fat emulsion, a mixture of fractionated palm oil and fractionated oat oil manufactured by Lipid Technologies Provider AB, Sweden, which affects hunger sensation. However, up to now, no data have shown convincingly that reduced appetite or hunger sensations induced by Olibra lead, in the long run, to a significant and clinically relevant reduction in body mass. To clearly demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship of Olibra to weight loss, it seems that longer studies with strict control of energy intake and nutrient composition, as well as control of energy expenditure by exercise, are needed. PMID:22768903

  20. Adding Memantine to Rivastigmine Therapy in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a 12-Week, Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riepe, Matthias W.; Adler, Georg; Ibach, Bernd; Weinkauf, Birgit; Gunay, Ibrahim; Tracik, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    Objective: At present, inhibition of cholines-terase is the treatment of choice for subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, is currently used to treat subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. The goal of this multicenter, open-label pilot study was to investigate whether combination therapy with memantine added to rivastigmine is safe and beneficial in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. Method: Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (N = 95), who were treated with rivastigmine (6–12 mg/day) for a maximum duration of 24 weeks prior to baseline, received memantine (5–20 mg/day) in combination with rivastigmine for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) total score at the end of 12 weeks compared with baseline. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and May 27, 2004. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and week 12 for the ADAS-cog total score, showing a positive effect of combination therapy. Combination therapy did not evidence any unexpected safety concerns and was well-tolerated by most patients. Conclusion: Memantine in combination with rivastigmine appears to be safe and beneficial in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. Our results need to be confirmed in a large, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PMID:17235381

  1. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  2. A 12-week double-blind study of the efficacy, safety and tolerance of pirazolac b.i.d. compared with indomethacin t.i.d. in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Carcassi, C; La Nasa, G; Perpignano, G

    1990-01-01

    A 12-week trial was carried out to compare the efficacy of pirazolac (300-600 mg b.i.d.) with that of indomethacin (25-50 mg t.i.d.) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. A total of 119 patients completed the treatment period, with 32 drop-outs. Both therapies showed significant improvements in clinical symptoms. PMID:2198157

  3. Onion peel extract reduces the percentage of body fat in overweight and obese subjects: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The anti-obesity effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) was suggested in rats, but information from human studies is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of OPE on the body composition of overweight and obese subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, parallel clinical trials were performed in overweight and obese Korean subjects. Randomly assigned subjects were instructed to take daily either the placebo (male, 6 and female, 30) or OPE capsules containing 100 mg of quercetin (male, 5 and female, 31). Body composition was measured by using bioimpedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were evaluated by using indirect calorie measurement methods. Fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and leptin were determined. RESULTS Quercetin-rich OPE supplementation significantly reduced the weight and percentage of body fat as measured by DXA (P = 0.02). These effects were not shown in the control group. Levels of blood glucose (P = 0.04) and leptin (P = 0.001 for placebo, P = 0.002 for OPE) decreased in both groups. Significant increases in REE and RQ were observed in both groups (P = 0.003 for placebo, P = 0.006 for OPE) and in the OPE group alone (P = 0.02), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Quercetin-rich OPE supplementation changed the body composition of the overweight and obese subjects. This result suggests a beneficial role of the anti-obesity effect of OPE human subjects. PMID:27087901

  4. A cross-cultural comparison of the development of the social smile: a longitudinal study of maternal and infant imitation in 6- and 12-week-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants. PMID:22721734

  5. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  6. Effect of a 12-Week Low vs. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training on Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Exercise Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Prado, Wagner Luiz; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Oyama, Lila Missae; Cardel, Michelle; Gomes, Priscyla Praxedes; Andrade, Maria Laura S S; Freitas, Camila R M; Balagopal, Prabhakaran; Hill, James O

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how the intensity of aerobic training influences appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Our goal was to assess the effect of low and high intensity aerobic trainings on food intake and appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Forty three obese adolescents (age: 13-18y, BMI: 34.48 ± 3.94 kg/m2) were randomized into high intensity training (HIT; n = 20) or low intensity training (LIT; n = 23) groups for 12 weeks. All participants also received the same nutritional, psychological and clinical counseling. Pre- and postintervention energy intake (EI) and circulating levels of insulin, leptin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and ghrelin were measured. Adolescents in the HIT showed a reduction in total EI and an increase in PYY3-36 (p < .05). Aerobic exercise training performed at ventilatory threshold 1 intensity, reduced EI and augmented PYY3-36 in obese adolescents, compared with LIT. The data suggest that HIT and LIT have differential effects in the regulation of appetite signals and subsequent EI in obese adolescents. PMID:26680421

  7. The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Baati, Hamza; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio) 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR) are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress. PMID:25664340

  8. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  9. A Double-Blind, 12-Week Study to Evaluate the Antiaging Efficacy of a Cream Containing the NFκB Inhibitor 4-Hexyl-1, 3-Phenylenediol and Ascorbic Acid-2 Glucoside in Adult Females.

    PubMed

    Roure, Romain; Nollent, Virginie; Dayan, Liliane; Camel, Etienne; Bertin, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The 5 main physical manifestations of aged skin are wrinkles, uneven tone, brown spots, loss of elasticity, and dryness. One mechanism resulting in these physical manifestations is increased activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein. This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized split-face study compared the antiaging effect and safety of a face cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol, an NFκB inhibitor, and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside versus placebo in adult females aged 45-70 years old. Subjects (n=42) applied active treatment or placebo to the same half face twice daily at home for 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation was carried out by a dermatologist. Subjects carried out similar self-grading assessments. Colorimetric measurements analyzed skin color, and biomechanical skin properties were evaluated. Clinical grading showed that most wrinkle parameters were significantly improved after 8 weeks of active treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05), with improvements maintained after 12 weeks. Only Marionette wrinkles did not show a significant improvement. Brown spots (color intensity/number), overall photodamage, and most complexion parameters improved significantly after 8 and 12 weeks compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05). Self-grading yielded similar results compared with baseline. Self-grading did not demonstrate improvements with active treatment versus placebo, except for skin firmness at 8 and 12 weeks (P≤.05). A significant difference was seen with active treatment compared with placebo in all colorimetric parameters (L*, b*, and ITA°) after 8 weeks, and in spot coloration (b*) after 12 weeks (P<.05). Improvements in skin elasticity were not significantly different between treatments. Overall tolerability of active treatment was judged as good. In conclusion, a cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside improves the clinical appearance of aged

  10. Effects of a 12-week strength training program on experimented fencers' movement time.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Juan C; Alonso, Cruz J; Sedano, Silvia; de Benito, Ana M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week strength training program on movement time (MT) on fencers of national level. Twelve male fencers were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (CG: N = 6; age, 22.3 ± 8.1 years) and the treatment group (TG: N = 6; age, 24.8 ± 7.2 years). The CG fencers followed the standard physical conditioning program, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in a 12-week strength training program divided into 2 parts: maximal strength training, including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks) and explosive strength training, with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, maximal strength, reaction time, and MT were measured on 4 separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in maximal strength and jumping ability after 6 weeks of training and in MT after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 4-week detraining period. It may be concluded that a 12-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength, and these increases can be transferred to MT performance. However, fencers need time to transfer the gains. PMID:24942170

  11. Adjunctive α-lipoic acid reduces weight gain compared with placebo at 12 weeks in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Wook; Song, Yul-Mai; Kim, Eosu; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Jin Young

    2016-09-01

    α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been reported to be effective in reducing body weight in rodents and obese patients. Our previous open trial showed that ALA may play a role in reducing weight gain in patients with schizophrenia on atypical antipsychotics. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ALA in reducing weight and BMI in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since taking atypical antipsychotics. In a 12-week, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 22 overweight and clinically stable patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive ALA or placebo. ALA was administered at 600-1800 mg, as tolerated. Weight, BMI, abdomen fat area measured by computed tomography, and metabolic values were determined. Adverse effects were also assessed to examine safety. Overall, 15 patients completed 12 weeks of treatment. There was significant weight loss and decreased visceral fat levels in the ALA group compared with the placebo group. There were no instances of psychopathologic aggravation or severe ALA-associated adverse effects. ALA was effective in reducing weight and abdominal obesity in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since beginning an atypical antipsychotic regimen. Moreover, ALA was well tolerated throughout this study. ALA might play an important role as an adjunctive treatment in decreasing obesity in patients who take atypical antipsychotics. PMID:27276401

  12. A 12-Week Vigorous Exercise Protocol in a Healthy Group of Persons over 65: Study of Physical Function by means of the Senior Fitness Test.

    PubMed

    Todde, Francesco; Melis, Franco; Mura, Roberto; Pau, Massimiliano; Fois, Francesco; Magnani, Sara; Ibba, Gianfranco; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vigorous exercise on functional abilities by means of a Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in a group of elderly adults. Twenty healthy and inactive people performed vigorous exercise (VE: 12 men and 8 women, aged 69.6 ± 3.9 years). At the beginning of the study (T0) and after 3 months (T1), each subject's functional ability was tested for muscular strength, agility, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and balance. The VE was designed with continuous and interval exercise involving large muscle activities. Functional exercises were performed between 60% and 84% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for a duration of 65 minutes. Five out of the 6 SFTs performed were found significantly improved: Chair Stand (T0 12.4 ± 2.4, T1 13.5 ± 2.6, p < 0.01), Arm Curl (T0 14.2 ± 3.6, T1 16.6 ± 3.6, p < 0.01), 2 min step (T0 98.2 ± 15.7, T1 108.9 ± 16.2, p < 0.01), Chair Sit-and-Reach (T0 -9.9 ± 7.7 cm, T1 1.7 ± 6.3 cm, p < 0.01), and Back Scratch (T0 -15.8 ± 10.9 cm, T1 -8.4 ± 13.1 cm, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that a high intensity protocol and functional exercises can improve functional mobility and muscle endurance in those over 65 years of age. SFTs are an effective method for assessing improvements in the functional capacity of elderly adults. PMID:27243035

  13. A 12-Week Vigorous Exercise Protocol in a Healthy Group of Persons over 65: Study of Physical Function by means of the Senior Fitness Test

    PubMed Central

    Todde, Francesco; Melis, Franco; Mura, Roberto; Pau, Massimiliano; Fois, Francesco; Magnani, Sara; Ibba, Gianfranco; Crisafulli, Antonio; Tocco, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vigorous exercise on functional abilities by means of a Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in a group of elderly adults. Twenty healthy and inactive people performed vigorous exercise (VE: 12 men and 8 women, aged 69.6 ± 3.9 years). At the beginning of the study (T0) and after 3 months (T1), each subject's functional ability was tested for muscular strength, agility, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and balance. The VE was designed with continuous and interval exercise involving large muscle activities. Functional exercises were performed between 60% and 84% of heart rate reserve (HRR) for a duration of 65 minutes. Five out of the 6 SFTs performed were found significantly improved: Chair Stand (T0 12.4 ± 2.4, T1 13.5 ± 2.6, p < 0.01), Arm Curl (T0 14.2 ± 3.6, T1 16.6 ± 3.6, p < 0.01), 2 min step (T0 98.2 ± 15.7, T1 108.9 ± 16.2, p < 0.01), Chair Sit-and-Reach (T0 −9.9 ± 7.7 cm, T1 1.7 ± 6.3 cm, p < 0.01), and Back Scratch (T0 −15.8 ± 10.9 cm, T1 −8.4 ± 13.1 cm, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that a high intensity protocol and functional exercises can improve functional mobility and muscle endurance in those over 65 years of age. SFTs are an effective method for assessing improvements in the functional capacity of elderly adults. PMID:27243035

  14. Exercise training versus diet-induced weight-loss on metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers in obese subjects: a 12-week randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren K; Bruun, Jens M; Pedersen, Steen B; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise training and diet-induced weight loss alone or in combination on inflammatory markers in circulation, in adipose tissue (AT) and in skeletal muscle (SM) in obese subjects. Seventy-nine obese subjects were randomized into a 12-wk intervention: 1) exercise only (EXO), 2) diet-induced weight loss using a very low energy diet (DIO), and 3) exercise and diet-induced weight-loss combined (DEX). Blood samples (metabolic and inflammatory markers) and AT and SM biopsies (mRNA expression) were collected at baseline and after 12 wk. In the EXO group the weight loss was 3.5 kg and in the DIO and DEX groups it was 12 kg in both. Vo(2max) was increased by 14-18% in the EXO and DEX groups with no changes in the DIO group. In the DIO and DEX groups, circulating levels of MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, IL-15, and IL-18 were decreased, and adiponectin was increased (P < 0.05 for all). In the EXO group, MCP-1 was decreased with 10% (P = 0.06). By combining the weight loss in all three groups, we found a correlation between the degree of weight loss and improvement in several of the inflammatory markers (P < 0.05). In AT biopsies, subjects in the DIO and DEX groups achieved a general beneficial but nonsignificant effect on the gene expression of inflammatory markers. In the EXO group, no changes in AT adipokine mRNA were found except for an increment of adiponectin (P < 0.05). In SM, the only observed change was that the gene expression of IL-6 was increased in all three groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, rather large weight losses (>5-7%) were found to have beneficial effects on circulating inflammatory markers in these obese subjects. Aerobic exercise for 12 wk, which increased Vo(2max), was found to have no effects on circulating inflammatory markers in these obese patients. It is suggested that more intensive exercise may be necessary to affect systemic inflammation. PMID:20086201

  15. Development of opioid-induced constipation: post hoc analysis of data from a 12-week prospective, open-label, blinded-endpoint streamlined study in low-back pain patients treated with prolonged-release WHO step III opioids

    PubMed Central

    Ueberall, Michael A; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard HH

    2015-01-01

    OXN and was significantly superior to those seen with OXY (32.8% [98/300]) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.77–3.44; P<0.001) or MOR (29.7% [89/300]) (OR: 2.84, 95% CI: 2.03–3.97; P<0.001). Absolute BFI changes of ≥12mm 100 mm horizontal visual analog scale (VAS100) vs. baseline were seen for OXN in 41.4%, for OXY in 68.7%, and for MOR in 72.3%. Complete spontaneous bowel movements decreased at least by one per week in 10.3% with OXN vs 42.3% for OXY (OR: 6.39, 95% CI 4.13–9.89; P<0.001) and 42.0% for MOR (OR: 6.31, 95% CI: 4.08–9.76; P<0.001). Overall, 359 treatment emergent adverse events (78 [OXN], 134 [OXY], and 147 [MOR]) in 204 patients (41 [OXN], 80 [OXY], and 83 [MOR]) occurred, most affecting the gastrointestinal (49.3%) and the nervous system (39.3%). Treatment contrasts between randomized vs nonrandomized patients were insignificant. Conclusion In this post hoc analysis of data from a real-life 12-week study, OXN treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of opioid-induced constipation, superior tolerability, and significantly better analgesic efficacy compared with OXY and MOR. PMID:26300655

  16. Outcome of Youth with Early-Phase Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders and Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified Treated with Second-Generation Antipsychotics: 12 Week Results from a Prospective, Naturalistic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vernal, Ditte L.; Kapoor, Sandeep; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Sheridan, Eva M.; Borenstein, Yehonathan; Mormando, Charles; David, Lisa; Singh, Sukhbir; Seidman, Andrew J.; Carbon, Maren; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Saito, Ema; Kane, John M.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S) and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PsyNOS) during early antipsychotic treatment. Methods: The study was a prospective, naturalistic, inception cohort study of youth ≤19 years old with SCZ-S (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder) or PsyNOS (PsyNOS, brief psychotic disorder) and ≤24 months of lifetime antipsychotic treatment receiving clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. Baseline demographic, illness and treatment variables, and effectiveness outcomes were compared at 12 weeks last-observation-carried-forward across SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients, adjusting for significantly different baseline variables. Results: Altogether, 130 youth with SCZ-S (n=42) or PsyNOS (n=88), mostly antipsychotic naïve (76.9%), were prescribed risperidone (47.7%), olanzapine (19.2%), aripiprazole (14.6%), quetiapine (11.5%), or ziprasidone (6.9%). Compared with those with PsyNOS, SCZ-S youth were older (16.4±2.1 vs. 14.8±3.2, p=0.0040), and less likely to be Caucasian (19.1% vs. 42.5%, p=0.009). At baseline, SCZ-S patients had significantly higher Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scores (6.0±0.9 vs. 5.5±0.8, p=0.0018) and lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores (29.6±9.2 vs. 36.1±8.9, p=0.0002) and were more likely to be in the severely ill CGAS group (i.e., CGAS≤40). SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients did not differ regarding all-cause discontinuation (40.5 vs. 40.3%. p=0.49), discontinuation because of adverse effects (12.2% vs. 12.4%, p=0.97), or nonadherence (29.3% vs. 30.9%, p=0.88), but somewhat more SCZ-S patients discontinued treatment for inefficacy (19.5% vs. 7.4%, p=0.063). CGI-S and CGAS scores improved significantly in both diagnostic groups (p=0.0001, each). Adjusting for baseline differences, PsyNOS patients experienced significantly better CGI-I improvement

  17. Efficacy and safety of the oral Janus kinase inhibitor peficitinib (ASP015K) monotherapy in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis in Japan: a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Iwasaki, Manabu; Ishikura, Hiroaki; Saeki, Satoshi; Kaneko, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety and dose response of a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor, peficitinib (ASP015K), as monotherapy in Japanese patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In a 12-week, double-blind study, 281 adult patients with RA with active disease not on concomitant disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy were randomised equally to once-daily placebo or peficitinib 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg. The primary endpoint was American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response in the peficitinib treatment groups versus placebo at week 12. Results Mean age was 53.0 years, 81.1% were female and 25.3% had previously used antitumour necrosis factor therapy. Peficitinib 50, 100 and 150 mg each showed statistically significantly higher ACR20 response rates compared with placebo, and response rates increased up to 150 mg with a statistically significant dose response. The total incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the placebo (64.3%) and peficitinib 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg groups (70.9%, 64.9%, 52.7% and 67.2%, respectively). TEAEs occurring more frequently in the peficitinib group compared with the placebo group included nasopharyngitis, increased blood creatine phosphokinase and diarrhoea. No cases of serious infections were reported. Herpes zoster occurred in four patients (two each in peficitinib 25 and 100 mg). Conclusions Treatment with peficitinib as monotherapy for 12 weeks in Japanese patients with moderate to severe RA is efficacious and showed acceptable safety profile. These findings support further developments of peficitinib for RA treatment. Trial registration number NCT01649999; Results. PMID:26672064

  18. A 12-week randomized study of topical therapy with three dosages of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) compared with the ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064), in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Kneer, Werner; Rother, Matthias; Mazgareanu, Stefan; Seidel, Egbert J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) in comparison with a ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods Patients with knee OA (N = 866) were randomly assigned to receive topical IDEA-033 containing 100, 50, or 25 mg ketoprofen, or TDT 064 twice daily for 12 weeks, in a double-blind trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC®) Osteoarthritis Index pain subscale score. The coprimary efficacy endpoints were the WOMAC function subscale score and the patient global assessment of response to therapy. The secondary endpoints included the numeric pain rating for the first 14 days of treatment and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT)-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) responder rates. Results The WOMAC pain scores were reduced by approximately 50% or more in all four groups. The 100 and 50 mg ketoprofen groups, but not the 25 mg group, showed a superior reduction in the WOMAC pain score versus the TDT 064 group (100 mg: −57.4% [P = 0.0383]; 50 mg: −57.1% [P = 0.0204]; and 25 mg: −53.4% [P = 0.3616] versus TDT 064: −49.5%). The superiority of the ketoprofen-containing formulations was not demonstrated for the WOMAC function subscale score, whereas the patient global assessment of 50 mg ketoprofen group, but not the 100 or 25 mg group, was superior to that of the TDT 064 group (P = 0.0283). Responder rates were significantly higher for all the IDEA-033 groups versus the TDT 064 group, but were high in all groups (100 mg: 88.6%; 50 mg: 86.8%; 25 mg: 88.6%; and TDT 064: 77.5%). Dermal reactions were the only relevant drug-related adverse events in all four groups. Conclusion The 50 and 100 mg ketoprofen doses of IDEA-033 were only marginally superior to TDT 064 for reducing pain associated with knee OA. The study indicates a high treatment response to the topical

  19. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  20. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  1. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  2. Immune Function Alterations during 12 Weeks of Abstinence in Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Yang, X-R; Song, H; Cao, B-R; Yin, F; An, Z-M; Kang, L; Li, J

    2015-01-01

    The intent of the study was to evaluate immune system changes during 12 weeks of abstinence in heroin users. We recruited men (N = 65) aged 18-45 years and collected demographic and heroin use pattern data. Serum blood levels of total interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM were assessed at five time points. The IL-2 level was increased on day 84 as compared to that in healthy controls. The IFN-γ level was higher in heroin users than in healthy controls between days 0 and 28, and was decreased on day 84. IgG and IgM levels in heroin users were higher than those in healthy controls in our 12-week study, and were in positive correlation with the way of using the drug, duration of heroin dependence, and daily heroin intake. Our data revealed that the immune system was not restored during the 12 weeks of heroin withdrawal. PMID:26789146

  3. Kinematic Measurement of 12-week Head Control Correlates with 12-month Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Jessica P; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Moreau, Noelle; Hope, Kathryn; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Brown, Truman; Mulvihill, Denise; Jenkins, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background Although new interventions treating neonatal brain injury show great promise, our current ability to predict clinical functional outcomes is poor. Quantitative biomarkers of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome are critically needed to gauge treatment efficacy. Kinematic measures derived from commonly used developmental tasks may serve as early objective markers of future motor outcomes. Aim To develop reliable kinematic markers of head control at 12 weeks corrected gestational age (CGA) from two motor tasks: head lifting in prone and pull-to-sit Study design and subjects Prospective observational study of 22 preterm infants born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation Outcome measures Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley) motor scores Results Intrarater and interrater reliability of prone head lift angles and pull-to-sit head angles were excellent. Prone head lift angles at 12 weeks CGA correlated with white matter NAA/Cho, concurrent Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) scores, and 12-month Bayley motor scores. Head angles during pull-to-sit at 12-weeks CGA correlated with TIMP scores. Conclusions Poor ability to lift the head in prone and an inability to align the head with the trunk during the pull-to-sit task were associated with poorer future motor outcome scores. Kinematic measurements of head control in early infancy may serve as reliable objective quantitative markers of future motor impairment and neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25621433

  4. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  5. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  6. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  7. The effect of 12 weeks Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) on body stability and pain for fruit farmers with MSDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Nam, Sang-Nam; Bae, Ung Ryel; Hwang, Ryong; Lee, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jong-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible effects of 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) for the fruit farmers (grape, tomato, apple) with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) on body stability and pain. 131 fruit farmers with MSD were selected and asked to join a 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) from 2009 to 2012. The subjects (female=74, male=57) aged 50 to 65 years old voluntarily participated. As a result, it was found that lateral-medial and anterior-posterior of body stability significantly improved in male and female fruit farmers. It was found that pain index (VAS) after 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) showed a significant decrease. PMID:24704650

  8. Cognitive and mood effects in healthy children during 12 weeks' supplementation with multi-vitamin/minerals.

    PubMed

    Haskell, Crystal F; Scholey, Andrew B; Jackson, Philippa A; Elliott, Jade M; Defeyter, Margaret A; Greer, Joanna; Robertson, Bernadette C; Buchanan, Tom; Tiplady, Brian; Kennedy, David O

    2008-11-01

    Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are essential for optimal neural functioning. A high proportion of individuals, including children, suffer from deficiencies in one or more vitamins or minerals. This study investigated whether daily supplementation with vitamins/minerals could modulate cognitive performance and mood in healthy children. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation, eighty-one healthy children aged from 8 to 14 years underwent laboratory assessments of their cognitive performance and mood pre-dose and at 1 and 3 h post-dose on the first and last days of 12 weeks' supplementation with a commercially available vitamins/mineral product (Pharmaton Kiddi). Interim assessments were also completed at home after 4 and 8 weeks at 3 h post-dose. Each assessment comprised completion of a cognitive battery, delivered over the Internet, which included tasks assessing mood and the speed and accuracy of attention and aspects of memory (secondary, semantic and spatial working memory). The vitamin/mineral group performed more accurately on two attention tasks: 'Arrows' choice reaction time task at 4 and 8 weeks; 'Arrow Flankers' choice reaction time task at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A single task outcome (Picture Recognition errors) evinced significant decrements at 12 weeks. Mood was not modulated in any interpretable manner. Whilst it is possible that the significant improvements following treatment were due to non-significant numerical differences in performance at baseline, these results would seem to suggest that vitamin/mineral supplementation has the potential to improve brain function in healthy children. This proposition requires further investigation. PMID:18507881

  9. A Comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and Aquatic Training on the Dynamic Balance of Women with Mulitple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nejad, Vahid Shayegan; Shanazari, Zohreh; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling chronic disease of the nervous system in which the myelin system of the central nervous system is deteriorated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Pilates exercises and aquatic training for a 12 week period on the dynamic balance of MS patients. Methods: The research method is semi-experimental. As a result, among the female patients visiting the MS clinic of Kashani hospital in Esfahan, 57 patients with disease intensity levels between 0 and 4.5 were taken as samples. The average length of the disease was 8 ± 2 years, 20;40 years old, and they were randomly divided into three groups of Pilates exercise group, aquatic training group, and the control group. The exercise schedule for the experiment groups consisted of 12 weeks, three sessions per week, and 1 hour for each session. The dynamic balance of the patients, before and after the exercises was measured by Six Spot Step Test. Results: The adjusted mean differences of Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) scores of the experimental groups are significantly different (P<0.05). Therefore, it can be said that Pilates exercise interventions and aquatic training can significantly increase the dynamic balance of the examinees in the post-experiment stage. Conclusions: Performing the Pilate exercises and aquatic training increases dynamic balance of the MS patients. Considering the role of dynamic balance on physical fitness and enabling the person in doing is daily chores and routines, and its direct effect on the quality of life, it leads the specialists in applying these exercises as a supplementary treatment along with the medicinal treatments for MS patients. PMID:23717760

  10. Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

    2014-07-01

    Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800 μg and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5 years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18 weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks. PMID:24800660

  11. Variable effects of 12 weeks of omega-3 supplementation on resting skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Christopher J; Whitfield, Jamie; Mukai, Kazutaka; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2014-09-01

    Omega-3 supplementation has been purported to improve the function of several organs in the body, including reports of increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) and reliance on fat oxidation. However, the potential for omega-3s to modulate human skeletal muscle metabolism has received little attention. This study examined the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on whole-body RMR and the content of proteins involved in fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle. Recreationally active males supplemented with 3.0 g/day of EPA and DHA (n = 21) or olive oil (n = 9) for 12 weeks. Resting muscle biopsies were sampled in a subset of 10 subjects before (pre) and after (post) omega-3 supplementation. RMR significantly increased (5.3%, p = 0.040) following omega-3 supplementation (Pre, 1.33 ±0.05; Post, 1.40 ±0.04 kcal/min) with variable individual responses. When normalizing for body mass, this effect was lost (5.2%, p = 0.058). Omega-3s did not affect whole-body fat oxidation, and olive oil did not alter any parameter assessed. Omega-3 supplementation did not affect whole muscle, sarcolemmal, or mitochondrial FAT/CD36, FABPpm, FATP1 or FATP4 contents or mitochondrial electron chain and PDH proteins, but did increase the long form of UCP3 by 11%. In conclusion, supplementation with a high dose of omega-3s for 12 weeks increased RMR in a small and variable manner in a group of healthy young men. Omega-3 supplementation also had no effect on several proteins involved in skeletal muscle fat metabolism and did not cause mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25054452

  12. Swahili 12 Weeks Course. Volume VI, Vocabulary List: Swahili-English, English-Swahili.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This Swahili-English/English-Swahili vocabulary list accompanies the Defense Language Institute's 12-weeks course in Swahili. For a description of the first five volumes (55 lesson units), see ED 026 651. (AMM)

  13. Right Breast Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Tissue Expander under Thoracic Paravertebral Blocks in a 12-Week Parturient

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Christopher Allen-John; Weyker, Paul David; Cohn, Shara; Wheeler, Amanda; Lee, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Paravertebral blocks are becoming increasingly utilized for breast surgery with studies showing improved postoperative pain control, decreased need for opioids, and less nausea and vomiting. We describe the anesthetic management of an otherwise healthy woman who was 12 weeks pregnant presenting for treatment of her breast cancer. For patients undergoing breast mastectomy and reconstruction with tissue expanders, paravertebral blocks offer an anesthetic alternative when general anesthesia is not desired. PMID:26229692

  14. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students.

  15. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  16. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  17. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  18. Effect of a 12-week aerobic training program on perceptual and affective responses in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Luís Alberto Garcia; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Freitas, Rosemari Queiroz; Henrique de Souza, Carlos; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to observe the effect of self-selected intensity or imposed intensity during aerobic training on perceptual and affective responses in obese women. [Subjects] The study included 26 obese women aged 30–60 years. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with 13 subjects in each group: self-selected intensity and imposed intensity (10% above ventilatory threshold) groups. All subjects completed an intervention program that lasted 12 weeks, with three exercise sessions a week. The rating of perceived exertion and affective responses (Feeling Scale and Felt Arousal Scale) were monitored in the first, sixth, and twelfth weeks. [Results] Significant differences were observed between groups in heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. The affective responses during exercise were more negative in the imposed intensity group. [Conclusion] Use of a self-selected exercise intensity can promote smaller negative affective responses during exercise and provide a sufficient stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26311958

  19. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Bibeau, Wendy S; Bartholomew, John B

    2011-06-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level (e.g., competence, certainty, importance, and ideal self-discrepancy). This allowed for an analysis of cognitive facets as possible contributors to changes in physical self-perceptions. We addressed these aims with a sample of 120 college-age adults who completed a 12-week resistance exercise program. Results indicated significant improvements in self-perception constructs at all levels of the EXSEM. The hierarchical structure of the EXSEM was partially supported, as we observed successively smaller improvements at each level of the model (e.g., self-esteem showed lesser improvements than physical self-worth). In addition, a path model developed to explain the impact of strength changes on self-esteem proved a good fit for the data. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-perception, potential mediators of exercise on self-esteem, and the need to consider cognitive facets of self-perception. PMID:21699109

  20. Evolution of the electrocardiogram in young dogs during the first 12 weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Trautvetter, E; Detweiler, D K; Patterson, D F

    1981-07-01

    In 36 normal pups the evolution of the ECG during the first 12 weeks was studied. Sixteen pups were randomly selected, healthy pups; 20 were normal littermates from dog families with congenital heart disease. The direction of P, QRS, and T vectors was determined, and the modal QRS axis (vector) was constructed from lead I and AVF in the frontal, from lead I and V10 in the transverse, and from lead AVF and V10 in the sagittal plane. Except for the T wave directly after birth, no marked difference in the ECG evolution between the two groups was found. After birth the modal QRS vector was almost exclusively directed to the right. The modal QRS vectors in the first, second, and third weeks were significantly different from each other. By the twelfth week all vectors were directed to the left and the majority was oriented leftward and caudally. In the serial ECG tracings the change from right ventricular to left ventricular dominance was seen to be progressive. The R/S ratio in the left chest leads increased from less than 1.0 at week 1 to a multiple of 1.0 after the sixth week. The changes occurring in scaler ECG's were mirrored in VCG's recorded in selected pups. PMID:7264504

  1. A randomised placebo controlled 12 week trial of budesonide and prednisolone in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kirwan, J; Hallgren, R; Mielants, H; Wollheim, F; Bjorck, E; Persson, T; Book, C; Bowman, S; Byron, M; Cox, N; Field, M; Kanerud, L; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Malaise, M; Mohammad, A; Palmer, R; Petersson, I; Ringertz, B; Sheldon, P; Simonsson, M; Snowden, N; Van den Bosch, F

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare budesonide, a locally acting glucocorticoid with minimal systemic exposure, with conventional glucocorticoid treatment and placebo in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A double blind, randomised, controlled trial over 12 weeks in 143 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, comparing budesonide 3 mg daily, budesonide 9 mg daily, prednisolone 7.5 mg daily, and placebo. Particular attention was paid to the pattern of clinical response and to changes in the four week period following discontinuation of treatment. Results: There were improvements in tender joint count and swollen joint count on budesonide 9 mg compared with placebo (28% for tender and 34% for swollen joint counts, p<0.05). Prednisolone 7.5 mg gave similar results, while budesonide 3 mg was less effective. ACR20 response criteria were met by 25% of patients on placebo, 22% on budesonide 3 mg, 42% on budesonide 9 mg, and 56% on prednisolone 7.5 mg. A rapid and significant reduction in symptoms and signs in response to budesonide 9 mg and prednisolone 7.5 mg was evident by two weeks and maximal at eight weeks. There was no evidence that budesonide provided a different pattern of symptom control from prednisolone, or that symptoms became worse than placebo treatment levels after discontinuation of glucocorticoid treatment. Adverse effects attributable to glucocorticoids were equally common in all groups. Conclusions: The symptomatic benefits of budesonide 9 mg and prednisolone 7.5 mg are achieved within a short time of initiating treatment, are maintained for three months, and are not associated with any rebound in symptoms after stopping treatment. PMID:15140776

  2. Do soccer and Zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees? A 12-week RCT.

    PubMed

    Barene, S; Krustrup, P; Jackman, S R; Brekke, O L; Holtermann, A

    2014-12-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG). Intervention effects for the two training groups were compared with CG. The training was conducted outside working hours as 2-3 1-h sessions per week for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ), fat percentage, fat mass, bone mineral content, and plasma osteocalcin were measured before and after the intervention period. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses, SG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.02) and decreased heart rate during 100-W cycle exercise (-7 bpm; P = 0.01), total body fat percentage (-1.1%; P = 0.002), and total body fat mass (-1.0 kg; P = 0.001) compared with CG. ZG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.03) and decreased total fat mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05) compared with CG. Plasma osteocalcin increased in SG (21%; P < 0.001) and ZG (10%; P = 0.01) compared with CG. The present study indicates that workplace initiated short-term soccer training as well as Zumba outside working hours may result in fitness and modest health benefits among female hospital employees. PMID:24151956

  3. Achondrogenesis type 2 diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Soothill, P W; Vuthiwong, C; Rees, H

    1993-06-01

    Ultrasound examination at 12 weeks' gestation revealed severe generalised subcutaneous oedema in a pregnancy at risk for achondrogenesis type II. Transvaginal scanning confirmed the oedema and suggested abnormal limb development. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination after transvaginal termination. PMID:8372079

  4. Japanese 12-Week Course. Volume I, Introduction and Lessons 1-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Educational Systems Development Center.

    This first volume in the Defense Language Institute's 12-week course in Japanese presents an introduction to Japanese phonology for the non-linguist beginning student, and a description of the format used throughout the DLI series (perception drills, dialogues with English equivalents, grammar notes, and exercises and conversations). This volume…

  5. Japanese 12-Week Course. Volume IV, Lessons 42-55. Volume V, Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Educational Systems Development Center.

    These two volumes comprise Lesson Units 42-55 (Volume IV), and a comprehensive Glossary (Volume V) which accompanies this 12-week Defense Language Institute course in beginning Japanese. (See AL 002 223 for Volume I--Introduction and Lesson Units 1-15, and AL 002 224 for Volumes II and III--Lesson Units 16-27 and 28-41.) (AMM)

  6. Japanese 12-Week Course. Volume II, Lessons 16-27. Volume III, Lessons 28-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Educational Systems Development Center.

    These two volumes contain Lesson Units 16-41 in the Defense Language Institute's 12-week course in Japanese. (See AL 002 223 for Volume I, Lessons Units 1-15 and AL 002 225 for Volume IV, Lesson Units 42-55 and Volume V, Glossary.) (AMM)

  7. Serum levels of sex steroids and metabolites following 12 weeks of intravaginal 0.50% DHEA administration.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Labrie, Fernand; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Bergeron, Danielle; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Lavoie, Lyne; Archer, David F; Balser, John; Moyneur, Erick

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective and randomized study was to confirm the efficacy of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) ovules for 12 weeks on moderate to severe dyspareunia (or pain at sexual activity) as most bothersome symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) while having serum steroid concentrations within normal postmenopausal values. To this end, serum levels of DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), Androst-5-ene-diol-3β, 17β-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17β-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G) were measured by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology, all serum sex steroids and metabolites concentrations after 12 weeks of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA remain well within the limits of normal postmenopausal women. More specifically, the 12-week serum E2 concentration was measured at 22% below the average normal postmenopausal value (3.26 versus 4.17 pg/ml), thus eliminating any fear of E2 exposure outside the vagina. In addition, serum E1-S, a particularly reliable indicator of global estrogenic activity, shows serum levels practically superimposable to the value observed in normal postmenopausal women (219 versus 220 pg/ml). Similarly, serum ADT-G, the major metabolite of androgens, remains within normal postmenopausal values. The present data confirm the intracellular transformation of DHEA in the vagina resulting in local efficacy without any systemic exposure to sex steroids, observations which are in agreement with the physiological mechanisms of menopause. PMID:26291918

  8. Mirabegron 50 mg once-daily for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder: an overview of efficacy and tolerability over 12 weeks and 1 year.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Christopher R; Kaplan, Steven A; Mitcheson, David; Blauwet, Mary Beth; Huang, Moses; Siddiqui, Emad; Khullar, Vik

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present review article was to summarize the efficacy and tolerability for mirabegron 50 mg over 12 weeks and 1 year versus placebo (SCORPIO) or tolterodine ER 4 mg (SCORPIO and TAURUS). After a 2-week placebo run-in, adults with overactive bladder symptoms for ≥3 months were randomized if, during a 3-day micturition diary period before baseline, they had an average of ≥8 micturitions/24 h and ≥3 urgency episodes. Efficacy end-points were change from baseline to each study visit and final visit in incontinence, micturitions, volume voided/micturition, urgency incontinence, urgency (grades 3 or 4), level of urgency and nocturia. Additional secondary efficacy variables included patient-reported outcomes. Safety variables included changes in treatment-emergent adverse events and vital signs. For SCORPIO, statistically significant improvements from baseline in efficacy variables and patient-reported outcomes were seen with mirabegron versus placebo from week 4, and were maintained over time. For TAURUS, numerical improvements in efficacy were evident from month 1, and were maintained throughout 12 months. Treatment-emergent adverse events incidence was similar between groups, except for dry mouth, which was reported by fourfold (SCORPIO) and threefold (TAURUS) more patients taking tolterodine than mirabegron. Mirabegron 50 mg for 12 weeks was associated with statistically significant improvements in objective measures of efficacy and patient-reported outcomes. At final visit, improvements with mirabegron 50 mg were statistically greater versus placebo. The efficacy profile of mirabegron 50 mg appears to be maintained over 12 months. PMID:25092441

  9. Lateralization of infant holding by mothers: A longitudinal evaluation of variations over the first 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Todd, Brenda K; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The maternal preference to hold infants on the left rather than right side of the body was examined longitudinally, with attention to 4 explanations: maternal monitoring of infant state, maternal handedness, infant proximity to the mother's heartbeat, and preferred infant head position. The side and site of holding were measured over the first 12 weeks of the lives of 24 infants. Information about group and individual consistency in holding side allowed novel evaluation of the theories. A strong bias to hold on the left dropped below significance when the infants were aged 12 weeks and was limited to specific holding positions. Findings were generally consistent with the monitoring hypothesis, and little support was found for the 3 alternative explanations. PMID:26314871

  10. Cloacal and surface temperatures of tom turkeys exposed to different rearing temperature regimes during the first 12 weeks of growth.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S L; Strawford, M L; Noble, S D; Classen, H L; Crowe, T G

    2015-06-01

    Years of genetic selection have caused an increase in growth rate and market body mass in agricultural poultry species compared to earlier genetic strains, potentially altering their physiological requirements. The objective of this study was to expose Hybrid Converter tom turkeys on a weekly basis to the recommended rearing temperature regime (TCON: control) or 4°C below the recommended standard (TTRT: treatment) to determine their thermal responses. Once per week for 12 weeks, 12 turkeys were individually exposed to either TCON or TTRT for a 2-h period. Surface temperatures of the breast (TBREAST), wing (TWING), drumstick (TDRUM), head (THEAD), and shank (TSHANK) were measured at 20-min intervals using an infrared camera, while a thermal data logger measured the skin surface temperature under the wing (TLOGGER) at 30-s intervals. The cloacal temperature (TCORE) was measured using a medical thermometer at the start and end of the exposure period. Regardless of exposure temperature, the TBREAST (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), TWING (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), and TDRUM (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) decreased from weeks 4 to 6 and remained constant from weeks 1 to 3 and 8 to 12. THEAD was elevated in week 2 (TCON: P<0.001) or week 3 (TTRT: P<0.001), TSHANK increased slightly during week 3 for both TCON (P<0.001) and TTRT (P<0.001), and TLOGGER (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P=0.001) and TCORE (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) were lower during the first week. Thereafter, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE remained constant. Exposure to TTRT resulted in lower TBREAST, TWING, and TDRUM compared to TCON. Generally, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE were not affected by the different exposure temperatures. The data demonstrated that the degree of thermal response expressed is dependent on the location of measurement, age, and exposure temperature. PMID:25589083

  11. Changes in selected cardiorespiratory responses to exercise and in body composition following a 12-week aerobic dance programme.

    PubMed

    Williams, L D; Morton, A R

    1986-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory and body composition changes were evaluated in 25 sedentary females, aged 18 to 30 years, following 12 weeks of aerobic dance training (3 days a week, 45 min a session). Fifteen subjects, from the same population, comprised a control group: they maintained their normal activity and dietary habits over the course of the study. Analysis of variance of the values for selected cardiorespiratory responses revealed that the aerobic dance programme produced training effects in the experimental group. These training effects were indicated by significant improvements in O2 pulse, VE, heart rate and perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. Significant improvements were also noted in VO2 max, maximal O2 pulse, VE max, maximal heart rate and maximal running time on the treadmill. Additionally, increases in lean body mass and body density, together with decreases in percentage body fat and the sum of four skinfold thicknesses were found to be significant for the experimental group. No significant improvements in any of these variables were found for the control group. It was concluded that this 12-week aerobic dance programme was successful in promoting beneficial changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. PMID:3586112

  12. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26157235

  13. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26157235

  14. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  15. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Background Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results At the 12-week visit, half (52%) of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327) of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery. PMID:25160516

  16. Effects of 12-week supervised treadmill training on spatio-temporal gait parameters in patients with claudication.

    PubMed

    Konik, Anita; Kuklewicz, Stanisław; Rosłoniec, Ewelina; Zając, Marcin; Spannbauer, Anna; Nowobilski, Roman; Mika, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate selected temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication after completion of 12-week supervised treadmill walking training. The study included 36 patients (26 males and 10 females) aged: mean 64 (SD 7.7) with intermittent claudication. All patients were tested on treadmill (Gait Trainer, Biodex). Before the programme and after its completion, the following gait biomechanical parameters were tested: step length (cm), step cycle (cycle/s), leg support time (%), coefficient of step variation (%) as well as pain-free walking time (PFWT) and maximal walking time (MWT) were measured. Training was conducted in accordance with the current TASC II guidelines. After 12 weeks of training, patients showed significant change in gait biomechanics consisting in decreased frequency of step cycle (p < 0.05) and extended step length (p < 0.05). PFWT increased by 96% (p < 0.05). MWT increased by 100% (p < 0.05). After completing the training, patients' gait was more regular, which was expressed via statistically significant decrease of coefficient of variation (p < 0.05) for both legs. No statistically significant relation between the post-training improvement of PFWT and MWT and step length increase and decreased frequency of step cycle was observed (p > 0.05). Implications for Rehabilitation Twelve-week treadmill walking training programme may lead to significant improvement of temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients with intermittent claudication. Twelve-week treadmill walking training programme may lead to significant improvement of pain-free walking time and maximum walking time in patients with intermittent claudication. PMID:26314413

  17. Initial response as a predictor of 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone treatment response in a prescription opioid dependent population

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Katherine A.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hilario, E. Yvette; Fiellin, David A.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Initial medication response has been shown to predict treatment outcome across a variety of substance use disorders, but no studies have examined the predictive power of initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of prescription opioid dependence. We therefore conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study to determine whether initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone predicted 12-week treatment outcome in a prescription opioid-dependent population. Method Using data from a multi-site, randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine-naloxone plus counseling for DSM-IV prescription opioid dependence (June 2006–July 2009), we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the relationship between initial medication response and 12-week treatment outcome to establish how soon the efficacy of buprenorphine-naloxone could be predicted. Outcomes were determined from the Substance Use Report, a self-report measure of substance use, and confirmatory urinalysis. Predictive values were calculated to determine the importance of abstinence vs. use at various time points within the first month of treatment (week 1, weeks 1–2, 1–3, or 1–4) in predicting successful vs. unsuccessful treatment outcome (based on abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) in the last 4 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (weeks 9–12). Results Outcome was best predicted by medication response after two weeks of treatment. Two weeks of initial abstinence was moderately predictive of treatment success (positive predictive value = 71%), while opioid use in both of the first two weeks was strongly predictive of unsuccessful treatment outcome (negative predictive value (NPV) = 84%), especially when successful outcome was defined as total abstinence from opioids in weeks 9–12 (NPV = 94%). Conclusion Evaluating prescription opioid-dependent patients after two weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment may help determine

  18. The impact of a 12-week resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept of Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Velez, Amelia; Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2010-04-01

    Current evidence suggests that a resistance training program may be physically and psychologically beneficial for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a structured resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept in normal and overweight Hispanic adolescents. Male and female participants (n = 28; 16.1 +/- 0.2 y; 164.5 +/- 1.4 cm; 63.3 +/- 2.5 kg; 20.0 +/- 1.7% body fat [BF]) were recruited from a predominantly Hispanic high school. Prior to the 12-week program, strength, body composition, and self-concept were assessed. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CON; n = 15) or to a resistance training group (RT; n = 13) that participated in supervised strength training 3 days/week. All measures were repeated at the end of the 12-week program. RT had significantly greater strength increases for bench press (p < 0.001), seated row (p = 0.002), shoulder press (p < 0.001), and squats (p = 0.002). RT had significant reductions in %BF (p = 0.001), whereas CON had slightly increased %BF. RT had an increase in condition/stamina competence (p = 0.008), attractive body adequacy (p = 0.017), and global self-worth (p = 0.013) from pretest to posttest, whereas no change was observed for CON. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in significant physiological and psychological improvements in Hispanic adolescents compared to typical school-based activities. These findings indicate that resistance training can be incorporated into the activities of Hispanic adolescents to promote improved health and fitness. PMID:20375719

  19. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  20. Do 12-Week Yoga Program Influence Respiratory Function of Elderly Women?

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-01-01

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  1. Evaluating the effect of a haemoglobin spray on size reduction in chronic DFUs: clinical outcomes at 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Dawn Hunt, Sharon; Haycocks, Samantha; McCardle, Joanne; Guttormsen, Karl

    2016-06-23

    A recent multi-centre observational evaluation investigated the effect of a topical haemoglobin spray (Granulox, Infirst), used as an adjunct to standard care, on wound size reduction in 17 patients (4 females/13 males) with 20 chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) over a 4-week period. In 14 of the 18 wounds that completed the evaluation (one patient dropped out due to an infection) there was a mean reduction of 53.8% (range: 11.9-100%). The product was acceptable to both patients and clinicians, who all found it easy to use. This article describes the outcomes for the remaining 13 patients (with 15 wounds) who continued using the spray after the 4-week evaluation ended. (Data are not available for two patients and the one patient who healed during the 4-week evaluation.) By 12 weeks, three wounds (20%) had healed, eight (53%) were progressing towards healing, three (20%) increased in size and one (7%) was slow healing. PMID:27345086

  2. Metabolomics unveils urinary changes in subjects with metabolic syndrome following 12-week nut consumption.

    PubMed

    Tulipani, Sara; Llorach, Rafael; Jáuregui, Olga; López-Uriarte, Patricia; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Bullo, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Through an HPLC-Q-TOF-MS-driven nontargeted metabolomics approach, we aimed to discriminate changes in the urinary metabolome of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), following 12 weeks of mixed nuts consumption (30 g/day), compared to sex- and age-matched individuals given a control diet. The urinary metabolome corresponding to the nut-enriched diet clearly clustered in a distinct group, and the multivariate data analysis discriminated relevant mass features in this separation. Metabolites corresponding to the discriminating ions (MS features) were then subjected to multiple tandem mass spectrometry experiments using LC-ITD-FT-MS, to confirm their putative identification. The metabolomics approach revealed 20 potential markers of nut intake, including fatty acid conjugated metabolites, phase II and microbial-derived phenolic metabolites, and serotonin metabolites. An increased excretion of serotonin metabolites was associated for the first time with nut consumption. Additionally, the detection of urinary markers of gut microbial and phase II metabolism of nut polyphenols confirmed the understanding of their bioavailability and bioactivity as a priority area of research in the determination of the health effects derived from nut consumption. The results confirmed how a nontargeted metabolomics strategy may help to access unexplored metabolic pathways impacted by diet, thereby raising prospects for new intervention targets. PMID:21905751

  3. Sustained improvements in fitness and exercise tolerance in obese adolescents after a 12 week exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Gow, Megan L; van Doorn, Nancy; Broderick, Carolyn R; Hardy, Louise L; Ho, Mandy; Baur, Louise A; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2016-01-01

    A 12 week exercise program was evaluated for its effect on aerobic fitness, anaerobic threshold, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels in obese insulin resistant adolescents post intervention and at follow up. 111 obese insulin resistant 10-17 year olds were recruited to a 12 month lifestyle intervention, known as RESIST. From months 4 to 6, adolescents participated in supervised exercise sessions twice per week (45-60min/session). Aerobic fitness and anaerobic threshold were measured by gas analysis at baseline, 6 months (post intervention) and 12 months (follow up). Self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior was measured using the CLASS questionnaire. At 6 months aerobic fitness and time to reach the anaerobic threshold had improved by 5.8% [95% CI: 0.8-11.3] and 19.7% [95% CI: 10.4-29.0], respectively compared with baseline. These improvements were maintained at 12 months. Compared to baseline, 6 month physical activity levels increased by 19min/day [95% CI: 5-33] and screen time decreased by 49min/day [95% CI: 23-74] but returned to baseline levels by 12 months. Improved fitness and anaerobic threshold can be sustained up to 6 months following completion of an exercise program possibly enhancing capacity to perform daily functional tasks. PMID:25959765

  4. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%). PMID:23652638

  5. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Metabolic Risk and Quality of Life in Hong Kong Chinese Adults with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention to improve metabolic risk profiles and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We conducted a controlled trial within an university-affiliated hospital. 173 Chinese men and women aged 18 or above were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the control group (n = 86). Primary outcomes included 12-week change in metabolic risk factors and MetS z score. Secondary outcome was HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey at 12 weeks). Results The mean age of participants was 52.0 (SD 7.4, range 31-71) years. Analysis involving the entire study population revealed that the yoga group achieved greater decline in waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05), and MetS z score (p<0.01). Yoga training also improved general health perceptions (p<0.01), physical component score (p<0.01), and social functioning (p<0.01) domains score of HRQoL. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the mean change of systolic/diastolic blood pressures or high-density lipid protein cholesterol (all p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the intervention effects on waist circumference and MetS z score between the MetS subgroups (both p>0.05). Conclusion A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention improves metabolic risk profiles and HRQoL in Chinese adults with and without MetS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000816752 PMID:26111165

  6. The influence of a 12-week program of physical activity on changes in body composition and lipid and carbohydrate status in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294

  7. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone-based support versus usual care for treatment of pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury in low-income and middle-income countries: study protocol for a 12-week randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Mohit; Harvey, Lisa Anne; Hayes, Alison Joy; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Glinsky, Joanne Valentina; Cameron, Ian Douglas; Lavrencic, Lucija; Arumugam, Narkeesh; Hossain, Sohrab; Bedi, Parneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pressure ulcers are a common and severe complication of spinal cord injury, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries where people often need to manage pressure ulcers alone and at home. Telephone-based support may help people in these situations to manage their pressure ulcers. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone-based support to help people with spinal cord injury manage pressure ulcers at home in India and Bangladesh. Methods and analysis A multicentre (3 sites), prospective, assessor-blinded, parallel, randomised controlled trial will be undertaken. 120 participants with pressure ulcers on the sacrum, ischial tuberosity or greater trochanter of the femur secondary to spinal cord injury will be randomly assigned to a Control or Intervention group. Participants in the Control group will receive usual community care. That is, they will manage their pressure ulcers on their own at home but will be free to access whatever healthcare support they can. Participants in the Intervention group will also manage their pressure ulcers at home and will also be free to access whatever healthcare support they can, but in addition they will receive weekly telephone-based support and advice for 12 weeks (15–25 min/week). The primary outcome is the size of the pressure ulcer at 12 weeks. 13 secondary outcomes will be measured reflecting other aspects of pressure ulcer resolution, depression, quality of life, participation and satisfaction with healthcare provision. An economic evaluation will be run in parallel and will include a cost-effectiveness and a cost-utility analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee at each site. The results of this study will be disseminated through publications and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001225707. PMID:26220871

  8. Alcohol expectancy changes over a 12-week cognitive-behavioral therapy program are predictive of treatment success.

    PubMed

    Young, Ross McD; Connor, Jason P; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2011-01-01

    This study examines if outcome expectancies (perceived consequences of engaging in certain behavior) and self-efficacy expectancies (confidence in personal capacity to regulate behavior) contribute to treatment outcome for alcohol dependence. Few clinical studies have examined these constructs. The Drinking Expectancy Profile (DEP), a psychometric measure of alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy, was administered to 298 alcohol-dependent patients (207 males) at assessment and on completion of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral therapy alcohol abstinence program. Baseline measures of expectancy and self-efficacy were not strong predictors of outcome. However, for the 164 patients who completed treatment, all alcohol expectancy and self-efficacy factors of the DEP showed change over time. The DEP scores approximated community norms at the end of treatment. Discriminant analysis indicated that change in social pressure drinking refusal self-efficacy, sexual enhancement expectancies, and assertion expectancies successfully discriminated those who successfully completed treatment from those who did not. Future research should examine the basis of expectancies related to social functioning as a possible mechanism of treatment response and a means to enhance treatment outcome. PMID:20864294

  9. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365

  10. A 12-Week Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose Trial of Vilazodone in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Careri, Jason M.; Draine, Ann E.; Hanover, Rita; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vilazodone for subjects (aged 18–75 years) with generalized social anxiety disorder. Method: Forty-four subjects with generalized social anxiety disorder (DSM-IV-TR criteria) were randomized to vilazodone or placebo in a 12-week double-blind, flexible-dose trial. Change from baseline to endpoint on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included response and remission rates and changes in depression and anxiety. Data were collected between November 2012 and April 2014. The study was conducted at a private clinical trials facility in New York, New York. Results: The mean baseline LSAS score was 91.9 (SD = 17.5) and the mean Clinical Global Impressions–Severity scale score was 5.3 (SD = 0.56), indicating marked to severe illness. There were no significant baseline differences in severity of social anxiety between the treatment groups. At the end of treatment, in the intent-to-treat sample (n = 39), the vilazodone group had improved significantly more than the placebo group by 14.3 points on the LSAS (t = 1.80, P = .04, one-tail test) (Cohen d = 0.58). Conclusions: The findings suggest that vilazodone may be a promising treatment for social anxiety disorder. Further study is needed given the limited sample size. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01712321 PMID:27057414

  11. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  12. Promoting healthful diets and exercise: efficacy of a 12-week after-school program in urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Engels, Hermann-J; Gretebeck, Randall J; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Jiménez, Linda

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a unique extracurricular after-school initiative designed to promote healthy diets and exercise in urban African Americans. The Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit after-school program was offered for 12 weeks to students and their parents/guardians at an urban middle school. Specific aims of the intervention were to increase participants' vegetable and fruit intake by using established 5 A Day for Better Health educational resource materials/activities and to affect their health-related fitness through dance, games, and fitness activities. Fifty-six children and 25 parents/guardians completed a standard battery of evaluations before and after the program. Pre-post pairwise t test revealed that both children and their parents/guardians showed an increase in fruit consumption and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P <.05). Moreover, children showed improvements in systolic blood pressure and fruit juice, salad, and nonfried potato consumption while parents/guardians showed a decrease in body fat, body mass index, and endurance walk/run time (P <.05). Overall, findings indicate that children tended to gain more diet-related benefits while parents/guardians tended to derive more fitness-related benefits. After-school programs like the Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit initiative can potentially contribute to improved health levels in urban African Americans. PMID:15746836

  13. The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill) on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clustering of metabolic abnormalities defined as metabolic syndrome is now both a public health and a clinical problem .While interest in herbal medicine has greatly increased, lack of human evidence to support efficacies shown in animals does exist. This clinical trial study designed to investigate whether herbal medicine, Anethum graveolens (dill) extract, could improve metabolic components in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design was conducted. 24 subjects who had metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria (update of ATP III) were randomly assigned to either dill extract (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) for 3 months. Results Across lipid component of metabolic syndrome, no significant differences in triglyceride (TG) concentration and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen between the two groups. However TG improved significantly from baseline (257.0 vs. 201.5p = 0.01) with dill treatment but such a significant effect was not observed in placebo group. Moreover, no significant differences in waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were seen between two groups after 3 months follow up period. Conclusion In this small clinical trial in patients with metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks of dill extract treatment had a beneficial effect in terms of reducing TG from baseline. However dill treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome related markers compared to control group. Larger studies might be required to prove the efficacy and safety of long-term administration of dill to resolve metabolic syndrome components. PMID:23351341

  14. Sleep, daily activity rhythms and postpartum mood: A longitudinal study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Simpson, William; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Women with a diagnosis of bipolar and major depressive disorders are at higher risk to develop postpartum depression. The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether daily activity rhythms and sleep parameters differ between women with and without a history of a mood disorder across the perinatal period. A secondary objective was to determine whether changes in these parameters were associated with postpartum mood. In total, 33 women were included in this study, 15 of which had a history of a mood disorder (high-risk group) and 18 who did not (low-risk group). Sleep and daily rhythms were assessed subjectively and objectively during the third trimester (≥26 weeks gestation) and again at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Mood was also assessed at both time points. Women in the high-risk group showed greater subjective daily rhythms and sleep disturbances across the perinatal period. Objective sleep efficiency was worse in the high-risk group in the postpartum period. Changes in both subjective daily rhythms and objective sleep efficiency were predictive of changes in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. These findings encourage the development of preventative therapeutics to ensure circadian rhythm and sleep stability throughout the perinatal period. PMID:27097327

  15. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  16. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  17. Sofosbuvir with peginterferon-ribavirin for 12 weeks in previously treated patients with hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lawitz, Eric; Poordad, Fred; Brainard, Diana M; Hyland, Robert H; An, Di; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Symonds, William T; McHutchison, John G; Membreno, Fernando E

    2015-01-01

    Sofosbuvir (SOF) in combination with ribavirin (RBV) for 12 or 24 weeks is the current standard of care for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 2 and 3, respectively. However, in clinical trials treatment-experienced patients, particularly those with cirrhosis, had suboptimal sustained virological response (SVR) rates. We assessed the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus peginterferon and ribavirin (SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV) administered for 12 weeks to treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, with and without cirrhosis. We enrolled 47 patients in this open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled phase 2 study. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with SVR at 12 weeks after cessation of study treatment (SVR12). The overall rate of SVR12 was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77-97). Rates of SVR12 were higher in patients with genotype 2 than in those with genotype 3, 96% (95% CI: 78-100) and 83% (95% CI: 62-95), respectively. Rates of SVR12 were similar in patients with and without cirrhosis: for genotype 2, 93% of patients with cirrhosis and 100% of patients without cirrhosis achieved SVR12, and for genotype 3, the SVR12 rate was 83% in patients both with and without cirrhosis. One patient discontinued study treatment because of an adverse event and four patients experienced serious adverse events. The most common adverse events were influenza-like illness, fatigue, anemia, and neutropenia. Conclusion: In treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, 12-week administration of SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV provided high SVR rates, irrespective of cirrhosis status. No safety concerns were identified. (Hepatology 2015;61:769–775) PMID:25322962

  18. Linagliptin monotherapy compared with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis: a 12-week randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Shoji, Tetsuo; Inaba, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Focusing on efficacy and tolerability, we compared linagliptin monotherapy with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Research design and methods In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study, 78 patients were randomized (1:1) to receive a 12-week treatment with 5 mg linagliptin once daily or 0.2 mg voglibose three times a day. To assess whether linagliptin was superior to voglibose, the primary efficacy end point was the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy end points included changes between baseline and week 12 in glycated albumin (GA) and casual plasma glucose (PG) levels. Results At week 12, the adjusted mean HbA1c levels had decreased by −0.60% after treatment with linagliptin and by −0.20% after treatment with voglibose (treatment difference: −0.40%, 95% CI −0.74% to −0.06%, p=0.022). A significant reduction in casual PG level was also observed after treatment with linagliptin compared with treatment with voglibose. Relative to voglibose, linagliptin tended to elicit reductions in GA, although without statistical significance. No hypoglycemic symptoms or severe hypoglycemia occurred during the study. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD, linagliptin monotherapy provided significantly better glycemic control without severe hypoglycemia than voglibose monotherapy. Linagliptin represents a promising agent for glycemic management in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD. Trial registration number UMIN000007635; results. PMID:27547421

  19. Comparative effect of 12 weeks of slow and fast pranayama training on pulmonary function in young, healthy volunteers: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, T; Gaur, GS; Sharma, VK; Madanmohan, T; Harichandra Kumar, KT; Bhavanani, AB

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pranayamas are breathing techniques that exert profound physiological effects on pulmonary, cardiovascular, and mental functions. Previous studies demonstrate that different types of pranayamas produce divergent effects. Aim: The aim was to compare the effect of 12 weeks of slow and fast pranayama training on pulmonary function in young, healthy volunteers. Settings and Design: This study was carried out in Departments of Physiology and ACYTER, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Ninety one healthy volunteers were randomized into slow pranayama group (SPG), n =29, fast pranayama group (FPG), n = 32 and control groups (CG) (n = 30). Supervised pranayama training (SPG: Nadisodhana, Pranav pranayama and Savitri pranayama; FPG: Kapalabhati, Bhastrika and Kukkriya pranayama) was given for 30 min/day, thrice/week for 12 weeks by certified yoga instructors. Pulmonary function parameters (PFT) such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), ratio between FEV1 and FVC (FEV1 /FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and forced expiratory flow25-75 (FEF25-75), were recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks of pranayama training using the computerized spirometer (Micro laboratory V1.32, England). Results: In SPG, PEFR, and FEF25-75 improved significantly (P < 0.05) while other parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1 /FVC, and MVV) showed only marginal improvements. In FPG, FEV1 /FVC, PEFR, and FEF25-75 parameters improved significantly (P < 0.05), while FVC, FEV1, and MVV did not show significant (P > 0.05) change. No significant change was observed in CG. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of pranayama training in young subjects showed improvement in the commonly measured PFT. This indicates that pranayama training improved pulmonary function and that this was more pronounced in the FPG. PMID:25558130

  20. A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Jae-Hak; Hong, Ju; Choi, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment. PMID:24678503

  1. Effects of a 12 Week SAQ Training Programme on Agility with and without the Ball among Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša; James, Nic; Samija, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12 week conditioning programme involving speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) training and its effect on agility performance in young soccer players. Soccer players were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group (EG; n = 66, body mass: 71.3 ± 5.9 kg; body height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) and control group (CG; n = 66, body mass: 70.6 ± 4.9 kg; body height: 1.76 ± 0.06 m). Agility performance was assessed using field tests: Slalom; Slalom with ball; Sprint with 90° turns; Sprint with 90° turns with ball; Sprint with 180° turns; Sprint with backward and forward running; Sprint 4 x 5 m. Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) between pre and post training were evident for almost all measures of agility, with and without the ball, with the exception being the Sprint with backward and forward running. This suggests that SAQ training is an effective way of improving agility, with and without the ball, for young soccer players and can be included in physical conditioning programmes. Key pointsSAQ training appears to be an effective way of improving agility with and without the ball in young soccer playersSoccer coaches could use this training during pre-season and in-season trainingCompared with pre-training, there was a statistically significant improvement in all but one measure of agility, both with and without the ball after SAQ training. PMID:24149731

  2. Effects of a 12 Week SAQ Training Programme on Agility with and without the Ball among Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša; James, Nic; Šamija, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12 week conditioning programme involving speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) training and its effect on agility performance in young soccer players. Soccer players were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group (EG; n = 66, body mass: 71.3 ± 5.9 kg; body height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) and control group (CG; n = 66, body mass: 70.6 ± 4.9 kg; body height: 1.76 ± 0.06 m). Agility performance was assessed using field tests: Slalom; Slalom with ball; Sprint with 90° turns; Sprint with 90° turns with ball; Sprint with 180° turns; Sprint with backward and forward running; Sprint 4 x 5 m. Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) between pre and post training were evident for almost all measures of agility, with and without the ball, with the exception being the Sprint with backward and forward running. This suggests that SAQ training is an effective way of improving agility, with and without the ball, for young soccer players and can be included in physical conditioning programmes. Key points SAQ training appears to be an effective way of improving agility with and without the ball in young soccer players Soccer coaches could use this training during pre-season and in-season training Compared with pre-training, there was a statistically significant improvement in all but one measure of agility, both with and without the ball after SAQ training PMID:24149731

  3. An Open-Label Trial of 12-Week Simeprevir plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin (PR) in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 1 (GT1)

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Moreno, Christophe; Sarrazin, Christoph; Gschwantler, Michael; Foster, Graham R.; Craxí, Antonio; Buggisch, Peter; Ryan, Robert; Lenz, Oliver; Scott, Jane; Van Dooren, Gino; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle; Schlag, Michael; Buti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortening duration of peginterferon-based HCV treatment reduces associated burden for patients. Primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy against the minimally acceptable response rate 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and safety of simeprevir plus PR in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks. Additional objectives included the investigation of potential associations of rapid viral response and baseline factors with SVR12. Methods In this Phase III, open-label study in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients with F0–F2 fibrosis, patients with HCV-RNA <25 IU/mL (detectable/undetectable) at Week 2, and undetectable HCV-RNA at Weeks 4 and 8, stopped all treatment at Week 12. All other patients continued PR for a further 12 weeks. Baseline factors significantly associated with SVR12 were identified through logistic regression. Results Of 163 patients who participated in the study, 123 (75%) qualified for 12-week treatment; of these, 81 (66%) achieved SVR12. Baseline factors positively associated with SVR12 rates in patients receiving the 12-week regimen were: IL28B CC genotype: (94% SVR12); HCV RNA ≤800,000 IU/mL (82%); F0–F1 fibrosis (74%). Among all 163 patients, 94% experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE), 4% a serious AE, and 2.5% discontinued due to an AE. Reduced impairment in patient-reported outcomes was observed in the 12-week vs >12-week regimen. Conclusions Overall SVR12 rate (66%) was below the target of 80%, indicating that shortening of treatment with simeprevir plus PR to 12 weeks based on very early response is not effective. However, baseline factors associated with higher SVR12 rates were identified. Therefore, while Week 2 response alone is insufficient to predict efficacy, GT1 patients with favourable baseline factors may benefit from a shortened simeprevir plus PR regimen. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01846832 PMID:27428331

  4. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  5. Effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program with music & exercise groups on range of motion in young children with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared with standard of care (SOC). To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the SOC alone. This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages 2 and 6 years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared with 9 patients who received SOC. Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving SOC showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the SOC alone. PMID:18849852

  6. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  7. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β 2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%-8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6-12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6-12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6-12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  8. The relationship between stress, HPA axis functioning and brain structure in first episode psychosis over the first 12 weeks of treatment.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Garner, Belinda; Phassouliotis, Christina; Phillips, Lisa J; Markulev, Connie; Pantelis, Christos; Bendall, Sarah; McGorry, Patrick D; Wood, Stephen J

    2015-02-28

    Stress and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning have been implicated in the early phase of psychosis and may partly explain reported changes in brain structure. This study used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether biological measures of stress were related to brain structure at baseline and to structural changes over the first 12 weeks of treatment in first episode patients (n=22) compared with matched healthy controls (n=22). At baseline, no significant group differences in biological measures of stress, cortical thickness or hippocampal volume were observed, but a significantly stronger relationship between baseline levels of cortisol and smaller white matter volumes of the cuneus and anterior cingulate was found in patients compared with controls. Over the first 12 weeks of treatment, patients showed a significant reduction in thickness of the posterior cingulate compared with controls. Patients also showed a significant positive relationship between baseline cortisol and increases in hippocampal volume over time, suggestive of brain swelling in association with psychotic exacerbation, while no such relationship was observed in controls. The current findings provide some support for the involvement of stress mechanisms in the pathophysiology of early psychosis, but the changes are subtle and warrant further investigation. PMID:25492856

  9. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Muscular Strength and Endurance, and Flexibility in Hong Kong Chinese Adults: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. Methods. 173 adults (aged 52.0 ± 7.5 years) were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the waitlist control group (n = 86). 19 dropped out from the study. Primary outcomes were changes in cardiorespiratory endurance (resting heart rate (HR) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)), muscular strength and endurance (curl-up and push-up tests), and lower back and hamstring flexibility (the modified back-saver sit-and-reach (MBS) test). Results. Compared to controls, the yoga group achieved significant improvements in VO2max (P < 0.01), curl-up (P < 0.05) and push-up (P < 0.001) tests, and the MBS left and right leg tests (both P < 0.001) in both genders. Significant change was also found for resting HR between groups in women (P < 0.05) but not in men. Further analysis comparing participants between younger and older subgroups yielded similar findings, except that the older participants in the yoga group failed to improve resting HR or the curl-up test versus control. Adherence (89%) and attendance (94%) were high. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion. A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention has favorable effects on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. PMID:26167196

  10. Low-dose memantine attenuated methadone dose in opioid-dependent patients: a 12-week double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose memantine might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. We investigated whether add-on memantine reduced cytokine levels and benefitted patients with opioid dependence undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a group: Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 53) or Placebo (n = 75). The methadone dose required and retention in treatment were monitored. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12. General linear mixed models were used to examine therapeutic effect. After 12 weeks, Memantine-group required a somewhat lower methadone dose than did Placebo-group (P = 0.039). They also had significantly lower plasma TNF-α and significantly higher TGF-β1 levels. We provide evidence of the benefit of add-on memantine in opioid dependent patients undergoing MMT. PMID:25988317

  11. Cervical spine disc prosthesis: radiographic, biomechanical and morphological post mortal findings 12 weeks after implantation. A retrieval example.

    PubMed

    Pitzen, Tobias; Kettler, Annette; Drumm, Joerg; Nabhan, Abdullah; Steudel, Wolf Ingo; Claes, Lutz; Wilke, Hans Joachim

    2007-07-01

    implant contact is probably rare, and that debris may be found after 12 weeks. PMID:17242873

  12. Fasting plasma glucose 6–12 weeks after starting insulin glargine predicts likelihood of treatment success: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karl, D; Zhou, R; Vlajnic, A; Riddle, M

    2012-01-01

    Aims To evaluate whether fasting plasma glucose values measured early during insulin therapy can identify patients with Type 2 diabetes who may not achieve adequate glycaemic control after 6 months and will require additional treatment. Methods Patient-level data from seven prospective, randomized, controlled studies using treat-to-target methods were pooled to evaluate the efficacy of insulin glargine. Fasting plasma glucose was measured at baseline, week 6 or 8 (6/8) and week 12. HbA1c was measured at week 24 to assess glycaemic control. Results One thousand and thirty-six patients (56% male, 81% white) were included in the analysis (mean age 56.3 years; duration of diabetes 8.4 years). Baseline mean fasting plasma glucose was 11.2 mmol/l and mean HbA1c was 73 mmol/mol (8.8%). After 24 weeks of treatment, mean HbA1c decreased to 53 mmol/mol (7.0%); 56% of patients reached a target HbA1c≤ 53 mmol/mol (7.0%). Significant correlations with week 24 HbA1c were obtained for fasting plasma glucose measured at week 6/8 and week 12 (r = 0.32; P < 0.0001 for both). Patients with fasting plasma glucose > 10 mmol/l at week 6/8 or week 12 were significantly less likely to achieve the HbA1c target at the end of treatment than patients with fasting plasma glucose < 8.9 mmol/l (P < 0.0001 for both). If fasting plasma glucose was > 10 mmol/l at week 6/8 or week 12, patients had only a 27% chance of reaching the HbA1c goal. Conclusions Fasting plasma glucose remaining > 10 mmol/l after 6–12 weeks of glargine therapy indicates that reaching target HbA1c≤ 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) is unlikely and calls for individualized attention to consider further therapeutic options. PMID:22413808

  13. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  14. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Materials and Methods Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. Results The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Conclusion Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. Trial Registration CRiS KCT0001771 PMID:27253526

  15. Characterization of Queso Fresco made with Na/K salt blends and stored for 12 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health-conscious consumers are looking for ways to reduce dietary sodium yet want their cheeses to have the flavor, texture, and shelf-life of full-salt cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different Na-K salt blends and storage on the compositional, sensorial, micro...

  16. Effects of a 12-Week Resistance Exercise Program on Physical Self-Perceptions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Mitchell, Nathanael G.; Bibeau, Wendy S.; Bartholomew, John B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level…

  17. NEUROTOXICITY OF CARBONYL SULFIDE IN F344 RATS FOLLOWING INHALATION EXPOSURE FOR UP TO 12 WEEKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) was nominated to the National Toxicology Program for testing in 1996 due to emissions levels and a lack of data. Through an inter-agency collaboration, functional and electrophysiological endpoints were included in the studies. This manuscript describes b...

  18. Multi-component access to a community-based weight loss program: 12 week results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study examined weight loss between a comprehensive lifestyle modification program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus program) that included three ways to access and a self-help (SH) condition. A total of 293 participants were randomized to either a Weight Watchers condition (WW) (n=148) or a SH...

  19. Serum steroid concentrations remain within normal postmenopausal values in women receiving daily 6.5mg intravaginal prasterone for 12weeks.

    PubMed

    Martel, Céline; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Lavoie, Lyne; Vaillancourt, Mario; Montesino, Marlene; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-05-01

    This study integrates all data obtained in women aged 40-80years enrolled with moderate to severe symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) who received daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5mg) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) for 12weeks (n=723; ITT-S population) as compared with placebo (n=266; ITT-S population). To this end, serum steroid levels (DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17β-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G)) were measured at Day 1 and Week 12 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following validation performed according to the FDA guidelines [1-6]. In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology where DHEA is exclusively transformed intracellularly into active sex steroids which act and are inactivated locally before being released as glucuronided or sulfated metabolites for elimination by the kidneys and liver, all sex steroids remained well within normal postmenopausal values following administration of intravaginal DHEA. Serum estradiol, the most relevant sex steroid, was measured after 12weeks of treatment at 3.36pg/ml (cITT-S population) or 19% below the normal postmenopausal value of 4.17pg/ml. On the other hand, serum E1-S, the best recognized marker of global estrogenic activity, shows an average value of 209pg/ml at 12 weeks compared to 220pg/ml in normal postmenopausal women. Moreover, serum ADT-G, the main metabolite of androgens, also remains well within normal postmenopausal values. The present data shows that a low daily intravaginal dose (6.5mg) of DHEA (prasterone) which is efficacious on the symptoms and signs of VVA, permits to achieve the desired local efficacy without systemic exposure, in agreement with the stringent mechanisms of menopause established after 500 million years of

  20. The Effect of a 12-Week Omega-3 Supplementation on Body Composition, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Elderly Individuals with Decreased Muscle Mass.

    PubMed

    Krzymińska-Siemaszko, Roma; Czepulis, Natasza; Lewandowicz, Marta; Zasadzka, Ewa; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Witowski, Janusz; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation on the parameters of body composition, muscle strength and physical performance in elderly people with decreased muscle mass (DMM). Fifty three elderly people with an ALM index (the ratio of appendicular lean mass to squared height) either below (-2SD: low muscle mass-LMM) or between (-1SD and -2SD: the risk of LMM-rLMM) the ALM index for the young Polish reference population were randomly assigned to PUFA-treated groups (LMM-PUFA, rLMM-PUFA) or control groups (LMM-control, rLMM-control). PUFA-treated groups received capsules containing 1.3 g of PUFA and 10 mg of vitamin E, while the control groups received 11 mg of vitamin E daily for 12 weeks. Body composition (BIA analysis), muscle strength (hand grip measured with dynamometer) and physical performance (Timed Up and Go test-TUG) were assessed before and after supplementation. No statistically significant differences were observed either in muscle mass or in the hand grip and TUG in any group. The post-pre difference (mean ± SD) in ALM index was as follows (kg/m²): LMM-PUFA: 0.00 ± 0.30, rLMM-PUFA: 0.00 ± 0.22, LMM-control: 0.03 ± 0.36, rLMM-control: -0.03 ± 0.20. In our study, a 12 week supplementation of PUFA did not affect the evaluated parameters in elderly individuals with DMM. PMID:26343698

  1. Turkish 12 Week Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This audiolingual beginner's course has been prepared for the Defense Language Institute intensive program in modern spoken Turkish. The course, consisting of six volumes of basic text in 55 units begins with an introductory section which presents the linguistic background, phonology, and distinguishing features of Turkish. The lesson format…

  2. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N.; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (V.O2max). Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved V.O2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively), v V.O2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively), and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively). Conclusions After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of V.O2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only partially, both

  3. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  4. Malignant uveal schwannoma with peripheral nerve extension in a 12-week-old color-dilute Labrador Retriever.

    PubMed

    Duke, F D; Teixeira, L B C; Galle, L E; Green, N; Dubielzig, R R

    2015-01-01

    The formalin-fixed, amber-colored right globe from a 12-week-old female silver Labrador Retriever dog was submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for light microscopic evaluation. The clinical history described a collapsed anterior chamber and multifocal nodular lesions in the peripheral iris. Histologically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally, the uveal mass was consistent with a malignant schwannoma; there was extension along peripheral nerves within the sclera. The signalment and behavior of the neoplasm distinguish it from the uveal schwannoma of blue-eyed dogs and bear some resemblance to the ocular lesions in human neurofibromatosis. The dilute color mutation may contribute to the cause. Six weeks later, the dog did not develop any additional masses. PMID:24513800

  5. Oral Microbiota Shift after 12-Week Supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289; A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Romani Vestman, Nelly; Chen, Tsute; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus spp. potentially contribute to health by modulating bacterial biofilm formation, but their effects on the overall oral microbiota remain unclear. Methods and Findings Oral microbiota was characterized via 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA hypervariable region V3-V4 after 12 weeks of daily Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289 consumption. Forty-four adults were assigned to a test group (n = 22) that received lactobacilli lozenges (108 CFU of each strain/lozenge) or a control group that received placebo (n = 22). Presence of L. reuteri was confirmed by cultivation and species specific PCR. Tooth biofilm samples from 16 adults before, during, and after exposure were analyzed by pyrosequencing. A total of 1,310,292 sequences were quality filtered. After removing single reads, 257 species or phylotypes were identified at 98.5% identity in the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Streptococcus was the most common genus and the S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group comprised the dominant species. The number of observed species was unaffected by L. reuteri exposure. However, subjects who had consumed L. reuteri were clustered in a principal coordinates analysis relative to scattering at baseline, and multivariate modeling of pyrosequencing microbiota, and culture and PCR detected L. reuteri separated baseline from 12-week samples in test subjects. L. reuteri intake correlated with increased S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group and Campylobacter concisus, Granulicatella adiacens, Bergeyella sp. HOT322, Neisseria subflava, and SR1 [G-1] sp. HOT874 detection and reduced S. mutans, S. anginosus, N. mucosa, Fusobacterium periodicum, F. nucleatum ss vincentii, and Prevotella maculosa detection. This effect had disappeared 1 month after exposure was terminated. Conclusions L. reuteri consumption did not affect species

  6. Health markers in obese adolescents improved by a 12-week recreational soccer program: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Seabra, Andre; Cunha, Felipe; Montenegro, Rafael; Penha, Jociene; Bouskela, Eliete; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Collett-Solberg, Paulo; Farinatti, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a recreational soccer program (RSP) upon body composition, heart rate variability (HRV), biochemical markers, cardio-respiratory fitness, and endothelial function in obese adolescents were investigated. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted with 30 adolescents aged 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) >2 standard deviations of WHO reference values, which were assigned to RSP (n = 10, 2 girls) and obese control (n = 10, 4 girls) groups. The 12-week RSP included 60-min sessions performed 3 times/week. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, HRV, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were evaluated following standardised procedures. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. After intervention, RSP exhibited significant reductions in BMI (-0.7 ± 0.2 kg · m(-2)), waist circumference (-8.2 ± 1.4 cm), %body fat (-2.2 ± 0.4%), systolic blood pressure (-5.0 ± 2.3 mmHg), total cholesterol (-16.2 ± 5.8 mg · dL(-1)), triglycerides (-20.5 ± 12.9 mg · dL(-1)), C-reactive protein (-0.06 ± 0.01 mg · dL(-1)), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -1.4 ± 0.6), and sympathetic activity (LF, -13.9 ± 6.6 un) vs. controls (P < 0.05). Significant increase was observed in parasympathetic activity (HF, 13.9 ± 6.6 un), VO2peak (7.9 ± 2.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.0 ± 6.3 mg · dL(-1)) (P < 0.05). Vascular conductance (19.5 ± 8.1 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.005) increased and vascular resistance (-5.9 ± 2.4 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.041) decreased in RSP, but not in controls. A 12-week recreational soccer intervention was effective to improve biochemical, cardiovascular, and fitness health markers in obese adolescents. PMID:26208409

  7. Bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension previously treated with latanoprost: two randomized 12-week trials

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan S; Vold, Steven; Zaman, Fiaz; Williams, Julia M; Hollander, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Methods Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ≥20 mmHg after ≥30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily). Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03%) are presented. Results Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean) was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957). In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean) reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001), ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0%) mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8%) mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia of mild or greater severity increased from latanoprost baseline after 12 weeks of treatment only in the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arm. Conclusion Many patients who do not reach their target IOP on latanoprost can achieve additional IOP

  8. Treatment of feline lymphoma using a 12-week, maintenance-free combination chemotherapy protocol in 26 cats.

    PubMed

    Limmer, S; Eberle, N; Nerschbach, V; Nolte, I; Betz, D

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of a short-term, maintenance-free chemotherapy protocol in feline lymphoma. Twenty-six cats with confirmed diagnosis of high-/intermediate-grade lymphoma were treated with a 12-week protocol consisting of cyclic administration of l-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisolone. Complete (CR) and partial remission (PR) rates were 46 and 27%, respectively. Median duration of first CR was 394 days compared with a median PR duration of 41 days. No factor was identified to significantly influence the likelihood to reach CR. Overall survival amounted to 78 days (range: 9-2230 days). Median survival in CR cats was 454 days and in PR cats was 82 days. Toxicosis was mainly low grade with anorexia seen most frequently. In cats achieving CR, maintenance-free chemotherapy may be sufficient to attain long-term remission and survival. Factors aiding in prognosticating the likelihood for CR, strategies enhancing response and targeting chemotherapy-induced anorexia need to be identified in future. PMID:24548273

  9. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  10. The Outcomes of a 12-Week Internet Intervention Aimed at Improving Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Overweight Adolescents: The Young & Active Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Riiser, Kirsti; Løndal, Knut; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Misvær, Nina; Helseth, Sølvi

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity among adolescents may have consequences, with potentially lasting effects on health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Excess weight is also associated with decreases in physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of the current study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-week Internet intervention in a primary care setting intended to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this controlled trial, participants (13–15 years) were non-randomly allocated to an intervention- or a control group. The intervention group received 12-weeks access to an online program providing tailored physical activity counseling based on principles from Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The control group received standard follow-up by the school nurses. The primary outcome measure of cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using a shuttle run test. The secondary outcomes: HRQoL, leisure time exercise, body image and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise, were assessed by self-report measures. Age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on measurements of height and weight. To compare pre-to post intervention differences within groups, a paired samples t-test was used while crude differences between groups were analyzed with an independent samples t-test. Results Of the 120 participants, 108 completed the study, 75 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Exposure to the intervention had a small effect on cardiorespiratory fitness (0.14; 95% CI [0.01;0.28]; P = 0.04), and a moderate effect on HRQoL (5.22; 95% CI [0.90; 9.53]; P = 0.02). Moreover, the control group increased significantly in BMI, yielding a moderate preventive effect on BMI (−0.39; 95% CI [−0.74;−0.03]; P = 0.03) for the intervention group. Conclusion The results suggest that the Internet

  11. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  12. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  13. A Periodical Use Study at Children's Hospital of Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan M. B.

    A periodicals use study was conducted in the Medical Library of Children's Hospital, a pediatric teaching hospital, during the six month period from September 1, 1967 to February 29, 1968. Results of the study showed that the three kinds of periodical use--circulation, reading room use, and interlibrary loan--have similar but not identical…

  14. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24611630

  15. Effect of ginger powder supplementation on nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in elderly knee osteoarthritis patients: A 12-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Zahra; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Dehghan, Ali; Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh; Huseini, Hassan Fallah

    2016-07-01

    There is limited evidence that ginger ( shēng jiāng) powder consumption can relieve pain and inflammation because of its special phytochemical properties. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of ginger powder supplementation on some inflammatory markers in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. This is a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial with a follow-up period of 3 months that was conducted on 120 outpatients with moderately painful knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomly divided up into two groups: ginger group (GG) or placebo group (PG). Both groups received two identical capsules on a daily basis for 3 months. Each ginger capsule contained 500 mg of ginger powder; the placebo capsules had 500 mg of starch in them. Serum samples were collected prior to and after the intervention and were stored at -70 °C until the end of the study. Serum concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and hs-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of inflammatory markers (i.e., NO and hs-CRP) prior to the intervention. However, after 3 months of supplementation, serum concentration of NO and hs-CRP decreased in the GG. After 12 weeks, the concentration of these markers declined more in the GG than in the PG. Ginger powder supplementation at a dose of 1 g/d can reduce inflammatory markers in patients with knee osteoarthritis, and it thus can be recommended as a suitable supplement for these patients. PMID:27419081

  16. 12-Week, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Add-on Riluzole in the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paul J; Joseph, Lisa A; Farmer, Cristan A; Luckenbaugh, David A; Lougee, Lorraine C; Zarate, Carlos A; Swedo, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Many children with childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to respond adequately to standard therapies. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system might be an alternative treatment target. This study examined the efficacy of riluzole, a glutamatergic modulator, as an adjunctive therapy for children with treatment-resistant OCD. In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 treatment-resistant children and adolescents (mean age=14.5±2.4 years), with moderate to severe OCD (mean Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS)=28.2±3.7), 17 of whom also had concomitant autism spectrum disorder, were randomized to receive riluzole (final dose of 100 mg/day) or placebo in addition to the existing treatment regimen. Fifty-nine subjects completed the randomized trial. Primary outcome measures were changes on the CY-BOCS, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Riluzole was fairly well tolerated, although it was associated with one case of pancreatitis and five instances of slight increases in transaminases. All subjects showed significant reductions in CY-BOCS scores during treatment; however, there was no significant difference between placebo and riluzole on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. The study failed to demonstrate superiority of riluzole over placebo as an adjunctive treatment for children with childhood-onset OCD. However, future studies may show benefits for less treatment-refractory children with fewer concomitant medications. PMID:24356715

  17. Fluoxetine versus sertraline in the treatment of patients with undifferentiated somatoform disorder: a randomized, open-label, 12-week, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Changsu; Pae, Chi-Un; Lee, Bun Hee; Ko, Young-Hoon; Masand, Prakash S; Patkar, Ashwin A; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-02-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of fluoxetine and sertraline in the treatment of undifferentiated somatoform disorder (USD), using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15), which was specifically designed for assessing the severity of somatic symptoms. A randomized, 12-week, open-label trial of fluoxetine (10-60 mg/d) and sertraline (25-350 mg/d) in patients with USD was conducted. Six visits, at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12, were scheduled. Assessments for effectiveness and tolerability were conducted at each visit. The primary effectiveness measure was the mean change in PHQ-15 total score, from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary effectiveness measures were the mean changes in total scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), from baseline to the end of treatment. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled; of them, 28 were randomly assigned to receive fluoxetine and 17 to receive sertraline. The total score on the PHQ-15 from baseline to the end of treatment significantly decreased in the fluoxetine (-10.7, p<0.0001) and sertraline (-10.3, p<0.0001) treatment groups, with no between-group difference (F=0.0701, p=0.7924). Overall, both treatments were well tolerated and no serious adverse event was reported. This study suggests that both agents may have a potential role in the treatment of USD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and/or head-to-head comparison study with larger samples are required to draw more definite conclusions. PMID:17950970

  18. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465

  19. Efficacy of the long-acting nitro vasodilator pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris receiving anti-anginal background therapy with beta-blockers: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Meinertz, Thomas; Tebbe, Ulrich; Schneider, Heinrich Theodor; Stalleicken, Dirk; Wargenau, Manfred; Gori, Tommaso; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background The organic nitrate pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to have ancillary properties that prevent the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (‘CLEOPATRA’ study) was designed to investigate the anti-ischaemic efficacy of PETN 80 mg b.i.d. (morning and mid-day) over placebo in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Methods and results A total of 655 patients were evaluated in the intention-to-treat population, randomized to PETN (80 mg b.i.d., n = 328) or placebo (n = 327) and completed the study. Patients underwent treadmill exercise tests at randomization, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PETN over 12 weeks did not modify the primary endpoint total exercise duration (TED, P = 0.423). In a pre-specified sub-analysis of patients with reduced exercise capacity (TED at baseline ≤9 min, n = 257), PETN appeared more effective than placebo treatment (P = 0.054). Superiority of PETN over placebo was evident in patients who were symptomatic at low exercise levels (n = 120; P = 0.017). Pentaerithrityl tetranitrate 80 mg b.i.d. was well tolerated, and the overall safety profile was comparable with placebo. Conclusion Although providing no additional benefit in unselected patients with known coronary artery disease, PETN therapy, administered in addition to modern anti-ischaemic therapy, could increase exercise tolerance in symptomatic patients with reduced exercise capacity. PMID:24071762

  20. No effect of 12 weeks' supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philippa A; Deary, Michael E; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2012-04-01

    The n-3 PUFA are a unique class of fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body, and must be acquired via dietary sources. In the UK, as well as in other Western nations, these 'essential' fatty acids are consumed in quantities that fall below government guidelines. The present study explored the effects of 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with 1 g/d of two types of fish oil (FO; DHA-rich and EPA-rich) in 159 healthy young adults aged 18-35 years. An assessment of performance on a battery of computerised cognitive tasks and mood measures took place before and following the 12-week treatment regimen. Venous blood samples were also supplied by participants at both time points which were later analysed for serum fatty acid concentrations. Despite good adherence to the study protocol - as reflected in increased concentrations of n-3 serum fatty acids - compared with placebo, the observed effects of both active treatments were minimal. The only finding of note revealed that supplementation with EPA-rich FO may reduce subjective mental fatigue at times of high cognitive demand, although further investigation is required. These findings, taken together with other recent reports of null effects, suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in healthy, normally developing and impairment-free populations is unlikely to result in cognitive enhancement. PMID:21864417

  1. Residual {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao; Widder, Joachim; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically inoperable patients with proven Stage I NSCLC or FDG-PET-positive primary lung tumors were analyzed retrospectively. SABR consisted of 60 Gy delivered in 3 to 8 fractions. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the treated lesion was assessed 12 weeks after SABR, using FDG-PET. Patients were subsequently followed at regular intervals using computed tomography (CT) scans. Association between post-SABR SUV{sub max} and local control (LC), mediastinal failure, distant failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 3-40 months). Median lesion size was 25 mm (range, 9-70 mm). There were 6 local failures: 15 mediastinal failures, 15 distant failures, 13 disease-related deaths, and 16 deaths from intercurrent diseases. Glucose corrected post-SABR median SUV{sub max} was 3.0 (range, 0.55-14.50). Using SUV{sub max} 5.0 as a cutoff, the 2-year LC was 80% versus 97.7% for high versus low SUV{sub max}, yielding an adjusted subhazard ratio (SHR) for high post-SABR SUV{sub max} of 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-38.5; p = 0.019). Two-year DSS rates were 74% versus 91%, respectively, for high and low SUV{sub max} values (SHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.3; p = 0.113). Two-year OS was 62% versus 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.7; p = 0.268). Conclusions: Residual FDG uptake (SUV{sub max} {>=}5.0) 12 weeks after SABR signifies increased risk of local failure. A single FDG-PET scan at 12 weeks could be used to tailor further follow-up according to the risk of failure, especially in patients potentially eligible for salvage surgery.

  2. Evaluation of Immediate and 12-Week Effects of a Smartphone Sun-Safety Mobile Application: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Importance Mobile apps on smart phones can communicate a large amount of personalized, real-time health information, including advice on skin cancer prevention, but their effectiveness may be affected by whether Americans can be convinced to use them. Objective A smart phone mobile application delivering real-time sun protection advice was evaluated for a second time in a randomized trial. Design The trial conducted in 2013 utilized a randomized pretest-posttest controlled design. Screening procedures and a 3-week run-in period were added to increase use of the mobile app. Also, follow-ups at 3- and 8-weeks after randomization were conducted to examine immediate and longer-term effects. Setting Data was collected from participants recruited nationwide through online promotions. Participants A volunteer sample of adults aged 18 or older who owned an Android or iPhone smart phones. Intervention The mobile application gave feedback on sun protection (i.e., sun safety practices and sunburn risk) and alerted users to apply/reapply sunscreen and get out of the sun. Also, it displayed the hourly UV Index and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, time, and location. Main Outcomes and Measures Percent of days using sun protection and days and minutes outdoors in the midday sun and number of sunburns in the past 3 months were assesed. Results Treatment group participants used wide-brimmed hats more at 7-weeks than controls. Women who used Solar Cell reported using all sun protection combined more than men but men and older individuals used sunscreen and hats less. Conclusions and Relevance The mobile application appeared to weakly improve sun protection initially. Use of the mobile application was higher than in a previous trial and associated with greater sun protection especially by women. Strategies to increase use are needed if the mobile app is to be effective deployed to the general adult population. PMID:25629819

  3. 12 Weeks of Combined Endurance and Resistance Training Reduces Innate Markers of Inflammation in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wens, Inez; Nuyts, Amber H.; Hens, Niel; De Winter, Benedicte Y.; Koppen, Gudrun; Goossens, Herman; Van Damme, Pierre; Berneman, Zwi N.; Eijnde, Bert O.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrate improved muscle strength, exercise tolerance, and lean tissue mass following a combined endurance and resistance exercise program. However, the effect of exercise on the underlying disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Since recent evidence supports a crucial role of dendritic cells (DC) in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of a 12-week combined exercise program in MS patients on the number and function of DC. We demonstrate an increased number of plasmacytoid DC (pDC) following the exercise program. These pDC display an activated phenotype, as evidenced by increased numbers of circulating CD62L+ and CD80+ pDC. Interestingly, the number of CD80+ pDC positively correlates with the presence of IL-10-producing regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1), an important cell type for maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. In addition, decreased production of the inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MMP-9, upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation was found at the end of the exercise program. Overall, our findings suggest that the 12-week exercise program reduces the secretion of inflammatory mediators upon TLR stimulation and promotes the immunoregulatory function of circulating pDC, suggestive for a favorable impact of exercise on the underlying immunopathogenesis of MS. PMID:26903712

  4. Nutritional Approach for Relief of Joint Discomfort: A 12-week, Open-case Series and Illustrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Robert H.; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Konda, Veera; Desai, Anuradha; Montalto, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Context Tetrahydro iso-α acids (THIAAs), derived from Humulus lupulus (hops), have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Undenatured type 2 collagen has been found to be effective in clinical studies in RA and osteoarthritis (OA). Objective The study intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a proprietary tablet containing 150 mg of n-enriched THIAA (nTHIAA) and 10 mg of undenatured type 2 collagen (UC-II) (containing 25% UC-II) in patients with arthritis. Design The study was an open-label case series. This article also includes a case history for 1 participant. Setting The study was conducted at the Functional Medicine Research Center (FMRC) in Gig Harbor, WA, USA, from February 2013–June 2013. Participants Participants were 17 adults, 12 women, and 5 men aged 39–69 y, who had chronic joint pain involving various joints, 13 with probable OA and 4 with possible RA. Intervention Participants took 2 tablets of nTHIAA + UC-II 2 ×/d with meals for 12 wk. Outcome Measures Participants completed arthritis-related and quality-of-life questionnaires, at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12: (1) the visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P); (2) the medical symptoms questionnaire (MSQ), with the analysis particularly focusing on the joint/muscle subscale and total scores; (3) the health and wellness outcome questionnaire (MOS-SF36), with the analysis particularly focusing on the physical and mental subscales; (4) the arthritis impact questionnaire (AIQ), with the analysis particularly focusing on the arthritis symptoms and daily living subscales; (5) the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ-DI) with the analysis particularly focusing on question 26 (Q26), which indicates overall pain during the week prior to the survey; and (6) the arthritis impact measurement scales 2 (AIMS2). At 12 wk, participants also completed the visual analog scale for efficacy (VAS-E). Results All participants completed the 12-wk evaluation

  5. Differences between men and women in dietary intakes and metabolic profile in response to a 12-week nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Vicky; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Bégin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared men and women in response to nutritional interventions but none has assessed differences between men and women in the response to a nutritional intervention programme based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and using the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) as a model of healthy eating, in a context of CVD prevention and within a non-Mediterranean population. The present study aimed to document differences between men and women in changes in dietary, anthropometric and metabolic variables, in response to a nutritional intervention programme promoting the adoption of the MedDiet and based on the SDT. A total of sixty-four men and fifty-nine premenopausal women presenting risk factors for CVD were recruited through different media advertisements in the Québec City Metropolitan area (Canada). The 12-week nutritional programme used a motivational interviewing approach and included individual and group sessions. A validated FFQ was administered to evaluate dietary intakes from which a Mediterranean score (Medscore) was derived. Both men and women significantly increased their Medscore in response to the intervention (P < 0·0001). Men showed a significantly greater decrease in red and processed meat (-0·4 (95 % CI -0·7, -0·1) portions per d) and a greater increase in fruit (0·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·6) portions per d) intakes than women. Significant decreases were observed for BMI and waist circumference in both men and women (P ≤ 0·04). Significant greater decreases were found for total cholesterol (total-C):HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·03) and TAG:HDL-C (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·04) ratios in men than in women. When adjusting for the baseline value of the response variable, differences between men and women became non-significant for red and processed meat and fruit intakes whereas significant differences between men and women (i.e. larger increases in men than women) were observed for legumes, nuts and seeds (0·6

  6. A 12-week worksite health promotion program reduces cardiovascular risk factors in male workers with the apolipoprotein E2 and apolipoprotein E3 genotypes, but not in apolipoprotein E4 genotype.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Woon; Kang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Yoo-Kyoung; Paek, Yun-Mi; Choi, Tae-In

    2009-08-01

    Worksite health promotion programs focusing on diet and lifestyle modification have been shown to improve health outcomes in workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a 12-week worksite health promotion program shows different response of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects according to apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype and obesity level in 141 male Korean industrial workers. We hypothesized that the health changes of a 12-week intervention may not be the same within Apo E genotypes in nonobese and obese subjects. They received 5 face-to-face meetings based on their health profiles. In obese group carrying Apo E3 genotype, body mass index, body fat (%), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and systolic blood pressure were decreased, as well as intakes of energy (P = .000) and carbohydrate (P = .005). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .004) level was improved in individuals with the Apo E2 genotype. These beneficial effects were only observed in individuals with the Apo E2 or Apo E3 genotype. Multiple linear regression revealed that obesity was strongly correlated with waist circumference (P = .002), plasma total cholesterol (P = .037), and changes in dietary cholesterol intake (P = .011) in individuals with the Apo E3 genotype, whereas only changes in dietary fat intake (P = .044) was correlated in those with the Apo E4 genotype. Overall, the results of this study suggest that a health promotion program can be a useful method of improving cardiovascular risk factors and dietary intake in industrial workers with certain genotypes only. Therefore, further research is needed to develop a tailored, long-term worksite health promotion program based on genetic background. PMID:19761888

  7. Study for elevator cage position during the braking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, M.; Crăciun, I.; Bănică, M.; Dăscălescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    An important problem in order to study an elevator cage position for its braking period is to establish a correlation between the studies in the fields of mechanics and electric. The classical approaches to establish the elevator kinematic parameters are position, velocity and acceleration, but the last studies performed in order to determine the positioning performed by introducing supplementary another parameter - the jerk- which is derived with respect to time of acceleration. Thus we get a precise method for cage motion control for third-order trajectory planning.

  8. Geodetic reference systems for long period studies in earth physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A simple system of reference axes is defined for possible use in high precision geodetic studies over long periods of time for programs in earth physics. The proposed system is based on the gravitational and dynamic characteristics of the axis of rotation and the earth's center of mass as defined instantaneously at a given epoch. Techniques are outlined for its continuous representation over time intervals of significance for studies in earth physics. The relationship between the proposed system and the representation of extra-terrestrial objects using the celestial sphere concept is also discussed.

  9. Clinical Response within 12 Weeks as a Predictor of Future Low Disease Activity in Early RA Patients: Results from the TEAR Trial

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; McVie, Theresa; Mikuls, Ted R; Reynolds, Richard J.; Navarro-Millán, Iris; O’Dell, James; Moreland, Larry W; Bridges, S. Louis; Ranganath, Veena K.; Cofield, Stacey S

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapidly predicting future outcomes based upon short-term clinical response would be helpful to optimize RA management in early disease. Objective To derive and validate a clinical prediction rule to predict low disease activity (LDA) at 1 year among patients participating in the Treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis (TEAR) trial escalating RA therapy by adding either etanercept (E) or sulfasalazine + hydroxychloroquine [triple therapy (TT)] after 6 months of methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Methods Eligible subjects included in the derivation cohort (used for model building, n=186) were participants with moderate or higher disease activity (DAS28ESR>3.2) despite 24 weeks of MTX monotherapy who added either etanercept or sulfasalazine+hydroxychloroquine. Clinical characteristics measured within the next 12 weeks were used to predict LDA 1 year later using multivariable logistic regression. Validation was performed in the cohort of TEAR patients randomized to initially receive either MTX+E or TT. Results The derivation cohort yielded three prediction models of varying complexity that included age, DAS28 at various time points, body mass index, and ESR (AUROC up to 0.83). Accuracy of the prediction models ranged between 80 and 95% in both derivation and validation cohorts, depending on the complexity of the model and the cutpoints chosen for response and non-response. Approximately 80% of patients could be predicted to be responders or non-responders at week 12. Conclusion Clinical data collected early after starting or escalating DMARD/biologic treatment could accurately predict LDA at 1 year in early RA patients. For patients predicted to be non-responders, treatment could be changed at 12 weeks to optimize outcomes. PMID:23588939

  10. Relapse Prevention in Pediatric Patients with ADHD Treated with Atomoxetine: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Danckaerts, Marina; Gillberg, Christopher; Spencer, Thomas J.; Zuddas, Alessandro; Faries, Douglas E.; Zhang, Shuyu; Biederman, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically treated over extended periods; however, few placebo-controlled, long-term studies of efficacy have been reported. Method: In a global multicenter study, children and adolescents who responded to an initial 12-week, open-label period of treatment with atomoxetine, a…

  11. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly. PMID:25015666

  12. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  13. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention

  14. Studies of the Lower Ionosphere using Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Egerev, Mikhael N.; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Vyakhirev, Valeriy D.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) created in the ionosphere plasma are used for the iono-sphere diagnostics. We present a new applications of API technique for experimental studies of the electron density in the lower ionosphere, atmospheric waves and sporadic E-layers. The applications are based on the new so-called two-frequency method of the API creation. The main results of the ionosphere studies carried out in 2006-2009 by the API technique using SURA heating facility are presented. API are formed in the field of a powerful standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one by the ionosphere (V.V. Belikovich, E.A. Benediktov, N.V. Bakhmet'eva, A.V. Tolmacheva, Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities-Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Λ or the one-half the powerful wavelength λ/2. Ionosphere diagnostics is carried out in the API relaxation (or decay) stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. The two frequency method bases upon the API creation and the scattering of the probe waves from API at two different frequencies i.e., having different spatial periods of the quasi periodic struc-ture. In the E -region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the ionosphere plasma in the field of the powerful wave. Relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The API relaxation time is τ = (K 2 Da )-1 where K = 2π/Λ and Da is the ambipolar diffusion rate. It means that API having different spatial scales destroys with different time scales τ . The API spatial scale depends on the refractive in-dex n that is determined by the electron density N. It is shown the ratio of API relaxation times θ at two frequencies f1 and f2 , measured at the same heights, is connected with the frequencies ratio and the

  15. Nonlinear periodization maximizes strength gains in split resistance training routines.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Artur G; Aoki, Marcelo S; Evangelista, Alexandre L; Alveno, Daniel A; Monteiro, Gizele A; Piçarro, Ivan da Cruz; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare strength gains after 12 weeks of nonperiodized (NP), linear periodized (LP), and nonlinear periodized (NLP) resistance training models using split training routines. Twenty-seven strength-trained men were recruited and randomly assigned to one of 3 balanced groups: NP, LP, and NLP. Strength gains in the leg press and in the bench press exercises were assessed. There were no differences between the training groups in the exercise pre-tests (p > 0.05) (i.e., bench press and leg press). The NLP group was the only group to significantly increase maximum strength in the bench press throughout the 12-week training period. In this group, upper-body strength increased significantly from pre-training to 4 weeks (p < 0.0001), from 4 to 8 weeks (p = 0.004), and from 8 weeks to the post-training (p < 0.02). The NLP group also exhibited an increase in leg press 1 repetition maximum at each time point (pre-training to 4 weeks, 4-8 week, and 8 weeks to post-training, p < 0.0001). The LP group demonstrated strength increases only after the eight training week (p = 0.02). There were no further strength increases from the 8-week to the post-training test. The NP group showed no strength increments after the 12-week training period. No differences were observed in the anthropometric profiles among the training models. In summary, our data suggest that NLP was more effective in increasing both upper- and lower-body strength for trained subjects using split routines. PMID:19528843

  16. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  17. [The paternal constellation: a pilot study in prenatal period.].

    PubMed

    Cupa, D; Riazuelo-Deschamps, H

    2001-01-01

    In a research where the authors had argued that some maternal prenatal representations concerning the infant had a decisive impact on precocious interactions (Cupa et al., 1992), they have asked in parallel, what was the weight on these very same interactions of paternal representations during pregnancy, knowing that in this specific period psychic reorganization of the father are profound (Bouchard-Godard, 1976; Cupa et al., 1997). If, in the intertwining of the two theoretical fields where the authors situate their work, being that of psychoanalysis and developmental psychology, there is a an important literature on the father, results and contribution allow to appreciate the impact of studies on the father during pregnancy and present theoretical points of reference of the authors' hypotheses. The presentation of the following study is that of a comparative longitudinal research carried out from the 7th month of pregnancy to 9 months after birth. It appeared indeed to the authors that in order to explore simultaneously the two representational universes and to observe the effects on the triadic interactions, this type of methodology was the most relevant. The results proposed in the last part, only concern the analysis of paternal representations. PMID:18253593

  18. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-01

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials. PMID:24730675

  19. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  20. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  1. CCD photometric study and period investigation of V508 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, new CCD photometric observations of V508 Oph obtained in 2009 and 2010 at the Xinglong Observatory are presented. From the new observations, six new times of minimum light were derived. The light curves were analyzed by using the 2003 version of the Wilson–Devinney program. It is found that the asymmetric light curves can be modeled by a hot spot on the secondary component. The degree of overcontact is 15.4%, implying that the system is a shallow-contact binary. Combining the new times of minimum light with the photoelectric and CCD data compiled from the database, we investigate its orbital period. The results show that the orbital period may be undergoing multiple changes: a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=−(1.502±0.063)×10{sup −7} days year{sup −1}, and a small periodic variation with a period of 24.27(±0.34) years. Since V508 Oph is an overcontact system and both components are late-type stars, we discuss the possible connection between the mass transfer, magnetic activity, the third body, and the orbital period changes.

  2. a Comparative Study of Sfxts and Long-Period Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasano, Makoto; Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Yamada, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Super-giant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs), composed of super-giant stars and highly magnetized neutron stars, are characterized by a rather low luminosity in quiescence and very drastic flares. However, these features are also observed, at least to some extent, from other types of HMXBs, including in particular binary pulsars with long pulse periods (>1000 sec). Through wide-band spectroscopy with Suzaku, we aim at a comparison between SFXTs and long-period pulsars, with particular emphasis on the possibility that both have strong magnetic fields. So far, several SFXTs were observed with Suzaku, including IGR J16195-4945 in particular. We re-analyze the archival Suzaku data of this object, obtained on 2006 September 20 for 39 ksec. As reported by Morris et al. (2009), a prominent flare lasting for 10 ksec was recorded in the XIS (1- 10 keV) and HXD (12 - 40 keV) data. We found that the absorbing column density remained the same within ~10 % during the flare. Moreover, the flare was accompanied by weakening or broadening of the fluorescent Fe-K line. These results are inconsistent with the popular SFXT scenario that clumpy stellar winds occur flares. Instead, they prefer an alternative scenario of ``magnetic gating", which assumes the neutron star like magnetars Using Suzaku, we also analyzed the long-period pulsar 4U0114+65 on 2011 July 11 for 100 ksec. The XIS and the HXD detected clear flaring behavior. the known period of ˜10,000 sec which is indicative of strong magnetic field like magnetars was observed. We obtained spectra, with a clear fluorescent Fe-K line, over a very broad (1-100 keV) band From these results, we compare properties of SFXTs and long period pulsars, and discuss their possible relations to magnetars.

  3. Optical Studies of 20 Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, John R.; Peters, Christopher S.; Skinner, Julie N.

    2010-11-01

    We obtained time-series radial-velocity spectroscopy of 20 cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods Porb. All of the stars reported here prove to have Porb > 3.5 h. For 16 of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133 + 51), we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncrasies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133 + 51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 days) V344 Ori (0.234 days) VZ Sex (0.149 days) NSVS 1057 + 09 (0.376 days) V478 Her (0.629 days) V1059 Sgr (0.286 days) V1082 Sgr (0.868 days) FO Aql (0.217 days) V587 Lyr (0.275 days) V792 Cyg (0.297 days) V795 Cyg (0.181 days) V811 Cyg (0.157 days) V542 Cyg (0.182 days) PQ Aql (0.247 days) V516 Cyg (0.171 days) and VZ Aqr (0.161 days). Noteworthy results on individual stars are as follows. We see no indication of the underlying white dwarf star in V709 Cas, as has been previously claimed; based on the nondetection of the secondary star, we argue that the system is farther away that had been thought and the white dwarf contribution is probably negligible. V478 Her had been classified as an SU UMa-type dwarf nova, but this is incompatible with the long orbital period we find. We report the first secondary-star velocity curve for V1062 Tau. In V542 Cyg, we find a late-type contribution that remains stationary in radial velocity, yet the system is unresolved in a direct image, suggesting that it is a hierarchical triple system. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory, operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia

  4. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A single fiber electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, D; Fiaschi, A; Tomelleri, G; Orrico, D

    1978-06-01

    The neurophysiological findings obtained with standard electromyography (EMG) and single fiber EMG (SFEMG) in a case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HoPP) are reported. During the period between paralytic attacks the only abnormalities consisted of scanty fibrillation potentials and, with SFEMG, a fiber density increase. In the first stage of an induced paralytic attack the most striking feature was decrease in fiber density, slight increase in jitter with several blocks. These results indicate a failure of the membrane surface to propagate an action potential. In some fibers the block is likely to be permanent, thus explaining the decrease in fiber density. The jitter increase is due to a slight abnormality at the synaptic site or to a variation in the propagation velocity of the muscle fiber. PMID:690662

  5. Effects of a 12-Week Physical Activity Protocol Delivered by YMCA After-School Counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on Fitness and Self-Efficacy Changes in 5-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Westcott, Wayne L.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Unruh, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    To address reduced physical education (PE) in elementary schools, a 12-week physical activity protocol was tested on 5-12-year-old, primarily African American, girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 344) at 14 YMCA after-school care sites. The 3 times/week, 45-min session curriculum included cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training, in which…

  6. Breastfeeding, Maternal Depressive Mood and Room Sharing as Predictors of Sleep Fragmentation in 12-Week-Old Infants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Valerie; Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Paquette, Tyna; Nielsen, Tore

    2011-01-01

    Sleep fragmentation in infancy can burden a family by disrupting the sleep of all its members. However, there has been no longitudinal prospective investigation of the determinants of infant sleep fragmentation. We undertook such an investigation. New mothers (N = 106) completed questionnaires and were administered structured telephone interviews…

  7. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  8. New times of minimum and a period study for GO Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Louth, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Times of minimum derived from photometry obtained in 1963, 1967, 1978, and 1979 are presented. With these and previously published times, the period is studied. A constant period increase (quadratic ephemeris) represents most of the times but there was a period decrease in 1934 and possibly in 1984. A 50-year magnetic cycle is discussed.

  9. A Study of Periodical Literature Searching at an Urban Research Library: Problems and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    Patron use of periodical indexes at an urban academic research library was studied over a 7-week period in the summer of 1982. A total of 98 patrons were interviewed on a random basis as they used various periodical and newspaper indexes. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on citation elements, the methods patrons use to locate…

  10. Effects of feeding transgenic corn with mCry1Ac or maroACC gene to laying hens for 12 weeks on growth, egg quality and organ health.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Q; Chen, L; Gao, L X; Zhang, L L; Yao, B; Yang, X G; Zhang, H F

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding two transgenic corn lines containing the mCry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain (BT-799) and the maroACC gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (CC-2), respectively, on growth, egg quality and organ health indicators. Expression of the mCry1Ac gene confers resistance to Pyrausta nubilalis and the maroACC gene confers tolerance to herbicides. Healthy hens (n=96 placed in cages; 3 hens/cage) were randomly assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (8 cages/treatment) formulated with the following corn: non-transgenic near-isoline control corn (control), BT-799 corn, CC-2 corn and commercially available non-transgenic reference corn (reference). The experiment was divided into three 4-week phases (week 1 to 4, week 5 to 8 and week 9 to 12), during which hens were fed mash diets. Performance (BW, feed intake and egg production) and egg quality were determined. Following slaughter at the end of 12 weeks of feeding (n=8/treatment), carcass yield and organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, stomach and ovary) were recorded; organs and intestines were sampled for histological analysis. Analysis of serum biochemistry parameters to assess the liver and kidney function were performed. No differences in BW, egg production and production efficiency were observed between hens consuming the control diet and hens consuming the BT-799 or CC-2 diet. Haugh unit measures and egg component weights were similar between the control and test groups. Carcass yield was not affected by the diet treatment. Similar organosomatic indices and serum parameters did not indicate the characteristics of organ dysfunction. All observed values of the BT-799 and CC-2 groups were within the calculated tolerance intervals. This research indicates that the performance, egg quality, organ health and carcass yield of laying hens fed diets containing the BT-799 or CC-2 corn line were similar

  11. Period Studies of 79 Eccentric Eclipsing Binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, K.; Kang, Y. W.; Lee, C.-U.

    2014-08-01

    We present period studies for seventy-nine eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud. New times of minimum light were derived from the data obtained by the EROS, OGLE-II and OGLE-III surveys. Nineteen stars of the seventy-nine stars show period variation were confirmed. All of the systems were studied by means of an O-C diagram analyses. Nine systems show apsidal motion, six systems show parabola, and four systems show sinusoidal period variations, respectively.

  12. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  13. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  14. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interact to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week meal-controlled weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy foods enhance weight loss in animal models possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study aimed to determine in overweight women (ages 20-45; n=51) whether inclusion of dairy foods in an energy-restricted diet affects basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, and whet...

  15. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interacted to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week, meal-controlled, weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Witbracht, Megan G; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0-45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food. PMID:23190756

  16. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  17. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment...: In the Bering Strait. In this action, USCG is providing notice that the public comment period...

  18. Pore-network study of the characteristic periods in the drying of porous materials.

    PubMed

    Yiotis, Andreas G; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Yortsos, Yannis C

    2006-05-15

    We study the periods that develop in the drying of capillary porous media, particularly the constant rate (CRP) and the falling rate (FRP) periods. Drying is simulated with a 3-D pore-network model that accounts for the effect of capillarity and buoyancy at the liquid-gas interface and for diffusion through the porous material and through a boundary layer over the external surface of the material. We focus on the stabilizing or destabilizing effects of gravity on the shape of the drying curve and the relative extent of the various drying periods. The extents of CRP and FRP are directly associated with various transition points of the percolation theory, such as the breakthrough point and the main liquid cluster disconnection point. Our study demonstrates that when an external diffusive layer is present, the constant rate period is longer. PMID:16359693

  19. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  20. Histological evaluation of bone response to pediatric endodontic pastes: an experimental study in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Lacativa, Andréa Mara; Loyola, Adriano M; Sousa, Cassio José Alves

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate by the intra-osseous implant technique the most commonly used materials for pulp therapy in pediatric dentistry: calcium hydroxide (CH), Guedes Pinto paste and CTZ paste, according to FDI (1980) and ANSI/ADA (1982) recommendations. Thirty guinea pigs, 10 for each material, divided into experimental periods of 4 and 12 weeks received one implant on each side of the lower jaw symphysis. The external lateral tube wall served as control for the technique. At the end of the observation periods, the animals were euthanized and specimens were prepared for routine histological examination. It was observed that CH and CTZ paste induced severe inflammation, a large amount of necrotic tissue, lymphocytes, foreign body cells and bone resorption, while Guedes Pinto Paste induced little or no inflammation in the 4-week observation period. After 12 weeks, the reactions to CH and Guedes Pinto paste were also absent/mild, presenting a general pattern of replacement by recently formed bone tissue while a moderate to severe inflammatory response was observed with CTZ paste. Guedes Pinto paste presented acceptable biocompatibility levels in both analyzed periods; CH only showed acceptable biocompatibility in the 12-week period while CTZ paste showed no biocompatibility in both periods. Among the tested materials, only Guedes Pinto paste presented an acceptable biocompatibility. PMID:23338254

  1. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  2. U.S. Virtual School Trial Period and Course Completion Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Abigail; Barbour, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in policies virtual schools use to calculate course completion and retention rates impacts the comparability of these quality metrics. This study surveyed 159 U.S. virtual schools examining the variability in trial period and course completion policies--two policies that affect course completion rates. Of the 86 respondents, almost 70%…

  3. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--TIME-ACTIVITY DIARY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 428 time-activity diaries. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Time Diary and Activity Questionnaire was used for collecting data on detailed (daily) time and location inform...

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 444 follow-up questionnaires. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) ac...

  6. Quasiperiodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, J.; Demekhov, A. G.; Titova, E. E.; Kozlovsky, A. E.; Pasmanik, D. L.

    2014-05-01

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on 24 December 2011 during the VLF campaign in northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1-10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 h we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6-9 s for frequencies 1.2-4 kHz, respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers. In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with shorter periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and quasi-linear effects related to the modification of the energetic electron distribution function. It allows us to observe the transition from purely linear to quasi-linear regime of wave

  7. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  8. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  9. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  10. A study of a plume induced separation shock wave, including effects of periodic plume unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to study the flow field in which separation is caused by an expanding plume, with emphasis on effects associated with periodic unsteadiness in the plume. The separation shock was photographed with high speed motion pictures, from which mean shock position and excursion data were reported. Pressure fluctuations were measured beneath the separation shock. A response of the separation shock to plume periodic unsteadiness was identified, and the magnitude of a corresponding transfer function was defined. Small harmonic effects in plume response to periodic unsteadiness were noted. The stabilizing effect of a lateral surface protuberance near the separation shock wave was investigated. The protuberance configuration was a lateral circular cylinder, and various diameters, all less than the boundary layer thickness, were employed.

  11. Do periodic arm movements during sleep exist in healthy subjects? A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Wenning, Gregor K.; Frauscher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite several polysomnographic studies on periodic leg movements (PLM) in healthy sleep, data on the prevalence and characteristics of periodic arm movements (PAM) in normal subjects are lacking. We aimed to investigate PAM and their association with PLM during wakefulness and sleep in healthy subjects. Methods Ninety-one participants underwent video-polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2007 criteria. In addition to standard electromyographic registration, data for both flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were recorded. Results Sixty-two subjects (68.1%) had a PAM index during wakefulness >5/h (median PAM index during wakefulness, 8.8/h; range, 0–77). Seven subjects (7.7%) had a PAM index >5/h during sleep (median PAM index during sleep, 0.7/h; range, 0–47.4). In 14% of cases, PAM during wakefulness were coincident with PLM during wakefulness. During sleep, this coincidence was not evident. The correlation between PAM and PLM was weak to moderate (during wakefulness: Spearman's ρ = 0.576, P < 0.001; during sleep: Spearman's ρ = 0.222, P = 0.036). Conclusion In healthy subjects, PAM occur predominantly during wakefulness with no apparent true periodicity. In contrast to classical PLM, some PAM may not present a true periodic phenomenon, but rather random voluntary movements meeting the wide range of periodicity criteria for PLM. PMID:25037838

  12. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    PubMed

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  13. Study of modeling aspects of long period fiber grating using three-layer fiber geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The author studied and demonstrated the various modeling aspects of long period fiber grating (LPFG) such as the core effective index, cladding effective index, coupling coefficient, coupled mode theory, and transmission spectrum of the LPFG using three-layer fiber geometry. Actually, there are two different techniques used for theoretical modeling of the long period fiber grating. The first technique was used by Vengsarkar et al who described the phenomenon of long-period fiber gratings, and the second technique was reported by Erdogan who revealed the inaccuracies and shortcomings of the original method, thereby providing an accurate and updated alternative. The main difference between these two different approaches lies in their fiber geometry. Venserkar et al used two-layer fiber geometry which is simple but employs weakly guided approximation, whereas Erdogan used three-layer fiber geometry which is complex but also the most accurate technique for theoretical study of the LPFG. The author further discussed about the behavior of the transmission spectrum by altering different grating parameters such as the grating length, ultraviolet (UV) induced-index change, and grating period to achieve the desired flexibility. The author simulated the various results with the help of MATLAB.

  14. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  15. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  16. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  17. A Study of the Shortest-period Planets Found with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; El Mellah, Ileyk

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R ⊕, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  18. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  19. Self-consistent simulation studies of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Jameson, R. A.

    1995-09-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional model is used to investigate intense charged-particle beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing channel, particularly in the regime in which there is a mismatch between the beam and the focusing channel. The present self-consistent studies confirm that mismatched beams exhibit nonlinear resonances and chaotic behavior in the envelope evolution, as predicted by an earlier envelope analysis [C. Chen and R. C. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2195 (1994)]. Transient effects due to emittance growth are studied, and halo formation is investigated. The halo size is estimated. The halo characteristics for a periodic focusing channel are found to be qualitatively the same as those for a uniform focusing channel. A threshold condition is obtained numerically for halo formation in mismatched beams in a uniform focusing channel, which indicates that relative envelope mismatch must be kept well below 20% to prevent space-charge-dominated beams from developing halos.

  20. A study on characteristics of Methane emission from a periodically irrigated paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakikuromaru, N.; Iwata, T.; Yagi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is generated by organic matter decomposition in the anaerobic soil. Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia. It is said that about 10% of CH4sources is paddy fields (IPCC AR4, 2007). In this study, methane emission from a single-rice crop field was estimated by long-term micrometeorological measurements. Methane emission was calculated by the aerodynamic gradient technique from January 2011 to August 2014. Intermittent water management was carried out during cultivation period at the observational site, HCH, located in Okayama, Japan. 3-days flood and 4-days drained condition were regularly repeated from late-June to early October. Seasonal variations of CH4flux for irrigation term from 2011 to 2013 were shown in Fig.1. Remarkably large fluxes were shown at early stage of irrigation term in 2011.It seemed to be caused by the relatively longer flooded condition that the first flooded period was 20 days. Flux in 2012 was smaller than in other year through the entire irrigation period. Rapid rise in flux for early August and gradual decrease between late August and September were shown in 2013. Fluxes under drained condition showed larger emission than under flooded condition. Cumulative CH4 emissions during cultivated period from 2011 to 2013 were estimated 15.7, 8.6, and 12.9 gC/m2, respectively.

  1. The study of periodic changes in altitude of the satellite permanent stations of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiy, Lyubov; Tretyak, Kornyliy; Smirnova, Olha; Kulchyckiy, Andriy

    2013-04-01

    The following investigations were implemented in order to study the period of harmonic oscillations of time series of permanent GNSS stations, which are caused by various geophysical factors. A database of daily time series had been created for 111 permanent stations, there observations were running for at least 3 years. Permanent stations cover the latitudinal zone within +600 to -600. Algorithm and program for processing time series and determination of the optimal harmonic functions were developed. Kinematics model of the satellite station is described by the following equation h = at+b+c*cos(t-t0-n*p)+s*sin(t-t0-n*p), where a,b - coefficients of regression equation of linear displacement of station; c,s - harmonic coefficients, t-t0 - time observations at the station, n - number of periods of oscillation p, which fit in the interval t-t0. Presented equation was calculated at each epoch of observations for each station and coefficients a, b, c, s were determined by the method of least squares. On database 60 stations were selected for the study. The criterion for selection was the availability of clearly specified minimum of function of standard deviation of approximate curve from measurement results depending on the duration of the period of oscillations. From the analysis of created database it can be argued that harmonic oscillations of permanent stations depend on geographic station location and location of satellite receivers. According to results of processing it was defined that amplitude of periodical oscillations is changing in the bounds from 2.0 mm till 10.2 mm; period - from 348.9 days till 392,7 days. The largest amplitudes of function of harmonic oscillations are on the permanent stations that are in the heart of the continent, and the smallest amplitudes are on the stations placed along the coastline and on the islands, which apparently due to the capacity of the Earth's crust. It should be noted that the maximums of oscillation amplitudes of

  2. Statistical study on magnetotail lobe waves with period 40 - 600 s observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Tielong; Volwerk, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Ultra low frequency (ULF) waves play an important role in energy transport and dissipation in the magnetosphere. In this paper, 263 waves with period 40 - 150 s and 161 waves with period 150 - 600 s in the Earth's magnetotail lobe have been studied by using Cluster data from years 2001 to 2009. Our findings are as follows: (1) 90% of the wave amplitudes with period 40 - 150 s are below ~0.25 nT for transverse components, and ~0.16 nT for compressional component; The amplitudes of longer period waves are somewhat larger; For waves with period 150 - 600 s, 90% of the wave amplitudes are below ~0.36 nT and ~0.39 nT for transverse and compressional components, respectively. (2) Waves within 40 - 150 s prefer to occur in the lobe region close to the plasma sheet, while waves within 150 - 600 s can be observed throughout the lobe region; (3) The amplitudes of lobe waves and AE index are weakly correlated; However, we find that amplitudes tend to be larger when the AE index is larger; (4) Amplitudes also tend to be larger when the solar wind velocity, the solar wind dynamic pressure or its variations (∆PSW) is larger; The correlation coefficient between amplitudes of waves within 150 - 600 s and ∆PSW is up to ~0.58. We suggest that both dynamic pressure in the plasma sheet boundary layer or plasma sheet (inner source) and solar wind conditions (outer source) can contribute to the generation of lobe ULF waves; Waves within 40 - 150 s are effected more by inner source; ∆PSW is more associated with compressional waves within 150 - 600 s than that within 40 - 150 s.

  3. A Study of Heliospheric Modulation and Periodicities of Galactic Cosmic Rays During Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Kudela, K.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2016-02-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are energetic, charged particles coming from outside the solar system. These particles encounter an outward-moving turbulent solar wind with cyclic magnetic-field fluctuations when entering the heliosphere. This causes convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. The GCR counts detected by the ground-based neutron-monitor stations show intensity changes with a fluctuation of ˜ 11 years and are anti-correlated with the sunspot numbers with some time lags. GCRs experience various types of modulation from different solar activity features and are important components of space weather. The previous solar cycle, Cycle 23, has shown anomalous behavior with a prolonged deep minimum, which was characterized by a record-setting high Galactic cosmic-ray flux observed at Earth. Solar Cycle 24 started much later than expected and progressed sluggishly toward its maxima. In this paper, we study the heliospheric modulation and intermediate-term periodicities of GCRs during the ascending phase of Cycle 24. We utilize simultaneous solar, interplanetary plasma, magnetic field, and geomagnetic activity data including the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet, and we study their relation with GCRs. The wavelet power spectrum of GCRs exhibits the presence of a variety of prominent short- and mid-term periodicities including the well-known Rieger and quasi-biennial periodicities. Possible explanations of the observed results are discussed in the light of numerical models.

  4. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  5. Study of Ocean Response to Periodic and Constant Volcanic Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogar, M.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that volcanic radiative impacts could produce long-term perturbations of the ocean heat content. In this study we systematically compare the effect of periodic volcanic forcing with an equivalent time-average radiative cooling. One could expect that a sporadic strong cooling should initiate more vigorous vertical mixing of the upper ocean layer and therefore cools the ocean more effectively than a uniform radiative forcing. However, the long-term simulations show that on average the ocean heat content responses to periodic and constant forcings are almost identical. To better understand this controversy we conducted two sets of parallel simulations, the first one with uniform volcanic forcing and the second one with periodic volcanic forcing with 10 and 50 years repeating cycle using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model CM2.1. We found that average perturbations of surface temperature, precipitation, ocean heat content, and sea level rise in both sets of simulations are similar but responses of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation are significantly different, which explains the differences in the relaxation processes. These findings could be important for ocean initialization in long-tern climate studies and for geoengineering applications.

  6. Studies of short-period comets on the eve of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Cometas-Obs Team

    2015-05-01

    We present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short-period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterized the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 81P/Wild 2, 103P/Hartley 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185P/Petriew, P/2011 W2 (Rinner).

  7. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on pressure loss for periodic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Ondřej; Nováková, Ludmila; Adamec, Josef

    2016-03-01

    A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risk for people. In the last work, experimental investigation of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape for steady flow were performed. In this work, experimental investigation of pressure loss for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape under periodic flow were performed. Four models of different geometry were studied, two models are axisymmetric stenoses and two models are eccentric stenoses. All models were stenosis of 75% area reduction. The periodic flow, generated by a controllable pump, has sinus shape in an inlet. The measuring range of medium Reynolds number was from 500 to 1500, range of ratio between an amplitude and medium flow rate was from 0.2 to 0.6 and range of frequency was from 0.2 to 1 Hz. The pressure loss for each conditions was quantified by mean value, amplitude and phase shift against flow rate.

  8. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America. PMID:23856041

  9. Use of PIXE analysis technique for the study of Beirut amphora production in the Roman period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumié, M.; Waksman, S. Y.; Nsouli, B.; Reynolds, P.; Lemaı̂tre, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis techniques were developed and utilized for applications in the domain of archeology at the accelerator laboratory of the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission. The characterization of Beirut kiln materials, mainly amphorae ceramics from the Roman period, was done using PIXE technique. In two runs with 1 and 3 MeV protons, we measured 20 major and trace elements. Consequently, a classification based on the elemental composition and on multivariate statistical techniques of some 70 ceramic objects was obtained providing the first step of a Lebanese database for future studies. Furthermore, the analysis of carrot amphorae found in Gaul (south of France) showed that some of them were of Beirut products and hence emphasized the role of Beirut city in the Mediterranean trade in the Roman period.

  10. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  11. Serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the management of perennial and periodic asthma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Purohit, A; Stenger, R; Gries, P; Hamberger, C; David, B; Frossard, N; Pauli, G

    1998-03-01

    We performed a prospective study in order: 1) to determine whether a correlation could be found between serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and clinical and functional status in perennial asthmatics during a 5 month prospective study; and 2) to evaluate the relationship between allergic exposure and ECP levels in periodic asthmatics. Two groups of asthmatic patients were selected: a group of acutely ill perennial asthmatics and a group of periodic asthmatics. The acutely ill perennial asthmatics (n=22, mean age=39.4 yrs) were included on the basis of hospitalization for acute asthma. At the end of the hospitalization, there was a 5 month follow-up of clinical, functional and medication scores, as well as eosinophil counts and ECP levels. The periodic asthmatic group was composed of asthmatics sensitized to birch and tree pollens (n=10, mean age=33.8 yrs). The same measurement were performed on this group, before, during and after the pollen season. Under corticosteroid treatment in the acutely ill patients, there was a significant decrease in serum ECP levels between the first day of hospitalization and the day of discharge (mean: 23.2 microg x L(-1) and 9.5 microg x L(-1), respectively; p=0.006). No correlation was found between the clinical status, functional status and serum ECP levels during the 5 month follow-up. A significant increase in ECP levels was found in periodic asthmatics during the pollen season. Our results suggest that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a useful marker of allergen exposure and of acute asthma treatment. This could be of importance in the prevention and follow-up of allergic asthma; the value of serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the day-to-day management of adult asthmatics needs to be further clarified. PMID:9596108

  12. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  13. The transfer of comets from parabolic orbits to short-period orbits: Numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. A.; Gallardo, T.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer process of long-period (LP) comets from parabolic orbits to short-period (SP) orbits is studied numerically for small perihelion distances (q less than 2 AU) and for perihelia in the Jupiter's zone (4 less than q less than 5.2 AU). Two different numerical approaches are used. For q less than 2 AU, it is shown that the inclination distribution of a population of LP comets with initial random orientations of their orbital planes (i.e. a sinusoidal distribution of i) evolves toward a flatter distribution by the combination of two dynamical effects. When the number of passages is limited by physical causes, less comets in retrograde orbits are found to reach evolved states owing to their slower evolution. This can explain the depletion of retrograde comets among the observed old LP comets (200 less than P less than 1000 yr) and intermediate-period (IP) comets (20 less than P less than 200 yr) with q less than 2 AU, which suggests average physical lifetimes of about 300-500 revolutions for comets moving through the LP path. For q less than 2 AU the probability of capture of a LP comet into an IP orbit is found to be about 0.01 when an upper limit of 400 revolutions is considered. This gives a steady-state population of intermediate-period comets of the Halley type with q less than 2 AU of approximately equal 300 members. Long-period comets evolving in the Jupiter's zone (4 less than q less than 5.2 AU) from an initial population of randomly oriented, parabolic comets reach the intermediate-period stage with an inclination distribution already biased toward direct orbits without considering physical losses. This is due to the stronger dependence of the typical energy change on the inclination, which results in a much lower transfer probability for retrograde orbits. Randomly-oriented LP comets captured in SP orbits, either from the small-q zone or from the Jupiter's zone, show dynamical properties that do not match the observed ones. There are also serious

  14. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS). Results PCOS (n=508) and non-PCOS (n=508) participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit) and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit). A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137) and non-PCOS participants (n=137) (−18.5±6.6 kg vs −19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190). Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08). Conclusion Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight loss in PCOS. PMID:26508882

  15. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  16. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  17. Vector method for studying the second-harmonic-generation light derived from complex periodic ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihong; Yang, Xiangbo; Wang, Zhenyu

    2010-05-01

    In this Letter, in order to overcome the disadvantages of controlling the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) light derived from the traditional one-dimensional (1D) periodic ferroelectric domains we propose a kind of so-called complex periodic ferroelectric structure (CPFS), which unit cell is composed of even layers of positive and negative domains arranged alternatively following aperiodic sequence. It is found that comparing with the traditional periodic structure, CPFS cannot offer more reciprocal vector compensations for the mismatching phase, but CPFS may provide larger effective nonlinear coefficients (ENCs) in high-order quasi-phase-matching (QPM) and possesses advantages of the amplitude modulation for SHG peaks. In this Letter we study CPFS by use of vector method (VM), where the contribution to ENC for each domain or each unit cell will be treated as a vector and the QPM condition for CPFS and the modulation effect of aperiodic unit cells have been obtained. Without any Fourier transformation VM treats the grating function in real space and will be very convenient and intuitive. Both VM and CPFS would possess potential applications in the field of SHG investigations.

  18. THE FEASIBILITY AND EFFICACY OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE WITH OLDER CANCER SURVIVORS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    LaStayo, Paul C.; Larsen, Stephanie; Smith, Sheldon; Dibble, Lee; Marcus, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Older individuals who have survived cancer, and the commensurate treatment, often experience a reduced quality of life in part due to their impaired muscular abilities and deficits in mobility. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of resistance exercise via negative, eccentrically-induced work (RENEW) with older cancer survivors. Methods Older cancer survivors with a perception of moderate muscle weakness and fatigue participated in 12 weeks of RENEW. Measures of feasibility included: 1) the participant’s ability to progress the total amount of work of RENEW; 2) whether peak knee extension torque production became impaired; and 3) whether RENEW induced leg muscle pain as measured on a visual analog scale. The preliminary measure of efficacy included: the performance of a timed up and go mobility test. Results The participants significantly increased the total average work per week over the 12 weeks of RENEW. Participants increased (p<0.001) their work ~3-fold from week 3 (7.6± 5.1 kJ) to week 12 (22.1±14.8kJ) without muscle pain over the 12 week RENEW training period. Knee extension peak torque production improved (11%) significantly (p=0.02) (pretest: 248 ±92 N; posttest: 275±99 N) after 12 weeks of RENEW. The time to perform the TUG test improved (14%) significantly (p<0.001) (pretest: 8.4±2.7; posttest: 7.2±2.3 s) after 12 weeks of RENEW, suggesting preliminary efficacy. Conclusion Collectively, RENEW appears feasible and potentially efficacious for older, weak and fatigued cancer survivors. Implications for Cancer Survivors The use of eccentric muscle exercise may be ideally suited for older cancer survivors due to its high force and low energetic cost capabilities. PMID:21155509

  19. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  20. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  1. Physicians' views of periodic abstinence methods: a study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Snowden, R; Kennedy, K I; Leon, F; Orense, V C; Perera, H W; Phillips, R; Askew, I; Flynn, A; Severy, L J

    1988-01-01

    A study of the knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions of physicians regarding periodic abstinence (PA) methods was undertaken in Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Most respondents considered PA to be useful, although even the PA providers prescribed mainly non-PA methods. Detailed knowledge of PA methods was not evident, but most physicians were willing to initiate general discussion about PA with patients. Physicians favored methods perceived as "scientific" and "modern," which primarily prevent pregnancy and secondarily avoid other health risks. When carefully presented as "scientific" and "modern," methods presented to medical audiences may find acceptance and be more likely to result in referral. PMID:3176094

  2. A study of periodicities and recurrences in solar activity and cosmic ray modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attolini, M. R.; Cecchini, S.; Galli, M.

    1985-01-01

    The 154d periodicity was found in the cosmic ray intensity (RE) vs Flares, and some other peaks of coherency in the RC vs aa sub I, that when interpreted as aliased values, might correspond to recurring interplanetary magnetic field structures and solar wind streams. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of the correspondence with aa are of terrestrial origin. This study cannot be considered exhaustive due to the fact that other solar variables, such as polar hole size, are possibly correlated to cosmic ray intensities. However, the number of observations is small so that the interpretation of the results is very difficult.

  3. Studying Jupiter-Family Comets and Long Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, E. A.; Fernandez, Y.; Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A.; Walker, R. G.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Lisse, C.; Meech, K. J.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Tholen, D. J.; Wright, E.

    2011-10-01

    The WISE mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands from Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2011. By covering the entire sky, WISE serendipitously observed a large number of active comets. We will present preliminary results from the analysis of several Jupiter-family comets and long period comets (listed in Table 1). The analysis will characterize various properties of each body, including dust production rate, grain properties, nucleus size estimates, albedo constraints, and constraints of the CO/CO2 gas emission. Several of these objects were also observed as part of the Spitzer SEPPCoN program, allowing comparisons to be made between these two studies.

  4. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  5. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  6. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition. PMID:23011657

  7. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  8. Study on the Period of the Use of Datong-li in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young-Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lim, Young-Ryan

    2010-03-01

    It has been generally known that Datong-li (a Chinese calendar in the Ming dynasty)was first introduced into Korea in the nineteenth reign of King Gongmin (1370) of the Goryeo dynasty and lasted to the third reign of King Hyeojong (1652) of the Joseon dynasty. This understanding is based on the records of Goryeo-sa (History of the Goryeo dynasty) and of Seoungwan-ji (Official book of Seoungwan)/ Jeungbomunheon bigo (Explanatory Notes of Library ocument). To verify the period of the use of Datong-li in Korea, we develop a Fortran code to calculate the calendar day by Datong-li and also investigate historical literatures and extant almanacs. As a result, we find the possibility that Datong-li had been in use since 1389 at least. However,we cannot confirm whether Datong-li was first enforced in 1370 or not. On the other hand, we confirm that Datong-li was used until 1653 and reintroduced during the period from 1667 to 1669. Also, we find that previous studies had some errors in the sexagenary cycle of the real first day of a month. We think that this study will contribute to understanding the calendrical history of the Joseon dynasty.

  9. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  10. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  11. Modeling the Canadian southern Atlantic region oxidants: A study of a Canadian EMEFS-1 hyperintensive period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wanmin; Lin, Xiude; MéNard, Sylvain; Pellerin, Pierre; Benoit, Robert

    1999-08-01

    The roles and mechanisms of transport and chemical transformation affecting surface ozone in the Canadian southern Atlantic region (SAR) are investigated using a three-dimensional Eulerian comprehensive modeling system. The investigation is focused a regional ozone episode over the eastern North America during the first week of August 1988. The model performance is evaluated with available observations during this period. The model is shown to reproduce the general features of this regional episode, with better performance for the sites with clear local photochemical activities than for those strongly influenced by complex coastal flow. It is shown from the reconstructed time history of various processes along the backward trajectories originating from a site in Nova Scotia that the elevated ground-level ozone in the SAR during the study period was associated with transport at low levels, under a strong southwesterly flow. The high ozone brought to the site was mostly produced within the stable marine boundary layer from precursors picked up earlier over the emission area on the east coast of the United States. A second transport situation was also simulated and shown to be associated with transport aloft that was never mixed to the surface. This study also shows that differential advection, due to stable stratification and vertical shear of horizontal wind, can deform surface-based plumes to produce elevated layers of pollutants over the Gulf of Maine.

  12. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  13. A comparative study of four significance measures for periodicity detection in astronomical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne P.; Eyer, Laurent; Cuypers, Jan; Holl, Berry; Lecoeur-Taïbi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Blanco, Diego Ordóñez; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Ruiz, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    We study the problem of periodicity detection in massive data sets of photometric or radial velocity time series, as presented by ESA's Gaia mission. Periodicity detection hinges on the estimation of the false alarm probability of the extremum of the periodogram of the time series. We consider the problem of its estimation with two main issues in mind. First, for a given number of observations and signal-to-noise ratio, the rate of correct periodicity detections should be constant for all realized cadences of observations regardless of the observational time patterns, in order to avoid sky biases that are difficult to assess. Secondly, the computational loads should be kept feasible even for millions of time series. Using the Gaia case, we compare the FM method of Paltani and Schwarzenberg-Czerny, the Baluev method and the GEV method of Süveges, as well as a method for the direct estimation of a threshold. Three methods involve some unknown parameters, which are obtained by fitting a regression-type predictive model using easily obtainable covariates derived from observational time series. We conclude that the GEV and the Baluev methods both provide good solutions to the issues posed by a large-scale processing. The first of these yields the best scientific quality at the price of some moderately costly pre-processing. When this pre-processing is impossible for some reason (e.g. the computational costs are prohibitive or good regression models cannot be constructed), the Baluev method provides a computationally inexpensive alternative with slight biases in regions where time samplings exhibit strong aliases.

  14. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Melannie; Burch, James B; Steck, Susan E; Chen, Chin-Fu; Hurley, Thomas G; Cavicchia, Philip; Ray, Meredith; Shivappa, Nitin; Guess, Jaclyn; Zhang, Hongmei; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Creek, Kim E; Lloyd, Stephen; Yang, Xiaoming; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the 'period' (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9-4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4-18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7-5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample. PMID:25501848

  15. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  16. Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.

    2011-06-01

    The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_⊙/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

  17. Nanoscale periodic domain patterns in tetragonal ferroelectrics: A phase-field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuka Balakrishna, A.; Huber, J. E.; Münch, I.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectrics form domain patterns that minimize their energy subject to imposed boundary conditions. In a linear, constrained theory, that neglects domain-wall energy, periodic domain patterns in the form of multirank laminates can be identified as minimum-energy states. However, when these laminates (formed in a macroscopic crystal) comprise domains that are a few nanometers in size, the domain-wall energy becomes significant, and the behavior of laminate patterns at this scale is not known. Here, a phase-field model, which accounts for gradient energy and strain energy contributions, is employed to explore the stability and evolution of the nanoscale multirank laminates. The stress, electric field, and domain-wall energies in the laminates are computed. The effect of scaling is also discussed. In the absence of external loading, stripe domain patterns are found to be lower-energy states than the more complex, multirank laminates, which mostly collapse into simpler patterns. However, complex laminates can be stabilized by imposing external loads such as electric field, average strain, and polarization. The study provides insight into the domain patterns that may form on a macroscopic single crystal but comprising nanoscale periodic patterns, and on the effect of external loads on these patterns.

  18. Refractory period modulates the spatiotemporal evolution of cortical spreading depression: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Chen, Shangbin; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a pathophysiological phenomenon, which underlies some neurological disorders, such as migraine and stroke, but its mechanisms are still not completely understood. One of the striking facts is that the spatiotemporal evolution of CSD wave is varying. Observations in experiments reveal that a CSD wave may propagate through the entire cortex, or just bypass some areas of the cortex. In this paper, we have applied a 2D reaction-diffusion equation with recovery term to study the spatiotemporal evolution of CSD. By modulating the recovery rate from CSD in the modeled cortex, CSD waves with different spatiotemporal evolutions, either bypassing some areas or propagating slowly in these areas, were present. Moreover, spiral CSD waves could also be induced in case of the transiently altered recovery rate, i.e. block release from the absolute refractory period. These results suggest that the refractory period contributes to the different propagation patterns of CSD, which may help to interpret the mechanisms of CSD propagation. PMID:24400104

  19. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused disasters around the world. To prevent losses by floods, levees have often been constructed in inundation-prone areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao First Levee in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered: the slope sliding failure of the levee and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variability of the in situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the change of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee could fail with slope sliding for all values of the water level difference. The results of levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could aid engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  20. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS) for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  1. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  2. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  3. Period Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors of Hypertension in Rural Maharashtra: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Todkar, Sampatti Sambhaji; Gujarathi, Venktesh V; Tapare, Vinay S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is most common cardiovascular disease and it account for large proportion of all cardiovascular deaths and disability worldwide. Research Questions: What is the level of prevalence of hypertension in rural area? What are the soociodemographic factors associated with hypertension? Objectives: To find out prevalence of hypertension in rural area. Study Design: A community-based cross-sectional study setting: Rural Health Training Centre Paithan, field practice area of govt. medical college Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Participants: 1297 persons aged 19 years and above. Study Period: June 2005 to December 2006. Materials and Methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted by the author himself, interviewed the participants by systematic random sampling method, using pretested structured standard questionnaire. Two independent blood pressure (BP) readings were taken in sitting position by visiting each participant at their home. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP more than or equal to 140 mm of Hg or diastolic BP more than or equal to 90 mm of Hg or those individuals currently taking antihypertensive treatment. Statistical Tests: Percentiles, Chi Square test, Chi-Square for linear trend, multiple logistic regression analysis on SPSS software Version 10. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the study subjects was 7.24%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified various factors significantly associated with hypertension were age, sex, BMI, additional salt intake, smoking, DM, alcohol consumption, and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of hypertension in study subjects was 7.24%. PMID:20049292

  4. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  5. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  6. A Retrospective Study of Marjolin's Ulcer Over an Eleven Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Vasu Reddy; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Ashwatha Reddy, Madhusudana Bommasandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Marjolin's ulcer is a rare aggressive cutaneous malignancy occurring in previously occurred wounds. The most common aetiology is a burn wound involving extremities and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analyses of medical records of patients treated in a single unit with a diagnosis of Marjolin's ulcer was performed. Results: During the study period, 14 patients were treated. Four patients had lymph node metastases and one had pulmonary metastases at the time of presentation. Seven patients underwent wide excision with reconstruction and seven underwent amputation or disarticulation because of advanced malignancy. During the follow up two patients developed local recurrence and one developed pulmonary metastases. Both the patients with pulmonary metastases had Marjolin's ulcer of trunk. Conclusion: Marjolin's ulcer occurs more commonly in the extremities. Distant metastases occur commonly in patients with ulcers on the of trunk. PMID:25538436

  7. Density functional periodic study of the dehydrogenation of methane on Pd (1 1 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Li, Lu; Xu, Jie; Fang, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption and dehydrogenation mechanism of CH4 on Pd (1 1 1) surface was studied using density functional theory (DFT) together with periodic slab models. According to the optimized structural and energetic properties, it was found that CH3 prefers to adsorb on the top sites of the Pd metal surface. Whereas CH2, CH, and H prefer to adsorb on the fcc sites, and C prefers to adsorb on the hcp sites. In addition, this work identified the optimum configurations for the stable co-adsorption configurations of CHx and H. Finally, four transition states were found for analyzing the mechanism of dehydrogenation of CH4. The results show that the dehydrogenation of CH moiety is relatively difficult and the dehydrogenation of CH3 is the rate-determining step in the overall reaction.

  8. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  9. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  10. Is There a Critical Period for Amblyopia Therapy? Results of a Study on Older Anisometropic Amblyopes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Amblyopia, a common cause of low vision, is rarely treated in adults. Improvement in vision has been seen beyond the critical period at times. Hence, this study was taken up to study the effect of minimal occlusion therapy (2-4 hours/day) in anisometropic amblyopic patients in the age group of 12-30 years. Materials and Methods The study is a prospective, randomized case series of anisometropic amblyopia patients aged 12-30 years who reported in the outpatient department of Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Thorough ocular examination and cycloplegic refraction was done to rule out other ocular disease. Anisometropic Amblyopia was diagnosed only after four weeks of spectacle wear. The selected patients were then advised occlusion therapy of 2-4 hours per day of better eye with stress on near visual task. Videogames, computers, mobile phone gaming and colouring in especially designed patterns were used as vision training aids. The outcome measure selected was best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) achieved that remained stable for three consecutive months of occlusion. Results Sixty one patients of anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study (32 males and 29 females) aged 12-30 years (mean age 17 years). Mean BCVA at the start of treatment was 20/125 (0.8 log MAR units) and 20/32 (0.2 log MAR units) at the end of the treatment. Thirty three patients (54%) out of 61 had BCVA of 20/20, while 58 patients (95%) had ≥ 20/40 BCVA, 01(1.6%) had 20/50 and 02 (3.27%) had 20/80 BCVA at the end of therapy. The results were statistically significant (p- value <0.0001) with a 95% confidence interval. Conclusion This study clearly proves that there is no critical period for the treatment in older (12-30 years) anisometropic amblyope. Even 2-4 hours per day of occlusion of better eye with vision training thorough near visual task of amblyopic eye is effective. However, counseling and patient compliance is

  11. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  12. Medical trainees’ experiences and perceptions towards elective period; a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nyongesa, Henry; Mokua, Winstar; Adegu, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical electives make significant contribution in the training of medical students on healthcare outside their affiliated academic institutions. During this period, learners get exposed to different healthcare systems, diagnostic, medical and surgical techniques as well as appreciate existing challenges. Objective To assess experiences encountered by medical students during their electives. Methods A cross sectional study was commissioned among level 5 medical students of University of Nairobi in July 2013. A random sample of 125 students was invited to fill in self structured questionnaires after obtaining informed consent. The questionnaire which had initially been pretested on 25 nursing students comprised bio data, place, duration, funding, experiences and challenges of electives. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 20 and computed in terms of frequencies and percentages. Results There were 76 (60.8% response rate) respondents with majority being males and staying in university hostel. Most of them had undertaken electives in Africa which were organized by themselves and funded mostly by their parents. There was overall positive attitude towards electives with majority (80.3%) claiming it to provide all rounded training. However, financial, transport and language barrier were identified as the main challenges (41.1%, 18.8% and 14.3%, respectively). There was a call by more than 80% of respondents for the university to collaborate with host institutions and provide stipend to cover living expenses mostly. Conclusion The acquisition of practical skills involved in the treatment of patients forms the basis for high expectation of electives among medical trainees. It is evident that most of the participants would desire the scaling up of entire elective period through institutional collaborations and logistical support. PMID:25328586

  13. Admission to psychiatric hospital in the early and late postpartum periods: Scottish national linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Langan Martin, Julie; McLean, Gary; Cantwell, Roch; Smith, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe weekly admission rates for affective and non-affective psychosis, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in the early and late postpartum periods. To assess the impact of socioeconomic status, age and parity on admission rates. Methods Scottish maternity records were linked to psychiatric hospital admissions. 3290 pregnancy-related psychiatric admissions were assessed. Weekly admission rates were calculated for the pregnancy period, early postpartum period (6 weeks after birth) and late postpartum period (up to 2 years after birth), and compared with pre-pregnancy rates (up to 2 years before pregnancy). Admission rates were generated by calculating the total number of admissions for each time period divided by the number of weeks in the period. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were generated for each time period, using deprivation, age, parity and record of previous psychiatric hospital care-adjusted Poisson regression models. Results Women from more deprived social quintiles accounted for the largest proportion of admissions across all time periods. Compared with pre-pregnancy period, admission rates fell during pregnancy, increased markedly during the early postpartum period, and remained elevated for 2 years after childbirth. Within the most affluent quintile, admission IRRs were higher in the early postpartum period (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.59) than in the late postpartum period (IRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98). For the late postpartum period, there was a positive association between higher maternal age and admission IRRs (ages 20–35 years, IRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.54 and age>40 years IRR=1.72, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.09). Conclusions Rates of psychiatric admission fell during pregnancy and increased in the early postpartum period (particularly during the first 2 weeks after birth), and remained elevated above baseline during the 2-year late postpartum period. An understanding of how social deprivation, age and parity

  14. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  15. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  16. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  17. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  18. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  19. Depression in Men in the Postnatal Period and Later Child Psychology: A Population Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Heron, Jon; Murray, Lynne; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The factors responsible for depression in men following childbirth and the association between their depression in the postnatal period and later psychiatric disorders in their children are assessed. Findings show that depression in fathers in their postnatal period is associated with later psychiatric disorders in their children, independent of…

  20. Periodical Usage in a Small Liberal Arts Library: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossi, Kathy J.

    The information needs of a small liberal arts library whose curriculum does not support a science or technology research program will differ from the information needs of a major research institution. Likewise, periodical usage will also differ with the two types of libraries. This investigation examines the patterns of periodical usage identified…

  1. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (MONITORING PERIOD 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 follow-up questionnaires collected during the first week-long monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) activities during the sampling period to explain ...

  2. [Observational study of black carbon aerosol during straw-burning period].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-xia; Wei, Qing-nong; Wei, Jian-li; Liu, Shi-sheng; Feng, Wei-wei

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon aerosol (BC) has been measured at three sites in Hefei City during May and June, 2007. Analyzing these real-time BC data, the concentration characters and the sources of black carbon aerosol can be found. The average concentrations of BC in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.85 microg/m3 and 8.38 microg/m3, respectively. The significant difference shows that the straw-burning is one of the main sources. The correlation coefficients between daily average concentration of BC and PM10 is 0.74, while the values of BC/PM10 in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.7% and 7.9%, respectively. Through comparing to the BC concentration during straw-burning period in 2004, the results indicated that pollution of BC has reduced after straw-burning was forbidden by the government. PMID:19256359

  3. Experimental study of periodic linear internal waves transform at the shelf edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkina, Olga; Litvin, Alexander; Vladimirova, Eleonora; Ivanov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Vladlen

    2010-05-01

    The report contains results of the experimental study of the fine structure of hydrophysical processes of internal waves transform in the shelf zone observed within a thin thermocline. A series of experiments was performed in the stratified tank with its overall dimensions L*B*H = 2.15*0.15*0.35 m where the model of the shelf has been installed. The shadowgraph IAB-455 as well as the multidot spatial system of 40 thermocouples were used for distance and contact measurements. Methods of a digital video fixation of shadow pictures of currents in the thermally stratified liquid, as well as methods of the statistical analysis of non-stationary hydrodynamic processes were applied. As a result of the series of experiments it was revealed that interaction of internal waves in the pycnocline with the shelf model leads to transformation of the internal waves, formation of currents of vortical and turbulent character and water mass mixture. The observations concern a case of creation of a package of five periodic internal waves made in the pycnocline by a submerged wave-maker. Acknowledgement: this work is supported through NWO-RFBR Project (Code: 047.017.2006.003).

  4. Unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on low coordinated Pd surface: A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption of several unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules on a stepped Pd(4 2 2) surface was studied. Using a periodic method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism, different adsorption geometries for ethylene, three butene isomers ( cis/ trans-2-butene and 1-butene), acetylene and 2-butyne were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for a free defect surface as Pd(1 1 1). The 1-butene is more stable on the free defect surface than on Pd(4 2 2). On the stepped surface, the olefins adsorb tilted towards the step and increases, in almost all the cases, the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Conversely, the 3-fold site is the most stable for the alkynes adsorption on the stepped surface, as it was found on Pd(1 1 1). The analysis of the dipole moment change indicate a charge transfer from the double bond of the olefin to the metallic surface, being higher for the Pd(1 1 1) surface. In case of the alkynes, an important back-donation is produced. Except the alkynes and the 1-butene molecule, the results show the preference of ethylene and cis/ trans-2-butene to be adsorbed on the stepped surface. These observations are related with experimental catalytic results.

  5. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation change during the Younger Dryas cold period: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renssen, Hans

    2016-04-01

    In Northwest Europe, proxy-based reconstructions have suggested that the Younger Dryas cold period may be sub-divided in a relatively cold and humid first part and a warmer and drier second part. In Scandinavia, the later part of the Younger Dryas climate was characterized by a notable increase in variability. These changes in climatic conditions during the Younger Dryas event have been linked to a northward shift of both the winter sea-ice margin in the North Atlantic Ocean and the main storm track. Recently, we performed transient simulations of the Younger Dryas climate, performed with a global climate model. In this study, we perform a spatiotemporal analysis of these model results to see to what extent our model has been capable to reproduce the reconstructed changes in precipitation. In our Younger Dryas simulation, the main storm track is located at 55°N, resulting in relatively high precipitation rates in mid-latitude Europe. In contrast, our model suggests dry conditions in Northern and Southern Europe.

  7. Particle-core study of halo dynamics in periodic-focusing channels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tai-Sen F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to investigate the dynamics of halo particles in mismatched charged-particle beams propagating through periodic-focusing channels using the particle-core model. The proposed method employs canonical transformations to minimize, in new phase-space variables, the flutter due to the periodic focusing to allow making stroboscopic plots. Applying this method, we find that in periodic-focusing systems, certain particles initially not in the halo region can be brought into resonance with the core oscillation to become halo particles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test forpatients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy:a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Hitomi; Genno, Hirokazu; Shiba, Naoko; Nakamura, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify if a periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound could be used to evaluate physical endurance more precisely than the conventional 6-minute walk test. [Subjects] The subjects were healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Methods] The subjects initially walked for 1 minute to a long-interval metronome sound, and the walking distance was measured. The sound interval was then gradually shortened, and the subjects walked for 1 minute for each of the intervals. The best periodic sound was considered to be the periodic sound used when the subject walked the longest distance in 1 minute, and the process of determining it was referred to as the period shortening walk test. This study administered the 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound to twenty healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and compared the walking distance. [Results] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test distances in both the healthy subjects and the patients were significantly longer than the conventional 6-minute walk test distances. [Conclusion] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test provided a better indication of ambulatory potential in an evaluation of physical endurance than the conventional 6-minute walk test. PMID:26696721

  9. [Comparative field study of litter moisture and footpad alterations during the rearing period of fattening turkeys].

    PubMed

    Hübel, Jens; Bergmann, Shana; Ziegler, Nina; Willig, Rainer; Truyen, Uwe; Erhard, Michael H; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In the course of a nationwide performed field study from 2010 to 2012, the footpad health of conventionally kept fattening turkeys and their rearing conditions were studied and compared to results from litter moisture measurements. In each case two rearing periods from 24 rearing farms were chosen and visited 3 to 5 days after delivery of the poults (examination 1) and again during the days 22 to 35 (examination 2). In the course of each flock inspection 60 randomly chosen turkeys were examined by adspection and palpation. Litter samples from drinking, feeding and resting areas were taken using the Darr procedure to measure moisture. Data regarding rearing conditions was collected from the farmer using standardized questionnaires. The litter moisture was 10% (6-20%) before the birds' entered the barn. At the time of examination 1 litter moisture of 43% (14-67%) in the drinking zone, 28% (12-66%) in the feeding zone, and 13% (8-31%) in the resting area were measured. At the time of examination 2 the litter moisture measurements showed 51% (32-72%) in the drinking zone, 27% (13-56% in the feeding zone and 28% (16-53%) in the resting area. At the time of examination 127.3% of the poults had footpad alterations, during examination 2 that number increased to 63.3% with 12.1% showing epithelial necrosis. The young turkeys on the three most commonly used litter substrates showed the following results at the time of examination 2: when held on straw pellets 58%, on wood shavings 29%, and on straw 17% showed unaltered footpads. Regarding the housing conditions the examinations showed specifically differences in stocking rate, drinking system and litter management. PMID:25080820

  10. A longitudinal study of skin barrier function in pregnancy and the postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, Jonathan O’B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Khashan, Ali S

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether skin’s barrier function changes in pregnancy. Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) refers to the total amount of water loss through the skin and TEWL can be measured non-invasively as an index of skin barrier function. We measured TEWL during and after pregnancy to evaluate pregnancy-related skin barrier function. Methods This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 52 low-risk, first-time pregnant women nested within the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) Ireland study. TEWL (gwater/m2/h) was measured three times during pregnancy: 19–21 weeks, 27–32 weeks and 36 weeks; and three times postnatally: 2–4 days, 2 months and 6 months post-delivery. Data were analysed using SPSS 18.0 and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A rise in TEWL was seen between each visit with the highest readings, exceeding the normal range of 0–20 gwater/m2/h, recorded at two months post-delivery. Forty women attended at two months post-delivery of whom 22 women had an average reading between 0 and 20 gwater/m2/h; 10 women had an average reading between 21 and 40 gwater/m2/h and 8 women had an average reading between 41 and 75 gwater/m2/h. Readings had returned to an average of 0–20 gwater/m2/h at six months postnatally. Conclusion TEWL increases slightly in pregnancy and the postnatal period. The clinical significance of this is unclear and requires further investigation.

  11. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  12. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  13. Study of Quasi-Periodic Variations in Drag of Artificial Satellite during 23-24 Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendant, V. H.; Ryabov, M. I.; Sukharev, A. L.

    Apply of the method of time-frequency analysis allows to reveal the detailed structure of the manifestations of the influence of the state space weather on the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Sensitive indicators of such changes are low-orbit satellites. The dynamics of drag of nineteen low-orbit satellites was viewed. The study period includes phases of declining and a long minimum of 23rd solar cycle, phases of rise and maximum of 24th solar cycle. In dynamic of inhibition of all the analyzed satellite pronounced regular inhibition effects with extended periods of 2 - 6 years and short-period effects with periods less than one year. In the satellites: 00063, 00165, 25064, 00932 and 00746 - detected periods with trend from 25 - 28 days to 1 - 1.7 months.

  14. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  15. A study of coronal X-ray emission from short-period Algol binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; White, N. E.

    1995-01-01

    A study of X-ray emission from five short-period Algol-type binaries based on observations with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and ROSAT is presented. We have observed RZ Cas with both satellites, and beta Per, U Cep, delta Lib, and TW Dra with ROSAT. Significant intensity variations are seen in the X-ray emission from RZ Cas, U Cep, TW Dra, and delta Lib. These variations seem unrelated to the eclipsing behavior of these systems and are probably due to either rotational modulation of compact active regions on the surfaces of the chromospherically active secondary components or to flaring activity in the systems. The spectra of all but one of the systems require the presence of at least two discrete plasma components with different temperatures (0.6 - 0.7 keV, and approximately 2 keV) and the abundances of the medium-Z elements 20% - 50% of the solar photospheric values. The high resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the ASCA spectra allow us to individually constrain the coronal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe in RZ Cas. We demonstrate that, if we use the elemental abundances and temperatures obtained from the analysis of their ASCA spectra as (fixed) inputs, to fit the ROSAT PSPC spectra well requires the presence of a third component (kT approximately 0.2 - 0.3 keV) in RZ Cas and beta Per. A continuous emission measure model of the power-law type (EM(T) variesas (T/T(sub max)(sup alpha)) generally gives a poor fit to the ASCA and ROSAT data on most sources. Circumstellar or circumbinary absorbing matter seems to be present in some of these systems, as indicated by the variable total column density needed to fit their X-ray spectra.

  16. Predicting the Timeline to the Final Menstrual Period: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shinya; Huang, Mei-Hua; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Predicting the final menstrual period (FMP) would help women know when their menopause transition will be completed. Additionally, biological changes, such as accelerated bone loss, precede the FMP by at least 1 year. Objective: Our objective was to assess whether FSH, estradiol, or urinary N-telopeptide predict where an individual is on her timeline to FMP. Methods: The sample was 554 women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. We modeled the probability of having crossed specified landmarks: 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP. We also modeled the probability of being in narrower intervals: 2 to1 year before FMP, 2 years before FMP and FMP, or 1 year before FMP and FMP. We determined the candidate markers that best predicted having crossed each landmark, with the optimum defined as the greatest area under the receiver-operator curve; created formulas for the probability of having crossed each landmark; and calculated sensitivity and specificity. Results: Final models included current estradiol and FSH (each as a fraction of 1 previous reference measure), age, menopause transition stage, race/ethnicity, and whether serum was collected during the early follicular phase. Areas under the receiver-operator curves of final models that predicted the probability of a woman having crossed 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP itself were 0.902, 0.926, and 0.945, respectively. If we classified women as having crossed the 2 years before the FMP landmark when predicted probability exceeded 0.3, sensitivity was 85% and specificity 77%. Conclusion: This model could help patients and researchers estimate the time to FMP. PMID:23533245

  17. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  18. Case studies of quasi-periodic VLF emissions and related ULF fluctuations of the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayosh, M.; Santolik, O.; Nemec, F.; Parrot, M.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-periodic (QP) VLF emissions are observed in the inner magnetosphere mostly on the day-side. These waves exhibit a periodic time modulation of the wave intensity that is possibly a result of the whistler-mode wave growth being periodically modulated by compressional ULF magnetic field pulsations. We have analyzed 50 QP events measured by the DEMETER satellite at altitudes of about 700 km to verify their generation mechanism. The analyzed events have a modulation period between 15 s and 80 s, and they were observed during quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp<3). Magnetometers of the CARISMA system were used for monitoring the ULF magnetic field pulsations in a wide spatial range. We have found that ULF magnetic field pulsations in the Pc3 - Pc5 range are well correlated with the occurrence of the QP emissions with modulation periods between about 40 and 80 s. At the same time, increased fluxes of high-energy electrons (E > 30 keV) were observed by DEMETER and by the NOAA-17 satellite. We analyze possible links between these electrons, QP emissions, and ULF magnetic field pulsations.

  19. A comparative study of zone axis pattern maps from decagonal phases with varying periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ranganathan, S. . Dept of Materials Science and Metallurgy Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore . Dept. of Metallurgy); Singh, A. . Dept. of Metallurgy); Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Weatherly, G.C. . Dept. of Metallurgy)

    1994-02-01

    The discovery in 1985 of the decagonal phase with periodicity in one direction and quasiperiodicity in the other two directions has excited considerable interest. This was followed by the observation that the periodicity perpendicular to the quasiperiodicity plane can assume multiple values on n = [1,2,3,4]x0.4 nm. The mapping of reciprocal spaces of these phases, labelled t[sub 2n], by electron diffraction is important in the context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] [Al-Co], T[sub 6][Al-Mn] and T[sub 8] [Al-Fe], [Al-Pd], the recent complete determination of zone axis pattern maps [ZAPM] and Kikuchi maps of T[sub 6] [Al-Mn] with 1.24 nm periodicity and T[sub 4][Al-Cu-Co-Si] with 0.8 nm periodicity is a tour de force by Kelton and his co-workers. These papers coupled with the complete mapping of the HOLZ line and Kikuchi line patterns of the T[sub 2][Al-Co-Ni] with 0.4 nm periodicity permit the authors to put in perspective the ZAPM of all the four decagonal phases and in addition predict patterns for the T[sub 8] phase for which a complete experimental determination is still lacking.

  20. Orbital period variation study of massive Beta-Lyrae eclipsing binary IU Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilan, Erkan; Bulut, İbrahim

    2016-07-01

    The system IU Aur is a semi-detached close binary system with an orbital period of 1.81 days, containing a massive star. The O-C diagram of this binary was analyzed with the least-squares method by using all available times of minima. We have found a periodic change of orbital period of IU Aur. This change has been explained by the gravitational effects of a third companion on the binay star. The orbit Parameters of the third body have been derived from the analysis of the O-C curve. The analysis indicates that the eclipsing binary revolves around a third-body with a mass of about M_{3}>10M_{⊙} in a highly eccentric orbit.

  1. Studies of Extreme Carbon Stars. 2; Periods From Optical Spectral Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Hitchon, Keith; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rocket and satellite IR sky surveys have revealed vast populations of extreme AGB stars with substantial circumstellar dust shells. It is normally assumed that these shells permit essentially no light to escape. However, using the Lick 3 meter reflector we have been able to secure and analyze a large number of spectra of a well-defined sample of these extreme evolved stars. From this archive we have determined that these objects are all long period Mira variables and have estimated their periods, correlated these with IR photometric variations, and deduced distances to the stars. The data reveal a population of disk carbon-giants, typically of 1-2 yr periods, mostly within 2 kpc of the sun. We have also been able to quantify the thickness of their dust shells.

  2. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  3. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  4. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Long-Period Grating Refractive Index Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidhi; Kaler, R. S.; Kapur, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical and experimental investigation of the response of long-period gratings as a refractive index sensor. Cladding modes are calculated, and results are compared with Optigrating 4.2.2 (Optiwave Systems Inc., Ottawa, Canada). The response has been checked for refractive indices ranging from 1 to 1.458. Theoretically simulated results are in accordance with the experimental results. It was found that the software package calculated values correctly up to the seventh decimal point. The ambient refractive index response of a long-period grating over a much wider index range has been modeled for values both less and more than the cladding refractive index.

  6. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  7. A study of the light curve periodic behavior of quasar 3C 345.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong; Xie, Guangzhong; Bai, Jinming

    All the data for the B band of the quasar 3C 345, presented in twenty-one publications and dating back to 1896, have been compiled to be a light curve. Altogether 1642 values are available. Using Jurkevich's method, the authors have found a period of 10.1±0.8 years (or 21.8±1.5 years) for the outbursts in 3C 345. Based on this period, one can predict that the next outburst should be at its maximum around January 2002.

  8. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  9. Reexamining the Critical Period Hypothesis: A Case Study of Successful Adult SLA in a Naturalistic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioup, Elizabeth; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The nativelike linguistic competence of an adult second-language learner of Egyptian Arabic who was first exposed to the target language after the close of the critical period is examined to determine what factors differentiate her from less successful naturalistic adult acquirers. The role of internalized grammar is discussed. (Contains 43…

  10. Comparative Study of Periodical Literature Indexing: Print versus Electronic Access. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…

  11. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  12. PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE VERY SHORT PERIOD SHALLOW CONTACT BINARY DD COMAE BERENICES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Diethelm, R. E-mail: mikulas@physics.muni.c

    2010-07-15

    The first photometric solutions of the very short period (VSP) close binary DD Comae Berenices (P = 0fd26920811) based on our new complete (IR){sub C} light curves are derived by the 2003 version Wilson-Van Hamme code. They show that the system belongs to shallow contact W-type W UMa systems with a degree of overcontact of 8.7%. The observed light curve distortions are explained by employing the spots model due to the late-type nature of both components. We have collected all available photometric data about the system with emphasis on the individual observational data, which we treated simultaneously using our own method based on the usage of computed model light curves as templates. We recalculated published times of light minimum and added new ones of our own to construct an O - C diagram that spans over 70 years. Using a least squares method orthogonal quadratic model function, we found that the orbital period of DD Com is continuously increasing with P-dot =0.00401(22) s yr{sup -1}. The period increase may be caused by the mass transfer from the less-massive component to the more-massive one. With the period increase, the binary is evolving from the present shallow contact phase to the broken stage predicted by the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) theory. Compared with other VSP systems, DD Com is a rare system that lies on the expanding phase of the TRO cycle. Until now, only four such systems including DD Com are found in this stage. Thus, this target is another good observational proof of the TRO theory in a very short period region.

  13. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  14. Safety and efficacy of donepezil hydrochloride in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: Findings of an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Suyog; Chandersekhar, K.; Prasadrao, G.; Dutt, Lakshman; Patkar, S.; Nagpal, R. D.; Gupta, M.; Raju, G. S. P.; Praveen, K. K.; Prasad, B. S. V.; Roy, T.; Kushwaha, S.; Nag, Jyotindra; Langade, D.; Pawar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive brain disorder, is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. Donepezil hydrochloride is a potent, reversible, and highly selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It is chemically distinct from other cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors which are effective in the treatment of AD. Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of donepezil hydrochloride therapy over a 12 weeks period in patients with mild to moderate AD in Indian population. Materials and Methods: In this post-marketing study, patients with mild to moderate AD received oral donepezil hydrochloride 5 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed 4 times weekly for cognition on ‘Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scale’, and function on ‘Activities of Daily Living (ADL) index’. Clinicians and caregivers assessment of safety and efficacy was assessed on a 5-point rating scale. Results: One hundred and seventy two of one hundred and eighty two patients completed 12 weeks of study period. MMSE score significantly improved (P<0.0001) from 16.72 at baseline to 19.77 after 12 weeks, and there was significant improvement (P<0.05) in ADL index in 13 of 17 domains after 12 weeks. Caregivers and clinicians rated the therapy as very good to good in >80% and >90% patients, respectively. Adverse events were consistent with the known pharmacological and safety profile of donepezil. Conclusions: Donepezil is well tolerated in Indian patients with mild to moderate AD with significant improvement in cognition and function. PMID:23372236

  15. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  16. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  17. Field-induced periodic distortions in a nematic liquid crystal: deuterium NMR study and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, A; Zakharov, A V

    2011-08-01

    The peculiarities in the dynamic of the director reorientation in a liquid crystal (LC) film under the influence of the electric E field directed at an angle α to the magnetic B field have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Time-resolved deuterium NMR spectroscopy is employed to investigate the field-induced director dynamics. Analysis of the experimental results, based on the predictions of hydrodynamic theory including both the director motion and fluid flow, provides an evidence for the appearance of the spatially periodic patterns in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl LC film, at the angles α>60∘, in response to the suddenly applied E. These periodic distortions produce a lower effective rotational viscosity. This gives a faster response of the director rotation than for a uniform mode, as observed in our NMR experiment. PMID:21929001

  18. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration. PMID:19632749

  19. A Comparison of Two CD-ROM Periodical Indexes for Use in the Middle School. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Beverly M.

    This purpose of this study was to determine which periodical index--InfoTrac or EBSCO Magazine Article Summaries--is the most appropriate for use by middle school students preparing required research projects. The study population consisted of randomly selected sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students (N=50) in a Cobb County (Georgia) middle…

  20. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  1. Natural convection in an enclosure under time periodic heating: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Antohe, B.V.; Lage, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of the heating period on the heat transfer across a water filled rectangular enclosure is examined experimentally. The enclosure is designed such that periodic heat by Joule effect is delivered at one wall while the opposite wall is maintained at an approximately constant temperature. All other surfaces are insulated. Several heating power levels are chosen with equivalent time averaged heat-flux based Rayleigh number varying from 2.5 {times} 10{sup 8} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}. The heating period varies from 32 seconds to 1600 seconds. For the highest Rayleigh number, Ra = 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}, the oscillatory heating process leads to a cycle averaged heat transfer coefficient 20 percent higher than obtained with steady averaged-heat flux heating. Results, presented in terms of temperature time series, phase-plane portrait, and time evolution of cooling and heating wall temperatures, indicate that for low heating frequencies the heat transfer across the enclosure is hindered, with the time averaged heat transfer coefficient decreasing by as much as 13 percent of the equivalent steady heating value. A plausible explanation for the phenomenon is offered and discussed. The instantaneous and cycle averaged heat transfer coefficients, and the corresponding Nusselt numbers, are also presented for various heating frequencies.

  2. A period study and revised photometric model for the eclipsing binary ZZ Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuangui; Zhang, Liyun; Dai, Haifeng; Li, Huali

    2015-05-01

    We present new photometry of the eclipsing binary ZZ Cyg. From all accumulated eclipsing times, we constructed the (O-C) curve, which can be described by a downward parabola with a possible light-time orbit. The period decrease rate is dP / dt = - 5.73 (± 0.18) dyr-1 . The modulated period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity for the light-time orbit are Pmod = 71.4 (± 1.1)yr , A = 0.0071 (± 0.0005)day and e = 0.420 (± 0.053) , respectively. After removing effects of the magnetic activity, this kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to light-time effect via an additional companion. By using the W-D code, the photometric model was updated, which identified that ZZ Cyg is a near-contact binary. We find that a hot spot may occur on the primary that explains the asymmetric light curve. The secular period decrease may possibly cause the fill-out factor of the primary to increase. Finally it will finally fill its Roche lobe. This kind of binary, ZZ Cyg, may evolve into contact binary star.

  3. Period and light-curve study of the contact eclipsing binary V523 Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Mahya; Abedi, Abbas; Riazi, Nematollah

    2016-04-01

    CCD photometry of the eclipsing W Uma binary system V523 Cas in U, B, V and RC filters was carried out during eight nights in 2012. The physical and geometrical parameters of this system are obtained. A possible pulsation period of one of the components is obtained by analyzing the residuals of the ephemeris light curve. Our observations contain 16 times of minimum light. We combined these with all available published times of minimum. By fitting a quadratic curve to the O-C values, a new ephemeris of the system is calculated. By attributing the period change to mass transfer, we find a mass transfer rate of 4 ×10-12 M⊙/yr. Also, Period (80.58 yr) and the minimum mass (0.3 M⊙) of a possible third body is estimated. In addition, the possible existence of a fourth body with a mass of order 0.15 M⊙ is discussed. These third and fourth bodies could be low-mass main-sequence stars (red dwarfs).

  4. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. PMID:25053471

  5. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  6. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  7. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Fought, Rick L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  8. Photoluminescence Studies of Lateral Composition Modulated Short-Period AlAs/InAs Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenkiel, S.P.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Jones, E.D.; Lee, S.R.; Mascarenhas, A.; Mirecki Millunchick, J.; Norman, A.G.; Reno, J.L.; Twesten, R.D.; Zhang, Y.

    1999-01-04

    We present low temperature photoluminescence data for a series of spontaneous lateral composition modulation in (AlAs){sub m}/(InAs){sub n} short period superlattices on InP with differing average lattice constants, i.e., varying global strain. The low temperature photoluminescence peak energies were found to be much lower than the corresponding energy expected for the equivalent In{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}As alloy. The bandgap energy reductions are found to approach 500 meV and this reduction is found to correlated with the strength of the composition modulation wave amplitude.

  9. A numerical study of the pseudotime transformation for drawdown in the infinite-acting period

    SciTech Connect

    Yue-lu, Y.; Finjord, J.

    1989-06-01

    Drawdown with a constant-surface-conditions gas rate into a single well, starting at homogeneous pressure conditions in a cylindrical gas reservoir, is simulated numerically. For radii much larger than the wellbore radius, the pseudopressure solution in the infinite-acting period can be plotted uniquely as a function of a Boltzmann variable s=r/sup 2//sub D//4t/sub rhoD/, where r/sub D/ and t/sub rhoD/ are dimensionless radius and pseudotime. The nonlinear correction terms in the pseudotime diffusion equation, far from being negligible for drawdown, can become dominant in the infinite-acting period. This confirms an analytical result obtained previously. The correction terms are shown by simulation to be functions of s only for radii much larger than the wellbore radius. Plotted vs. In s, the pseudopressure shows an approximately linear behavior with a slope slightly larger than the usual constant-diffusivity slope. This was predicted by an explicit analytical solution.

  10. X-ray diffraction study of short-period AlN/GaN superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kyutt, R. N. Shcheglov, M. P.; Ratnikov, V. V.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Rozhavskaya, M. M.; Zavarin, E. E.; Lundin, V. V.

    2013-12-15

    The structure of short-period hexagonal GaN/AlN superlattices (SLs) has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. The samples have been grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in a horizontal reactor at a temperature of 1050°C on (0001)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates using GaN and AlN buffer layers. The SL period changes from 2 to 6 nm, and the thickness of the structure varies in a range from 0.3 to 1 μm. The complex of X-ray diffraction techniques includes a measurement of θ-2θ rocking curves of symmetric Bragg reflection, the construction of intensity maps for asymmetric reflections, a measurement and analysis of peak broadenings in different diffraction geometries, a precise measurement of lattice parameters, and the determination of radii of curvature. The thickness and strain of separate SL layers are determined by measuring the θ-2θ rocking curves subsequent simulation. It is shown that most SL samples are completely relaxed as a whole. At the same time, relaxation is absent between sublayers, which is why strains in the AlN and GaN sublayers (on the order of 1.2 × 10{sup −2}) have different signs. An analysis of diffraction peak half-widths allows us to determine the densities of individual sets of dislocations and observe their change from buffer layers to SLs.

  11. A study of the equatorial signatures of long period transient events (600 - 7200 s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Dutra, S.; Trivedi, N.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.; Schuch, N.

    Transient variations in the H magnetic field component of magnetograms at high latitude are a common feature. They are associated with energy transference from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Abrupt changes in the solar wind generate Alfvén and fast mode waves through the magnetosphere. The Alfvén wave doesn't propagate in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, so equatorial signatures are probably caused by fast mode waves. On the other hand, complicated signatures observed at high latitudes represent a composition of Alfvén and fast mode waves. A second suggested propagation mechanism to low latitudes is the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In this work, geomagnetic data from the Brazilian magnetic stations at Belém (BLM), Eusébio (EUS), Ji-Paraná (JIP), São luis (SLZ) and São Martinho da Serra (SMS), all located near the geomagnetic equator, are used to look for equatorial signatures of transient events with periods of 600 - 7200s. This period range includes two special types of transient variations named Traveling convection vortices (TCV) and DP2 fluctuations. We try to identify their morphological characteristics and compare with the high latitude phenomena's characteristics. Satellite data (WIND, ACE and GOES) are used to see magnetosphere signatures and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during the events. The main objective is try to find the contribution of each propagation mechanism of these transient events arriving at the equatorial latitudes.

  12. Theoretical study of InN/GaN short period superlattices to mimic disordered alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, M. Marques, M.

    2014-06-14

    We carried out ab initio calculations of the (InN){sub n}∕(GaN){sub m} short period superlattices using the LDA-1/2 method in order to obtain approximate quasiparticle electronic structures. We performed calculations for several short period superlattices respecting the concentrations of 33%, 50%, 66%, and 80% of InN, considering different straining possibilities due to lattice mismatches. For the majority of configurations, we find relevant changes on the valence and conduction profiles around bandgap with position plane-by-plane along the superlattices growth direction, with the presence of intrinsic electric fields in the materials, in the case, when strain is applied. Our results show that for small numbers n and m of layers, the band edge states extend over the entire superlattice. For larger n and/or m, the edge states tend to localise on particular subtype layers (InN or GaN). For the former cases, the bandgaps are very close to the random alloys with the same concentrations, providing potential good materials for optoelectronic devices based on nitrides.

  13. A prospective study of the modified Atkins diet for adults with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kverneland, Magnhild; Selmer, Kaja K; Nakken, Karl O; Iversen, Per O; Taubøll, Erik

    2015-12-01

    For children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, the ketogenic diet is an established treatment option worldwide. However, for adults, this treatment is less frequently offered, and its efficacy less well-documented. The aim of this study was to examine efficacy and tolerability of such a diet as an adjuvant therapy to antiepileptic drugs for adult patients with pharmacoresistant generalized epilepsy. Thirteen patients (12 women) aged 16-57 years were included prospectively. They were treated with a modified Atkins diet for 12 weeks. Nine of the 13 participants had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), two had childhood absence epilepsy, one had Jeavons syndrome, and one had generalized epilepsy of unknown type. Six participants, all with JME, completed the 12-week study period. Among these six, four had >50% seizure reduction. Their seizure severity, using the revised Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale, was reduced by 1, 5, 57.5, and 70 points, respectively (scale: 1-100 points). In three of these four responders, quality of life, assessed by QOLIE-89, increased more than 20 points (scale: 0-100 points). Mean reduction of body weight after 12 weeks on diet was 6.5 (range: 4.3-8.1) kg. Lack of motivation, poor compliance, and seizure aggravation were the main reasons for premature termination of the diet. Apart from one patient who developed gallstones when ending the treatment after 10 months, no adverse effects were noted. In conclusion, using a modified Atkins diet for 12 weeks led to a clinically relevant reduction of seizure frequency in four of thirteen adult patients with pharmacoresistant generalized epilepsy. All responders were diagnosed with JME. In three of the four, the benefits of diet were so considerable that they chose to continue the treatment. PMID:26588588

  14. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries - A study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations made in 1978-1979 recorded a whole class of interacting long-period binaries similar to beta Lyrae, which includes RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, beta Lyr, and W Ser, called the W Serpentis stars. These mass-transferring binaries with relatively high mass transfer rate show two prominent features in the far ultraviolet: a continuum with a color temperature higher than the one observed in the optical region (about 12,000 K), and a strong emission line spectrum with the N V doublet at 1240 A, C IV doublet at 1550 A and lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, Fe III, AI III, etc. These phenomena are discussed on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars.

  15. Study of periodic surface profile on improving the window capacity at single and repetitive pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, X. W.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Shao, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, W. Y.; Ke, C. F.; Chen, C. H.; Liang, Y. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.

    2015-09-15

    The surface breakdown of dielectric windows seriously limits the transmission of high power microwaves (HPM), and has blocked the development of microwave technology in recent decades. In this paper, X-band HPM experiments of window breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface and the atmosphere/dielectric interface at single and repetitive pulses were conducted. The cross-linked polystyrene (CLPS) dielectric window with a periodic surface profile can significantly improve the breakdown threshold at single and repetitive pulses. Furthermore, the flat surface layer of CLPS was discovered to be carbonized to a depth of several millimeters and filled with electrical trees at repetitive pulses. Theoretical models were built to understand the underlying physics behind the phenomena in experiments. With the analysis of the electron resonance process breaking the molecular bond and the temperature rise caused by the traversing current in the dielectric material, a microscopic explanation for the carbonization of the dielectric window was introduced.

  16. Microscopy and microRaman study of periodically poled domains in deeply thinned lithium niobate wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullen, P. S.; Huang, H.-C.; Yang, H.; Dadap, J. I.; Kymissis, I.; Osgood, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    The domain structure of poled deeply thinned lithium niobate is investigated as a function of sample thickness. Free-standing samples of thickness from 25 to 500 μm are prepared by a multiple-cycle polish and annealing procedure and then periodically poled. Using these samples and employing micro-Raman scattering and scanning electron, atomic force, and optical microscopy together, the domain broadening and poling voltage are found to vary in a regular and significant manner. The poled domains show a reduction in width spreading of 38% as the sample thickness is reduced from 500 to 25 μm. Micro-Raman probe measurements verify the quality and the uniformity of the poled domains and provide insight into their thickness-dependent poling contrast.

  17. Photometric Study and Period Analysis of the Contact Binary XZ Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chang Qing; Zhang, Xiao Bin; Deng, Licai; Wang, Kun; Luo, Yangping

    2015-09-01

    We present multi-color CCD photometry of the neglected contact binary XZ Leo. Completely covered VRI band light curves and four times of minimum light were obtained. Combining the photometric and previously published radial-velocity data, a revised photometric analysis was carried out for the binary system by applying the Wilson-Devinney code. With a hot spot placed on the massive primary component near the neck region of the common envelope, the light curves were satisfactorily modeled. The photometric solution combined with the radial-velocity solution reveals that XZ Leo is an A-type contact binary with a degree of contact of 24(±1)%. The absolute parameters of the components were determined to be M1 = 1.74(±0.06)M⊙, M2 = 0.61(±0.02)M⊙, R1 = 1.69(±0.01)R⊙, R2 = 1.07(±0.01)R⊙, L1 = 6.73(±0.08) L⊙, and L2 = 2.40(±0.04)L⊙. Based on all the available data, the long-term orbital period behavior of the system was investigated. It indicates that the binary system was undergoing a continuous orbital period increase in the past three decades with a rate of {dP}/{dt} =+6.12× {10}-8 {days} {{yr}}-1, which suggests a probable mass transfer from the secondary to the primary component at a rate of {dM}/{dt}=3.92× {10}-8{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The binary system is expected to evolve into the broken-contact stage in 1.56× {10}6 years. This could be evidence supporting the thermal relaxation oscillation theory.

  18. [Experimental study of the root supply system with periodic water return designed for space greenhouses].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Smolianina, S O; Krivobok, N M

    2000-01-01

    To improve reliability of plant's moistening and aeration control in microgravity, an original root supply system with a periodic return water flow has been designed and tested in laboratory. For 30 days crops of Pekinese cabbage (Brassica pekinesis (Lour Rupr), Khibini sort) were raised in the test bench which allowed adjustment of water potential in the root zone within a preset range. A three-step water potential control algorithm included water injection with a pump-dispenser, a pause, and water sucking back to a desired value of water potential. The following parameters of the control cycle were selected in a series of two experiments: time of water injection (2.5 hr) and return (1.5 hr), and a pause of 8 and 20 hr, respectively. Magnitude of water potential about the root module axis was controlled in the range from -1.3 kPa to -3.0 kPa in both experiments and maintained at -1.3 kPa in the control. The root modules consisted of porous metaloceramic tubes wrapped in fibrous ion exchanging cloth and a light-proof film with planting slots on top. In the first experiment, plant characteristics were comparable to the control. The developed procedure and technology can be used to provide favourable moisture-air conditions in the root zone. By and large, the system of root nutrition with a periodic water return has demonstrated high capacity during the ground-based cultivation of plants. To use this system in space greenhouse, it is necessary to specify operational parameters for the microgravity environment. PMID:10826063

  19. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  20. Effect of fluvoxamine on the pharmokinetics of zolpidem: a two-treatment period study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Achim, Marcela; Leucuţa, Sorin Emilian

    2012-01-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine in healthy volunteers. 2. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem; and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 100 mg fluvoxamine. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 6 days with a single daily dose of 100 mg fluvoxamine. 3. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem given in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. 4. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 56.4 ± 25.6 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 67.3 ± 25.8 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with fluvoxamine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.83 ± 0.44 and 1.26 ± 0.74 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 200.9 ± 116.8 and 512.0 ± 354.6 ng h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.24 ± 0.81 h when given alone and 4.99 ± 2.92 h after pretreatment with fluvoxamine. 5. Fluvoxamine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and increases its exposure by approximately 150%. The experimental data showed the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine, and suggest that the observed interaction might be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed. PMID:21985609

  1. The effects of exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a 3-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Yocheved; Shtraker, Haim; Elboim Gabyzon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Strengthening exercises of the quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) are beneficial for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Studies reporting short-term effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the QFM in this population support the use of this modality as an adjunct treatment. The objectives of this follow-up study are to compare the effects of an exercise program with and without NMES of the QFM on pain, functional performance, and muscle strength immediately posttreatment and 12 weeks after completion of the intervention. Methods Sixty-three participants with knee OA were randomly assigned into two groups receiving 12 biweekly treatments: An exercise-only program or an exercise program combined with NMES. Results A significantly greater reduction in knee pain was observed immediately after treatment in the NMES group, which was maintained 12 weeks postintervention in both groups. Although at this stage NMES had no additive effect, both groups demonstrated an immediate increase in muscle strength and in functional abilities, with no differences between groups. Although the improvements in gait velocity and in self-report functional ability were maintained at the follow-up session, the noted improvements in muscle strength, time to up and go, and stair negotiation were not maintained. Conclusion Supplementing an exercise program with NMES to the QFM increased pain modulation immediately after treatment in patients with knee OA. Maintenance of the positive posttreatment effects during a 12-week period was observed only for pain, self-reported functional ability, and walk velocity, with no difference between groups. Clinical rehabilitation effect The effects of a comprehensive group exercise program with or without NMES are partially maintained 12 weeks after completion of the intervention. The addition of NMES is recommended primarily for its immediate effect on pain. Further studies are necessary to determine the effects of repeated bouts

  2. The Maudsley Early Onset Schizophrenia Study: Cognitive Function Over a 4-Year Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Frangou, Sophia; Hadjulis, Michael; Vourdas, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Generalized cognitive deficits have been consistently reported in adolescents with early onset schizophrenia (EOS; defined as onset before the age of 17 years). The impact on cognition of potential interactions between disease pathology and brain maturation remains unclear. We therefore compared cognitive function between 20 EOS patients and 20 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and parental socioeconomic status at 2 time points, when aged 15.58 (2.27) and after a mean interval of 4 ± 1.08 years when aged 19.46 (2.21) years. Repeated measures analyses revealed no differences between patients and controls in the degree of change over this time period in general intellectual function and planning ability as measured by the Tower of London. There was deterioration in the verbal memory and attentional control index scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised but relative improvement in Part A of the Trail Making Test. Patients’ level of symptomatology as well as the type and dose of medication were comparable at both time points. We conclude that most aspects of cognitive function remain relatively stable in EOS patients during adolescence; there is evidence for deterioration in immediate verbal memory and attention while speed of information processing may show improvement. PMID:18024468

  3. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  4. ''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2004-10-27

    This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

  5. Analytic Study of Periodic Chaos. II ---Recursion Relations for the Power Spectra---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.

    1985-02-01

    On the basis of the analytic formulas for the correlation functions of nonperiodic orbits, the recursion relations are obtained which fully characterize the spectral structure of periodic chaos generated by continuous one-dimensional maps with a single maximum. The power spectrum at the mth band-splitting point consists of two parts, a line spectrum and a continuous spectrum, and each part is determined from the corresponding part at the (m-1)th band-splitting point through its own recursion relations, and thus the spectra near the chaotic critical point are completely determined. Moreover, it is shown that there exist the intrinsic relations between the intensities of the line and continuous spectra. The scaling law for the particlular orbits decisive of the correlation functions plays an essential role in deriving the recursion relations. The tent map has the exact recursion relations with the two rescaling factors dependent on m. The corresponding relations hold for the logistic map to an excellent approximation with the two rescaling factors replaced by α2 and -α, where α is Feigenbaum's rescaling factor. Universal aspects of the recursion relations are also discussed.

  6. An experimental and theoretical study of the mixing characteristics of a periodically reoriented irrotational flow.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Guy; Lester, Daniel; Ord, Alison; Kulkarni, Pandurang; Rudman, Murray; Trefry, Mike; Hobbs, Bruce; Regenaur-Lieb, Klaus; Morris, Jeffery

    2010-05-13

    The minimum-energy method to generate chaotic advection should be to use an irrotational flow. However, irrotational flows have no saddle connections to perturb in order to generate chaotic orbits. To the early work of Jones & Aref (Jones & Aref 1988 Phys. Fluids 31, 469-485 (doi:10.1063/1.866828)) on potential flow chaos, we add periodic reorientation to generate chaotic advection with irrotational experimental flows. Our experimental irrotational flow is a dipole potential flow in a disc-shaped Hele-Shaw cell called the rotated potential mixing flow; it leads to chaotic advection and transport in the disc. We derive an analytical map for the flow. This is a partially open flow, in which parts of the flow remain in the cell forever, and parts of it pass through with residence-time and exit-time distributions that have self-similar features in the control parameter space of the stirring. The theory compares well with the experiment. PMID:20368238

  7. Laboratory study of nitrification, denitrification and anammox processes in membrane bioreactors considering periodic aeration.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Huang, Shan; Jaffé, Peter R

    2014-09-01

    The possibility of using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in simultaneous nitrification-anammox-denitrification (SNAD) by considering periodic aeration cycles was investigated. Two separate reactors were operated to investigate the effect of different anammox biomass in the presence of nitrifying and denitrifying biomass on the final nitrogen removal efficiency. The results illustrated that the reactor with higher anammox biomass was more robust to oxygen cycling. Around 98% Total Nitrogen (TN) and 83% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were observed by applying one hour aeration over a four-hour cycle. Decreasing the aeration time to 30, 15, and 2 min during a four-hour cycle affected the final TN removal efficiencies. However, the effect of decreasing aeration on the TN removal efficiencies in the reactor with higher anammox biomass was much lower compared to the regular reactor. The nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was a function of aeration as well, and was lower in the reactor with higher anammox biomass. The results of q-PCR analysis confirmed the simultaneous co-existence of nitrifiers, anammox, and denitrifiers in both of the reactors. To simulate the TN removal in these reactors as a function of the aeration time, a new model, based on first order reaction kinetics for both denitrification and anammox was developed and yielded a good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:24814548

  8. Aerosol Indirect Effect Studies at Southern Great Plains During the May 2003 Intensive Operations Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feingold, Graham; Furrer, Reinhard; Pilewskie, Peter; Remer, Lorraine A.; Min, Qilong; Jonsson, Haflidi

    2006-01-01

    During May 2003 the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program conducted an Intensive Operations Period (IOP) to measure the radiative effects of aerosol and clouds. A suite of both in situ and remote sensing measurements were available to measure aerosol and cloud parameters. This paper has three main goals: First, it focuses on comparison between in situ retrievals of the radiatively important drop effective radius r(sub e) and various satellite, airborne, and surface remote sensing retrievals of the same parameter. On 17 May 2003, there was a fortuitous, near-simultaneous sampling of a stratus cloud by five different methods. The retrievals of r(sub e) agree with one another to within approx.20%, which is approximately the error estimate for most methods. Second, a methodology for deriving a best estimate of r(sub e) from these different instruments, with their different physical properties and sampling volumes, is proposed and applied to the 17 May event. Third, the paper examines the response of r(sub e) to changes in aerosol on 3 days during the experiment and examines the consistency of remote sensing and in situ measurements of the effect of aerosol on r(sub e). It is shown that in spite of the generally good agreement in derived r(sub e), the magnitude of the response of r(sub e), to changes in aerosol is quite sensitive to the method of retrieving r(sub e) and to the aerosol proxy for cloud condensation nuclei. Nonphysical responses are sometimes noted, and it is suggested that further work needs to be done to refine these techniques.

  9. Experimental study of outdoor propagation of spherically speading periodic acoustic waves of finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.

  10. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  11. Paleointensity during periods of rapid reversal: A Case Study from the Middle Jurassic Shamrock Batholith, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprain, C. J.; Feinberg, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Strauss, B.; Brown, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Paleointensity is one of the least determined parameters in geomagnetism, yet this information has the potential to address many fundamental geophysical problems that bear on the evolution of the Earth's core and lower mantle. Here we further test the inverse relationship between geomagnetic polarity reversal rate and paleointensity, as proposed by Tauxe and Staudigel (2004) and Tarduno & Cottrell (2005). We report paleointensity results determined using both the modified Coe method (Coe, 1967) and IZZI protocol (Tauxe and Staudigel, 2004) on medium grained, hornblende-biotite granite of the Shamrock batholith in the southern Singatse Range, near Yerington, Nevada. This batholith was emplaced at ca.165.8+/- 0.4 Ma (zircon U-Pb, Dilles & Wright, 1988) during a period of unusually high reversal frequency (~10/Myr) in the Middle Jurassic. Remanence in the Shamrock batholith is held primarily by exsolved submicron magnetite inclusions in plagioclase; the laboratory unblocking temperature range for the very well-defined TRM is narrow, between about 540 and 575°C. Two sets of quality control criteria were used to assess the data. The first set yielded a 87% success rate and required MAD <10°, β <15%, DRATS <22%, MD checks <15% and fvds >30%, while the second set was more stringent (20% success rate) with MAD <5°, β <10%, DRATS <10%, MD checks <10% and fvds >40%. Mean paleointensity values for the Shamrock batholith using the 'loose' and 'strict' quality criteria are 31.4 ± 4.2 μT (N = 13) and 29.7 ± 3.1 μT (N = 3), respectively. After correction for both remanence anisotropy and cooling rate the mean values are15.9 ± 1.7 μT and 14.8 ± 0.3 μT, respectively. The uncorrected and corrected paleointensity values for the 'strict' estimates yield mean virtual dipole moments of 56.1 ± 5.9 ZAm2 and 27.9 ± 0.6 ZAm2, respectively. The uncorrected value is consistent with the VDM results reported by Tarduno & Cottrell (2005) for plagioclase grains isolated from ca

  12. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1]. PMID:27054190

  13. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  14. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  15. Single cell contractility studies based on compact moiré system over periodic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Surks, Howard; Zhang, Xin

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal vascular cell contractile performance is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cell force measurement technique requires individually tracking the sensing units and complex computation efforts for further studying cell contractility. We developed instead a robust and simple compact optical moiré system that measures phase changes encoded in carrier moiré patterns generated from two layers of gratings. Cell mechanics study including cell contractile forces and stress and strain distributions during normal and abnormal cell contractions can thus be conveniently analyzed. The distinct signals from moiré patterns in longitudinal and transverse directions revealed abnormal cell mechanical contractility linked to cardiovascular disease.

  16. Structure formation during the crystallization induction period of a short chain-molecule system: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hisao

    1998-10-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed for a short chain-molecule system to study structure formation during the crystallization induction period. A model simulating n-alkane having 20 methylene units was used for the short-chain molecule. A model system containing either 250 or 2000 chains was quenched from a high temperature, and the structure formation was examined at constant temperature and pressure. The model system containing 250 chains eventually forms an ordered phase after the induction period, during which macroscopic quantities, such as volume, remain almost constant. In spite of these small changes in the macroscopic quantities, development of local parallel order is significant during the induction period. We also found that the development of local parallel order causes density fluctuations which appear as a weak small-angle peak in the structure factor. A characteristic length scale corresponding to the density fluctuations becomes larger as time elapses in the induction period. These features are qualitatively in accord with recent experimental findings on a different polymer system [M. Imai et al., Phys. Rev. B 52, 12 696 (1995)].

  17. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  18. Ethical Practices in Journal Publishing: A Study of Library and Information Science Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serebnick, Judith; Harter, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that examined generally accepted ethical norms in library and information science journals regarding practices such as the multiple publication of the same article, plagiarism, and cronyism. The responses of editors to action scenarios focused on ethical behavior are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the ethical…

  19. From Consciousness to Technology: The Implications of Wave Periodicity Research for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Attempting to introduce a new viewpoint to communication studies, this speculative and philosophical paper posits technology as an "echo of consciousness." Section one examines technology as a manifestation of attitude, presenting the premise that technologies, consciousness, and systems are not separate components, but products of interacting…

  20. A Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies. Periodic Report: 1968-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center for Environmental Communications and Education Studies.

    This report summarizes the role of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies (CECES) in helping to foster teaching, research, and public service programs. Included in the first section are program highlights (1968-1982), Center organization, and lists of Center personnel (executive…

  1. Studying Changes in Organizational Design and Effectiveness: Retrospective Event Histories and Periodic Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, William H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes assumptions, rationale, and trade-offs involved in designing the research methodology used in a longitudinal study of organizational change. Data were obtained from over 100 organizations through 4 interviews spaced 6 months apart with top managers. (53 references) (MLF)

  2. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  3. A Study of Interaction in Distance Learning. Interim Technical Report for Period June-August 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Robert G.; Riise, Eric

    A more comprehensive definition of the variable "interaction" is needed to answer the numerous questions concerning interaction effects in distance learning. This study attempts to qualify the concept of interaction by applying various dimensions such as amount, timeliness, method, spontaneity, and quality. In turn, these dimensions of interaction…

  4. A periodic analysis of longitudinal binary responses: a case study of clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-mei; Gianola, Daniel; Heringstad, Bjørg; Klemetsdal, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure for analyzing longitudinal binary responses using a periodic cosine function was developed. It was assumed that, after adjustment for "seasonal" effects, the oscillation of the underlying latent variables for longitudinal binary responses was a stationary series. Based on this assumption, a single dimension sinusoidal analysis of longitudinal binary responses using the Gibbs sampling and Metropolis algorithms was implemented in a study of clinical mastitis records of Norwegian Red cows taken over five lactations. PMID:17433240

  5. Lidar/photometry studies at Sao Paulo in the 2003-2005 period, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Sawamura, Patricia; Uehara, Sandro T.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Torres, Ani S.; Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Matos, Caio A.; de Jesus, Wellington C.

    2007-09-01

    A lidar system has been operational at Sao Paulo, Brazil (23° S, 46° W) since 2001 and colocated is a sunphotometer belonging to AERONET . During this last years aerosol properties has been extracted from both systems and seasonal trends have been observed specially when long range transport takes place bringing plumes with biomass burning aerosol which can distinctively be extracted from a heavy loaded atmosphere as SÃ#o Paulo. These events trigger poor air quality conditions which can be easily correlated. The parameters for studying these patterns are Aerosol Optical Depth, Angström Exponent and Lidar Ratio. We show here some case studies belonging to years 2003, 2004 and 2005.

  6. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  7. A Low-Glycemic Nutritional Fitness Program to Reverse Metabolic Syndrome in Professional Firefighters: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mary G.; Al-Zaiti, Salah S.; Liao, Limei; Martin, Heather N.; Butler, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk for cardiovascular events is higher for those with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it is known that firefighters have a fourfold risk for cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to quantify MetS prevalence and evaluate the effect of a low glycemic nutritional fitness program on the reduction of MetS risk factors among firefighters. Methods Professional firefighters were screened for MetS then enrolled in a low glycemic nutritional fitness program for a 12-week period. Anthropometric and physiologic measurements were obtained at the start and end of the program. Subjects with ≥3 of the following were positive for MetS: waist ≥40 (men) or ≥35 inches (women), BP≥135 (systole) or ≥85 (diastole) mmHg, fasting blood sugar ≥100mg/dl, triglycerides ≥150mg/dl, and high-density lipoproteins <40 (men) or <50 mg/dl (women). Weekly training was provided with low glycemic nutrition and regular fitness and evaluation of individual progress. Results Seventy-five firefighters (age 42+8yrs, mostly Caucasian men) had a total MetS prevalence of 46.7% (p<0.05 vs normal population). One platoon (10 men, age 48±5yrs) was enrolled in the 12-week program. Most (7/10) had MetS at the baseline, but this prevalence decreased significantly after 12 weeks to 3 subjects (p=0.02). On average, subjects had 3.2±1.6 vs 1.9±1.7 MetS risk factors (p<0.01) at baseline and 12 week interval, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS and MetS risk factors are higher among professional firefighters compared to general population. A short-duration low glycemic fitness program can successfully improve anthropometric and physiologic measures and reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:21263343

  8. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials. Final report, period ending 31 August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harries, W.L.; Long, S.A.T.; Long, E.R. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    Aerospace environment effects (high energy electrons, thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and aircraft fluids) on polymeric and composite materials considered for structural use in spacecraft and advanced aircraft are examined. These materials include Mylar, Ultem, and Kapton. In addition to providing information on the behavior of the materials, attempts are made to relate the measurements to the molecular processes occurring in the material. A summary and overview of the technical aspects are given along with a list of the papers that resulted from the studies. The actual papers are included in the appendices and a glossary of technical terms and definitions is included in the front matter.

  9. Letterer-Siwe disease: a study of thirteen cases over a 21 - year period.

    PubMed

    Bingham, E A; Bridges, J M; Kelly, A M; Burrows, D; Nevin, N C

    1982-02-01

    In Northern Ireland, with a population of 1.5 million, thirteen cases of Letterer-Siwe disease have been diagnosed over the past 21 years. The average age of onset was 10.5 months. There was a 69% mortality with an average survival time from diagnosis to death of 3.3 months. Four children survived with no morbidity. All deaths were from pulmonary complications, but two cases with pulmonary infiltration responded to treatment with quadruple chemotherapy. There were no familial cases in this study. PMID:7059511

  10. A study of periodically driven stochastic systems using the method of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstigneev, Mykhaylo

    A white-noise driven non-linear stochastic system subject to harmonic external forcing is considered. A general technique to compute the system's first- and higher-harmonic response to such a driving of arbitrary amplitude is elaborated, and its linear response version is derived. In addition, a novel method of computing the rate of escape of a stochastic system from a given region of its state space is proposed. These developments are applied to study the response of a stochastic oscillator in a bistable quartic potential V(x) = -(x2/2) + (x 4/4) to harmonic driving, as well as the rate of escape from one of its potential minima. Two cases are separately considered, namely, the overdamped (Smoluchowski) limit, and a more general case of arbitrary damping constant. Calculation of the probability of escape from a potential minimum per unit time as a function of noise intensity, T, and damping constant is performed. The results are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the Kramers-Arrhenius formula in the region of its validity, i.e., at low noise intensities. A subsequent increase of the escape rate with noise intensity in proportion to T is predicted. A detailed study of the susceptibility of the average coordinate to external forcing is carried out, and the effect of driving frequency, noise intensity, and damping on the system's driven probability distribution and response is investigated in the context of stochastic resonance (SR). In the overdamped limit, two types of processes contribute to the system's susceptibility, namely, intrawell and interwell relaxation. It is shown that even in the overdamped limit, both of these processes result in stochastic resonant enhancement of the system's sensitivity to driving with respect to noise strength. Other types of SR appear in the case of small damping, when noise can be used to tune the system to the interwell and/or intrawell vibrational state characterized by the frequency matching that of external

  11. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still Relevant? A Single Center Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, K; Prasad, D; Malhotra, V; Agrawal, D; Beniwal, P; Mathur, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: High cost of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Repeated puncture PD although inferior to HD biochemically, is easily and freely available across Rajasthan, India, and is simple to perform, and does not require sophisticated machines, thus making it an attractive option for dialysis for ESRD. Aim: To analyze the outcomes of periodic PD in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis support. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study analyzing the data of patients who underwent PD between August 2010 and January 2013 in Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, India was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time period between first and second session of PD. Detailed demographic and clinical data during the study period were collected along with PD related complications. The main outcome studied was technique survival 1 year post initiation of PD. Results: 234 patients received an initial session of PD, of which 174 had a good response and were included in the study. 19 patients received the second PD within 7 days of first (Group 1), 45 patients within 8–14 days (Group 2) and 110 patients within 15–21 days (Group 3). The overall 1 year technique survival was 68.4% (91/133), with a rate of 50% (5/10), 56.8% (21/37), and 75.6% (65/86) for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The time duration between first and second PD proved to be reliable indicator of the subsequent response, with a technique survival rate significantly lower in Group 1 patients compared to Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). Median dialysis free days were 11, 16 and 21 days in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Peritonitis rate observed was 2.1% (49/2261) during the study period. Conclusion: Periodic PD is a simple, safe and cheap procedure, which can be considered as used as a palliative measure in

  12. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, P.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of accreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond x-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the x-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform x-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to include imaging of X-ray jets from binaries and the study of extragalactic X-ray binaries. Significant progress was made over the past year.

  13. Maternal recall versus medical records of metabolic conditions from the prenatal period: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Methods Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Results Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73% to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57% to 77% and specificity from 93% to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC=0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κwt=0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κwt=0.85 and κwt=0.84, respectively; P=0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. Conclusions For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  14. Maternal Recall Versus Medical Records of Metabolic Conditions from the Prenatal Period: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K; Tancredi, Daniel J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-09-01

    To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73 to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57 to 77% and specificity from 93 to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC = 0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κ(wt) = 0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κ(wt) = 0.85 and κ(wt) = 0.84, respectively; P = 0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  15. Studying cumulative ozone exposures in Europe during a 7-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie; Brandt, JøRgen; Zlatev, Zahari; Uria, Ignacio

    1997-10-01

    Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants in the troposphere. High ozone concentrations can damage plants, animals and humans. The damaging effects depend on the magnitude of a critical level of a special parameter, the cumulative ozone exposure. This is why cumulative ozone exposures must be carefully studied. It is important to determine the relationships between relevant emissions (NOx emissions, human-made VOC emissions, and/or a combination of NOx emissions and human-made VOC emissions) and cumulative ozone exposures. All these issues are discussed in this paper. Meteorological data from seven consecutive years, from 1989 to 1995, have been used in the experiments with different scenarios for varying the emissions (the NOx emissions, the human-made VOC emissions, as well as both the NOx emissions and the human-made VOC emissions). The particular air pollution model used in this study is the Danish Eulerian Model. Several hundred runs with different input data (meteorological data and/or emission data) have been performed. Advanced visualization techniques are used to interpret the large amount of digital data collected in these runs and to show clearly different trends and relationships that are normally hidden behind millions and millions of numbers. The model results were compared with measurements taken at more than 80 stations located in different European countries. The experiments indicate that it is sufficient to carry out computations over 5 consecutive years in order to eliminate the influence of extreme meteorological conditions (very warm or very cold summer months) on the cumulative ozone exposures, while this effect is clearly seen if less than 5 years are used in the experiments. It is shown that the relationship between the emissions (NOx and/or human-made VOC emissions) and the cumulative ozone exposures is in general nonlinear. Finally, it is illustrated that the critical values for ozone exposures are exceeded in most of Europe (in many

  16. Animal Welfare in Studies on Murine Tuberculosis: Assessing Progress over a 12-Year Period and the Need for Further Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Nuno Henrique; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Olsson, I. Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern over the welfare of animals used in research, in particular when these animals develop pathology. The present study aims to identify the main sources of animal distress and to assess the possible implementation of refinement measures in experimental infection research, using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. This choice is based on the historical relevance of mouse studies in understanding the disease and the present and long-standing impact of TB on a global scale. Literature published between 1997 and 2009 was analysed, focusing on the welfare impact on the animals used and the implementation of refinement measures to reduce this impact. In this 12-year period, we observed a rise in reports of ethical approval of experiments. The proportion of studies classified into the most severe category did however not change significantly over the studied period. Information on important research parameters, such as method for euthanasia or sex of the animals, were absent in a substantial number of papers. Overall, this study shows that progress has been made in the application of humane endpoints in TB research, but that a considerable potential for improvement remains. PMID:23110093

  17. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species. PMID:26745511

  18. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Filho, F. E.; da Silva, J. H.; Saraiva, G. D.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Barros, O. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 108 years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  19. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  20. Bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Ganfort) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Ivan; Gil Pina, Rafael; Lanzagorta-Aresti, Aitor; Schiffman, Rhett M; Liu, Charlie; Bejanian, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoints, reflecting differing regional regulatory requirements, included change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12, and the average eye IOP at weeks 2, 6 and 12 in the intent-to-treat population. Results 561 patients were randomised (278 to bimatoprost/timolol PF; 283 to bimatoprost/timolol); 96.3% completed the study. Both treatment groups showed statistically and clinically significant mean decreases from baseline in worse eye IOP and in average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001). Bimatoprost/timolol PF met all pre-established criteria for non-inferiority and equivalence to bimatoprost/timolol. Ocular adverse events were similar between treatment groups, with conjunctival hyperaemia being the most frequent. Most were mild or moderate in severity. Conclusions Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. Trial registration number NCT01177098. PMID:24667994

  1. Study on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes having periodically corrugated enhancement structures with different duty cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Hao Ming; Wang, Huei Tsz; Huang, Chen Yang; Pan, Huang Wei; Chao, Shiuh

    2016-02-01

    The duty cycle effect on the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes having different periodically corrugated enhancement structures placed opposite to the emission surface was studied. The experimental results were compared with numerical simulation results. The numerical simulation was performed using a rigorous-coupled-wave-analysis method. In the case of common structures such as a patterned-sapphire structure, we found that, in general, extraction efficiency increased drastically when duty cycle was increased from zero, and then it varied relatively slowly as the duty cycle was increased further; after that, the extraction efficiency dropped drastically as the duty cycle approached 100%. However, for a structure that was composed of autocloned-photonic crystals super-imposing on the periodical corrugation, the efficiency increased monotonically with the duty cycle and reached 83.4% (corresponding to 589% enhancement efficiency) when the duty cycle approached 100%. A method for the fabrication of such high-efficiency structures was proposed.

  2. Low-altitude quasi-periodic echoes studied using a large database of Gadanki radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara Rao, N.; Patra, A. K.; Rao, S. V. B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present studies on low-altitude quasiperiodic (LQP) echoes based on a large database of Gadanki radar observations. LQP echoes have been observed 33% of the time during daytime and 39% during nighttime. Their occurrence is found to be maximum in the summer (daytime, 58% nighttime, 57%), followed by the September equinox (daytime, 32% nighttime, 48%), the March equinox (daytime, 26% nighttime, 36%), and minimum in the winter (daytime, 25% nighttime, 26%). Height-time occurrence of LQP echoes shows two local time maxima: one in the morning (0700-1100 LT) and another in the evening (1900-0000 LT). The most significant results not reported earlier are the large occurrence rate of LQP echoes and the height-time occurrence maps showing a descending pattern with close resemblance to tidal wind behavior. The Doppler velocities are upward-northward (downward-southward) for positive- (negative-) sloped LQP echoes. Also, we find the Doppler spread as high as 200 m s-1 at times underlining the presence of strong plasma turbulence in the collision-dominated lower E region. These results are discussed in the light of the current understanding of the LQP echoes.

  3. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of accreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations of accreting compact objects. include imaging of X-ray jets from binaries and the study of extragalactic X-ray binaries. past year. Nine papers were accepted and/or published, as listed below. Seven of these are new since our previous annual report. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to Significant progress was made over the The presentation of several talks and posters at astronomical meetings were supported by this grant. The PI was the lead organizer of "X-Ray Timing 2003: Rossi and Beyond", a major conference held in Cambridge, MA, in November, 2003. A t the conference we reviewed the accomplishments of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and developed the scientific motivation for a future X-ray timing mission. This conference was well attended and generated a significant amount of interest.

  4. Visual search is postponed during the period of the AB: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Grubert, Anna; Spalek, Thomas M; Di Lollo, Vincent; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In the phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB), perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Studies in which T2 consisted of a pop-out search array provided evidence suggesting that visual search is postponed during the AB. In the present work, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to test this postponement hypothesis. The behavioral measure was reaction time (RT) to T2; the electrophysiological measure was the onset latency of an ERP index of attentional selection, known as the N2pc. Consistent with the postponement hypothesis, both measures were delayed during the AB. The delay in N2pc was substantially shorter than that in RT, pointing to multiple sources of delay in the chain of processing events, as distinct from the single source postulated in current theories of the AB. Finally, the finding that the N2pc was delayed during the AB strongly suggests that attention is involved in the processing of pop-out search arrays. PMID:25871502

  5. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  6. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human. PMID:22348507

  7. First multi-colour photometric study of the short period K-type contact binary NSVS 2701634

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.; Barani, C.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first CCD sets of complete light curves for the W Ursae Majoris W-type system NSVS 2701634. The observations were performed in the B, V and Ic bands using the 0.25 m telescope of the "Stazione Astronomica Betelgeuse" Italy, during 8 nights in April 2015. From our observations we were able to confirm and revise the short-period (0.24 days) variation found by Shaw and collaborators in their online list Using our 12 times of minimum light, the orbital period variations of NSVS 2701634 are studied for the first time. The general trend of the (O-C) curve reveals that its period is varying by a downward parabola that means that period is decreasing, this fact could be explained by a mass transfer between the components of the system. The light curves were modelled using the Wilson-Devinney code and the elements obtained from this analysis are used to compute the physical parameters of the system in order to study its evolutionary status. A reasonable fit of the synthetic light curves of the data indicated that NSVS 2701634 is an late-type (K3 -K4+K6) contact binary system of W-Subtype of the W Ursae Majoris systems, with a mass ratio of q = 2.60, a degree of contact factor f = 15.3% and inclination i = 72°. The light curves show asymmetries at the maxima that are fitted adding an hot spot on the surface of the more massive star, known as inverse O'Connell effect. From an estimation of the absolute dimensions of the system and from the logM-logL diagram, it is seen that both components of NSVS 2701634 follow the general pattern of the W subtype W Ursae Majoris systems.

  8. Bimatoprost 0.03% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution (Lumigan) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week, randomised, double-masked trial

    PubMed Central

    Day, Douglas G; Walters, Thomas R; Schwartz, Gail F; Mundorf, Thomas K; Liu, Charlie; Schiffman, Rhett M; Bejanian, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim To evaluate efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.03% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03% (Lumigan) ophthalmic solution for glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this double-masked, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost PF or bimatoprost for 12 weeks. The primary analysis for non-inferiority was change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12. For equivalence, it was average eye IOP in the intent-to-treat population at each time point at weeks 2, 6 and 12. Results 597 patients were randomised (bimatoprost PF, n=302 and bimatoprost, n=295). The 95% CI upper limit for worse eye IOP change from baseline was <1.5 mm Hg at each week 12 time point, meeting prespecified non-inferiority criteria. The 95% CI upper limit for the treatment difference for average IOP was 0.69 mm Hg and the lower limit was −0.50 mm Hg at all follow-up time points (hours 0, 2 and 8 at weeks 2, 6 and 12), meeting equivalence criteria. Both treatments showed decreases in mean average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001), were safe and well tolerated. Conclusions Bimatoprost PF is non-inferior and equivalent to bimatoprost in its ability to reduce IOP-lowering with a safety profile similar to bimatoprost. PMID:23743437

  9. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  10. Study of the Correlations Between Long-Periodic Terrestrial Tides and Occurrence of Earthquakes in the Vrancea Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchay, J.; Stavinschi, M.

    1997-04-01

    Following studies already performed by various authors concerning specific tectonic faults we analyse statistically the possibility that earthquakes in the very active seismological zone of Vrancea (Roumania) may be triggered by the vertical luni-solar tidal oscillations when retaining only the components other than diurnal and semi-diurnal. Our conclusion is that for three of the four leading tides, with periods 18.6 y, 182.62 d, and 13.66 d, the earthquakes occur preferentially during the ascending part of each of the sine oscillation. This property is especially visible for the leading 13.66 d fortnightly wave, and for the 18.6 y wave, for which results are very similar to that of Kilston and Knopoff (1983), who analyzed data related to the San Andreas fault in Southern California. As a complement, we carried out an analysis of earthquake periodicities w.r.t. the variation rate of each of the tides above, given by the half-period sine oscillation, which also leads to interesting possible correlations.

  11. A Study of the X-ray Periodicities in the Remarkable Transient Source Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Falcone, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Swift J1644+57 was discovered when it exhibited bright X-ray activity that was believed to be triggered from the infall of a tidally disrupted star near a massive black hole. The observation of a tidal disruption event (TDE) can provide clues to the geometry and physics near the black hole. If a jet forms, as we think happened with Swift J1644+57, it can provide data to study jet creation and the density of matter in a possible accretion disc. We have analyzed Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of Swift J1644+57 from initial onset to 502 days after TDE onset. We used a Z-transform Discrete Correlation Function (ZDCF) to search for periodicities in the Swift X-ray light curve. We analyzed the X-ray light curve in five time regions, including 0 to 4.5 days after TDE onset, 4.5 to 55 days after TDE onset, 55 to 104 days after TDE onset, 104 to 145 days after TDE onset, and 145 to 502 days after TDE onset. After implementing red and white noise reduction modeling to our ZDCF analysis, we found plausible detections of periodicities. We briefly discuss implications of these periods on the geometry and feeding of the tidal disruption event.

  12. Changes in serum enterolactone, genistein, and daidzein in a dietary intervention study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, K; Pietinen, P; Puska, P; Adlercreutz, H

    2000-12-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that may have cancer-protective properties. The purpose of the study was to see how enterolactone, daidzein, and genistein serum concentrations reflect major changes in the diet of Finnish subjects. Phytoestrogen concentrations were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay after hydrolysis and extraction in samples from 85 middle-aged subjects who were part of a 12-week dietary intervention study carried out in North Karelia, Finland. In the baseline and the switchback periods, the subjects consumed their habitual Finnish diet, which is high in saturated fat and low in polyunsaturated fat and vegetables. During the 12-week intervention period, the proportion of dietary energy derived from fat was reduced from approximately 39% to 23%, and the consumption of vegetables, fruit, and berries was markedly increased. Enterolactone concentrations were measured during the baseline, intervention, and switchback periods. The median concentration of enterolactone rose from 12.2 to 19.5 nmol/l (P = 0.002) during the low-fat, high-vegetable diet. Daidzein and genistein concentrations were very low and did not change during the intervention. At baseline, 65% of the population had a low serum enterolactone concentration of <15 nmol/l. During the intervention period, this proportion fell to 34%. These major differences in serum enterolactone concentrations suggest that enterolactone may be used as a biomarker of a healthy diet containing plenty of vegetables, fruit, and berries. PMID:11142423

  13. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  14. Study of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip GaN-based LEDs with different periodic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinlian; Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Ding, Qingan; Zhang, Mingyu; Li, Wei

    2014-03-01

    To improve light extraction efficiency (LEE) of the GaN-based LEDs, it has become a practical technique to form 2D periodic micro/nanostructure arrays in an n- or p-GaN layer. However, the fabrication of micro/nanostructure arrays in the thinner p-GaN layer can deteriorate the electrical characteristics, sometimes even damage the QWs active region. In this study, numerical simulations based on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method were carried out to investigate the influence of the different periodic arrays in the thicker n-GaN layer on the LEE of the LEDs. To find the optimal structure, the study was divided into three parts. Firstly, the parametrical influence of the different periodic arrays on the LEE was numerically simulated. The results showed that micro-cone arrays can effectively enhance the LEE and the maximum LEE can be obtained as the bottom of each cone pattern was in contact with adjacent cones. Secondly, by comparing micro-cone arrays with micro-pyramid arrays, the micro-cone arrays were superior to micro-pyramid arrays in terms of enhancing LEE. Lastly, the truncated cone arrays and truncated cone hole arrays with different upper radius were studied. The results indicated that the truncated cone arrays in top radius of less than 0.4 µm showed a certain enhancement of the LEE and about 3 times LEE improvement was obtained as R=0.2μm and h=1.0μm, compared with the planar flip-chip LEDs. Our results will provide important theoretical implications in development of high-power and high-brightness LEDs.

  15. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  16. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  17. Effects of Ecklonia cava polyphenol in individuals with hypercholesterolemia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hyeon; Park, Mi Yeon; Shim, Byung Joo; Youn, Ho Joong; Hwang, Hye Jeong; Shin, Hyeon Cheol; Jeon, Hui Kyung

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of Ecklonia cava polyphenol (Seapolynol™, a polyphenol antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent purified from E. cava) during a 12-week treatment period (400 mg orally once daily) in individuals with hypercholesterolemia and performed subgroup analysis for metabolic syndrome (MetS). As a noncomparative study, forty-six individuals (M:F=22:24, mean age=54±11 years) with fasting total cholesterol concentration >240 mg/dL or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration >130 mg/dL were enrolled. Hip circumference (100±7 cm vs. 98±7 cm, P<.01), total cholesterol (244±25 mg/dL vs. 225±37 mg/dL, P<.01), LDL-C (161±24 mg/dL vs. 146±34 mg/dL, P<.01), and C-reactive protein (2.51±3.55 mg/L vs. 1.37±1.32 mg/L, P<.05) were significantly decreased without significant adverse effect. A differential assessment according to the presence [MetS(+) group, n=18] and absence [MetS(-) group, n=28] of MetS showed that Hb(A1c) decreased significantly following 12-week Seapolynol treatment in the MetS(+) compared with the MetS(-) group (-0.3%±0.5% vs. 0.1%±0.3%, P<.01). In conclusion, although our results showed that Seapolynol treatment is effective and safe without significant adverse events or abnormal laboratory findings during a 12-week period in individuals with hypercholesterolemia, more research in a larger population with a longer-term follow-up period in a randomized placebo-controlled study is needed to confirm the results. PMID:23126663

  18. A 12-week High School Course in Computer Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Faith K.

    1982-01-01

    Using personal-sized microcomputers (8K), students learn to operate equipment and program in BASIC. They complete computer-assisted instruction lessons and select, design, operate, demonstrate, and document their own original programs in this one quarter, high school course. Course objectives, activities, materials, and evaluation are outlined.…

  19. [Split hand-foot: sonographic detection at 12 weeks].

    PubMed

    González-Ballano, Isabel; Savirón-Cornudella, Ricardo; Alastuey-Aisa, María; Garrido-Fernández, Pilar; Lerma-Puertas, Diego

    2014-07-01

    Split hand-foot malformation is a rare disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expression. Inour case, it was detected early by ultrasound in the twelfth week of gestation. The sonographic findings were bilateral split hands and feet. No other alterations were observed in the rest of the systematic assessment of the foetal anatomy. The pathological findings were consistent with the sonographic diagnosis. Prenatal diagnosis by corionic villus sampling was performed and voluntary termination of gestation decided. PMID:25102675

  20. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  1. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  2. A Pilot Study to Compare Oxidative Status between Organically and Conventionally Managed Dairy Cattle During the Transition Period.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC and 48 in OMC); (ii) close-up dry (1 month until 3 days before calving; 44 CMC; 54 OMC); (iii) fresh (3 days to +1 month after calving; 44 CMC; 49 OMC); and (iv) peak of lactation (+1 to +3 months; 71 CMC; 78 OMC). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (4th-5th month of pregnancy; 40 CMC; 30 OMC). Our results indicated that throughout the periparturient period, OMC had lower concentrations of reactive oxygen species, but also a lower antioxidant capacity than CMC. Indeed, when the two components of the redox balance were assessed together through the Oxidative Stress index, the values of this parameter were higher for OMC than for CMC, thereby implying a higher risk of oxidative stress. Therefore, further larger studies are needed to confirm the current observations, as organically reared animals might be exposed to a lack of antioxidants supply. PMID:25845278

  3. A prospective study in a southern Indian hospital on the prescription of medication during the lying in period following childbirth.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Jairaj, P; Mathew, L G

    1994-01-01

    The awareness of the inherent risks attached to medication use during pregnancy is increasing. There is, however, a paucity of available following childbirth. We have conducted a prospective study in women who gave birth in hospital with the objective of analysing the use of medication in this lying in period. The results show that, in addition to the vitamins and minerals routinely prescribed for every young mother and the antipyretics administered as required, the following medicaments were most often used: analgesics (by approx. 9%), anti-inflammatory agents (49%) and antibiotics (38%). The antibiotics were either used prophylactically or, in cases of proven infection, administered therapeutically. The use of antibiotics appears more intensive compared to western countries, presumably due to the greater risk of infection in this group in India. On the other hand, the use of sleep inducing medication and tranquillizers during the lying in period appears, in comparison to other studies, almost negligible. The majority of the women were unaware of the potential side-effects of medication during breastfeeding. PMID:7871897

  4. Laser ablation in titanium implants followed by biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating: Histomorphometric study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Faeda, Rafael Silveira; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Marcantonio, Elcio; Guastaldi, Antonio Carlos; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2012-07-01

    Titanium surface texture and chemistry modification successfully improves the host response and consequently the bone-to-implant contact surrounding dental implants. The aim of the present study was to investigate, using histomorphometrical-analysis, the effects of titanium surface modification by laser-ablation (Nd:YAG) followed by thin chemical deposition of HA. Forty-eight rabbits received one implant by tibiae of AS-machined (MS), laser-modified (LMS), or biomimetic hydroxyapatite-coated (HA) surface. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BBT) were evaluated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks, at cortical and cancellous regions. Average BIC in the cortical region was higher (P < 0.001) on the LMS and HA implants for all periods, with no differences between LMS and HA. For the cancellous area, the LMS and HA implants showed higher (P < 0.01) BIC than MS at the initial periods. The LMS and HA showed similar values in the cortical region, but a tendency of higher values for HA in the cancellous region was observed in all periods. For the BBT, the differences were found only between HA and MS after 4 weeks in the cortical region (P < 0.05), and after 12 weeks in the cancellous area (P < 0.05). Our results showed that HA biomimetic coating preceded by laser treatment induced the contact osteogenesis and allowed the formation of a more stable bone-implant interface, even in earlier periods. PMID:22389308

  5. Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in India: Role of PERIOD3 Clock Gene Length Polymorphism and Chronotype

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael D.; Burch, James B.; Hébert, James R.; Kowtal, Pradnya; Kapoor, Aparna; Steck, Susan E.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Sarin, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined a PERIOD3 (PER3) gene variable number tandem repeat polymorphism and chronotype as potential BrCA risk factors among Indian women. Methods This case-control study included sporadic, histologically confirmed BrCA cases (n=255) and controls (n=249) from India with data collection from 2010–2012. Results Women with the 4/5 or 5/5 PER3 genotype had a non-statistically significant 33% increased odds of BrCA. BrCA cases were more likely to have a morning (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.23–4.81) or evening (OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.19–5.47) chronotype. Conclusions Findings are consistent with the possibility that extremes in chronotype may elicit circadian desynchronization, resulting in adverse health outcomes. PMID:24903750

  6. Design study of an advanced gas generator. [which can be ignited during start-up period of turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Trinh, H. P.

    1993-01-01

    A gas generator which can be ignited reliably during the initial start-up period and offers fairly uniform gas temperature at the exit was studied numerically. Various sizes and shapes of the mixing enhancement devices and their positions were examined to evaluate the uniformity of the exit gas temperature and the change of internal pressure drop incurred by introducing the mixing enhancement devices. By introducing a turbulence ring and a splash plate with an appropriate size and position, it was possible to obtain fairly uniform gas temperature distributions and a maximum gas temperature that is within the design limit temperature of 1600 R at the generator exit. However, with the geometry studied, the pressure drop across the generator was great, approximately 1150 psi, to satisfy the assigned design limit temperature. If the design limit temperature is increased to 1650 R, the pressure drop across the generator could be lowered by as much as 350 psi.

  7. Brownian dynamics studies on DNA gel electrophoresis. I. Numerical method and ``periodic'' behavior of elongation-contraction motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Ryuzo; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-10-01

    The dynamics of a DNA molecule which is undergoing constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) is studied by a Brownian dynamics simulation method we have developed. In the method a DNA molecule is modeled as a chain of spherical electrolyte beads and the gel as a three-dimensional array of immobile beads. With the constraint for the separation of each pair of bonded beads to be less than a certain fixed value, as well as with the excluded volume effect, the simultaneous Langevin equations of motion for the beads are solved by means of the Lagrangian multiplier method. The resultant mobilities μ as a function of electric field coincide satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results, once the time, the length, and the field of the simulation are properly scaled. In relatively strong fields "periodic" behavior is found in the chain dynamics and is examined through the time evolution of the radius of the longer principal axis, Rl(t). It is found that the mean width of a peak in Rl(t), or a period of one elongation-contraction process of the chain, is proportional to the number of beads in the chain, M, while the mean period between two such adjacent peaks is independent of M for large M. These results, combined with the observation that the chain moves to the field direction by the distance proportional to M in each elongation-contraction motion, yield the saturation of mobility for large M. This explains the reason that CFGE cannot separate DNA according to their size L(∝M) for large L.

  8. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  9. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  10. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  11. Period studies of five neglected Algol-type binaries: RW Cet, BO Gem, DG Lac, SW Oph and WY Per

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Doğru, S. S.; Soydugan, F.; Çiçek, C.; Demircan, O.

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the orbital period variations of five neglected Algol-type eclipsing binaries (RW Cet, BO Gem, DG Lac, SW Oph and WY Per) in this study. Their O- C diagrams display tilted sinusoidal variations superimposed on upward parabolic forms. The parabolic variations, which correspond to secular period increases, were interpreted in terms of the combined effect of mass transfer and loss. Then, the mass transfer rates from the less massive secondary components to more massive primaries for non-conservative cases were calculated to be ˜10-7M⊙/yr for RW Cet, DG Lac and SW Oph and ˜10-8M⊙/yr for BO Gem and WY Per. The tilted (eccentric) sinusoidal representations of the O- C variations were interpreted in terms of the light-time effect due to unseen components in the systems. The possible third bodies in four Algol binaries (excluding RW Cet) would have masses larger than one solar mass. If these hypothetical large massive third bodies were normal stars, they should be detectable. Therefore, new astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic observations of these systems and careful analyses of the resulting data are required.

  12. Histochemical study of retinal photoreceptors development during pre- and postnatal period and their association with retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Vahid; Vojoudi, Elham; Fazel, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh-bideskan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate distribution and changes of glycoconjugates of retinal photoreceptors during both pre- and postnatal development. Materials and Methods: Tissue sections from days 15 to 20 of Wistar rat embryos and 1 to 12 postnatal days of rat newborns including developing eye were prepared for lectinhistochemistry technique. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled lectins including Vicia villosa (VVA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-ІІ) were used. Alcian blue (pH 2.5) was used for counterstaining. Results: Interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) plays a crucial role in photoreceptors differentiation and acts as a mediator in interactions between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Specific cell surface glycoconjugates secreted from cone cells could help us to distinguish these cells from rod photoreceptors. Our results for the first time revealed the strong reaction of cone photoreceptors with the cone-specific lectin (PNA) at postnatal day 12 (P12). Postnatal day 12 can be determined as the final differentiation of cone photoreceptors. Conclusion: According to our findings, we suggest that the generation of the eye photoreceptors begins from pre- natal period and their final differentiations will continue to postnatal period. Glycoconjugates including (β-D-Gal [1-3]-D-GalNac) and (β-D-Gal) terminal sugars play a critical role in the pre- and postnatal development and differentiation of retinal photoreceptors. PMID:25429338

  13. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact eclipsing binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-05-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of - 5.1(± 0.4) × 10-7 days/year. We assume this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm / dt = 7.06 ×10-7M⊙ /year . By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. In the future, its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  14. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact Eclipsing Binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Hongpeng, Lu; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of -5.1(±0.4)×10-7 days/year. We believe this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm/dt = 7.06×10-7M⊙/year. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. Its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  15. Medical care costs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis during the prebiologics period in Japan: a large prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Inoue, Eisuke; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Bennett, Mihoko; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Momohara, Shigeki; Hara, Masako; Singh, Gurkirpal; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2010-02-01

    Our objective was to describe outpatient medical care costs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the prebiologics period in Japan. The outpatient costs of 6,771 RA patients (17,666 patient years) who were enrolled in an observational cohort study at the Institute of Rheumatology, Rheumatoid Arthritis (IORRA), in Tokyo, Japan, were calculated from the billing records dated from 2000 to 2004. Associations between outpatient costs and variables such as age, RA duration, RA disease activities, and disability levels were assessed. The average outpatient cost gradually increased (+7.7% in 4 years) from 271,498 JPY per year in 2000 to 292,417 JPY per year in 2004. Medications accounted for approximately 50% of total outpatient costs, which increased 29.6% during the 4 years. The outpatient costs increased in association with aging, longer RA duration, higher Disease Activity Score of 28 Joints (DAS28), and higher Japanese version of Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ) score. Generalized linear regression analysis revealed that both DAS28 and J-HAQ scores were the most significant factors associated with outpatient costs (p < 0.001). Outpatient costs for patients with RA increased year after year over the 4-year period under observation in Japan. Medical costs were higher with increasing RA disease activity and disability levels. PMID:19821162

  16. Bone mineral density in children treated with daily or periodical inhaled budesonide: the Helsinki Early Intervention Childhood Asthma study.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Markku; Pelkonen, Anna S; Nikander, Kurt; Sorva, Ritva; Selroos, Olof; Juntunen-Backman, Kaisu; Haahtela, Tari

    2010-08-01

    In a double-blind, randomized study, 136 children, 5-10-y-old, with newly detected persistent asthma received budesonide (BUD) 400 microg twice daily for 1 mo and thereafter 200 microg twice daily for 5 mo. Thereafter, 50 children were treated with BUD 100 microg twice daily, whereas 44 children used BUD as needed for 1 y; an additional 42 children received disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Asthma exacerbations were treated with BUD for 2 wk in a dose of 400 microg twice daily in all groups. In this secondary analysis, bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae was measured before and after the 18-mo treatment. Compared with DSCG, regular BUD treatment resulted in a significantly smaller increase in BMD (0.023 versus 0.034 g/cm; p = 0.023) and height (7.75 versus 8.80 cm; p = 0.001). Periodic treatment did not affect BMD. No intergroup differences were observed when BMD data were adjusted for changes in height. Daily BUD treatment in prepubertal children may slow down the increment in BMD and standing height. This was not observed in children receiving BUD periodically after the initial regular BUD treatment. The correlation between height and BMD suggests that following children's height might afford an estimation of inhaled corticosteroid effects on bone. PMID:20485203

  17. A prospective study of hospitalization with gallstone disease among women: role of dietary factors, fasting period, and dieting.

    PubMed Central

    Sichieri, R; Everhart, J E; Roth, H

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary risk factors for the development of gallstones have not been clearly established. We analyzed data from a population-based prospective study to determine dietary risk factors for hospitalization with gallstone disease. METHODS: We evaluated the role of dietary constituents, fasting, and dieting on subsequent hospitalization with gallstone disease among 4,730 women, ages 25 to 74 years, who participated in the first follow-up of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline dietary variables were established through a 24-hour dietary recall and a medical history. Proportional hazards models were used to calculate the effects of dietary variables while controlling for baseline risk factors. RESULTS: After an average of 10 years follow-up, gallstone disease was confirmed by hospital records among 216 women who denied gallstone disease at the baseline examination. The hazard rate of hospitalization with gallstone disease increased with increasing overnight fasting period and with dieting. Intake of fiber showed a small protective effect. The effect of energy intake was significant only among women younger than age 50 years at baseline. Results were not affected by adjustment for known risk factors for gallstone disease or other dietary factors. CONCLUSION: A long overnight fasting period, dieting, and low fiber intake may increase the risk of hospitalization with gallstone disease. PMID:1647144

  18. Reduction of the risk of rhabdomyolysis after bariatric surgery with lower fluid administration in the perioperative period: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matłok, Maciej; Major, Piotr; Małczak, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Hynnekleiv, Leif; Nowak, Mateusz; Karcz, Konrad; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2016-04-13

    INTRODUCTION    Obesity is a growing worldwide problem. One of the most effective treatments is a bariatric procedure; however, surgery is associated with the risk of complications, such as staple line leakage, suture line bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis (RML). OBJECTIVES    The objective of our study was to assess the risk of RML after bariatric surgery related to intravenous fluid administration in the perioperative period. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study involved 194 patients who underwent a bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic gastric bypass). We studied an association between the development of RML and sex, age, weight, duration of surgery, type of surgery, and the volume of intravenously administered fluids during the perioperative period. RESULTS    The median duration of surgery was 132.5 minutes. The median volume of administered fluids was 3150 ml from the introduction of anesthesia to 24 hours after surgery. Biochemical RML (creatine phosphokinase >1000 U/l) was observed in 30 patients (15.46%). RML with clinical manifestations developed in 6 patients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed an increase in the odds ratio of biochemical RML with an increase of weight on the day of surgery, operative time, and volume of intravenous fluids. A multiple regression model showed that every 500 ml of transfused fluid over the median volume increases creatine phosphokinase concentrations in the first postoperative day by 241.77 U/l over the median level, with the operative time and patient's weight remaining at median values. CONCLUSIONS    We observed an association between the administration of lower fluid volumes and a lower risk of RML. We postulate that decreasing intravenous fluid administration may reduce the risk of RML after bariatric surgery. PMID:27074693

  19. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  20. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  1. Periodic Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Uranyl Ion Sorption on Three Mineral Surfaces: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roques, Jérôme; Veilly, Edouard; Simoni, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Canister integrity and radionuclides retention is of prime importance for assessing the long term safety of nuclear waste stored in engineered geologic depositories. A comparative investigation of the interaction of uranyl ion with three different mineral surfaces has thus been undertaken in order to point out the influence of surface composition on the adsorption mechanism(s). Periodic DFT calculations using plane waves basis sets with the GGA formalism were performed on the TiO2(110), Al(OH)3(001) and Ni(111) surfaces. This study has clearly shown that three parameters play an important role in the uranyl adsorption mechanism: the solvent (H2O) distribution at the interface, the nature of the adsorption site and finally, the surface atoms’ protonation state. PMID:19582222

  2. GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    SHENOY, A.S.

    2003-05-01

    A271 GT-MHR COMMERCIALZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MAY 1 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003. Petten advised GA the start of the HFR-EU2 irradiation is being delayed until late July 2004. HFR-EU1 (pebble fuel) is also delayed until February/March 2004. The reason for the delays was implementation of new financial regulations at Petten that delayed the contracts for capsule fabrication. Review of the MHR-2 Fuel Product Specification was completed. Revision of the specification to incorporate the review results is in progress. Detailed test matrices have been drafted for capsule irradiation tests and for post-irradiation heating tests proposed for development and qualification of advanced coated-particle fuels capable of meeting anticipated VHTR fuel performance requirements.

  3. Stratospheric dynamical signal propagating through TTL : a case study of SSW period using a global non-hydrostatic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Kodera, K.; Nasuno, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have reported an enhancement of tropical convection and abrupt change of tropical circulation during the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) events by mainly the observational data [Eguchi and Kodera, GRL, 2007; Eguchi and Kodera, SOLA, 2010; Kodera et al., JMSJ, 2011]. These results suggest that the stratospheric meridional circulation impacts on the tropical convection. Investigation of the vertical velocity and the diabatic heating rate in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) region are crucial to understand the responsible process. However, these quantities cannot be measured directly. The present study used the data from numerical simulation using a global nonhydrostatic model, NICAM (Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model) [Satoh, et al 2008], which does not make use of the cumulus parameterization. The model integration was initiated from the observed field from 20 December 2009. The horizontal grid size of 14 km and vertically stretched 40-layers (z= 0 - 38 km) are used. There are five layers in the TTL (14-20 km). The daily mean gridded data (1 degree box) derived from three hourly (hourly) outputs for 3D (2D) variables are analyzed in the present study. In the NICAM simulation, a sudden warming event is reproduced around 15 January 2010, although the date of the onset was approximately one week earlier than that in the real atmosphere. The latitude of active convection moved to southward, and the temperature at the lower stratosphere and the TTL region became cooler after the onset of SSW, similar to the observation. The increase of the upward velocity occurred in the TTL at the southern tropics simultaneous to an increase in diabatic heating rate (DH) associated with cloud formation. From the time-pressure section at the equatorial southern hemisphere (SH), the anomalies of vertical wind, temperature and diabatic heating rate gradually penetrated from the lower stratosphere to the upper troposphere during the period 16-20 January, defined as the

  4. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  5. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46-63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  6. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  7. Application of teleseismic long-period surface waves from ambient noise in regional surface wave tomography: a case study in western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingjie

    2014-09-01

    Since the emerging of ambient noise tomography (ANT) in 2005, it has become a routine method to image the structures of crust and uppermost mantle because of its exclusive capability to extract short-period surface waves. Most of previous ANT studies focus on surface waves at periods shorter than 40/50 s. There are only a few studies of long-period surface wave tomography from ambient noise (longer than 50 s) in global scale. No tomography studies have been performed using teleseismic long-period surface waves from ambient noise in a regional scale, probably due to the two reasons that (1) energy of long-period ambient noise is weaker and it is harder to retrieve good signal-to-noise ratio long-period surface waves from portable stations with several years of ambient noise data and (2) long-period dispersion measurements from ambient noise may have larger uncertainties than those at shorter periods (<40/50 s). In this study, I investigate the feasibility of using teleseismic long-period surface waves from ambient noise in regional surface wave tomography and also evaluate the accuracy of long-period dispersion measurements at periods up to 150 s. About 300 USArray/Transportable Array (TA) stations located in the Colorado Plateau and surrounding areas and 400 teleseismic stations relative to the TA stations are selected. Clear, strong, and coherent long-period teleseismic surface waves at periods much longer than 50 s are observed in the teleseismic cross-correlations between the TA stations and the teleseismic stations. Using long-period dispersion curves from ambient noise, I generate phase velocity maps at 50-150 s periods and then compare them with phase velocity maps from teleseismic earthquake data. The results show that phase velocity maps from ambient noise data and earthquake data are similar at the 50-150 s period range, verifying the validity of using long-period surface wave from ambient noise in regional surface wave tomography.

  8. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  9. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  10. An electron localization function study of the geometry of d(0) molecules of the period 4 metals Ca to Mn.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Ronald J; Noury, Stéphane; Pilmé, Julien; Silvi, Bernard

    2004-05-17

    We have studied the geometry of the formally d(0) MX(n)() (X = F, H, CH(3) and O; n = 2-6) molecules of the period 4 metals from Ca to Mn by studying the topology of the electron localization function (ELF) in order to try to understand why many of these molecules have non-VSEPR geometries. The quantitative analysis of the core basin population shows that it is always larger than its conventional value (18) because, in the LCAO-MO scheme, the 3d basis functions centered on the metal noticeably contribute to the electron density within the core region associated with the M shell. Therefore, the density available to form the bonds is less than Z(M) - 18, the value adopted in electron counts. Under the influence of the ligands, these electrons cause the core to lose its spherical symmetry by the formation of opposite-spin pair localization basins, which in turn influence the geometry of the ligands if the interaction of the ligands with the core is sufficiently strong. All of the ligands considered in this study, except F, interact with the core sufficiently strongly to give non-VSEPR geometries, which we have rationalized on the basis of the ELF topology. PMID:15132634

  11. KEPLER STUDIES OF LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES. I. PARAMETERS OF THE LONG-PERIOD BINARY KIC 6131659

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Gideon; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Windmiller, Gur; Gregg, Trevor Ames; Fetherolf, Tara; Wade, Richard A.; Quinn, Samuel N.

    2012-12-20

    KIC 6131659 is a long-period (17.5 days) eclipsing binary discovered by the Kepler mission. We analyzed six quarters of Kepler data along with supporting ground-based photometric and spectroscopic data to obtain accurate values for the mass and radius of both stars, namely, M{sub 1} = 0.922 {+-} 0.007 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 1} = 0.8800 {+-} 0.0028 R{sub Sun }, and M{sub 2} = 0.685 {+-} 0.005 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 2} = 0.6395 {+-} 0.0061 R{sub Sun }. There is a well-known issue with low-mass (M {approx}< 0.8 M{sub Sun }) stars (in cases where the mass and radius measurement uncertainties are smaller than 2% or 3%) where the measured radii are almost always 5% to 15% larger than expected from evolutionary models, i.e., the measured radii are all above the model isochrones in a mass-radius plane. In contrast, the two stars in KIC 6131659 were found to sit on the same theoretical isochrone in the mass-radius plane. Until recently, all of the well-studied eclipsing binaries with low-mass stars had periods of less than about three days. The stars in such systems may have been inflated by high levels of stellar activity induced by tidal effects in these close binaries. KIC 6131659 shows essentially no evidence of enhanced stellar activity, and our measurements support the hypothesis that the unusual mass-radius relationship observed in most low-mass stars is influenced by strong magnetic activity created by the rapid rotation of the stars in tidally locked, short-period systems. Finally, using short cadence data, we show that KIC 6131657 has one of the smallest measured non-zero eccentricities of a binary with two main-sequence stars, where ecos {omega} (4.57 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}.

  12. BVRI Photometric Study of the Totally Eclipsing Short Period Solar Type, Near-Contact W UMA Binary, NSVS 5066754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2016-06-01

    found in the secondary eclipse. Since the period study would indicate that the binary may be coalescing, both solutions fit that scenario. The system may have just come into contact or is approaching contact. The first model is more probable.

  13. Lightning fatalities on the South African Highveld: a retrospective descriptive study for the period 1997 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan

    2005-03-01

    A review of the Southern Africa medical literature shows a paucity of published data regarding lightning fatalities. The South African Highveld has a lightning ground flash density of 6 to 9 flashes/km/year, with a high incidence of thunderstorm days per year (some 40-70). The Highveld has a largely urban population, many of whom have low socioeconomic status and poor education, housing, and other infrastructures and hence (possibly) are at greater exposure risk. Thirty-eight victims of lightning-related death were identified from the records of the 6 large medicolegal mortuaries on the South African Highveld, serving a population of approximately 7 million, for the period 1997 to 2000. Analysis of the records revealed that 95% of all victims were black, 79% were male, and the average age was 36 years. Lightning strikes occurred from September through to April (normal summer rainfall period), and the most strikes took place in the late afternoon (3:00 pm to 6:00 pm). All except 1 case occurred outdoors. In the autopsy reports, mention was made of singeing of hair in 68% of cases, and mention of damage to clothing was made in 26% of cases. Cutaneous thermal injuries were noted in 34 of the 38 cases, with apparent electrothermal injuries of the feet noted in 4 cases. Fifty-two percent of victims sustained some form of associated blunt-force injury (including abrasions, contusions, etc). Specific keraunopathologic injuries were described in only 2 of the cases. Twenty-one cases had some form of internal organ injury. This study serves to illustrate the relatively high incidence of lightning strikes in the region and calls for a more systematic and detailed investigative protocol in lightning-related deaths. PMID:15725779

  14. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  15. Superintendent Communication Strategies and Experiences That Promote Trust and Positive Relationships with the School Board during the Entry Period: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Superintendents have vast demands placed upon them by their school boards and via the political pipeline. The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. It is during the entry period that determines…

  16. Label-free IgG/anti-IgG biosensing based on long period fiber gratings: a comprehensive feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Bera, S.; Mallick, A.; Baldini, F.

    2015-03-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPGs) have recently been proposed as label-free biosensors. A biochemical interaction occurring along the grating region can be evaluated as a refractive index (RI) change, which modifies the transmission spectrum of the fiber. This is an emergent, alternative choice with respect to other label-free optical systems, such as surface plasmon resonance, interferometric and in-fiber configurations, and resonating structures. In this work, various types of not-coated LPGs, in which the coupling occurs with increasing cladding mode orders, were manufactured for increasing the RI sensitivity of these sensors. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using Eudragit L100 copolymer, a label-free IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was realized for analyzing the antigen/antibody interaction following the same model assay. A comprehensive feasibility study was carried out among the different LPGs in order to assess and compare the biosensor performance, highlighting the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. Experimental results proved an improvement in the RI sensitivity and in the biosensor performance in the case of high-order cladding mode LPGs, with values of detection limit lower than 50 ng mL-1 (330 pM). The performance enhancement can be explained with the increase in the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to the increase of the cladding mode order. The sensor response was also studied using complex matrices made up of human serum.

  17. Periodic density functional theory studies of the VOx/TiO2 (anatase) catalysts: Structure and stability of monomeric species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yu-Jue; Li, Zhen Hua; Fan, Kang-Nian

    2012-06-01

    Periodic density functional theory has been utilized to investigate the structure and stability of monomeric HVOx species on anatase support. The three most stable surfaces of anatase were investigated, namely the (001), (100) and (101) surfaces. Unlike previous theoretical studies it was found that on the (001) surface vanadia species with five-coordinated vanadium atom are more stable than those with tetrahedrally coordinated vanadium atom. On the other hand, on the (100) and (101) surfaces, the vanadium atom in the vanadia species is still tetrahedrally coordinated. The stability of different VOx/TiO2 structures which are not fully dehydrated has been systematically studied and the results show that the vanadia species on the three surfaces follow an order of TiO2 (001) > TiO2 (100) > TiO2 (101). This can be understood from the acidity and basicity of the three anatase surfaces. The results suggest that monomeric VOx species may be better stabilized if the support exposes more (001) surfaces. Our analyses on electronic structure of the most stable VOx/TiO2 structure (D001) suggest that its bridging V-O-Ti oxygen atoms may have higher reactivity than the terminal vanadyl oxygen atoms.

  18. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  19. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  20. Bioequivalence of Generic and Brand Name Clozapine in Korean Schizophrenic Patients: A Randomized, Two-Period, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Hun; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clozapine is the treatment of choice for refractory schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the brand name (Clozaril) formulation and a generic formulation (Clzapine) of clozapine in Korean schizophrenic patients. Methods A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of Clozaril and Clzapine. Schizophrenic patients were randomized to receive either the brand name or generic formulation (100 mg twice daily) for 10 days, followed by the other formulation for 10 days. Plasma samples were collected on the last day of each treatment period. Results Twenty-two of 28 patients (78.6%) completed the study. The mean Cmax,ss values for Clzapine and Clozaril were 524.62 and 551.18 ng/mL, and the mean AUC0-12 values were 4479.90 hr·ng/mL and 4724.56 hr·ng/mL, respectively. The 90% CI values for the natural logarithmically transformed Cmax,ss and AUC0-12 ratios (Clzapine to Clozaril) after a single oral dose (100 mg) were 0.934 (0.849-1.028) and 0.936 (0.869-1.008), respectively. Five patients (20.8%) among 24 patients who took Clzapine reported 11 adverse events and six adverse events were reported by four patients (15.4%) among 26 who took Clozaril; there were no significant differences on physical examination or in vital signs, ECG, and laboratory tests between groups. Conclusion Generic clozapine (Clzapine) appears to be bioequivalent to brand name clozapine (Clozaril). PMID:26207129

  1. Spin crossover transition of Fe(phen)2(NCS)2: periodic dispersion-corrected density-functional study.

    PubMed

    Bučko, Tomáš; Hafner, Jürgen; Lebègue, Sébastien; Ángyán, János G

    2012-04-28

    Periodic dispersion corrected DFT calculations have been performed to study the spin-crossover transition of Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2) in the molecular and in the crystalline state. We show that London dispersion interactions play a crucial role in the cohesion of the crystals. Based on calculations of vibrational eigenstates of the isolated molecule and of the crystalline phase in both the low- and high-spin states, the transition entropies and enthalpies have been calculated. We demonstrate that, due to the stabilization of the low-spin state by intermolecular dispersion forces, the transition enthalpy at the transition temperature is larger for the crystalline phase in comparison with an isolated molecule. The effective coordination number of the nitrogen atoms of the ligands around the iron atom has been identified as the order parameter driving the quasi-reversible low-spin to high-spin transition in the crystal. Finally, using constrained geometry relaxations at fixed values of the coordination number, we computed the energy barrier of the LS to HS transition and found it to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:22415338

  2. Periodic DFT study of the structural and electronic properties of bulk CoAl2O4 spinel.

    PubMed

    Tielens, F; Calatayud, M; Franco, R; Recio, J M; Pérez-Ramírez, J; Minot, C

    2006-01-19

    In this study, structural and electronic properties of CoAl2O4 spinel are investigated for the first time by means of quantum chemical computational tools. Coupling supercell periodic calculations under the density functional theory formalism with a nonempirical quasi-harmonic Debye model, we examine the influence of temperature on the relative stability of several cation distributions of Co2+ and Al3+ over tetrahedral and octahedral interstices of the oxygen sublattice. Our simulations are able to reproduce the experimentally observed trend: (i) the normal spinel is calculated to be the stable structure at static and low-temperature conditions, and (ii) as the temperature increases, the preference of structures with Al3+ at tetrahedral sites (and Co2+ at octahedral sites) is found to progress following an asymptotic conduct. The effects of the cation distributions on geometrical variations of electronic and magnetic properties of CoAl2O4 can be interpreted as dominated by the local behavior of Co2+ at octahedral sites. PMID:16471633

  3. Combining the Fluctuating Charge Method, Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions and Meta-Dynamics: Aqua Ions as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status of development of our code for performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations exploiting a polarizable force field based on the Fluctuating Charge (FQ) method and non-Periodic Boundary Conditions (NPBC). Continuing on the path set in a previous work, we increased the capabilities of the code by implementing a number of new features, including: a non-iterative algorithm for rigid trigonal molecule simulations; two additional temperature coupling schemes; a meta-dynamics based approach for effective free energy evaluations. Although these are well known algorithms, each present in one or more widely used MD packages, they have now been tested, for the first time, in the context of the FQ model coupled with NPBC. As case studies, we considered three aqueous ions of increasing charge, namely Na+, Ca2+ and La3+, at infinite dilution. In particular, by exploiting a computational approach recently proposed by our group and based on the metadynamics technique, we focused on the important role played by solvent polarization on ionic hydration structures, also investigating the free energy landscapes of ion coordination and the water exchange rates. Such an approach, previously tested with standard non-polarizable models, was applied here to evaluate the effects of explicit polarization on water exchange barriers between different solvent coordination structures. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed in some detail non-linear electrostatic effects arising from solvent polarization while going from a mono- to a di- and trivalent ion. PMID:26543440

  4. Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole periodic fracturing injections, Valhall, North Sea: Case study and modeling concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Moschovidis, Z.A.; Gardner, D.C.; Sund, G.V.; Veatch, R.W. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study for the injection of cuttings at great depth [8,094 ft total vertical depth (TVD)] in paleocene/Eocene shale by periodic fracturing injections in two wells in the Valhall field in the North Sea. Injection is necessary to meet environmental requirements (< 1 vol% of oil in the cuttings disposed in the sea) that went into effect Jan. 1, 1993. Valhall is an Upper Cretaceous chalk oil reservoir [approx] 180 miles offshore southern Norway. Amoco operates the field for Amerada Hess Norge A/S, Elf Petroleum Norge A/S, and Enterprise Oil Norge Ltd. Simulations were performed with a new conceptual model for disposal of cuttings (called the disposal domain). The actual pressure response during cuttings injections supports the model predictions. The cuttings are contained within a limited region of the formation (the disposal domain) where a system of hydraulic fractures have been created. The same model then was used to estimate the capacity of the formation to contain cuttings without increasing the treating pressure (and the closure stress) beyond the capacity of the tubulars.

  5. Kinetics studies of the reactions of main fourth-period monocations (Ga+, Ge+, As+, and Se+) with methyl fluoride.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Carmen; Rayón, Víctor Manuel; Largo, Antonio; Sordo, José Ángel; Redondo, Pilar

    2013-08-22

    Thermodynamics and kinetics theoretical studies on the gas-phase reactions of fluoromethane with main fourth-period monocations (Ga(+), Ge(+), As(+), and Se(+)) have been carried out. Density functional theory (in particular mPW1K functional) was employed in the description of the potential energy surfaces, and refinement of the energies were done at the CCSD(T) level. The reaction rate constants were estimated using variational/conventional microcanonical transition state theory. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the fluorine abstraction product is predicted for Ga(+) and Ge(+), whereas for As(+) and Se(+) the elimination product, MCH2(+) (M = As, Se) + HF, is the preferred one. Nevertheless, the most favorable channel for the reactions of CH3F with Ga(+) and Se(+) cations present a net activation barrier. In the case of Ga(+), the reaction proceeds via an addition channel forming the adduct complex, CH3FGa(+), whereas for Se(+) no reaction is found, in agreement with the experiments. The predicted reaction rate constants are in reasonable good agreement with the experimental values available. Apart from the harpoon-like mechanism, our results suggest that an oxidative addition mechanism seems to play a relevant role. PMID:23859563

  6. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  7. A randomized study on pharmacodynamic effects of vaginal rings delivering the progesterone receptor modulator, Ulipristal acetate. Research for a novel estrogen-free, method of contraception

    PubMed Central

    Huang, YongMei; Jensen, Jeffrey T.; Brache, Vivian; Cochon, Leila; Williams, Alistair; Miranda, Maria-José; Croxatto, Horacio; Kumar, Narender; Sussman, Heather; Hoskin, Elena; Plagianos, Marlena; Roberts, Kevin; Merkatz, Ruth; Blithe, Diana; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a 3-month contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) delivering ulipristal acetate (UPA) can inhibit ovulation in 90% of cycles. Study Design This was a randomized dose-finding parallel group clinical trial. Fifty-five healthy women with normal ovulation at baseline were randomized to receive a low-dose (1500μg/day) or a high-dose (2500μg/d) UPA-CVR for two consecutive 12-week treatment periods, followed by a recovery cycle. A subgroup of women received levonorgestrel (LNG) 1.5 mg orally twice (at the end of both 12-week ring periods) or once (at the end of the 24-week treatment). The primary outcome was ovulation suppression assessed by transvaginal ultrasound and hormone levels. Secondary outcomes included endometrial safety and bleeding patterns. Results All subjects showed normal ovulation at baseline and recovery. Ovulation suppression was seen in 81.8% (95% CI: 73.3%, 88.5%) and 86.1% (95% CI: 78.1%, 92%) of treatment cycles with low and high-dose, respectively. Benign progesterone receptor modulator associated endometrial changes (PAEC) were seen during treatment; 78.8% at week 24, but resolved at recovery cycle. A few cases of heavy bleeding occurred near the end of the 24-week treatment, but a single dose of LNG every 12weeks reduced the increase in endometrial thickness during the second treatment period and prevented excessive bleeding. Conclusion The 3-month UPA-CVR may become an effective long-acting, user-controlled estrogen-free contraceptive. The greatest suppression of ovulation was seen with the 2500 μg/d ring. PMID:25193534

  8. Periodic variation of stress field in the Koyna-Warna reservoir triggered seismic zone inferred from focal mechanism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Shashidhar, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Koyna-Warna region in western India is globally recognized as the premier site of reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS) associated with the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. The region is characterized by continuous seismic activity observed since several decades, including the world's largest triggered earthquake of M6.3 which occurred in Koyna in 1967. While the role of reservoirs in triggering earthquakes has been widely discussed, the actual tectonic mechanism controlling earthquake genesis in this region is hardly understood. The Koyna-Warna region is exclusively governed by earthquakes of strike-slip and normal fault mechanism distinct from the thrust faulting seen in other active zones in the Indian region. In the present study, a comprehensive catalog of 50 focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes that occurred during the last 45 years in the Koyna-Warna region is developed, both from previous literature and from moment tensor inversion studies by the authors using broadband data from a local seismic network operating since 2005. The seismicity and fault plane data have enabled precise delineation of trends of the major causative faults, which are further accentuated using the double-difference technique. Stress inversion of the focal mechanism data has provided the best fitting principal compressive and tensile stress field of the region, which in conjunction with the deciphered fault zones provides a feasible model of seismogenesis in this region. Based on the observed temporal variation of faulting mechanism a model of alternating cycles of predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting is proposed, which is attributed to a periodic peaking and relaxation respectively of the horizontal compressive stress field in this region due to the Indian plate collision with Eurasia.

  9. Analytical study of envelope modes for a fully depressed beam in solenoidal and quadrupole periodic transport channels

    SciTech Connect

    Bukh, Boris; Lund, Steven M.

    2003-05-01

    We present an analysis of envelope perturbations evolving in the limit of a fully space-charge depressed (zero emittance) beam in periodic, thin-lens focusing channels. Both periodic solenoidal and FODO quadrupole focusing channels are analyzed. The phase advance and growth rate of normal mode perturbations are analytically calculated as a function of the undepressed particle phase advance to characterize the evolution of envelope perturbations.

  10. Experimental and simulation study of undesirable short-period deformation in piezoelectric deformable x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Hiroki; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Imai, Shota; Kimura, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2012-05-01

    To construct adaptive x-ray focusing optics whose optical parameters can be varied while performing wavefront correction, ultraprecise piezoelectric deformable mirrors have been developed. We computationally and experimentally investigated undesirable short-period deformation caused by piezoelectric actuators adhered to the substrate during mirror deformation. Based on the results of finite element method analysis, shape measurements, and the observation of x-ray reflection images, a guideline is developed for designing deformable mirrors that do not have short-period deformation errors.

  11. Locally applied simvastatin improves fracture healing at late period in osteoporotic rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Faming; Zhang, Liu; Kang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Junshan; Ao, Jiao; Yang, Fang

    effect of simvastatin locally applied from a bioactive polymer coating of implants on osteoporotic fracture healing at late period. Methods:Femur fracture model was established on normal or osteotoporotic mature female SD rats, intramedullary stabilization was achieved with uncoated titanium Kirschnerwires in normal rats(group A),with polymer-only coated vs. polymer plus simvastatin coated titanium Kirschner wires in osteoporotic rats(group B and C, respectively).Femurs were harvested after 12 weeks, and underwent radiographic and histologic analysis, as well as immunohistochemical evaluation for BMP-2 expression. Results:Radiographic results demonstrated progressed callus in the simvastatin-treated groups compared to the uncoated group.The histologic analysis revealed a significantly processed callus with irregular-shaped newly formed bone trabeculae in simvastatin-treated group. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed markedly higher expression levels of B:MP-2 in simvastatin-treated group.Conclusions: The present study revealed a improved fracture healing under local application of simvastatin in osteoporotic rat,which might partially from upregulation of the B:MP-2 expression at fractured site.

  12. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    PubMed

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level. PMID:26874197

  13. The influence of the rearing period on intramammary infections in Swiss dairy heifers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Klocke, P; Berezowski, J A; Bodmer, M; Vidondo, B

    2016-07-01

    Healthy replacement heifers are one of the foundations of a healthy dairy herd. Farm management and rearing systems in Switzerland provide a wide variety of factors that could potentially be associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactating dairy heifers. In this study, IMI with minor mastitis pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), contagious pathogens, and environmental major pathogens were identified. Fifty-four dairy farms were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect herd level data on housing, management and welfare of young stock during farm visits and interviews with the farmers. Cow-level data such as breed, age at first calving, udder condition and swelling, and calving ease were also recorded. Data was also collected about young stock that spent a period of at least 3 months on an external rearing farm or on a seasonal alpine farm. At the quarter level, teat conditions such as teat lesions, teat dysfunction, presence of a papilloma and teat length were recorded. Within 24h after parturition, samples of colostral milk from 1564 quarters (391 heifers) were collected aseptically for bacterial culture. Positive bacteriological culture results were found in 49% of quarter samples. Potential risk factors for IMI were identified at the quarter, animal and herd level using multivariable and multilevel logistic regression analysis. At the herd level tie-stalls, and at cow-level the breed category "Brown cattle" were risk factors for IMI caused by contagious major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At the quarter-level, teat swelling and teat lesions were highly associated with IMI caused by environmental major pathogens. At the herd level heifer rearing at external farms was associated with less IMI caused by major environmental pathogens. Keeping pregnant heifers in a separate group was negatively associated with IMI caused by CNS. The odds of IMI with coagulase-negative staphylococci increased

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated. PMID:25240502

  15. Neuropsychological Decline in Schizophrenia from the Premorbid to Post-Onset Period: Evidence from a Population-Representative Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Reichenberg, Abraham; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Fisher, Helen; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning from before to after the onset of schizophrenia. We addressed the following unresolved questions: Is neuropsychological decline generalized versus confined to particular mental functions? Is neuropsychological decline unique to schizophrenia? Do individuals with schizophrenia also have cognitive problems in everyday life? Method Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand between 1972-73 and followed prospectively to age 38, with 95% retention. Assessment of IQ and other specific neuropsychological functions was conducted at ages 7-13, before the onset of schizophrenia, and again at age 38. Informants also reported on cognitive problems at age 38. Results Individuals with schizophrenia showed decline in IQ as well as a range of different mental functions, particularly those tapping processing speed, learning, executive functioning, and motor functioning. There was little evidence of decline in verbal abilities or delayed memory, however, and the developmental progression of deficits in schizophrenia differed across mental functions. Processing speed deficits increased gradually from childhood to beyond the early teen years, whereas verbal deficits emerged early but remained static through midlife. Neuropsychological decline was specific to schizophrenia, as no evidence of decline was apparent among individuals with persistent depression, children with mild cognitive impairment, individuals matched on childhood risk factors for schizophrenia, and psychiatrically healthy individuals. Informants also reported cognitive problems for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion There is substantial neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to

  16. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures. PMID:25468146

  17. Developmental toxicity study in rats exposed dermally to clarified slurry oil for a limited period of gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.

    1996-10-11

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO, CAS number 64741-62-4), a refinery stream produced by processing crude oil, is a developmental toxicant when administered dermally throughout gestation to pregnant rats. The manifestations of developmental toxicity observed included embryolethlity and growth retardation; evidence of teratogenicity was limited, and not conclusive. The present study was undertaken to further explore the teratogenic potential of CSO. In an attempt to limit emnbryolethality and thereby promote detection of terata, CSO was administered once daily for a limited period of gestation i[gestation days (GD) 9-12], via dermal application, to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg. All animals were sacrificed on GD 20. Detailed examination of the dams was performed. Due to the screening nature of this investigation, fetal evaluations were limited to body weight measurements, external examinations, and evaluation of select visceral endpoints. In the dams exposed to CSO, significant decreases in body weight [absolute and gain (GD 9-13, GD 0-20)] and in the amount of food consumed were observed at 100 and 1000 mg/kg. Additional evidence of maternal toxicity observed at 1000 mg/kg included decreased absolute and relative thymus weights, increased absolute and relative liver weights, and aberrant serum chemistry. Ingestion of the test material was evident at the high dose. Developmental toxicity was observed at 1000 mg/kg and included increased embryolethality, decreased body weight, and anomalous development (cleft palate, brachydactyly, edema). Although a low incidence of abnormal fetal development was observed at 100 mg/kg, it was not conclusive that the alterations were due to CSO exposure. It is likely that three- to seven-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds present in CSO were responsible for the toxic effects observed. 33 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Effect of periodic number of [Si/Sb80Te20]x multilayer film on its laser-induced crystallization studied by coherent phonon spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The periodic number dependence of the femtosecond laser-induced crystallization threshold of [Si(5nm)/Sb80Te20(5nm)]x nanocomposite multilayer films has been investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy. Coherent optical phonon spectra show that femtosecond laser-irradiated crystallization threshold of the multilayer films relies obviously on the periodic number of the multilayer films and decreases with the increasing periodic number. The mechanism of the periodic number dependence is also studied. Possible mechanisms of reflectivity and thermal conductivity losses as well as the effect of the glass substrate are ruled out, while the remaining superlattice structure effect is ascribed to be responsible for the periodic number dependence. The sheet resistance of multilayer films versus a lattice temperature is measured and shows a similar periodic number dependence with one of the laser irradiation crystallization power threshold. In addition, the periodic number dependence of the crystallization temperature can be fitted well with an experiential formula obtained by considering coupling exchange interactions between adjacent layers in a superlattice. Those results provide us with the evidence to support our viewpoint. Our results show that the periodic number of multilayer films may become another controllable parameter in the design and parameter optimization of multilayer phase change films. PMID:23173850

  19. Multiwavelength study of RX J2015.6+3711: a magnetic cataclysmic variable with a 2-h spin period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coti Zelati, F.; Rea, N.; Campana, S.; de Martino, D.; Papitto, A.; Safi-Harb, S.; Torres, D. F.

    2016-02-01

    The X-ray source RX J2015.6+3711 was discovered by ROSAT in 1996 and recently proposed to be a cataclysmic variable (CV). Here, we report on an XMM-Newton observation of RX J2015.6+3711 performed in 2014, where we detected a coherent X-ray modulation at a period of 7196 ± 11 s and discovered other significant (>6σ) small-amplitude periodicities which we interpret as the CV spin period and the sidebands of a possible ˜12-h periodicity, respectively. The 0.3-10 keV spectrum can be described by a power law (Γ = 1.15 ± 0.04) with a complex absorption pattern, a broad emission feature at 6.60 ± 0.01 keV, and an unabsorbed flux of (3.16 ± 0.05) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. We observed a significant spectral variability along the spin phase, which can be ascribed mainly to changes in the density of a partial absorber and the power law normalization. Archival X-ray observations carried out by the Chandra satellite, and two simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical pointings with Swift, revealed a gradual fading of the source in the soft X-rays over the last 13 yr, and a rather stable X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (FX/FV ≈ 1.4-1.7). Based on all these properties, we identify this source with a magnetic CV, most probably of the intermediate polar type. The 2-h spin period makes RX J2015.6+3711, the second slowest rotator of the class, after RX J0524+4244 (`Paloma'; Pspin ˜ 2.3 h). Although we cannot unambiguously establish the true orbital period with these observations, RX J2015.6+3711 appears to be a key system in the evolution of magnetic CVs.

  20. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period. PMID:25558954

  1. Comparing The Efficacy of Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff and Fluorescent Periodic Acid Schiff-Acriflavine Techniques for Demonstration of Basement Membrane in Oral Lichen Planus: A Histochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pujar, Ashwini; Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basement membrane (BM) is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and fluorescent periodic acid–acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. Materials and Methods: A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 – Normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 30 – oral lichen planus (OLP) were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid–acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Results: Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. Conclusion: The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain. PMID:26538690

  2. The Kepler Cluster Study: rotation period measurements for cool stars in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Soren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Kepler Science Team, Kepler Science Operations Center

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Cluster Study (KeCS) is a program to measure stellar rotation periods and search for planets around members of open star clusters within the field of view of NASA's Kepler mission. We present here the latest results from KeCS - measurements of stellar rotation periods in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819 - and discuss their implications for a technique (gyrochronology) to determine stellar ages from stellar rotation.

  3. Immigration and Emigration of Professional and Skilled Manpower During the Post-War Period. Special Study No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parai, Louis

    The impact of immigration and emigration on Canada's stock of professional and skilled manpower was analyzed for the period 1946-1963. Although the number of immigrants is recorded by Canadian authorities there is no complete record of emigration from Canada; however, a reasonably reliable picture was obtained from emigration data of other…

  4. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  5. Trace metal ion partitioning at polymer film-metal oxide interfaces: long-period X-ray standing wave study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae Hyun; Trainor, Thomas P; Eng, Peter J; Bargar, John R; Brown, Gordon E

    2005-05-10

    The distributions of Pb(II) and As(V)O4(3-) ions in the interfacial region between thin poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coatings and aalpha-A12O3(0001), alpha-Al2O3(1-102), and alpha-Fe2O3(0001) single-crystal substrates were studied using long-period X-ray standing wave fluorescent yield (XSW-FY) and X-ray reflectivity techniques. The PAA film serves as a simplified analogue of natural organic matter (NOM) coatings on mineral surfaces. Such coatings are often assumed to play an important role in the partitioning and speciation of trace heavy metals in soils and aquatic systems. On the alpha-Al2O3(1-102) surface, Pb(II) ions were found to preferentially bind to the PAA coating, even at sub-micromolar Pb(II) concentrations, and to partition increasingly onto the metal oxide surface as the Pb(II) concentration was increased ([Pb(II)] = 5 x 10(-8) to 2 x 10(-5) M, pH = 4.5; 0.01 M NaCl background electrolyte). This observation suggests that the binding sites in the PAA coating outcompete those on the alpha-Al2O3(1-102) surface for Pb(II) under these conditions. The As(V)O4(3-) oxoanion partitions preferentially to the L-Al2O3(1-102) surface for the As(V)O4(3-) concentrations examined (1 x 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-7) M, pH = 4.5; 0.01 M NaCl background electrolyte). Partitioning of Pb(II) (at 1 x 10(-7) M and pH 4.5) was also examined at PAA/alpha-Al2O3(0001), and PAA/alpha-Fe2O3(0001) interfaces using XSW-FY measurements. Our results show that the PAA coating was the dominant sink for Pb(II) in all three samples; however, the relative order of reactivity of these metal oxide surfaces with respect to Pb(II) sorption is alpha-Fe2O3(0001) > alpha-Al2O3(1-102) > alpha-Al2O3(0001). This order is consistent with that found in previous studies of the PAA-free surfaces. These XSW results strongly suggest that the characteristics of the organic film (i.e., binding affinity, type, and density of binding sites) as well as metal oxide substrate reactivity are key factors determining the

  6. Mood and objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Coo, Soledad; Milgrom, Jeannette; Trinder, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between measures of objective sleep (OS) and subjective sleep (SS) to postpartum mood in healthy women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 10 to 12 weeks postpartum. Twenty-nine pregnant women completed self-report measures of mood and SS, and wore actigraphs for 7 continuous days during the third trimester (Time 1), within 15 days (Time 2), and 10 to 12 weeks postpartum (Time 3). The subjective perception of marked daytime dysfunction was associated with low mood during Time 1 and Time 3. Poor nighttime SS was related to low mood only at Time 2, whereas poor nighttime OS influenced stress during the same assessment time. These data indicate a stronger association between postpartum mood and the subjective perception of sleep than with OS quality and duration in healthy, non-depressed women, and highlight the awareness of poor daytime functioning as a significant contributor to new mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:24128191

  7. [Study of analgesic efficacy of propacetamol in the postoperative period using a double blind placebo controlled method].

    PubMed

    Nikoda, V V; Maiachkin, R B

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency and safety of postoperative use of propacetamol was estimated in 30 patients by means of double blind placebo controlled method. The first group consisted of 15 patients to whom propacetamol was introduced intravenously in single dose of 2 g along with patient controlled anesthesia with promedol. Placebo in combination with patient control anesthesia were used in 15 patients from the 2nd group. Intravenous introducing of propacetamol in dose of 2 g in 15 minutes provides relief of pain intensity in postoperative period. So it permits to consider propacetamol as basic non-opioid analgesic. In early postoperative period combination of propacetamol and opioid analgesic (promedol) reduces demands in the latter by 44%. PMID:12462772

  8. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-01

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  9. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  10. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study.

    PubMed

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems. PMID:25903899

  11. A Numerical Study of the Effect of Periodic Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in a Coastal Upwelling Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1998-01-01

    A size-based ecosystem model was modified to include periodic upwelling events and used to evaluate the effect of episodic nutrient supply on the standing stock, carbon uptake, and carbon flow into mesozooplankton grazing and sinking flux in a coastal upwelling regime. Two ecosystem configurations were compared: a single food chain made up of net phytoplankton and mesozooplankton (one autotroph and one heterotroph, A1H1), and three interconnected food chains plus bacteria (three autotrophs and four heterotrophs, A3H4). The carbon pathways in the A1H1 simulations were under stronger physical control than those of the A3H4 runs, where the small size classes are not affected by frequent upwelling events. In the more complex food web simulations, the microbial pathway determines the total carbon uptake and grazing rates, and regenerated nitrogen accounts for more than half of the total primary production for periods of 20 days or longer between events. By contrast, new production, export of carbon through sinking and mesozooplankton grazing are more important in the A1H1 simulations. In the A3H4 simulations, the turnover time scale of the autotroph biomass increases as the period between upwelling events increases, because of the larger contribution of slow-growing net phytoplankton. The upwelling period was characterized for three upwelling sites from the alongshore wind speed measured by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and the corresponding model output compared with literature data. This validation exercise for three upwelling sites and a downstream embayment suggests that standing stock, carbon uptake and size fractionation were best supported by the A3H4 simulations, while the simulated sinking fluxes are not distinguishable in the two configurations.

  12. Meniscal suture. An experimental study in the dog.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Y; Fukubayashi, T; Nishino, J

    1989-06-01

    A longitudinal tear was made and then sutured in the peripheral quarter of the medial meniscus of 43 dogs. The sutured menisci were examined using histologic and microangiographic techniques at regular intervals during a 12-week period. Biomechanical tests were also performed. The healing process was promoted not only by the synovial blood supply but also by the peripheral blood supply. Even at the end of 12 weeks, the healing tissue was mainly composed of fibrous tissue, but chondrocytelike cells were also found. The tensile forces were calculated and compared with the opposite leg. The maximum tensile strength reached 80% of that of the opposite side at the end of the 12-week period. PMID:2656029

  13. Differential pathways to adult metabolic dysfunction following poor nutrition at two critical developmental periods in sheep.

    PubMed

    Poore, Kirsten R; Hollis, Lisa J; Murray, Robert J S; Warlow, Anna; Brewin, Andrew; Fulford, Laurence; Cleal, Jane K; Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A; Green, Lucy R

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest early nutrition has long-term effects on susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Small and large animal models confirm the influence of different windows of sensitivity, from fetal to early postnatal life, on offspring phenotype. We showed previously that undernutrition in sheep either during the first month of gestation or immediately after weaning induces differential, sex-specific changes in adult metabolic and cardiovascular systems. The current study aims to determine metabolic and molecular changes that underlie differences in lipid and glucose metabolism induced by undernutrition during specific developmental periods in male and female sheep. Ewes received 100% (C) or 50% nutritional requirements (U) from 1-31 days gestation, and 100% thereafter. From weaning (12 weeks) to 25 weeks, offspring were then fed either ad libitum (CC, UC) or were undernourished (CU, UU) to reduce body weight to 85% of their individual target. From 25 weeks, all offspring were fed ad libitum. A cohort of late gestation fetuses were studied after receiving either 40% nutritional requirements (1-31 days gestation) or 50% nutritional requirements (104-127 days gestation). Post-weaning undernutrition increased in vivo insulin sensitivity, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression in muscle, and lowered hepatic methylation at the delta-like homolog 1/maternally expressed gene 3 imprinted cluster in adult females, but not males. Early gestational undernutrition induced lower hepatic expression of gluconeogenic factors in fetuses and reduced in vivo adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in adulthood. In males, undernutrition in early gestation increased adipose tissue lipid handling mechanisms (lipoprotein lipase, glucocorticoid receptor expression) and hepatic methylation within the imprinted control region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor in adulthood. Therefore, undernutrition during development

  14. Burkitt's lymphoma: a clinical study of 110 patients.

    PubMed

    Nkrumah, F K; Perkins, I V

    1976-02-01

    One hundred and ten previously untreated patients with Burkitt's lymphoma were studied prospectively over a period ranging from over 1 year to 5 years. Of 103 patients who were treated with cyclophosphamide as a single agent, 79 (77%) achieved complete remission. Vincristine plus methotrexate or cytosine arabinoside induced complete remissions in only two of 24 patients who failed to respond to cyclophosphamide. Fifty-two percent of patients who entered complete remission subsequently relapsed with tumor. Relapse was significantly higher in patients who presented with disseminated disease (Stage III-IV) than in patients with localized disease (Stage I-II). Patients who relapsed early (remission duration less than 12 weeks) had a significantly worse prognosis than patients who relapsed late (remission duration greater than 12 weeks). Actuarial calculated 2- and 4-year survival for all patients was 44% and 38%, respectively. Factors that adversely affected survival were primary resistance to cyclophosphamide, early tumor relapse, central nervous system disease, and involvement of abdominal organs. PMID:1253103

  15. Analgesic efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl during the period of highest analgesic demand after cesarean section: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Weigl, Wojciech; Bierylo, Andrzej; Wielgus, Monika; Krzemień-Wiczyńska, Swietlana; Szymusik, Iwona; Kolacz, Marcin; Dabrowski, Michal J

    2016-06-01

    Cesarean section (CS) is one of the most common surgical procedures in female patients. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intrathecal fentanyl during the period of greatest postoperative analgesic demand after CS. This period was defined by detailed analysis of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) usage.This double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial included 60 parturients who were scheduled for elective CS. Participants received spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine supplemented with normal saline (control group) or with fentanyl 25 μg (fentanyl group). To evaluate primary endpoints, we measured total pethidine consumption over the period of greatest PCA pethidine requirement. For verification of secondary endpoints, we recorded intravenous PCA requirement in other time windows, duration of effective analgesia, pain scores assessed by visual analog scale, opioid side effects, hemodynamic changes, neonatal Apgar scores, and intraoperative pain.Detailed analysis of hour-by-hour PCA opioid requirements showed that the greatest demand for analgesics among patients in the control group occurred during the first 12 hours after surgery. Patients in the fentanyl group had significantly reduced opioid consumption compared with the controls during this period and had a prolonged duration of effective analgesia. The groups were similar in visual analog scale, incidence of analgesia-related side effects (nausea/vomiting, pruritus, oversedation, and respiratory depression), and neonatal Apgar scores. Mild respiratory depression occurred in 1 patient in each group. Fewer patients experienced intraoperative pain in the fentanyl group (3% vs 23%; relative risk 6.8, 95% confidence interval 0.9-51.6).The requirement for postoperative analgesics is greatest during the first 12 hours after induction of anesthesia in patients undergoing CS. The addition of intrathecal fentanyl to spinal anesthesia is effective for intraoperative

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BONE NEOFORMATION USING AUTOLOGOUS GRAFTING AND THREE REPLACEMENTS: BONE DEFECTS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Rodrigo Steffen; Silva, Jefferson Braga; Silva, Vinicius Duval da

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Compare the percentage of bone neoformation promoted by autologous bone grafting and three kinds of replacement materials with different characteristics in rats' femoral holes. Methods: Two holes measuring 5.4×2.7mm, were produced on each femur (right and left) of 14 isogenic Wistar rats. Each of the four defects produced was filled by autologous bone or by one of three tested materials-hydroxyapatite (HA), Genphos® (HA+ β-TCP) and GenMix® (a combined bovine bone graft). In the end of the 6-week (n = 6) and 12-week (n = 8) periods, the animals were sacrificed. The sections (stained with Picro-Sirius) were assessed by optical microscopy and specific software. Results: The groups with autologous bone were shown to be significantly superior to the others at both assessed times, showing a mean bone formation rate ± SD of 90.6 ± 10.8% in six weeks, and 98 ± 9.2% in 12 weeks (p > 0.0001 for both assessed times). In six weeks, the results for the other groups were the following: Genphos®, 46 ± 7.1%; HA, 43.1 ± 8.4%; and GenMix®, 57.3 ± 4.5%. In 12 weeks: Genphos®, 47.8 ± 11.1%; HA, 39.9 ± 5.4%; GenMix®, 59.7 ± 4.8%, significant (p = 0.007). Conclusions: In both assessed times, the three bone replacement materials tested in the study showed to be inferior to autologous bone graft for bone neoformation percentage. PMID:27022515

  17. Study of Periodic Forcing with a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device for the Control of Flow Separation on a NACA 0012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Joseph P.

    The continued high global demand for passenger and freight air traffic as well as increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), in spite of rising fuel costs and several tragic cases involving loss-of-control events, has resulted in researchers examining alternative technologies, which would result in safer, more reliable, and superior performing aircraft. Aerodynamic flow control may be the most promising approach to this problem having already proven its ability to enable higher flow efficiency while also simultaneously improving overall flow control. Recent research in the area of aerodynamic control is transitioning from traditional mechanical flow control devices such as slats and flaps to plasma actuators. Plasma actuators offer an inexpensive and energy efficient method of flow control. In addition, plasma actuator technology has the potential of application to a host of other aircraft performance parameters including applications in radar mitigation and in situ wing deicing. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), one of the most widely studied forms of plasma actuation, employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) device, which uses dominant electric fields and the respective electrically related body forces for actuation. Unlike momentum jets or other traditional flow control methods used on wings and tail surfaces, a DBD device operates without moving components or injecting any mass into the flow stream. Work performed focuses on qualitatively investigating experimentally the use of DBD devices for flow separation control on a NACA 0012-based 2D wing model. Flow visualization techniques illuminated flow seed particles around the model to determine the state of the flow (i.e., attached or separated) for various actuator cases. The DBD was operated in a steady-on mode as well as for three different pulsing frequencies (only for low power testing) based on the Strouhal frequency for each flight condition and compared to the clean (i.e., plasma off) case. Some of

  18. Dynamical Study of the Galactic Influence on the A(orig) Distribution of the Long Period Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Analizamos el efecto de la Galaxia como un todo, en la fronte- ra exterior de la nube de Oort de cometas, asi como la influencia de las estrellas vecinas en la distribucion observada de semi ejes mayores originales de los cometas de largo periodo. ABSTRACT. By means of a very simple formulation, in a Sun-centered reference frame, we analyze the effect of the Galaxy as a whole, on the exterior bound of the Oort cloud of comets, as well as the influence of the neighbour stars in the observed distribution of original semimajor axis of long period comets. Kaq wo : COMETS

  19. Experimental study on the effect of boundary condition for transmission properties of periodical metal hole arrays in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiaming; Xie, Le; Gao, Chunmei; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Yiming

    2013-08-01

    A metal hole arrays terahertz filter based on surface plasmon polaritons and fabricated by aluminum slab of different holes scales have been experimentally investigated by using THz time-domain spectroscopy system from 0.1 to 2.7 THz. The experiment results indicated there is a transmission peak at 0.26 THz, approximately. The results in simulation by finite element method agree well with the experimental one for the big scale sample. The mismatch of experimental and simulated results for small scale sample can be attributed to boundary condition and insufficient periodical extension. Further, the theoretical analyses about extraordinary optical transmission and filter phenomena are also discussed.

  20. Study on Heat Transfer Phenomena of Inorganic Hydrate Thermal Energy Storage Capsule while the Capsule is Heated and Cooled Periodically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Shintani, Tadafumi

    Purpose of this sturdy is to clarify the heat transfer phenomena of inorganic hydrate thermal energy storage capsule in a case of heating and cooling the capsule periodically. When the inorganic hydrate is absorbing and discharging heat periodically,heat transfer phenomena is dominated not only by thermal conduction but also by heat absorbed during melting of crystal, heat discharged during forming of crystal nuclei, crystal growth and so on. It also depends upon the highest temperature whether it is higher than the saturation temperature or not. Those phenomena can be observed in a capsule at the same time in different locations. In this report, analytical method to solve such a complex system is introduced. Gelled Glauber Salt is used as PCM. The highest and the lowest temperature of the outer surface of the capsule and rate of changing of the temperature are set to a certain value, and the experiment was carried out. The parameters used in the analysis was obtained to fit with the experimental results. Then, experiments and analysis were carried out under various conditions determined by changing the setting temperature or its cycle. The analytical results and the experimental results agreed well with each other. Hence, the adequancy of the analytical method and the heat transfer phenomena were clarified.

  1. A composite study of the quasi-periodic subtropical wind maxima over the South Pacific during November 1984-April 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Ken-Chung; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1995-01-01

    A composite of 10 cases of zonal wind maxima at 200 hPa over the subtropical region stretching from Australia to the central Pacific is examined for the six-month period, November 1984-April 1985. This region is unique in that distinct westerly jets frequently form and propagate eastward at latitudes between 20 deg and 35 deg S in the summer season. Some statistical tests were applied and suggest that the flow patterns are quasi periodic, consisting of a tendency for new jet streaks to develop over the eastern Australian region approximately every one to two weeks. These jets then take about 10 days to propagate across the western Pacific before dissipating or, perhaps, moving toward higher latitudes. Their average propagation speed is approximately 4 m/s. An examination of the case-to-case variability of the jets provides additional evidence that they are significant features. A diagnosis of the trough/ridge systems at 200 and 850 hPa, together with calculations of the vertically integrated mean and shear kinetic energies suggests that baroclinic processes dominate in the entrance and center regions of the jet, whereas barotropic processes dominate in the exit and downstream regions.

  2. Detailed Broadband Study of the Shortest Orbital Period Black-hole Binary Maxi J1659-152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Horst, Alexander Jonathan; Kouveliotou, C.; Paragi, Z.; Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Kuulkers, E.; Curran, P. A.; Gorosabel, J.; Guziy, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Belloni, T.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.

    2011-09-01

    MAXI J1659-152 is a hard X-ray source discovered by Swift and MAXI. Optical spectroscopy showed that this source is an X-ray binary, and X-ray timing observations classified it as a black-hole candidate. Based on recurring dips in the X-ray light curves, the source was established as the shortest period black-hole binary candidate known to date, with a period of 2.4 hours. Here we present our results from the broadband follow-up campaign we initiated after the source discovery. We obtained densely sampled light curves over two orders of magnitude in radio frequencies, in the UV/optical bands, and at X- and gamma-ray energies. This enabled us to construct broadband spectral energy distributions with very good spectral coverage at many epochs, covering the various X-ray states of MAXI J1659-152 during its outburst. Very Long Baseline Interferomety observations provide constraints on the size of the radio emitting jet, which, combined with the modeling results of the broadband spectra, present a comprehensive picture of the outburst from this new X-ray binary.

  3. A system for generating long streamflow records for study of floods of long return period: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.D.; Kraeger, B.A.; Linsley, R.K.

    1989-02-01

    Knowledge of the return periods of large floods is required to make risk analyses for nuclear power plants subject to flooding from rivers. The system reported here combined the stochastic simulation of hourly rainfall data and daily pan evaporation data with the deterministic simulation of streamflow by using the synthetic rainfall and evaporation data as input to a calibrated rainfall runoff model. The sequence of annual maximum flood peaks from a synthetic record of 10,000 years or more was then analyzed to obtain estimates of flood frequency. The reasonableness of the flood frequency results must be evaluated on the degree of mimicry of the key characteristics of the observed rainfall data and the ability of the rainfall-runoff model to mimic the observed flood frequency during the calibration period. On this basis, the flood frequency results appeared to be a reasonable extrapolation of the data used in defining the model parameters. There is a need to develop regional parameters for the stochastic models and to conduct research on the relationship between the stochastic structure of rainfall and stochastic structure of flood frequency. The methodology is applicable, assuming a highly skilled analyst, to watersheds similar to those already tested.

  4. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  5. Do changes in subjective sleep and biological rhythms predict worsening in postpartum depressive symptoms? A prospective study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-08-01

    Abnormalities of sleep and biological rhythms have been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, less is known about the influence of biological rhythm disruptions across the perinatal period on postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between subjective changes in both sleep and biological rhythms and worsening of depressive symptoms from pregnancy to the postpartum period in women with and without mood disorders. Eighty-three participants (38 euthymic women with a history of a mood disorder and 45 healthy controls) were studied. Participants completed subjective assessments of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), biological rhythm disturbances (Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry), and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) prospectively at two time points: third trimester of pregnancy and at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Multivariate regression analyses showed that changes in biological rhythms across the perinatal period predicted worsening of depressive symptoms in both groups. Moreover, women with a history of a mood disorder showed higher levels of sleep and biological rhythm disruption during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. These findings suggest that disruptions in biological rhythms during the perinatal period increase the risk for postpartum mood worsening in healthy pregnant as well as in pregnant women with a history of mood disorders. PMID:26920913

  6. The Effect of Walking Exercise on Physical Fitness and Serum Lipids in Obese Middle-aged Women: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Seo, Byoung-Do; Chung, Sang-Mi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to identify the effects of walking on the body composition, health-related physical fitness, and serum lipids as part of efforts to encourage middle-aged people to participate in walking as a regular and sustainable exercise. [Methods] This study was conducted as a pretest-posttest control group study. The study period was for 12 weeks from January to March 2010. The participants were 43 middle-aged women (age range: 40–55 years) with body fat rates over 30%. Subjects in the experiment group participated in the walking exercise (n = 38), the control group did not participate in the exercise (n = 23). [Results] In the exercise group, statistically significant reductions in weight and body fat were observed among the body composition measurement variables, and statistically significant increases in flexibility and cardiopulmonary endurance were observed among the physical fitness measurement variables. TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in the serum lipid measurement variables showed a statistically significant reduction in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that 12 weeks of walking exercise influenced middle-aged women in a positive way by effecting changes in their body composition, physical fitness, and serum lipids. We believe that these positive changes result in positive effects on the factors for prevention of various adult diseases that can occur in middle-aged women. PMID:24409014

  7. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time. PMID:26420524

  8. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…

  9. Business Education Index 1995. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; And Others

    This index lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies that were published during 1995 in a selected list of periodicals that have been deemed essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. Among the subject categories under which articles are indexed are the following: administration and…

  10. Business Education Index, 2000: Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 2000. Volume 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This document (which is to be the last in its series) indexes business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of 38 periodicals published in 2000. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching across the broad business education spectrum. Articles are indexed by subject and author. The following…

  11. Early Chinese History: The Hundred Schools Period. China's Golden Age of Philosophy. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Lehn; Dube, Clayton

    In this unit students examine the four most influential Chinese philosophical traditions developed during the Zhou period (roughly 6th-3rd centuries B.C.E.). The four philosophies students study include: (1) Confucianism; (2) Mohism; (3) Daoism (Taoism); and (4) Legalism. In three lessons, students compare the ideas of these schools and explore…

  12. Business Education Index, 1999. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published During the Year 1999. Volume 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This publication comprises an index of business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of business education periodicals and those related to business education published during 1999. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching over the broad business education spectrum. Subject entries (pages…

  13. Analytical study of seismic effects of a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the seismic effects experienced by a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods. Ten concrete towers are modeled with the empty solar receiver structure and loaded solar receiver structure to examine the tower seismic effects on the solar receiver. The fundamental periods of the towers range from 0.22 seconds to 4.58 seconds, with heights ranging from 40.5 meters to 200 meters. Thirty earthquake ground motion records are used to investigate the responses of each of the combined receiver-on-tower models as well as the receiver-on-ground models by the STAAD Pro software using time history analyses. The earthquake ground motion records are chosen based on the ratio of the peak ground acceleration to the peak ground velocity, ranging from 0.29 g/m/s to 4.88 g/m/s. For each of the combined models, the base shear at the interface between the receiver and the concrete tower is compared with the base shear of the receiver-on-ground model, and the ratio of the two base shears represents the structure amplification factor. It is found that the peak mean plus one standard deviation value of the structure amplification factor matches well with equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 for the empty solar receiver structure. However, when the solar receiver structure is loaded with dead loads, the peak value is greatly suppressed, and using equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 will be overly conservative.

  14. [Study of vaginal and intestinal microflora of women in the prenatal period and its correction in dysbacteriosis].

    PubMed

    Podgorskiĭ, V S; Liaskovskiĭ, T M; Kovalenko, N K; Oleshchenko, L T

    2006-01-01

    A comparative research of the structure of vaginal and intestinal microflora in norm and at kidney pathologies in women in the prenatal period was carried out. At physiologically normal course of pregnancy microbiocenosis of vagina and intestine does not contain pathogenic and conditional-pathogenic microorganisms. Lactic acid bacteria are fixed within the limits of 10(5)-10(8) CFU/1 ml in the vagina secretion and 10(7)-10(8) CFU/1 g in the intestine content. The spore microorganisms have completely disappeared in vaginal biocenosis of women with pyelonephritis after pharmacotherapy; and colibacterias has disappeared in 62% of women. Quantity of lactic acid bacteria has also decreased. Quantity of E. coli (10(8)- 10(9)) CFU/g, sporous microorganisms (10(3)-10(4)) CFU/g and yeast (10(4)-10(5)) CFU/g has considerably increased in the content of intestine. Lactic acid bacteria in content of the vagina are presented by: Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. vaginalis; in content of the intestine--L. plantarum and L. fermentum. All the isolated strains of lactobacilli are resistant to metrogyl and amphotericin, 87%--to cephoxitine, cypropfloxacine. Twenty three of 24 strains of lactic acid bacteria--antagonists of pathogenic microflora have shown adhesion to vaginal epthelium. The degree of adhesive activity depends on the strain and genus specificity of cultures. The highest index of adhesiveness in indicated in Enterococcus faecium (5.82 - 7.62) and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (2.74 - 6.40) strains. The screening of strains has been performed, which suppress growth of gas-producing microflora. The strain of Lactobacillus plantarum 200D proved to be the most active one. A complex of cultures of the lactic bacteria providing normalization of microbial cenosis of the vagina in women in the prenatal period has been selected as based on the data obtained. The biotechnology of production of vaginal suppositories is developed. PMID

  15. Chemical interaction of water molecules with framework Al in acid zeolites: a periodic ab initio study on H-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés-Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2015-09-28

    Periodic quantum-chemistry methods as implemented in the CRYSTAL14 code were considered to analyse the interaction of acid clinoptilolite with water. Initially adsorbed molecules hydrolyse the Al-O bonds, giving rise to defective dealuminated materials. A suitable and representative periodic model of the partially disordered hydrated H-zeolite is the primitive cell (18 T sites) of a decahydrated trialuminated structure of HEU topology. The water distribution inside the material cavities was initially investigated. The model considered for further dealumination was the most stable one from those generated through a combined force field Monte Carlo and ab initio optimization strategy. Optimizations and energy estimations were made at the hybrid DFT level of theory (PBE0 functional) with an atomic basis set of VDZP quality. The energetics of the different pathways involved in the dealumination process was addressed by considering the Gibbs free energy with thermal and zero-point corrections through phonon analysis. It arises that hydrated models exhibit protonated water clusters stabilized by different kinds of H-bonds. The first Al extraction is slightly more energetically favourable from T3 than T2 sites, but at the same time the latter is more probable owing to its larger Al population. However, concerning the second dealumination step, it is more favourable removing the Al atom from both remaining sites after a starting abstraction from T2 rather than T3. These facts determine that the most probable overall pathways go through a first Al removal from T2. The agreement with experimental results is discussed. PMID:26299763

  16. Negative and positive childhood experiences across developmental periods in psychiatric patients with different diagnoses – an explorative study

    PubMed Central

    Saleptsi, Evangelia; Bichescu, Dana; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Margarete; Studer, Karl; Hoffmann, Klaus; Elbert, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Background A high frequency of childhood abuse has often been reported in adult psychiatric patients. The present survey explores the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and positive and negative life events during childhood and adulthood in psychiatric samples. Methods A total of 192 patients with diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders (n = 45), schizophrenic disorders (n = 52), affective disorders (n = 54), and personality disorders (n = 41) completed a 42-item self-rating scale (Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, TAQ). The TAQ assesses personal positive experiences (competence and safety) and negative experiences (neglect, separation, secrets, emotional, physical and sexual abuse, trauma witnessing, other traumas, and alcohol and drugs abuse) during four developmental periods, beginning from early childhood to adulthood. Patients were recruited from four Psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Romania; 63 subjects without any history of mental illness served as controls. Results The amount of positive experiences did not differ significantly among groups, except for safety scores that were lower in patients with personality disorders as compared to the other groups. On the other side, negative experiences appeared more frequently in patients than in controls. Emotional neglect and abuse were reported in patients more frequently than physical and sexual abuse, with negative experiences encountered more often in late childhood and adolescence than in early childhood. The patients with alcohol-related and personality disorders reported more negative events than the ones with schizophrenic and affective disorders. Conclusions The present findings add evidence to the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and psychiatric diagnoses, and emphasize the fact that a) emotional neglect and abuse are the most prominent negative experiences, b) adolescence is a more 'sensitive' period for negative experiences as compared to

  17. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustalampi, Sirpa; Ylinen, Jari; Korniloff, Katariina; Weir, Adam; Häkkinen, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability. PMID:26828215

  18. Bioequivalence study of two subcutaneous formulations of dalteparin: randomized, single-dose, two-sequence, two-period, cross-over study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gadiko, C.; Tippabhotla, S. K.; Thota, S.; Nakkawar, M.; Cheerla, R.; Betha, M.R.; Vobalaboina, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study assessed relative bioavailability of a new subcutaneous formulation, test (T) (dalteparin sodium 95000 IU/3.8 mL) with the branded product (R) in healthy subjects to meet the regulatory requirements of bioequivalence in the US. Methods This was an open label, randomized, single dose, two-sequence, two-period cross-over study under fasting conditions. A total of 88 healthy adult volunteers were randomized to either of the treatment arms (T or R) separated by a washout period of 7 days. Pharmacodynamic surrogates, namely anti-Xa and anti-IIa activity, heparin clotting assay (heptest), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were used as a tool to establish bioequivalence between these two formulations. Blood samples were collected up to 36 h post-dose to characterize the primary pharmacokinetic parameters Amax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ for anti-Xa and anti-IIa and heptest; parameters (Δt )max and AU(Δt ) for aPTT. Results For anti-Xa activity, the means (SD) of Amax (IU/mL) were 1.34 (0.25) [range = 0.59–2.03] and 1.39 (0.35) [range = 0.65–2.69]; AUC0–t (IU•h/mL) values were 11.4 (2.76) [range = 2.89–19.5] and 12.1 (2.87) [range = 2.52–21.30]; AUC0–∞ (IU•h/mL) values were 13.1 (3.59) [range = 3.15–28.2] and 14.5 (4.97) [range = 2.79–36.1] for test and branded formulations, respectively. For anti-IIa activity, the means (SD) of Amax (IU/mL) were 0.34 (0.12) [range = 0.14–0.72] and 0.34 (0.13) [range = 0.11–0.84]; AUC0–t (IU•h/mL) values were 2.05 (0.72) [range = 0.61–4.69] and 2.11 (0.76) [range = 0.84–4.80]; AUC0–∞ (IU•h/mL) values were 2.47 (0.80) [range = 0.76–6.29] and 2.61 (0.86) [range = 1.31–5.36], for test and branded formulations, respectively. The 90% CI for all the primary pharmacokinetic parameters of all the pharmacodynamic surrogates tested met the regulatory bioequivalence criterion of 80.00–125.00%. Conclusion The test

  19. Long-term studies with the Ariel-5 asm. 1: Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. [periodic variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel-5 all-sky monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the approximately 35-d variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus .030-d. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200-d is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6-d low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 previously suggested is not observed, but a 43.0-d candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  20. Drop out Estimation Students based on the Study Period: Comparisonbetween Naïve Bayes and Support Vector Machines Algorithm Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwati; Ikha Virdyanawaty, Riezky; Mansur, Agus

    2016-01-01

    Industrial Engineering is one of the departments in Faculty of Industrial Technology. It has more than 200 reshmen in every academic year. However, many students are dropped out because they couldn't complete their study in appropriate time. Variables that influence the drop out case are not yet studied. The objective of this paper is discovering the highest accuracy level between the two methods used, i.e. Naïve Bayesand Support Vector Machines algorithms. The method with the highest accuracy will be discovered from the patterns forms and parameters of every attribute which most influence the students’ length of study period. The result shows that the highest accuracy method is Naïve Bayes Algorithm with accuracy degree of 80.67%. Discussion of this paper emphasizes on the variables that influence the students’ study period.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of three Cepheids with high positive pulsation period increments: SZ Cas, BY Cas, and RU Sct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Three high-resolution spectra have been taken at different times with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (LYNX and PFES spectrographs) for three Cepheids exhibiting high positive period increments: the small-amplitude (DCEPS) SZ Cas and BY Cas and the classical (DCEP) RU Sct. SZ Cas and RU Sct are members of the Galactic open clusters χ and h Per and Trump 35, respectively. Analysis of the spectra has shown that the interstellar Na I D1 and D2 lines in all objects are considerably stronger than the atmospheric ones and are redshifted in SZ Cas and BY Cas and blushifted in RU Sct. The core of the H α absorption line in BY Cas has an asymmetric knifelike shape, while RU Sct exhibits an intense emission in the blue wing of this line. Such phenomena are observed in long-period Cepheids and bright hypergiants with an extended envelope. In this case, the strong Mg Ib 5183.62 Å and Ba II 5853.67, 6141.713, and 6496.90 Å lines with low χlow in SZ Cas and RU Sct also show characteristic knifelike profiles with an asymmetry in the red region, while the Ba II 4934.095 Å line shows similar profiles in the blue one. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and singly ionized metals with different lowerlevel excitation potentials exhibit different degrees of asymmetry: from a pronounced one with secondary components in BY Cas (similar to those in the small-amplitude Cepheid BG Cru pulsating in the first overtone and having an envelope) to its insignificance or virtual absence in SZ Cas and RU Sct. Analysis of the secular changes in mean T eff determined from photometric color indices and spectra over the last 55 years for these stars has revealed periodic fluctuations of 200 K for SZ Cas and BY Cas and 500 K for RU Sct. For SZ Cas and RU Sct, T eff determined in some years from some color indices show much lower values, which together with the temperature fluctuations can be associated with mass loss and dust formation. Based on these facts, we hypothesize the existence of

  2. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  3. The Influence of Root-End Filling Materials on Bone Healing – An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    KUI, ANDREEA GULIE; BERAR, ANTONELA; LASCU, LIANA; BOLFA, POMPEI; BOSCA, BIANCA; MIHU, CARMEN; BACIUT, MIHAELA; AVRAM, RAMONA; BADEA, MÂNDRA

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this experimental study is to assess the bone healing phenomenon produced in the presence of several dental materials: a polycarboxylate cement, a glass-ionomer cement, a composite resin and MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate) based cement. Methods. The biocompatibility of four root-end fillings materials, used in periapical surgery was investigated after intra-osseous implantation of the materials in rats’ calvaria. Tissue reaction was studied at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks after implantation. We took into consideration the presence of inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and giant cells) and classified the aspects of the histological samples according to the following scale: 0 - no inflammation, 1 – mild, isolated inflammation, 2 - moderate, localized inflammatory reaction, 3 - severe, diffuse and intense inflammatory reaction. Results. The inflammatory reaction was present at the six intervals for all the tested materials, but at 12 week interval, the reaction was minimal in all cases. Also, a dissolution reaction was observed for all the materials, less intense for glass-ionomer cement and polycarboxilate cement. Conclusions. At the end of the experimental period, glass-ionomer cement and polycarboxilate cement suffered a lesser dissolution reaction as compared to the second group of tested materials. PMID:26528034

  4. Period variations in SZ ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented of a detailed period study of the eclipsing binary system SZ Arietis, based on up-to-date collection of minima. A new period (P = 1.7175405 d) of the SZ Ari was found, and the period changes (with the new period) in different portions of the O-C diagram were estimated. The average period change (leaving out an unusual value) was estimated to be about 0.00006 d. The O-C diagram displayed a sinusoidal variation, indicating that the SZ Ari system may be a three-body system, having a period of nearly 66 years.

  5. Experimental study on dynamics of coherent structures formed by inertial solid particles in three-dimensional periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoda, Masakazu; Melnikov, Denis E.; Ueno, Ichiro; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    We present experimental results obtained under normal gravity on the dynamics of solid particles in periodic oscillatory thermocapillary-driven flows in a non-isothermal liquid bridge made of decane. Inertial particles of different densities and in the size range approximately 0.75 - 75 μm are able to form stable coherent structures (particle accumulation structures, or PASs). Two image processing techniques were developed and successfully applied to compute time required for an ensemble of particles to form a structure. It is shown that the formation time grows with the decrease of the Stokes number. The observations indicate the probable irrelevance of the memory term for these experiments. Two types of PAS were observed—single (SL-I) and double-loop (SL-II)—which sometimes co-existed. Only large or very dense particles may form an SL-II type structure. A number of novel features of the system were perceived. In some cases, intermittently stable structures emerged (their dynamics is characterized by alternating time intervals during which a structure exists and is destroyed). Whereas in most experiments we observed a conventional symmetric and centered PAS, there were cases when a long-term stable asymmetric structure appeared. Experiments wherein two different types of PAS-forming particles were used simultaneously revealed the destructive role of collisions between the particles on formation of structures.

  6. Periodic density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of single-walled zinc oxide and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marana, Naiara L.; Albuquerque, Anderson R.; La Porta, Felipe A.; Longo, Elson; Sambrano, Julio R.

    2016-05-01

    Periodic density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and all-electron Gaussian basis set were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of single-walled ZnO nanotubes (SWZnONTs) and Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. For all SWZnONTs, the band gap, strain energy, and formation energy converge to ~4.5 eV, 0.0 eV/atom, and 0.40 eV/atom, respectively. This result suggests that the nanotubes are formed more easily from the surface than from the bulk. For SWCNTs, the strain energy is always positive, while the formation energy is negative for armchair and zigzag nanotubes, therefore suggesting that these types of nanotubes can be preferentially formed from the bulk. The electronic properties of SWCNTs depend on the chirality; all armchair nanotubes are metallic, while zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the n and m vectors.

  7. Lessons learned from the ATLAS performance studies of the Iberian Cloud for the first LHC running period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, V.; Borges, G.; Borrego, C.; del Peso, J.; Delfino, M.; Gomes, J.; González de la Hoz, S.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Salt, J.; Sedov, A.; Villaplana, M.; Wolters, H.

    2014-06-01

    In this contribution we describe the performance of the Iberian (Spain and Portugal) ATLAS cloud during the first LHC running period (March 2010-January 2013) in the context of the GRID Computing and Data Distribution Model. The evolution of the resources for CPU, disk and tape in the Iberian Tier-1 and Tier-2s is summarized. The data distribution over all ATLAS destinations is shown, focusing on the number of files transferred and the size of the data. The status and distribution of simulation and analysis jobs within the cloud are discussed. The Distributed Analysis tools used to perform physics analysis are explained as well. Cloud performance in terms of the availability and reliability of its sites is discussed. The effect of the changes in the ATLAS Computing Model on the cloud is analyzed. Finally, the readiness of the Iberian Cloud towards the first Long Shutdown (LS1) is evaluated and an outline of the foreseen actions to take in the coming years is given. The shutdown will be a good opportunity to improve and evolve the ATLAS Distributed Computing system to prepare for the future challenges of the LHC operation.

  8. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  9. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  10. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  11. Identifying Factors Associated With Dropout During Prerandomization Run-in Period From an mHealth Physical Activity Education Study: The mPED Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Caryl; Haskell, William; Arai, Shoshana; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background The mobile phone-based physical activity education (mPED) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a mobile phone-delivered physical activity intervention for women. The study includes a run-in period to maximize the internal validity of the intervention trial, but little is known about factors related to successful run-in completion, and thus about potential threats to external validity. Objective Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the timing of dropout during the run-in period, reasons for dropout, optimum run-in duration, and relevant run-in components, and (2) to identify predictors of failure to complete the run-in period. Methods A total of 318 physically inactive women met preliminary eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study between May 2011 and April 2014. A 3-week run-in period was required prior to randomization and included using a mobile phone app and wearing a pedometer. Cross-sectional analysis identified predictors of dropout. Results Out of 318 participants, 108 (34.0%) dropped out prior to randomization, with poor adherence using the study equipment being the most common reason. Median failure time was 17 days into the run-in period. In univariate analyses, nonrandomized participants were younger, had lower income, were less likely to drive regularly, were less likely to have used a pedometer prior to the study, were generally less healthy, had less self-efficacy for physical activity, and reported more depressive symptoms than randomized participants. In multivariate competing risks models, not driving regularly in the past month and not having used a pedometer prior to the study were significantly associated with failure to be randomized (P=.04 and .006, respectively), controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, shift work, and use of a study-provided mobile phone. Conclusions Regular driving and past pedometer use were associated with reduced dropout during the prerandomization run-in period

  12. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  13. The influence of Greenland melt water on climate during past and future warm periods: a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschek, Michael; Bakker, Pepijn; Renssen, Hans

    2013-04-01

    "Can past climates teach us something about the future?" Under this general question of interest to most palaeoclimate-modeller we specified it more to "Can past changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) related to melt water from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) teach us something about future changes in the AMOC forced by predicted partial melting of the GIS?" To address this question, we developed a series of sensitivity experiments with the global atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice model LOVECLIM to better understand the relationship between the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) melt over the last and present interglacials (the Eemian and the Holocene, respectively) and put these into perspective of future greenhouse gas emission scenarios. In terms of radiative forcing, future emission scenarios are different from past orbitally-forced warm periods, as past insolation varied per season and per latitude, whereas radiative forcing due to future greenhouse gas emissions has no seasonal component (i.e. it is an annual forcing) and shows little variation per latitude. However, the two can be compared when we consider the radiative forcing regimes of the different considered warm climates, by focusing on the energy that is potentially available from radiative forcing to melt the GIS. In a similar approach, Swingedouw et al. (2009) have shown in simulations with an AOGCM that the AMOC sensitivity relates non-linear to freshwater input and that under Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions the climate is more sensitive compared to warmer climates. They conclude that different climatic conditions share similar patterns in response and that past climates are useful for models to evaluate their abilities in reproducing past events. The authors encourage further model sensitivity testing to gain a better understanding of this highly important question. In order to test this approach we

  14. A case-control study of post-operative endophthalmitis diagnosed at a Spanish hospital over a 13-year-period.

    PubMed

    Asencio, M A; Huertas, M; Carranza, R; Tenias, J M; Celis, J; Gonzalez-Del Valle, F

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective case-control study of patients who had undergone cataract extraction at a Spanish hospital over a 13-year period was conducted to identify the risk factors for developing post-operative endophthalmitis (POE). During the study period, the type of antibiotic prophylaxis was changed from subconjunctival gentamicin to the addition of both vancomycin and gentamicin to the irrigating solution. The overall incidence of POE was 0·19% (35 cases/18 287 operations). For the period prior to the change in antibiotic prophylaxis, the incidence rate of POE was 3·4 cases/1000 operations while in the latter period the incidence rate decreased to 0·34 cases/1000 operations. All patients who presented a virulent microorganism had a final visual acuity worse than 20/200. The only significant risk factor identified was the type of prophylaxis used (odds ratio 1·97, 95% confidence interval 0·94-4·14, P = 0·07). There were no significant differences between cases and controls although choice of surgeon approached significance. PMID:24612657

  15. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  16. Rationale and study design of a three-period, 58-week trial of ferric citrate as a phosphate binder in patients with ESRD on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Umanath, Kausik; Sika, Mohammed; Niecestro, Robert; Connelly, Carolyn; Schulman, Gerald; Koury, Mark J; Lewis, Julia B; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease associated mineral and bone disorders arise as a result of aberrant bone mineral metabolism in patients with advancing levels of renal dysfunction and end-stage renal disease. One of the cornerstones of treatment is the use of phosphate-binding agents. We describe the rationale and study design for a clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of ferric citrate as a phosphate binder. This trial is a three-period, international, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of ferric citrate as a phosphate binder, consisting of a 2-week washout period, a 52-week safety assessment period in which subjects are randomized to ferric citrate or active control, and a 4-week efficacy assessment period in which subjects randomized to ferric citrate in the safety assessment period are randomized to ferric citrate or placebo. Eligible subjects include end-stage renal disease patients who have been treated with thr