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Sample records for 12-week tai chi

  1. T'ai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... chi (pronounced: TY CHEE) is great for improving flexibility and strengthening your legs, abs, and arms. What ... general, though, practicing t'ai chi improves strength, flexibility, and respiratory function (breathing). So where can you ...

  2. Tai Chi Practice in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Lois J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined psychological effects of Tai Chi class for fourth to sixth graders. After pretesting, randomly assigned students to experimental group of 12-week Tai Chi program or comparison group following usual school routines. Found that experimental group did not demonstrate improved perceived self-competence, visual-motor integration, or reduced…

  3. T'ai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... you start your first t'ai chi workout, dress comfortably so you can move and stretch easily. ... health problem. Is your schedule jam-packed with school, work, and social activities? Here are a few ...

  4. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items.

  5. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.

  6. Improving Balance with Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8428 · INFO @ VESTIBULAR . ORG · WWW . VESTIBULAR . ORG Improving Balance with Tai Chi By the Vestibular Disorders Association ... symptoms commonly experi- enced with vestibular (inner ear balance) disorders can cause overwhelming fatigue and anxiety. Many ...

  7. Tai-Chi Chuan; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    The exercises and basic movements of Tai-chi Chuan, one form of the Chinese martial arts, are described and illustrated (through photographs) in this teaching guide. Chinese terms used in the text are defined, the benefits of Tai-chi Chuan are discussed, and background information concerning the history of Chinese martial arts and Tai-chi Chuan is…

  8. Tai Chi philosophy and nursing epistemology.

    PubMed

    Alperson, Sunny Yim

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the philosophy underpinning Tai Chi practice in light of nursing epistemology. The first half of the article reviews the general characteristics of major Chinese philosophical traditions that have been merged in Tai Chi: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. In the second half, themes of integration and praxis in Tai Chi are linked with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Tai Chi is a practical fusion of humanistic philosophy with an experiential dimension of movement in a nondualistic foundation. The author argues that TC philosophy can be applied to integrated knowledge development and nursing praxis.

  9. Biomedical wellness by tai chi and sports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Daniel C.; Chin, Amita G.

    2011-06-01

    Tai-chi chuan is popular worldwide especially in China. People practice tai-chi chuan daily with faith believing that they will be rewarded with health and varieties of other rewords. The Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Chang and the Tai Chi Chuan Theory by Master Wang are translated to be the baseline of the tai-chi chuan. The theory described in these two papers clearly shows that the tai-chi power source is the combination of the two antigravity forces distinction by each foot. The ying, yang and hollowed, solid discussed in the papers are the properties and body relationship of the two antigravity forces. The antigravity forces presented inside of body are as air to the balloon termed chi. However chi could be generated by any muscle pressing; only the antigravity forces from feet are called nature chi that has the maximum strength of the person. When a person is soft, as an infant the nature chi will fulfill entire body with no time and effort. The sequence forms were designed for deploying the nature chi in speed and power. The combination of chi and tai-chi form make tai chi chuan supreme than other kinds of martial art. In the training process chi massages whole body many time for a sequence form practice that stimulate all organs and could lead to cure body diseases, lose weight, postpone aging process, and remove the aging symptoms. For the people practicing in the park daily with proper guidance they will fulfill their wishes. Tai chi exercise could also apply to other sports as in dancing and golfing they are discussed at the end of the paper.

  10. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body’s center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase “posturo-respiratory synchronization;” which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86±5yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85±6yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  11. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  12. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52–65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2–L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2–L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2–L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi. PMID:26136808

  13. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52-65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2-L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2-L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2-L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi.

  14. Tai chi/yoga reduces prenatal depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-02-01

    Ninety-two prenatally depressed pregnant women were randomly assigned to a tai chi/yoga or a waitlist control group at an average of 22 weeks gestation. The tai chi/yoga group participated in a 20-min group session per week for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment period the tai chi/yoga group had lower summary depression (CES-D) scores, as well as lower negative affect and somatic/vegetative symptoms subscale scores on the CES-D, lower anxiety (STAI) scores and lower sleep disturbances scores.

  15. Therapeutic effects of tai chi in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jung; Garber, Carol Ewing; Jun, Tae-Won; Jin, Young-Soo; Chung, Sun-Ju; Kang, Hyun-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week program of therapeutic Tai Chi on the motor function and physical function of idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (PDs). Methods. The participants were 22 clinically stable PDs in Hoehn-Yahr stages 1-2 randomly assigned to a therapeutic Tai Chi group (TTC, N = 11) or a control group (CON, N = 9). Two subjects in control group did not complete the study for personal reasons. TTC was performed three days a week (60 min/session). Motor symptoms by the UPDRS were assessed, and tests of physical function were administered before and after the 12-week trial. Results. The TTC group, as compared to the CON group, showed changes in the mentation, behavior, mood, and motor scales of the UPDRS (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, resp.), with no significant main effects on the activities of daily living scale (ADL). However, there was a significant interaction between the time and intervention group on ADL (P < 0.05). There were no significant main effects for any of the physical function variables. There were significant interaction effects in balance and agility (P < 0.05, resp.). Conclusions. This study showed that TTC training had modest positive effects on the functional status of Parkinson's disease patients.

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H.; Iversen, Maura D.; Harvey, William F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wong, John B.; Reid, Kieran F.; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomized, 52-week, single-blind comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258985) Setting An urban tertiary care academic hospital. Patients 204 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age, 60 years; 70% women; 53% white). Intervention Tai Chi (2 times per week for 12 weeks) or standard physical therapy (2 times per week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of monitored home exercise). Measurements The primary outcome was Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included physical function, depression, medication use, and quality of life. Results At 12 weeks, the WOMAC score was substantially reduced in both groups (Tai Chi, 167 points [95% CI, 145 to 190 points]; physical therapy, 143 points [CI, 119 to 167 points]). The between-group difference was not significant (24 points [CI, −10 to 58 points]). Both groups also showed similar clinically significant improvement in most secondary outcomes, and the benefits were maintained up to 52 weeks. Of note, the Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvements in depression and the physical component of quality of life. The benefit of Tai Chi was consistent across instructors. No serious adverse events occurred. Limitation Patients were aware of their treatment group assignment, and the generalizability of the findings to other settings remains undetermined. Conclusion Tai Chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Primary Funding Source National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of

  17. [Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and mental health].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Ohira, Masako; Toda, Masahiro; Den, Rei; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-09-01

    Recently, Tai Chi, which is one of the Chinese traditional martial arts, has been receiving attention. The main feature of Tai Chi is its flowing movements including loosening up, relaxing, and practicing meditation with slow abdominal respiration. Tai Chi is widely taken as part of health-promotion activities or rehabilitation training, and significant mental and physical effects have been reported so far. In this review report, Tai Chi was confirmed to be beneficial not only as a rehabilitation training for old people or patients with various diseases but also as an exercise for healthy people. These findings suggest the potential of Tai Chi as a complementary and alternative therapy.

  18. Tai chi chuan in medicine and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications.

  19. Tai Chi Chuan in Medicine and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ching; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. PMID:24159346

  20. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  1. Tai Chi and yoga as complementary therapies in rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Till

    2012-06-01

    Tai Chi and yoga are complementary therapies which have, during the last few decades, emerged as popular treatments for rheumatologic and musculoskeletal diseases. This review covers the evidence of Tai Chi and yoga in the management of rheumatologic diseases, especially osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hand, and rheumatoid arthritis. There is evidence that Tai Chi and yoga are safe, and some evidence that they have benefit, leading to reduction of pain and improvement of physical function and quality of life in patients. Recommendations for Tai Chi in knee osteoarthritis have recently been issued by the American College of Rheumatology. To allow broader recommendations for the use of Tai Chi and yoga in rheumatic diseases, there is a need to collect more evidence researched with larger randomised controlled trials.

  2. Effectiveness of tai chi for Parkinson's disease: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lam, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of tai chi as a treatment option for Parkinson's disease (PD). We have searched the literature using 21 databases from their inceptions to January 2008, without language restrictions. We included all types of clinical studies regardless of their design. Their methodological quality was assessed using the modified Jadad score. Of the seven studies included, one randomised clinical trial (RCT) found tai chi to be superior to conventional exercise in terms of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) and prevention of falls. Another RCT found no effects of tai chi on locomotor ability compared with qigong. The third RCT failed to show effects of tai chi on the UPDRS and the PD Questionnaires compared with wait list control. The remaining studies were either non-randomised (n=1) or uncontrolled clinical trials (n=3). Collectively these data show that RCTs of the tai chi for PD are feasible but scarce. Most investigations suffer from methodological flaws such as inadequate study design, poor reporting of results, small sample size, and publication without appropriate peer review process. In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to suggest tai chi is an effective intervention for PD. Further research is required to investigate whether there are specific benefits of tai chi for people with PD, such as its potential effect on balance and on the frequency of falls.

  3. Tai chi and meditation: A conceptual (re)synthesis?

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Jacques, Samantha

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature on Tai Chi and meditation. A coherent construct is developed that includes a comparative analysis and conceptual synthesis of existing theories. The authors discuss a set of assumptions that justify this synthesis; they also argue that this construct would facilitate greater understanding of Tai Chi from the perspective of meditation. Such synthesis may bring "additional" benefits to Tai Chi practitioners as they could recognize that this mind-body technique holds the essence of meditation. Within the scope of this article, the evidence shows a majority of common features when concerning Tai Chi and meditation. These mutual similarities should be taken into account when performing this type of mind-body medicine by patients and/or therapists. Finally, the authors suggest that this inspiring compilation of movements and mindfulness can be used for practical purposes.

  4. Simplified Tai Chi Program Training versus Traditional Tai Chi on the Functional Movement Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiru; Wei, Ankui; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yang; Liu, Yang; Yu, Dinghai; Zou, Liye

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of two different types of Tai Chi programs on the Functional Movement Screening (FMS) in older adults. Methods. Ninety older adults (65.5 ± 4.6 years old) who met the eligibility criteria were randomized into three different groups based on a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1: a traditional Tai Chi exercise (TTC), a simplified Tai Chi exercise (TCRT), or a control group (routine activity). The FMS consisted of the deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg rise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability, which was used to measure physical function before the present study and after six months of Tai Chi interventions. Results. Seventy-nine participants completed the present study (control = 27, TTC = 23, and TCRT = 29). Significant improvement on the FMS tests between the baseline and after the six-month intervention was observed in both Tai Chi programs, whereas no significant improvement was observed in the control group. In addition, participants in the TCRT group demonstrated greater improvement than those in the TTC group. Conclusions. The TCRT is more effective in improving the physical function in older adults when compared to the traditional Tai Chi modality, particularly for improving balance.

  5. Simplified Tai Chi Program Training versus Traditional Tai Chi on the Functional Movement Screening in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Wei, Ankui; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of two different types of Tai Chi programs on the Functional Movement Screening (FMS) in older adults. Methods. Ninety older adults (65.5 ± 4.6 years old) who met the eligibility criteria were randomized into three different groups based on a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1: a traditional Tai Chi exercise (TTC), a simplified Tai Chi exercise (TCRT), or a control group (routine activity). The FMS consisted of the deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg rise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability, which was used to measure physical function before the present study and after six months of Tai Chi interventions. Results. Seventy-nine participants completed the present study (control = 27, TTC = 23, and TCRT = 29). Significant improvement on the FMS tests between the baseline and after the six-month intervention was observed in both Tai Chi programs, whereas no significant improvement was observed in the control group. In addition, participants in the TCRT group demonstrated greater improvement than those in the TTC group. Conclusions. The TCRT is more effective in improving the physical function in older adults when compared to the traditional Tai Chi modality, particularly for improving balance. PMID:27956920

  6. Physiological responses to Tai Chi in stable patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhi-Hui; Guo, Hong-Xi; Lu, Gan; Zhang, Ning; He, Bai-Ting; Zhou, Lian; Luo, Y M; Polkey, M I

    2016-01-15

    We compared the physiological work, judged by oxygen uptake, esophageal pressure swing and diaphragm electromyography, elicited by Tai Chi compared with that elicited by constant rate treadmill walking at 60% of maximal load in eleven patients with COPD (Mean FEV1 61% predicted, FEV1/FVC 47%). Dynamic hyperinflation was assessed by inspiratory capacity and twitch quadriceps tension (TwQ) elicited by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve was also measured before and after both exercises. The EMGdi and esophageal pressure at the end of exercise were similar for both treadmill exercise and Tai Chi (0.109±0.047 mV vs 0.118±0.061 mV for EMGdi and 22.3±7.1 cmH2O vs 21.9±8.1 cmH2O for esophageal pressure). Moreover the mean values of oxygen uptake during Tai Chi and treadmill exercise did not differ significantly: 11.3 ml/kg/min (51.1% of maximal oxygen uptake derived from incremental exercise) and 13.4 ml/kg/min (52.5%) respectively, p>0.05. Respiratory rate during Tai Chi was significantly lower than that during treadmill exercise. Both Tai Chi and treadmill exercise elicited a fall in IC at end exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation, but this was statistically significant only after treadmill exercise. TwQ decreased significantly after Tai Chi but not after treadmill. We conclude that Tai Chi constitutes a physiologically similar stimulus to treadmill exercise and may therefore be an acceptable modality for pulmonary rehabilitation which may be culturally more acceptable in some parts of the world.

  7. Teaching Balance with Tai Chi: Strategies for College and Secondary School Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David D.; Sherman, Clay P.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the benefits of incorporating Tai Chi into the secondary and college curriculum to teach balance, discussing: the history and philosophical underpinnings of Tai Chi, principles of Tai Chi movement, health benefits, and teaching Tai Chi in public schools. Tips for instructors include: follow the principles of progression, follow a…

  8. Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Pei; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Li, Zongheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, and imposes a huge burden and significant workload for patients, their families and society. As a special form of physical activity, Tai Chi is may be useful for stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for rehabilitation in stroke patients. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic search of the following electronic databases from their inception to 31 October 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Wanfang and the Chinese Dissertation Database. All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in English and Chinese will be included. The main outcomes will be changes in the neurological function of patients and in independence in activities of daily living. Adverse events, adherence, costs and the cost effectiveness of Tai Chi will also be assessed. Two independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess quality. Review Manager 5.3 will be used for assessment of risk of bias, data synthesis and subgroup analysis. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require formal ethical approval because all data will be analysed anonymously. Results will provide a general overview and evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number CRD42015026999. PMID:27311906

  9. The Tai-chi: A Model for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunetta, Vincent N.; Cheng, Yeong-Jing

    1987-01-01

    Examines the utility of the ancient Chinese concept of Tai-chi as a model for interpreting complex contemporary issues in science education. Describes the model and suggests how it can be useful in understanding scientific phenomena and in guiding instruction. (ML)

  10. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-hong; Mahemuti, Amina; Zhang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ya-ping; Hu, Po; Jiang, Ju-bo; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated that Tai Chi exercise improves blood lipid level with inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of Tai Chi on blood lipid profiles in humans. Methods: We screened the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score more than 3 points up to June 2015. Six studies involving 445 subjects were included. Most trials applied 12-week Tai Chi intervention courses. Results: In comparison with the control group, blood triglyceride (TG) level difference between follow-up and baseline was statistically significantly lower in the Tai Chi practicing group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −16.81 mg/dl; 95% confidence intervals (CI) −31.27 to −2.35 mg/dl; P=0.02). A trend to improving total cholesterol (TC) reduction was found with Tai Chi (WMD −7.96 mg/dl; 95% CI −17.30 to 1.39 mg/dl; P=0.10). However, no difference was found in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: Tai Chi exercise lowered blood TG level with a trend to decrease blood TC level. Our data suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to implement meaningful blood lipid modification and serve as an adjunctive exercise modality. The relationship between Tai Chi exercise regimen and lipid profile change might have a scientific priority for future investigation. PMID:27487809

  11. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  12. The effect of tai chi exercise on quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Eshghinezhad, Ameneh; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, despite remarkable advances in the care of hemodialysis patients, the quality of life (QOL) for these patients is still unsatisfactory. Although previous reports confirmed the effect of exercise on the well-being of renal patients, less than 50% of end-stage kidney patients participate in a regular sports program. Tai chi is a slow and gentle exercise that is suitable for people with chronic illnesses and those with severe intolerance of exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of tai chi exercise on the QOL of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in a single group and in two steps. Twenty-five hemodialysis patients, admitted to hospitals in Isfahan, Iran, were selected, and their QOL was compared before and after intervention in two domains of satisfaction and importance. Convenience sampling was used. The sampling was convenience. The subjects were trained in the intervention through a single session of tai chi exercise class for one hour weekly, for 12 weeks, with a training compact disc (CD) that helped the patients to exercise at least twice a week at home. Data were collected by the completion of a demographic characteristics form and a researcher-made QOL questionnaire adopted from Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index Dialysis Version and the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire by the researchers. The data were analyzed by a paired t-test through SPSS software version 18. Results: Data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference in health and functioning (P < 0.001), socioeconomic (P < 0.001), and psychospiritual (P < 0.001) dimensions, and the family dimension had P = 0.002 in the satisfaction domain and P = 0.008 in the importance domain; the total score of quality of life in both domains was P < 0.001. Conclusions: According to the research findings, tai chi exercise improves the QOL score

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Tai Chi Chih Randomized Controlled Trial in Senior Female Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Rebecca A.; O’Connor, Kathleen; Light, Kathleen C.; Nakamura, Yoshio; Lipschitz, David; LaStayo, Paul C.; Pappas, Lisa; Boucher, Kenneth; Irwin, Michael R.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tai Chi Chih (TCC) is associated with improved physical functioning and psychological benefits in breast cancer survivors and healthy older adults; thus, may also be beneficial for senior cancer survivors with physical functioning declines. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a Tai Chi Chih (TCC) intervention in senior female cancer survivors, with physical functioning limitations, as well as, its effects on QOL. Design This was a two-armed, parallel group, RCT with 12-weeks of Tai Chi Chih or Health Education Control. Methods Sixty-three senior (M age=67 years, SD=7.15) female cancer survivors (83% breast cancer, stages I–III) with physical functioning limitations (SF-12 Health Survey role physical & physical functioning subscales) were randomized to 12-weeks of TCC or Health Education control (HEC). Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes included quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey), and participants’ qualitative feedback on intervention. Results Retention (TCC = 91%; HEC = 81%) and class attendance (TCC =79%; HEC = 83%) rates, and satisfaction levels for both study arms were high, but did not significantly differ from one another. At one-week post-intervention, none of the SF-36 scores differed between the TCC and HEC arms. Within-group analyses revealed significant improvements in the mental component summary score in TCC (p = 0.01), but not in HEC. Qualitative analyses indicated that the TCC group felt they received mental and physical benefits, whereas HEC group reported on social support benefits and information received. Conclusion A TCC intervention was found to be a feasible and acceptable modality for senior female cancer survivors. Future, larger definitive trials are needed to clarify TCC dosage effects on QOL in this vulnerable population. PMID:23620504

  14. A randomized controlled trial on the psychophysiological effects of physical exercise and Tai-chi in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Fong, Ted C T; Wan, Adrian H Y; Au-Yeung, Friendly S W; Wong, Cathy P K; Ng, Winnie Y H; Cheung, Irene K M; Lo, Phyllis H Y; Ng, S M; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chen, Eric Y H

    2016-03-01

    The chronic and prevalent natures of schizophrenia result in long-term institutionalization for the patients. Conventional treatment of anti-psychotic medication on management of psychotic symptoms often brings on severe side effects and reduces patients' well-being. Tai-chi is a mind-body exercise that underscores motor coordination and relaxation. This 3-arm randomized controlled trial investigated the psychophysiological benefits of Tai-chi on 153 chronic schizophrenia patients, who were recruited from a mental health rehab complex and randomized into Tai-chi, exercise, or waitlist control groups. Both intervention groups received 12weeks of specific intervention plus standard medication received by the controls. All participants completed psychiatric interviews, self-report questionnaires, performance tasks, and salivary cortisol measures at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up on psychotic symptoms, motor coordination, memory, daily living function, and stress. Multigroup latent growth modeling was used to evaluate the intervention effects on the outcomes. Compared to controls, the Tai-chi group showed significant decreases in motor deficits and increases in backward digit span and mean cortisol, while the exercise group displayed significant decreases in motor deficits, negative and depression symptoms and increases in forward digit span, daily living function, and mean cortisol. The two interventions did not show significantly different therapeutic effects, except for fewer symptom manifestations in the exercise group. These results suggest psychophysiological benefits for Tai-chi on chronic schizophrenia patients in terms of motor coordination and memory. Though both Tai-chi and exercise groups tended to manifest fewer symptoms than the control group, the exercise group showed better symptoms management than the Tai-chi group.

  15. Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice modulates functional connectivity of the cognitive control network in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Chen, Xiangli; Egorova, Natalia; Liu, Jiao; Xue, Xiehua; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Hong, Wenjun; Sun, Sharon; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most common problem saffecting older adults. In this study, we investigated whether Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can modulate mental control functionand the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cognitive control network in older adults. Participants in the two exercise groups practiced either Tai Chi Chuan or Baduanjin for 12 weeks, and those in the control group received basic health education. Memory tests and fMRI scans were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study. Seed-based (bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) rsFC analysis was performed. We found that compared to the controls, 1) both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups demonstrated significant improvements in mental control function; 2) the Tai Chi Chuan group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the DLPFC and the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) the Baduanjin group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the DLPFC and the left putamen and insula. Mental control improvement was negatively associated with rsFC DLPFC-putamen changes across all subjects. These findings demonstrate the potential of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercises in preventing cognitive decline. PMID:28169310

  16. Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice modulates functional connectivity of the cognitive control network in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Chen, Xiangli; Egorova, Natalia; Liu, Jiao; Xue, Xiehua; Wang, Qin; Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Hong, Wenjun; Sun, Sharon; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2017-02-07

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most common problem saffecting older adults. In this study, we investigated whether Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can modulate mental control functionand the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cognitive control network in older adults. Participants in the two exercise groups practiced either Tai Chi Chuan or Baduanjin for 12 weeks, and those in the control group received basic health education. Memory tests and fMRI scans were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study. Seed-based (bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) rsFC analysis was performed. We found that compared to the controls, 1) both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups demonstrated significant improvements in mental control function; 2) the Tai Chi Chuan group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the DLPFC and the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) the Baduanjin group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the DLPFC and the left putamen and insula. Mental control improvement was negatively associated with rsFC DLPFC-putamen changes across all subjects. These findings demonstrate the potential of Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin exercises in preventing cognitive decline.

  17. Effects of therapeutic Tai chi on functional fitness and activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jung

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of therapeutic Tai chi (TTC) on the functional fitness status and activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The participants were clinically stable PDs in Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2. These patients were randomly assigned to either the TTC group (n=11) or the control (CON) group (n=9). The TTC exercised at the clinic 2 times a week and performed home-based activity 1 time per week for 12 weeks. All the PDs were evaluated for functional fitness test and ADL screen before and after the 12-week trial. There was a significant Time × group interaction effect on the arm curl (P<0.01), functional reach (P<0.05), and stand on foot with eyes opened (P<0.05) of the functional fitness as compared to the CON. The results of the functional reach test in the CON worsened significantly during the 12-week intervention in comparison with those of the TTC (P<0.01). Also ADL showed significant changed in TCC (P<0.05). Tai chi training showed good effects on the functional fitness in PDs. This study suggests that further research into the based such as Tai chi intervention must be developed PD's quality of life in the future.

  18. Effects of therapeutic Tai chi on functional fitness and activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of therapeutic Tai chi (TTC) on the functional fitness status and activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The participants were clinically stable PDs in Hoehn and Yahr stage 1–2. These patients were randomly assigned to either the TTC group (n=11) or the control (CON) group (n=9). The TTC exercised at the clinic 2 times a week and performed home-based activity 1 time per week for 12 weeks. All the PDs were evaluated for functional fitness test and ADL screen before and after the 12-week trial. There was a significant Time × group interaction effect on the arm curl (P<0.01), functional reach (P<0.05), and stand on foot with eyes opened (P<0.05) of the functional fitness as compared to the CON. The results of the functional reach test in the CON worsened significantly during the 12-week intervention in comparison with those of the TTC (P<0.01). Also ADL showed significant changed in TCC (P<0.05). Tai chi training showed good effects on the functional fitness in PDs. This study suggests that further research into the based such as Tai chi intervention must be developed PD’s quality of life in the future. PMID:27807532

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of tai chi for treating type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Jun, Ji Hee; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to update and critically evaluate the evidence from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of tai chi for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twelve databases were searched by August 2014. Fifteen RCTs met all of the inclusion criteria. One RCT compared the effects of tai chi with sham exercise and failed to show the effectiveness of tai chi on fasting blood glucose (FBG), or HbA1c. The other four RCTs tested the effects of tai chi compared with various types of exercise and the meta-analysis failed to show an FBG-lowering effect. Five RCTs compared the effects of tai chi with an anti-diabetic medication and the meta-analysis showed favourable effects of tai chi on FBG. One RCT showed the positive effects of tai chi plus standard care on HbA1c and FBG compared with standard care alone. Four RCTs compared the effects of tai chi to no treatment and the meta-analysis failed to show the positive effects of tai chi on HbA1c. Three RCTs reported superior effects of tai chi on quality of life. In conclusion, the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that tai chi is effective for managing patients with T2DM.

  20. Ground reaction force characteristics of Tai Chi push hand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Chang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Chen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Push Hand is an advanced training technique for the Yang-style old frame 108 forms Tai Chi Chuan. It is performed by two practitioners. To clarify how people use forces during Push Hand training, it is important to review the ground reaction force (GRF). Here, we quantify the characteristics of the GRF during Push Hand training. Kinematic data and GRF data from 10 Tai Chi Chuan practitioners (29.9 ± 7.87 years) were synchronously recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (200 frames · s(-1)) and three-dimensional force plates (1000 Hz). The resultant GRF for both feet for the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were compared to body weight using a paired-samples t-test. The differences in the resultant GRF between the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were tested by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The significance level was set to 0.05. The total resultant GRF was almost equal to the participant's body weight in push hand. This result was consistent throughout the entire push hand process. Our results revealed that the GRF was comparable to the body weight, implying that practitioners do not push or resist their opponents during the push hand process.

  1. Effects of tai chi for patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiajia; Cai, Shufang; Zhong, Weihong; Cai, Shuhe; Zheng, Qikai

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to seek evidence for the effectiveness of Tai Chi for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). [Subjects and Methods] Systematic searches were conducted of the China Journals Full-text Database, Pubmed, Medline, Science Direct-Online Journals and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and 2012. Studies were evaluated based on following inclusion criteria: 1) design: randomized control, clinical trial; 2) subjects: patients with a knee osteoarthritis diagnosis; 3) intervention: exercise involving Tai Chi; 4) studies published in English or Chinese. [Results] Six randomized control studies involving Tai Chi and knee osteoarthritis were found. [Conclusion] Tai Chi was an effective way of relieving pain and improving physical function. Further randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes and long training period are needed to compare groups who perform Tai Chi training with other groups who undergo other forms of physical exercise in order to confirm the efficacy of Tai Chi.

  2. Impact of psychosocial factors on functional improvement in Latino older adults after Tai Chi exercise.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Rajaram, Shireen S; Padilla, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence underscores the health benefits of Tai Chi (TC), although there is limited evidence of benefits among racial and ethnic minorities. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial status on balance among 23 Latino seniors after a twice-a-week, 12-week TC exercise program. Functional status was measured at baseline, immediately after, and three months following the TC exercise program, using the Timed Up and Go Test and Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale. Psychosocial status was measured at baseline by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Both measures of functional status improved and were sustained after three months of TC. Greater improvement was significantly related to a higher level of baseline social support. More depressed seniors reported less fear of falling after TC. Depression and social support are important moderators of functional improvement after TC among Latino seniors.

  3. Epigenetic Changes in Response to Tai Chi Practice: A Pilot Investigation of DNA Methylation Marks

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hua; Collins, Veronica; Clarke, Sandy J.; Han, Jin-Song; Lam, Paul; Clay, Fiona; Williamson, Lara M.; Andy Choo, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Tai chi exercise has been shown to improve physiological and psychosocial functions, well-being, quality of life, and disease conditions. The biological mechanisms by which tai chi exerts its holistic effects remain unknown. We investigated whether tai chi practice results in positive epigenetic changes at the molecular level. Design. The DNA methylation profiles of sixty CpG-dinucleotide marks in female tai chi practitioners (N = 237; 45–88 years old) who have been practising tai chi for three or more years were compared with those of age-matched control females (N = 263) who have never practised tai chi. Results. Six CpG marks originating from three different chromosomes reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two cohorts. Four marks show losses while two marks show gains in DNA methylation with age in the controls. In the tai chi cohort all six marks demonstrate significant slowing (by 5–70%) of the age-related methylation losses or gains observed in the controls, suggesting that tai chi practice may be associated with measurable beneficial epigenetic changes. Conclusions. The results implicate the potential use of DNA methylation as an epigenetic biomarker to better understand the biological mechanisms and the health and therapeutic efficacies of tai chi. PMID:22719790

  4. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai Chi in musculoskeletal diseases in order to establish whether the combined intervention is better than Tai Chi or hydrotherapy alone. PMID:26171376

  5. Increased Hippocampus–Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging. PMID:26909038

  6. Increased Hippocampus-Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging.

  7. Effects of wheelchair Tai Chi on physical and mental health among elderly with disability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Tai; Li, Zhanghua; Yang, Yi; Zhong, Yaping; Lee, Shih-Yu; Chen, Shihui; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A 12-week Wheelchair Tai Chi 10 Form (WTC10) intervention was conducted among elderly with disability to examine the effect of this WTC10 intervention on selected physical and mental health variables. Thirteen (age 87.23 ± 6.71) in the WTC10 intervention group and 15 (age 89.73 ± 6.31) in the control group completed the study. Independent t-tests and paired t-tests were employed to examine the differences between groups and within groups, respectively, at pretest and post-test. The WTC10 intervention group showed significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, shoulder external rotation, left trunk rotation and total trunk rotation after the intervention. A 12-week WTC10 intervention had positive effects on blood pressure, range of motion at the shoulder and trunk, physical activity, and mental health among the elderly with disability. WTC10 is a feasible and safe exercise for the elderly with disability.

  8. Effect of Tai Chi versus Walking on Oxidative Stress in Mexican Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ortiz, Rocío; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the practice of Tai Chi reduces oxidative stress (OxS), but it is not clear whether walking or Tai Chi produces a greater antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the practice of Tai Chi and walking on markers for OxS. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with 106 older adults between 60 and 74 years of age who were clinically healthy and divided into the following groups: (i) control group (n = 23), (ii) walking group (n = 43), and (iii) Tai Chi group (n = 31). We measured the levels of lipoperoxides (LPO), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant status (TAS) pre- and post-intervention in all subjects. The data were subjected to a covariant analysis. We found lower levels of LPO in the Tai Chi group compared with the walking group (Tai Chi, 0.261 ± 0.02; walking, 0.331 ± 0.02; control, 0.304 ± 0.023 µmol/L; P = 0.05). Likewise, we observed significantly higher SOD activity and lower OxS-score in the Tai Chi group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi produces a more effective antioxidant effect than walking. PMID:23936607

  9. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly.

  10. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking.

    PubMed

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (-0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (-0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking.

  11. Tai chi improves cognitive and physical function in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiao; Kanagawa, Katsuko; Sasaki, Junko; Ooki, Syuichi; Xu, Huali; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of Tai Chi on cognitive and physical function in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized trial design was used. A total 150 subjects were enrolled and were divided into Tai Chi and control groups. Subjects in the Tai Chi group participated Tai Chi for 6 months, and subjects in the control group participated in other non-athletic activities. [Results] There were no differences between the groups in the one leg standing time with eyes open, left grip strength, or the Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The Mini-Mental State Examination scores after 3 and 6 months were higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. The right grip strength after 3 months increased more in the Tai Chi group than in the control group. Both the 5-m high walking speed and 10-m normal walking speed were significantly lower after 3 and 6 months of Tai Chi practice. [Conclusion] These results suggest that regular Tai Chi practice may improve cognitive and physical function in the elderly. PMID:26157242

  12. Tai chi as an alternative and complimentary therapy for anxiety: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Haider, Taj

    2015-04-01

    Anxiety has become a global public health problem. Tai chi offers one possible way of reducing anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine studies from 1989 to March 2014 to assess whether tai chi can be an efficacious approach for managing anxiety. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for quantitative articles involving applications of tai chi for anxiety. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 were from the United States, 2 from Australia, 2 from Japan, 2 from Taiwan, and 1 each from Canada, Spain, and China. Statistically significant results of anxiety reduction were reported in 12 of the studies reviewed. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled designs, having smaller sample sizes, having different outcomes, having nonstandardized tai chi interventions, and having varying lengths, tai chi appears to be a promising modality for anxiety management.

  13. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women.

  14. Effects of therapeutic Tai Chi on balance, gait, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, HoYoung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of therapeutic Tai Chi on balance, gait, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients. Twenty-two inpatients diagnosed with stroke were divided randomly into two groups: one treated with both general physical therapy and Tai Chi exercise (11 patients) and one treated with only general physical therapy (11 patients). Therapeutic Tai Chi included 10 different movements and was performed for 60 min, twice per week, for 6 weeks. Pretest and post-test measurements were recorded for sway length and sway velocity using Gaitview, the functional reach test, the dynamic gait index, the 10-m walking test, the timed up-and-go test, and SF-36 survey. Both the Tai Chi group and the control group showed a significant improvement in sway length and sway velocity, and the Tai Chi group showed greater improvement than the control group in degree of variation. In addition, only the Tai Chi group showed a significant result for functional reach test, the dynamic gait index, the 10-m walking test, the timed up-and-go test, and the Tai Chi group improved. In the quality of life, the therapeutic Tai Chi group showed a significant improvement in five items (physical function, pain, vitality, general health, mental health) among eight items in SF-36. This study confirmed that therapeutic Tai Chi influences the balance, gait, and life quality of stroke patients. Therefore, therapeutic Tai Chi can be used as an effective exercise in combination with general physical therapy to improve the balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients.

  15. The Effects of Tai Chi on Cardiovascular Risk in Women

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Jo Lynne; Elswick, R. K.; Sturgill, Jamie; McCain, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of tai chi (TC) on biobehavioral factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. Design A randomized trial used a wait-list control group, pretest-posttest design. Data were collected immediately before, immediately after, and 2 months following the intervention. Setting The study was community based in central Virginia. Subjects Women aged 35 to 50 years at increased risk for CVD. Intervention The 8-week intervention built on prior work and was designed to impact biobehavioral factors associated with CVD risk in women. Measures Biological measures included fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids as well as C-reactive protein and cytokines. Behavioral measures included fatigue, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, mindfulness, self-compassion, and spiritual thoughts and behaviors. Analysis A mixed effects linear model was used to test for differences between groups across time. Results In 63 women, TC was shown to decrease fatigue (∂ [difference in group means] =9.38, p = .001) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (∂ = 12.61, p = .052). Consistent with the study model and intervention design, significant changes observed 2 months post intervention indicated that TC may help down-regulate proinflammatory cytokines associated with underlying CVD risk, including interferon gamma (∂=149.90, p =.002), tumor necrosis factor (∂=16.78, p =.002), interleukin (IL) 8 (∂=6.47, p =.026), and IL-4 (∂=2.13, p =.001), and may increase mindfulness (∂ = .54, p = .021), spiritual thoughts and behaviors (∂ = 8.30, p = .009), and self-compassion (∂ = .44, p = .045). Conclusion This study contributes important insights into the potential benefits and mechanisms of TC and, with further research, may ultimately lead to effective strategies for reducing CVD risk in women earlier in the CVD trajectory. PMID:26305613

  16. Tai chi for health benefits in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Xiao, ZhongJun; Fang, Qun; Zhang, Mark; Li, Ting; Du, Geng; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of Tai chi, which is critical to provide guidelines for clinicians to improve symptomatic management in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). After performing electronic and manual searches of many sources, ten relevant peer-reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved. The existing evidence supports the effectiveness of Tai chi on improving quality of life (QOL) and functional balance in MS patients. A small number of these studies also reported the positive effect of Tai chi on flexibility, leg strength, gait, and pain. The effect of Tai chi on fatigue is inconsistent across studies. Although the findings demonstrate beneficial effects on improving outcome measures, especially for functional balance and QOL improvements, a conclusive claim should be made carefully for reasons such as methodological flaws, small sample size, lack of specific-disease instruments, unclear description of Tai chi protocol, unreported safety of Tai chi, and insufficient follow-up as documented by the existing literature. Future research should recruit a larger number of participants and utilize the experimental design with a long-term follow-up to ascertain the benefits of Tai chi for MS patients. PMID:28182629

  17. Tai chi for health benefits in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zou, Liye; Wang, Huiru; Xiao, ZhongJun; Fang, Qun; Zhang, Mark; Li, Ting; Du, Geng; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of Tai chi, which is critical to provide guidelines for clinicians to improve symptomatic management in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). After performing electronic and manual searches of many sources, ten relevant peer-reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved. The existing evidence supports the effectiveness of Tai chi on improving quality of life (QOL) and functional balance in MS patients. A small number of these studies also reported the positive effect of Tai chi on flexibility, leg strength, gait, and pain. The effect of Tai chi on fatigue is inconsistent across studies. Although the findings demonstrate beneficial effects on improving outcome measures, especially for functional balance and QOL improvements, a conclusive claim should be made carefully for reasons such as methodological flaws, small sample size, lack of specific-disease instruments, unclear description of Tai chi protocol, unreported safety of Tai chi, and insufficient follow-up as documented by the existing literature. Future research should recruit a larger number of participants and utilize the experimental design with a long-term follow-up to ascertain the benefits of Tai chi for MS patients.

  18. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  19. Systematic review and meta-analysis: Tai Chi for preventing falls in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-Guan; Feng, Yun-Hui; Li, Yu-He; Lv, Chang-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective It remains unclear whether Tai Chi is effective for preventing falls in older adults. We undertook this systematic review to evaluate the preventive effect of Tai Chi by updating the latest trial evidence. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to February 2016 to identify randomised trials evaluating Tai Chi for preventing falls in older adults. We evaluated the risk of bias of included trials using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Outcome measures Number of fallers and rate of falls. Results 18 trials with 3824 participants were included. The Tai Chi group was associated with significantly lower chance of falling at least once (risk ratio (RR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and rate of falls (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.69, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.80) than the control group. Subgroup analyses suggested that the preventive effect was likely to increase with exercise frequency (number of fallers: p=0.001; rate of falls: p=0.007) and Yang style Tai Chi was likely to be more effective than Sun style Tai Chi (number of fallers: p=0.01; rate of falls: p=0.001). The results might be influenced by publication bias as the funnel plots showed asymmetry. Sensitivity analyses by sample size, risk of bias and comorbidity showed no major influence on the primary results. Conclusions Tai Chi is effective for preventing falls in older adults. The preventive effect is likely to increase with exercise frequency and Yang style Tai Chi seems to be more effective than Sun style Tai Chi. PMID:28167744

  20. Design and methods of the Gentle Cardiac Rehabilitation Study – A behavioral study of tai chi exercise for patients not attending cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wayne, Peter; Bock, Beth C; Dunsiger, Shira; Wu, Wen-Chih; Stabile, Loren; Yeh, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs reduce overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with a history of acute coronary events or revascularization procedures, but only 30 % of patients enroll in CR and attrition rates reach up to 60 %. Tai chi, a mind-body practice based on light/moderate aerobic exercise accompanied by meditative components could be a possible exercise option for patients who do not attend CR. Methods/Design Sixty patients will be randomized to a “LITE ” condition (one tai chi session twice weekly for 12 weeks) or to a “PLUS” condition (one tai chi session 3 times weekly for 12 weeks, followed by maintenance classes 1–2 times weekly for an additional 12 weeks). Measurements will be conducted at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 9 months after enrollment. The primary outcome is to determine the feasibility, acceptability and safety of each dose. Secondary outcomes include estimates of effect size of each dose on accelerometry-assessed physical activity; the proportion of patients meeting current recommendations for physical activity; and measures of fitness, quality of life, body weight, and sleep. In addition, we will collect exploratory information on possible mediators (exercise self-efficacy, perceived social support, resilience, mindfulness, and depression). Conclusions Findings from this pilot study will provide preliminary indications about the usefulness of tai chi as an exercise option for patients not attending traditional CR programs. Results will also shed light on the possible mechanisms by which tai chi practice may improve overall physical activity among patients with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. PMID:26115880

  1. Sitting Tai Chi Improves the Balance Control and Muscle Strength of Community-Dwelling Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W. N.; Gao, Kelly L.; Chan, K. M.; Purves, Sheila; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Fong, Shirley S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL) among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks) and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P = 0.042); maximum excursion (P = 0.016); and directional control (P = 0.025) in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P = 0.035). Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P = 0.049). However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors. PMID:25688276

  2. "Stretch Your Body and Your Mind" (Tai Chi as an Adaptive Activity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Duane A.; Klinger, William

    Tai Chi may be an ideal activity for accommodating a wide variety of individuals with varying interests and physical skills while providing substantial health benefits. Theory suggests that children, adolescents, and healthy adults, as well as senior citizens and people debilitated by illness or injury, may benefit from the practice of Tai Chi…

  3. The effects of Tai Chi on waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi on waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly. The present study used a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight elderly individuals residing in J city were divided into 2 groups: 34 in the experimental group, who received Tai Chi training for 6 weeks, and 34 in the control group, who did not receive Tai Chi training. Simplified Yang style 24-form Tai Chi was used as the intervention, which was conducted for 60 minutes per session, 5 sessions per week, for a total of 6 weeks. In each session, subjects in the experimental group conducted 10 minutes of warm-up exercises, 45 minutes of Tai Chi, and 5 minutes of cool-down exercises. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. [Results] Waist circumference and blood pressure decreased significantly after the 6-week intervention in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Tai Chi can be used as an effective intervention to improve waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly.

  4. Tai chi intervention improves dynamic postural control during gait initiation in older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Roberts, Beverly L; Hass, Chris J

    2014-12-01

    Tai Chi intervention has been shown to be beneficial for balance improvement. The current study examined the effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve the dynamic postural control among older adults with mobility disability. Six sedentary older adults with mobility disability participated in a 16-week Tai Chi intervention consisting of one hour sessions three times a week. Dynamic postural control was assessed pre- and post intervention as participants initiated gait in four stepping conditions: forward; 45° medially, with the stepping leg crossing over the other leg; 45° and 90° laterally. The center of pressure (CoP) displacement, velocity, and its maximum separation distance from the center of mass in the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant directions were analyzed. Results showed that in the postural phase, Tai Chi increased the CoP mediolateral excursions in the medial (13%) and forward (28%) conditions, and resultant CoP center of mass distance in the medial (9%) and forward (19%) conditions. In the locomotion phase, the CoP mediolateral displacement and velocity significantly increased after the Tai Chi intervention (both by > 100% in the two lateral conditions). These results suggest that through alteration in CoP movement characteristics, Tai Chi intervention might improve the dynamic postural control during gait initiation among older adults.

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Roger; Larkey, Linda; Rogers, Carol; Etnier, Jennifer; Lin, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research examining psychological and physiological benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi is growing rapidly. The many practices described as Qigong or Tai Chi have similar theoretical roots, proposed mechanisms of action and expected benefits. Research trials and reviews, however, treat them as separate targets of examination. This review examines the evidence for achieving outcomes from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of both. Data Sources The key words tai chi, taiji, and qigong were entered into electronic search engines for the Cumulative Index for Allied Health and Nursing (CINAHL), Psychological Literature (PsychInfo), PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar. Study Inclusion Criteria RCTs reporting on the results of Qigong or Tai Chi interventions and published in peer reviewed journals published from 1993–2007 Data Extraction Country, type and duration of activity, number/type of subjects, control conditions, and reported outcomes were recorded for each study. Synthesis Outcomes related to Qigong and Tai Chi practice were identified and evaluated. Results Seventy-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. The 9 outcome category groupings that emerged were: bone density (n=4), cardiopulmonary effects (n=19), physical function (n=16), falls and related risk factors (n=23), Quality of Life (n=17), self-efficacy (n=8), patient reported outcomes (n=13), psychological symptoms (n=27), and immune function (n=6). Conclusions Research has demonstrated consistent, significant results for a number of health benefits in RCTs, evidencing progress toward recognizing the similarity and equivalence of Qigong and Tai Chi. PMID:20594090

  6. Changes of heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation during Tai Chi practice versus arm ergometer cycling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Hui-Chan, Christina Wan-Ying; Tsang, William Wai-Nam

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise has been shown to improve cardiovascular fitness and cognitive function. Whether the inclusion of mind over exercise would increase parasympathetic control of the heart and brain activities more than general exercise at a similar intensity is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Tai Chi (mind-body exercise) versus arm ergometer cycling (body-focused exercise) on the heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation level. [Subjects and Methods] A Tai Chi master was invited to perform Tai Chi and arm ergometer cycling with similar exercise intensity on two separate days. Heart rate variability and prefrontal oxyhemoglobin levels were measured continuously by a RR recorder and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. [Results] During Tai Chi exercise, spectral analysis of heart rate variability demonstrated a higher high-frequency power as well as a lower low-frequency/high-frequency ratio than during ergometer cycling, suggesting increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic control of the heart. Also, prefrontal oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin levels were higher than those during arm ergometer exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that increased parasympathetic control of the heart and prefrontal activities may be associated with Tai Chi practice. Having a "mind" component in Tai Chi could be more beneficial for older adults' cardiac health and cognitive function than body-focused ergometer cycling.

  7. Changes of heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation during Tai Chi practice versus arm ergometer cycling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; Hui-Chan, Christina Wan-Ying; Tsang, William Wai-Nam

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise has been shown to improve cardiovascular fitness and cognitive function. Whether the inclusion of mind over exercise would increase parasympathetic control of the heart and brain activities more than general exercise at a similar intensity is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Tai Chi (mind-body exercise) versus arm ergometer cycling (body-focused exercise) on the heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation level. [Subjects and Methods] A Tai Chi master was invited to perform Tai Chi and arm ergometer cycling with similar exercise intensity on two separate days. Heart rate variability and prefrontal oxyhemoglobin levels were measured continuously by a RR recorder and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. [Results] During Tai Chi exercise, spectral analysis of heart rate variability demonstrated a higher high-frequency power as well as a lower low-frequency/high-frequency ratio than during ergometer cycling, suggesting increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic control of the heart. Also, prefrontal oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin levels were higher than those during arm ergometer exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that increased parasympathetic control of the heart and prefrontal activities may be associated with Tai Chi practice. Having a “mind” component in Tai Chi could be more beneficial for older adults’ cardiac health and cognitive function than body-focused ergometer cycling. PMID:27942158

  8. The effects of Tai Chi on waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Mee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi on waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly. The present study used a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight elderly individuals residing in J city were divided into 2 groups: 34 in the experimental group, who received Tai Chi training for 6 weeks, and 34 in the control group, who did not receive Tai Chi training. Simplified Yang style 24-form Tai Chi was used as the intervention, which was conducted for 60 minutes per session, 5 sessions per week, for a total of 6 weeks. In each session, subjects in the experimental group conducted 10 minutes of warm-up exercises, 45 minutes of Tai Chi, and 5 minutes of cool-down exercises. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. [Results] Waist circumference and blood pressure decreased significantly after the 6-week intervention in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Tai Chi can be used as an effective intervention to improve waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly. PMID:28210067

  9. Evaluation of Exercise Tolerance in Dialysis Patients Performing Tai Chi Training: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bulińska, Katarzyna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Ochmann, Bartosz; Pawlaczyk, Weronika; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2 ± 8.6 years). A 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m), rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7), and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min). Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it. PMID:27547228

  10. Using posturography to assess expertise among tai chi practitioners - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Geib, Roy W; Roberts, Beveryly L; Li, Hongtao; Waite, Gabi; Pagnacco, Guido; Oggero, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Tai Chi, performed either seating or standing, is frequently recommended to improve various aspects of health, including balance, metabolic control, heart rate variability, sleep, or immune response. Many studies exploring mind-body interventions, both with self-reported or biologically-measured outcomes, report significant differences in outcomes among participants. However, neither the physiological or psychological mechanisms behind the variations are understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether posturography is a useful method to assess physical skill level differences between experts and non-expert Tai Chi practitioners. While standing, participants performed a series of movements from the Tai Chi for Arthritis form based on Sun style (commencement, open/close, single whip and wave hands in cloud). Master trainers and senior trainers were considered experts; all others were considered non-experts. Body sway was assessed by the CAPS™ Professional portable computerized force platform (Vestibular Technologies, LLC.). Center of Pressure motion measures were normalized by the subject's height. While standing, the experts displayed statistically greater displacement excursion and velocity when preforming commencement and wave hands in clouds forms. The results of this pilot study indicated that posturography may be a useful method to assess the quality of Tai Chi movements and potentially link the expertise of Tai Chi practitioners to changes in health related outcomes.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of patient-reported outcomes with tai chi exercise in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Stock, Ronald; Chou, Li-Shan

    2014-04-01

    A previous randomized, controlled trial of tai chi showed improvements in objectively measured balance and other motor-related outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study evaluated whether patient-reported outcomes could be improved through exercise interventions and whether improvements were associated with clinical outcomes and exercise adherence. In a secondary analysis of the tai chi trial, patient-reported and clinical outcomes and exercise adherence measures were compared between tai chi and resistance training and between tai chi and stretching exercise. Patient-reported outcome measures were perceptions of health-related benefits resulting from participation, assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) and Vitality Plus Scale (VPS). Clinical outcome measures included motor symptoms, assessed by a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Examination (UPDRS-ME) and a 50-foot speed walk. Information on continuing exercise after the structured interventions were terminated was obtained at a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Tai chi participants reported significantly better improvement in the PDQ-8 (-5.77 points, P = 0.014) than did resistance training participants and in PDQ-8 (-9.56 points, P < 0.001) and VPS (2.80 points, P = 0.003) than did stretching participants. For tai chi, patient-reported improvement in the PDQ-8 and VPS was significantly correlated with their clinical outcomes of UPDRS-ME and a 50-foot walk, but these correlations were not statistically different from those shown for resistance training or stretching. However, patient-reported outcomes from tai chi training were associated with greater probability of continued exercise behavior than were either clinical outcomes or patient-reported outcomes from resistance training or stretching. Tai chi improved patient-reported perceptions of health-related benefits, which were found to be associated with a greater probability of exercise

  12. Tai Chi and Qigong for the treatment and prevention of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Ryan; Lavretsky, Helen

    2013-03-01

    Tai Chi and Qigong are traditional Chinese exercises that are widely practiced for their health benefits and as martial arts. Evidence suggests that these practices may be effective at treating a range of physical health conditions, and at improving health-related quality of life. There is growing interest in the use of Tai Chi and Qigong to treat mental disorders, because they are noninvasive, exercise-based therapies, and because patients with mental disorders frequently use complementary and alternative medicine. Evidence is promising that these treatments may be effective in reducing depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety, and mood disturbances.

  13. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on blood pressure and plasma levels of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide in real-world patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaogui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Sai

    2015-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension (EH). EH patients were assigned to the Tai Chi exercise group (HTC, n = 24), and hypertension group (HP, n = 16) by patients' willingness. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were recruited as control (NP, n = 16). HTC group performed Tai Chi (60 min/d, 6 d/week) for 12 weeks. Measurements (blood glucose, cholesterol, NO, CO, H2S and BP) were obtained at week 0, 6, and 12. SBP, MAP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased by week 12 in the HTC group (all p < 0.05 versus baseline). Plasma NO, CO, and H2S levels in the HTC group were increased after 12 weeks (all p < 0.05 versus baseline). SBP, DBP and MAP levels were significantly lower in the HTC than in the HP group (all p < 0.05). However, no changes were observed in the HP and NP groups. Correlations were observed between changes in SBP and changes in NO, CO and H2S (r = -0.45, -0.51 and -0.46, respectively, all p < 0.05), and between changes in MAP and changes in NO, CO and H2S (r = -0.36, -0.45 and -0.42, respectively, all p < 0.05). In conclusion, Tai Chi exercise seems to have beneficial effects on BP and gaseous signaling molecules in EH patients. However, further investigation is required to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these observations, and to confirm these results in a larger cohort.

  14. Facilitators and Barriers to Tai Chi in an Older Adult Community: A Theory-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryffin, Pete A.; Chen, William C.; Chaney, Beth H.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Roberts, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prevention has been identified as a primary strategy for reducing health care costs, with potential Medicare savings up to $142.8 billion annually. Falls alone resulted in $28.2 billion in direct care costs. A growing body of research documents significant benefits of tai chi (TC) for balance and prevention and management of chronic…

  15. Dance-Based Exercise and Tai Chi and Their Benefits for People with Arthritis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ray

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The first aim of this review article is to systematically summarise, synthesise, and critically evaluate the research base concerning the use of two art forms, namely, dance-based exercises and Tai Chi, as applied to people with arthritis (a chronic condition that results in considerable disability and, particularly in later life,…

  16. Effect of Tai Chi exercise in combination with auricular plaster on patients with lumbar muscle strain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tao; Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: observe the effect of Tai Chi exercise on the patients with the chronic lumbar muscle strain under the intervention treatment of auricular plaster. Methods: 74 middle-aged and elderly patients, suffering from the chronic lumbar muscle strain, are randomly and equally divided into an observation group and a control group, with 37 patients in each group. The patients in the control group do Tai Chi exercise, while those in the observation group are treated by the auricular plaster therapy in addition to Tai Chi exercise. Evaluate and compare the disease conditions of the patients in the two groups before the treatment and after 12 weeks’ treatment. Results: after 12 weeks’ treatment, the patients in the two groups have been improved differently in comparison with those before the treatment (P < 0.05). However, the cure rate, the excellence rate and total effective rate of the observation group are superior to those of the control group, respectively P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, thus their difference shows statistic significance. Conclusion: after 12 weeks’ Tai Chi exercise, it exercises an obvious curative effect on the patients with lumbar muscle strain but the curative effect is more remarkable if it is combined with auricular plaster therapy. PMID:25932261

  17. The case for Tai Chi in the repertoire of strategies to prevent falls among older people

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Samuel R.; Skelton, Dawn A.

    2016-01-01

    Falls among older people is a global public health issue. In this article, Dr Samuel Nyman of Bournemouth University Dementia Institute, and Professor Dawn Skelton, Institute for Applied Health Research, Glasgow Caledonian University highlight the effectiveness of Tai Chi as an alternative strategy to physiotherapy to combat this issue. PMID:28244837

  18. Using computerized posturography to explore the connection between bmi and postural stability in long-term tai chi practitioners - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Geib, Roy W; Li, Hongtao; Oggeo, Elena; Pagnacco, Guido; Lam, Paul; Moga, Margaret; Waite, Gabi

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major health concern because of its linkage to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Another less studied outcome is the observed increase in the incidence of accidental falls. According to CDC, medical costs associated with fall injuries exceeded $16 billion in 2000 and by 2020 will exceed $54 billion. To reduce the impact on society and individuals, it is essential to explore mechanisms to reduce the frequency of falls. For example, a short 12-week intervention of Tai Chi reduced the risk of accidental falls in an elderly population. However, there are few studies exploring the effect of the long-term practice of Tai Chi on postural stability, particularly in individuals with a BMI greater than 30. In this study, the connection between postural stability and BMI in long-term Tai Chi practitioners is investigated using a convenience sample study design. Participants at a 1-week Tai Chi workshop held in June of 2010 were contacted and forty-four individuals attending the workshop enrolled in the study (ranging in age from 22 to 84, mean age 61). The participants’ weight distribution was similar to the general population with 38% having a BMI less than 25. Comparison between the normal and obese groups indicated that there were no differences in stability scores in the most challenging category: standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. Additional studies are needed to determine whether Tai Chi is as an effective intervention to prevent falls in the obese population.

  19. Tai Chi Exercise can Improve the Obstacle Negotiating Ability of People with Parkinson's Disease: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Jae, Hyun Dong; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Tai Chi (TC)-based exercise on dynamic postural control during obstacle negotiation by subjects with mild or moderate Parkinson's disease (PD). [Subjects] Twelve subjects (mean age, 65.3±6.1 years) diagnosed with idiopathic PD were enrolled for this study. [Methods] All the subjects were tested a week before and 12 weeks after the initiation of the TC exercise. In the test, they were instructed to negotiate an obstacle from the position of quiet stance at a normal speed. They were trained with TC exercise that emphasized multidirectional shift in weight bearing from bilateral to unilateral support, challenging the postural stability, three times per week for 12 weeks. Center of pressure (COP) trajectory variables before and after TC exercise were measured using two force plates. [Results] A comparison of the results between pre- and post-intervention showed a statistically significant improvement in anteroposterior and mediolateral displacement of COP. [Conclusion] Twelve weeks of TC exercise may be an effective and safe form of stand-alone behavioral intervention for improving the dynamic postural stability of patients with PD.

  20. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  1. Study on community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits and well-being: Using Taoyuan City as an example.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Jong; Tseng, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the Research of Community Tai Chi Chuan Participants' Leisure Benefits and Well-being. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan city. A total of 500 valid questionnaires were retrieved, and the data were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 7.0 structural equation model analysis (SEM). The findings were as followed: 1) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: Gender had no difference in the factor of ``psychological benefit'' of leisure benefits. Occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan and participation in seniority reached significant difference in leisure benefits. 2) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: gender, occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan, participation in seniority reached significant difference in well-being. 3) The study showed community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits had a significant positive correlation in well-being. Based on the findings, suggestions were proposed to related Taiwan Tai Chi Chuan promotion for reference.

  2. The effect of Tai Chi exercise on gait initiation and gait performance in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Amano, Shinichi; Nocera, Joe R; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Juncos, Jorge L; Gregor, Robert J; Waddell, Dwight E; Wolf, Steven L; Hass, Chris J

    2013-11-01

    Gait dysfunction and postural instability are two debilitating symptoms in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Tai Chi exercise has recently gained attention as an attractive intervention for persons with PD because of its known potential to reduce falls and improve postural control, walking abilities, and safety at a low cost. The purpose of this report is to investigate the effect of Tai Chi exercise on dynamic postural control during gait initiation and gait performance in persons with idiopathic PD, and to determine whether these benefits could be replicated in two different environments, as complementary projects. In these two separate projects, a total of 45 participants with PD were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi group or a control group. The Tai Chi groups in both projects completed a 16-week Tai Chi exercise session, while the control groups consisted of either a placebo (i.e., Qi-Gong) or non-exercise group. Tai Chi did not significantly improve Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score, selected gait initiation parameters or gait performance in either project. Combined results from both projects suggest that 16 weeks of class-based Tai Chi were ineffective in improving either gait initiation, gait performance, or reducing parkinsonian disability in this subset of persons with PD. Thus the use of short-term Tai Chi exercise should require further study before being considered a valuable therapeutic intervention for these domains in PD.

  3. Effects of regular Tai Chi practice and jogging on neuromuscular reaction during lateral postural control in older people.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Xu, Dong-Qing; Li, Jing-Xian

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of regular Tai Chi practice and jogging on the neuromuscular activity of the trunk, hip, and ankle joint muscles of older people during lateral postural perturbation. A total of 42 older people participated in the study and formed the Tai Chi, jogging, and sedentary control groups. Electromyography signals were collected from the peroneus longus, anterior tibialis, gluteus medius, and erector spinae during unpredictable mediolateral perturbation. The Tai Chi group exhibited significantly faster latencies of the tibialis anterior and erector spinae than the control group. The jogging group showed a significantly shorter neuromuscular reaction time of the erector spinae than the control group. No significant difference was observed between the Tai Chi and jogging groups. Long-term regular Tai Chi practice enhanced the neuromuscular reaction of the erector spinae and tibialis anterior to lateral perturbation and will help timely posture correction when lateral postural distributions occur.

  4. Effects of tai chi exercise on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Chen, H; Berger, M R; Zhang, L; Guo, H; Huang, Y

    2016-10-01

    Tai chi exercise may have positive effects on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. This systematic review is the first to summarize evidence to clarify the efficacy of tai chi exercise in bone health. The benefits of tai chi exercise on bone health remain unclear; further studies are needed. Emerging randomized controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone health among older women, but yielded inconclusive results. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review to evaluate evidence from RCTs to clarify the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone mineral density (BMD), and bone turnover markers (BTM) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Six electronic databases were searched, and reference lists of systematic reviews and identified studies from the search strategy were also screened. We included all RCTs that investigate tai chi exercise for bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data selection, extraction, and evaluation of risk of bias were performed independently by two reviewers. Ten trials detailed in 11 articles were included. Six of the 11 studies reported positive outcomes on bone health. Results of our meta-analysis showed a significant effect of tai chi exercise on BMD change at the spine compared with no treatment in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. When tai chi exercise combined with a calcium supplement was compared with the calcium supplement alone, the result of BMD change at the spine showed no significant effect. Because the measurable effect observed was minimal, and due to the low quality of methodology of the studies, we conclude that the result is of limited reliability. Tai chi exercise may have benefits on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, but the evidence is sometimes weak, poor, and inconsistent. Consequently, only limited conclusions can be drawn regarding the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone health. Further well designed studies with

  5. Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Physical and Psychological Health of College Students: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Moyi; Ling, Kun; Lin, Hui; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) on physical and psychological health of college students. Methods Two hundred six college students were recruited and randomly allocated to a control group or a TCC exercise group in an equal ratio. Participants in the control group were instructed to maintain their original activity level and those in the TCC exercise group received 12 weeks of TCC exercise training based on their original activity level. Physical and psychological outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks and 25 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes. Results Compared with the control group, the TCC exercise group showed significant improvements at the end of the 12-week intervention period for flexibility (length of Sit and Reach (cm): TCC group 14.09±7.40 versus control 12.88±6.57, P = 0.039 adjusted for its baseline measures using a general linear model) and balance ability (open eyes perimeter: TCC group 235.6(191~314) versus control 261(216~300); closed eyes perimeter: TCC group 370.5 (284~454) versus control 367 (293~483); P = 0.0414, 0.008, respectively, adjusted for corresponding baseline measures using a general linear model). No significant changes in other physical and mental outcomes were found between the two groups. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Conclusion TCC exercise was beneficial in college students for improving flexibility and balance capability to some extent, compared with usual exercise. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003328 PMID:26147842

  6. Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction in a Boston Public Middle School.

    PubMed

    Wall, Robert B

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of a clinical project that used combined Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction as an educational program. The 5-week program demonstrated that sustained interest in this material in middle school-aged boys and girls is possible. Statements the boys and girls made in the process suggested that they experienced well-being, calmness, relaxation, improved sleep, less reactivity, increased self-care, self-awareness, and a sense of interconnection or interdependence with nature. The curriculum is described in detail for nurses, teachers, and counselors who want to replicate this type of instruction for adolescent children. This project infers that Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction may be transformational tools that can be used in educational programs appropriate for middle school-aged children. Recommendations are made for further study in schools and other pediatric settings.

  7. The effects of tai chi chuan combined with vibration training on balance control and lower extremity muscle power.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key pointsEight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population.The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism.Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other.

  8. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Combined with Vibration Training on Balance Control and Lower Extremity Muscle Power

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Pao-Hung; Lin, Guan-Lun; Liu, Chiang; Chuang, Long-Ren; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV), a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC) or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm) three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods. Key points Eight weeks of Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control for an untrained young population. The positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli during Tai Chi Chuan movements still remains significant because of SSC mechanism. Combining Tai Chi Chuan with vibration training is more efficient and does not decrease the overall training effects due to a cross-interaction of each other

  9. Tai Chi Chuan for Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Coronary Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Rosane Maria; Zanini, Maurice; Ferrari, Juliana Nery; Silva, César Augusto; Farias, Leonardo Fontanive; Comel, João Carlos; Belli, Karlyse Claudino; da Silveira, Anderson Donelli; Santos, Antonio Cardoso; Stein, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that Tai Chi Chuan can improve cardiac function in patients with heart disease. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary artery disease. Methods We performed a search for studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by three independent investigators, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the manuscripts. Results The initial search found 201 studies that, after review of titles and abstracts, resulted in a selection of 12 manuscripts. They were fully analyzed and of these, nine were excluded. As a final result, three randomized controlled trials remained. The studies analyzed in this systematic review included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of coronary artery disease, all were clinically stable and able to exercise. The three experiments had a control group that practiced structured exercise training or received counseling for exercise. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 months. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that Tai Chi Chuan can be an unconventional form of cardiac rehabilitation, being an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. However, the methodological quality of the included articles and the small sample sizes clearly indicate that new randomized controlled trials are needed in this regard. PMID:24759952

  10. Tai Chi-based exercise for older adults with Parkinson's disease: a pilot-program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Fisher, K John; Xu, Junheng; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide preliminary evaluation of the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a newly developed Tai Chi-based exercise program for older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a one-group pretest-posttest design, 17 community-dwelling adults (mean age 71.51 years) with mild to moderate idiopathic PD (Stage I, II, or III on the Hoehn and Yahr scale) and stable medication use completed a 5-day, 90-min/day Tai Chi exercise-evaluation program. Outcome measures included face-to-face exit interviews on appropriateness and safety and physical performance (i.e., 50-ft speed walk, up-and-go, functional reach). At the end of this brief intervention, exercise adherence was 100% and the program was shown to be safe. Exit interviews indicated that the program was well received by all participants with respect to program appropriateness, participant satisfaction and enjoyment, and intentions to continue. Furthermore, a significant pretest-to-posttest change was observed at the end of the 5-day program in all three physical-performance measures (p < .05). The results of this pilot evaluation suggest that Tai Chi is an appropriate physical activity for older adults with PD and might also be useful as a therapeutic exercise modality for improving and maintaining physical function. These preliminary findings warrant further investigation.

  11. Effect of Tai Chi on gait and obstacle crossing behaviors in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Arun K; Rosengren, Karl S; Yang, Yang; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated whether long-term, habitual practice of Tai Chi (or Taiji) results in behavioral modifications during gait. Specifically, we examined whether Tai Chi (TC) experience alters gait behavior during normal and obstructed walking. Fifteen experienced TC practitioners and fifteen control subjects (average age 45 years, 23-66 year range) completed level walking trials with or without a stationary obstacle placed in their path. TC practitioners in this study had an average of 6.5 years (1.5-15 year range) of Chen-style Tai Chi experience. Kinematic analyses performed on their step-to-step gait characteristics over multiple steps revealed that TC practitioners used a more cautious strategy by using slower gait speeds and shorter and slower steps than controls (p

  12. Optical filtering properties of subwavelength Tai-chi-shaped metal hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlin; Liu, Hui; Luo, Hu; Zhu, Weihua; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Jun; Guo, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is employed to study the optical properties of a novel kind of periodic subwavelength hole arrays composed of Tai-chi-shaped holes in silver film, and the optical transmission properties of femtosecond optical pulse excitation is numerically calculated. We find that this Tai-chi-shaped device has better optical band-pass filtering properties, such as narrower pass band and higher transmissivity in visible wavelengths range, than other devices under consideration. Based on the generation of surface plasmons resonance mode in the dielectric-metal interface, the center wavelength of transmission can be tuned by changing the array periodicities. We observe that the tune ability mainly depends on the space period along the direction parallel to that of the incident pulse polarization. It is also found that both the strength and the wavelength of the transmission peaks of rectangularly distributed metal hole arrays are determined by the polarization of incident light. Additionally, we demonstrate the typical band-pass filtering properties of this Tai-Chi-shaped holes structure. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the narrow pass band is about 20 nm in visible wavelengths range.

  13. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Miguel Antônio; Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Andrusaitis, Felix Ricardo; Rodrigues, Thuam Silva; Speciali, Danielli Souza; Greve, Júlia Maria D′Andréa; Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. METHODS: We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master® force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance) and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test). RESULTS: In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. CONCLUSION: The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test. PMID:26017644

  14. A Meta-Analysis on the Efficacy of Tai Chi in Patients with Parkinson's Disease between 2008 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Yin, Tao; Gao, Qian; Yang, Xiao Cun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence on the effect of Tai Chi for Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Six electronic databases up to June 2014 were searched. The methodological quality was assessed with PEDro scale. Standardised mean difference and 95% confidence intervals of random-effects model were calculated. Results. Nine studies were included in our review. The aggregated results are in favor of Tai Chi on improving motor function (P = 0.002) and balance (P < 0.00001) in patients with PD. However, there is no sufficient evidence to support or refute the value of Tai Chi on improving gait velocity (P = 0.11), stride length (P = 0.21), or quality of life (P = 0.40). And there is no valid evidence in follow-up effects of Tai Chi for PD. Conclusion. The current results suggest that Tai Chi can significantly improve the motor function and balance in patients with PD, but there is indeed not enough evidence to conclude that Tai Chi is effective for PD because of the small treatment effect, methodological flaws of eligible studies, and insufficient follow-up. Consequently, high-quality studies with long follow-up are warranted to confirm current beneficial findings.

  15. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −0.77 to −0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, −0.81; 95% CI, −1.11 to −0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, −0.83; 95% CI, −1.37 to −0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions. PMID:27125299

  16. Tai Chi for Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Jun; Lauche, Romy; Klose, Petra; Bu, Jiang Hui; Yang, Xiao Cun; Guo, Chao Qing; Dobos, Gustav; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2016-04-29

    Several studies reported that Tai Chi showed potential effects for chronic pain, but its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of Tai Chi for chronic pain conditions. 18 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. The aggregated results have indicated that Tai Chi showed positive evidence on immediate relief of chronic pain from osteoarthritis (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.54; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -0.77 to -0.30; P < 0.05). The valid duration of Tai Chi practice for osteoarthritis may be more than 5 weeks. And there were some beneficial evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on immediate relief of chronic pain from low back pain (SMD, -0.81; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.52; P < 0.05) and osteoporosis (SMD, -0.83; 95% CI, -1.37 to -0.28; P = 0.003). Therefore, clinicians may consider Tai Chi as a viable complementary and alternative medicine for chronic pain conditions.

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of Qigong/Tai Chi Easy on Cancer-Related Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Larkey, Linda K.; Roe, Denise J.; Weihs, Karen L.; Jahnke, Roger; Lopez, Ana Maria; Rogers, Carol E.; Oh, Byeongsang; Guillen-Rodriguez, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background Many breast cancer survivors experience fatigue, mood, and sleep disturbances. Purpose To compare a Meditative Movement practice, Qigong/Tai Chi Easy (QG/TCE), with sham Qigong (SQG), testing effects of meditation/breath aspects of QG/TCE on breast cancer survivors' persistent fatigue and other symptoms. Methods A double-blind, randomized controlled trial tested 12-weeks of QG/TCE versus SQG on fatigue, depression and sleep among 87 post-menopausal, fatigued breast cancer survivors, Stage 0-III, age 40–75. Results Fatigue decreased significantly in the QG/TCE group compared to control at post-intervention (p = 0.005) and 3 month follow-up (p = 0.024), but not depression and sleep quality. Improvement occurred over time for both interventions in depression and sleep quality (all p < 0.05). Conclusions QG/TCE showed significant improvement over time compared to SQG for fatigue, but not depression or sleep. Both QG/TCE and SQG showed improvement for two prevalent symptoms among breast cancer survivors, depression and sleep dysfunction. PMID:25124456

  18. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Jo Lynne W.; McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R.K.; Walter, Jeanne M.; McDade, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind–body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stress management model with the potential to positively influence the stress–disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease. PMID:16455435

  19. Complementary and alternative treatment for neck pain: chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais.

    PubMed

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Sorosky, Susan; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan; Lansky, Rebecca

    2011-08-01

    Of the multitude of treatment options for the management of neck pain, no obvious single treatment modality has been shown to be most efficacious. As such, the clinician should consider alternative treatment modalities if a modality is engaging, available, financially feasible, potentially efficacious, and is low risk for the patient. As evidence-based medicine for neck pain develops, the clinician is faced with the challenge of which treatments to encourage patients to pursue. Treatment modalities explored in this article, including chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais, represent reasonable complementary and alternative medicine methods for patients with neck pain.

  20. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; McCain, Nancy L; Gray, D Patricia; Elswick, R K; Walter, Jeanne M; McDade, Elizabeth

    2006-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind-body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stress management model with the potential to positively influence the stress-disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease.

  1. Design, methodology and baseline characteristics of Tai Chi and its protective effect against ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guohua; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; He, Jian; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Controlling risk factors with regular exercise is effective and cost-effective for the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke. As a traditional Chinese form of exercise, Tai Chi might be beneficial in decreasing ischaemic stroke, but the evidence remains insufficient. We hypothesise that elderly community adults with risk factors for ischaemic stroke will decrease their ischaemic stroke risk by improving cerebral haemodynamic parameters, cardiopulmonary function, motor function, plasma risk indices, physical parameters or psychological outcomes after receiving 12 weeks of regular Tai Chi training compared with those who maintained their original physical activities. Therefore, we designed a randomised controlled trial that will systematically evaluate the protective effects of Tai Chi exercise on ischaemic stroke risk in an elderly community population with risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Methods and analysis A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated into either the Tai Chi training group or the usual physical activity group. This paper reports on the design, intervention development and baseline characteristics of the participants. There were no significant differences between comparison groups in demographic characteristics or the baseline data of primary or secondary outcomes. Participants in the Tai Chi training group will receive 12 weeks of Tai Chi training with a frequency of 5 days/week and 60 min/day, while those in the usual physical activities group will maintain their original activities. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Medical Ethics Committee of The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (number 2013-020-02). The findings of this study will be communicated to healthcare professionals, participants and the public through peer

  2. Mindfulness-based interventions in multiple sclerosis: beneficial effects of Tai Chi on balance, coordination, fatigue and depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience a wide array of symptoms, including balance problems, mobility impairment, fatigue and depression. Physical exercise has recently been acknowledged as a treatment option complementary to medication. However, information regarding putative effects of structured exercise programs on neurological symptoms is sparse. Tai Chi, a Chinese martial art incorporating physical exercise and mindfulness training, has been shown to yield health benefits in various neurological groups. It seems particularly suitable for patients with motoric deficits as it challenges coordination and balance. The purpose of the current study was to explore the therapeutic value of structured Tai Chi training for coordination, balance, fatigue and depression in mildly disabled MS patients. Methods A sample of 32 MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS < 5) was examined. A structured Tai Chi course was devised and a Tai Chi group participated in two weekly sessions of 90 minutes duration for six months, while a comparison group received treatment as usual (TAU). Both groups were examined prior to and following the six-months interval with regards to balance and coordination performance as well as measures of fatigue, depression and life satisfaction. Results Following the intervention, the Tai Chi group showed significant, consistent improvements in balance, coordination, and depression, relative to the TAU group (range of effect-sizes: partial η2 = 0.16 – 0.20). Additionally, life satisfaction improved (partial η2 = 0.31). Fatigue deteriorated in the comparison group, whereas it remained relatively stable in the Tai Chi group (partial η2 = 0.24). Conclusions The consistent pattern of results confirms that Tai Chi holds therapeutic potential for MS patients. Further research is needed to determine underlying working mechanisms, and to verify the results in a larger sample and different MS

  3. Mechanisms for alternative treatments in Parkinson's disease: acupuncture, tai chi, and other treatments.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Bijan D; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-06-01

    At least 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use one or more forms of alternative therapy (AT) to complement standard treatments. This article reviews the commonest forms of AT for PD, including acupuncture, tai chi, yoga, mindfulness, massage, herbal medicine, and cannabis. We discuss the current evidence for the clinical efficacy of each AT and discuss potential mechanisms, including those suggested by animal and human studies. With a few notable exceptions, none of the treatments examined were investigated rigorously enough to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy or mechanism. Tai chi, acupuncture, Mucuna pruriens, cannabinoids, and music therapy have all been proposed to work through specific mechanisms, although current evidence is insufficient to support or refute these claims, with the possible exception of Mucuna pruriens (which contains levodopa). It is likely that most ATs predominantly treat PD patients through general mechanisms, including placebo effects, stress reduction, and improved mood and sleep, and AT may provide patients with a greater locus of control regarding their illness.

  4. Impact of Tai Chi Chu'an practice on balance and mobility in older adults: an integrative review of 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Wolf, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Falls in older adults, which often result from decreased balance and mobility, are an important public health issue. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends multidimensional balance and mobility training to prevent falls. In the past 20 years, Tai Chi Chu'an (tai chi) has been found to be effective in improving balance, reducing falls and fear of falling for older adults. Efficient use of time devoted to exercise is critical; therefore, more research is needed into the underlying mechanisms of balance and mobility improvements in older adults as a result of tai chi practice, so that these interventions can be most targeted and efficient. The purpose of this integrative review is twofold. First, evidence is presented to show that balance and mobility have been improved by tai chi in older adults. Second, potential mechanisms of balance improvement from research conducted in longtime tai chi practitioners, and from clinical research conducted in older adults, are offered. A PubMed search with the terms "tai chi" and "balance" entered simultaneously was conducted. Articles were included if they were systematic reviews, pilot or clinical trials, related to both balance and tai chi, and/or specifically related to determining the mechanisms potentially underlying tai chi's effects. The systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that aspects of tai chi research findings remain equivocal. In spite of the inconclusiveness of these review findings, many researchers have considered tai chi worthy of further investigation. Furthermore, practitioners in the clinic and those who deliver exercise in the community have evidently embraced tai chi as an appropriate exercise for older adults. This review, spanning 2 decades, suggests that tai chi has impacted the health and health behaviors of many older adults. Going forward, informing novel balance and mobility rehabilitation by uncovering mechanisms of tai chi's effects definitively may be the most important area of

  5. Treating Survivors of Torture and Refugee Trauma: A Preliminary Case Series Using Qigong and T'ai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Fulker, Derek; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Saper, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This paper seeks to explore the potential value of qigong and t'ai chi practice as a therapeutic intervention to aid in the treatment of survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Design The common effects of torture and refugee trauma are surveyed with a focus on post-traumatic stress disorder. An alternative theoretical framework for conceptualizing and healing trauma is presented. Evidence is reviewed from the scientific literature that describes how qigong and t'ai chi have been used in studies of the general population to alleviate symptoms that are also expressed in torture survivors. Observations are presented from a combined, simplified qigong and t'ai chi intervention with a convenience sample of four refugee survivors of torture. Results Preliminary observations from four cases and a review of the literature support the potential efficacy of incorporating qigong and t'ai chi into the treatment of survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Conclusions The incorporation of qigong and t'ai chi into the treatment of torture survivors, within a new framework for healing trauma, merits further investigation. PMID:18803491

  6. The Effect of Tai Chi on Reducing the Risk of Falling: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Obrero-Gaitán, Esteban; Lomas-Vega, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi has frequently been used as a preventive measure against falling in at-risk populations. However, studies have yielded contradictory results, and literature reviews have considered only a small number of trials and have not addressed some key aspects, such as sources of heterogeneity and publication bias. This study includes 13 controlled trials published before June 2015 that analyzed the effectiveness of Tai Chi in fall prevention in populations of frail and at-risk adults. The effect measure used in this meta-analysis was absolute risk reduction (ARR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). According to our findings, practice of Tai Chi significantly prevents the risk of falling (ARR, [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The heterogeneity of results across the trials was low, with a reduced risk of publication bias, and no significant effect differences were observed between studies comparing Tai Chi with other interventions or non-treatment. We therefore conclude that Tai Chi is more effective than other measures, or no intervention, for fall prevention in at-risk populations. Further research is warranted to analyze the consequences of falls and to study the episodes rather than the cases of falls.

  7. Effects of Tai Chi on Pain and Muscle Activity in Young Males with Acute Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group’s VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group’s VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s. PMID:24926131

  8. Balance improvements after a week-long tai chi workshop as determined by dynamic posturography - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongtao; Waite, Gabi N; Moga, Margaret M; Lam, Paul; Geib, Roy W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) to explore static and dynamic posturography as an objective measure of balance performance after intensive practice of Tai Chi; 2) to determine whether multi-day Tai Chi workshops are viable venues to gather data from long-term Tai Chi practitioners and 3) to determine whether a 6-day, intensive Tai Chi intervention would improve the balance of participants. For posturography measurements we used the CAPS Professional System (Vestibular Technologies, Cheyenne, WY), a portable computerized device which monitors body sway for 20 seconds, with eyes open or closed, when standing on a hard (static) or unstable (dynamic) surface. We employed the system to test 54 participants in a 6-day. Tai Chi workshop at South Hadley, MA. The beginning data showed that all participants had a stability score which fell into the acceptably normal category when normalized according to age and gender. Thirty-three participants performed the identical tests again at the end of the workshop. Changes of 2.1 points or larger on tests with the unstable surface were considered statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. On the test with eyes closed, the stability score changed on average by 3.0 (n=33). There was also a trend towards increased improvement of balance scores with increasing age when tested with eyes closed (highest average change of 4.2 for 61-70 year old group). Although with large individual variability, males (n=12, change in balance score of 3.6) showed on average a greater improvement in balance scores than females (n=21, change in balance score of 2.8). These data indicate that computerized posturography can successfully be used to monitor changes in balance performance such as occurring after intensive practice of Tai Chi as coordination exercise.

  9. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4 ± 6.8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all P < 0.001). The intervention was effective on 6-min walk (P = 0.006), back scratch (P = 0.002), handgrip strength (P = 0.006), chair stand, chair sit & reach, 8 feet up & go and blind flamingo tests (all P < 0.001). Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (P < 0.001) and six subscales: stiffness (P = 0.005), pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression (all P < 0.001). The intervention was also effective in six SF-36 subscales: bodily pain (P = 0.003), vitality (P = 0.018), physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health (all P < 0.001). Conclusions. A 28-week Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients. PMID:22649476

  10. The influence of tai chi and yoga on balance and falls in a residential care setting: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Padmapriya; Higgins, Isabel Johanna; van der Riet, Pamela Jane; Marquez, Jodie; Sibbritt, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Falls amongst older people is a global public health concern. Whilst falling is not a typical feature of ageing, older people are more likely to fall. Fall injuries amongst older people are a leading cause of death and disability. Many older people do not do regular exercise so that they lose muscle tone, strength, and flexibility which affect balance and predispose them to falls. The management of falls in residential care settings is a major concern with strategies for prevention and monitoring a focus in this setting. Yoga and tai chi have shown potential to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. They also have potential to improve pain and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a three-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with frail older people in a residential care setting to test the hypothesis that a 14-week modified tai chi or yoga programme is more effective than usual care activity in improving balance function, quality of life, pain experience and in reducing number of falls. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in the occurrence of falls. Yoga demonstrated a slight decrease in fall incidence; quality of life improved for the tai chi group. Only the yoga group experienced a reduction in average pain scores though not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest it is possible to safely implement modified yoga and tai chi in a residential care setting and evaluate this using RCT design. They show positive changes to balance, pain and quality of life and a high level of interest through attendance amongst the older participants. The results support offering tai chi and yoga to older people who are frail and dependent with physical and cognitive limitations.

  11. The influence of tai chi and yoga on balance and falls in a residential care setting: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Padmapriya; Higgins, Isabel Johanna; Van Der Riet, Pamela Jane; Marquez, Jodie; Sibbritt, David

    2014-07-23

    Abstract Falls amongst older people is a global public health concern. Whilst falling is not a typical feature of ageing, older people are more likely to fall. Fall injuries amongst older people are a leading cause of death and disability. Many older people do not do regular exercise so that they lose muscle tone, strength, and flexibility which affect balance and predispose them to falls. The management of falls in residential care settings is a major concern with strategies for prevention and monitoring a focus in this setting. Yoga and tai chi have shown potential to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. They also have potential to improve pain and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting a 3-arm RCT with frail older people in a residential care setting to test the hypothesis that a 14 week modified tai chi or yoga program is more effective than usual care activity in improving balance function, quality of life, pain experience and in reducing number of falls. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups in the occurrence of falls. Yoga demonstrated a slight decrease in fall incidence; quality of life improved for the tai chi group. Only the yoga group experienced a reduction in average pain scores though not statistically significant. The findings of the study suggest it is possible to safely implement modified yoga and tai chi in a residential care setting and evaluate this using RCT design. They show positive changes to balance, pain and quality of life and a high level of interest through attendance amongst the older participants. The results support offering tai chi and yoga to older people who are frail and dependent with physical and cognitive limitations.

  12. Cardiorespiratory responses of Tai Chi Chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects during cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Lai, J S; Wong, M K; Lan, C; Chong, C K; Lien, I N

    1993-10-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC; shadow boxing) is a traditional Chinese conditioning exercise. To evaluate its beneficial effect on cardiorespiratory function, 21 male and 20 female TCC practitioners, ranging in age from 50 to 64 years, voluntarily participated in this study. The control group comprised 23 male and 26 female sedentary subjects. Breath-by-breath measurement of the cardiorespiratory function was obtained during the incremental exercise of leg cycling. At the maximal exercise level, the oxygen uptake (VO2), O2 pulse and work rate of the TCC group were significantly higher than the respective values of the control group (p < 0.01). At the ventilatory threshold, the TCC group also showed a higher VO2, O2 pulse and work rate (p < 0.05). The results imply that TCC training may be beneficial to the cardiorespiratory function of older individuals. To estimate the exercise intensity of TCC, heart rate (HR) was monitored in 15 men and 15 women while they performed the classical Yang TCC. During the steady-state performance of TCC, the mean HR was 130 +/- 14 bpm for men and 127 +/- 13 bpm for women. The mean HR during TCC exceeded 70% of their HRmax. Our data substantiate that TCC is aerobic exercise of moderate intensity, and it may be prescribed as a suitable conditioning exercise for the elderly.

  13. Tai Chi Chuan modulates heart rate variability during abdominal breathing in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Li, You-Fa; Yue, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Xiao; Chang, Yu-Kai; Yi, Long-Yan; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-03-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice is currently intentionally applied in clinical populations, especially those with cardiovascular diseases because of its potential benefits on the autonomic nervous system. The long-term effect of TCC practice on heart rate variability (HRV) remains largely unknown. In this study, we recruited 23 TCC practitioners whose experience averaged approximately 21 years and 19 controls matched by age, sex and education to examine the effect of TCC practice on the autonomic nervous system during a resting state and during an abdominal breathing state. HRV was measured by traditional electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The results showed that the low frequency, total power frequency, and normalized low frequency components and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio were significantly higher, whereas the normalized high frequency was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state. However, we did not detect any significant difference in the HRV measures during the resting state between the two groups. Additionally, TCC experience did not correlate with HRV components either in the abdominal state or the resting state in the TCC group. Considering all of these findings, we suggest that TCC improves vagal activity and the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during the relaxation state. This study also provides direct physiological evidence for the role of TCC practice in relaxation.

  14. Changes in heart-rate variability of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer during Tai Chi Qigong practice.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Wong, Janet Y H; Chung, Louisa M Y; Yam, Timothy T T; Chung, Joanne W Y; Lee, Y M; Chow, Lina P Y; Luk, W S; Ng, Shamay S M

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To explore the changes in heart-rate variability (HRV) of survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) before, during, and after a Tai Chi (TC) Qigong exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven survivors of NPC participated voluntarily in the study. The heart rate of each participant was measured continuously for 1 minute before the TC Qigong intervention, during the 5-minute TC Qigong intervention, and for 1 minute after the intervention, using a Polar heart-rate monitor. Spectral HRV was expressed in terms of normalised low frequency (LF) power, normalised high frequency (HF) power, and the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio. [Results] Both the LF-power and the HF-power components had significant time effects. However, the time effect of the LF/HF power ratio was not significant. Post hoc contrast analysis revealed a significant decrease in LF power and a concomitant increase in HF power during the 4th minute and 5th minute of the TC Qigong exercise. [Conclusion] Five minutes of TC Qigong exercise was found to improve HRV by increasing HF power and decreasing LF power, but these effects were transient. TC Qigong might be an appropriate exercise for improving the ANS function and psychological and cardiac health of survivors of NPC.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Tai Chi for Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaojia; Liu, Shaonan; Lu, Fuchang; Shi, Xiaogeng; Guo, Xinfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective In Parkinson's disease (PD), wearing off and side effects of long-term medication and complications pose challenges for neurologists. Although Tai Chi is beneficial for many illnesses, its efficacy for PD remains uncertain. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for PD. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi for PD were electronically searched by the end of December 2013 and identified by two independent reviewers. The tool from the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 was used to assess the risk of bias. A standard meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Ten trials with PD of mild-to-moderate severity were included in the review, and nine trials (n = 409) were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high in the blinding of participants and personnel. Improvements in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (mean difference (MD) −4.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) −6.67–−2.01), Berg Balance Scale (MD: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.83–5.66), functional reach test (MD: 3.89, 95% CI: 1.73–6.04), Timed Up and Go test (MD: −0.75, 95% CI: −1.30–−0.21), stride length (standardized MD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.03–1.09), health-related quality of life (standardized MD: −1.10, 95% CI: −1.81–−0.39) and reduction of falls were greater after interventions with Tai Chi plus medication. Satisfaction and safety were high. Intervention with Tai Chi alone was more effective for only a few balance and mobility outcomes. Conclusions Tai Chi performed with medication resulted in promising gains in mobility and balance, and it was safe and popular among PD patients at an early stage of the disease. This provides a new evidence for PD management. More RCTs with larger sample size that carefully address blinding and prudently select outcomes are needed. PROSPERO registration number CRD42013004989. PMID:24927169

  16. Mitigating Cellular Inflammation in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tai Chi Chih

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of a behavioral intervention, Tai Chi Chih (TCC) on circulating markers of inflammation in older adults. DESIGN A prospective, randomized, controlled trial with allocation to two arms, TCC and health education (HE), 16 weeks of intervention administration, and 9 weeks follow-up. PARTICIPANTS A total of 83 healthy older adults, aged 59 to 86 years. MEASUREMENTS The primary endpoint was circulating levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Secondary outcomes were circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), sIL-6R, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and IL-18. Severity of depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and physical activity was also assessed over the treatment trial. RESULTS Among those older adults with high levels IL-6 at entry, a trend for a treatment group by time interaction was found (F(1,70)=3.48, P = .07), in which TCC produced a drop of IL-6 levels comparable to those found in TCC and HE subgroups who had low levels of IL-6 at entry (t’s(72)=0.80, 1.63, P’s>0.10), whereas IL-6 in HE remained higher than the TCC- and HE subgroups with low entry IL-6 (t(72)=2.47, P=0.02; t(72)=1.71, P=0.09). Decreases in depressive symptoms in the two treatment groups correlated with decreases of IL-6 (r=.28, P <.05). None of the other cellular markers of inflammation changed in TCC vs. HE. CONCLUSION TCC can be considered a useful behavioral intervention to reduce circulating levels of IL-6 in older adults who show elevated levels of this inflammatory marker and are at risk for inflammation-related morbidity. PMID:21934474

  17. Feasibility, qualitative findings and satisfaction of a brief Tai Chi mind–body programme for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Barbara L; Mori, DeAnna L; Polizzi, Craig P; Pless Kaiser, Anica; Ledoux, Annie M; Wang, Chenchen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine feasibility, qualitative feedback and satisfaction associated with a 4-session introduction to Tai Chi for veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Design We observed and reported recruitment and retention rates, participant characteristics, adherence, and satisfaction across 2 cohorts. We also examined qualitative feedback provided by questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews. Main outcome measures Rates of recruitment and retention, focus group and individual feedback interviews, self-reported satisfaction. Participants 17 veterans with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Results Almost 90% (17/19) of those eligible following the telephone screen enrolled in the programme. Three-quarters (76.4%) of the participants attended at least 3 of the 4 Tai Chi sessions. Qualitative data analysis revealed themes indicating favourable impressions of the Tai Chi sessions. In addition, participants reported feeling very engaged during the sessions, and found Tai Chi to be helpful for managing distressing symptoms (ie, intrusive thoughts, concentration difficulties, physiological arousal). Participants also reported high satisfaction: 93.8% endorsed being very or mostly satisfied with the programme. All participants (100%) indicated that they would like to participate in future Tai Chi programmes and would recommend it to a friend. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to be feasible and safe for veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is perceived to be beneficial and is associated with high rates of satisfaction. This study highlights the need for future investigation of Tai Chi as a novel intervention to address symptoms of PTSD. PMID:27899398

  18. Long-term Exercise After Pulmonary Rehabilitation (LEAP): design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Litrownik, Daniel; Beach, Douglas; Klings, Elizabeth S.; Davis, Roger B.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have reduced exercise capacity and levels of physical activity. Supervised, facility-based pulmonary rehabilitation programs improve exercise capacity and reduce dyspnea, but novel long-term strategies are needed to maintain the benefits gained. Mind-body modalities such as Tai Chi which combine aerobic activity, coordination of breathing, and cognitive techniques that alleviate the physical inactivity, dyspnea, and anxiety and depression that are the hallmarks of COPD are promising strategies. Methods/Design We have designed a randomized controlled study to examine whether Tai Chi will maintain exercise capacity in persons with COPD who have recently completed a supervised pulmonary rehabilitation program, compared to standard care. The primary outcome is 6-minute walk test distance at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life, dyspnea, mood, occurrence of acute exacerbations, engagement in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and exercise adherence. Simultaneously, we are conducting a pilot study of group walking. We will enroll 90 persons who will be randomized to one of 3 arms in a 2:2:1 ratio: Tai Chi, standard care, or group-based walking. Discussion The Long-term Exercise After Pulmonary Rehabilitation (LEAP) study is a novel and clinically relevant trial. We will enroll a well-characterized cohort of persons with COPD and will comprehensively assess physiological and psychosocial outcomes. Results of this study will provide the evidence base for persons with COPD to engage in Tai Chi as a low-cost, long-term modality to sustain physical activity in persons who have completed a standard short-term pulmonary rehabilitation program. PMID:26362690

  19. The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Susan; Taylor, E Laurette; Hofford, Craig W; Brittain, Danielle R; Branscum, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance-10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, η(2) > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women.

  20. The Effects of Tai Chi Practice on Intermuscular Beta Coherence and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Agrawal, Uday; Nayak, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a slow-motion contemplative exercise that is associated with improvements in sensorimotor measures, including decreased force variability, enhanced tactile acuity, and improved proprioception, especially in elderly populations. Here, we carried out two studies evaluating the effect of TC practice on measures associated with sensorimotor processing. In study 1, we evaluated TC's effects on an oscillatory parameter associated with motor function, beta rhythm (15-30 Hz) coherence, focusing specifically on beta rhythm intermuscular coherence (IMC), which is tightly coupled to beta corticomuscular coherence (CMC). We utilized electromyography (EMG) to compare beta IMC in older TC practitioners with age-matched controls, as well as novices with advanced TC practitioners. Given previous findings of elevated, maladaptive beta coherence in older subjects, we hypothesized that increased TC practice would be associated with a monotonic decrease in beta IMC, but rather discovered that novice practitioners manifested higher beta IMC than both controls and advanced practitioners, forming an inverted U-shaped practice curve. This finding suggests that TC practice elicits complex changes in sensory and motor processes over the developmental lifespan of TC training. In study 2, we focused on somatosensory (e.g., tactile and proprioceptive) responses to the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in a middle-aged TC group, assessing whether responses to the illusion became dampened with greater cumulative practice. As hypothesized, TC practice was associated with decreased likelihood to misattribute tactile stimulation during the RHI to the rubber hand, although there was no effect of TC practice on measures of proprioception or on subjective reports of ownership. These studies provide preliminary evidence that TC practice both modulates beta network coherence in a non-linear fashion, perhaps as a result of the focus on not only efferent motor but also afferent sensory activity

  1. The Effects of Tai Chi Practice on Intermuscular Beta Coherence and the Rubber Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Catherine E.; Agrawal, Uday; Nayak, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) is a slow-motion contemplative exercise that is associated with improvements in sensorimotor measures, including decreased force variability, enhanced tactile acuity, and improved proprioception, especially in elderly populations. Here, we carried out two studies evaluating the effect of TC practice on measures associated with sensorimotor processing. In study 1, we evaluated TC’s effects on an oscillatory parameter associated with motor function, beta rhythm (15–30 Hz) coherence, focusing specifically on beta rhythm intermuscular coherence (IMC), which is tightly coupled to beta corticomuscular coherence (CMC). We utilized electromyography (EMG) to compare beta IMC in older TC practitioners with age-matched controls, as well as novices with advanced TC practitioners. Given previous findings of elevated, maladaptive beta coherence in older subjects, we hypothesized that increased TC practice would be associated with a monotonic decrease in beta IMC, but rather discovered that novice practitioners manifested higher beta IMC than both controls and advanced practitioners, forming an inverted U-shaped practice curve. This finding suggests that TC practice elicits complex changes in sensory and motor processes over the developmental lifespan of TC training. In study 2, we focused on somatosensory (e.g., tactile and proprioceptive) responses to the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in a middle-aged TC group, assessing whether responses to the illusion became dampened with greater cumulative practice. As hypothesized, TC practice was associated with decreased likelihood to misattribute tactile stimulation during the RHI to the rubber hand, although there was no effect of TC practice on measures of proprioception or on subjective reports of ownership. These studies provide preliminary evidence that TC practice both modulates beta network coherence in a non-linear fashion, perhaps as a result of the focus on not only efferent motor but also afferent sensory

  2. A randomized trial comparing Tai Chi with and without cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to reduce fear of falling in community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yat Wa Justina; Tsui, Chi Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the effects of Tai Chi with and without CBI on a primary outcome of reducing the fear of falling, and on secondary outcomes including encouraging better social engagement, improving self-perceived personal wellbeing, and achieving better mobility among elderly people with fear of falling. One hundred and twenty-two community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi or a Tai Chi plus CBI group. Participants' level of fear of falling, physical mobility, self-perceived personal wellbeing and social participation were compared before and after completing the 8-week intervention and then at a 2-month follow-up. The findings showed that Tai Chi both with and without CBI had a similar effect on reducing elderly people's fear of falling, but only Tai Chi plus CBI had a positive effect on participants' self-perceived personal wellbeing. Tai Chi both with and without CBI had no effect on participants' self-perceived social participation and mobility. Apart from a slight improvement in participants' self-perceived personal wellbeing, other outcome effects were similar for Tai Chi with and without CBI. This finding raises a question about the additive effects of combined intervention over Tai Chi alone in reducing elderly people's fear of falling. In view of the higher demand for resources and manpower to implement a combined intervention, further study is still required to confirm the potential additional benefits of this combined intervention prior to recommending it to community services.

  3. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Ranomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Aileen W K; Sit, Janet W H; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y P; Lee, Diana T F; Wong, Eliza M L; Fung, Lawrence C W

    2016-07-05

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors.

  4. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Improving Mind-Body Health for Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review examining whether Tai Chi Chuan could have mental and physical benefits for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods. MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies. Data of the studies were collected, and outcomes were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Effect sizes of the mental and physical components were determined, along with the recommendation grades of Philadelphia Panel Classification System for Tai Chi Chuan on knee osteoarthritis. Results. Eleven studies were selected and retrieved from the databases. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the effects of Tai Chi Chuan were observed for physical components in the body functions and structures domain. The effects favoring Tai Chi Chuan were observed in the physical component in the activities and participation domain. Insufficient data was included in the meta-analysis of the mental component. Conclusions. The review revealed that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial outcomes for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The evidence-based results represented that it had small-to-moderate effects on body functions and structures, activities, and participation of physical component. However, there was insufficient evidence to support that Tai Chi Chuan had beneficial mental effect. PMID:27635148

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aileen W. K.; Sit, Janet W. H.; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lee, Diana T. F.; Wong, Eliza M. L.; Fung, Lawrence C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. PMID:27399735

  6. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  7. Arabic 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Volumes 1 and 2 (Lesson Units 1-55) of this beginning course in Arabic follow the Defense Language Institute format for intensive 12-week language courses, designed for native-speaker instructors using audiolingual methodology in the classroom. The third (and final) volume in this series constitutes a reference guide to pronunciation and grammar…

  8. A pilot study on the effect of acute tai chi practice on peripheral blood cytokine expression in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongtao; Howk, Cherie; Geib, Roy W

    2012-01-01

    Tai chi (TC) is a unique form of exercise having both mind and body components – focused mindfulness and physical movement. It is perhaps best known for its ability to prevent falls in elderly people. It is also thought to improve vitality, longevity, mental and physical health. Recent studies have demonstrated its effectiveness as an intervention for chronic diseases associated with the inflammatory process, such as arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the modulatory effect of acute TC practice on anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in healthy volunteers.

  9. The Impact of Tai Chi Exercise on Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Empowerment in Heart Failure: Insights from a Qualitative Sub-Study from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Gloria Y.; Chan, Caroline W.; Wayne, Peter M.; Conboy, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To qualitatively explore perceived physical and psychosocial effects and overall patient experience associated with a 12-week tai chi (TC) intervention and an education group in a clinical trial of patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Subjects and Methods We randomized 100 patients with chronic systolic HF (NYHA Class 1–3, ejection fraction≤40%) to a 12-week group TC program or an education control. At 12-weeks, semi-structured interviews were conducted on a random subset (n = 32; n = 17 in TC, n = 15 in control), audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Two independent reviewers extracted information using grounded-theory methods for emergent themes. We explored similarities and differences in themes/sub-themes between the groups, and examined qualitative association with changes from baseline to post-intervention in previously reported quantitative measures (e.g., Minnesota Living with HF, Cardiac Exercise Self Efficacy and Profile of Mood States). Results The mean age (±SD) of participants was 68±9 years, baseline ejection fraction 29±7%, and median New York Heart Association class 2 HF. We idenitifed themes related to the patient’s experience of illness, perceptions of self, and relationship to others. Specific psychosocial and physical benefits were described. Common themes emerged from both groups including: social support and self-efficacy related to activity/exercise and diet. The tai chi group, however, also exhibited a more global empowerment and perceived control. Additional themes in TC included mindfulness/self-awareness, decreased stress reactivity, and renewed social role. These themes mirrored improvements in previously reported quantitative measures (quality-of-life, self-efficacy, and mood) in TC compared to control. Patients in TC also reported physical benefits (e.g., decreased pain, improved energy, endurance, flexibility). Conclusion Positive themes emerged from both groups, although there were qualitative differences in

  10. Adoption of a Tai Chi Intervention, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, for Fall Prevention by Rural Faith-Based Organizations, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Starcher, Rachael W.; Eicher, Jennifer L.; Wilcox, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background Translating evidence-based, community-delivered, fall-prevention exercise programs into new settings is a public health priority. Community Context Older adults (aged ≥65 y) are at high risk for falls. We conducted a community engagement project in West Virginia to evaluate the adoption of a tai chi exercise program, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, by rural faith-based organizations (FBOs) and exercise instructors by recruiting 20 FBOs and 20 or more exercise instructors and by obtaining input from key stakeholders (representatives of FBOs, community representatives, exercise instructors) regarding potential barriers and facilitators to program adoption. Methods We used both multistage, purposeful random sampling and snowball sampling to recruit FBOs and exercise instructors in 7 West Virginia counties. Two forums were held with stakeholders to identify barriers and facilitators to program adoption. We calculated separate adoption rates for organizations and exercise instructors. Outcome It took up to 3 months to recruit each FBO with an adoption rate of 94%. We made 289 telephone calls, sent 193 emails and 215 letters, distributed brochures and flyers to 69 FBOs, held 118 meetings, and made 20 trips over a period of 31 days (8,933 miles traveled). Nineteen of 22 trained exercise instructors started classes, an instructor adoption rate of 86%. Key issues regarding adoption were the age requirement for participants, trust, education, and competing priorities. Interpretation Although we had recruitment challenges, our adoption rates were similar to or higher than those reported in other studies, and the objectives of the community engagement project were met. Clustering the FBOs and having them located closer geographically to our location may have reduced our resource use, and using a recruitment coordinator from the local community may have enabled us to gain the trust of congregants and clergy support. PMID:27418214

  11. Cross-sectional comparison of executive attention function in normally aging long-term T'ai chi, meditation, and aerobic fitness practitioners versus sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Teresa D; Manselle, Wayne; Woollacott, Marjorie H

    2014-03-01

    This cross-sectional field study documented the effect of long-term t'ai chi, meditation, or aerobic exercise training versus a sedentary lifestyle on executive function. It was predicted that long-term training in t'ai chi and meditation plus exercise would produce greater benefits to executive function than aerobic exercise. T'ai chi and meditation plus exercise include mental and physical training. Fifty-four volunteers were tested: t'ai chi (n=10); meditation+exercise (n=16); aerobic exercisers (n=16); and sedentary controls (n=12). A one-factor (group), one-covariate (age) multivariate analysis of covariance was performed. Significant main effects of group and age were found (group, 67.9%, p<0.001; age, 76.3%, p=0.001). T'ai chi and meditation practitioners but not aerobic exercisers outperformed sedentary controls on percent switch costs (p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively), suggesting that there may be differential effects of training type on executive function.

  12. The Effects of Tai Chi on Peripheral Somatosensation, Balance, and Fitness in Hispanic Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot and Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavegn, Elisabeth I.; Riskowski, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and loss of somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes can increase risk of falls and disability. In nondiabetic older adult population Tai Chi has been shown to enhance balance and fitness through improvements in somatosensation and neuromuscular control, and it is unclear if Tai Chi would elicit similar benefits in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week, three-hour-per-week Tai Chi intervention on peripheral somatosensation in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants were eight Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in the Tai Chi intervention and a convenience sample of Hispanic older adults as a referent group. Baseline and postintervention assessments included ankle proprioception, foot tactile sense, plantar pressure distribution, balance, and fitness. After intervention, older adults with type 2 diabetes showed significant improvements in ankle proprioception and fitness and decreased plantar pressure in the forefoot, with no statistical effect noted in balance or tactile sensation. Study results suggest that Tai Chi may be beneficial for older adults with diabetes as it improves ankle proprioception; however, study findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample size randomized controlled trial. PMID:26600865

  13. Study design for a randomised controlled trial to explore the modality and mechanism of Tai Chi in the pulmonary rehabilitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juan-Juan; Min, Jie; Yu, Peng-Ming; McDonald, Vanessa M; Mao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is associated with significant clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been recommended by guidelines, PR with conventional exercise training has not been widely applied in the clinic because of its inherent limitations. Alternative exercise such as Tai Chi has been investigated and the results are promising. However, the strengths and weaknesses of the exercise modality of Tai Chi, conventional PR and a combination of Tai Chi and conventional PR and the possible mechanisms underlying Tai Chi exercise remain unclear. This study aims to address the above research gaps in a well-designed clinical trial. Methods and analysis This study is a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Participants with stable COPD will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of four groups receiving Tai Chi exercise, conventional PR using a total body recumbent stepper (TBRS), combined Tai Chi and TBRS, or usual care (control) in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants will perform 30 min of supervised exercise three times a week for 8 weeks; they will receive sequential follow-ups until 12 months after recruitment. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life as measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include 6 min walking distance, pulmonary function, the modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, the COPD Assessment Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, exacerbation frequency during the study period, and systemic inflammatory and immune markers. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Clinical Trial and Biomedical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (No TCM-2015-82). Written informed consent will be obtained from each participant before any procedures are performed. The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national

  14. [Effects of tai chi on health-related quality of life in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Romero Zurita, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Thai Chi is increasingly used in the field of medicine and rehabilitation as an alternative therapy. The results of this review show that older persons obtain physical and psychological benefits from this activity. These benefits are reflected in improved physical functions, reduced fear and fewer falls, which also reduce levels of depression. Furthermore, symptoms are considerably reduced in distinct groups with various diseases, thus improving health-related quality of life.

  15. Tai Chi, Cellular Inflammation, and Transcriptome Dynamics in Breast Cancer Survivors With Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Witarama, Tuff; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Nicassio, Perry; Ganz, Patricia A.; Bower, Julienne E.; Cole, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background Mind–body therapies such as Tai Chi are widely used by breast cancer survivors, yet effects on inflammation are not known. This study hypothesized that Tai Chi Chih (TCC) would reduce systemic, cellular, and genomic markers of inflammation as compared with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Methods In this randomized trial for the treatment of insomnia, 90 breast cancer survivors with insomnia were assigned to TCC or CBT-I for 2-hour sessions weekly for 3 months. At baseline and postintervention, blood samples were obtained for measurement of C-reactive protein and toll-like receptor-4–activated monocyte production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), with a random subsample (n = 48) analyzed by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Results Levels of C-reactive protein did not change in the TCC and CBT-I groups. Levels of toll-like receptor-4–activated monocyte production of IL-6 and TNF combined showed an overall reduction in TCC versus CBT-I (P < .02), with similar effects for IL-6 (P = .07) and TNF (P < .05) alone. For genome-wide transcriptional profiling of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators showed an overall reduction in TCC versus CBT-I (P = .001). TELiS promoter-based bioinformatics analyses implicated a reduction of activity of the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB, in structuring these differences. Conclusions Among breast cancer survivors with insomnia, 3 months of TCC reduced cellular inflammatory responses, and reduced expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators. Given the link between inflammation and cancer, these findings provide an evidence-based molecular framework to understand the potential salutary effects of TCC on cancer survivorship. PMID:25749595

  16. Tai Chi Exercise Increases SOD Activity and Total Antioxidant Status in Saliva and Is Linked to an Improvement of Periodontal Disease in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Monjaraz, Beatriz; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi on biological markers of oxidative stress in saliva and its relationship with periodontal disease (PD) in older adults. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 71 sedentary volunteers with PD who were divided into a control group of 34 subjects and an experimental group of 37 subjects who performed Tai Chi 5 days a week for a period of 6 months. PD status was characterized using the Periodontal Disease Index (PDI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS), and TBARS levels of both groups were measured by spectrophotometric methods. In addition, inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were measured by flow cytometry. We found a statistically significant increase in SOD activity (P < 0.001) and TAS concentration (P < 0.05), whereas levels of IL-1β were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Likewise, a statistically significant decrease in the PDI (P < 0.05) was observed in subjects who performed Tai Chi during a period of 6 months. Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are linked to the improvement of PD in older adults. PMID:24790703

  17. Effects of tai chi chuan on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults: lessons from a randomized controlled feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Karen L; Bergman, Shawn M; Collier, Scott R; Triplett, N Travis; Quin, Rebecca; Bergquist, John; Pieper, Carl F

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine feasibility and estimate the effect of a 10-week tai chi chuan (TCC) intervention on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults. Participants Seventy-five adults (18–40 years) from a predominately undergraduate midsized university. Methods This was an assessor blinded, randomized feasibility trial, and participants were randomized into one of three groups: 10 weeks of TCC meeting 2 times per week, 10 weeks of TCC with a DVD of the curriculum, and control group receiving a handout on anxiety management. Anxiety and sleep quality were assessed 4 times: baseline, 4 weeks, 10 weeks (immediate post-intervention), and 2 months post-intervention. Retention was defined as a participant attending the baseline assessment and at least one other assessment. Adherence to the intervention was set a priori as attendance at 80% of the TCC classes. Results Eighty-five percent of participants were retained during the intervention and 70% completed the 2 month follow-up assessments. To increase statistical power, the two TCC groups were combined in the analyses of anxiety and sleep quality measures. No significant changes in anxiety were found in the control group, while levels of anxiety decreased significantly over time in the two TCC groups. Sleep quality scores improved across time for all three groups, but adherent TCC participants reported greater improvement than control participants. Conclusion TCC may be an effective nonpharmaceutical means of improving anxiety and poor sleep quality in young adults. PMID:27895522

  18. Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Beholder? Aesthetic Quality versus Technical Skill in Movement Evaluation of Tai Chi

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experts to naïve practitioners in rating the beauty and the technical quality of a Tai Chi sequence observed in video-clips (of high and middle level performances). Our hypothesis are: i) movement evaluation will correlate with the level of skill expressed in the kinematics of the observed action but ii) only experts will be able to unravel the technical component from the aesthetic component of the observed action. The judgments delivered indicate that both expert and non-expert observers are able to discern a good from a mediocre performance; however, as expected, only experts discriminate the technical from the aesthetic component of the action evaluated and do this independently of the level of skill shown by the model (high or middle level performances). Furthermore, the judgments delivered were strongly related to the kinematic variables measured in the observed model, indicating that observers rely on specific movement kinematics (e.g. movement amplitude, jerk and duration) for action evaluation. These results provide evidence of the complementary functional role of visual and motor action representation in movement evaluation and underline the role of expertise in judging the aesthetic quality of movements. PMID:26047473

  19. Shoulder Mobility, Muscular Strength, and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Luk, W S; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Tsang, William W N; Chow, Lina P Y

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the shoulder mobility, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer survivors with and without Tai Chi (TC) Qigong training to those of healthy individuals and to explore the associations between shoulder impairments and QOL in breast cancer survivors with regular TC Qigong training. Methods. Eleven breast cancer survivors with regular TC Qigong training, 12 sedentary breast cancer survivors, and 16 healthy participants completed the study. Shoulder mobility and rotator muscle strength were assessed by goniometry and isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. QOL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire. Results. Goniometric measurements of the active range of motion in the flexion, abduction, and hand-behind-the-back directions were similar among the three groups. The TC Qigong-trained breast cancer survivors had significantly higher isokinetic peak torques of the shoulder rotator muscles (at 180°/s) than untrained survivors, and their isokinetic shoulder muscular strength reached the level of healthy individuals. Greater shoulder muscular strength was significantly associated with better functional wellbeing in breast cancer survivors with TC Qigong training. However, no significant between-group difference was found in FACT-B total scores. Conclusions. TC Qigong training might improve shoulder muscular strength and functional wellbeing in breast cancer survivors.

  20. Stress Management: Tai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7th ed. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2012. Yoga for health. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/yoga/introduction.htm. Accessed May 4, 2015. June 25, ...

  1. Effect of Tai Chi Exercise Combined with Mental Imagery Theory in Improving Balance in a Diabetic and Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Alsubiheen, Abdulrahman; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Balbas, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), peripheral neuropathy, affects the sensation in the feet and can increase the chance of falling. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on improving balance in people with diabetes and an age matched control group. Material/Methods Seventeen healthy subjects and 12 diabetic sedentary subjects ranging from 40–80 years of age were recruited. All subjects in both groups attended a Yang style of TC class using MI strategies, 2 sessions a week for 8 weeks. Each session was one hour long. Measures were taken using a balance platform test, an Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, a one leg standing test (OLS), functional reach test (FRT) and hemoglobin A1C. These measures were taken twice, pre and post-study, for both groups. Results Both groups experienced significant improvements in ABC, OLS, FRT (P<0.01) after completing 8 weeks of TC exercise with no significant improvement between groups. Subjects using the balance platform test demonstrated improvement in balance in all different tasks with no significant change between groups. There was no significant change in HbA1C for the diabetic group. Conclusions All results showed an improvement in balance in the diabetic and the control groups; however, no significant difference between the groups was observed. Since the DM group had more problems with balance impairment at baseline than the control, the diabetic group showed the most benefit from the TC exercise. PMID:26454826

  2. Effects of tai chi qigong on psychosocial well-being among hidden elderly, using elderly neighborhood volunteer approach: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aileen WK; Yu, Doris SF; Choi, KC

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a tai chi qigong program with the assistance of elderly neighborhood volunteers in strengthening social networks and enhancing the psychosocial well-being of hidden elderly. Patients and methods “Hidden elderly” is a term used to describe older adults who are socially isolated and refuse social participation. This pilot randomized controlled trial recruited 48 older adults aged 60 or above who did not engage in any social activity. They were randomized into tai chi qigong (n=24) and standard care control (n=24) groups. The former group underwent a three-month program of two 60-minute sessions each week, with the socially active volunteers paired up with them during practice. Standard care included regular home visits by social workers. Primary outcomes were assessed by means of the Lubben social network and De Jong Gieveld loneliness scales, and by a revised social support questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were covered by a mental health inventory and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and quality of life by using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data was collected at baseline, and at three and six months thereafter. Results The generalized estimating equations model revealed general improvement in outcomes among participants on the tai chi qigong program. In particular, participants reported a significantly greater improvement on the loneliness scale (B=−1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] −2.54 to −0.11, P=0.033) and the satisfaction component of the social support questionnaire (B=3.43, 95% CI 0.10–6.76, P=0.044) than the control group. Conclusion The pilot study confirmed that tai chi qigong with elderly neighborhood volunteers is a safe and feasible social intervention for hidden elderly. Its potential benefits in improving social and psychological health suggest the need for a full-scale randomized controlled trial to reveal its empirical effects. PMID:28115837

  3. Preliminary validation of an exercise program suitable for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism: inhibitory effects of Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise on plasma glucose elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sachina; Kagawa, Kyoko; Hori, Naohi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There is insufficient evidence related to exercise programs that are safe and efficacious for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise is an exercise program with validated safety and efficacy in improving physical function in the elderly. In this study, we investigated this program’s inhibitory effects on plasma glucose elevation when it was adapted to a pregnancy model. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve 18- to 19-year-old females without a history of pregnancy were randomly assorted into two groups: an intervention group, for which six subjects were outfitted with mock-pregnancy suits and asked to perform Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise, and a control group who did not perform exercise. The intervention group had a mean Borg Scale score of 11.1 ± 0.9 during the exercise. [Results] No significant intragroup differences were observed in fasting, baseline, or post-intervention/observation plasma glucose levels. On the other hand, the intergroup change in plasma glucose levels after intervention/observation was significant when comparing the intervention and control groups: −1.66 ± 7.0 and 9.42 ± 6.57 mg/dl, respectively. [Conclusion] Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise appears to effectively inhibit plasma glucose elevation at intensity and movement levels that can be safely applied to pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:28174463

  4. A Systems Biology Approach to Studying Tai Chi, Physiological Complexity and Healthy Aging: Design and Rationale of a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera; Costa, Madelena D; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Goldberger, Ary L; Ahn, Andrew C; Yeh, Gloria Y; Peng, C-K; Lough, Matthew; Davis, Roger B.; Quilty, Mary T; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Aging is typically associated with progressive multi-system impairment that leads to decreased physical and cognitive function and reduced adaptability to stress. Due to its capacity to characterize complex dynamics within and between physiological systems, the emerging field of complex systems biology and its array of quantitative tools show great promise for improving our understanding of aging, monitoring senescence, and providing biomarkers for evaluating novel interventions, including promising mind-body exercises, that treat age-related disease and promote healthy aging. Material and Methods An ongoing, two-arm randomized clinical trial is evaluating the potential of Tai Chi mind-body exercise to attenuate age-related loss of complexity. A total of 60 Tai Chi–naïve healthy older adults (aged 50–79) are being randomized to either six months of Tai Chi training (n=30), or to a waitlist control receiving unaltered usual medical care (n=30). Our primary outcomes are complexity-based measures of heart rate, standing postural sway and gait stride interval dynamics assessed at 3 and 6 months. Multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis are used as entropy- and fractal-based measures of complexity, respectively. Secondary outcomes include measures of physical and psychological function and tests of physiological adaptability also assessed at 3 and 6 months. Discussion Results of this study may lead to novel biomarkers that help us monitor and understand the physiological processes of aging and explore the potential benefits of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercises for healthy aging. PMID:23026349

  5. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  6. The effectiveness of Tai Chi, yoga, meditation, and Reiki healing sessions in promoting health and enhancing problem solving abilities of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Raingruber, Bonnie; Robinson, Carol

    2007-10-01

    Given the current necessity of retaining qualified nurses, a self-care program consisting of Yoga, Tai Chi, Meditation classes, and Reiki healing sessions was designed for a university-based hospital. The effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated using self-care journals and analyzed using a Heideggerian phenomenological approach. Outcomes of the self-care classes described by nurses included: (a) noticing sensations of warmth, tingling, and pulsation which were relaxing, (b) becoming aware of an enhanced problem solving ability, and (c) noticing an increased ability to focus on patient needs. Hospitals willing to invest in self-care options for nurses can anticipate patient and work related benefits.

  7. Use of pragmatic community-based interventions to enhance recruitment and adherence in a randomized trial of Tai Chi for osteopenic women: Insights from a qualitative sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mary; Fugate-Woods, Nancy; Wayne, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To qualitatively evaluate the feasibility of utilizing a pragmatic network of community-based Tai Chi schools to deliver 9-month exercise interventions to osteopenic women and to explore the impact of this design feature on facilitators and barriers to trial recruitment and participant adherence during and following the trial. Methods Within a randomized trial comparing 9 months of Tai Chi plus usual care to usual care alone for post-menopausal women with moderately low bone mass, exit interviews were conducted with 43 participants randomized to the pragmatically-delivered Tai Chi intervention. Transcripts were digitially recorded, transcribed and imported into NVivo, a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. Qualitative content analysis was used to code the data. Patterns emerging from among the codes were further examined and clustered into themes. Results Analyses revealed features of pragmatically-delivered Tai Chi programs that both facilitated and impeded study participation and/or post trial adherence. Direct facilitators included: convenience of class locations and times, alternative learning modalities, quality of teaching, community and social support and perceived health benefits. Barriers consisted primarily of time-related issues. A possible causal mechanism--self-efficacy--was also identified. Conclusions Factors related to using pragmatically-delivered intervention were beneficial in fostering both study participation and post-trial adherence to the Tai Chi programs. The qualitative sub-study was valuable for identifying these factors and a possible causal mechanism. These findings will assist in the design and conduct of future studies exploring the use of Tai Chi in fracture prevention and health-related quality of life in post-menopausal women. PMID:24845395

  8. An integrative review of Tai Chi research: an alternative form of physical activity to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wooton, Angela Conrad

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to analyze the current research literature on Tai Chi (TC) and its potential effect on balance and prevention of falls in older adults. The evidence for improving balance is somewhat conflicting because few research studies identify which balance exercises are effective. The question of how TC achieves improvements in balance remains. To promote functional independence and improve quality of life in the later years of one's life, it is important to improve balance and prevent falls in older adults. TC poses challenges related to the complexity of the practice. By reviewing the current research literature on TC focusing on balance and falls in older adults, strategies may be developed to incorporate TC to improve balance and modify the known risk factors for falling. This article also discusses potential applications and limitations of the current research.

  9. Evaluation of the Sustaining Effects of Tai Chi Qigong in the Sixth Month in Promoting Psychosocial Health in COPD Patients: A Single-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Albert; Lee, Diana T. F.; Sit, Janet W. H.; Chair, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the sustaining effects of Tai Chi Qigong (TCQ) in improving the psychosocial health in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in the sixth month. Background. COPD affects both physical and emotional aspects of life. Measures to minimize patients' suffering need to be implemented. Methods. 206 COPD patients were randomly assigned into three groups: TCQ group, exercise group, and control group. The TCQ group completed a three-month TCQ program, the exercise group practiced breathing and walking exercise, and the control group received usual care. Results. Significant group-by-time interactions in quality of life (QOL) using St. George's respiratory questionnaire (P = 0.002) and the perceived social support from friends using multidimensional scale of perceived social support (P = 0.04) were noted. Improvements were observed in the TCQ group only. Conclusions. TCQ has sustaining effects in improving psychosocial health; it is also a useful and appropriate exercise for COPD patients. PMID:24282383

  10. A Supplemental Report to a Randomized Cluster Trial of a 20-Week Sun-Style Tai Chi for Osteoarthritic Knee Pain in Elders with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pao-Feng; Chang, Jason Y.; Beck, Cornelia; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Keefe, Francis J.; Rosengren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Objective This was a secondary data analysis of a cluster-randomized clinical trial that tested the efficacy of a 20-week Sun-style Tai Chi (TC) program in reducing pain in community-dwelling elders with cognitive impairment and knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study also examined whether elders’ level of cognitive function was related to the outcomes of the TC program. Method Elders (N=55) were recruited from 8 study sites. Each site was randomly assigned to participate in either a 20-week TC or an education program. Verbal report of pain was measured by a Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS) at Weeks 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 (designated as Times 1-6). Pain behaviors and analgesic intake were also recorded at Times 1-6. Results At post-test, scores on the VDS and observed pain behaviors were significantly better in the TC group than in the control group (p=.008-.048). The beneficial effects of TC were not associated with cognitive ability. Conclusion These results suggest that TC can be used as an adjunct to pharmacological intervention to relieve OA pain in elders with cognitive impairment. PMID:26275650

  11. Tai Chi Can Improve Postural Stability as Measured by Resistance to Perturbation Related to Upper Limb Movement among Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jiahao; Liu, Cuixian; Zhang, Shuqi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Tai Chi (TC) training on postural control when upright standing was perturbed by upper limb movement. Methods. Three groups, TC, Brisk walk (BW), and sedentary (SE), of thirty-six participants aged from 65 to 75 years were recruited from local community centers. Participants performed static balance task (quiet standing for 30 s with eyes open and closed) and fitting task (two different reaching distances X three different opening sizes to fit objects through). During tasks, the COP data was recorded while standing on the force plate. Criteria measures calculated from COP data were the maximum displacement in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions, the 95% confidence ellipse area (95% area), and the mean velocity. Results. No significant effect was observed in the static balance task. For fitting tasks, the group effect was observed in all directions on COP 95% area (p < 0.05) and the TC group showed reduced area. The tests of subject contrasts showed significant trends for reaching different distances and fitting different openings conditions in all directions, the 95% area, and the mean velocity (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Compared to the other two groups, long-term TC exercise helps in reducing the effects of upper body perturbation as measured by posture sway. PMID:28042306

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Tai Chi Reverse Cellular and Genomic Markers of Inflammation in Late Life Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Witarama, Tuff; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Nicassio, Perry; Bootzin, Richard; Cole, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is associated with activation of systemic and cellular inflammation, as well as pro-inflammatory transcriptional profiles in circulating leukocytes. Whether treatments that target insomnia-related complaints might reverse these markers of inflammation in older adults with insomnia is not known. Methods In this randomized trial, 123 older adults with insomnia were randomly assigned to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), tai chi chih (TCC), or sleep seminar education active control condition (SS) for two hour sessions weekly over 4 months with follow-up at 7- and 16-months. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP) at baseline, month 4 and 16, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4)-activated monocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines at baseline, month 2, 4, 7, and 16, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling at baseline and month 4. Results As compared to SS active control, CBT-I reduced levels of CRP (month 4, 16, P’s<0.05), monocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines (month 2 only, P<0.05), and pro-inflammatory gene expression (month 4, P<0.01). TCC marginally reduced CRP (month 4, P=0.06), and significantly reduced monocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines (month 2, 4, 7, 16, all P’s<0.05) and proinflammatory gene expression (month 4, P<0.001). In CBT and TCC, TELIS promoter-based bioinformatics analyses indicated reduced activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and AP1. Conclusions Among older adults with insomnia, CBT-I reduced systemic inflammation, TCC reduced cellular inflammatory responses, and both treatments reduced expression of genes encoding proinflammatory mediators. The findings provide an evidence-based molecular framework to understand the potential salutary effects of insomnia treatment on inflammation, with implications for inflammatory disease risk. PMID:25748580

  13. A Pilot Cluster Randomized Trial of a 20-Week Tai Chi Program in Elders With Cognitive Impairment and Osteoarthritic Knee: Effects on Pain and Other Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pao-Feng; Chang, Jason Y.; Beck, Cornelia; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Keefe, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Because Tai Chi (TC) is beneficial to elders without cognitive impairment (CI), it also may benefit elders with CI. But elders with CI have generally been excluded from TC studies because many measurement tools require verbal reports and some elders with CI are unable to provide. Objectives To tested the efficacy of a TC program in improving pain and other health outcomes in community-dwelling elders with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and CI. Methods This pilot cluster-randomized trial was conducted between January 2008 and June 2010 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01528566). The TC group attended Sun style TC classes, three sessions a week for 20 weeks; the control group attended classes providing health and cultural information for the same length of time. Measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, physical function and stiffness subscales, the Get Up and Go test, the Sit-to-Stand test and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), administered at baseline, every four weeks during the intervention and at the end of the study (post-test). Results Eight sites participated in either the TC group (four sites, 28 participants) or the control group (four sites, 27 participants). The WOMAC pain (P=0.006) and stiffness scores (P=0.010) differed significantly between the two groups at post-test, whereas differences between the two groups in the WOMAC physical function score (P=0.071) and the MMSE (P=0.096) showed borderline significance at the post-test. WOMAC pain (P=0.001), physical function (P=0.021) and stiffness (P≤0.001) scores improved significantly more over time in the TC group than in controls. No adverse events were found in either group. Conclusion Practicing TC can be efficacious in reducing pain and stiffness in elders with knee OA and CI. PMID:23017610

  14. Tai chi qigong as a means to improve night-time sleep quality among older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Aileen WK; Yu, Doris SF; Choi, KC; Lee, Diana TF; Sit, Janet WH; Chan, Helen YL

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Age-related cognitivee decline is a growing public health concern worldwide. More than a quarter of adults with cognitive impairment experience sleep disturbance. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of tai chi qigong (TCQ) on improving the night-time sleep quality of older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants Older adults with cognitive impairment who complain of sleep disturbance. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two groups. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from two district elderly community centers and randomly assigned to either the TCQ group (n=27) or the control group (n=25). The intervention group received TCQ training consisting of two 60-minute sessions each week for 2 months. The control group was advised to maintain their usual activities. Sleep quality was measured by the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Quality of life was measured by Short-form 12, cognitive functions measured by mini-mental state examination, and subjective memory deficits measured by the memory inventory for Chinese. Results Data were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Significant results were noted at 6 months in the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score (P=0.004), sleep duration (P=0.003), habitual sleep efficiency (P=0.002), and the Short-form 12 mental health component (P<0.001). The TCQ participants reported better sleep quality and a better (quality of life) mental health component than the control group. Conclusion TCQ can be considered a useful nonpharmacological approach for improving sleep quality in older adults with cognitive impairment. Clinical trial registration CUHK_CCT00448 (https://www2.ccrb.cuhk.edu.hk/registry/public/287). PMID:27698557

  15. Complexity-Based Measures Inform Effects of Tai Chi Training on Standing Postural Control: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Gow, Brian J.; Costa, Madalena D.; Peng, C.-K.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Roger B.; Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Lough, Matthew; Novak, Vera; Yeh, Gloria Y.; Ahn, Andrew C.; Macklin, Eric A.; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminished control of standing balance, traditionally indicated by greater postural sway magnitude and speed, is associated with falls in older adults. Tai Chi (TC) is a multisystem intervention that reduces fall risk, yet its impact on sway measures vary considerably. We hypothesized that TC improves the integrated function of multiple control systems influencing balance, quantifiable by the multi-scale “complexity” of postural sway fluctuations. Objectives To evaluate both traditional and complexity-based measures of sway to characterize the short- and potential long-term effects of TC training on postural control and the relationships between sway measures and physical function in healthy older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comparison of standing postural sway in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience) adults. TC-naïve participants then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Postural sway was assessed before and after the training during standing on a force-plate with eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC). Anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) sway speed, magnitude, and complexity (quantified by multiscale entropy) were calculated. Single-legged standing time and Timed-Up–and-Go tests characterized physical function. Results At baseline, compared to TC-naïve adults (n = 60, age 64.5±7.5 yrs), TC-experts (n = 27, age 62.8±7.5 yrs) exhibited greater complexity of sway in the AP EC (P = 0.023), ML EO (P<0.001), and ML EC (P<0.001) conditions. Traditional measures of sway speed and magnitude were not significantly lower among TC-experts. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant effects of short-term TC training; however, increases in AP EC and ML EC complexity amongst those randomized to TC were positively correlated with practice hours (P = 0.044, P = 0.018). Long- and short-term TC training were positively associated with physical function

  16. How to Integrate Tai Ji Quan into Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei

    2008-01-01

    Tai ji quan, also known as "tai chi," is an ancient Chinese exercise characterized by soft, slow, and meditative movements. It consists of a set of continuous, evenly paced, carefully choreographed, but natural, body shifts. "Tai ji" is an ancient Chinese philosophy, while "tai ji quan" refers to a type of physical activity based on tai ji…

  17. Tai Chi-based exercise program provided via telerehabilitation compared to home visits in a post-stroke population who have returned home without intensive rehabilitation: study protocol for a randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of strokes in industrialized nations is on the rise, particularly in the older population. In Canada, a minority of individuals who have had a stroke actually receive intensive rehabilitation because most stroke patients do not have access to services or because their motor recovery was judged adequate to return home. Thus, there is a considerable need to organize home-based rehabilitation services for everyone who has had a stroke. To meet this demand, telerehabilitation, particularly from a service center to the patient’s home, is a promising alternative approach that can help improve access to rehabilitation services once patients are discharged home. Methods/Design This non-inferiority study will include patients who have returned home post-stroke without requiring intensive rehabilitation. To be included in the study, participants will: 1) not be referred to an Intensive Functional Rehabilitation Unit, 2) have a Rankin score of 2 or 3, and 3) have a balance problem (Berg Balance Scale score between 46 and 54). Participants will be randomly assigned to either the teletreatment group or the home visits group. Except for the delivery mode, the intervention will be the same for both groups, that is, a personalized Tai Chi-based exercise program conducted by a trained physiotherapist (45-minute session twice a week for eight consecutive weeks). The main objective of this research is to test the non-inferiority of a Tai Chi-based exercise program provided via telerehabilitation compared to the same program provided in person at home in terms of effectiveness for retraining balance in individuals who have had a stroke but do not require intensive functional rehabilitation. The main outcome of this study is balance and mobility measured with the Community Balance and Mobility Scale. Secondary outcomes include physical and psychological capacities related to balance and mobility, participants’ quality of life, satisfaction with services

  18. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N.; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. Design: A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT) Participants: Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts Methods: A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Results: TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365 PMID:26331103

  19. Acute effects of tai chi exercise on cardiac autonomic function in healthy adults with tai chi experience.

    PubMed

    Kalsaria, Pratik; Li, Hongtao; Waite, Gabi N; Moga, Margaret M; Kingsley, Derek J; Geib, Roy W

    2012-01-01

    About 1 in 3 American adults have cardiovascular disease associated with risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and stress. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is considered a non-invasive procedure for analyzing cardiovascular autonomic influence. Depressed HRV has been linked to abnormal cardiovascular autonomic modulation.

  20. Mother-Infant Interaction and Cognitive Development in the 12-Week-Old Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

    This study explored the relationship between the mother-infant interaction and the concurrent perceptual-cognitive and intellectual status of the infant. One hundred and eight-nine 12-week-old infants were given a battery of perceptual-cognitive tasks, including the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales, the Corman-Escalona Scales…

  1. Does 12-Week Latin Dance Training Affect the Self-Confidence of the University Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meric, Odemis; Ilhan, Adilogullari

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to investigate the effect of 12-week Latin dance training on the self-confidence of university students. This research was conducted with a total of 60 students, including 30 students as control and 30 students as the working group. A 33-item self-confidence scale developed by Akin (2007) was applied to both control…

  2. Achondrogenesis type 2 diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Soothill, P W; Vuthiwong, C; Rees, H

    1993-06-01

    Ultrasound examination at 12 weeks' gestation revealed severe generalised subcutaneous oedema in a pregnancy at risk for achondrogenesis type II. Transvaginal scanning confirmed the oedema and suggested abnormal limb development. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination after transvaginal termination.

  3. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  4. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  5. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly.

  6. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = −0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults. PMID:28382004

  7. Chronic flexibility improvement after 12 week of stretching program utilizing the ACSM recommendations: hamstring flexibility.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Baranda, P; Ayala, F

    2010-06-01

    The ACSM flexibility training recommendations emphasize proper stretching of muscles supporting the major joints, but there is a little evidence to support this recommendation in terms of effectiveness, and which stretching parameters (technique and single stretch duration) are more adequate. A randomized controlled clinical trial design was use to investigate whether the ACSM flexibility training recommendation parameters improve hip flexion range of motion. A total of 173 subjects, 122 men (21.3+/-2.5 years; 176.33+/-8.35 cm; 74.42+/-10.80 kg) and 51 women (20.7+/-1.6 years; 163.43+/-6.57 cm; 60.12+/-7.88 kg), classified as recreationally active young adult university students were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: 1 control group (no stretching) or 1 of 6 stretching groups. All stretching groups performed 12 weeks of flexibility training with a consistent stretch daily dose (180 s) and frequency (3 days per week) parameters and different stretch technique (passive or active) and single stretch duration (15, 30, or 45 s). Hip flexion passive range of motion (PROM) was determined through the bilateral straight-leg raise test before, during (at 4 and 8 weeks), and after the program (12 weeks). All stretching groups performed hip flexion PROM after flexibility training. A significant improvement was identified in mean PROM for each stretching group, but no significant differences were found between stretch technique and single stretch duration (p>0.05). The control group's mean PROM decreased (Delta PROM: -0.08 degrees, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-2.3 to 5.3), whereas all stretching groups increased PROM (Delta PROM: 15.14 degrees, 95% CI=10.19 to 23.56) in hip flexion after 12 weeks of stretching (p<0.05). The present study suggests that the current ACSM flexibility training recommendations are effective for improving hip flexion ROM in recreationally active young adults.

  8. 12 weeks of simulated barefoot running changes foot-strike patterns in female runners.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, C; Fleming, N; Donne, B; Blanksby, B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of a transition program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinematics and foot-strike patterns, female recreational athletes (n=9, age 29 ± 3 yrs) without SBR experience gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers SBR footwear over 12 weeks. Matched controls (n=10, age 30 ± 4 yrs) continued running in standard footwear. A 3-D motion analysis of treadmill running at 12 km/h(-1) was performed by both groups, barefoot and shod, pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention data indicated a more-forefoot strike pattern in the SBR group compared to controls; both running barefoot (P>0.05), and shod (P<0.001). When assessed barefoot, there were significant kinematic differences across time in the SBR group for ankle flexion angle at toe-off (P<0.01). When assessed shod, significant kinematic changes occurred across time, for ankle flexion angles at foot-strike (P<0.001) and toe-off (P<0.01), and for range of motion (ROM) in the absorptive phase of stance (P<0.01). A knee effect was recorded in the SBR group for flexion ROM in the absorptive phase of stance (P<0.05). No significant changes occurred in controls. Therefore, a 12-week transition program in SBR could assist athletes seeking a more-forefoot strike pattern and "barefoot" kinematics, regardless of preferred footwear.

  9. Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

    2014-07-01

    Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800 μg and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5 years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18 weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks.

  10. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity.

    PubMed

    Mackey, A L; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T G; Doessing, S; Kadi, F; Kjaer, M

    2011-12-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry. A significant main effect of time was observed (P<0.001) for the number of CD56+ cells per fiber (L: from 0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.13 ± 0.03; H: from 0.12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells reveals a new aspect of myogenic precursor cell activation and suggests that satellite cells may play a role in skeletal muscle adaptation over a broad physiological range.

  11. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  12. [Uterine rupture in a patient with bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea: about a case].

    PubMed

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea.

  13. Do 12-week yoga program influence respiratory function of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-09-29

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women.

  14. Do 12-Week Yoga Program Influence Respiratory Function of Elderly Women?

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-01-01

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  15. Improvements in metabolic and neuromuscular fitness after 12-week bodypump® training.

    PubMed

    Greco, Camila C; Oliveira, Anderson S; Pereira, Marcelo P; Figueira, Tiago R; Ruas, Vinícius D; Gonçalves, Mauro; Denadai, Benedito S

    2011-12-01

    Greco, CC, Oliveira, AS, Pereira, MP, Figueira, TR, Ruas, VD, Gonçalves, M, and Denadai, BS. Improvements in metabolic and neuromuscular fitness after 12-week Bodypump® training. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3422-3431, 2011-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week group fitness training program (Bodypump®) on anthropometry, muscle strength, and aerobic fitness. Nineteen women (21.4 ± 2.0 years old) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) and to a control group (n = 10). We show that this training program improved the 1 repetition maximum squats by 33.1% (p < 0.001) and the maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) by 13.6% (p < 0.05). Additionally, decreases in knee extensor electromyographic activity during the MVC (30%, p < 0.01) and during the squats (15%, p < 0.05) and lunges of a simulated Bodypump® session were observed after the training. Concomitantly, blood lactate and heart rate after squats of a simulated Bodypump® session were decreased by 33 and 7% (p < 0.05), respectively. Body mass, body fat, and the running velocity at the onset of blood lactate accumulation did not change significantly in response to this training program. We conclude that Bodypump® training improves muscular strength and decreases metabolic stress during lower limb exercises. However, no significant improvements in running aerobic fitness nor in body mass and body fat were observed. Practitioners of Bodypump® training may benefit from the increased muscular strength and the decreased muscular fatigability during exercise tasks whose motor patterns are related to those involved in this training program. However, these functional gains do not seem to be transferable into running aerobic fitness.

  16. Better understanding of homologous recombination through a 12-week laboratory course for undergraduates majoring in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Hu, Xiaomei; Hu, Fuquan; Rao, Xiancai

    2017-03-17

    Homologous recombination, a central concept in biology, is defined as the exchange of DNA strands between two similar or identical nucleotide sequences. Unfortunately, undergraduate students majoring in biotechnology often experience difficulties in understanding the molecular basis of homologous recombination. In this study, we developed and implemented a 12-week laboratory course for biotechnology undergraduates in which gene targeting in Streptococcus suis was used to facilitate their understanding of the basic concept and process of homologous recombination. Students worked in teams of two to select a gene of interest to create a knockout mutant using methods that relied on homologous recombination. By integrating abstract knowledge and practice in the process of scientific research, students gained hands-on experience in molecular biology techniques while learning about the principle and process of homologous recombination. The learning outcomes and survey-based assessment demonstrated that students substantially enhanced their understanding of how homologous recombination could be used to study gene function. Overall, the course was very effective for helping biotechnology undergraduates learn the theory and application of homologous recombination, while also yielding positive effects in developing confidence and scientific skills for future work in research. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  17. Effects of a 12-week physical activities programme on sleep in female university students.

    PubMed

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Watier, Timothée; Honn, Kimberly; Pezé, Thierry; Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sleep is known to negatively affect adolescent's health and the links between regular physical activity and sleep are unclear.This pilot study investigated whether the regular practice of physical activities among sedentary female students would improve their sleep. Nineteen female students, identified as sedentary and having poor subjective sleep quality were assigned in two groups to a 12-week university physical activities programme in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organisation (N = 10) or to a control condition (N = 9). Sleep was assessed with actigraphy before and after the study and with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality 15 Index (PSQI) at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. The intensity of physical activities was controlled by heart rate monitor. The analysis showed that sleep quality in the physical activities group improved, with the mean ± SD PSQI score decreasing from 9.1 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 2.0. Despite some limitations, these pilot data indicate that a physical activities programme is feasible to implement in students, and that participation in such a programme improves sleep in 18- 24 -year-old female adolescents. Further potential benefits remain to be investigated in follow-up research.

  18. Trazodone for the treatment of fibromyalgia: an open-label, 12-week study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite its frequent use as a hypnotic, trazodone has not been systematically assessed in fibromyalgia patients. In the present study have we evaluated the potential effectiveness and tolerability of trazodone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Methods A flexible dose of trazodone (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Secondary outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement Scale (PGI). Trazodone's emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test. Results Trazodone markedly improved sleep quality, with large effect sizes in total PSQI score as well on sleep quality, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Significant improvement, although with moderate effect sizes, were also observed in total FIQ scores, anxiety and depression scores (both HADS and BDI), and pain interference with daily activities. Unexpectedly, the most frequent and severe side effect associated with trazodone in our sample was tachycardia, which was reported by 14 (21.2%) patients. Conclusions In doses higher than those usually prescribed as hypnotic, the utility of trazodone in fibromyalgia management surpasses its hypnotic activity. However, the emergence of tachycardia should be closely monitored. Trial registration This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT-00791739. PMID:20831796

  19. Exercise Training in Treatment and Rehabilitation of Hip Osteoarthritis: A 12-Week Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Radhika; Karinkanta, Saija; Tokola, Kari; Kannus, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is one of the major causes of pain and disability in the older population. Although exercise is an effective treatment for knee OA, there is lack of evidence regarding hip OA. The aim of this trial was to test the safety and feasibility of a specifically designed exercise program in relieving hip pain and improving function in hip OA participants and to evaluate various methods to measure changes in their physical functioning. Materials and Methods. 13 women aged ≥ 65 years with hip OA were recruited in this 12-week pilot study. Results. Pain declined significantly over 30% from baseline, and joint function and health-related quality of life improved slightly. Objective assessment of physical functioning showed statistically significant improvement in the maximal isometric leg extensor strength by 20% and in the hip extension range of motion by 30%. Conclusions. The exercise program was found to be safe and feasible. The present evidence indicates that the exercise program is effective in the short term. However, adequate powered RCTs are needed to determine effects of long-term exercise therapy on pain and progression of hip OA. PMID:28116214

  20. Effects of 12-week combined exercise therapy on oxidative stress in female fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Sarıfakıoğlu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Yıldırım; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Savaş; Kızıler, Ali Rıza

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load.

  1. Effect of a 12-week aerobic training program on perceptual and affective responses in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Luís Alberto Garcia; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Freitas, Rosemari Queiroz; Henrique de Souza, Carlos; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to observe the effect of self-selected intensity or imposed intensity during aerobic training on perceptual and affective responses in obese women. [Subjects] The study included 26 obese women aged 30–60 years. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with 13 subjects in each group: self-selected intensity and imposed intensity (10% above ventilatory threshold) groups. All subjects completed an intervention program that lasted 12 weeks, with three exercise sessions a week. The rating of perceived exertion and affective responses (Feeling Scale and Felt Arousal Scale) were monitored in the first, sixth, and twelfth weeks. [Results] Significant differences were observed between groups in heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. The affective responses during exercise were more negative in the imposed intensity group. [Conclusion] Use of a self-selected exercise intensity can promote smaller negative affective responses during exercise and provide a sufficient stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26311958

  2. Mechanisms used to increase peak propulsive force following 12-weeks of gait training in individuals poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, HaoYuan; Knarr, Brian A.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Higginson, Jill S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Current rehabilitation efforts for individuals poststroke focus on increasing walking speed because it is a predictor of community ambulation and participation. Greater propulsive force is required to increase walking speed. Previous studies have identified that trailing limb angle (TLA) and ankle moment are key factors to increases in propulsive force during gait. However, no studies have determined the relative contribution of these two factors to increase propulsive force following intervention. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relative contribution of ankle moment and TLA to increases in propulsive force following 12-weeks of gait training for individuals poststroke. Forty-five participants were assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: training at self-selected speeds (SS), at fastest comfortable speeds (Fast), and Fast with functional electrical stimulation (FastFES). For participants who gained paretic propulsive force following training, a biomechanical-based model previously developed for individuals poststroke was used to calculate the relative contributions of ankle moment and TLA. A two-way, mixed-model design, analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline walking speed was performed to analyze changes in TLA and ankle moment across groups. The model showed that TLA was the major contributor to increases in propulsive force following training. Although the paretic TLA increased from pre-training to post-training, no differences were observed between groups. In contrast, increases in paretic ankle moment were observed only in the FastFES group. Our findings suggested that specific targeting may be needed to increase ankle moment. PMID:26776931

  3. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control.

  4. Agomelatine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonio; Micò, Umberto; Lorusso, Simona; Cogliandro, Nadia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Caminiti, Maurizio; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2013-08-01

    Pharmacological therapy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is actually unsatisfactory; analgetic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not very effective. On the other hand, it is opportune to underline that antidepressant drugs produce positive response on pain in patients with FMS. Furthermore, many studies showed that using variable doses of melatonin (3-6 mg/d) in subjects affected from FMS had significantly been effective on pain, sleep, daytime fatigue, and depression. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of agomelatine on depression, anxiety, cognition, and pain in a sample of drug-free FMS patients. Agomelatine was administered at the single daily dose of 25 mg/d to 15 fibromyalgia "drug-free" female subjects during 12 weeks. Outcome measures included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Visual Analog Scale of Pain, the Quality of Life Index, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Verbal Fluency Task-Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and the Stroop Color-Word Test. Treatment with agomelatine significantly improved depression, anxiety, and pain in patients with FMS. Regarding executive/cognitive symptoms, treatment with agomelatine did not have a significant impact on the explored neuropsychological domains, although there was a trend toward the improvement of performances. The findings showed that agomelatine was effective and well tolerated in patients with FMS. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the role of agomelatine as a potential pharmacological strategy for the treatment of FMS.

  5. Obituary: Chi Yuan (1937-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Paul

    2011-12-01

    is flourishing in Taiwan, in no small measure because of his efforts. Chi Yuan was also a scholar in Chinese history, well known for his calligraphy, and a passionate leader of the Tiao Yu Tai Islands movement in the early 1970s on the territorial integrity of China. He was a gourmand and a gourmet. He was a man of principle and integrity. He is greatly missed by his many friends and colleagues, both inside and outside of astronomy and physics.

  6. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. Objective The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. Methods A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Results Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow

  7. Light and maternal influence in the entrainment of activity circadian rhythm in infants 4-12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of light and maternal activity on early infant activity rhythm were studied in 43 healthy, maternal-infant pairs. Aims included description of infant and maternal circadian rhythm of environmental light, assessing relations among of activity and light circadian rhythm parameters, and exploring the influence of light on infant activity independent of maternal activity. Three-day light and activity records were obtained using actigraphy monitors at infant ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Circadian rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, rhythm center, and regularity were determined using cosinor and nonparametric circadian rhythm analyses (NPCRA). All maternal and infant circadian parameters for light were highly correlated. When maternal activity was controlled, the partial correlations between infant activity and light rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, and rhythm center demonstrated significant relation (r = .338 to .662) at infant age 12 weeks, suggesting entrainment. In contrast, when maternal light was controlled there was significant relation between maternal and infant activity rhythm (r = 0.470, 0.500, and 0.638 at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) suggesting the influence of maternal-infant interaction independent of photo entrainment of cycle timing over the first 12 weeks of life. Both light and maternal activity may offer avenues for shaping infant activity rhythm during early infancy.

  8. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  9. Effect of 12 weeks of yoga training on the somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the practice of yoga reduces perceived stress and negative feelings and that it improves psychological symptoms. Our previous study also suggested that long-term yoga training improves stress-related psychological symptoms such as anxiety and anger. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of yoga practice on somatization, the most common stress-related physical symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. We performed a prospective, single arm study to examine the beneficial effects of 12 weeks of yoga training on somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. Methods We recruited healthy women who had no experience with yoga. The data of 24 participants who were followed during 12 weeks of yoga training were analyzed. Somatization and psychological symptoms were assessed before and after 12 weeks of yoga training using the Profile of Mood State (POMS) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaires. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), biopyrrin, and cortisol levels were measured as stress-related biomarkers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the stress-related biomarkers and the scores of questionnaires before and after 12 weeks of yoga training. Results After 12 weeks of yoga training, all negative subscale scores (tension-anxiety, depression, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion) from the POMS and somatization, anxiety, depression, and hostility from the SCL-90-R were significantly decreased compared with those before starting yoga training. Contrary to our expectation, the urinary 8-OHdG concentration after 12 weeks of yoga training showed a significant increase compared with that before starting yoga training. No significant changes were observed in the levels of urinary biopyrrin and cortisol after the 12 weeks of yoga training. Conclusions Yoga training has the potential to reduce the somatization score and the scores related to mental health

  10. Management of osteoarthritis (OA) with the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia): a 12-week registry.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Hu, S; Ippolito, E

    2015-10-22

    This registry study assessed the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia extract in capsules) in the management of symptoms associated to osteoarthritis (OA) also managed with the 'standard management' (SM) in comparison with a group of patients managed only with SM. The 12- week registry included patients with symptomatic knee arthrosis. They were able to walk on a treadmill for a walking test and to complete the WOMAC questionnaire.

  11. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students. PMID:27630436

  12. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  13. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

  14. The Effects of a 12-Week Faculty and Staff Exercise Program on Health-Related Variables in a University Setting.

    PubMed

    Rebold, Michael J; Kobak, Mallory S; Peroutky, Kylene; Glickman, Ellen L

    The obesity epidemic has grown in the past decade due to physical inactivity (i.e., having a sedentary job) and an increase in caloric intake. This problem combined with the reluctance of many faculty and staff members exercising in the same environment as student's presents a unique challenge in an academic setting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12-week exercise program focused toward the faculty and staff in improving several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. Fifty-seven faculty and staff participated in the current study. Participants engaged in a variety of exercise classes taught by certified instructors three days a week for 12-weeks. Paired samples t-tests illustrated a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in body mass and significant (p ≤ 0.001) improvements in curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. This data demonstrates that a 12-week faculty and staff exercise program has the potential to improve performance in several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. The ability of this program to improve health-related variables and possibly delay or prevent the development of overweight and/or obesity, sarcopenia, and other chronic diseases is encouraging.

  15. LA Sprouts: A 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking randomized control trial improves determinants of dietary behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jaimie N; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Gatto, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of an exploratory 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening RCT (“LA Sprouts”) on preference for fruit and vegetables (FV); willingness to try FV; identification of FV; self-efficacy to garden/eat/cook FV; motivation to garden/eat/cook FV; attitudes towards FV; nutrition and gardening knowledge; and home gardening habits. Design and Participants Four elementary schools with 304 predominately Hispanic/Latino 3rd–5th grade students were randomized to either the LA Sprouts (n=167 students) or Control group (n=137 students). LA Sprouts participants received 12 weeks of weekly 90-minute culturally tailored gardening, nutrition, and cooking classes after school. Questionnaire data examining dietary determinants were obtained at baseline and post-intervention. Results After the 12-week program, LA Sprouts participants compared with controls improved scores for identification of vegetables (+11% vs. +5%; P=.001), nutrition and gardening knowledge (+14.5% vs. −5.0%; P =.003), and were more likely to garden at home (+7.5% vs. −4.4%; P=.003). Conclusions The LA Sprouts program positively impacted a number of determinants of dietary behaviors, which suggest possible mechanisms by which gardening and nutrition education act to improve dietary intake and health outcomes. PMID:26453367

  16. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β 2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%-8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6-12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6-12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6-12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks.

  17. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  18. Effects of 12-week proprioception training program on postural stability, gait, and balance in older adults: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Caballero-Martínez, Isabel; Alvarez, Pablo J; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week-specific proprioceptive training program on postural stability, gait, balance, and fall prevention in adults older than 65 years. The present study was a controlled clinical trial. Forty-four community dwelling elderly subjects (61-90 years; mean age, 78.07 ± 5.7 years) divided into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 24) groups. The participants performed the Berg balance test before and after the training program, and we assessed participants' gait, balance, and the risk of falling, using the Tinetti scale. Medial-lateral plane and anterior-posterior plane displacements of the center of pressure, Sway area, length and speed, and the Romberg quotient about surface, speed, and distance were calculated in static posturography analysis (EPS pressure platform) under 2 conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. After a first clinical evaluation, patients were submitted to 12 weeks proprioception training program, 2 sessions of 50 minutes every week. This program includes 6 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to program proprioceptive training. The training program improved postural balance of older adults in mediolateral plane with eyes open (p < 0.05) and anterior-posterior plane with eyes closed (p < 0.01). Significant improvements were observed in Romberg quotient about surface (p < 0.05) and speed (p < 0.01) but not about distance (p > 0.05). After proprioception training, gait (Tinetti), and balance (Berg) test scores improved 14.66% and 11.47% respectively. These results show that 12 weeks proprioception training program in older adults is effective in postural stability, static, and dynamic balance and could lead to an improvement in gait and balance capacity, and to a decrease in the risk of falling in adults aged 65 years and older.

  19. Turkish 12 Week Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This audiolingual beginner's course has been prepared for the Defense Language Institute intensive program in modern spoken Turkish. The course, consisting of six volumes of basic text in 55 units begins with an introductory section which presents the linguistic background, phonology, and distinguishing features of Turkish. The lesson format…

  20. Self-presentation in exercise: changes over a 12-week cardiovascular programme for overweight and obese sedentary females.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin S; Hall, Craig R; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2013-01-01

    Self-presentational concerns, shown to influence exercise-related cognitions and behaviours, are evaluated frequently in the absence of exercise or following a single bout of physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally, the extent to which participating in a structured 12-week cardiovascular exercise intervention elicited changes in self-presentational efficacy expectancy (SPEE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). Participants were 80 sedentary women with overweight or obesity (mean body mass index 29.02 kg/m(2), SD=4.71) between the ages of 19 and 45 wanting to begin an exercise programme (mean age 33.4 years, SD=7.6). The Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) were completed by each participant prior to commencing the study, and at the 6- and 12-week time points. For those who completed the programme, repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant increases in SPEE between baseline and week 6 (P<0.001, η(2)=0.37), and week 6 to 12 (P<0.05, η(2)=0.10), while SPA decreased significantly between baseline and week 6 (P<0.01, η(2)=0.16). Bivariate correlation analyses revealed that length of participation in the study was positively related to SPEE and negatively related to SPA. Implications of focusing on these variables within a physical activity intervention are discussed with respect to exercise behaviour, programme development and adherence.

  1. Camp Hope: Integrating Tai Chi and Humanbecoming in a Camp for Children.

    PubMed

    Delis, Pamela Coombs; Leger, Robin R; Longton, Fran; Chandler, David Lynn

    2015-10-01

    This article is about Camp Hope, a two-week summer day program for children age 6-12 from low income families and violent neighborhoods and for children who are struggling academically or identified as having behavioral health issues. The camp is operated by House of Peace and Education (HOPE) a 501(c)(3) nonprofit company that began in 1996. The program is designed to offer enrichment activities in a caring community for young children. The theoretical framework behind the vision and policies is Parse's humanbecoming paradigm. In particular, the camp administrators and staff try to see all persons as co-creating of their everchanging humanuniverse process.

  2. Wheelchair Tai Chi as a Therapeutic Exercise for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yong Tai; Chang, Li-Shan; Chen, Shihui; Zhong, Yaping; Yang, Yi; Li, Zhanghua; Madison, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) rarely participate in health-promotion programs or wellness screenings due to the lack of accessibility, adaptations, and tertiary healthcare providers. An unconditioned body is more prone to suffer injury and is at risk for more severe health problems than a conditioned one. As is common in individuals…

  3. Balance Performance in Irradiated Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Louisa M Y; Tsang, William W N; Leung, Joyce C Y; Charm, Caroline Y C; Luk, W S; Chow, Lina P Y; Ng, Shamay S M

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the one-leg-stance time and the six-minute walk distance among TC Qigong-trained NPC survivors, untrained NPC survivors, and healthy individuals. Twenty-five survivors of NPC with TC Qigong experience, 27 survivors of NPC without TC Qigong experience, and 68 healthy individuals formed the NPC-TC Qigong group, NPC-control group, and healthy-control group, respectively. The one-leg-stance (OLS) timed test was conducted to assess the single-leg standing balance performance of the participants in four conditions: (1) standing on a stable surface with eyes open, (2) standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (3) standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, and (4) standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to determine the functional balance performance of the participants. Results showed that the NPC-control group had a shorter OLS time in all of the visual and supporting surface conditions than the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The OLS time of the TC Qigong-NPC group was comparable to that of the healthy control group in the somatosensory-challenging condition (condition 3) (P = 0.168) only. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the 6MWT distance among the three groups (P > 0.05). TC Qigong may be a rehabilitation exercise that improves somatosensory function and OLS balance performance among survivors of NPC.

  4. Prospective randomized clinical trial of hydrophilic tapered implant placement at maxillary posterior area: 6 weeks and 12 weeks loading

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Early loading of implant can be determined by excellent primary stability and characteristic of implant surface. The implant system with recently improved surface can have load application 4-6 weeks after installing in maxilla and mandible. This study evaluated the effect of healing period to the stability of hydrophilic tapered-type implant at maxillary posterior area. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 30 patients treated by hydrophilic tapered-type implants (total 41 implants at maxilla) and classified by two groups depending on healing period. Group 1 (11 patients, 15 implants) was a control group and the healing period was 12 weeks, and Group 2 (19 patients, 26 implants) was test group and the healing period was 6 weeks. Immediately after implant placement, at the first impression taking, implant stability was measured using Osstell Mentor. The patients also took periapical radiographs after restoration delivery, 12 months after restoration and final followup period. The marginal bone loss around the implants was measured using the periapical radiographs. RESULTS All implants were survived and success rate was 97.56%. The marginal bone loss was less than 1mm after 1 year postoperatively except the one implant. The stabilities of the implants were not correlated with age, healing period until loading, insertion torque (IT), the diameter of fixture and the location of implant. Only the quality of bone in group 2 (6 week) was correlated with the stability of implant. CONCLUSION Healing period of 6 weeks can make the similar clinical prognosis of implants to that of healing period of 12 weeks if bone quality is carefully considered in case of early loading. PMID:27826390

  5. Effect of a 12-week yoga therapy program on mental health status in elderly women inmates of a hospice

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Meena; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2017-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of yoga on the mental health status of elderly women inmates residing in a hospice in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: Forty elderly women were randomly divided into yoga and wait-listed control group. A yoga therapy program of 60 min was given twice a week for 12 weeks. This protocol was specially designed for senior citizens, keeping in mind their health status and physical limitations that included simple warm-up and breath-body movement coordination practices (jathis and kriyas), static stretching postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayamas), and relaxation. Hamilton anxiety scale for measuring anxiety, Hamilton rating scale for depression, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure self-esteem were administered to both groups before and after the 12-week study period. Data were assessed for normality, and appropriate parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were applied for intra- and inter-group comparisons. Results: Overall, intra- and inter-group comparison of prepost data showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) differences for all three parameters. There was an overall improvement in the scores indicating decreased levels of depression and anxiety coupled with an increase in the level of self-esteem after the yoga therapy program. Discussion: The influence of yoga in the reduction of depression and anxiety scores and improvement in self-esteem scores in elderly women subjects is evident from this study. As reported in earlier studies, this may be attributed to changes in central neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric-acid coupled with increased parasympathetic tone and decreased sympatho-adrenal activity. Conclusion: It is recommended that yoga should be a part of health-care facilities for elderly as it can enhance the quality of life by improving their overall mental health status. It could provide a healthy and positive alternative from depressing

  6. Gene expression profiling of kidneys from Sprague-Dawley rats following 12-week inhalation exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mi Sook; Choi, Ji-Yoon; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Jin Sik; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ryu, Hyun Ryol; Lee, Ji Hyun; Bang, In Seok; An, Kangho; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Nam Woong; Yu, Il Je

    2013-07-01

    The specific properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), such as antimicrobial activity and electrical conductivity, allow them to be used in many fields. However, their expanding application is also raising health, environmental and safety concerns. Previous in vivo AgNP toxicity studies have indicated a gender-different accumulation of silver in the kidneys, with 2-3 times more silver in female kidneys compared to male kidneys. However, no other studies have further addressed this gender difference. Accordingly, the current study investigated the gender-dependent effect of AgNPs on the kidney gene level based on toxicogenomic studies of kidneys obtained from rats exposed to AgNPs via inhalation for 12 weeks. When compared with the fresh air control, the silver nanoparticle-exposed kidneys included 104 genes with a more than 1.3-fold expression increase. For the male rat kidneys exposed to a low or high dose of silver nanoparticles, 96 genes exhibited expression changes, where six genes changed with both the low and high dose; four increased and two decreased. Meanwhile, for the female rat kidneys exposed to a low or high dose of silver nanoparticles, 66 genes exhibited expression changes, where 11 genes changed with both the low and high dose; nine increased and two decreased. Gender-dependent gene expression changes of more than 2-fold were linked to 163 genes, with 79 genes in the male kidneys and 84 genes in the female kidneys, plus gender-dependent gene expression changes of more than 5-fold were linked to 21 genes. However, no genes involved in apoptosis or the cell cycle were activated by the 12-week silver nanoparticle inhalation exposure. Overall, the male rat kidneys showed a higher expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, while the female rat kidneys showed a higher expression of genes involved in extracellular signaling.

  7. Tomo-chi-chi, The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Sara Gordon

    Tomo-chi-chi was a Creek Indian leader who did much to insure peaceful relations between the first English colonists in Georgia and the native Americans. His wisdom and dedication to peace were known and respected by the Creek people and the English colonists. He developed a lifelong friendship with General James Oglethorpe, the English founder of…

  8. Bibliography of Chinese Materials on Tai Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltz, William G.

    This bibliography is an effort to establish a convenient listing of works in Chinese which deal with any of the various aspects of Tai linguistics. There are 50 entries including cross-references. Some of the sources covered are: Academia Sinica, Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Institute of History and Philology, Yu-yen…

  9. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu's were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this study

  10. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  11. Health markers in obese adolescents improved by a 12-week recreational soccer program: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Seabra, Andre; Cunha, Felipe; Montenegro, Rafael; Penha, Jociene; Bouskela, Eliete; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Collett-Solberg, Paulo; Farinatti, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a recreational soccer program (RSP) upon body composition, heart rate variability (HRV), biochemical markers, cardio-respiratory fitness, and endothelial function in obese adolescents were investigated. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted with 30 adolescents aged 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) >2 standard deviations of WHO reference values, which were assigned to RSP (n = 10, 2 girls) and obese control (n = 10, 4 girls) groups. The 12-week RSP included 60-min sessions performed 3 times/week. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, HRV, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were evaluated following standardised procedures. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. After intervention, RSP exhibited significant reductions in BMI (-0.7 ± 0.2 kg · m(-2)), waist circumference (-8.2 ± 1.4 cm), %body fat (-2.2 ± 0.4%), systolic blood pressure (-5.0 ± 2.3 mmHg), total cholesterol (-16.2 ± 5.8 mg · dL(-1)), triglycerides (-20.5 ± 12.9 mg · dL(-1)), C-reactive protein (-0.06 ± 0.01 mg · dL(-1)), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -1.4 ± 0.6), and sympathetic activity (LF, -13.9 ± 6.6 un) vs. controls (P < 0.05). Significant increase was observed in parasympathetic activity (HF, 13.9 ± 6.6 un), VO2peak (7.9 ± 2.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.0 ± 6.3 mg · dL(-1)) (P < 0.05). Vascular conductance (19.5 ± 8.1 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.005) increased and vascular resistance (-5.9 ± 2.4 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.041) decreased in RSP, but not in controls. A 12-week recreational soccer intervention was effective to improve biochemical, cardiovascular, and fitness health markers in obese adolescents.

  12. Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

  13. Treating Veterans With PTSD and Borderline Personality Symptoms in a 12-Week Intensive Outpatient Setting: Findings From a Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Laura; Voller, Emily K; McCallum, Ethan B; Thuras, Paul; Shallcross, Sandra; Velasquez, Tina; Meis, Laura

    2017-03-22

    Rates of comorbidity between borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are high in veteran populations, and clinicians are hesitant to treat PTSD given high rates of suicidality. Given promising early work integrating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy, we created a 12-week intensive outpatient program combining these two treatments. PE and DBT were provided concurrently to 33 veterans with PTSD symptoms and BPD symptoms at a large, midwestern Veteran Affairs medical center. Approximately half of the participants were male, with the majority identifying as Caucasian. Participants' ages ranged from 23 to 58 years, with a mean age of 43.21 years. The full-model of DBT was provided; PE was provided twice weekly for approximately 6 weeks of the program. Of participants, 22 veterans successfully completed the program with no dropout during PE. Large pre- to posttreatment effect sizes were found for decreases in PTSD symptoms (d = 1.61) and dysfunctional coping styles (d = 1.55), and an increase in the use of DBT skills (d = 1.02). A moderate effect size was found in the decrease of suicidal ideation (d = 0.64). The results of this pilot program suggest that PTSD can be safely and effectively treated among veterans with comorbid symptoms of borderline personality disorder through the combination of concurrent intensive DBT and PE.

  14. Promoting healthful diets and exercise: efficacy of a 12-week after-school program in urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Engels, Hermann-J; Gretebeck, Randall J; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Jiménez, Linda

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a unique extracurricular after-school initiative designed to promote healthy diets and exercise in urban African Americans. The Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit after-school program was offered for 12 weeks to students and their parents/guardians at an urban middle school. Specific aims of the intervention were to increase participants' vegetable and fruit intake by using established 5 A Day for Better Health educational resource materials/activities and to affect their health-related fitness through dance, games, and fitness activities. Fifty-six children and 25 parents/guardians completed a standard battery of evaluations before and after the program. Pre-post pairwise t test revealed that both children and their parents/guardians showed an increase in fruit consumption and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P <.05). Moreover, children showed improvements in systolic blood pressure and fruit juice, salad, and nonfried potato consumption while parents/guardians showed a decrease in body fat, body mass index, and endurance walk/run time (P <.05). Overall, findings indicate that children tended to gain more diet-related benefits while parents/guardians tended to derive more fitness-related benefits. After-school programs like the Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit initiative can potentially contribute to improved health levels in urban African Americans.

  15. A physical fitness follow-up in children with cerebral palsy receiving 12-week individualized exercise training.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shiau-Chian; Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Alice M K; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Physical fitness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is lower than in their peers. A 12-week individualized home-based exercise program completed by 11 children with CP 10 years earlier showed a favorable effect on physical fitness performance. We follow-up the physical fitness of those 11 children with CP, and compare their physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) to children with CP without exercise training matched with age and motor levels. Eleven children with CP in the 2003 program as a follow-up group (FUG) and 12 volunteers recruited as a control group (CG) participated in this study. Physical fitness measures, including cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle strength, body mass index (BMI), flexibility, agility, balance, and the SF-36 Taiwan version, were assessed in both groups. After 10 years, the FUG showed better physical fitness in cardiopulmonary endurance and muscle strength (p<.05). Compared to the CG, the FUG demonstrated better muscle strength, agility, and balance (p<.05). However, the HRQoL did not show a significant difference between the FUG and the CG. Individualized home-based exercise training is beneficial for children with CP. Over 10 years, the FUG was more devoted to physical activity than was the CG. Physical exercise may not directly affect the HRQoL in this study.

  16. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365

  17. DEXA-assessed regional body composition changes in young female military soldiers following 12-weeks of periodised training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Paola S; Krüger, Pieter E; Grant, Catharina C

    2010-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to assess whole body and regional soft tissue mass, fat mass and lean body mass compositional changes in 68 female recruits (age 20.8 +/- 1.14 years; body mass 59.5 +/- 8.79 kg; stature 159.57 +/- 5.53 cm) pre- and post 12-weeks of military basic training. A decrease in total body fat tissue mass (10.2%) and regional percent fat (10.9%) was measured with an increase in total lean body mass (8.7%). Of interest were the differences in the responses in the tissue composition of the arms (16.2% loss in fat mass with an 11.6% gain in lean mass), trunk (17.0% decrease in fat mass with a 10.4% increase in lean mass) and the legs (10.5% increase in lean mass but no change in fat mass). These findings show the importance of considering regional rather than whole body composition changes when assessing the effects of a training programme. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Female soldiers experienced a change in total body fat tissue (-10.2%) and lean body mass (+8.7%) after basic training; however, no significant fat mass decrease was evident in the leg region. Regional rather than whole body composition changes need to be considered when assessing the effects of a training programme.

  18. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M

    2015-09-02

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m²) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%-20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation.

  19. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  20. Agomelatine versus Sertraline: An Observational, Open-labeled and 12 Weeks Follow-up Study on Efficacy and Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Esma; Cerit, Cem; Talas, Anıl; Tural, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this open-labeled, 12 weeks follow-up study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine with sertraline Methods The outpatients of adult psychiatry clinic who have a new onset of depression and diagnosed as ‘major depressive episode’ by clinician according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition and prescribed agomelatine (25 mg/day) or sertraline (50 mg/day) were included in the study. Results The decline of mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores of agomelatine group was significantly higher than the sertraline group at the end of 2nd week; however, the difference was not significant at the end of 3 months. Mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I) scores of agomelatine group was lower than sertraline group at first week. Mean CGI-Severity scale and CGI-I scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Remission rates were 46.7% for sertraline group and 33.3% for agomelatine group while response rates were 76.7% for both groups. Any patient from agomelatine group dropped-out due to adverse effects. The amount of side effects was also less with agomelatine. Conclusion Agomelatine has a rapid onset efficacy on depressive symptoms and this can be beneficial for some critical cases. Considering MADRS scores, agomelatine seems to have similar efficacy with sertraline but we also point the need for long term studies since CGI scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Agomelatine has a favourable tolerability profile both in terms of discontinuation and the amount of side effects compared to sertraline. PMID:27776387

  1. Linagliptin monotherapy compared with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis: a 12-week randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Shoji, Tetsuo; Inaba, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Focusing on efficacy and tolerability, we compared linagliptin monotherapy with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Research design and methods In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study, 78 patients were randomized (1:1) to receive a 12-week treatment with 5 mg linagliptin once daily or 0.2 mg voglibose three times a day. To assess whether linagliptin was superior to voglibose, the primary efficacy end point was the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy end points included changes between baseline and week 12 in glycated albumin (GA) and casual plasma glucose (PG) levels. Results At week 12, the adjusted mean HbA1c levels had decreased by −0.60% after treatment with linagliptin and by −0.20% after treatment with voglibose (treatment difference: −0.40%, 95% CI −0.74% to −0.06%, p=0.022). A significant reduction in casual PG level was also observed after treatment with linagliptin compared with treatment with voglibose. Relative to voglibose, linagliptin tended to elicit reductions in GA, although without statistical significance. No hypoglycemic symptoms or severe hypoglycemia occurred during the study. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD, linagliptin monotherapy provided significantly better glycemic control without severe hypoglycemia than voglibose monotherapy. Linagliptin represents a promising agent for glycemic management in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD. Trial registration number UMIN000007635; results. PMID:27547421

  2. Contribution of magnetic resonance microscopy in the 12-week neurotoxicity evaluation of carbonyl sulfide in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Sills, Robert C; Morgan, Daniel L; Herr, David W; Little, Peter B; George, Nneka M; Ton, Thai Vu; Love, Nancy E; Maronpot, Robert R; Johnson, G Allan

    2004-01-01

    In this carbonyl sulfide (COS) study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and detailed light microscopic evaluation effectively functioned in parallel to assure that the distribution and degree of pathology in the brain was accurately represented. MRM is a powerful imaging modality that allows for excellent identification of neuroanatomical structures coupled with the ability to acquire 200 or more cross-sectional images of the brain, and the ability to display them in multiple planes. F344 rats were exposed to 200-600 ppm COS for up to 12 weeks. Prior to MRM, rats were anesthetized and cardiac perfused with McDowell Trump's fixative containing a gadolinium MR contrast medium. Fixed specimens were scanned at the Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy on a 9.4 Tesla magnetic resonance system adapted explicitly for microscopic imaging. An advantage of MRM in this study was the ability to identify lesions in rats that appeared clinically normal prior to sacrifice and the opportunity to identify lesions in areas of the brain which would not be included in conventional studies. Other advantages include the ability to examine the brain in multiple planes (transverse, dorsal, sagittal) and obtain and save the MRM images in a digital format that allows for postexperimental data processing and manipulation. MRM images were correlated with neuroanatomical and neuropathological findings. All suspected MRM images were compared to corresponding H&E slides. An important aspect of this study was that MRM was critical in defining our strategy for sectioning the brain, and for designing mechanistic studies (cytochrome oxidase evaluations) and functional assessments (electrophysiology studies) on specifically targeted anatomical sites following COS exposure.

  3. Do soccer and Zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees? A 12-week RCT.

    PubMed

    Barene, S; Krustrup, P; Jackman, S R; Brekke, O L; Holtermann, A

    2014-12-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG). Intervention effects for the two training groups were compared with CG. The training was conducted outside working hours as 2-3 1-h sessions per week for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ), fat percentage, fat mass, bone mineral content, and plasma osteocalcin were measured before and after the intervention period. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses, SG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.02) and decreased heart rate during 100-W cycle exercise (-7 bpm; P = 0.01), total body fat percentage (-1.1%; P = 0.002), and total body fat mass (-1.0 kg; P = 0.001) compared with CG. ZG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.03) and decreased total fat mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05) compared with CG. Plasma osteocalcin increased in SG (21%; P < 0.001) and ZG (10%; P = 0.01) compared with CG. The present study indicates that workplace initiated short-term soccer training as well as Zumba outside working hours may result in fitness and modest health benefits among female hospital employees.

  4. Magnesium Replacement Does Not Improve Insulin Resistance in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A 12-Week Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza e Silva, Maria de Lourdes; Cruz, Thomaz; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon; Ladeia, Ana Marice; Bomfim, Olivia; Olivieri, Lucas; Melo, Juliana; Correia, Raquel; Porto, Mirna; Cedro, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes. Methods This 12-week clinical randomized double-blind study compared the effects of 400 mg/day of Mg with those of a placebo (n = 72) on fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and CRP. Mg was measured in serum (SMg) and in mononuclear cells (MMg). Results Hypomagnesemia (SMg < 1.7 mg/dL) was seen in 23.2% of patients and intracellular depletion in 36.1% of patients. The MMg means were lower in patients with obesity (0.94 ± 0.54 μg/mg vs. 1.19 ± 0.6 μg/mg, P = 0.04), and insulin resistance (0.84 ± 0.33 μg/mg vs. 1.14 ± 0.69 µg/mg, P < 0.05). Mg replacement did not alter SMg (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/dL vs. 1.81 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P = 0.877) and tended to increment MMg (0.90 ± 0.40 μg/mg vs. 1.21 ± 0.73 μg/mg, P = 0.089). HOMA-IR did not alter in interventions nor in placebo group (3.2 ± 2.0 to 2.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.368; 3.6 ± 1.9 to 3.2 ± 1.8, respectively), neither did other metabolic parameters. Conclusion Serum and intracellular Mg depletion is common in patients with MS; however, Mg replacement in recommended dosage did not increase significantly Mg levels, neither reduced insulin resistance or metabolic control. PMID:25247020

  5. Effects of a 12 Week SAQ Training Programme on Agility with and without the Ball among Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša; James, Nic; Šamija, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12 week conditioning programme involving speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) training and its effect on agility performance in young soccer players. Soccer players were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group (EG; n = 66, body mass: 71.3 ± 5.9 kg; body height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) and control group (CG; n = 66, body mass: 70.6 ± 4.9 kg; body height: 1.76 ± 0.06 m). Agility performance was assessed using field tests: Slalom; Slalom with ball; Sprint with 90° turns; Sprint with 90° turns with ball; Sprint with 180° turns; Sprint with backward and forward running; Sprint 4 x 5 m. Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) between pre and post training were evident for almost all measures of agility, with and without the ball, with the exception being the Sprint with backward and forward running. This suggests that SAQ training is an effective way of improving agility, with and without the ball, for young soccer players and can be included in physical conditioning programmes. Key points SAQ training appears to be an effective way of improving agility with and without the ball in young soccer players Soccer coaches could use this training during pre-season and in-season training Compared with pre-training, there was a statistically significant improvement in all but one measure of agility, both with and without the ball after SAQ training PMID:24149731

  6. Teaching English Pronunciation to Speakers of Black Tai (Tai Dam). General Information Series, No. 10. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    The purpose of this guide is to: (1) point out those differences between Black Tai and English which will cause difficulties for the Black Tai-speaking students of English, and (2) outline the most effective ways of helping the student overcome these difficulties. The first section is a contrastive analysis of the phonologies of Black Tai and…

  7. Impact of a 12-week aerobic exercise training program on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of a group of type 2 diabetes Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years

    PubMed Central

    Dahjio, Yves; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Essouma, Mickael; Loni, Gabriel Ekali; Onana, Arnold Ewane; Dehayem, Mesmin; Mvom, Angeline; Tadjore, Maurice Njock

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined whether aerobic exercise could have an impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. Methods We enrolled 23 T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years regularly followed at the National Obesity Center of Yaounde, Cameroon, in a 12-week aerobic exercise program monitored by a pedometer. Exercise intensity was progressively set between 55% and 75% of maximum heart rate. We measured weight, body mass index (BMI), fat, lean mass, visceral fat, maximum oxygen uptake, glycaemia and insulin tolerance index at baseline, after six and twelve weeks. A mixed ANOVA model was used to evaluate changes of outcome measures over time. Results Total body weight was significantly reduced after 12 weeks (P<0.05), waist circumference after 6 and 12 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase of the lean mass from 6 weeks (P<0.001) and a reduction of the mean visceral fat at 12 weeks (P<0.001). At the end of the program, the mean glycaemia was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the maximum oxygen uptake was enhanced (P<0.05). Conclusions The 12-week aerobic exercise program improved the anthropometric and metabolic parameters as well as the aerobic capacity of T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. PMID:27826567

  8. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  9. Trichloroethylene and trichloroethanol-induced formic aciduria and renal injury in male F-344 rats following 12 weeks exposure.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Noreen; Evans, Andrew; Foster, John R; Lock, Edward A

    2014-09-02

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is widely used as a cleaning and decreasing agent and has been shown to cause liver tumours in rodents and a small incidence of renal tubule tumours in male rats. The basis for the renal tubule injury is believed to be related to metabolism of TCE via glutathione conjugation to yield the cysteine conjugate that can be activated by the enzyme cysteine conjugate β-lyase in the kidney. More recently TCE and its major metabolite trichloroethanol (TCE-OH) have been shown to cause formic aciduria which can cause renal injury after chronic exposure in rats. In this study we have compared the renal toxicity of TCE and TCE-OH in rats to try and ascertain whether the glutathione pathway or formic aciduria can account for the toxicity. Male rats were given TCE (500mg/kg/day) or TCE-OH at (100mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks and the extent of renal injury measured at several time points using biomarkers of nephrotoxicity and prior to termination assessing renal tubule cell proliferation. The extent of formic aciduria was also determined at several time points, while renal pathology and plasma urea and creatinine were determined at the end of the study. TCE produced a very mild increase in biomarkers of renal injury, total protein, and glucose over the first two weeks of exposure and increased Kim-1 and NAG in urine after 1 and 5 weeks exposure, while TCE-OH did not produce a consistent increase in these biomarkers in urine. However, both chemicals produced a marked and sustained increase in the excretion of formic acid in urine to a very similar extent. The activity of methionine synthase in the liver of TCE and TCE-OH treated rats was inhibited by about 50% indicative of a block in folate synthesis. Both renal pathology and renal tubule cell proliferation were reduced after TCE and TCE-OH treatment compared to controls. Our findings do not clearly identify the pathway which is responsible for the renal toxicity of TCE but do provide some support for metabolism

  10. Cloacal and surface temperatures of tom turkeys exposed to different rearing temperature regimes during the first 12 weeks of growth.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S L; Strawford, M L; Noble, S D; Classen, H L; Crowe, T G

    2015-06-01

    Years of genetic selection have caused an increase in growth rate and market body mass in agricultural poultry species compared to earlier genetic strains, potentially altering their physiological requirements. The objective of this study was to expose Hybrid Converter tom turkeys on a weekly basis to the recommended rearing temperature regime (TCON: control) or 4°C below the recommended standard (TTRT: treatment) to determine their thermal responses. Once per week for 12 weeks, 12 turkeys were individually exposed to either TCON or TTRT for a 2-h period. Surface temperatures of the breast (TBREAST), wing (TWING), drumstick (TDRUM), head (THEAD), and shank (TSHANK) were measured at 20-min intervals using an infrared camera, while a thermal data logger measured the skin surface temperature under the wing (TLOGGER) at 30-s intervals. The cloacal temperature (TCORE) was measured using a medical thermometer at the start and end of the exposure period. Regardless of exposure temperature, the TBREAST (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), TWING (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), and TDRUM (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) decreased from weeks 4 to 6 and remained constant from weeks 1 to 3 and 8 to 12. THEAD was elevated in week 2 (TCON: P<0.001) or week 3 (TTRT: P<0.001), TSHANK increased slightly during week 3 for both TCON (P<0.001) and TTRT (P<0.001), and TLOGGER (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P=0.001) and TCORE (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) were lower during the first week. Thereafter, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE remained constant. Exposure to TTRT resulted in lower TBREAST, TWING, and TDRUM compared to TCON. Generally, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE were not affected by the different exposure temperatures. The data demonstrated that the degree of thermal response expressed is dependent on the location of measurement, age, and exposure temperature.

  11. Switching from clozapine to zotepine in patients with schizophrenia: a 12-week prospective, randomized, rater blind, and parallel study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Liou, Ying-Jay; Wang, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia, but many adverse effects are noted. Clinicians usually hesitate to switch from clozapine to other antipsychotics because of the risk of a re-emergence or worsening of the psychosis, although empirical studies are very limited. Zotepine, an atypical antipsychotic with a pharmacologic profile similar to clozapine, was found to be an effective treatment for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia in Japan. This 12-week study is the first prospective, randomized, and rater-blind study to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of switching from clozapine to zotepine. Fifty-nine patients with schizophrenia, who had taken clozapine for at least 6 months with a Clinical Global Impression-Severity score of at least 3, were randomly allocated to the zotepine and the clozapine groups. At the end of the study, 52 patients (88%) had completed the trial. The 7 withdrawal cases were all in the zotepine group. The final mean (SD) dose of zotepine and clozapine was 397.1 (75.7) versus 377.1 (62.5) mg/d, respectively. Patients in the zotepine group showed a significant increase in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [mean (SD), 4.7 (8.7) vs -1.3 (6.3); P = 0.005], more general adverse effects as revealed by the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Rating Scale [mean (SD), 1.74 (3.9) vs -0.2 (2.8); P = 0.039], more extrapyramidal adverse effects as demonstrated by the Simpson and Angus Scale [mean (SD), 1.29 (3.5) vs 0.17 (2.1); P = 0.022], an increased use of propranolol (37.1% vs 0%, P < 0.0001) and anticholinergics (25.7% vs 0%, P = 0.008), and an increased level of prolactin (29.6 vs -3.8 ng/ mL, P < 0.0005), compared with the clozapine group. The results suggested that switching from clozapine to zotepine treatment should be done with caution.

  12. Simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for eight or 12 weeks in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced hepatitis C virus genotype 4 patients with or without cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    El Raziky, M; Gamil, M; Ashour, M K; Sameea, E A; Doss, W; Hamada, Y; Van Dooren, G; DeMasi, R; Keim, S; Lonjon-Domanec, I; Hammad, R; Hashim, M S; Hassany, M; Waked, I

    2017-02-01

    The OSIRIS study investigated efficacy and safety of simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for eight or 12 weeks in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4-infected patients with METAVIR F0-F4 fibrosis. Sixty-three patients (33 treatment-naïve and 30 peg-interferon/ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV)-experienced) enrolled in a partly randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase IIa study. Patients with F0-F3 fibrosis were randomized (1:1) into two groups (A1 and A2), stratified according to treatment experience and METAVIR score, to receive either eight weeks (Group A1, n=20) or 12 weeks (Group A2, n=20) of treatment. Patients with compensated cirrhosis (METAVIR F4) received 12 weeks of treatment (Group B, n=23). Treatment comprised simeprevir 150 mg and sofosbuvir 400 mg daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after planned end of treatment (SVR12). Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout. Overall, 92% (95% CI: 82-97) of patients achieved SVR12; 75% (15/20) in Group A1 and 100% in groups A2 and B. Patients who did not achieve SVR12 (n=5) experienced viral relapse during the first 32 days following treatment and were all prior Peg-IFN/RBV null responders. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were asymptomatic lipase increase (14%), pruritus (14%), headache (13%) and hyperbilirubinaemia (11%). No patients discontinued due to TEAEs. In conclusion, simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks achieved a 100% SVR rate in HCV genotype 4-infected patients with or without compensated cirrhosis (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02278419). The AE and laboratory profile were favourable and consistent with previous data for simeprevir plus sofosbuvir in eight- and 12-week regimens.

  13. Coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1993-11-01

    A magnetic wiggler design has been developed for applications in free-electron lasers which is scalable to small periods with high field amplitude, high beam current acceptance, and excellent transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler design consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating ferromagnetic and non- ferromagnetic rings with the central portion of the coax shifted by one half period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically symmetric periodic field. A key advantage of this wiggler configuration is its capacity to handle very high beam currents with excellent focusing and transport properties. FEL configuration using the CHI wiggler design have the potential for high power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated characteristics of the CHI wiggler are presented.

  14. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  15. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  16. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26157235

  17. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  18. The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.

  19. 12 Weeks of Daclatasvir in Combination With Sofosbuvir for HIV-HCV Coinfection (ALLY-2 Study): Efficacy and Safety by HIV Combination Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; McDonald, Cheryl; Ramgopal, Moti; Noviello, Stephanie; Bhore, Rafia; Ackerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Highly effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapies that do not require modification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral regimens are needed. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir + sofosbuvir (DCV + SOF) for 12 weeks by antiretroviral (ARV) regimen in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Methods. In the randomized, open-label ALLY-2 study, HIV-HCV-coinfected patients received 8 or 12 weeks of once-daily DCV 60 mg (dose-adjusted as-necessary for concomitant ARVs) + SOF 400 mg. Results were stratified by ARV class for the 151 patients who received 12 weeks of DCV + SOF. Results. Fifty-one patients were HCV treatment experienced, 100 were treatment naive, 89% male and 33% black. HCV genotypes were: genotype 1a (GT1a; 69%), GT1b (15%), GT2 (8%), GT3 (6%), and GT4 (2%). Sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was 97% and was similar across ARV regimens (P = .774): protease inhibitor-based, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-99.7%); nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based, 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%); and integrase inhibitor based, 95% (95% CI, 83%-99.4%). SVR12 among patients receiving either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or abacavir as part of their antiretroviral therapy regimen was 98% (95% CI, 93%-99.5%) and 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%), respectively. Age, gender, race, cirrhosis, HCV treatment history, GT , and baseline HCV RNA did not affect SVR12. No discontinuations were attributed to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions. DCV + SOF x12 weeks is a highly efficacious, all-oral, pan-GT HCV treatment for HIV-HCV coinfected patients across a broad range of ARV regimens. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02032888. PMID:27025835

  20. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-09-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  1. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

  2. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  3. Aloe sterol supplementation improves skin elasticity in Japanese men with sunlight-exposed skin: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Misawa, Eriko; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Saito, Marie; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    Background/objective Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol) significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. Methods We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30–59 years; average: 45 years). The subjects were instructed to expose the measurement position of the arms to the sunlight outdoors every day for 12 weeks. The skin parameters were measured at 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Results Depending on the time for the revelation of the sunlight, the b* value and melanin index increased and the skin moisture decreased. After taking an Aloe sterol tablet daily for 12 weeks, the skin elasticity index (R2, R5, and R7) levels were significantly higher than the baseline value. There were no differences between the groups in these skin elasticity values. In the subgroup analysis of subjects aged <46 years, the change in the R5 and R7 was significantly higher in the Aloe group than in the placebo group at 8 weeks (P=0.0412 and P=0.0410, respectively). There was a difference in the quantity of sun exposure between each subject, and an additional clinical study that standardizes the amount of ultraviolet rays is warranted. No Aloe sterol intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion Aloe sterol ingestion increased skin elasticity in the photodamaged skin of men aged <46 years. PMID:27877061

  4. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  5. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit.

  6. The influence of a 12-week program of physical activity on changes in body composition and lipid and carbohydrate status in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294

  7. A cross-cultural comparison of the development of the social smile: a longitudinal study of maternal and infant imitation in 6- and 12-week-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants.

  8. Cyclophosphamide treatment of steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome: comparison of eight week with 12 week course. Report of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pädiatrische Nephrologie.

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective study (Cytotoxic Drug Study II), 18 children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and steroid toxicity were treated with cyclophosphamide (2 mg/kg body weight/day) for 12 weeks in combination with reducing doses of prednisone (group A). This group was compared retrospectively with 18 children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome, studied as part of the Cytotoxic Drug Study I, and who had received cyclophosphamide for eight weeks (group B). There were no differences between the groups in age at the onset of the nephrotic syndrome, age at entry into the study, and duration of the nephrotic syndrome before entry into the study. The number of relapses during the six months before the treatment was the same in both groups. Two years after treatment 12 of 18 children treated with cyclophosphamide for 12 weeks were still in remission. By contrast, only four of of 18 children treated with cyclophosphamide for eight weeks were still in remission. The cumulative rates of sustained remissions were significantly higher (67% and 22%, respectively) in group A. All relapses were observed within 400 days of stopping cytotoxic treatment. No severe side effects of cyclophosphamide occurred up to two years after treatment had been stopped. We conclude that for children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and steroid toxicity cyclophosphamide treatment should be prolonged to 12 weeks to increase the likelihood of a prolonged remission. PMID:3688915

  9. Exploring the maternal history of the Tai people.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-08-01

    In the past decades, the Tai people are increasingly being focused by genetic studies. However, a systematic genetic study of the whole Tai people is still lacking, thus making the population structure as well as the demographic history of this group uninvestigated from genetic perspective. Here we extensively analyzed the variants of hypervariable segments I and II (HVS-I and HVS-II) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 719 Tai samples from 19 populations, covering virtually all of the current Tai people's residences. We observed a general close genetic affinity of the Tai people, reflecting a common origin of this group. Taken into account the phylogeographic analyses of their shared components, including haplogroups F1a, M7b and B5a, our study supported a southern Yunnan origin of the Tai people, consistent with the historical records. In line with their diverse cultures and languages, substantial genetic divergences can be observed among different Tai populations that could be attributable to assimilation of maternal components from neighboring populations. Our study further implied the advent of rice agriculture in Mainland Southeast Asia at ∼5 kya (kilo years ago) had greatly promoted the population expansion of the Tai people.

  10. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  11. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. Special Issue: Commemoration of Chi-Chi Earthquake (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Contents include the following: Deep Electromagnetic Images of Seismogenic Zone of the Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; New Techniques for Stress-Forecasting Earthquakes; Aspects of Characteristics of Near-Fault Ground Motions of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake; Liquefaction Damage and Related Remediation in Wufeng after the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Fines Content Effects on Liquefaction Potential Evaluation for Sites Liquefied during Chi-Chi Earthquake 1999; Damage Investigation and Liquefaction Potential Analysis of Gravelly Soil; Dynamic Characteristics of Soils in Yuan-Lin Liquefaction Area; A Preliminary Study of Earthquake Building Damage and Life Loss Due to the Chi-Chi Earthquake; Statistical Analyses of Relation between Mortality and Building Type in the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake; Development of an After Earthquake Disaster Shelter Evaluation Model; Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Children and Adolescents One Year after the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake; Changes or Not is the Question: the Meaning of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions One Year after the Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake.

  12. Effectiveness and tolerability of rosiglitazone on insulin resistance and body composition in nondiabetic Thai patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: A 12-week pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bunmee, Panipat; Supasyndh, Ouppatham

    2009-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic renal insufficiency, especially those undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), normally have insulin resistance due to deficiencies in insulin secretion and degradation, as well as tissue resistance to insulin at both receptor and postreceptor levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of rosiglitazone on insulin resistance and body composition in patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing CAPD. Methods: This pilot study included a pretest and posttest with a repeated-measure design in a small number of patients. CAPD patients without DM received rosiglitazone 2-mg tablets BID for 12 weeks. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were used to assess insulin resistance and body composition, respectively. Tolerability was assessed using laboratory analyses as well as physical examination findings to evaluate peripheral edema. Peripheral edema was assessed by the study investigators. Results: Thirteen Thai patients (mean [SD] age, 54.17 [11.42] years [range, 35–85 years]; body mass index [BMI], >20 to <30 kg/m2; fasting blood glucose [FBG] concentration, <5.39 mmol/L) were included in the study. One patient was withdrawn due to illness unrelated to the study. No significant difference was found in FBG concentration between baseline and posttreatment (after 12 weeks of treatment) (5.45 [0.59] vs 5.24 [0.51] mmol/L), but fasting plasma insulin concentrations (28.50 [23.70] vs 10.15 [4.22] μIU/mL; P = 0.005) and HOMA-IR score (6.70 [5.23] vs 2.40 [1.15]; P = 0.011) were significantly lower. There were no significant changes in weight or BMI from baseline to posttreatment. Seven subjects (58.3%) experienced weight gain at week 4, while 2 patients (16.7%) still had weight gain after 12 weeks of treatment. A significant increase was found between baseline and posttreatment in total body

  13. Does 12 weeks of regular standing prevent loss of ankle mobility and bone mineral density in people with recent spinal cord injuries?

    PubMed

    Ben, Marsha; Harvey, Lisa; Denis, Sophie; Glinsky, Joanne; Goehl, Gerlinde; Chee, Shane; Herbert, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week standing program on ankle mobility and femur bone mineral density in patients with lower limb paralysis following recent spinal cord injury. An assessor-blinded within-subject randomised controlled trial was undertaken. Twenty patients with lower limb paralysis following a recent spinal cord injury were recruited. Subjects stood weight-bearing through one leg on a tilt-table for 30 minutes, three times each week for 12 weeks. By standing on one leg a large dorsiflexion stretch was applied to the ankle and an axial load was applied to the bones of the weight-bearing leg. Ankle mobility and femur bone mineral density of both legs were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Ankle mobility (range of motion) was measured with the application of a 17 Nm dorsiflexion torque. Femur bone mineral density was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The effect of standing was estimated from the difference between legs in mean change of ankle mobility and femur bone mineral density. The results indicated a mean treatment effect on ankle mobility of 4 degrees (95% CI 2 to 6 degrees) and on femur bone mineral density of 0.005 g/cm(2) (95% CI -0.015 to 0.025 g/cm(2)). Tilt-table standing for 30 minutes, three times per week for 12 weeks has a small effect on ankle mobility, and little or no effect on femur bone mineral density. It is unclear whether clinicians and patients would consider such effects to be clinically worthwhile.

  14. GLYCATED ALBUMIN AT 4 WEEKS CORRELATES WITH A1C LEVELS AT 12 WEEKS AND REFLECTS SHORT-TERM GLUCOSE FLUCTUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Desouza, Cyrus V.; Rosenstock, Julio; Zhou, Rong; Holcomb, Richard G.; Fonseca, Vivian A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the performance of glycated albumin (GA) monitoring by comparing it to other measures of glycemic control during intensification of antidiabetic therapy. Methods This 12-week, prospective, multicenter study compared the diagnostic clinical performance of GA to glycated hemoglobin A1C (A1C), fructosamine corrected for albumin (FRA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and mean blood glucose (MBG) estimated from self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in 30 patients with suboptimally controlled type 1 or 2 diabetes. Results Mean A1C decreased from 9.5% to 8.1%. Mean SMBG correlated closely with CGM (Pearson r = 0.783 for daily estimates and r = 0.746 for weekly estimates, P<.0001). Both GA and FRA levels significantly correlated with changes from baseline in A1C and mean weekly SMBG (P<.001).The lowest observed median GA occurred at 4 weeks, followed by a small increase and then a slight reduction, mirroring changes in overall mean SMBG values. The median A1C fell throughout the treatment period, failing to reflect short-term changes in SMBG. A ≥1% reduction in GA at 4 weeks was significantly associated with a ≥0.5% change in A1C at 12 weeks (odds ratio [OR] = 19.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4, 944, P = .018). Conclusion In patients receiving glucose-lowering therapy, changes in GA at 4 weeks were concordant with changes in A1C at 12 weeks, and both GA and FRA more accurately reflected short-term blood glucose fluctuations than A1C. PMID:26214108

  15. Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after 12 weeks of rofecoxib, naproxen, or placebo: a multicentre, randomised, double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, C J; Laine, L; Simon, T; Quan, H; Shingo, S; Evans, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in patients with osteoarthritis have suggested that the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor rofecoxib results in less gastrointestinal damage than non-selective non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study compared the incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rofecoxib or a non-selective NSAID. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, double blind, 12 week study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis were allocated to rofecoxib 50 mg once daily (n=219), naproxen 500 mg twice daily (n=220), or placebo (n=221). Endoscopy was performed at baseline and at six and 12 weeks. Lifetable analysis and log rank tests were used to analyse the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers ≥3 mm. Gastric or duodenal ulcers ≥5 mm and erosions were also evaluated as secondary end points. Tolerability was assessed by adverse events. Results: The cumulative incidence of ulcers ≥3 mm at 12 weeks was significantly higher in patients on naproxen (25.5%) than in patients receiving rofecoxib (6.8%; difference 18.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7%, 25.7%); p<0.001) or placebo (2.9%; difference 22.6% (95% CI 16.1%, 29.1%); p<0.001). The difference between rofecoxib (6.8%) and placebo (2.9%) did not reach statistical significance (p=0.066). Results were similar for ulcers ≥5 mm and for mean changes from baseline in the number of gastroduodenal erosions. The overall incidence of clinical adverse events was similar among treatment groups (61% of patients on placebo, 62% in patients on rofecoxib, and 66% in patients on naproxen). Conclusions: Rofecoxib 50 mg daily (twice the dose recommended for this patient population) resulted in a lower incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers and erosions than treatment with naproxen 500 mg twice daily. PMID:12740337

  16. Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration.

  17. Residual {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao; Widder, Joachim; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically inoperable patients with proven Stage I NSCLC or FDG-PET-positive primary lung tumors were analyzed retrospectively. SABR consisted of 60 Gy delivered in 3 to 8 fractions. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the treated lesion was assessed 12 weeks after SABR, using FDG-PET. Patients were subsequently followed at regular intervals using computed tomography (CT) scans. Association between post-SABR SUV{sub max} and local control (LC), mediastinal failure, distant failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 3-40 months). Median lesion size was 25 mm (range, 9-70 mm). There were 6 local failures: 15 mediastinal failures, 15 distant failures, 13 disease-related deaths, and 16 deaths from intercurrent diseases. Glucose corrected post-SABR median SUV{sub max} was 3.0 (range, 0.55-14.50). Using SUV{sub max} 5.0 as a cutoff, the 2-year LC was 80% versus 97.7% for high versus low SUV{sub max}, yielding an adjusted subhazard ratio (SHR) for high post-SABR SUV{sub max} of 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-38.5; p = 0.019). Two-year DSS rates were 74% versus 91%, respectively, for high and low SUV{sub max} values (SHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.3; p = 0.113). Two-year OS was 62% versus 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.7; p = 0.268). Conclusions: Residual FDG uptake (SUV{sub max} {>=}5.0) 12 weeks after SABR signifies increased risk of local failure. A single FDG-PET scan at 12 weeks could be used to tailor further follow-up according to the risk of failure, especially in patients potentially eligible for salvage surgery.

  18. Early changes in bone density, microarchitecture, bone resorption, and inflammation predict the clinical outcome 12 weeks after conservatively treated distal radius fractures: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ursina; de Jong, Joost J; Bours, Sandrine G P; Keszei, András P; Arts, Jacobus J; Brink, Peter R G; Menheere, Paul; van Geel, Tineke A C M; van Rietbergen, Bert; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet P; Willems, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Fracture healing is an active process with early changes in bone and inflammation. We performed an exploratory study evaluating the association between early changes in densitometric, structural, biomechanical, and biochemical bone parameters during the first weeks of fracture healing and wrist-specific pain and disability at 12 weeks in postmenopausal women with a conservatively treated distal radius fracture. Eighteen patients (aged 64 ± 8 years) were evaluated at 1 to 2 and 3 to 4 weeks postfracture, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), micro-finite element analysis, serum procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). After 12 weeks, patients rated their pain and disability using Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) questionnaire. Additionally, Quick Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire and active wrist range of motion was evaluated. Linear regression models were used to study the relationship between changes in bone parameters and in hsCRP from visit 1 to 2 and PRWE score after 12 weeks. A lower PRWE outcome, indicating better outcome, was significantly related to an early increase in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) (β -0.96 [95% CI -1.75 to -0.16], R(2)  = 0.37), in torsional stiffness (-0.14 [-0.28 to -0.004], R(2)  = 0.31), and to an early decrease in trabecular separation (209 [15 to 402], R(2)  = 0.33) and in ICTP (12.1 [0.0 to 24.1], R(2)  = 0.34). Similar results were found for QuickDASH. Higher total dorsal and palmar flexion range of motion was significantly related to early increase in hsCRP (9.62 [3.90 to 15.34], R(2)  = 0.52). This exploratory study indicates that the assessment of early changes in trabecular BMD, trabecular separation, calculated torsional stiffness, bone resorption marker ICTP, and hsCRP after a distal radius fracture provides

  19. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Roke, Kaitlin; Boville, Stephanie; Mutch, David M.; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22.8 ± 2.6 yr). Subjects were matched for age, RMR, physical activity, VO2max and body mass, and were randomly separated into a group supplemented with either OO (3 g/d) or FO containing 2 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Participants visited the lab for RMR and substrate oxidation measurements after an overnight fast (10–12 hr) at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. There were significant increases in the EPA (413%) and DHA (59%) levels in red blood cells after FO supplementation, with no change of these fatty acids in the OO group. RMR and substrate oxidation did not change after supplementation with OO or FO after 6 and 12 weeks. Since there was no effect of supplementation on metabolic measures, we pooled the two treatment groups to determine whether there was a seasonal effect on RMR and substrate oxidation. During the winter season, there was an increase in FA oxidation (36%) with a concomitant decrease (34%) in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (p < 0.01), with no change in RMR. These measures were unaffected during the summer season. In conclusion, FO supplementation had no effect on RMR and substrate oxidation in healthy young males. Resting FA oxidation was increased and CHO oxidation reduced over a 12 week period in the winter, with no change in RMR. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02092649 PMID:28212390

  20. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Roke, Kaitlin; Boville, Stephanie; Mutch, David M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22.8 ± 2.6 yr). Subjects were matched for age, RMR, physical activity, VO2max and body mass, and were randomly separated into a group supplemented with either OO (3 g/d) or FO containing 2 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Participants visited the lab for RMR and substrate oxidation measurements after an overnight fast (10-12 hr) at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. There were significant increases in the EPA (413%) and DHA (59%) levels in red blood cells after FO supplementation, with no change of these fatty acids in the OO group. RMR and substrate oxidation did not change after supplementation with OO or FO after 6 and 12 weeks. Since there was no effect of supplementation on metabolic measures, we pooled the two treatment groups to determine whether there was a seasonal effect on RMR and substrate oxidation. During the winter season, there was an increase in FA oxidation (36%) with a concomitant decrease (34%) in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (p < 0.01), with no change in RMR. These measures were unaffected during the summer season. In conclusion, FO supplementation had no effect on RMR and substrate oxidation in healthy young males. Resting FA oxidation was increased and CHO oxidation reduced over a 12 week period in the winter, with no change in RMR.

  1. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-05-07

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%).

  2. Romanian Special Course, 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The format of the first volume in this five-volume accelerated course in Romanian consists of (1) a dialog , which introduces new structures and vocabulary, (2) a dialog translation, (3) grammar drills, (4) a reading, (5) comprehension questions and answers based on the reading, and (6) a vocabulary listing for the lesson. Later volumes include…

  3. Effects of 12-week concurrent high-intensity interval strength and endurance training programme on physical performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Laredo-Aguilera, José A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro A

    2017-03-13

    This study aimed to analyse the effect of 12-week low-volume HIIT-based concurrent training programme on body composition, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, mobility and balance in older adults, as well as to compare it with a low- moderate-intensity continuous training. 90 active older adults were randomly assigned to experimental (EG, n=47), and control (CG, n=43) groups. Body composition and physical functioning were assessed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 12-week intervention. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for an interaction between training programme and groups. The time x group interaction revealed no significant between-group differences at pre-test (p≥0.05). The group x time interaction showed significant improvements for the EG in body composition parameters (p<0.05) and physical functioning (muscle strength: p<0.001; mobility: p<0.001; and balance: p<0.05); while the CG remained unchanged (p≥0.05). This HIIT-based concurrent training programme led to greater improvements in body composition, muscle strength, mobility and balance in healthy older people than a regular low- moderate-intensity continuous training, despite the reduction in overall training volume.

  4. Low baseline interleukin-17A levels are associated with better treatment response at 12 weeks to tocilizumab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jin; Park, Won; Park, Sung Hwan; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Baek, Han Joo; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Soo Kon; Leee, Yun Jong; Park, Young Eun; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Park, Jin Kyun; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Song, Yeong Wook

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17-related cytokines have been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. The study aimed to identify cytokines associated with the treatment response of RA patients to tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin- (IL-) 6 receptor. As an independent substudy of the 24-week, randomized, double-blinded CWP-TCZ301 trial of TCZ in RA patients with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, serum levels of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, IL-6, and soluble IL-6 receptor were measured. Baseline IL-17A levels were significantly lower in RA patients who achieved disease activity score 28 (DAS28) remission at 12 weeks of TCZ treatment, compared to patients not in remission. Patients were stratified into IL-17A low group and IL-17A high group. Significantly more patients in the IL-17A low group achieved remission as compared to the IL-17A high group (47.6 versus 17.4%, P = 0.032). DAS28 improvement was significantly better in the IL-17A low group than in the IL-17A high group at 12 weeks (P = 0.045) and 24 weeks (P = 0.046) after adjustment. Other baseline cytokines were not associated with treatment response to TCZ. The data demonstrate that low baseline IL-17A levels are associated with better clinical response to TCZ treatment in RA patients.

  5. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break. PMID:28377791

  6. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  7. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Burns, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break.

  8. Effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program with music & exercise groups on range of motion in young children with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared with standard of care (SOC). To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the SOC alone. This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages 2 and 6 years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared with 9 patients who received SOC. Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving SOC showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the SOC alone.

  9. The effects of 12-week psyllium fibre supplementation or healthy diet on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness occur early in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and they are both powerful independent predictors of cardiovascular risk. A high-fibre diet has been correlated with lower BMI and a lower incidence of hyperlipidaemia, CVD, hypertension and diabetes. The present randomised, parallel-design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. fibre supplement diets on blood pressure (BP) and vascular function over 12 weeks. Overweight and obese adults were randomised to one of three groups: control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB) or healthy eating group with placebo (HLT). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the FIB group compared with the control group at week 6, but not at week 12. However, SBP was lower in the HLT group compared with control group at week 12. At week 6, the FIB group presented lower diastolic blood pressure and augmentation index compared with the control group, but this result did not persist to the end of the study. The present study did not show any improvements in BP or vascular function in overweight and obese individuals with psyllium fibre supplementation over 12 weeks of intervention. However, a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in BP in overweight and obese subjects. Further research with hypertensive individuals is necessary to elucidate whether increased fibre consumption in the form of psyllium supplementation may provide a safe and acceptable means to reduce BP, vascular function and the risk of developing CVD.

  10. Low-dose memantine attenuated methadone dose in opioid-dependent patients: a 12-week double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-05-19

    Low-dose memantine might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. We investigated whether add-on memantine reduced cytokine levels and benefitted patients with opioid dependence undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a group: Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 53) or Placebo (n = 75). The methadone dose required and retention in treatment were monitored. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12. General linear mixed models were used to examine therapeutic effect. After 12 weeks, Memantine-group required a somewhat lower methadone dose than did Placebo-group (P = 0.039). They also had significantly lower plasma TNF-α and significantly higher TGF-β1 levels. We provide evidence of the benefit of add-on memantine in opioid dependent patients undergoing MMT.

  11. RecBCD Enzyme "Chi Recognition" Mutants Recognize Chi Recombination Hotspots in the Right DNA Context.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Susan K; Sharp, Jake W; Smith, Gerald R

    2016-09-01

    RecBCD enzyme is a complex, three-subunit protein machine essential for the major pathway of DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination in Escherichia coli Upon encountering a Chi recombination-hotspot during DNA unwinding, RecBCD nicks DNA to produce a single-stranded DNA end onto which it loads RecA protein. Conformational changes that regulate RecBCD's helicase and nuclease activities are induced upon its interaction with Chi, defined historically as 5' GCTGGTGG 3'. Chi is thought to be recognized as single-stranded DNA passing through a tunnel in RecC. To define the Chi recognition-domain in RecC and thus the mechanism of the RecBCD-Chi interaction, we altered by random mutagenesis eight RecC amino acids lining the tunnel. We screened for loss of Chi activity with Chi at one site in bacteriophage λ. The 25 recC mutants analyzed thoroughly had undetectable or strongly reduced Chi-hotspot activity with previously reported Chi sites. Remarkably, most of these mutants had readily detectable, and some nearly wild-type, activity with Chi at newly generated Chi sites. Like wild-type RecBCD, these mutants had Chi activity that responded dramatically (up to fivefold, equivalent to Chi's hotspot activity) to nucleotide changes flanking 5' GCTGGTGG 3'. Thus, these and previously published RecC mutants thought to be Chi-recognition mutants are actually Chi context-dependence mutants. Our results fundamentally alter the view that Chi is a simple 8-bp sequence recognized by the RecC tunnel. We propose that Chi hotspots have dual nucleotide sequence interactions, with both the RecC tunnel and the RecB nuclease domain.

  12. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy-Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong

    2014-03-01

    Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.

  13. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy—Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong

    2014-01-01

    Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults. PMID:25126445

  14. Telaprevir combination therapy in HCV/HIV co-infected patients (INSIGHT study): sustained virologic response at 12 weeks final analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Marisa; Nelson, Mark; Marie Girard, Pierre; Sasadeusz, Joe; Horban, Andrzej; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Zakharova, Natalia; Rivero, Antonio; Lathouwers, Erkki; Janssen, Katrien; Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; Witek, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We report the SVR12 final analysis of a phase 3 study of telaprevir in combination with peginterferon (P)/ribavirin (R) in HCV-genotype 1, treatment-naïve and -experienced patients with HCV/HIV co-infection (INSIGHT). Materials and Methods Patients receiving stable, suppressive HIV antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, containing atazanavir/ritonavir, efavirenz, darunavir/ritonavir, raltegravir, etravirine or rilpivirine, received telaprevir 750 mg q8h (1125 mg q8h if on efavirenz) plus P (180 µg once-weekly) and R (800 mg/day) for 12 weeks, followed by an additional 12 weeks (non-cirrhotic HCV treatment-naïve and relapse patients with extended rapid viral response [eRVR]) or 36 weeks (all others) of PR alone. Analysis was performed when all patients had completed the follow-up visit of 12 weeks after last planned dose. Results One hundred sixty-two patients were enrolled and treated (65 efavirenz, 59 atazanavir/ritonavir, 17 darunavir/ritonavir, 17 raltegravir, 4 etravirine). Mean age was 45 years, 78% were male, 92% were Caucasian; mean CD4 count was 687 cells/mm3. Sixty four patients (40%) were HCV treatment-naïve and 98 (60%) were treatment experienced (29 relapsers, 18 partial responders and 51 null responders). 64% were subtype 1a. 30% had bridging fibrosis (17%) or cirrhosis (13%). 19% of patients discontinued telaprevir, including 9% due to an adverse event (AE), 8% reaching a virologic endpoint and 2% for other reasons (non compliance or not defined). Treatment responses are shown in Table 1. There were no HIV RNA breakthroughs. Most frequently reported (≥20% patients) AEs were pruritus 43%; fatigue 27%; rash 34%, anorectal events 30% and influenza-like illness (25%). Anemia was reported in 15% of patients; grade ≥3 haemoglobin decrease occurred in 2.5% of patients. 6% of patients experienced serious AEs. Conclusions In this phase 3 study of HIV-infected, HCV treatment-naïve and -experienced patients, 49% achieved eRVR and 57% reached SVR12

  15. In Defense of Chi's Ontological Incompatibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotta, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to an article by A. Gupta, D. Hammer, and E. F. Redish (2010) that asserts that M. T. H. Chi's (1992, 2005) hypothesis of an "ontological commitment" in conceptual development is fundamentally flawed. In this article, I argue that Chi's theoretical perspective is still very much intact and that the critique offered by Gupta…

  16. Neyman's Restricted Chi-Square Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Neil H.

    Pearson's unrestricted chi-square procedure is reviewed, and an historical presentation of Neyman's restricted chi-square test is introduced with a discussion of its theory and applicability to education. An example of the Neyman procedure is discussed in detail to familiarize researchers with this useful technique for analyzing contingency…

  17. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  18. Oral pilocarpine for the treatment of ocular symptoms in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a randomised 12 week controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tsifetaki, N; Kitsos, G; Paschides, C; Alamanos, Y; Eftaxias, V; Voulgari, P; Psilas, K; Drosos, A

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of oral pilocarpine for the treatment of ocular symptoms in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Methods: A 12 week, single centre, randomised controlled study was performed. Twenty nine patients were randomly assigned to receive oral pilocarpine (5 mg twice a day), 28 only artificial tears, and 28 inferior puncta occlusion. Patients receiving oral pilocarpine and those with inferior puncta occlusion also received artificial tears. Patients were evaluated at baseline and throughout the study for their subjective global assessment of dry eyes and for their objective assessment of dry eyes (Schirmer's-I test, rose bengal test, and imprint test). Results: Patients taking oral pilocarpine had significant improvement in subjective global assessment of dry eyes, as was evaluated by improvement of >55 mm on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for responses to the eye questionnaire, compared with patients treated with artificial tears (p<0.001) and those with inferior puncta occlusion (p<0.05). Furthermore, patients receiving oral pilocarpine also showed greater objective improvement, as measured by the rose bengal test (p<0.05), while Schirmer's-I test showed no differences between the treated groups. Commonly reported adverse events were headache, increased sweating, nausea, and vomiting in the pilocarpine group, while one patient in the inferior puncta occlusion group had blepharitis and was withdrawn from the study. Conclusion: 10 mg of pilocarpine daily given to patients with SS for 12 weeks had a beneficial effect on subjective eye symptoms, as evaluated by improvement >55 mm on a VAS. Additionally, an improvement of rose bengal staining was noted, but an increase in tear production, as measured by the Schirmer-I test, was not substantiated. PMID:14644860

  19. Asenapine as adjunctive treatment for acute mania associated with bipolar disorder: results of a 12-week core study and 40-week extension.

    PubMed

    Szegedi, Armin; Calabrese, Joseph R; Stet, Let; Mackle, Mary; Zhao, Jun; Panagides, John

    2012-02-01

    In a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjunctive asenapine, bipolar I disorder patients experiencing manic or mixed episodes despite pretreatment with lithium or valproate monotherapy were treated with flexible-dose, twice-daily asenapine 5 or 10 mg (n = 158) or placebo (n = 166). The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score at week 3. Secondary outcomes included YMRS response and remission and Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score changes. Patients completing the core study were eligible for a 40-week double-blind extension assessing safety and tolerability. Adjunctive asenapine significantly improved mania versus placebo at week 3 (primary end point) and weeks 2 to 12. The YMRS response rates were similar at week 3 but significantly better with asenapine at week 12. The YMRS remission rates and changes from baseline on Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder for mania and overall illness were significantly better with asenapine at weeks 3 and 12. No other statistically significant differences on secondary outcomes were observed. Only a small number of patients entered the extension, making firm statistical conclusions on efficacy difficult. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by 5% or more of asenapine patients and at twice the incidence of placebo were sedation, somnolence, depression/depressive symptoms, oral hypoesthesia, and increased weight in the 12-week core study. Adjunctive asenapine to lithium or valproate was more effective than mood stabilizer monotherapy in the core study and was well tolerated for up to 52 weeks.

  20. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  1. Concentration- and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Clewell, H J; Thomas, R S; Kenyon, E M; Hughes, M F; Adair, B M; Gentry, P R; Yager, J W

    2011-10-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As(i)) is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to As(i) in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concentrations of 0.5, 2, 10, and 50 mg As/l. Urinary bladders were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. A consistent reversal was observed in the direction of gene expression change: from predominantly decreased expression at 1 week to predominantly increased expression at 12 weeks. These results are consistent with evidence from in vitro studies of an acute adaptive response that is suppressed on longer exposure due to downregulation of Fos. Pathways with the highest enrichment in gene expression changes were associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and proliferation. Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis determined that the lowest median BMD values for pathways were above 5 mg As/l, despite the fact that pathway enrichment was observed at the 0.5 mg As/l exposure concentration. This disparity may result from the nonmonotonic nature of the concentration-responses for the expression changes of a number of genes, as evidenced by the much fewer gene expression changes at 2 mg As/l compared with lower or higher concentrations. Pathway categories with concentration-related gene expression changes included cellular morphogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis/survival, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. The results of this study provide evidence of a concentration-dependent transition in the mode of action for the subchronic effects of As(i) in mouse bladder cells in the vicinity of 2 mg As(i)/l.

  2. The Efficacy and Safety of 12 Weeks of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir versus Sofosbuvir, Ledipasvir, and Ribavirin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 1, Who Have Cirrhosis and Have Failed Prior Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Carol; James, Matthew; Tang, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The recommended therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), genotype 1, who have cirrhosis and have failed prior therapy is 12 weeks of sofosbuvir (SOF), ledipasvir (LDV), and ribavirin (RBV). This recommendation is based on expert opinion, and the efficacy of 12 weeks of SOF/LDV compared to SOF/LDV/RBV in this patient population has not yet been established. Methods. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Two investigators independently searched electronic databases and relevant conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials comparing rates of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12) when using 12 weeks of SOF/LDV versus 12 weeks of SOF/LDV/RBV in patients with CHC, genotype 1, who have cirrhosis and failed previous therapy. Results. Our search strategy yielded 596 studies of which four met criteria for inclusion. The pooled RR of not achieving SVR12 with SOF/LDV versus SOF/LDV/RBV was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.42–3.48). Adverse events were lower in the SOF/LDV compared to the SOF/LDV/RBV arms (pooled RR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.04–0.29). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that 12 weeks of SOF/LDV cannot be considered noninferior to 12 weeks of SOF/LDV/RBV to achieve SVR12 in patients with CHC who have cirrhosis and failed prior therapy. PMID:28367429

  3. Try Drug-Free Options First for Low Back Pain, New Guidelines Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the pain lasts more than 12 weeks, studies suggest some drug-free options can still be helpful, the ACP said. Those include exercise therapy; acupuncture; "mind-body" therapies like yoga, tai chi, mindfulness-based ...

  4. Modeling the Causal Regulation of Transversely Accelerated Ion (TAI) Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Zhang, B.; Schmitt, P.; Lotko, W.

    2013-12-01

    TAIs are generated by wave particle interactions driven by waves at temporal and spatial scales which are inaccessible in global coupled geospace models. So far attempts to include TAI outflows in global models have focused on the use of empirical correlations between observed outflow fluxes and various inputs such as DC Poynting flux, Alfvénic Poynting flux, and electron precipitation fluxes. These treatments ignore feedbacks between the outflow and the state of the ionosphere and assume the spatial and temporal distributions of the outflows are identical to those of their drivers. This work presents an alternative approach which can overcome these deficiencies while still being sufficiently computationally efficient to couple into a global modeling framework. TAIs are incorporated into a 3-D fluid model of the ionosphere and polar wind by modeling them as a separate fluid which obeys transport equations appropriate for monoenergetic conic distributions. The characteristics of the TAI outflow produced depend on the assumed transverse heating rates and the 'promotion rate' which connects the TAI fluid to the thermal O+ fluid. Using drivers extracted from runs of the Coupled Magnetosphere Ionosphere Thermosphere (CMIT) model, different strategies for causally regulating these free parameters are explored. The model can reproduce many of the observed features of TAI outflows but also exhibits physical attributes that empirical relationships alone miss. These characteristics include flux limiting of the outflow from below when intense outflow creates high-altitude cavities, time delays between the onset of transverse heating and the appearance of outflow, and spatial distributions of outflow which are different from the spatial distributions of the applied transverse heating and which depend on the ionospheric convection pattern.

  5. Chi-Nu Level 2 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert Cameron; Lee, Hye Young; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr.; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Devlin, Matthew James; Ullmann, John Leonard; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Jandel, Marian; Nelson, Ronald Owen; Wender, Stephen Arthur; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael Evan; White, Morgan Curtis; Wu, Ching-Yen; Bucher, Brian Michael; Buckner, Matthew Quinn; Henderson, Roger Alan

    2015-09-18

    This series of slides presents information on Chi-Nu measurements and analysis of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) for neutron energy below 1 MeV for 235U. A key focus of the Chi-Nu measurement is to address the energy dependence of the low-energy emissions. The 235U PFNS evaluation is in progress. Chi-Nu delivered preliminary experimental data and input for part of the old experimental data base. The 239Pu PFNS evaluation is finalized and submitted for testing. Data from 252Cf spontaneous fission will also be obtained.

  6. A 12-Week Commercial Web-Based Weight-Loss Program for Overweight and Obese Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Basic Versus Enhanced Features

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Penelope; Fletcher, Kate; Martin, Julia; Aguiar, Elroy J; Lucas, Ashlee; Neve, Melinda J; Callister, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Background The development and use of Web-based programs for weight loss is increasing rapidly, yet they have rarely been evaluated using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Interestingly, most people who attempt weight loss use commercially available programs, yet it is very uncommon for commercial programs to be evaluated independently or rigorously. Objective To compare the efficacy of a standard commercial Web-based weight-loss program (basic) versus an enhanced version of this Web program that provided additional personalized e-feedback and contact from the provider (enhanced) versus a wait-list control group (control) on weight outcomes in overweight and obese adults. Methods This purely Web-based trial using a closed online user group was an assessor-blinded RCT with participants randomly allocated to the basic or enhanced 12-week Web-based program, based on social cognitive theory, or the control, with body mass index (BMI) as the primary outcome. Results We enrolled 309 adults (129/309, 41.8% male, BMI mean 32.3, SD 4 kg/m2) with 84.1% (260/309) retention at 12 weeks. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that both intervention groups reduced their BMI compared with the controls (basic: –0.72, SD 1.1 kg/m2, enhanced: –1.0, SD 1.4, control: 0.15, SD 0.82; P < .001) and lost significant weight (basic: –2.1, SD 3.3 kg, enhanced: –3.0, SD 4.1, control: 0.4, SD 2.3; P < .001) with changes in waist circumference (basic: –2.0, SD 3.5 cm, enhanced: –3.2, SD 4.7, control: 0.5, SD 3.0; P < .001) and waist-to-height ratio (basic: –0.01, SD 0.02, enhanced: –0.02, SD 0.03, control: 0.0, SD 0.02; P < .001), but no differences were observed between the basic and enhanced groups. The addition of personalized e-feedback and contact provided limited additional benefits compared with the basic program. Conclusions A commercial Web-based weight-loss program can be efficacious across a range of weight-related outcomes and lifestyle behaviors and achieve

  7. Effects of barnidipine on blood pressure and left ventricular diastolic function in patients with hypertension and metabolic syndrome: A 12-week, open-label noncomparison study

    PubMed Central

    Angeli, Fabio; Repaci, Salvatore; Borgioni, Claudia; Sardone, Mariagrazia; Scotti, Aurelio; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Barnidipine is one of a new generation of dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers. Despite evidence of favorable effects on blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity, this drug has rarely been tested in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of barnidipine on BP and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with hypertension and MS. Methods: Consecutive subjects aged 18 to 75 years with systolic BP (SBP) of 140 to 179 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) of 90 to 109 mm Hg and MS (based on Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) were assessed for inclusion in the study. Lifestyle changes according to current guidelines were recommended and barnidipine monotherapy 10 mg daily was initiated. All patients entered a 2-week run-in period. After a 6-week treatment period, the daily dosage was doubled for the remainder of the study in patients whose BP remained uncontrolled (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). We assessed the glycolipidic profile and LV structure and function using standard Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiography before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Ambulatory BP records and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic tracings were coded and shipped to a central laboratory for blinded analysis. Possible adverse events (AEs) were recorded at predetermined intervals throughout the follow-up period and at unplanned intervals whenever an AE became known to the investigators. Results: Thirty-four consecutive patients were assessed for inclusion. Thirty consecutive patients (20 men, 10 women; mean {SD| age, 55.9 {10.3| years; 5 current smokers) were included in the study. At study entry, mean office SBP was 146 mm Hg, DBP was 87 mm Hg, and heart rate was 72 beats/min. At the study end, mean office SBP/DBP was <140/90 mm Hg in 20 patients (66.7%). From baseline to study end, 24-hour ambulatory BP decreased significantly by 12 and 8 mm Hg for SBP and DBP, respectively

  8. Bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension previously treated with latanoprost: two randomized 12-week trials

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan S; Vold, Steven; Zaman, Fiaz; Williams, Julia M; Hollander, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Methods Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ≥20 mmHg after ≥30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily). Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03%) are presented. Results Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean) was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957). In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean) reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001), ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0%) mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8%) mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia of mild or greater severity increased from latanoprost baseline after 12 weeks of treatment only in the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arm. Conclusion Many patients who do not reach their target IOP on latanoprost can achieve additional IOP

  9. Umeclidinium/vilanterol as step-up therapy from tiotropium in patients with moderate COPD: a randomized, parallel-group, 12-week study

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, Edward M; Kalberg, Chris J; Galkin, Dmitry V; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Church, Alison; Riley, John H; Fahy, William A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Patients with COPD who remain symptomatic on long-acting bronchodilator monotherapy may benefit from step-up therapy to a long-acting bronchodilator combination. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of umeclidinium (UMEC)/vilanterol (VI) in patients with moderate COPD who remained symptomatic on tiotropium (TIO). Methods In this randomized, blinded, double-dummy, parallel-group study (NCT01899742), patients (N=494) who were prescribed TIO for ≥3 months at screening (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]: 50%–70% of predicted; modified Medical Research Council [mMRC] score ≥1) and completed a 4-week run-in with TIO were randomized to UMEC/VI 62.5/25 µg or TIO 18 µg for 12 weeks. Efficacy assessments included trough FEV1 at Day 85 (primary end point), 0–3 h serial FEV1, rescue medication use, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs). Results Compared with TIO, UMEC/VI produced greater improvements in trough FEV1 (least squares [LS] mean difference: 88 mL at Day 85 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 45–131]; P<0.001) and FEV1 after 5 min on Day 1 (50 mL [95% CI: 27–72]; P<0.001). Reductions in rescue medication use over 12 weeks were greater with UMEC/VI versus TIO (LS mean change: −0.1 puffs/d [95% CI: −0.2–0.0]; P≤0.05). More patients achieved clinically meaningful improvements in TDI score (≥1 unit) with UMEC/VI (63%) versus TIO (49%; odds ratio at Day 84=1.78 [95% CI: 1.21–2.64]; P≤0.01). Improvements in SGRQ and CAT scores were similar between treatments. The incidence of AEs was similar with UMEC/VI (30%) and TIO (31%). Conclusion UMEC/VI step-up therapy provides clinical benefit over TIO monotherapy in patients with moderate COPD who are symptomatic on TIO alone. PMID:28280319

  10. CHY loop integrands from holomorphic forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Humberto; Mizera, Sebastian; Zhang, Guojun

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) approach for calculating scattering amplitudes has been extended beyond tree level. In this paper, we introduce a way of constructing CHY integrands for Φ3 theory up to two loops from holomorphic forms on Riemann surfaces. We give simple rules for translating Feynman diagrams into the corresponding CHY integrands. As a complementary result, we extend the Λ-algorithm, originally introduced in arXiv:1604.05373, to two loops. Using this approach, we are able to analytically verify our prescription for the CHY integrands up to seven external particles at two loops. In addition, it gives a natural way of extending to higher-loop orders.

  11. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  13. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  14. A 12-Week Assessment of the Treatment of White Spot Lesions with CPP-ACP Paste and/or Fluoride Varnish

    PubMed Central

    Güçlü, Zeynep Aslı; Alaçam, Alev

    2016-01-01

    This 12-week clinical study evaluated the impact of 10% CPP-ACP and 5% sodium fluoride varnish regimes on the regression of nonorthodontic white spot lesions (WSLs). The study included 21 children with 101 WSLs who were randomised into four treatment regimes: weekly clinical applications of fluoride varnish for the first month (FV); twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP); weekly applications of fluoride varnish for the first month and twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP-FV); and no intervention (control). All groups undertook a standard oral hygiene protocol and weekly consultation. Visual appraisals and laser fluorescence (LF) measurements were made in weeks one and twelve. The majority of WSLs in the control and FV groups exhibited no shift in appearance, whereas, in the CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP-FV groups, the lesions predominantly regressed. The visual and LF assessments indicated that the extent of remineralisation afforded by the treatments was of the following order: control ~ FV < CPP-ACP ~ CPP-ACP-FV. Self-applications of CPP-ACP paste as an adjunct to standard oral hygiene significantly improved the appearance and remineralisation of WSLs. No advantage was observed for the use of fluoride varnish as a supplement to either the standard or CPP-ACP-enhanced oral hygiene regimes. PMID:27843950

  15. A Guide to the Tai-shan Dialect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    This document provides a description of the Tai-shan dialect of Chinese. Maps illustrate the area where the dialect is spoken, and introductory remarks concern previous study of the dialect, sources of current information, and relationship to other dialects. The phonological description provides information on syllable structure, initials, finals,…

  16. Evolution of the International Atomic Time TAI computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granveaud, M.

    1979-01-01

    The computation of the International Atomic Time (TAI), a worldwide time reference, is briefly examined. The types of atomic clocks, computation procedures, and time intercomparison between clocks utilizing navigation satellites are addressed. Changes in the system would essentially depend on the improvement of the atomic clocks.

  17. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  18. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  19. Ropinirole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome: results from the TREAT RLS 1 study, a 12 week, randomised, placebo controlled study in 10 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Trenkwalder, C; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Montagna, P; Lainey, E; de Weerd, A W; Tidswell, P; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G; Telstad, W; Ferini-Strambi, L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ropinirole in the treatment of patients with restless legs syndrome. Methods: A 12 week, prospective, double blind, randomised comparison involving 284 patients from 10 European countries. All participants had a score of ⩾15 on the international restless legs scale (IRLS). Patients were randomised (1:1) to receive either ropinirole 0.25–4.0 mg once daily or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline to week 12 in total IRLS score. Global improvements (clinical global impression (CGI) scale) and improvements in sleep, health related quality of life (QoL; using generic and disease specific measures), work, and other activities were also assessed. Results: 112/146 patients (76.7%) taking ropinirole and 109/138 (79.0%) taking placebo completed the study. Improvement in IRLS at week 12 with ropinirole (mean (SD) dose, 1.90 (1.13) mg/day) was greater than with placebo (mean (SE): -11.04 (0.719) v -8.03 (0.738) points; adjusted difference = -3.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), -5.03 to -0.99); p = 0.0036). More patients in the ropinirole group (53.4%) showed improvement on the CGI scale at week 12 than in the placebo group (40.9%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.7 (1.02 to 2.69); p = 0.0416). Significant differences on both IRLS and CGI scales favouring ropinirole were apparent by week 1. Ropinirole was also associated with significantly greater improvements in sleep and QoL end points. The most common adverse events were nausea and headache. Conclusions: Ropinirole improves restless legs syndrome compared with placebo, with benefits apparent by week 1. It is generally well tolerated. PMID:14707315

  20. Modest weight loss through a 12-week weight management program with behavioral modification seems to attenuate inflammatory responses in young obese Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, AeJin; Jeon, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Hye-Kyeong; Han, Sung Nim

    2015-04-01

    Obesity has been reported to impair immune functions and lead to low-grade long-term inflammation; however, studies that have investigated the impact of weight loss on these among the young and slightly obese are limited. Thus, we investigated the effect of a 12-week weight management program with behavioral modifications on cell-mediated immune functions and inflammatory responses in young obese participants. Our hypothesis was that weight loss would result in improved immune functions and decreased inflammatory responses. Sixty-four participants (45 obese and 19 normal weight) finished the program. Obese (body mass index ≥25) participants took part in 5 group education and 6 individual counseling sessions. Normal-weight (body mass index 18.5-23) participants only attended 6 individual sessions. The goal for the obese was to lose 0.5 kg/wk by reducing their intake by 300 to 500 kcal/d and increasing their physical activity. Program participation resulted in a modest but significant decrease in weight (2.7 ± 0.4 kg, P < .001) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin-1β production (from 0.85 ± 0.07 to 0.67 ± 0.07 ng/mL, P < .05) in the obese. In the obese group, increase in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated interleukin-10 production, a TH2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine, approached significance after program participation (from 6181 ± 475 to 6970 ± 632 pg/mL, P = .06). No significant changes in proliferative responses to the optimal concentration of concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin were observed in the obese after program participation. Collectively, modest weight loss did not change the cell-mediated immune functions significantly but did attenuate the inflammatory response in young and otherwise healthy obese adults.

  1. Fluoxetine versus sertraline in the treatment of patients with undifferentiated somatoform disorder: a randomized, open-label, 12-week, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Changsu; Pae, Chi-Un; Lee, Bun Hee; Ko, Young-Hoon; Masand, Prakash S; Patkar, Ashwin A; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-02-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of fluoxetine and sertraline in the treatment of undifferentiated somatoform disorder (USD), using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15), which was specifically designed for assessing the severity of somatic symptoms. A randomized, 12-week, open-label trial of fluoxetine (10-60 mg/d) and sertraline (25-350 mg/d) in patients with USD was conducted. Six visits, at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12, were scheduled. Assessments for effectiveness and tolerability were conducted at each visit. The primary effectiveness measure was the mean change in PHQ-15 total score, from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary effectiveness measures were the mean changes in total scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), from baseline to the end of treatment. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled; of them, 28 were randomly assigned to receive fluoxetine and 17 to receive sertraline. The total score on the PHQ-15 from baseline to the end of treatment significantly decreased in the fluoxetine (-10.7, p<0.0001) and sertraline (-10.3, p<0.0001) treatment groups, with no between-group difference (F=0.0701, p=0.7924). Overall, both treatments were well tolerated and no serious adverse event was reported. This study suggests that both agents may have a potential role in the treatment of USD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and/or head-to-head comparison study with larger samples are required to draw more definite conclusions.

  2. Psychomotor symptoms and treatment outcomes of ziprasidone monotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential parallel comparison trial.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Doorley, James; DiPierro, Moneika; Cardoos, Amber; Papakostas, George I

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of ziprasidone monotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) with and without psychomotor symptoms. In accordance with the sequential parallel comparison design, 106 MDD patients (age 44.0±10.7 years; female, 43.4%) were recruited and a post-hoc analysis was carried out on 12-week double-blind treatment with either ziprasidone (40-160 mg/day) or placebo, divided into two phases of 6 weeks each to the assigned treatment sequences, drug/drug, placebo/placebo, and placebo/drug. Psychomotor symptoms were evaluated on the basis of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline. Efficacy assessments, on the basis of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Scale, Self-Rated (QIDS-SR), were performed every week throughout the trial. In phase I, ziprasidone monotherapy produced significant improvement in patients with psychomotor symptoms compared with placebo on the basis of HDRS-17 (F=5.95, P=0.017) and QIDS-SR (F=5.26, P=0.025) scores, whereas no significant changes were found in HDRS-17 (F=2.32, P=0.15) and QIDS-SR (F=3.70, P=0.074) scores in patients without psychomotor symptoms. In phase II, ziprasidone monotherapy produced no significant differences compared with placebo. In the pooled analysis, ziprasidone monotherapy showed significance according to QIDS-SR (Z=2.00, P=0.046) and a trend toward statistical significance according to the HDRS-17 (Z=1.66, P=0.10) in patients with psychomotor symptoms. Ziprasidone monotherapy may produce significant improvement compared with placebo in MDD patients with psychomotor symptoms.

  3. Why the CHI Community Should be Involved in Standards: Stories from Three CHI Participants

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Arnie; Scholtz, Jean; Bevan, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    In this article, the three authors tell their stories about involvement in standards that are relevant to the computer human interaction community(CHI). Their reasoning for being involved is given and readers are also given information about different organizations that develop standards relevant to CHI.

  4. CHI-B: Sample Size Calculation for Chi-Square Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Norval F.; Tsai, San-Yun W.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the approximate chi-square test for hypotheses concerning multinomial probabilities is reviewed. Also, a BASIC computer program for calculating the sample size necessary to control for both Type I and Type II errors in chi-square tests for hypotheses concerning multinomial probabilities is described.

  5. The coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1994-03-01

    A wiggler design has been developed which is scalable to small periods with high field amplitude, high beam current acceptance, and excellent transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler design consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic rings with the central portion of the coax shifted by one half period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically symmetric periodic field. FEL configurations using this wiggler design have the potential for high power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated characteristics of the CHI wiggler are discussed.

  6. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Tristan Brooks; Devlin, Matthew James

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  7. Effects of a 12-Week Physical Activity Protocol Delivered by YMCA After-School Counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on Fitness and Self-Efficacy Changes in 5-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Westcott, Wayne L.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Unruh, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    To address reduced physical education (PE) in elementary schools, a 12-week physical activity protocol was tested on 5-12-year-old, primarily African American, girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 344) at 14 YMCA after-school care sites. The 3 times/week, 45-min session curriculum included cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training, in which…

  8. Slip distribution and tectonic implication of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Song, T.-R.A.; Ma, K.-F.; Wald, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the fault complexity of the large (Mw = 7.6) Chi-Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well-distributed static measurements consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. The inferred geometric complexity explains the difference between the strike of the fault plane determined by long period seismic data and surface break observations. When combined with other geophysical and geological observations, the result provides a unique snapshot of tectonic deformation taking place in the form of very large (>10m) displacements of a massive wedge-shaped crustal block which may relate to the changeover from over-thrusting to subducting motion between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates.

  9. Current Problems of Education and Proposals for Improvement in Tai Nationality Schools in Gengma Tai-Wa Nationalities Autonomous County, Yunnan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanqing

    1989-01-01

    Identifies current problems of education and proposes means for improving Tai nationality schools. Discusses the language problem, the quality of teachers, budgeting concerns, and effects caused by cultural uniqueness. Offers specific ways to overcome these problems and improve the educational level of Tai nationality students. (KO)

  10. Microscale anatomy of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie; Yeh, En-Chao; Boutareaud, SéBastien; Song, Sheng-Rong; Tsai, Chin-Ho

    2009-03-01

    Two TCDP boreholes A and B were drilled in the northern part of the Chelungpu thrust fault where the Chi-Chi earthquake (21 September 1999, Mw 7.6) showed large displacement, low ground acceleration, and high slip velocity. In this paper, we describe the microstructures of the Chi-Chi Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) within black gouges localized at 1111 m depth in Hole A and at 1136 m depth in Hole B. In the FZA1111 the PSZ is a 2 cm-thick isotropic clay-rich gouge which contains aggregates formed by central clasts coated by clay cortex (clay-clast aggregates (CCAs)) and fragments of older gouges segregated in the top third of the PSZ. In FZB1136 the PSZ is 3 mm thick and is characterized by a foliated gouge displaying an alternation of clay-rich and clast-rich layers. The presence of CCAs, plucked underlying gouge fragments, gouge injections, and the occurrence of reverse grain size segregation of large clasts in the FZA1111 isotropic gouge suggest that the gouge was fluidized as a result of frictional heating and thermal pressurization. The foliated gouge in FZB1136 may be one locus of strain localization and related heat production. Small calcite veins present above the isotropic FZA1111 PSZ gouge and, characterized by an increasing strain with increasing distance away from the PSZ, are attributed to coseismic fluid escape from the pressurized gouge. The observed microstructures are interpreted in view of their seismic implications for the Chi-Chi earthquake in terms of slip weakening mechanisms by thermal pressurization, gouge fluidization, coseismic fluid distribution, and postseismic slip. Above the PSZ, several layers of compacted gouges containing deformed CCAs and gouge fragments correspond to several PSZ of past earthquakes similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake and display a fault-parallel cleavage resulting from a low strain rate pressure solution deformation mechanism that may be correlated to the interseismic periods.

  11. State of Büchi Complementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Fogarty, Seth; Vardi, Moshe Y.; Tsay, Yih-Kuen

    chi complementation has been studied for five decades since the formalism was introduced in 1960. Known complementation constructions can be classified into Ramsey-based, determinization-based, rank-based, and slice-based approaches. For the performance of these approaches, there have been several complexity analyses but very few experimental results. What especially lacks is a comparative experiment on all the four approaches to see how they perform in practice. In this paper, we review the state of Büchi complementation, propose several optimization heuristics, and perform comparative experimentation on the four approaches. The experimental results show that the determinization-based Safra-Piterman construction outperforms the other three and our heuristics substantially improve the Safra-Piterman construction and the slice-based construction.

  12. Noise in chi (3) and photorefractive amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternklar, Shmuel; Glick, Yaakov

    1995-12-01

    A comparison of the noise characteristics of chi (3) and photorefractive coherent amplifiers reveals basic differences in their dependence on operating parameters. Unlike all types of chi (3) amplifiers, which are shown to have a well-defined optimum working point in the region of the self-stimulated scattering threshold, the photorefractive amplifier can be made increasingly quieter by lowering the pump power. This is demonstrated by use of highly doped Co:BaTiO3 in a tight-focus reflection grating geometry. It is shown that scattering from inhomogeneities in the crystal is the major limiting noise source and is significantly higher than predictions resulting from fundamental considerations such as random space-charge noise. An extremely high small-signal gain of 107 was measured with this crystal and geometry. To our knowledge this is the highest photorefractive gain reported to date.

  13. CHY-graphs on a torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Carlos; Gomez, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    Recently, we proposed a new approach using a punctured Elliptic curve in the CHY framework in order to compute one-loop scattering amplitudes. In this note, we further develop this approach by introducing a set of connectors, which become the main ingredient to build integrands on {M}_{1,n} , the moduli space of n-punctured Elliptic curves. As a particular application, we study the Φ3 bi-adjoint scalar theory. We propose a set of rules to construct integrands on {M}_{1,n} from Φ3 integrands on {M}_{0,n} , the moduli space of n-punctured spheres. We illustrate these rules by computing a variety of Φ3 one-loop Feynman diagrams. Conversely, we also provide another set of rules to compute the corresponding CHY-integrand on {M}_{1,n} by starting instead from a given Φ3 one-loop Feynman diagram. In addition, our results can easily be extended to higher loops.

  14. 59. The right hand portion of the Wah Chong Tai ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. The right hand portion of the Wah Chong Tai Co. was built by a Chinese immigrant in the late 1890s as a noodle factory and store for Chinese imported goods. The left portion was constructed in 1909 and a noodle parlor was opened on the upper story. This building has a distinctive oriental design around the windows. Both buildings are substantially intact, and retain basement level storefronts. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. A Double-Blind, 12-Week Study to Evaluate the Antiaging Efficacy of a Cream Containing the NFκB Inhibitor 4-Hexyl-1, 3-Phenylenediol and Ascorbic Acid-2 Glucoside in Adult Females.

    PubMed

    Roure, Romain; Nollent, Virginie; Dayan, Liliane; Camel, Etienne; Bertin, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The 5 main physical manifestations of aged skin are wrinkles, uneven tone, brown spots, loss of elasticity, and dryness. One mechanism resulting in these physical manifestations is increased activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein. This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized split-face study compared the antiaging effect and safety of a face cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol, an NFκB inhibitor, and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside versus placebo in adult females aged 45-70 years old. Subjects (n=42) applied active treatment or placebo to the same half face twice daily at home for 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation was carried out by a dermatologist. Subjects carried out similar self-grading assessments. Colorimetric measurements analyzed skin color, and biomechanical skin properties were evaluated. Clinical grading showed that most wrinkle parameters were significantly improved after 8 weeks of active treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05), with improvements maintained after 12 weeks. Only Marionette wrinkles did not show a significant improvement. Brown spots (color intensity/number), overall photodamage, and most complexion parameters improved significantly after 8 and 12 weeks compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05). Self-grading yielded similar results compared with baseline. Self-grading did not demonstrate improvements with active treatment versus placebo, except for skin firmness at 8 and 12 weeks (P≤.05). A significant difference was seen with active treatment compared with placebo in all colorimetric parameters (L*, b*, and ITA°) after 8 weeks, and in spot coloration (b*) after 12 weeks (P<.05). Improvements in skin elasticity were not significantly different between treatments. Overall tolerability of active treatment was judged as good. In conclusion, a cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside improves the clinical appearance of aged

  16. Ramp-up of CHI Initiated Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B; Roquemore, A L; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Soukhanovskii, V

    2009-10-29

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus (NSTX) have now demonstrated flux savings using transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI). In these discharges, the discharges initiated by CHI are ramped up with an inductive transformer and exhibit higher plasma current than discharges without the benefit of CHI initiation.

  17. Transposed Paternò-Büchi Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kumarasamy, Elango; Raghunathan, Ramya; Kandappa, Sunil Kumar; Sreenithya, A; Jockusch, Steffen; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Sivaguru, J

    2017-01-18

    A complementary strategy of utilizing ππ* excited state of alkene instead of nπ* excited state of the carbonyl chromophore in a "transposed Paternò-Büchi" reaction is evaluated with atropisomeric enamides as the model system. Based on photophysical investigations, the nature of excited states and the reactive pathway was deciphered leading to atropselective reaction. This new concept of switching of excited-state configuration should pave the way to control the stereochemical course of photoreaction due to the orbital approaches required for photochemical reactivity.

  18. Micro-Scale Anatomy of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boullier, A.-M.; Yeh, E.-C.; Boutareaud, S.; Song, S.-R.; Tsai, C.-H.

    2009-04-01

    Two TCDP bore-holes A and B were drilled in the northern part of the Chelungpu thrust fault where the Chi-Chi earthquake (September 21, 1999, Mw 7.6) showed large displacement, low ground acceleration and high slip velocity. In this paper, we describe the microstructures of the Chi-Chi Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) within black gouges localized at 1111m depth in Hole A and at 1136m depth in Hole B. In the FZA1111 the PSZ is a 2 cm-thick isotropic clay-rich gouge which contains aggregates formed by central clasts coated by clay cortex (Clay Clast Aggregates, CCAs), and fragments of older gouges segregated in the top third of the PSZ. In FZB1136 the PSZ is 3 mm-thick and is characterized by a foliated gouge displaying an alternation of clay-rich and clast-rich layers. The presence of CCAs, plucked underlying gouge fragments, gouge injections, and the occurrence of reverse grain size segregation of large clasts in the FZA1111 isotropic gouge suggest that the gouge was fluidized as a result of frictional heating and thermal pressurization. The foliated gouge in FZB1136 may be one locus of strain localization and related heat production. Small calcite veins present above the isotropic FZA1111 PSZ gouge, and characterized by an increasing strain with increasing distance away from the PSZ, are attributed to co-seismic fluid escape from the pressurized gouge. The observed microstructures are interpreted in view of their seismic implications for the Chi-Chi earthquake in terms of slip weakening mechanisms by thermal pressurization, gouge fluidization, co-seismic fluid distribution and post-seismic slip. Above the PSZ, several layers of compacted gouges containing deformed CCAs and gouge fragments correspond to several PSZ of past earthquakes similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake, and display a fault-parallel cleavage resulting from a low strain-rate pressure solution deformation mechanism that may be correlated to the inter-seismic periods.

  19. Tracking Spinal Cord Injury: Differences in Cytokine Expression of IGF-1, TGF- B1, and sCD95l Can Be Measured in Blood Samples and Correspond to Neurological Remission in a 12-Week Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Ferbert, Thomas; Child, Christopher; Graeser, Viola; Swing, Tyler; Akbar, Michael; Heller, Raban; Biglari, Bahram; Moghaddam, Arash

    2017-02-01

    Neuroinflammation presumably has an important impact on the secondary phase of spinal cord injury and is regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. We analyzed serum levels of three different cytokines (insulin-like-growth-factor [IGF]-1, tumor growth factor [TGF]-β1, and soluble CD 95 ligand [sCD95L]), in blood samples of 23 patients admitted with acute traumatic spinal cord injury between November 2010 and July 2013 with a follow-up period of 12 weeks. Quantification was performed using Human Quantikine Immunoassays, classification of neurological impairment was performed using the American Spinal Cord Injury Impairment Scale at time of admission and after 12 weeks. After an initial drop of all three cytokine serum levels, IGF-1, TGF-β1, and sCD95L showed significantly increased serum levels during the acute and sub-acute phases. For IGF-1 and sCD95L, we could also observe significantly higher serum levels in patients without neurological improvement compared with patients who had improvement after 12 weeks. In this study, we were able to show differences in cytokine serum levels in patients with different neurological outcome. Measuring the serum level patterns of IGF-1, TGF-β1, and sCD95L might be a useful tool for prognosis in patients with neurological improvement and tracking the pathophysiology in further studies. Further, our observations might link promising therapeutic efforts in numerous animal studies and future studies in human patients.

  20. Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is sponsored jointly by Psi Chi, the national honor society in psychology, and the APA. The award is presented annually to the psychology graduate student who submits the best research paper that was published or presented at a national, regional, or state psychological association conference during the past calendar year. The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. Members of the 2016 Edwin B. Newman Award Committee were Shawn Carlton, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Christina Frederick-Recascino, PhD; John Norcross, PhD, APA representative; Karenna Malavanti, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Steven Kohn, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Warren Fass, PhD, Psi Chi representative; Chris Lovelace, PhD, Psi Chi representative; and Cathy Epkins, PhD, APA representative. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Molecular Medicine - CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference: Mastering Medicinal Chemistry - CHI's Seventh Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Semple, Graeme

    2010-04-01

    CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference on Molecular Medicine, held in San Francisco, included topics covering the drug discovery process, with an emphasis on lead optimization. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of several launched and investigational drugs, including Plerixafor, Trox-1 (CombinatoRX Inc), lorcaserin (Arena Pharmaceuticals Inc), vorapaxar (Merck & Co Inc) and ulimorelin (Tranzyme Pharma Inc).

  2. Multi-resolution Analysis of the slip history of 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2001-05-01

    Studies of large earthquakes have revealed strong heterogeneity in faulting slip distributions at mid-crustal depths. These results are inferred from modeling l ocal GPS and strong motion records but are usually limited by the lack of data density. Here we report on the fault complexity of the large (Magnitude 7.6) Chi- Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well distributed static measure ments consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records, whic h is the best static data set yet recorded for a large earthquake. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. Furthermore, similar to our previous study in 1999 Hector Mine ea rthquake (Ji et al., 2001), the static data, teleseismic body wave and local str ong motion data are used to constrain the rupture process. A simulated annealing method combined with wavelet transform approach is employed to solve for the sl ip histories on subfault elements with variable sizes. The sizes are adjusted it eratively based on data type and distribution to produce an optimal balance betw een resolution and reliability. Results indicate strong local variations in rupt ure characteristics with relatively rapid changes in the middle and southern por tion producing relatively strong accelerations.

  3. Trichoderma asperellum Chi42 Genes Encode Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    Quang, Hoang Tan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Huy, Nguyen Duc; Phuong, Truong Thi Bich; Ha, Tran Thi Thu

    2011-01-01

    Four Trichoderma strains (CH2, SH16, PQ34, and TN42) were isolated from soil samples collected from Quang Tri and Thua Thien Hue provinces in Vietnam. The strains exhibited high chitinolytic secretion. Strain PQ34 formed the largest zone of chitinase-mediated clearance (> 4 cm in diameter) in agar containing 1% (w/v) colloidal chitin. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of these strains indicated that they were Trichoderma asperellum. The molecular weights of the chitinases were approximately 42 kDa. Chitinase genes (chi42) of T. asperellum strains TN42, CH2, SH16, and PQ34 were 98~99% homologous to the ech42 gene of T. harzianum CB-Pin-01 (accession No. DQ166036). The deduced amino acid sequences of both T. asperellum strains SH16 and TN42 shared 100% similarity. PMID:22783101

  4. 3-D Numerical Investigation of the Tsaoling Landslide Induced by Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C.; Hu, J.

    2004-12-01

    Large landslides occurred in the mountainous area near the epicenter of the Sept. 21st, 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. These landslides were triggered by the Mw = 7.6 earthquake, which resulted in more than 2,400 human casualties and widespread damage. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake triggered a catastrophic Tsaloing landslide, which mobilized about 0.125 km3 of rock and soil that slid across the Chingshui River and created a 5 km long natural dam. One fifth of the landslide mass dropped into the Chingshui River, the rest jumped over the river. At least five large landslides occurred in Tsaoling area are induced by big earthquake and heavy rainfalls since 1862 to 1999. Geological investigation shows that the prevailing attitude of sedimentary formation is about N45W with a dipping angle of 12S. First we used Remark Method to calculate the stability of slope. The bottom of slope has been eroded by Chingshui stream, and the PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) in Chi-Chi earthquake was exceeded the yield acceleration along the sliding surface. The landslide mechanism may be including flowing, rolling, bouncing and sliding. The rock on the fault plane during faulting can generate pseudotachylyte resulted from melted rock by frictional heat energy along the sliding surface. The frictional melted rocks were found out in the Chiu-Fen-Erh-Shan collapses. However, we didn¡¦t found out the frictional melted rock in Tsaoling area. If we calculated the kinetic energy which was converted to heat energy, the increase of temperature was enough to melt the rocks on sliding surface. When the rocks on the sliding surface had been melted, the friction on the sliding surface must be decrease. Therefore, the 0.125 km3 debris had sufficient kinetic energy to across Chingshui River to the other side of the river. Using 3D distinct-element modeling (PFC3d code), we try to simulate kinematic process of Tsaoling landslide. Our numerical model was compose of about 10,000 spherical

  5. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465

  6. Heart rate recovery and heart rate variability are unchanged in patients with coronary artery disease following 12 weeks of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity endurance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Rosen, Lee M; Millar, Philip J; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-06-01

    Decreased heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise are associated with an increased risk of mortality in cardiac patients. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) and a novel low-volume high-intensity interval exercise protocol (HIT) on measures of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fourteen males with CAD participated in 12 weeks of END or HIT training, each consisting of 2 supervised exercise sessions per week. END consisted of 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO). HIT involved ten 1-min intervals at 88% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO. Heart rate recovery at 1 min and 2 min was measured before and after training (pre- and post-training, respectively) using a submaximal exercise bout. Resting time and spectral and nonlinear domain measures of heart rate variability were calculated. Following 12 weeks of END and HIT, there was no change in heart rate recovery at 1 min (END, 40 ± 12 beats·min(-1) vs. 37 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 31 ± 8 beats·min(-1) vs. 35 ± 8 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training) or 2 min (END, 44 ± 18 beats·min(-1) vs. 43 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 42 ± 10 beats·min(-1) vs. 50 ± 6 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training). All heart rate variability indices were unchanged following END and HIT training. In conclusion, neither END nor HIT exercise programs elicited training-induced improvements in cardiac autonomic function in patients with CAD. The absence of improvements with training may be attributed to the optimal medical management and normative pretraining state of our sample.

  7. Pollen- and anther-specific chi promoters from petunia: tandem promoter regulation of the chiA gene.

    PubMed Central

    van Tunen, A J; Mur, L A; Brouns, G S; Rienstra, J D; Koes, R E; Mol, J N

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal activities of chalcone flavanone isomerase (chi) A and B gene promoters from petunia. To study the tandem promoter regulation of chiA, various chiA promoter fragments were fused with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Analysis of transgenic plants containing these chimeric genes provided definitive proof that the chiA coding region is regulated by two distinct promoters (designated PA1 and PA2). We also showed that both promoters can function independently and that the chiA PA1 promoter is expressed in limb (epidermal and parenchyma cells), tube (inner epidermal and parenchyma cells), seed (seed coat, endosperm, and embryo), sepal, leaf, and stem. The use of chiA and chiB promoters in the regulation of anther- and pollen-specific gene expression has been studied. By analyzing transgenic plants containing chimeric genes consisting of chiA and B promoter fragments and the GUS reporter gene, we were able to identify a 0.44-kilobase chiA PA2 promoter fragment that drives pollen-specific gene expression and a 1.75-kilobase chiB PB promoter fragment that confers anther-specific (pollen and tapetum cells) expression to the GUS gene. PMID:2152165

  8. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 M w7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 ?? 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged S wave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 × 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged Swave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  10. Building collapse and human deaths resulting from the Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan, September 1999.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Hwang, Long-Chih; Chang, Chih-Ching; Hong, Yu-Jue; Lee, I-Nong; Huang, Jen-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Fang; Shen, Maurice; Lin, Chia-Hong; Gau, Yung-Yen; Yang, Chin-Tzo

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the authors attempted to determine factors associated with earthquake deaths in the great Chi-Chi Earthquake that occurred on September 21, 1999, in Taiwan. An isoseismal map was used to identify life-threatening hazards. The vertical peak ground acceleration of ground motion intensity was deemed the most appropriate index for the evaluation of building collapse and mortality. Mortality increased with the increase in earthquake intensity, and building collapse, approaching the epicenter. The greatest number of collapsed buildings and human deaths occurred between the Chelungpu Fault and the Shuantun Fault. Individuals 65 yr of age and older were the most vulnerable to the impact. The authors' findings suggest that improvements in earthquake-resistant building design and construction, as well as improved medical rescue for the elderly, could reduce the level of exposure to earthquake hazards.

  11. Slip distribution and tectonic implications of the great Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, D. V.; Ji, C.; Lavier, L.

    2001-12-01

    Most of the tectonic activities of Taiwan are related to the collision between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. The eastward subducting Eurasian plate underneath the Philippine Sea plate in southern Taiwan has been used as a classical example of the Critical Taper Model. However, the tectonic style in northeast Taiwan reflects the northward subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Eurasian plate. The recent Chi-Chi earthquake occurred in central Taiwan, near the region where the subduction direction changes. Here we will report on the fault complexity of the Chi-Chi earthquake as obtained by inverting densely and well-distributed static measurements. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. The inferred geometric complexity is later proven to be able to satisfy both far field and near field seismic observations simultaneously. This result provides a unique snapshot of tectonic deformation taking place in the form of very large (>10m) displacements of a massive wedge-shaped crustal block. Such large motion is related to the evolutionary stress conditions in the central Taiwan and may provide unique information pertaining to the spatial and temporal patterns of the tectonic processes of the polarity change of the subduction. The hinge line of this block is along the well defined narrow transfer (SanYi-Puli) seismic zone, which sharply separates the local long term GPS velocity field. In contrast, a recent numerical simulation based on the thin-skinned model shows a rather broad deformation pattern (Hu, et al, 2001). The sharp features across the SanYi-Puli seismic zone could be caused by bottom driven forces instead of side forces. To test this idea we present numerical models of 2D+1D oblique compression in a visco-elasto-plastic lithosphere. The brittle crust is modeled as a frictional and cohesional material, and the ductile crust is modeled as a non-Newtonian Maxwell visco

  12. Slip history and dynamic implications of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Wald, D.J.; Ma, K.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake using extensive near-source observations, including three-component velocity waveforms at 36 strong motion stations and 119 GPS measurements. A three-plane fault geometry derived from our previous inversion using only static data [Ji et al., 2001] is applied. The slip amplitude, rake angle, rupture initiation time, and risetime function are inverted simultaneously with a recently developed finite fault inverse method that combines a wavelet transform approach with a simulated annealing algorithm [Ji et al., 2002b]. The inversion results are validated by the forward prediction of an independent data set, the teleseismic P and SH ground velocities, with notable agreement. The results show that the total seismic moment release of this earthquake is 2.7 ?? 1020 N m and that most of the slip occured in a triangular-shaped asperity involving two fault segments, which is consistent with our previous static inversion. The rupture front propagates with an average rupture velocity of ???2.0 km s-1, and the average slip duration (risetime) is 7.2 s. Several interesting observations related to the temporal evolution of the Chi-Chi earthquake are also investigated, including (1) the strong effect of the sinuous fault plane of the Chelungpu fault on spatial and temporal variations in slip history, (2) the intersection of fault 1 and fault 2 not being a strong impediment to the rupture propagation, and (3 the observation that the peak slip velocity near the surface is, in general, higher than on the deeper portion of the fault plane, as predicted by dynamic modeling.

  13. Differential therapeutic effects of 12-week treatment of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on drug-naïve children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A counting Stroop functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tai-Li; Chia, Seng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with underlying distinct pharmacological mechanisms. To relate neural mechanisms to clinical response, we conducted a comparative trial to differentiate the changes in brain activation of drug-naïve children with ADHD when performing neuropsychological tasks after 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy. We randomized 50 drug-naïve children with ADHD, aged 7-17, to treatment with methylphenidate (n=25) or atomoxetine (n=25). These children were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the counting Stroop task before and after treatment. Focused attention and impulsivity were assessed twice by using the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). The final sample for fMRI analysis comprised 20 in the methylphenidate group and 22 in the atomoxetine group. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which correlated with improvement in focused attention assessed by the CCPT. In contrast, methylphenidate increased activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, which correlated with the decreasing severity of impulsivity assessed by the CCPT. The current findings suggest that differential therapeutic effects on neuronal changes induced by 12-week treatment atomoxetine and methylphenidate may contribute to behavioral improvement.

  14. Efficacy of the long-acting nitro vasodilator pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris receiving anti-anginal background therapy with beta-blockers: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Meinertz, Thomas; Tebbe, Ulrich; Schneider, Heinrich Theodor; Stalleicken, Dirk; Wargenau, Manfred; Gori, Tommaso; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background The organic nitrate pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to have ancillary properties that prevent the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (‘CLEOPATRA’ study) was designed to investigate the anti-ischaemic efficacy of PETN 80 mg b.i.d. (morning and mid-day) over placebo in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Methods and results A total of 655 patients were evaluated in the intention-to-treat population, randomized to PETN (80 mg b.i.d., n = 328) or placebo (n = 327) and completed the study. Patients underwent treadmill exercise tests at randomization, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PETN over 12 weeks did not modify the primary endpoint total exercise duration (TED, P = 0.423). In a pre-specified sub-analysis of patients with reduced exercise capacity (TED at baseline ≤9 min, n = 257), PETN appeared more effective than placebo treatment (P = 0.054). Superiority of PETN over placebo was evident in patients who were symptomatic at low exercise levels (n = 120; P = 0.017). Pentaerithrityl tetranitrate 80 mg b.i.d. was well tolerated, and the overall safety profile was comparable with placebo. Conclusion Although providing no additional benefit in unselected patients with known coronary artery disease, PETN therapy, administered in addition to modern anti-ischaemic therapy, could increase exercise tolerance in symptomatic patients with reduced exercise capacity. PMID:24071762

  15. Effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive program on weight and fasting blood glucose in "at-risk" adolescents of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bani Salameh, Ayman; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; El-Hneiti, Mamdouh; Shaheen, Abeer; Williams, Leonie M; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-02-28

    To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive program for type 2 diabetes by change in weight and fasting blood glucose level in Jordanian adolescents. Sixteen percent of Jordanian adults have obesity-related type 2 diabetes and 5.6% of obese adolescents examined, however one-third unexamined. Rates in Arabic countries will double in 20 years, but this can be prevented and reversed by controlling obesity. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2 unisex high schools in Irbid, Jordan, in 2012. Intervention and control participants, aged 12 to 18 years, were visibly overweight/obese. They were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 205) or control (n = 196) groups. At-risk students were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention, for change in weight and fasting blood glucose level following preventive instruction and parent-supported changes. Mean age of participants was 15.3 years with equal percentages of both males (49.4%) and females. Post intervention, the intervention group, demonstrated statistically significant reductions: mean difference of 3.3 kg in weight (P < .000) and 1.36 mg/dL (0.075 mmol/L) in fasting blood glucose (P < .000). School-based early prevention intervention effectively reduced weight and fasting blood glucose in Jordanian at-risk adolescents.

  16. No effect of 12 weeks' supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philippa A; Deary, Michael E; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2012-04-01

    The n-3 PUFA are a unique class of fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body, and must be acquired via dietary sources. In the UK, as well as in other Western nations, these 'essential' fatty acids are consumed in quantities that fall below government guidelines. The present study explored the effects of 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with 1 g/d of two types of fish oil (FO; DHA-rich and EPA-rich) in 159 healthy young adults aged 18-35 years. An assessment of performance on a battery of computerised cognitive tasks and mood measures took place before and following the 12-week treatment regimen. Venous blood samples were also supplied by participants at both time points which were later analysed for serum fatty acid concentrations. Despite good adherence to the study protocol - as reflected in increased concentrations of n-3 serum fatty acids - compared with placebo, the observed effects of both active treatments were minimal. The only finding of note revealed that supplementation with EPA-rich FO may reduce subjective mental fatigue at times of high cognitive demand, although further investigation is required. These findings, taken together with other recent reports of null effects, suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in healthy, normally developing and impairment-free populations is unlikely to result in cognitive enhancement.

  17. The protection and development of historic Lougang water resource features along Lake Tai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, J.; Tan, X. M.; Li, Y. P.; Wan, J. H.; Liu, J. G.; Zhou, B.

    2016-08-01

    Overcoming the conflicts between protecting water resource heritage features and the sustainable development of modern society is a major undertaking. Lougangs (rivulets) and polders are Lake-Tai-Basin-specific water resource engineering projects that hold a significant historic position. This paper presents background on water resource heritage features, based on the origins and evolution of Lougangs along Lake Tai. Through analysis of their value and current standing, we propose countermeasures for protection and development of the Lougang water resource heritage features along Lake Tai.

  18. Study of the CHI(1) and CHI(2) States Produced in Antiproton-Proton Annihilations in Fermilab Experiment 760

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Jose Laurencio

    A study of the chi_1(^3P _1) and the chi_2(^3P _2) states of charmonium formed in anti-proton -proton annihilations is reported in this dissertation. Performed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Experiment 760 used an internal molecular hydrogen jet target and circulating beam of momentum cooled antiprotons to conduct energy scans of the two resonances. The small momentum spread of the antiproton beam allowed very precise measurements of both the resonance mass and total width to be made. From a sample of 483 chi_1 and 556 chi_2 events the following resonance parameters have been determined: Gamma_{chi1} = (0.86 +/- 0.14) MeV, Gamma _{chi2} = (2.01 +/- 0.18) MeV, M_{chi1 } = (3510.51 +/- 0.13) MeV/c^2, M_{ chi2} = (3556.03 +/- 0.14) MeV/c^2, Gamma( chi_1to|{p}p)times BR(chi_1to J/psigamma)times BR(J/psito e^+e^-) = (1.22 +/- 0.15) eV, and Gamma( chi_2to|{p}p)times BR(chi_2to J/psigamma)times BR(J/psito e^+e^-) = (1.68 +/- 0.16) eV. The angular distribution for the reaction chi_{1,2}to J/psi+gamma to e^+e^-+gamma was also studied. For the chi_1 resonance, from a sample of 360 events, the radiative decay quadupole amplitude has been found to be a_2 = -0.14 +/- 0.06. For the chi_2, from a sample of 1904 events, the radiative decay quadrupole and octupole amplitudes have been found to be a_2 = -0.15 +/- 0.07 and a_3 = 0.00 +/- 0.05 respectively. The contribution from helicity zero in the formation process of the chi_2 has also been measured, B_sp{0 }{2} = 0.02_sp{ -0.02}{+0.13}..

  19. Your Chi-Square Test Is Statistically Significant: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Applied researchers have employed chi-square tests for more than one hundred years. This paper addresses the question of how one should follow a statistically significant chi-square test result in order to determine the source of that result. Four approaches were evaluated: calculating residuals, comparing cells, ransacking, and partitioning. Data…

  20. In Defense of the Chi-Square Continuity Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldman, Donald J.; McNemar, Quinn

    Published studies of the sampling distribution of chi-square with and without Yates' correction for continuity have been interpreted as discrediting the correction. Yates' correction actually produces a biased chi-square value which in turn yields a better estimate of the exact probability of the discrete event concerned when used in conjunction…

  1. Molecular Medicine - CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference: Mastering Medicinal Chemistry - CHI's Seventh Annual Conference.

    PubMed

    Terrett, Nick

    2010-04-01

    CHI's 17th International Tri-Conference on Molecular Medicine, held in San Francisco, included topics covering new developments in the field of medicinal chemistry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on fragment-based drug discovery, quantum mechanical energy decomposition for the analysis of SARs, medicinal chemistry strategies and the role of imaging in drug discovery. Investigational drugs discussed include MLN-4924 (Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc), GDC-0449 (Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd/Curis Inc/F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd/Genentech Inc/NCI), RDEA-119 (Ardea Biosciences Inc/Bayer HealthCare AG) and tafamidis (Fx-1006A; FoldRx Pharmaceuticals Inc).

  2. Characterization of the biological activity of a potent small molecule Hec1 inhibitor TAI-1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hec1 (NDC80) is an integral part of the kinetochore and is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, making it an attractive molecular target for the design of novel anticancer therapeutics. A highly potent first-in-class compound targeting Hec1, TAI-1, was identified and is characterized in this study to determine its potential as an anticancer agent for clinical utility. Methods The in vitro potency, cancer cell specificity, synergy activity, and markers for response of TAI-1 were evaluated with cell lines. Mechanism of action was confirmed with western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. The in vivo potency of TAI-1 was evaluated in three xenograft models in mice. Preliminary toxicity was evaluated in mice. Specificity to the target was tested with a kinase panel. Cardiac safety was evaluated with hERG assay. Clinical correlation was performed with human gene database. Results TAI-1 showed strong potency across a broad spectrum of tumor cells. TAI-1 disrupted Hec1-Nek2 protein interaction, led to Nek2 degradation, induced significant chromosomal misalignment in metaphase, and induced apoptotic cell death. TAI-1 was effective orally in in vivo animal models of triple negative breast cancer, colon cancer and liver cancer. Preliminary toxicity shows no effect on the body weights, organ weights, and blood indices at efficacious doses. TAI-1 shows high specificity to cancer cells and to target and had no effect on the cardiac channel hERG. TAI-1 is synergistic with doxorubicin, topotecan and paclitaxel in leukemia, breast and liver cancer cells. Sensitivity to TAI-1 was associated with the status of RB and P53 gene. Knockdown of RB and P53 in cancer cells increased sensitivity to TAI-1. Hec1-overexpressing molecular subtypes of human lung cancer were identified. Conclusions The excellent potency, safety and synergistic profiles of this potent first-in-class Hec1-targeted small molecule TAI-1 show its potential for clinically utility in anti

  3. Safety and effectiveness of a 12-week course of sofosbuvir and simeprevir ± ribavirin in HCV-infected patients with or without HIV infection: a multicentre observational study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Giuseppe; Saracino, Annalisa; Fabrizio, Claudia; Scudeller, Luigia; Milano, Eugenio; Dell'Acqua, Raffaele; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Fasano, Massimo; Minniti, Salvatore; Buccoliero, Giovanni; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Giammario, Adele; Milella, Michele; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2017-03-01

    The combination of sofosbuvir and simeprevir ± ribavirin (SOF + SMV ± RBV) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment has been associated with high rates of sustained virological response (SVR). Few data are available regarding this regimen in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a 12-week course of SOF + SMV ± RBV in a cohort of HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV co-infected individuals. HCV-infected patients, with or without HIV infection, receiving a 12-week course of SOF + SMV ± RBV in four Italian centres from February to October 2015, were included in this retrospective observational study. Clinical and biochemical data were retrieved for all patients. A total of 88 individuals were evaluated: 29 (33.0%) HIV/HCV co-infected and 59 (67.0%) monoinfected. Most patients were males with HCV genotype 1b (62.5%) and 1a (25%) infection. RBV was used in 41 HCV monoinfected and 6 HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Cirrhosis was found in 67 patients (76.1%). The most common adverse events (AEs) were rash and/or pruritus (23.9%), fatigue (13.6%) and anaemia (9.1%). Serious AEs occurred in three patients (3.4%). No treatment discontinuations were observed. RBV use was associated with multiple AEs (P = 0.02). An overall SVR12 of 93.2% was achieved; 96.6% in HCV monoinfected and 86.2% in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, without significance both in univariate (P = 0.09) and multivariate analyses (P = 0.12). A baseline platelet count ≥90 000/mm(3) was associated with higher rates of SVR (P = 0.005). A 12-week course of SOF + SMV ± RBV was associated with good safety and high SVR12 rate both in HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV co-infected individuals.

  4. Road to Victory: Building the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    Presents a secondary school lesson on the building of the Ho Chi Minh Trail during the Vietnam War. Helps students link history and geographical skills through cooperative group learning. Includes maps, diagrams, and three student readings. (CFR)

  5. Partially Ordered Two-Way Büchi Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufleitner, Manfred; Lauser, Alexander

    We introduce partially ordered two-way Büchi automata over infinite words. As for finite words, the nondeterministic variant recognizes the fragment Σ2 of first-order logic FO[<] and the deterministic version yields the Δ2-definable ω-languages. As a byproduct of our results, we show that deterministic partially ordered two-way Büchi automata are effectively closed under Boolean operations.

  6. The Single Sample Chi-Square Test: Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shouu-Chyuan

    This lesson plan is designed to enable a student, after 50 minutes of instruction, to define the single sample chi-square test and explain the three conditions necessary to its proper use and the purpose of using it. The student will also be able to calculate and apply the single sample chi-square test in class according to the five steps with the…

  7. {sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}) ratio in the k{sub t}-factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, S. P.

    2011-02-01

    We address the puzzle of {sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}) ratio at the collider and fixed-target experiments. We consider several factors that can affect the predicted ratio of the production rates. In particular, we discuss the effect of {chi}{sub cJ} polarization, the effect of including next-to-leading order contributions, and the effect of probably different {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} wave functions.

  8. Propagation dynamics of controlled cross-talk via interplay between {chi}{sup (1)} and {chi}{sup (3)} processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Paul S.; Welch, George R.; Gord, James R.; Patnaik, Anil K.

    2011-05-15

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the propagation dynamics of a nonlinear cross-talk effect between two probe channels in a double-ladder system and show that an interplay between {chi}{sup (1)} and {chi}{sup (3)} processes leads to the control of cross-talk. We derive analytical solutions to describe the propagation dynamics of the probe fields with the cross-talk effect built in. From the analytical results we identify and examine the regimes of interest where contributions of either {chi}{sup (1)} or {chi}{sup (3)} or both are significant. The control of cross-talk is demonstrated experimentally, and good quantitative agreement is found between the analytical solutions and the experiment.

  9. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention

  10. The influence of sample freezing at – 80 °C for 2–12 weeks on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration assayed by HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® auto analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Katarzyna; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a single freeze/thaw cycle on HbA1c concentrations measured by commercially available HPLC method. Materials and methods Study included 128 whole blood samples collected from diabetic patients (N = 60) and healthy volunteers (N = 68). HbA1c concentrations were measured in fresh blood samples. Then samples were frozen at - 80 °C for up to 12 weeks. HbA1c was assayed by ion-exchange HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® analyzer. Variables were compared using Wilcoxon and ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis tests. Bias between HbA1c measured in fresh and frozen samples was calculated. The comparability of HbA1c concentrations was assessed by Bland-Altman plot. Results Median (IQR) HbA1c concentration was 45.3 (36.6–61.2) mmol/mol for fresh and 45.3 (36.6–60.6) mmol/mol for frozen/thawed samples. No significant difference in HbA1c concentrations was found comparing fresh and frozen/thawed samples (P = 0.070) in the whole group, as well as in healthy and diabetic subjects. The median calculated bias between fresh and frozen/thawed samples was 0% in whole group and healthy subjects, and 1.19% in diabetic patients. No significant difference was found between the biases according to baseline HbA1c values (P = 0.150). The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed a positive bias of 0.4% (95% CI: - 2.8 - 3.7%), which indicates high compliance between HbA1c values and no relevant influence of sample freezing on clinical significance of HbA1c measurement. Conclusions Storage for up to 12 weeks at – 80 °C with a single freeze/thaw cycle does not affect HbA1c concentrations measured with HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® analyzer. PMID:27812303

  11. Near-surface versus fault zone damage following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: Observation and simulation of repeating earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Furumura, Takashi; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    We observe crustal damage and its subsequent recovery caused by the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. Analysis of repeating earthquakes in Hualien region, ~70 km east of the Chi-Chi earthquake, shows a remarkable change in wave propagation beginning in the year 2000, revealing damage within the fault zone and distributed across the near surface. We use moving window cross correlation to identify a dramatic decrease in the waveform similarity and delays in the S wave coda. The maximum delay is up to 59 ms, corresponding to a 7.6% velocity decrease averaged over the wave propagation path. The waveform changes on either side of the fault are distinct. They occur in different parts of the waveforms, affect different frequencies, and the size of the velocity reductions is different. Using a finite difference method, we simulate the effect of postseismic changes in the wavefield by introducing S wave velocity anomaly in the fault zone and near the surface. The models that best fit the observations point to pervasive damage in the near surface and deep, along-fault damage at the time of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The footwall stations show the combined effect of near-surface and the fault zone damage, where the velocity reduction (2–7%) is twofold to threefold greater than the fault zone damage observed in the hanging wall stations. The physical models obtained here allow us to monitor the temporal evolution and recovering process of the Chi-Chi fault zone damage.

  12. Near-surface versus fault zone damage following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: Observation and simulation of repeating earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Furumura, Takashi; Rubinstein, Justin

    2015-04-01

    We observe crustal damage and its subsequent recovery caused by the 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. Analysis of repeating earthquakes in Hualien region, ~70 km east of the Chi-Chi earthquake, shows a remarkable change in wave propagation beginning in the year 2000, revealing damage within the fault zone and distributed across the near surface. We use moving window cross correlation to identify a dramatic decrease in the waveform similarity and delays in the S wave coda. The maximum delay is up to 59 ms, corresponding to a 7.6% velocity decrease averaged over the wave propagation path. The waveform changes on either side of the fault are distinct. They occur in different parts of the waveforms, affect different frequencies, and the size of the velocity reductions is different. Using a finite difference method, we simulate the effect of postseismic changes in the wavefield by introducing S wave velocity anomaly in the fault zone and near the surface. The models that best fit the observations point to pervasive damage in the near surface and deep, along-fault damage at the time of the Chi-Chi earthquake. The footwall stations show the combined effect of near-surface and the fault zone damage, where the velocity reduction (2-7%) is twofold to threefold greater than the fault zone damage observed in the hanging wall stations. The physical models obtained here allow us to monitor the temporal evolution and recovering process of the Chi-Chi fault zone damage.

  13. Prophylactic exercises among head and neck cancer patients during and after swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation: adherence and exercise performance levels of a 12-week guided home-based program.

    PubMed

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Witte, Birgit I; Aalders, Yke J; de Goede, Cees J T; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H F; Buter, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2017-02-01

    The background and purpose of this paper is to investigate adherence, exercise performance levels and associated factors in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients participating in a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program during and after treatment [swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (SW-IMRT)]. Fifty patients were included in the study. Adherence was defined as the percentage of patients who kept up exercising; exercise performance level was categorized as low: ≤1, moderate: 1-2, and high: ≥2 time(s) per day, on average. Associations between 6- and 12-week exercise performance levels and age, gender, tumour site and stage, treatment, intervention format (online or booklet), number of coaching sessions, and baseline HNC symptoms (EORTC-QLQ-H&N35) were investigated. Adherence rate at 6 weeks was 70% and decreased to 38% at 12 weeks. In addition, exercise performance levels decreased over time (during 6 weeks: 34% moderate and 26% high; during 12 weeks: 28% moderate and 18% high). The addition of chemotherapy to SW-IMRT [(C)SW-IMRT] significantly deteriorated exercise performance level. Adherence to a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program was high during (C)SW-IMRT, but dropped afterwards. Exercise performance level was negatively affected by chemotherapy in combination with SW-IMRT.

  14. Autosomal STRs Provide Genetic Evidence for the Hypothesis That Tai People Originate from Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their “siblings” to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01–0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524–0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211–0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses

  15. Composition dependence of chi from neutron scattering, compressibility, and a purely interaction chi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujrati, P. D.

    2000-03-01

    We demonstrate that the concept of a bare chi parameter as exchange energy is meaningful only within the context of a lattice theory. We introduce a simple ensemble to describe a compressible system. The ensemble shares many features present in the ensemble describing an incompressible system. This allows us to express the intensity in terms of fluctuations in only one species, a feature also present in the incompressible model. We demonstrate that the perplexing features seen experimentally and theoretically in the wings of small-angle-neutron-scattering (SANS) measured χSANS are spurious and unrelated to the energetics, and result from a definition that leaves behind some nonenergetic contribution, which dominates the behavior in the wings and controls the sign of the curvature. It is easy to identify an appropriate χscatt that properly characterizes the interactions without any superfluous composition dependence. We use our recently developed lattice theory, which gives rise to genuine composition dependence in χscatt due to nonrandomness. For a symmetric blend, χscatt depends only weakly on compressibility. This is not true of an asymmetric blend, where compressibility effects can be strong. In particular, we demonstrate that a linear χscatt results from the asymmetry in the model and not from the compressibility.

  16. A search for H/-/ in the shell surrounding chi Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that chi Oph is an extreme Be star, some consequences are investigated for the interpretation that the IR excesses in such stars are produced by H(-) free-bound emission. The column density of H(-) in the shell surrounding chi Oph is estimated from the observed IR excess, and Copernicus UV spectrophotometric data are used to search for a predicted absorption feature at 1129.54 A due to H(-) and to derive an upper limit to the H(-) column density. No feature resembling the predicted H(-) line is seen in the spectrum of chi Oph, and a marked discrepancy is noted between the estimated column density and the derived upper limit. Possible causes of these discrepancies are discussed, including incorrect interpretation of the IR excess in extreme Be stars, incorrect theoretical calculations describing the predicted H(-) UV absorption line, and the possibility that the line of sight through the shell does not intersect the regions where the IR excess originates.

  17. Confirmation of the chi Cygnids (CCY, IAU#757)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Tóth, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present independent confirmation of the existence of the chi Cygnid (CCY, IAU#757) meteor shower. The chi Cygnids were discovered by Peter Jenniskens within the frame of CAMS project (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance). Thanks to the cooperation between European viDeo MeteOr Network (EDMONd), International Meteor Organization Video Meteor Network (IMO VMN) and the BRAzilian Meteor Observation Network (BRAMON) the current version of the EDMOND database (v5.02) contains 189 323 multi-station meteor orbits. This large data sample allowed confirmation of the increased activity from the chi Cygnid swarm during the night of 2015 September 14/15, and also made it possible to map the activity of this newly discovered swarm during the years 2001-2014.

  18. Potentiation of the synergistic activities of chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC from Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2 by chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Román, Martha Ingrid; Dunn, Michael F; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Holguín-Meléndez, Francisco; Huerta-Palacios, Graciela; Guillén-Navarro, Karina

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of understanding the chitinolytic mechanism of the potential biological control strain Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2, genes encoding chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC, chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP) were cloned, the protein products overexpressed in Escherichia coli as 6His-Sumo fusion proteins and purified by affinity chromatography. Following affinity tag removal, the chitinolytic activity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated individually and in combination using colloidal chitin as substrate. ChiB and ChiC were highly active while ChiA was inactive. Reactions containing both ChiB and ChiC showed significantly increased N-acetylglucosamine trimer and dimer formation, but decreased monomer formation, compared to reactions with either enzyme alone. This suggests that while both ChiB and ChiC have a general affinity for the same substrate, they attack different sites and together degrade chitin more efficiently than either enzyme separately. Chb and CBP in combination with ChiB and ChiC (individually or together) increased their chitinase activity. We report for the first time the potentiating effect of Chb on the activity of the chitinases and the synergistic activity of a mixture of all five proteins (the three chitinases, Chb and CBP). These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of the chitinases produced by strain CFFSUR-B2 and provide a molecular basis for its high potential as a biocontrol agent against fungal pathogens.

  19. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant

  20. A CHI wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment: Wiggler characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Taccetti, J.M.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    A 35 GHz CHI (Coaxial Hybrid Iron) wiggler ubitron amplifier experiment is under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory. The CHI wiggler configuration has the potential of generating high wiggler magnetic fields at short periods with excellent beam focusing and transport properties. This makes it a desirable configuration for the generation of high power coherent radiation in relatively compact systems. The CHI wiggler consists of alternating rings of magnetic and non-magnetic materials concentric with a central rod of similar alternating design but shifted along the axis by half a period. Once inserted in a solenoidal magnetic field, the CHI structure deforms the axial field to create a radial field oscillating with the same periodicity as the rings. An annular electron beam is propagated through the coaxial gap where the oscillating radial field imparts an azimuthal wiggle motion. The principal goals of the experiment are to investigate the performance tradeoffs involved in the CHI configuration for high frequency amplifiers operating at low voltages with small wiggler periods. The nominal design parameters are a center frequency of 35 GHz, wiggler period of 0.75 cm, and beam voltage of approximately 150 kV. Calculations have shown an intrinsic (untapered) efficiency of {approximately} 7% when operating at 6.3 kG axial field (wiggler field, B{sub w}{approximately}1270 G). The calculated gain was 36 dB, saturating at a distance of 46 cm. These parameters yield an instantaneous amplifier bandwidth of {approximately} 25%. There appears to be room for further improvement in efficiency, a matter which will be scrutinized more closely in the final design. A prototype CHI wiggler is presently being fabricated for use in conjunction with an existing 30 kG superconducting solenoid. The performance properties of the prototype will be characterized and compared with linear and non-linear calculations.

  1. Efficacy and tolerability balance of oxycodone/naloxone and tapentadol in chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component: a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected routine data from 12-week prospective open-label observations

    PubMed Central

    Ueberall, Michael A; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard H H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the benefit–risk profile (BRP) of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) and tapentadol (TAP) in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) with a neuropathic component (NC) in routine clinical practice. Methods This was a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected 12-week routine/open-label data of the German Pain Registry on adult patients with cLBP-NC who initiated an index treatment in compliance with the current German prescribing information between 1st January and 31st October 2015 (OXN/TAP, n=128/133). Primary end point was defined as a composite of three efficacy components (≥30% improvement of pain, pain-related disability, and quality of life each at the end of observation vs baseline) and three tolerability components (normal bowel function, absence of either central nervous system side effects, and treatment-emergent adverse event [TEAE]-related treatment discontinuation during the observation period) adopted to reflect BRP assessments under real-life conditions. Results Demographic as well as baseline and pretreatment characteristics were comparable for the randomly selected data sets of both index groups without any indicators for critical selection biases. Treatment with OXN resulted formally in a BRP noninferior to that of TAP and showed a significantly higher primary end point response vs TAP (39.8% vs 25.6%, odds ratio: 1.93; P=0.014), due to superior analgesic effects. Between-group differences increased with stricter response definitions for all three efficacy components in favor of OXN: ≥30%/≥50%/≥70% response rates for OXN vs TAP were seen for pain intensity in 85.2%/67.2%/39.1% vs 83.5%/54.1%/15.8% (P= ns/0.031/<0.001), for pain-related disability in 78.1%/64.8%/43.8% vs 66.9%/50.4%/24.8% (P=0.043/0.018/0.001), and for quality of life in 76.6%/68.0%/50.0% vs 63.9%/54.1%/34.6% (P=0.026/0.022/0.017). Overall, OXN vs TAP treatments were well tolerated, and proportions of patients who either maintained a normal bowel

  2. Outcome of Youth with Early-Phase Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders and Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified Treated with Second-Generation Antipsychotics: 12 Week Results from a Prospective, Naturalistic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vernal, Ditte L.; Kapoor, Sandeep; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Sheridan, Eva M.; Borenstein, Yehonathan; Mormando, Charles; David, Lisa; Singh, Sukhbir; Seidman, Andrew J.; Carbon, Maren; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Saito, Ema; Kane, John M.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S) and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PsyNOS) during early antipsychotic treatment. Methods: The study was a prospective, naturalistic, inception cohort study of youth ≤19 years old with SCZ-S (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder) or PsyNOS (PsyNOS, brief psychotic disorder) and ≤24 months of lifetime antipsychotic treatment receiving clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. Baseline demographic, illness and treatment variables, and effectiveness outcomes were compared at 12 weeks last-observation-carried-forward across SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients, adjusting for significantly different baseline variables. Results: Altogether, 130 youth with SCZ-S (n=42) or PsyNOS (n=88), mostly antipsychotic naïve (76.9%), were prescribed risperidone (47.7%), olanzapine (19.2%), aripiprazole (14.6%), quetiapine (11.5%), or ziprasidone (6.9%). Compared with those with PsyNOS, SCZ-S youth were older (16.4±2.1 vs. 14.8±3.2, p=0.0040), and less likely to be Caucasian (19.1% vs. 42.5%, p=0.009). At baseline, SCZ-S patients had significantly higher Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scores (6.0±0.9 vs. 5.5±0.8, p=0.0018) and lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores (29.6±9.2 vs. 36.1±8.9, p=0.0002) and were more likely to be in the severely ill CGAS group (i.e., CGAS≤40). SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients did not differ regarding all-cause discontinuation (40.5 vs. 40.3%. p=0.49), discontinuation because of adverse effects (12.2% vs. 12.4%, p=0.97), or nonadherence (29.3% vs. 30.9%, p=0.88), but somewhat more SCZ-S patients discontinued treatment for inefficacy (19.5% vs. 7.4%, p=0.063). CGI-S and CGAS scores improved significantly in both diagnostic groups (p=0.0001, each). Adjusting for baseline differences, PsyNOS patients experienced significantly better CGI-I improvement

  3. CHI3L1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    CHI3L1, also known as chitinase, a secreted protein, is a carbohydrate-binding lectin with a preference for chitin. It may play a role in defense against pathogens, or in tissue remodeling. It may also play an important role in the capacity of cells to respond to and cope with changes in their environment. CHI3L1 is present in activated macrophages, articular chondrocytes, synovial cells as well as in liver. It is undetectable in muscle tissues, lung, pancreas, mononuclear cells, or fibroblasts.

  4. A 12-week, randomized, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of tulobuterol patch and salmeterol inhaler as add-on therapy in adult-onset mild-to-moderate asthma.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hideki; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ito, Isao; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Takeda, Tomoshi; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Nagasaki, Tadao; Mishima, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Patch formulation of tulobuterol has been used in asthma treatment as a long-acting β2 -agonist (LABA) through sustained skin absorption. Its treatment efficacy, especially in small airways, remains poorly understood. The study aim was to investigate LABA add-on effects of tulobuterol patch (TP) and salmeterol inhaler (SA) on pulmonary function, asthma control and health status. Patients who had adult-onset under-control asthma, despite taking inhaled corticosteroids, were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of 12-week add-on treatment with TP (n=16) or SA (n=17). Spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled nitric oxide levels, and clinical questionnaires of asthma control, health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire: SGRQ), and symptoms were evaluated every 4 weeks. Add-on treatment of SA significantly improved the spirometric indices of small airway obstruction (forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC: FEF25-75 , and maximum expiratory flow at 25% of FVC: MEF25 ) and IOS indices of whole respiratory resistance (resistance at 5 Hz) as compared to TP. In intra-group comparisons, add-on treatment of TP improved the scores of the asthma control test and the total SGRQ, as well as the symptom and impact components of the SGRQ. SA add-on treatment improved FEV1 and IOS parameters of resistance at 20 Hz and reactance at 5 Hz. Neither of the treatments improved exhaled nitric oxide levels. In conclusion, add-on treatment of TP improved asthma control and health status, whereas SA improved pulmonary function measures associated with large and small airway involvement among patients with adult-onset mild-to-moderate asthma.

  5. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS). Results PCOS (n=508) and non-PCOS (n=508) participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit) and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit). A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137) and non-PCOS participants (n=137) (−18.5±6.6 kg vs −19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190). Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08). Conclusion Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight loss in PCOS. PMID:26508882

  6. Efficacy and safety of agomelatine (10 or 25 mg/day) in non-depressed out-patients with generalized anxiety disorder: A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Ahokas, Antti; Jarema, Marek; Avedisova, Alla S; Vavrusova, Livia; Chaban, Oleg; Gruget, Céline; Olivier, Valérie; Picarel-Blanchot, Françoise; de Bodinat, Christian

    2017-03-12

    Agomelatine is efficacious in reducing symptoms and preventing relapse in placebo-controlled trials in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Nevertheless, fixed dose studies of agomelatine in GAD have not been undertaken. To determine the minimally effective optimal dose of agomelatine in GAD, the efficacy of two doses of agomelatine (10 and 25mg/day) was investigated in a 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, international study in patients with a primary diagnosis of GAD. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Anxiety scale (HAM-A). The study was undertaken in 35 clinical centers in Finland, Russia, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine from August 2013 to January 2015. 131 out-patients were included in the agomelatine 10mg group, 139 in the agomelatine 25mg group, and 142 in the placebo group. Both doses of agomelatine were associated with significant decreases in the HAM-A at week 12 (difference versus placebo of 7.16±1.00 at 10mg and 11.08±0.98 at 25mg, p<0.0001). Significant effects on all secondary measures were found for both doses at week 12; including psychic and somatic HAM-A subscales, response rate, remission on the HAM-A, and functional impairment. Findings were confirmed in subsets of more severely ill patients on all endpoints. The low placebo response rate observed in this study was consistent with an increase in the quality of data collected. Agomelatine was well-tolerated by patients, with minimal distinctions from placebo. There was a dose effect of agomelatine, with a greater placebo-agomelatine difference in the agomelatine 25mg group, compared to the agomelatine 10mg group.The present data support early work indicating the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine in the treatment of GAD.

  7. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  8. Contributing to TAI with a secondary representation of the SI second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéna, J.; Abgrall, M.; Clairon, A.; Bize, S.

    2014-02-01

    We report the first contribution to international atomic time (TAI) based on a secondary representation of the SI second. This work is done with the LNE-SYRTE FO2-Rb fountain frequency standard using the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine transition. We describe FO2-Rb and how it is connected to local and international time scales. We report on local measurements of this frequency standard in the SI system, i.e. against primary frequency standards (PFSs), down to a fractional uncertainty of 4.4 × 10-16, and on the establishment of the recommended value for the 87Rb hyperfine transition by the CIPM. We also report on the process that led to the participation of the FO2-Rb frequency standard in Circular T and to the elaboration of TAI. This participation enables us to demonstrate absolute frequency measurement directly in terms of the SI second realized by the TAI ensemble with a statistical uncertainty of 1.1 × 10-16, therefore at the limit allowed by the accuracy of PFSs. This work constitutes a demonstration of how other secondary representations, based on optical transitions, could also be used for TAI, and an investigation of a number of issues relevant to a future redefinition of the SI second.

  9. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  10. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Colazo, Marcos G.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed. PMID:25082993

  11. The Preference for Self-Correction in a Tai Conversational Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerman, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The organization of repair in a corpus of conversations in the Lue, Yuan (or Myang), and Siamese dialects of Tai is examined with regard to the preference for self-correction described previously for an English corpus. In both, repair is an identically organized sequential phenomenon involving repair segments during conversation. (CHK)

  12. Language Ideology in Taiwan: The KMT's Language Policy, the Tai-yu Language Movement, and Ethnic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiau, A-chin

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the official (Kuomintang) language policy in Taiwan, which had exalted Mandarin and suppressed other local languages, and the efforts during the last decade to revive Tai-yu, a major language in the post-war period. The dynamics of the Tai-yu language movement reveal a pressing problem facing Taiwan: how to balance national cohesion with…

  13. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Turkish Elementary Students' Mathematics Achievement and Attitude towards Mathematics Using TAI and STAD Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarim, Kamuran; Akdeniz, Fikri

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) and Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) on fourth grade students' academic achievement in and attitudes towards mathematics. Seven classes of a school were randomly selected for this experimental study. Two of these were given instruction through TAI;…

  14. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  15. Contrasting Ohlsson's Resubsumption Theory with Chi's Categorical Shift Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Michelene T. H.; Brem, Sarah K.

    2009-01-01

    Ohlsson's proposal of resubsumption as the dominant process in conceptual, or nonmonotonic, change presents a worthy challenge to more established theories, such as Chi's theory of ontological shift. The two approaches differ primarily in that Ohlsson's theory emphasizes a process of learning in which narrower, more specific concepts are subsumed…

  16. Normal versus Noncentral Chi-Square Asymptotics of Misspecified Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, So Yeon; Shapiro, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The noncentral chi-square approximation of the distribution of the likelihood ratio (LR) test statistic is a critical part of the methodology in structural equation modeling. Recently, it was argued by some authors that in certain situations normal distributions may give a better approximation of the distribution of the LR test statistic. The main…

  17. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

    2013-06-01

    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

  18. Two TI-83 Chi-Square Programs for Elementary Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Presents two programs for the TI-83 to conduct the chi-square goodness-of-fit test in an elementary statistics course or any other course that might require students to conduct hypothesis tests relative to some frequency distribution. (ASK)

  19. Principles and Practice of Scaled Difference Chi-Square Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred B.; Satorra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We highlight critical conceptual and statistical issues and how to resolve them in conducting Satorra-Bentler (SB) scaled difference chi-square tests. Concerning the original (Satorra & Bentler, 2001) and new (Satorra & Bentler, 2010) scaled difference tests, a fundamental difference exists in how to compute properly a model's scaling correction…

  20. A 12-week randomized study of topical therapy with three dosages of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) compared with the ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064), in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Kneer, Werner; Rother, Matthias; Mazgareanu, Stefan; Seidel, Egbert J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) in comparison with a ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods Patients with knee OA (N = 866) were randomly assigned to receive topical IDEA-033 containing 100, 50, or 25 mg ketoprofen, or TDT 064 twice daily for 12 weeks, in a double-blind trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC®) Osteoarthritis Index pain subscale score. The coprimary efficacy endpoints were the WOMAC function subscale score and the patient global assessment of response to therapy. The secondary endpoints included the numeric pain rating for the first 14 days of treatment and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT)-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) responder rates. Results The WOMAC pain scores were reduced by approximately 50% or more in all four groups. The 100 and 50 mg ketoprofen groups, but not the 25 mg group, showed a superior reduction in the WOMAC pain score versus the TDT 064 group (100 mg: −57.4% [P = 0.0383]; 50 mg: −57.1% [P = 0.0204]; and 25 mg: −53.4% [P = 0.3616] versus TDT 064: −49.5%). The superiority of the ketoprofen-containing formulations was not demonstrated for the WOMAC function subscale score, whereas the patient global assessment of 50 mg ketoprofen group, but not the 100 or 25 mg group, was superior to that of the TDT 064 group (P = 0.0283). Responder rates were significantly higher for all the IDEA-033 groups versus the TDT 064 group, but were high in all groups (100 mg: 88.6%; 50 mg: 86.8%; 25 mg: 88.6%; and TDT 064: 77.5%). Dermal reactions were the only relevant drug-related adverse events in all four groups. Conclusion The 50 and 100 mg ketoprofen doses of IDEA-033 were only marginally superior to TDT 064 for reducing pain associated with knee OA. The study indicates a high treatment response to the topical

  1. Effects of feeding transgenic corn with mCry1Ac or maroACC gene to laying hens for 12 weeks on growth, egg quality and organ health.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Q; Chen, L; Gao, L X; Zhang, L L; Yao, B; Yang, X G; Zhang, H F

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding two transgenic corn lines containing the mCry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain (BT-799) and the maroACC gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (CC-2), respectively, on growth, egg quality and organ health indicators. Expression of the mCry1Ac gene confers resistance to Pyrausta nubilalis and the maroACC gene confers tolerance to herbicides. Healthy hens (n=96 placed in cages; 3 hens/cage) were randomly assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (8 cages/treatment) formulated with the following corn: non-transgenic near-isoline control corn (control), BT-799 corn, CC-2 corn and commercially available non-transgenic reference corn (reference). The experiment was divided into three 4-week phases (week 1 to 4, week 5 to 8 and week 9 to 12), during which hens were fed mash diets. Performance (BW, feed intake and egg production) and egg quality were determined. Following slaughter at the end of 12 weeks of feeding (n=8/treatment), carcass yield and organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, stomach and ovary) were recorded; organs and intestines were sampled for histological analysis. Analysis of serum biochemistry parameters to assess the liver and kidney function were performed. No differences in BW, egg production and production efficiency were observed between hens consuming the control diet and hens consuming the BT-799 or CC-2 diet. Haugh unit measures and egg component weights were similar between the control and test groups. Carcass yield was not affected by the diet treatment. Similar organosomatic indices and serum parameters did not indicate the characteristics of organ dysfunction. All observed values of the BT-799 and CC-2 groups were within the calculated tolerance intervals. This research indicates that the performance, egg quality, organ health and carcass yield of laying hens fed diets containing the BT-799 or CC-2 corn line were similar

  2. Spatial and temporal ecological risk assessment of unionized ammonia nitrogen in Tai Lake, China (2004-2015).

    PubMed

    Li, Yabing; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Liu, Hongling; Li, Di; Liu, Zhengtao; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-06-01

    Ammonia toxicity varies largely due to its pH- and temperature-dependent speciation (unionized ammonia nitrogen, NH3-N). The seasonal and long-term trend of ammonia risk in ecologically significant sections of Tai Lake, China was unknown. In this study, a two-level (deterministic and quantitative) method was developed to assess the special ecological risks posed by NH3-N at 37 sites during two seasons (February and September) of 2014 in Tai Lake. The long-term temporal (2004-2015) risk posed by NH3-N was also assessed by comparing annual quantitative risk values (probability of exceeding acute or chronic threshold values) in three key sections of Tai Lake. The results indicated the species living in the Tai Lake were at a 0.04% and 32.45% chance of risk due to acute exposure, and a 1.97% and 92.05% chance of risk due to chronic exposure in February and September of 2014, respectively. Alarmingly, the chronic ecological risks of NH3-N in the Lanshanzui section of the Tai Lake remained >30% from 2004 to 2011. The chronic risk of NH3-N in all three key sections of Tai Lake started to decrease in 2011. This was likely the consequence of the control practice of eutrophication implemented in the Tai Lake. A significant decline in diversity of the benthic invertebrate community of the Tai Lake could be associated with continuous exposure to ammonia over decades given different sensitivity of taxa to ammonia. The results laid a scientific foundation for risk assessment and management of ammonia in Tai Lake, China, and the developed two-level risk assessment approach can also be applied to other similar aquatic regions.

  3. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment.

  4. Two-color holography concept (T-CHI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, C. S.; Caulfield, H. J.; Workman, G. L.; Trolinger, J. D.; Wood, C. P.; Clark, R. L.; Kathman, A. D.; Ruggiero, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Material Processing in the Space Program of NASA-MSFC was active in developing numerous optical techniques for the characterization of fluids in the vicinity of various materials during crystallization and/or solidification. Two-color holographic interferometry demonstrates that temperature and concentration separation in transparent (T-CHI) model systems is possible. The experiments were performed for particular (succinonitrile) systems. Several solutions are possible in Microgravity Sciences and Applications (MSA) experiments on future Shuttle missions. The theory of the T-CHI concept is evaluated. Although particular cases are used for explanations, the concepts developed will be universal. A breadboard system design is also presented for ultimate fabrication and testing of theoretical findings. New developments in holography involving optical fibers and diode lasers are also incorporated.

  5. Oxetane synthesis through the Paternò-Büchi reaction.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Maurizio; Racioppi, Rocco

    2013-09-16

    The Paternò-Büchi reaction is a photochemical reaction between a carbonyl compound and an alkene to give the corresponding oxetane. In this review the mechanism of the reaction is discussed. On this basis the described use in the reaction with electron rich alkenes (enolethers, enol esters, enol silyl ethers, enanines, heterocyclic compounds has been reported. The stereochemical behavior of the reaction is particularly stressed. We pointed out the reported applications of this reaction to the synthesis of naturally occuring compounds.

  6. Spatial solitons in chi(2) planar photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Katia; Assanto, Gaetano

    2007-11-01

    We analyze light self-confinement induced by multiple nonlinear resonances in a two-dimensional chi(2) photonic crystal. With reference to second-harmonic generation in a hexagonal lattice, we show that the system can not only support two-color (1+1)D solitary waves with enhanced confinement and steering capabilities but also enable novel features such as wavelength-dependent soliton routing.

  7. Structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthic community in Tai Lake, a large shallow lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Li,; Erickson, Richard A.; Song Tang,; Xuwen Li,; Niu, Zhichun; Xia Wang,; Hongling Liu,; Hongxia Yu,

    2016-01-01

    Tai Lake (Chinese: Taihu), the third-largest freshwater lake in China, suffers from harmful cyanobacteria blooms that are caused by economic development and population growth near the lake. Several studies have focused on phytoplankton in Tai Lake after a drinking water crisis in 2007; however, these studies primarily focused on microcystin bioaccumulation and toxicity to individual species without examining the effects of microcystin on macrobenthic community diversity. In this study, we conducted a survey of the lake to examine the effects of microcystine and other pollutants on marcobenthic community diversity. A totally of forty-nine species of macroinvertebrates were found in Tai Lake. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Corbicula fluminea were the most abundant species. Cluster-analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) identified three significantly different macrobenthic communities among the sample sites. More specifically, sites in the eastern bays, where aquatic macrophytes were abundant, had the highest diversity of macrobenthic communities, which were dominated by Bellamya aeruginosa, Bellamya purificata, L. hoffmeisteri, and Alocinma longicornis. Sites in Zhushan Bay contained relatively diverse communities, mainly composed of L. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, L. claparederanus, R. sinicus, and Cythura sp. Sites in the western region, Meiliang Bay and Wuli Bay had the lowest diversity, mainly composed ofL. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Rhyacodrilus sinicus. In addition, the relationships between macrobenthic metrics (Shannon–Wiener, Margalef, and Pielou) and environmental variables showed that community structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthos in Tai Lake were significantly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), lead (Pb), and microcystin-LR (L for leucine and R for arginine). Our findings provide critical information that could help managers and policymakers

  8. Recent results of {chi}{sub cJ} decays from BESIII

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Liang

    2011-05-23

    Using (106{+-}4)x10{sup 6} {psi}{sup '} events collected with BESIII/BEPCII in March and April 2009, some {chi}{sub cJ} decay modes are studied, such as {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{eta}{eta}, {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}VV, {chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{gamma}V, and so on. The precisions of these branching fraction measurements are improved, which is helpful to understand {chi}{sub cJ} decay mechanism.

  9. [Study on the vibrational spectra characterization of the "she tai cui" jade].

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan-Li; Bao, De-Qing; Yin, Zuo-Wei; Yao, Wei

    2013-10-01

    The gemological testing methods, infrared absorption spectrum, Raman spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction were employed to study the gemological characteristics, spectral characteristics and structural features of the "She tai cui" jade. It is indicated that most "She tai cui" jade has the refractive index in the range of 1.53 to 1.54, and a density of 2.65-2.79 cm(-1), and the hardness of 6.5 to 7 in addition to the low hardness (< 5) for the pure white one. The mineral constitution is dominated by quartz in most of the "She tai cui" jade, except the white one, which is dominated by dolomite (about 63.91%). The former may contain a certain amount of other impure minerals and is attributed to the quartzite jade, while the latter contains a certain amount of SiO2 (about 34.85%) and a trace amount of calcite and albite, and is attributed to the dolomite jade.

  10. So much research, so little application: Barriers to dissemination and practical implementation of Tai Ji Quan

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of articles published in the medical literature advocating the use of Tai Ji Quan for a wide variety of health-related outcomes, there has been little systematic broad-scale implementation of these programs. It may be argued that the lack of funding from organizations capable of implementing and overseeing large-scale programs, such as governmental health agencies or national non-governmental organizations concerned with healthcare for older adults, is to blame. However, the evidence these organizations need to justify underwriting such programs is in short supply because of conflicting priorities and standards related to determining the efficacy and effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan. Establishing efficacy through acceptable designs such as randomized controlled trials involves strict protocols to ensure meaningful internal validity but different approaches are needed to demonstrate meaningful effectiveness (external validity) outside the study setting. By examining the quality, quantity, and relative proportions of the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and dissemination studies reported in the medical literature, this paper highlights the disparity in emphasis between efficacy and effectiveness research that has impeded the development of a cohesive literature on Tai Ji Quan and concludes that until more researchers develop a systematic, long-range commitment to investigating its health-related benefits, the research related will remain fractured and sporadic, limiting the incentive of large funding agencies to support its wide-spread use. PMID:25089214

  11. So much research, so little application: Barriers to dissemination and practical implementation of Tai Ji Quan.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Peter A

    2014-03-01

    Despite the large number of articles published in the medical literature advocating the use of Tai Ji Quan for a wide variety of health-related outcomes, there has been little systematic broad-scale implementation of these programs. It may be argued that the lack of funding from organizations capable of implementing and overseeing large-scale programs, such as governmental health agencies or national non-governmental organizations concerned with healthcare for older adults, is to blame. However, the evidence these organizations need to justify underwriting such programs is in short supply because of conflicting priorities and standards related to determining the efficacy and effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan. Establishing efficacy through acceptable designs such as randomized controlled trials involves strict protocols to ensure meaningful internal validity but different approaches are needed to demonstrate meaningful effectiveness (external validity) outside the study setting. By examining the quality, quantity, and relative proportions of the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and dissemination studies reported in the medical literature, this paper highlights the disparity in emphasis between efficacy and effectiveness research that has impeded the development of a cohesive literature on Tai Ji Quan and concludes that until more researchers develop a systematic, long-range commitment to investigating its health-related benefits, the research related will remain fractured and sporadic, limiting the incentive of large funding agencies to support its wide-spread use.

  12. Efficacy of a 12-Week Simeprevir Plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin (PR) Regimen in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 4 (GT4) Infection and Mild-To-Moderate Fibrosis Displaying Early On-Treatment Virologic Response

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Moreno, Christophe; Sarrazin, Christoph; Gschwantler, Michael; Foster, Graham R.; Craxí, Antonio; Buggisch, Peter; Sanai, Faisal; Bicer, Ceyhun; Lenz, Oliver; Van Dooren, Gino; Nalpas, Catherine; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle; Schlag, Michael; Buti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background HCV GT4 accounts for up to 20% of HCV infections worldwide. Simeprevir, given for 12 weeks as part of a 24- or 48-week combination regimen with PR is approved for the treatment of chronic HCV GT4 infection. Primary study objectives were assessment of efficacy and safety of simeprevir plus PR in treatment-naïve patients with HCV GT4 treated for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy outcome was sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). Additional objectives included investigation of potential associations of rapid virologic response and baseline factors with SVR12. Methods This multicentre, open-label, single-arm study (NCT01846832) evaluated efficacy and safety of simeprevir plus PR in 67 patients with HCV GT4 infection. Patients were treatment-naïve, aged 18–70 years with METAVIR F0–F2 fibrosis. Patients with early virologic response (HCV RNA <25 IU/mL [detectable/undetectable in IL28B CC patients or undetectable in IL28B CT/TT patients] at Week 2 and undetectable at Weeks 4 and 8) were eligible to stop all treatment at the end of Week 12, otherwise PR therapy was continued to Week 24. Results Of 67 patients treated, 34 (51%) qualified for 12-week treatment including all but one patient with IL28B CC genotype (14/15). All patients in the 12-week group had undetectable HCV RNA at end of treatment, and 97% (33/34) achieved SVR12. No new safety signals with simeprevir plus PR were identified. The proportion of patients experiencing Grade 3–4 adverse events was lower in the 12-week group than in the 24-week group. Conclusions Our findings on simeprevir plus PR therapy shortened to 12 weeks in patients with HCV GT4 infection with favourable baseline characteristics and displaying early on-treatment virologic response are encouraging. No new safety signals were associated with simeprevir plus PR in this study. Trial Registration NCT01846832 PMID:28056030

  13. Using Distinct-Element Method (DEM) to Investigate Tsaoling Landslide Induced by Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C.; Hu, J.; Lin, M.

    2006-12-01

    Large landslides occurred in the mountainous area near the epicenter on Sept. 21st, 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. These landslides were triggered by the Mw = 7.6 earthquake, which resulted in more than 2,400 people casualties and widespread damage. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake triggered a catastrophic Tsaloing landslide, which mobilized about 0.125 km3 of rock and soil that slid across the Chingshui River and created a 5 km long natural dam. One fifth of the landslide mass dropped into the Chingshui River, the rest crossed over Chingshui River. At least five large landslides occurred in Tsaoling area are induced by big earthquakes and downpours since 1862 to 1999. Geological investigation shows that the prevailing attitude of sedimentary formation is about N50W with a dipping angle of 12S. First we used Newmark Method to calculate the stability of slope distinct-element method to simulate Tsaoling landslide (PFC3d and PFC2d discrete element code). Because of the discrete, particle-based nature of the model, specification of material properties and boundary condition is more difficult than available continuum methods. The user may specify micro-properties that control particle-particle interaction, but have no way to directly prescribe the micro-properties of the model such as Young's modulus(E), unconfined compressive strength (UCS), Cohesion(C0), Possion's ratio(£h), coefficient of friction(£g), porosity, and the initial stress state. As a result, the process of generating an initial model with the appropriate material behavior and initial stress state is by trial-and-error, requiring the use of numerical equivalent of a biaxial rock mechanics test rig to derive the rock mechanical macro-properties. We conclude that the characteristics of Tsaoling landslide process are: (1) the rocks were bond together on sliding, and (2) the frictional coefficient was very small.

  14. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  15. Stress evolution following the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake: Consequences for afterslip, relaxation, aftershocks and departures from Omori decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    We explore how Coulomb stress transfer and viscoelastic relaxation control afterslip and aftershocks in a continental thrust fault system. The 1999 September 21 Mw = 7.6 Chi-Chi shock is typical of continental ramp-d??collement systems throughout the world, and so inferences drawn from this uniquely well-recorded event may be widely applicable. First, we find that the spatial and depth distribution of aftershocks and their focal mechanisms are consistent with the calculated Coulomb stress changes imparted by the coseismic rupture. Some 61 per cent of the M ??? 2 aftershocks and 83 per cent of the M ??? 4 aftershocks lie in regions for which the Coulomb stress increased by ???0.1 bars, and there is a 11-12 per cent gain in the percentage of aftershocks nodal planes on which the shear stress increased over the pre-Chi Chi control period. Second, we find that afterslip occurred where the calculated coseismic stress increased on the fault ramp and d??collement, subject to the condition that friction is high on the ramp and low on the d??collement. Third, viscoelastic relaxation is evident from the fit of the post-seismic GPS data on the footwall. Fourth, we find that the rate of seismicity began to increase during the post-seismic period in an annulus extending east of the main rupture. The spatial extent of the seismicity annulus resembles the calculated ???0.05-bar Coulomb stress increase caused by viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip, and we find a 9-12 per cent gain in the percentage of focal mechanisms with >0.01-bar shear stress increases imparted by the post-seismic afterslip and relaxation in comparison to the control period. Thus, we argue that post-seismic stress changes can for the first time be shown to alter the production of aftershocks, as judged by their rate, spatial distribution, and focal mechanisms. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  16. ChiNet uncovers rewired rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional differential gene expression analysis is insufficient to dissect altered gene interactions for adapted transcription regulatory networks that impact downstream molecular responses. Here we present comparative chi-square network analysis (ChiNet), a computational method, to uncover rewir...

  17. Search for factorization-suppressed B-->chi(c)K(*) decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Thompson, J; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-05-06

    We search for the factorization-suppressed decays B-->chi(c0)K(*) and B-->chi(c2)K(*), with chi(c0) and chi(c2) decaying into J/psi gamma, using a sample of 124 x 10(6) BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find no significant signal and set upper bounds for the branching fractions.

  18. [About da tai - abortion in old Chinese folk medicine handwritten manuscripts].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Of 881 Chinese handwritten volumes with medical texts of the 17th through mid-20th century held by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin and Ethnologisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 48 volumes include prescriptions for induced abortion. A comparison shows that these records are significantly different from references to abortion in Chinese printed medical texts of pre-modern times. For example, the percentage of recipes recommended for artificial abortions in handwritten texts is significantly higher than those in printed medical books. Authors of handwritten texts used 25 terms to designate artificial abortion, with the term da tai [see text], lit.: "to strike the fetus", occurring most frequently. Its meaning is well defined, in contrast to other terms used, such as duo tai [see text], lit: "to make a fetus fall", xia tai [see text], lit. "to bring a fetus down", und duan chan [see text], lit., to interrupt birthing", which is mostly used to indicate a temporary or permanent sterilization. Pre-modern Chinese medicine has not generally abstained from inducing abortions; physicians showed a differentiating attitude. While abortions were descibed as "things a [physician with an attitude of] humaneness will not do", in case a pregnancy was seen as too risky for a woman she was offered medication to terminate this pregnancy. The commercial application of abortifacients has been recorded in China since ancient times. A request for such services has continued over time for various reasons, including so-called illegitimate pregnancies, and those by nuns, widows and prostitutes. In general, recipes to induce abortions documented in printed medical literature have mild effects and are to be ingested orally. In comparison, those recommended in handwritten texts are rather toxic. Possibly to minimize the negative side-effects of such medication, practitioners of folk medicine developed mechanical devices to perform "external", i.e., vaginal approaches.

  19. Chi-squared smoothed adaptive particle-filtering based prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Christopher P.; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel form of selecting the likelihood function of the standard sequential importance sampling/re-sampling particle filter (SIR-PF) with a combination of sliding window smoothing and chi-square statistic weighting, so as to: (a) increase the rate of convergence of a flexible state model with artificial evolution for online parameter learning (b) improve the performance of a particle-filter based prognosis algorithm. This is applied and tested with real data from oil total base number (TBN) measurements from three haul trucks. The oil data has high measurement uncertainty and an unknown phenomenological state model. Performance of the proposed algorithm is benchmarked against the standard form of SIR-PF estimation which utilises the Normal (Gaussian) likelihood function. Both implementations utilise the same particle filter based prognosis algorithm so as to provide a common comparison. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to further explore the effects of the combination of sliding window smoothing and chi-square statistic weighting to the SIR-PF.

  20. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  1. Role of a sensor histidine kinase ChiS of Vibrio cholerae in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chourashi, Rhishita; Mondal, Moumita; Sinha, Ritam; Debnath, Anusuya; Das, Suman; Koley, Hemanta; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio cholera survival in an aquatic environment depends on chitin utilization pathway that requires two factors, chitin binding protein and chitinases. The chitinases and the chitin utilization pathway are regulated by a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in V. cholerae. In recent studies these two factors are also shown to be involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. However, the role played by their upstream regulator ChiS in pathogenesis is yet to be known. In this study, we investigated the activation of ChiS in presence of mucin and its functional role in pathogenesis. We found ChiS is activated in mucin supplemented media. The isogenic chiS mutant (ChiS(-)) showed less growth compared to the wild type strain (ChiS(+)) in the presence of mucin supplemented media. The ChiS(-) strain also showed highly retarded motility as well as mucin layer penetration in vitro. Our result also showed that ChiS was important for adherence and survival in HT-29 cell. These observations indicate that ChiS is activated in presence of intestinal mucin and subsequently switch on the chitin utilization pathway. In animal models, our results also supported the in vitro observation. We found reduced fluid accumulation and colonization during infection with ChiS(-) strain. We also found ChiS(-) mutant with reduced expression of ctxA, toxT and tcpA. The cumulative effect of these events made V. cholerae ChiS(-) strain hypovirulent. Hence, we propose that ChiS plays a vital role in V. cholerae pathogenesis.

  2. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Jian; Ding, Aijun; Cooper, Owen R.; Lin, Meiyun; Xu, Pengju; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xinfeng; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Yanhong; Chen, Tianshu; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai - the highest mountain over the North China Plain - during 2003-2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr-1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr-1 for the July-August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3) with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980-2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  3. Economic Evaluation of a Tai Ji Quan Intervention to Reduce Falls in People With Parkinson Disease, Oregon, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exercise is effective in reducing falls in people with Parkinson disease. However, information on the cost effectiveness of this approach is lacking. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of Tai Ji Quan for reducing falls among patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson disease. Methods We used data from a previous intervention trial to analyze resource use costs related to intervention delivery and number of falls observed during a 9-month study period. Cost effectiveness was estimated via incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in which Tai Ji Quan was compared with 2 alternative interventions (Resistance training and Stretching) on the primary outcome of per fall prevented and the secondary outcome of per participant quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. We also conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Results Tai Ji Quan was more effective than either Resistance training or Stretching; it had the lowest cost and was the most effective in improving primary and secondary outcomes. Compared with Stretching, Tai Ji Quan cost an average of $175 less for each additional fall prevented and produced a substantial improvement in QALY gained at a lower cost. Results from subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed no variation in cost-effectiveness estimates. However, sensitivity analyses demonstrated a much lower ICER ($27) when only intervention costs were considered. Conclusion Tai Ji Quan represents a cost-effective strategy for optimizing spending to prevent falls and maximize health gains in people with Parkinson disease. While these results are promising, they warrant further validation. PMID:26226067

  4. Migration and employment in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Truong Si Anh; Gubry, P; Vu Thi Hong; Huguet, J W

    1996-06-01

    This article presents findings from a survey of migrants conducted during September 1994 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The sample includes 19,019 households in 34 residence blocks selected from the 17 districts that comprise the most populated areas of the city. 704 migrants and 296 nonmigrant households completed the basic demographic and socioeconomic questionnaire. One migrant and one nonmigrant completed a detailed questionnaire. Migrants are identified as those who migrated to the city after April 1984. Migrants are divided into those moving during 1984-89 and during 1990-94. The average annual rate of growth in population during the census years 1979-89 was 1.87% and during 1989-94 was 3.5%. Growth during 1989-94 was 1.6% due to natural increase and 1.9% due to net migration. 43% of population growth was due to natural increase and 57% was from net migration. Migration to large cities, such as Ho Chi Minh City, was stimulated by employment opportunities in the private sector. There were more female migrants in both study periods, and the proportion of females increased in the more recent past. About 15% of female migrants aged over 13 years were students and 58% were in the labor force. Most migrants were aged 15-29 years (41% during 1984-89 and 53% during 1990-94). Only 31% of nonmigrants were aged 15-29 years. About 33% of migrants originated from the Mekong River Delta in the south; 20% originated from the Red River Delta and Hanoi region; and 20% came from the Central Coast. Over time, the proportion of migrants from the coast increased and that from the Red River Delta decreased. Migrants and nonmigrants shared similar unemployment and economic activity rates. However, twice the proportion of migrants aged over 13 years were attending school. The author presents the evidence for the influence of urban economic policies on migration, specifically female migration.

  5. [Comparative study of theoretical literature on cold pathogenic disease in Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) and Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huirui; Liang, Yongxuan

    2014-09-01

    In the Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) compiled in 752, its portion on cold pathogenic disorders embodies the achievements before the mid Tang Dynasty, whereas that in the Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief), compiled in 992 embodies those before the early Song Dynasty. Comparison on the theory of cold disorders in both books reveal that, during the 2 centuries period from mid Tang to early Song Dynasties, the texts as a carrier for the transmission of such theory in both show no distinct changes, but only with minor revisions and improvements.

  6. CD11c(hi) Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6C(hi) Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-12-02

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11c(hi)PDCA-1(int/lo) DCs without alteration in CD11c(int)PDCA-1(hi) plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11c(hi) DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11c(hi) DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes generated in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11c(hi) DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

  7. Organic molecular compositions and temporal variations of summertime mountain aerosols over Mt. Tai, North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Okuzawa, Kazuhiro; Aggarwal, Shankar Gopala; Wang, Gehui; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2008-10-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP) were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m above sea level) on a daytime and nighttime basis during a summertime campaign (May-June 2006) and were characterized for organic molecular compositions using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The n-Alkanes, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, sugars, glycerol and polyacids, and phthalate esters were found as major organic compound classes, whereas lignin and resin products, sterols, aromatic acids, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected as minor classes. Sugars (49.8-2115 ng m-3, average 640 ng m-3 in daytime; 18.1-4348 ng m-3, 799 ng m-3 in nighttime) were found to be the dominant compound class. Levoglucosan, a specific cellulose pyrolysis product, was detected as the most abundant single compound, followed by C28 fatty alcohol, diisobutyl and di-n-butyl phthalates, C29n-alkane, C16 and C28 fatty acids, and malic acid. By grouping organic compounds based on their sources, we found that emission of terrestrial plant waxes was the most significant source (30-34%) of the TSP, followed by biomass burning products (25-27%) (e.g., levoglucosan and lignin and resin products), soil resuspension (15-18%) due to agricultural activities, secondary oxidation products (8-10%), plastic emission (3-10%), marine/microbial sources (6%), and urban/industrial emissions from fossil fuel use (4%). However, low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (such as oxalic acid) of photochemical origin were not included in this study. Malic acid was found to be much higher than those reported in the ground level, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production in the free troposphere over mountain areas. Temporal variations of biomass burning tracers (e.g., levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan) and some higher plant wax derived compound classes suggested that there were two major (E1 and E2) and one minor (E3) biomass-burning events during this

  8. CHiCAGO: robust detection of DNA looping interactions in Capture Hi-C data.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Jonathan; Freire-Pritchett, Paula; Wingett, Steven W; Várnai, Csilla; Dimond, Andrew; Plagnol, Vincent; Zerbino, Daniel; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Javierre, Biola-Maria; Osborne, Cameron; Fraser, Peter; Spivakov, Mikhail

    2016-06-15

    Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) is a method for profiling chromosomal interactions involving targeted regions of interest, such as gene promoters, globally and at high resolution. Signal detection in CHi-C data involves a number of statistical challenges that are not observed when using other Hi-C-like techniques. We present a background model and algorithms for normalisation and multiple testing that are specifically adapted to CHi-C experiments. We implement these procedures in CHiCAGO ( http://regulatorygenomicsgroup.org/chicago ), an open-source package for robust interaction detection in CHi-C. We validate CHiCAGO by showing that promoter-interacting regions detected with this method are enriched for regulatory features and disease-associated SNPs.

  9. Improved line parameters for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Aaron; Gillis, James R.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Burkholder, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Improved line parameters at 296 K for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO have been calculated with J up to 43.5. The integrated intensity for the 2048 lines in the main and satellite bands has been normalized to 9.68-sq cm/atm at 296K.

  10. Response of seismicity to Coulomb stress triggers and shadows of the 1999 Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ma, K.-F.; Chan, C.-H.; Stein, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between static Coulomb stress increases and aftershocks has thus far provided the strongest evidence that stress changes promote seismicity, a correlation that the Chi-Chi earthquake well exhibits. Several studies have deepened the argument by resolving stress changes on aftershock focal mechanisms, which removes the assumption that the aftershocks are optimally oriented for failure. Here one compares the percentage of planes on which failure is promoted after the main shock relative to the percentage beforehand. For Chi-Chi we find a 28% increase for thrust and an 18% increase for strike-slip mechanisms, commensurate with increases reported for other large main shocks. However, perhaps the chief criticism of static stress triggering is the difficulty in observing predicted seismicity rate decreases in the stress shadows, or sites of Coulomb stress decrease. Detection of sustained drops in seismicity rate demands a long catalog with a low magnitude of completeness and a high seismicity rate, conditions that are met at Chi-Chi. We find four lobes with statistically significant seismicity rate declines of 40-90% for 50 months, and they coincide with the stress shadows calculated for strike-slip faults, the dominant faulting mechanism. The rate drops are evident in uniform cell calculations, 100-month time series, and by visual inspection of the M ??? 3 seismicity. An additional reason why detection of such declines has proven so rare emerges from this study: there is a widespread increase in seismicity rate during the first 3 months after Chi-Chi, and perhaps many other main shocks, that might be associated with a different mechanism. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region.

  12. Electromagnetic Currents and Magnetic Moments in $\\chi$EFT

    SciTech Connect

    Saori Pastore, Luca Girlanda, Rocco Schiavilla, Michele Viviani, Robert Wiringa

    2009-09-01

    A two-nucleon potential and consistent electromagnetic currents are derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) at, respectively, $Q^{\\, 2}$ (or N$^2$LO) and $e\\, Q$ (or N$^3$LO), where $Q$ generically denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize the pion-loop corrections. A simple expression is derived for the magnetic dipole ($M1$) operator associated with pion loops, consisting of two terms, one of which is determined, uniquely, by the isospin-dependent part of the two-pion-exchange potential. This decomposition is also carried out for the $M1$ operator arising from contact currents, in which the unique term is determined by the contact potential. Finally, the low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the N$^2$LO potential are fixed by fits to the $np$ S- and P-wave phase shifts up to 100 MeV lab energies. Three additional LEC's are needed to completely specify the $M1$ operator at N$^3$L

  13. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

  14. Some observations on colocated and closely spaced strong ground-motion records of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    The digital accelerograph network installed in Taiwan produced a rich set of records from the 20 September 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (Mw 7.6). Teledyne Geotech model A-800 and A-900A* digital accelerographs were colocated at 22 stations that recorded this event. Comparisons of the amplitudes, frequency content, and baseline offsets show that records from several of the A-800 accelerographs are considerably different than those from the colocated A-900A accelerographs. On this basis, and in view of the more thorough predeployment testing of the newer A-900A instruments, we recommend that the records from the A-800 instruments be used with caution in analyses of the mainshock and aftershocks. At the Hualien seismic station two A-900A and one A-800 instruments were colocated, along with a Global Positioning System instrument. Although the records from the two A-900A instruments are much more similar than those from a colocated A-800 instrument, both three-component records contain unpredictable baseline offsets, which produced completely unrealistic ground displacements derived from the accelerations by double integration, as do many of the strong-motion data from this event; the details of the baseline offsets differ considerably on the two three-component records. There are probably numerous sources of the baseline offsets, including sources external to the instruments, such as tilting or rotation of the ground, and sources internal to the instruments, such as electrical or mechanical hysteresis in the sensors. For the two colocated A-900A records at the Hualien seismic station, however, the differences in the baseline offsets suggest that the principal source is some transient disturbance within the instrument. The baseline offsets generally manifest themselves in the acceleration time series as pulses or steps, either singly or in combination. We find a 0.015-Hz low-cut filter can almost completely eliminate the effects of the baseline offsets, but then

  15. The state of stress near the Chelungpu Fault, Taiwan, post Chi-Chi earthquake - a new interpretation of test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) two scientific holes were drilled 40 m apart, each penetrating the fault, at 1111 m (hole A) and 1125 m (hole B) at a point some 100 km north of the Chi-Chi earthquake epicenter. The only direct stress measurements were conducted at 4 depths in hole B using hydraulic fracturing (HF). The HF tests were carried out by a commercial firm and were limited to the fracturing phase, leaving out the detection of the induced fractures. Hung et al (Tectonophysics, 2009) assumed that hydrofractures were vertical and conclude from their analysis that the present state of stress across the Chelungpu fault is one favoring strike-slip movement, i.e. one in which σH > σv > σh. In a subsequent paper, Haimson et al (Tectonophysics, 2010) used a hybrid approach to arrive at a state of stress that was more of a border case between strike-slip and thrust faulting. They concluded from the HF pressure-time records that there were only two reliable test results, at 1085 m and 1279 m depth. In these two tests the presumed vertical hydrofractures required shut-in pressures (taken as representing the minimum horizontal stress σh) that were very nearly equal to the magnitudes of the respective vertical stress (σv), and hence the borderline stress regime. A second look at the HF tests data suggests a high probability that the induced hydrofractures at 1085 m and 1279 m depth were in fact horizontal, and not vertical as previously assumed. The shut-in pressures in these two tests were within a few percentage points of the estimated vertical stress at the respective depths, well within the margin of error of these estimates. Moreover, the pressure-time signature in these two tests clearly indicates to experienced HF practitioners that the induced fractures were horizontal. This implies that the minimum principal stress (represented by the recorded shut-in pressures) is vertical (σv, equal to 0.0238 x Depth in meters. This is

  16. Extracts of Tsai Tai (Brassica chinensis): enhanced antioxidant activity and anti-aging effects both in vitro and in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ju; Xiang, Yanxia; Xiang, Limin; Liu, Yongmei; He, Xiangjiu; Zhou, Xiaoju; Liu, Xin; Huang, Zebo

    2016-02-01

    Tsai Tai is one of the most widely consumed Brassica vegetables in Asian countries because of its good taste and its nutritional benefits. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and possible associated health benefits of 3 Tsai Tai (Brassica chinensis) varieties, namely, Hon Tsai Tai, Pak Choi and Choi Sum. The DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model for evaluation of beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity and delayed aging. In vitro, the Hon Tsai Tai extract exhibited higher antioxidant activities than Pak Choi and Choi Sum, and the total phenolic contents were significantly correlated with the DPPH and RP values. In vivo, the three assayed Tsai Tai extracts significantly increased resistance against paraquat-induced oxidative stress with an increase in survival rates from 15% to 28% compared with controls. However, only the extract from Hon Tsai Tai significantly prolonged the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans, with an 8% increase in the mean lifespan with respect to controls. Further evidence of antioxidant protection was obtained by assessing ROS production via the DCF assay. The analyses of intracellular SOD activity and MDA content confirmed the existence of an antioxidant protective effect. These results suggest that Tsai Tai might serve as a good source of natural antioxidants, and in particular, Hon Tsai Tai could be explored as a potential dietary supplement to retard aging.

  17. An Application of Project-Based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerdpol, Sakon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a research entitled, " An Application of Project-based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province. It was intended to develop young local tour guides on Tai Phuan's culture and tourist attractions in…

  18. A Comparison of Lord's Chi Square and Raju's Area Measures in Detection of DIF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Allan S.; Kim, Seock-Ho

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of two statistical tests of the area between item response functions (exact signed area and exact unsigned area) estimated in different samples, a measure of differential item functioning (DIF), was compared with Lord's chi square. Lord's chi square was found the most effective in determining DIF. (SLD)

  19. Measurement of sigma chi c2 B(chi c2-->J/psi gamma)/sigma chi c1 B(chi c1 -->J/psi gamma) in pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-06-08

    We measure the ratio of cross section times branching fraction, Rp=sigma chi c2 B(chi c2-->J/psi gamma)/sigma chi c1 B(chi c1-->J/psi gamma), in 1.1 fb(-1) of pp collisions at square root s=1.96 TeV. This measurement covers the kinematic range pT(J/psi)>4.0 GeV/c, |eta(J/psi)<1.0, and pT(gamma)>1.0 GeV/c. For events due to prompt processes, we find Rp=0.395+/-0.016(stat)+/-0.015(syst). This result represents a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements of prompt chi c1,2 hadro production.

  20. Measurement of sigma(chi(c2)B(chi(c2) ---> J / psi gamma) / sigma(chi(c1)B(chi(c1) ---> J / psi gamma) in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati /Comenius U.

    2007-03-01

    The authors measure the ratio of cross section times branching fraction, {sigma}{sub {chi}c2}{beta}({chi}{sub c2} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma})/{sigma}{sub {chi}c1}{beta}({chi}{sub c1} {yields} J/{psi}{gamma}), in 1.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. This measurement covers the kinematic range p{sub T} (J/{psi}) > 4.0 GeV/c, |{eta}(J/{psi})| < 1.0, and p{sub T}({gamma}) > 1.0 GeV/c. For events due to prompt processes, they find R{sub p} = 0.395 {+-} 0.016(stat.) {+-} 0.015(sys.). This result represents a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements of prompt {chi}{sub c1,2} hadroproduction.

  1. [Diagnosis of siamese twins at 12 weeks gestation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, W; Kubli, F; Heberling, D

    1981-03-01

    Double monsters are a rare obstetric event. The mean incidence is approximately 1:50,000 deliveries. The early diagnosis of siamese twins with the aid of routine ultra-sound investigation is described. Typical ultrasound findings and procedures to verify the diagnosis are described in detail.

  2. The efficacy of 12 weeks supervised exercise in obesity management.

    PubMed

    Herring, L Y; Wagstaff, C; Scott, A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of adding either aerobic training (AT) or resistance training (RT) to a multidisciplinary teamed (MDT) educational weight management programme on the health-related fitness of morbidly obese individuals. Males (n = 9) and females (n = 24) aged between 24 and 68 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥40 kg m(2) (≥35 kg m(2) with comorbidities) undertaking a weight management programme were recruited (Completion: M = 8, F = 19). Participants were randomly allocated to either AT (n = 12), RT (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). AT and RT undertook three structured ∼60 min moderate intensity sessions weekly, two supervised gym-based and one structured home-based session for 12 weeks; CON undertook usual care alone. Anthropometric, psychological and functional capacity measures were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Both exercise interventions elicited improvements compared with CON in the: shuttle walk test (AT [Δ 207.0 ± 123.0 metres, 68.0%, P = 0.04], RT [Δ 165.0 ± 183.3 m, 48.8%, P = 0.06], CON [Δ -14.3 ± 38.7 m, -6.2%]), triceps skin-fold (P ≤ 0.001), self-efficacy (P = 0.005) and interest/enjoyment (P = 0.006). RT displayed additional improvements compared with CON in BMI (RT [Δ -1.02 ± 0.91 kg·m(2) , -2.5%, P = 0.033], AT [Δ -1.84 ± 2.70 kg·m(2) , -4.3%, P = 0.142], CON [Δ -0.31 ± 1.47 kg·m(2) , -0.6%]), waist circumference (P = 0.022), competence (P = 0.019), biceps skin-fold (P = 0.012) and medial calf skin-fold (P = 0.013). No significant differences were observed between exercise modalities. Regardless of exercise mode, the addition of supervised and structured exercise to a MDT weight management programme significantly improved anthropometric, functional and psychological measures in obese participants with a BMI of ≥35 kg·m(2) .

  3. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wayne, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    背景:老年人认知功能衰退是一个 重要的公共健康问题。通过行为干 预(包括锻炼)来改善认知功能日 益受到关注。现有研究表明,太极 拳可能是防止认知功能随年龄衰退 的安全有效锻炼方式,但它对经常 运动的健康成人的短期和长期作用 尚不明确。目的:比较长期打太极拳的高手与 未打过太极拳的同等年龄和性别的 成人在认知功能方面的差异,并确 定短期太极拳运动对健康非久坐成 人的认知功能的影响。设计:采用混合设计,既包括观察 性比较,也包括一项两分组随机临 床试验 (RCT)参与者:未打过太极拳的健康非久 坐成人(50-79 岁)与年龄及性别 相仿的长期打太极拳高手方法:对未打过太极拳的健康成人 (n=60) 和太极拳高手(拥有 24.5 ± 12 年的经验;n=27)的认知功能进行比较:未打过太极拳的成人 随后按侯选表,完成了一项为期 6 个月、两分组太极训练随机临床试 验。不管是剖面代表性比较,还是 纵向比较,均评估了 6 项认知功 能指标。结果:太极拳高手在所有认知功能 指标上均表现出更高得分倾向,在 流利度项目上尤其显著 (P=0.01) ,在 6 个指标的综合评分 z 值上 亦如此 (P=0.03)。相对之下,未 打过太极拳的成人经随机分配接受 6 个月的太极拳训练后,其认知功 能指标未出现显著改善。结论:健康非久坐成人接受长期太 极拳训练可能有助于保存认知功 能,但短期太极拳训练对健康成人 的效果仍不明确。试验注册编号:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365.

  4. Decadal changes in fault-scarp knickpoints by bedrock erosion following 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsuta, Nobuhisa; Maekado, Akira; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2010-05-01

    Surface ruptures along the Chelungpu thrust fault in west-central Taiwan caused formation of knickpoints (waterfalls) according with bedrock exposure in riverbeds when the 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake occurred on September 21, 1999. Since then the fault-scarp knickpoints have receded upstream at extremely rapid rates, causing bedrock incision for tens to hundreds of meters in length within a decade. The rapid erosion of the knickpoints provides us an opportunity to investigate actual changes of bedrock morphology of the rivers, and here we examine the changes in the knickpoint recession rates during the last decade from 1999 to 2009. Field measurements of the topography revealed that the mean rate of a knickpoint recession in the largest river (Ta-chia) was 3.3 m/y in the earlier 6 years (1999-2005) and 220 m/y in the last 4 years (2005-2009). This acceleration of the recession can be due to the increase in flood frequency and intensity, narrowing of the channel width, and/or anisotropy of rock strength (sandstones and mudstones) along the stream. The other knickpoints showed relatively similar recession rates throughout the decade on the order of 20-60 m/y. These rates are then compared to an empirical model of knickpoint recession, in which relevant physical parameters of erosive force of stream and bedrock resistance are involved as a dimensionless index. The actual recession rates of the knickpoints are considerably higher than those expected by the model, suggesting that abundant sediment particles supplied from upstream catchment enhance the knickpoint erosion. In fact, all the abundant gravels on the riverbed around the knickpoints that are supplied from further upstream areas with different lithology (mostly older sandstones) are quite harder than the bedrock therein. The model analysis for the two time periods for each knickpoint suggests that the changes in their recession rates can be commonly affected by severe flood occurrence in the study area. Also, some

  5. A comparative study of different PGA attenuation and error models: Case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate the horizontal peak ground acceleration (HPGA) during earthquakes, the author studies the respective efficiency of two existing attenuation models [Mébarki, A., 2003a, Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. November 12-13, (CD-ROM), Mébarki A., 2004. Modèle d'atténuation sismique: prédiction probabiliste des pics d'accélération, RFGC — Revue Française de Génie Civil, Hermès Ed., 8 (9-10), 1071-1086]. A comparative study of their performances is done in the case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan). The reported PGA (Peak Ground Accelerations) values correspond to hypocentral distances ranging from 15 up to 180 km with observed acceleration peaks ranging from (0.04 g) up to (1.16 g). The author considers two kinds of probabilistic distributions for the error model in order to describe the uncertainty and the variability that affect the values of the PGA: a Gamma distribution and a Log-normal distribution. The adopted error models assume that the variability of the PGA is such that its coefficient of variation is equal to 55% [Mébarki, A., 2003a. Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela

  6. Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or

  7. TaiWan Ionospheric Model (TWIM) prediction based on time series autoregressive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Macalalad, Ernest P.; Liu, C. H.

    2014-10-01

    As described in a previous paper, a three-dimensional ionospheric electron density (Ne) model has been constructed from vertical Ne profiles retrieved from the FormoSat3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate GPS radio occultation measurements and worldwide ionosonde foF2 and foE data and named the TaiWan Ionospheric Model (TWIM). The TWIM exhibits vertically fitted α-Chapman-type layers with distinct F2, F1, E, and D layers, and surface spherical harmonic approaches for the fitted layer parameters including peak density, peak density height, and scale height. To improve the TWIM into a real-time model, we have developed a time series autoregressive model to forecast short-term TWIM coefficients. The time series of TWIM coefficients are considered as realizations of stationary stochastic processes within a processing window of 30 days. These autocorrelation coefficients are used to derive the autoregressive parameters and then forecast the TWIM coefficients, based on the least squares method and Lagrange multiplier technique. The forecast root-mean-square relative TWIM coefficient errors are generally <30% for 1 day predictions. The forecast TWIM values of foE and foF2 values are also compared and evaluated using worldwide ionosonde data.

  8. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China.

  9. Investigation of diverse bacteria in cloud water at Mt. Tai, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Caihong; Wei, Min; Chen, Jianmin; Sui, Xiao; Zhu, Chao; Li, Jiarong; Zheng, Lulu; Sui, Guodong; Li, Weijun; Wang, Wenxing; Zhang, Qingzhu; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2017-02-15

    Bacteria are abundant in atmospheric water phase with the potential to influence atmospheric processes and human health, yet relatively little information is known about the bacterial characteristics at high altitudes. Here we investigated the bacterial community by high throughput sequencing in 24 cloud water samples collected from September 26 to October 31, at the summit of Mt. Tai (36°15' N, 117°06' E, 1534m a.s.l) in China. Diverse bacterial population were identified and the gram-negative bacteria contributed the majority of total bacteria including Proteobacteria (81.6%) and Bacteroidetes (3.9%), followed by gram-positive bacteria Firmicutes (7.1%) and Actinobacteria (2.3%). These gram-negative taxa mainly inhabited in leaf-surface and cold environments. Meanwhile bacteria involved in the cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei formation were observed such as Sphingomonas (6.7%), Pseudomonas (4.1%), and Bacillus (1.1%). In addition, Sphingmonas was more active than that in daytime and participated in the cloud chemistry process. Meanwhile O3 and SO2 critically contributed to the variation of bacterial community. It is the first report on the bacterial community structure of cloud water over Asian area. Our results can serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, and biologists.

  10. Role of Vibrio cholerae exochitinase ChiA2 in horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Moumita; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2016-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae exochitinase ChiA2 plays a key role in acquisition of nutrients by chitin hydrolysis in the natural environment as well as in pathogenesis in the intestinal milieu. In this study we demonstrate the importance of ChiA2 in horizontal gene transfer in the natural environment. We found that the expression of ChiA2 and TfoX, the central regulator of V. cholerae horizontal gene transfer, varied with changes in environmental conditions. The activity of ChiA2 was also dependent on these conditions. In 3 different environmental conditions tested here, we observed that the supporting environmental condition for maximum expression and activity of ChiA2 was 20 °C, pH 5.5, and 100 mmol/L salinity in the presence of chitin. The same condition also induced TfoX expression and was favorable for horizontal gene transfer in V. cholerae. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that ChiA2 released a significant amount of (GlcNAc)2 from chitin hydrolysis under the favorable condition. We hypothesized that under the favorable environmental condition, ChiA2 was upregulated and maximally active to produce a significant amount of (GlcNAc)2 from chitin. The same environmental condition also induced tfoX expression, followed by its translational activation by the (GlcNAc)2 produced, leading to efficient horizontal gene transfer.

  11. Effects of fault dip and slip rake angles on near-source ground motions: Why rupture directivity was minimal in the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Hall, J.F.; Heaton, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    We study how the fault dip and slip rake angles affect near-source ground velocities and displacements as faulting transitions from strike-slip motion on a vertical fault to thrust motion on a shallow-dipping fault. Ground motions are computed for five fault geometries with different combinations of fault dip and rake angles and common values for the fault area and the average slip. The nature of the shear-wave directivity is the key factor in determining the size and distribution of the peak velocities and displacements. Strong shear-wave directivity requires that (1) the observer is located in the direction of rupture propagation and (2) the rupture propagates parallel to the direction of the fault slip vector. We show that predominantly along-strike rupture of a thrust fault (geometry similar in the Chi-Chi earthquake) minimizes the area subjected to large-amplitude velocity pulses associated with rupture directivity, because the rupture propagates perpendicular to the slip vector; that is, the rupture propagates in the direction of a node in the shear-wave radiation pattern. In our simulations with a shallow hypocenter, the maximum peak-to-peak horizontal velocities exceed 1.5 m/sec over an area of only 200 km2 for the 30??-dipping fault (geometry similar to the Chi-Chi earthquake), whereas for the 60??- and 75??-dipping faults this velocity is exceeded over an area of 2700 km2 . These simulations indicate that the area subjected to large-amplitude long-period ground motions would be larger for events of the same size as Chi-Chi that have different styles of faulting or a deeper hypocenter.

  12. Comparisons of ground motions from five aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake with empirical predictions largely based on data from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Igel, H.; Zhou, X.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    The observed ground motions from five large aftershocks of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake are compared with predictions from four equations based primarily on data from California. The four equations for active tectonic regions are those developed by Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Campbell (1997, 2001), and Sadigh et al. (1997). Comparisons are made for horizontal-component peak ground accelerations and 5%-damped pseudoacceleration response spectra at periods between 0.02 sec and 5 sec. The observed motions are in reasonable agreement with the predictions, particularly for distances from 10 to 30 km. This is in marked contrast to the motions from the Chi-Chi mainshock, which are much lower than the predicted motions for periods less than about 1 sec. The results indicate that the low motions in the mainshock are not due to unusual, localized absorption of seismic energy, because waves from the mainshock and the aftershocks generally traverse the same section of the crust and are recorded at the same stations. The aftershock motions at distances of 30-60 km are somewhat lower than the predictions (but not nearly by as small a factor as those for the mainshock), suggesting that the ground motion attenuates more rapidly in this region of Taiwan than it does in the areas we compare with it. We provide equations for the regional attenuation of response spectra, which show increasing decay of motion with distance for decreasing oscillator periods. This observational study also demonstrates that ground motions have large earthquake-location-dependent variability for a specific site. This variability reduces the accuracy with which an earthquake-specific prediction of site response can be predicted. Online Material: PGAs and PSAs from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and five aftershocks.

  13. Use of chi square periodogram in the analysis of estrous rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1991-02-01

    The usefulness of the chi square periodogram procedure for the analysis of estrous rhythmicity was investigated. Sokolove-Bushell's Q statistic was found to have a chi square distribution at the small degrees of freedom involved in estrous rhythmicity in rodents (i.e., rhythmicity with periods of 2-7 days). Consequently, the significance of the peaks in the periodogram can be effectively evaluated. The effects of multiple-period rhythmicity and of random noise added to periodical data were also investigated. Overall, the analysis of simulated as well as empirical data indicated that the chi square periodogram is an excellent tool for the evaluation of estrous rhythmicity.

  14. Checking Timed Büchi Automata Emptiness Using LU-Abstractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangyuan

    This paper shows that the zone-based LU-extrapolation of Behrmann et al, that preserves reachability of timed automata, also preserves emptiness of timed Büchi automata. This improves the previous results by Tripakis et al who showed that the k-extrapolation preserves timed Büchi automata emptiness. The LU-extrapolation is coarser than k-extrapolation, allowing better state space reductions. A tool with LU-extrapolation for emptiness checking of timed Büchi automata has been implemented, and some experiments are reported.

  15. Chi 3 dispersion in planar tantalum pentoxide waveguides in the telecommunications window.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruiqi Y; Charlton, Martin D B; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G

    2009-04-01

    We report on the dispersion of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (chi(3) or "Chi 3") in planar Ta2O5 waveguides in the telecommunications spectral window. We utilize the observation of third-harmonic generation under ultrashort pulsed excitation as a reference-free characterization method of chi(3) and obtain a large nonlinear coefficient, 2x10(-13) esu, at 1550 nm. Our observation of efficient third-harmonic generation in Ta2O5 waveguides in the telecoms window reveals the potential of this material system in high-speed integrated nonlinear optical switches.

  16. Observational data and orbits of the asteroids discovered at the Molėtai Observatory in 2005-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Wlodarczyk, I.; Zdanavičius, J.

    The paper presents statistics of the asteroids observed and discovered at the Molėtai Observatory, Lithuania, in 2005-2007 within the project for astrometric observations of the near-Earth objects (NEOs), the main belt asteroids and comets. CCD observations of asteroids were obtained with the 35/51 cm Maksutov-type meniscus telescope and the 1.65 m Ritchey-Chretien reflector. In the Minor Planet Circulars and the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (2005-2007) we published 17 003 astrometric positions of 2980 asteroids. Among them 112 were new normal asteroids and one NEO (2006 SF77) discovered at Molėtai; a few NEOs were found by our team independently. For the asteroids discovered at Molėtai their precise orbits were calculated. Because of short observational arc, a few asteroids have low-precision orbits and some asteroids have been lost. For three of them with low-precision orbital elements (NEO 2006 SF77 and two Mars crossers - 2006 SN368 and 2007 VM315), we present their ephemerides for 2016-2018.

  17. Calculations of Acute and Chronic "Chi I Q" Dispersion Estimates for a Sulface Release

    SciTech Connect

    P.M. Fransioli

    1999-12-17

    The objective of this calculation is to determine downwind normalized concentration, ''Chi/Q'' ({chi}/Q), estimates at the surface for acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) exposures of an airborne material released from a surfaced-based point release. This calculation was requested by the Safety Analysis Department to support repository design in the Site Recommendation and possible future License Application activities. Attachment IV, item 1 displays this request. The {chi}/Q dispersion estimates will be calculated at twenty pre-determined distances from a surface release point. The acute exposure dispersion estimates will be calculated for five percentile, percentage of occurrences {chi}/Q values are not exceeded, values.

  18. Occurrence of antibiotics and their impacts to primary productivity in fishponds around Tai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Chao; Zhang, Cong; Fan, Limin; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Kamira, Barry; Chen, Jiazhang

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are widely used to improve the health and yields of farmed animals, including fish, but their use is accompanied by undesirable ecological effects. Relatively little is known about the water-body burden of antibiotics and their influence on primary productivity in aquaculture ecosystem. In this study, antibiotics usage within 24 fishponds, covering 4 areas, sampled 5 times, and having 5 fish species, was investigated surrounding Tai Lake in China. The study analyzed 15 antibiotics (including 5 sulfonamides, 2 quinolones, 3 β-lactams, 3 tetracyclines, 1 amphenicol, and 1 macrolide), and all of them were detected in water samples, with a detection frequency of 2-60%. Sulfonamides were the most prevalent, and concentrations of sulfamethoxazole, sulfamonomethoxine, and florfenicol being over 2000 ng L(-1) in some samples, while the other antibiotics levels ranged from ND (no detection) to 551.18 ng L(-1). Significant differences were observed in antibiotic burden among different regions for total antibiotics, sulfonamides, quinolones, and amphenicols; among time points for quinolones, β-lactams, and tetracyclines; and among species for quinolones and macrolides. Furthermore, basing on the risk quotient (RQ) method, the assessment revealed that florfenicol was of highest risk to algae with RQ values exceeding 0.1, while macrolide erythromycin posed the second highest risk. The partial correlation coefficient between total antibiotics and chlorophyll (a) was -0.035 that clearly indicated total antibiotics were detrimental to green algae growth, while the nutrient input and other physical - chemical factors were much more beneficial. Overall, holistic far-reaching measures of antibiotics control are recommended to preserve aquaculture ecosystem health.

  19. Modeling nutrient release in the Tai Lake basin of China: source identification and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Because nutrient enrichment has become increasingly severe in the Tai Lake Basin of China, identifying sources and loads is crucial for watershed nutrient management. This paper develops an empirical framework to estimate nutrient release from five major sectors, which requires fewer input parameters and produces acceptable accuracy. Sectors included are industrial manufacturing, livestock breeding (industrial and family scale), crop agriculture, household consumption (urban and rural), and atmospheric deposition. Results show that in the basin (only the five sectors above), total nutrient loads of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) into aquatic systems in 2008 were 33043.2 tons N a(-1) and 5254.4 tons P a(-1), and annual area-specific nutrient loads were 1.94 tons N km(-2) and 0.31 tons P km(-2). Household consumption was the major sector having the greatest impact (46 % in N load, 47 % in P load), whereas atmospheric deposition (18 %) and crop agriculture (15 %) sectors represented other significant proportions of N load. The load estimates also indicate that 32 % of total P came from the livestock breeding sector, making it the second largest phosphorus contributor. According to the nutrient pollution sectors, six best management practices are selected for cost-effectiveness analysis, and feasible options are recommended. Overall, biogas digester construction on industrial-scale farms is proven the most cost-effective, whereas the building of rural decentralized facilities is the best alternative under extreme financial constraint. However, the reduction potential, average monetary cost, and other factors such as risk tolerance of policy makers should all be considered in the actual decision-making process.

  20. Modeling Nutrient Release in the Tai Lake Basin of China: Source Identification and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Beibei; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Because nutrient enrichment has become increasingly severe in the Tai Lake Basin of China, identifying sources and loads is crucial for watershed nutrient management. This paper develops an empirical framework to estimate nutrient release from five major sectors, which requires fewer input parameters and produces acceptable accuracy. Sectors included are industrial manufacturing, livestock breeding (industrial and family scale), crop agriculture, household consumption (urban and rural), and atmospheric deposition. Results show that in the basin (only the five sectors above), total nutrient loads of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) into aquatic systems in 2008 were 33043.2 tons N a-1 and 5254.4 tons P a-1, and annual area-specific nutrient loads were 1.94 tons N km-2 and 0.31 tons P km-2. Household consumption was the major sector having the greatest impact (46 % in N load, 47 % in P load), whereas atmospheric deposition (18 %) and crop agriculture (15 %) sectors represented other significant proportions of N load. The load estimates also indicate that 32 % of total P came from the livestock breeding sector, making it the second largest phosphorus contributor. According to the nutrient pollution sectors, six best management practices are selected for cost-effectiveness analysis, and feasible options are recommended. Overall, biogas digester construction on industrial-scale farms is proven the most cost-effective, whereas the building of rural decentralized facilities is the best alternative under extreme financial constraint. However, the reduction potential, average monetary cost, and other factors such as risk tolerance of policy makers should all be considered in the actual decision-making process.

  1. Chi hotspots trigger a conformational change in the helicase-like domain of AddAB to activate homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Neville S.; Carrasco, Carolina; Gollnick, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B.; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks is modulated by Chi sequences. These are recognised by helicase-nuclease complexes that process DNA ends for homologous recombination. Chi activates recombination by changing the biochemical properties of the helicase-nuclease, transforming it from a destructive exonuclease into a recombination-promoting repair enzyme. This transition is thought to be controlled by the Chi-dependent opening of a molecular latch, which enables part of the DNA substrate to evade degradation beyond Chi. Here, we show that disruption of the latch improves Chi recognition efficiency and stabilizes the interaction of AddAB with Chi, even in mutants that are impaired for Chi binding. Chi recognition elicits a structural change in AddAB that maps to a region of AddB which resembles a helicase domain, and which harbours both the Chi recognition locus and the latch. Mutation of the latch potentiates the change and moderately reduces the duration of a translocation pause at Chi. However, this mutant displays properties of Chi-modified AddAB even in the complete absence of bona fide hotspot sequences. The results are used to develop a model for AddAB regulation in which allosteric communication between Chi binding and latch opening ensures quality control during recombination hotspot recognition. PMID:26762979

  2. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes.

  3. Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  4. Ly6Chi monocytes regulate T cell responses in viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiangao; Chen, Huiyao; Huang, Xiaopei; Jiang, Songfu

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis remains a global health challenge despite recent progress in the development of more effective therapies. Although virus-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses are essential for viral clearance, it remains largely unknown what regulates T cell–mediated viral clearance. Thus, a better understanding of the regulation of anti-viral T cell immunity would be critical for the design of more effective therapies for viral hepatitis. Using a model of adenovirus-induced hepatitis, here we showed that adenoviral infection induced recruitment of Ly6Chi monocytes to the liver in a CCR2-dependent manner. These recruited Ly6Chi monocytes suppressed CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses to adenoviral infection, leading to a delay in viral clearance. In vivo depletion of Ly6Chi monocytes markedly enhanced anti-viral T cell responses and promoted viral clearance. Mechanistically, we showed that induction of iNOS and the production of NO by Ly6Chi monocytes are critical for the suppression of T cell responses. In addition, a contact-dependent mechanism mediated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interaction is also required for T cell suppression by Ly6Chi monocytes. These findings suggest a critical role for Ly6Chi monocytes in the regulation of T cell immunity in viral hepatitis and may provide new insights into development of more effective therapies for treating viral hepatitis based on targeting the immunosuppressing monocytes. PMID:27777980

  5. Cross-ratio identities and higher-order poles of CHY-integrand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Carlos; Feng, Bo; Gomez, Humberto; Huang, Rijun

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of generic Cachazo-He-Yuan(CHY)-integrands is a big challenge and efficient computational methods are in demand for practical evaluation. In this paper, we propose a systematic decomposition algorithm by using cross-ratio identities, which provides an analytic and easy to implement method for the evaluation of any CHY-integrand. This algorithm aims to decompose a given CHY-integrand containing higher-order poles as a linear combination of CHY-integrands with only simple poles in a finite number of steps, which ultimately can be trivially evaluated by integration rules of simple poles. To make the method even more efficient for CHY-integrands with large number of particles and complicated higher-order pole structures, we combine the Λ-algorithm and the cross-ratio identities, and as a by-product it provides us a way to deal with CHY-integrands where the Λ-algorithm was not applicable in its original formulation.

  6. Zero resistance near 80. Kappa. in the bismuth lead cuprates Pb/sub 2-chi/Bi/sub chi/Sr/sub 2/(YCa)/sub 1/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 8/

    SciTech Connect

    Retoux, R.; Michel, C.; Hervieu, M.; Raveau, B. )

    1989-05-01

    New superconductors Pb/sub 2-chi/Bi/sub chi/Sr/sub 2/Y/sub 1-chi/Ca/sub chi/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (0{le}chi{le}0.60) and Pb/sub 2-chi/Bi/sub chi/Bki/sub chi/Sr/sub 2/Y/sub 1-chi/Ca/sub y/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (chi = 0.6, y = 0.5 and y + 1) have been isolated. They are isostructural with Pb/sub 2/Sr/sub 2/Y/sub 0.5/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Their structure consists of a double intergrowth of oxygen deficient perovskite layers (ACuO/sub 3-chi/)/sub m/(A'O)/sub n/ (m = 1.5, n = 1), with A = Bi, Ca, Pb, Sr, Y and A' = Bi, Pb, Sr. The superconducting properties of this phase are greatly improved with respect to Pb/sub 2/Sr/sub 2/Y/sub 0.5/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (T/sub c/ = 46 {Kappa}), since a T/sub c/ of 79 K (zero resistance) can be reached.

  7. Measurement of the resonance parameters of the chi(1)(1**3P(1)) and chi(2)(1**3P(2)) states of charmonium formed in antiproton-proton annihilations

    SciTech Connect

    Andreotti, M.; Bagnasco, S.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Borreani, G.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Cester, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Dalpiaz, P.; Garzoglio, G.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Graham, M.; Hu, M.; Joffe, D.; Kasper, J.; Lasio, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Mandelkern, M.; /Fermilab /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /UC, Irvine /Northwestern U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Minnesota U.

    2005-03-01

    The authors have studied the {sup 3}P{sub J} ({chi}{sub e}) states of charmonium in formation by antiproton-proton annihilations in experiment E835 at the Fermilab Antiproton Source. The authors report new measurements of the mass, width, and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub eJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything) for the {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} by means of the inclusive reaction {bar p}p {yields} {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + anything {yields} (e{sup +}e{sup -}) + anything. Using the subsample of events where {chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {gamma} + J/{psi} {yields} {gamma} + (e{sup +}e{sup -}) is fully reconstructed, we derive B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p) x {Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}). They summarize the results of the E760 (updated) and E835 measurements of mass, width and B({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} {bar p}p){Lambda}({chi}{sub cJ} {yields} J/{psi} + {gamma}) (J = 0,1,2) and discuss the significance of these measurements.

  8. TNF-α-dependent Regulation of Acute Pancreatitis Severity by Ly-6Chi Monocytes in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Perides, George; Weiss, Eric R.; Michael, Emily S.; Laukkarinen, Johanna M.; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Steer, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The roles of monocytes/macrophages and their mechanisms of action in the regulation of pancreatitis are poorly understood. To address these issues, we have employed genetically altered mouse strains that either express the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) coupled to the CD11b promoter or have global deletion of TNF-α. Targeted, conditional depletion of monocytes/macrophages was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) to CD11b-DTR mice. We show that in the absence of DT administration, pancreatitis is associated with an increase in pancreatic content of Ly-6Chi monocytes/macrophages but that this response is prevented by prior administration of DT to CD11b-DTR mice. DT administration also reduces pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis in two dissimilar experimental models of acute pancreatitis (a secretagogue-induced model and a model elicited by retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate). In the secretagogue-elicited model, the DT-induced decrease in pancreatitis severity is reversed by adoptive transfer of purified Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from non-DT-treated CD11b-DTR mice or by the transfer of purified Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from TNF-α+/+ donor mice, but it is not reversed by the transfer of Ly-6Chi monocytes harvested from TNF-α−/− donors. Our studies indicate that the Ly-6Chi monocyte subset regulates the severity of pancreatitis by promoting pancreatic edema and acinar cell injury/necrosis and that this phenomenon is dependent upon the expression of TNF-α by those cells. They suggest that therapies targeting Ly-6Chi monocytes and/or TNF-α expression by Ly-6Chi monocytes might prove beneficial in the prevention or treatment of acute pancreatitis. PMID:21343291

  9. Parameter Estimation in Astronomy with Poisson-Distributed Data. 1; The (CHI)2(gamma) Statistic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the standard weighted mean formula, [Sigma (sub i)n(sub i)ssigma(sub i, sup -2)], to determine the weighted mean of data, n(sub i), drawn from a Poisson distribution, will, on average, underestimate the true mean by approx. 1 for all true mean values larger than approx.3 when the common assumption is made that the error of the i th observation is sigma(sub i) = max square root of n(sub i), 1).This small, but statistically significant offset, explains the long-known observation that chi-square minimization techniques which use the modified Neyman'chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub N) equivalent Sigma(sub i)((n(sub i) - y(sub i)(exp 2)) / max(n(sub i), 1), to compare Poisson - distributed data with model values, y(sub i), will typically predict a total number of counts that underestimates the true total by about 1 count per bin. Based on my finding that weighted mean of data drawn from a Poisson distribution can be determined using the formula [Sigma(sub i)[n(sub i) + min(n(sub i), 1)](n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1)] / [Sigma(sub i)(n(sub i) + 1)(exp -1))], I propose that a new chi(sub 2) statistic, chi(sup 2, sub gamma) equivalent, should always be used to analyze Poisson- distributed data in preference to the modified Neyman's chi(exp 2) statistic. I demonstrated the power and usefulness of,chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization by using two statistical fitting techniques and five chi(exp 2) statistics to analyze simulated X-ray power - low 15 - channel spectra with large and small counts per bin. I show that chi(sub gamma, sup 2) minimization with the Levenberg - Marquardt or Powell's method can produce excellent results (mean slope errors approx. less than 3%) with spectra having as few as 25 total counts.

  10. Hepatitis B Stigma and Knowledge among Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Lan; Cheng, Anita; Tran, Phuong; Wong, Shirley S.; Hershow, Ronald; Cotler, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, testing, and treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare HBV knowledge and stigma in Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago and to begin to evaluate the cultural context of HBV stigma. Methods. A written survey including knowledge questions and a validated HBV stigma questionnaire was distributed to Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. 842 surveys from Ho Chi Minh City and 170 from Chicago were analyzed. Results. Vietnamese living in Chicago had better understanding of HBV transmission and that HBV can cause chronic infection and liver cancer. Vietnamese in Chicago had higher stigma scores on a broad range of items including guilt and shame about HBV and were more likely to feel that persons with HBV can bring harm to others and should be isolated. Conclusions. Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago have knowledge deficits about HBV, particularly regarding modes of transmission. Persons in Ho Chi Minh City expressed lower levels of HBV stigma than Vietnamese living in Chicago, likely reflecting changing cultural attitudes in Vietnam. Culturally appropriate educational initiatives are needed to address the problem of HBV stigma. PMID:28101498

  11. Hepatitis B Stigma and Knowledge among Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dam, Lan; Cheng, Anita; Tran, Phuong; Wong, Shirley S; Hershow, Ronald; Cotler, Sheldon; Cotler, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, testing, and treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare HBV knowledge and stigma in Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago and to begin to evaluate the cultural context of HBV stigma. Methods. A written survey including knowledge questions and a validated HBV stigma questionnaire was distributed to Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. 842 surveys from Ho Chi Minh City and 170 from Chicago were analyzed. Results. Vietnamese living in Chicago had better understanding of HBV transmission and that HBV can cause chronic infection and liver cancer. Vietnamese in Chicago had higher stigma scores on a broad range of items including guilt and shame about HBV and were more likely to feel that persons with HBV can bring harm to others and should be isolated. Conclusions. Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago have knowledge deficits about HBV, particularly regarding modes of transmission. Persons in Ho Chi Minh City expressed lower levels of HBV stigma than Vietnamese living in Chicago, likely reflecting changing cultural attitudes in Vietnam. Culturally appropriate educational initiatives are needed to address the problem of HBV stigma.

  12. Investigation on Fluid Migration Triggered Seismicity in Association with Fault Zone Damage: Case Study for 1999 M7.6 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, K. F.; Tanaka, H.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid had been considered as a possible factor in triggering earthquakes, but, the evidence in elucidating the behavior and mechanism is still unresolved. Our previous studies in attenuation, noted as 1/ Qs, for the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake suggest that the fracture zone associated with fault zone could be considered as a fluid reservoir, which possibly yield to some observations/detections of phenomena associated with pre-, co- or post-seismic of a larger earthquake. The sudden changes in attenuation co-seismically with decay following a diffusion process indicated possible high pore-fluid saturation within fractured fault zone from fully to partial saturation. We suspect this process might yield the migration of fluid flow, and thus, related to the occurrence of some aftershocks. Aftershock sequence following a mainshock was often considered to be related to regional tectonic stress and stress triggering of a mainshock. For stress triggering, it refers to the seismicity in the stress increase regime with some lapse time (>one month) for the static stress triggering. In this study, we tried to deviate the possible fluid associated aftershocks by focusing on the stress decrease regime and 1-3-month aftershock sequence to understand their possible association. The migration of fluid flow increases the pore-pressure, which reduce the normal stress, and, thus, yield the co-seismic negative Coulomb's stress regime to become positive to trigger these fluid flow associated aftershocks. For the study of the Chi-Chi earthquake sequence, from the elapse time versus distance of the seismicity in this regime suggest a fluid flow of about 220m/day. We investigate the possible passage of fluid flow in the regime and understand its transient behavior associated with the fault zone damage and healing process.

  13. Estimation of lifetime of carbonaceous aerosol from open crop residue burning during Mount Tai Experiment 2006 (MTX2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X. L.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Komazaki, Y.; Taketani, F.; Akimoto, H.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Studying the emission ratios of carbonaceous aerosols (element carbon, EC, and organic carbon, OC) from open biomass burning helps to reduce uncertainties in emission inventories and provides necessary constraints for model simulations. We measured apparent elemental carbon (ECa) and OC concentrations at the summit of Mount Tai (Mt. Tai) during intensive open crop residue burning (OCRB) episodes using a Sunset OCEC analyzer. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) concentrations were determined using a Multiple Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). In the fine particle mode, OC and EC showed strong correlations (r > 0.9) with carbon monoxide (CO). Footprint analysis using the FLEXPART_WRF model indicated that OCRB in central east China (CEC) had a significant influence on ambient carbonaceous aerosol loadings at the summit of Mt. Tai. ΔECa/ΔCO ratios resulting from OCRB plumes were 14.3 ± 1.0 ng m-3 ppbv-1 at Mt. Tai. This ratio was more than three times those resulting from urban pollution in CEC, demonstrating that significant concentrations of soot particles were released from OCRB. ΔOC/ΔCO ratio from fresh OCRB plumes was found to be 41.9 ± 2.6 ng m-3 ppbv-1 in PM1. The transport time of smoke particles was estimated using the FLEXPART_WRF tracer model by releasing inert particles from the ground layer inside geographical regions where large numbers of hotspots were detected by a MODIS satellite sensor. Fitting regressions using the e-folding exponential function indicated that the removal efficiency of OC (normalized to CO) was much larger than that of ECa mass, with mean lifetimes of 27 h (1.1 days) for OC and 105 h (4.3 days) for ECa, respectively. The lifetime of black carbon estimated for the OCRB events in east China was comparably lower than the values normally adopted in the transport models. Short lifetime of organic carbon highlighted the vulnerability of OC to cloud scavenging in the presence of water-soluble organic species from biomass combustion.

  14. Production of the charmonium states {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} in proton nucleus interactions at {radical}(s)=41.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, I.; Kisel, I.; Adams, M.; Cruse, C.; Ehret, K.; Funcke, M.; Schwenninger, B.; Wegener, D.; Agari, M.; Bauer, C.; Braeuer, M.; Hofmann, W.; Jagla, T.; Knoepfle, K. T.; Pleier, M. A.; Reeves, K.; Sanchez, F.; Schmelling, M.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Sciacca, F.

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the ratio R{sub {chi}{sub c}}=({chi}{sub c}{yields}J/{psi}+{gamma})/J/{psi} in pC, pTi, and pW interactions at 920 GeV/c ({radical}(s)=41.6 GeV) in the Feynman-x range -0.35chi}{sub c} events, which is by far the largest available sample in pA collisions. The result is R{sub {chi}{sub c}}=0.188{+-}0.013{sub st}(+0.024/-0.022){sub sys} averaged over the different materials, when no J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} polarizations are considered. The {chi}{sub c1} to {chi}{sub c2} production ratio R{sub 12}=R{sub {chi}{sub c}}{sub 1}/R{sub {chi}{sub c}}{sub 2} is measured to be 1.02{+-}0.40, leading to a cross section ratio ({sigma}({chi}{sub c1})/{sigma}({chi}{sub c2}))=0.57{+-}0.23. The dependence of R{sub {chi}{sub c}} on the Feynman-x of the J/{psi}, x{sub F}{sup J/{psi}}, and its transverse momentum, p{sub T}{sup J/{psi}}, is studied, as well as its dependence on the atomic number, A, of the target. For the first time, an extensive study of possible biases on R{sub {chi}{sub c}} and R{sub 12} due to the dependence of acceptance on the polarization states of J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c} is performed. By varying the polarization parameter, {lambda}{sub obs}, of all produced J/{psi}'s by two sigma around the value measured by HERA-B, and considering the maximum variation due to the possible {chi}{sub c1} and {chi}{sub c2} polarizations, it is shown that R{sub {chi}{sub c}} could change by a factor between 1.02 and 1.21 and R{sub 12} by a factor between 0.89 and 1.16.

  15. Design of a far-infrared CHI wiggler free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.H.; Blank, M.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary design of a far-infrared free-electron laser with a Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler is presented. The CHI wiggler consists of a central rod and outer ring of alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers. A periodic wiggler field is produced when the CHI structure is immersed in an axial magnetic field. The design under investigation makes use of 1A, 1MV annular electron beam interacting with the TE{sub 01} coaxial waveguide mode at approximately 1 THz ({lambda} = 300 {mu}m). The nominal wiggler period is 0.5 cm and the inner and outer waveguide radii are 0.4 and 0.8 cm, respectively. An axial guide field of 5-10 kG is used. The device performance is modeled with slow-time-scale nonlinear code. Self fields and axial velocity spread are included in the model. Theoretical results will be presented.

  16. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 3. Following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    SciTech Connect

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  17. Connor H. G. Patros: Psi Chi/APA Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2015 recipient is Connor H. G Patros. Patros was chosen for "an excellent research paper that examines the complex relationship between working memory, choice-impulsivity, and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype." Patros's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  18. APA/Psi Chi Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award: Meghan H. Puglia.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The Edwin B. Newman Graduate Research Award is given jointly by Psi Chi and APA. The award was established to recognize young researchers at the beginning of their professional lives and to commemorate both the 50th anniversary of Psi Chi and the 100th anniversary of psychology as a science (dating from the founding of Wundt's laboratory). The 2016 recipient is Meghan H. Puglia, who was chosen for "an outstanding foundational research paper that establishes a relationship between a functional epigenetic modification to the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and neural response during social perception." Puglia's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Observational data and orbits of the asteroids discovered at the Molėtai observatory in 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Wlodarczyk, I.; Zdanavičius, J.

    We present the statistics of the asteroids observed and discovered at the Molėtai Observatory, Lithuania, in 20