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Sample records for 12-week training period

  1. Effect of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Molloy, Joseph M; Pascoe, David D

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on male high school baseball players (mean age = 15.3 +/- 1.1 years). Participants (N = 43) were tested for 10 repetition maximum (RM) wrist barbell flexion, wrist barbell extension, dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) hand-forearm supination, D and ND forearm pronation, D and ND wrist radial deviation, D and ND wrist ulnar deviation, D and ND grip strength, and a 3RM parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP). Group 1 (n = 23) and group 2 (n = 20), randomly assigned by a stratified sampling technique, performed the same resistance exercises while training 3 days a week for 12 weeks according to a stepwise periodized model. Group 2 also performed wrist and forearm exercises 3 days a week for 12 weeks to determine if additional wrist and forearm training provided further wrist and forearm strength improvements. All wrist and forearm strength variables were measured before and after 12 weeks of training. The 3RM PS and BP were measured at 0 and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. Both groups significantly increased wrist and forearm strength (kg +/- SD) except 10RM D and ND forearm supination for group 1 (p < 0.05). Group 2 showed statistically greater improvements (p < 0.05) in all wrist and forearm strength variables than did group 1 except for D and ND grip strength. Predicted 1RM (kg +/- SD) PS and BP increased significantly (p < 0.05) after weeks 4, 8, and 12 for both groups. These data indicate that a 12-week stepwise periodized training program can significantly increase wrist, forearm, PS, and BP strength for both groups. Additionally, group 2 had further wrist and forearm strength gains.

  2. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  3. Effects of 12-week medicine ball training on muscle strength and power in young female handball players.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar M; Markovic, Zivorad M; Radovanovic, Dragan S

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the strength and power in young female handball athletes. Twenty-one young female handball players (age, 16.9 ± 1.2 years) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Experimental group (n = 11) participated in a 12-week medicine ball training program incorporated into the regular training session, whereas controls (n = 10) participated only in the regular training. Performance in the medicine ball throws in standing and sitting positions, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench and shoulder press, and power test at 2 different loads (30 and 50% of 1RM) on bench and shoulder press were assessed at pre- and posttraining testing. The athletes participating in the medicine ball training program made significantly greater gains in all medicine ball throw tests compared with the controls (p < 0.01). Also, the experimental group made significantly greater gains in bench and shoulder press power than control group (p < 0.05). Both training groups (E) and (C) significantly (p < 0.05) increased 1RM bench and shoulder strength, with no differences observed between the groups. Additionally, medicine ball throw tests showed stronger correlation with power tests, than with 1RM tests. These data suggest that 12-week medicine ball training, when incorporated into a regular training session, can provide greater sport-specific training improvements in the upper body for young female handball players. PMID:22027860

  4. Effects of 12-week proprioception training program on postural stability, gait, and balance in older adults: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Caballero-Martínez, Isabel; Alvarez, Pablo J; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week-specific proprioceptive training program on postural stability, gait, balance, and fall prevention in adults older than 65 years. The present study was a controlled clinical trial. Forty-four community dwelling elderly subjects (61-90 years; mean age, 78.07 ± 5.7 years) divided into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 24) groups. The participants performed the Berg balance test before and after the training program, and we assessed participants' gait, balance, and the risk of falling, using the Tinetti scale. Medial-lateral plane and anterior-posterior plane displacements of the center of pressure, Sway area, length and speed, and the Romberg quotient about surface, speed, and distance were calculated in static posturography analysis (EPS pressure platform) under 2 conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. After a first clinical evaluation, patients were submitted to 12 weeks proprioception training program, 2 sessions of 50 minutes every week. This program includes 6 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to program proprioceptive training. The training program improved postural balance of older adults in mediolateral plane with eyes open (p < 0.05) and anterior-posterior plane with eyes closed (p < 0.01). Significant improvements were observed in Romberg quotient about surface (p < 0.05) and speed (p < 0.01) but not about distance (p > 0.05). After proprioception training, gait (Tinetti), and balance (Berg) test scores improved 14.66% and 11.47% respectively. These results show that 12 weeks proprioception training program in older adults is effective in postural stability, static, and dynamic balance and could lead to an improvement in gait and balance capacity, and to a decrease in the risk of falling in adults aged 65 years and older.

  5. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students. PMID:27630436

  6. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants' exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects' body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students. PMID:27630436

  7. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students.

  8. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N.; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (V.O2max). Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved V.O2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively), v V.O2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively), and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively). Conclusions After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of V.O2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only partially, both

  9. Effects of a 12-week intervention period with football and running for habitually active men with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, C; Sennhauser, C; Toigo, M; Boutellier, U; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of football (F, n=15) training on the health profile of habitually active 25-45-year-old men with mild hypertension and compared it with running (R, n=15) training and no additional activity (controls, C, n=17). The participants in F and R completed a 1-h training session 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in all groups but the decrease in diastolic blood pressure in F (-9 +/- 5 (+/- SD) mmHg) was higher than that in C (-4 +/- 6 mmHg). F was as effective as R in decreasing body mass (-1.6 +/- 1.8 vs-1.5 +/- 2.1 kg) and total fat mass (-2.0 +/- 1.5 vs -1.6 +/- 1.5 kg) and in increasing supine heart rate variability, whereas no changes were detected for C. Maximal stroke volume improved in F (+13.1%) as well as in R (+10.1%) compared with C (-4.9%). Total cholesterol decreased in F (5.8 +/- 1.2 to 5.5 +/- 0.9 mmol/L) but was not altered in R and C. We conclude that football training, consisting of high-intensity intermittent exercise, results in positive effects on blood pressure, body composition, stroke volume and supine heart rate variability, and elicits at least the same cardiovascular health benefits as continuous running exercise in habitually active men with mild hypertension.

  10. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu’s were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this

  11. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu's were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this study

  12. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  13. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  14. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  15. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  16. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  17. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  18. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  19. Morphological adaptation of muscle collagen and receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) in osteoarthritis patients with 12 weeks of resistance training: influence of anti-inflammatory or glucosamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana Claudia; Petersen, Susanne G; Kjaer, Michael; Mackey, Abigail L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12-week resistance training on morphological presence of collagen and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) in skeletal muscle of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Little is known about the influence of exercise on the skeletal muscle matrix that supports joints affected by OA mainly when it is associated with medication taken by OA patients (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and glucosamine). A biopsy was collected from the vastus lateralis muscle in all patients before and after 12-week period of training. The patients (age 55-69 years) were divided into three groups, treated with NSAID, glucosamine or placebo. In addition, the muscle samples were analysed by immunohistochemistry for collagen types, RAGE and capillaries ratio. An increment in immunoreactivity for type IV collagen after the training period was observed in 72 % of all biopsies when compared with their respective baseline samples. Reduced immunoreactivity of collagen type I was observed in all patients treated with glucosamine. A significant increase with training in the amount of RAGE was detected in the placebo group only (p < 0.05). Comparison of post-treatment states indicated significant differences between the placebo and glucosamine group data, demonstrating increased levels in the placebo group (p < 0.05). These findings suggest a basement membrane remodelling in favour of a strengthened extracellular matrix surrounding individual muscle fibres after 12 weeks of resistance training. Glucosamine with training appeared to attenuate RAGE accumulation more than was seen with NSAID or placebo in skeletal muscle of OA patients.

  20. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  1. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  2. The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Baati, Hamza; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio) 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR) are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress. PMID:25664340

  3. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  4. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  5. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  6. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  7. Heart rate recovery and heart rate variability are unchanged in patients with coronary artery disease following 12 weeks of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity endurance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Rosen, Lee M; Millar, Philip J; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-06-01

    Decreased heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise are associated with an increased risk of mortality in cardiac patients. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) and a novel low-volume high-intensity interval exercise protocol (HIT) on measures of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fourteen males with CAD participated in 12 weeks of END or HIT training, each consisting of 2 supervised exercise sessions per week. END consisted of 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO). HIT involved ten 1-min intervals at 88% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO. Heart rate recovery at 1 min and 2 min was measured before and after training (pre- and post-training, respectively) using a submaximal exercise bout. Resting time and spectral and nonlinear domain measures of heart rate variability were calculated. Following 12 weeks of END and HIT, there was no change in heart rate recovery at 1 min (END, 40 ± 12 beats·min(-1) vs. 37 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 31 ± 8 beats·min(-1) vs. 35 ± 8 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training) or 2 min (END, 44 ± 18 beats·min(-1) vs. 43 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 42 ± 10 beats·min(-1) vs. 50 ± 6 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training). All heart rate variability indices were unchanged following END and HIT training. In conclusion, neither END nor HIT exercise programs elicited training-induced improvements in cardiac autonomic function in patients with CAD. The absence of improvements with training may be attributed to the optimal medical management and normative pretraining state of our sample.

  8. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  9. Effects of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyung-Hun; Suk, Min-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Woo; Shin, Yun-A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. The linear resistance training model (6 days/week) and nonlinear underwater training (4 days/week) were applied to 12 finswimmers (age, 16.08± 1.44 yr; career, 3.78± 1.90 yr) for 12 weeks. Body composition measures included weight, body mass index (BMI), percent fat, and fat-free mass. Physical fitness measures included trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, 1 RM dead lift, knee extension, knee flexion, trunk extension, trunk flexion, and competition times. Body composition and physical fitness were improved after the 12-week periodic training program. Weight, BMI, and percent fat were significantly decreased, and trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1 RM squat, 1 RM dead lift, and knee extension (right) were significantly increased. The 50- and 100-m times significantly decreased in all 12 athletes. After 12 weeks of training, all finswimmers who participated in this study improved their times in a public competition. These data indicate that combined linear and nonlinear periodic training enhanced the physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. PMID:25426469

  10. Optimal Physical Training During Military Basic Training Period.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Pihlainen, Kai; Viskari, Jarmo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    The goal for military basic training (BT) is to create a foundation for physical fitness and military skills of soldiers. Thereafter, more advanced military training can safely take place. Large differences in the initial physical performance of conscripts or recruits have led military units to develop more safe and effective training programs. The purpose of this review article was to describe the limiting factors of optimal physical training during the BT period. This review revealed that the high volume of low-intensity physical activity combined with endurance-type military training (like combat training, prolonged physical activity, and field shooting) during BT interferes with optimal development of maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength of the soldiers. Therefore, more progressive, periodized, and individualized training programs are needed. In conclusion, optimal training programs lead to higher training responses and lower risks for injuries and overloading.

  11. Influence of exercise order on maximum strength and muscle volume in nonlinear periodized resistance training.

    PubMed

    Spineti, Juliano; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Rhea, Matthew R; Lavigne, Danielle; Matta, Thiago; Miranda, Fabrício; Fernandes, Liliam; Simão, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of exercise order on strength and muscle volume (MV) after 12 weeks of nonlinear periodized resistance training. The participants were randomly assigned into 3 groups. One group began performing large muscle group exercises and progressed to small muscle group exercises (LG-SM), whereas another group started with small muscle group exercises and advanced to large muscle group exercises (SM-LG). The exercise order for LG-SM was bench press (BP), machine lat pull-down (LPD), triceps extension (TE), and biceps curl (BC). The order for the SM-LG was BC, TE, LPD, and BP. The third group did not exercise and served as a control group (CG). Training frequency was 2 sessions per week with at least 72 hours of rest between sessions. Muscle volume was assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of training by ultrasound techniques. One repetition maximum strength for all exercises was assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Effect size data demonstrated that differences in strength and MV were exhibited based on exercise order. Both training groups demonstrated greater strength improvements than the CG, but only BP strength increased to a greater magnitude in the LG-SM group as compared with the SM-LG. In all other strength measures (LPD, TE, and BC), the SM-LG group showed significantly greater strength increases. Triceps MV increased in the SM-LG group; however, biceps MV did not differ significantly between the training groups. In conclusion, if an exercise is important for the training goals of a program, then it should be placed at the beginning of the training session, regardless of whether or not it is a large muscle group exercise or a small muscle group exercise.

  12. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  13. Endurance and neuromuscular changes in world-class level kayakers during a periodized training cycle.

    PubMed

    García-Pallarés, Jesús; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Carrasco, Luis; Díaz, Arturo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2009-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze changes in selected cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables in a group of elite kayakers across a 12-week periodized cycle of combined strength and endurance training. Eleven world-class level paddlers underwent a battery of tests and were assessed four times during the training cycle (T0, T1, T2, and T3). On each occasion subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion on the kayak-ergometer to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), peak blood lactate, paddling speed at VO(2max) (PS(max)) and at VT2 (PS(VT2)), stroke rate at VO(2max) and at VT2, heart rate at VO(2max) and at VT2. One-repetition maximum (1RM) and mean velocity with 45% 1RM load (V (45%)) were assessed in the bench press (BP) and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises. Anthropometric measurements (skinfold thicknesses and muscle girths) were also obtained. Training volume and exercise intensity were quantified for each of three training phases (P1, P2, and P3). Significant improvements in VO(2max) (9.5%), VO(2) at VT2 (9.4%), PS(max) (6.2%), PS(VT2) (4.4%), 1RM in BP (4.2%) and PBP (5.3%), V (45%) in BP (14.4%) and PBP (10.0%) were observed from T0 to T3. A 12-week periodized strength and endurance program with special emphasis on prioritizing the sequential development of specific physical fitness components in each training phase (i.e. muscle hypertrophy and VT2 in P1, and maximal strength and aerobic power in P2) seems effective for improving both cardiovascular and neuromuscular markers of highly trained top-level athletes.

  14. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 1926.58. (iv) Hands-on training in the use of respiratory protection, other personal protection... attended EPA-approved asbestos training or received equivalent training for O&M and periodic surveillance... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training and periodic...

  15. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  16. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  17. Chronic flexibility improvement after 12 week of stretching program utilizing the ACSM recommendations: hamstring flexibility.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Baranda, P; Ayala, F

    2010-06-01

    The ACSM flexibility training recommendations emphasize proper stretching of muscles supporting the major joints, but there is a little evidence to support this recommendation in terms of effectiveness, and which stretching parameters (technique and single stretch duration) are more adequate. A randomized controlled clinical trial design was use to investigate whether the ACSM flexibility training recommendation parameters improve hip flexion range of motion. A total of 173 subjects, 122 men (21.3+/-2.5 years; 176.33+/-8.35 cm; 74.42+/-10.80 kg) and 51 women (20.7+/-1.6 years; 163.43+/-6.57 cm; 60.12+/-7.88 kg), classified as recreationally active young adult university students were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: 1 control group (no stretching) or 1 of 6 stretching groups. All stretching groups performed 12 weeks of flexibility training with a consistent stretch daily dose (180 s) and frequency (3 days per week) parameters and different stretch technique (passive or active) and single stretch duration (15, 30, or 45 s). Hip flexion passive range of motion (PROM) was determined through the bilateral straight-leg raise test before, during (at 4 and 8 weeks), and after the program (12 weeks). All stretching groups performed hip flexion PROM after flexibility training. A significant improvement was identified in mean PROM for each stretching group, but no significant differences were found between stretch technique and single stretch duration (p>0.05). The control group's mean PROM decreased (Delta PROM: -0.08 degrees, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-2.3 to 5.3), whereas all stretching groups increased PROM (Delta PROM: 15.14 degrees, 95% CI=10.19 to 23.56) in hip flexion after 12 weeks of stretching (p<0.05). The present study suggests that the current ACSM flexibility training recommendations are effective for improving hip flexion ROM in recreationally active young adults.

  18. Block-Periodized Training Improves Physiological and Tactically Relevant Performance in Naval Special Warfare Operators.

    PubMed

    Abt, John P; Oliver, Jonathan M; Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; Lovalekar, Mita T; Beals, Kim; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Human performance training and prevention strategies are necessary to promote physical readiness and mitigate musculoskeletal injuries of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operator. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of 2 training programs when performed during a training evolution of Operators. A total of 85 Operators (experimental: n = 46, age: 29.4 ± 5.5 years, height: 176.7 ± 6.4 cm, mass: 86.7 ± 11.6 kg; control: n = 39, age: 29.0 ± 6.0 years, height: 177.1 ± 6.3 cm, mass: 85.7 ± 12.5 kg) participated in a trial to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve physical, physiological, and performance characteristics. Operators in the experimental group performed a 12-week block-periodized program, whereas those in the control group performed a nonlinear periodized program. Pretesting/posttesting was performed to assess body composition, aerobic capacity/lactate threshold, muscular strength, flexibility, landing biomechanics, postural stability, and tactically relevant performance. The experimental group demonstrated a significant loss in body fat, fat mass, and body mass compared with the control group, whereas aerobic capacity increased for the both groups. The experimental group demonstrated a significant increase in posterior shoulder flexibility and ankle dorsiflexion, whereas the control group had a significant reduction in shoulder, knee, and ankle flexibility. The experimental group also improved landing strategies and balance. Both groups improved upper and lower muscular power and upper-body muscular endurance, whereas only the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in agility and total body muscular strength. Implementation of a population-specific training program provides structured and progressive training effectively and promotes physical readiness concurrently with tactical training without overload.

  19. Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Berenc, Matthew N; Timmins, John E; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that exercise training with a personal trainer (PTr) is more beneficial for improving health-related fitness than training alone. However, there are no published data that confirm whether fitness club members who exercise with a PTr in the fitness club setting obtain superior results compared with self-directed training. We hypothesized that club members randomized to receive an evidence-based training program would accrue greater improvements in lean body mass (LBM) and other fitness measures than members randomized to self-training. Men, aged 30-44 years, who were members of a single Southern California fitness club were randomized to exercise with a PTr administering a nonlinear periodized training program (TRAINED, N = 17) or to self-directed training (SELF, N = 17); both groups trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg power (vertical jump), and aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). TRAINED individuals increased LBM by 1.3 (0.4) kg, mean (SEM) vs. no change in SELF, p = 0.029. Similarly, significantly greater improvements were seen for TRAINED vs. SELF in chest press strength (42 vs. 19%; p = 0.003), peak leg power (6 vs. 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (7 vs. -0.3%; p = 0.01). Leg press strength improved 38 and 25% in TRAINED and SELF, respectively (p = 0.14). We have demonstrated for the first time in a fitness club setting that members whose training is directed by well-qualified PTrs administering evidence-based training regimens achieve significantly greater improvements in LBM and other dimensions of fitness than members who direct their own training.

  20. Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Berenc, Matthew N; Timmins, John E; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-07-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that exercise training with a personal trainer (PTr) is more beneficial for improving health-related fitness than training alone. However, there are no published data that confirm whether fitness club members who exercise with a PTr in the fitness club setting obtain superior results compared with self-directed training. We hypothesized that club members randomized to receive an evidence-based training program would accrue greater improvements in lean body mass (LBM) and other fitness measures than members randomized to self-training. Men, aged 30-44 years, who were members of a single Southern California fitness club were randomized to exercise with a PTr administering a nonlinear periodized training program (TRAINED, N = 17) or to self-directed training (SELF, N = 17); both groups trained 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes included muscle strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg power (vertical jump), and aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). TRAINED individuals increased LBM by 1.3 (0.4) kg, mean (SEM) vs. no change in SELF, p = 0.029. Similarly, significantly greater improvements were seen for TRAINED vs. SELF in chest press strength (42 vs. 19%; p = 0.003), peak leg power (6 vs. 0.6%; p < 0.0001), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (7 vs. -0.3%; p = 0.01). Leg press strength improved 38 and 25% in TRAINED and SELF, respectively (p = 0.14). We have demonstrated for the first time in a fitness club setting that members whose training is directed by well-qualified PTrs administering evidence-based training regimens achieve significantly greater improvements in LBM and other dimensions of fitness than members who direct their own training. PMID:24276303

  1. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

    PubMed

    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  2. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  3. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a flexible nonlinear (FNL) periodized weight training program compared to a nonlinear (NL) periodized weight training program on strength and power. Sixteen beginner weight training students were randomly assigned to an FNL group (n = 8) or an NL group (n = 8). The exercise program included a combination of machines and free weights completed in 30 minutes, twice per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned the same total training volume of 3,680 repetitions and the same total training repetition maximum assignments of 10, 15, and 20. The FNL group, however, was allowed to choose which day they completed the 10, 15, or 20 repetition workout. This was the only difference between the groups. Pre- and post-test measures included chest press, leg press, and standing long jump. The FNL group significantly improved by an average increase of 62 kg (p < 0.05), whereas the NL group only increased by an average of 16 kg in the leg press. The FNL group did not significantly differ in chest press or standing long jump performance when compared to the NL group. The conclusion from this study is that an FNL periodization program may be a highly effective method of training for improving leg strength. Coaches can immediately implement an FNL program by evaluating the readiness of an athlete immediately before his or her training session, then adjusting the assigned exercise intensity accordingly.

  4. The efficacy of 12 weeks supervised exercise in obesity management.

    PubMed

    Herring, L Y; Wagstaff, C; Scott, A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of adding either aerobic training (AT) or resistance training (RT) to a multidisciplinary teamed (MDT) educational weight management programme on the health-related fitness of morbidly obese individuals. Males (n = 9) and females (n = 24) aged between 24 and 68 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥40 kg m(2) (≥35 kg m(2) with comorbidities) undertaking a weight management programme were recruited (Completion: M = 8, F = 19). Participants were randomly allocated to either AT (n = 12), RT (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). AT and RT undertook three structured ∼60 min moderate intensity sessions weekly, two supervised gym-based and one structured home-based session for 12 weeks; CON undertook usual care alone. Anthropometric, psychological and functional capacity measures were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Both exercise interventions elicited improvements compared with CON in the: shuttle walk test (AT [Δ 207.0 ± 123.0 metres, 68.0%, P = 0.04], RT [Δ 165.0 ± 183.3 m, 48.8%, P = 0.06], CON [Δ -14.3 ± 38.7 m, -6.2%]), triceps skin-fold (P ≤ 0.001), self-efficacy (P = 0.005) and interest/enjoyment (P = 0.006). RT displayed additional improvements compared with CON in BMI (RT [Δ -1.02 ± 0.91 kg·m(2) , -2.5%, P = 0.033], AT [Δ -1.84 ± 2.70 kg·m(2) , -4.3%, P = 0.142], CON [Δ -0.31 ± 1.47 kg·m(2) , -0.6%]), waist circumference (P = 0.022), competence (P = 0.019), biceps skin-fold (P = 0.012) and medial calf skin-fold (P = 0.013). No significant differences were observed between exercise modalities. Regardless of exercise mode, the addition of supervised and structured exercise to a MDT weight management programme significantly improved anthropometric, functional and psychological measures in obese participants with a BMI of ≥35 kg·m(2) . PMID

  5. The efficacy of 12 weeks supervised exercise in obesity management.

    PubMed

    Herring, L Y; Wagstaff, C; Scott, A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of adding either aerobic training (AT) or resistance training (RT) to a multidisciplinary teamed (MDT) educational weight management programme on the health-related fitness of morbidly obese individuals. Males (n = 9) and females (n = 24) aged between 24 and 68 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥40 kg m(2) (≥35 kg m(2) with comorbidities) undertaking a weight management programme were recruited (Completion: M = 8, F = 19). Participants were randomly allocated to either AT (n = 12), RT (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). AT and RT undertook three structured ∼60 min moderate intensity sessions weekly, two supervised gym-based and one structured home-based session for 12 weeks; CON undertook usual care alone. Anthropometric, psychological and functional capacity measures were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Both exercise interventions elicited improvements compared with CON in the: shuttle walk test (AT [Δ 207.0 ± 123.0 metres, 68.0%, P = 0.04], RT [Δ 165.0 ± 183.3 m, 48.8%, P = 0.06], CON [Δ -14.3 ± 38.7 m, -6.2%]), triceps skin-fold (P ≤ 0.001), self-efficacy (P = 0.005) and interest/enjoyment (P = 0.006). RT displayed additional improvements compared with CON in BMI (RT [Δ -1.02 ± 0.91 kg·m(2) , -2.5%, P = 0.033], AT [Δ -1.84 ± 2.70 kg·m(2) , -4.3%, P = 0.142], CON [Δ -0.31 ± 1.47 kg·m(2) , -0.6%]), waist circumference (P = 0.022), competence (P = 0.019), biceps skin-fold (P = 0.012) and medial calf skin-fold (P = 0.013). No significant differences were observed between exercise modalities. Regardless of exercise mode, the addition of supervised and structured exercise to a MDT weight management programme significantly improved anthropometric, functional and psychological measures in obese participants with a BMI of ≥35 kg·m(2) .

  6. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2010-01-01

    McNamara, JM and Stearne, DJ. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class. J Strength Cond Res 24(1): 17-22, 2010-The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a flexible nonlinear (FNL) periodized weight training program compared to a nonlinear (NL) periodized weight training program on strength and power. Sixteen beginner weight training students were randomly assigned to an FNL group (n = 8) or an NL group (n = 8). The exercise program included a combination of machines and free weights completed in 30 minutes, twice per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned the same total training volume of 3,680 repetitions and the same total training repetition maximum assignments of 10, 15, and 20. The FNL group, however, was allowed to choose which day they completed the 10-, 15-, or 20-repetition workout. This was the only difference between the groups. Pre- and post-test measures included chest press, leg press, and standing long jump. The FNL group significantly improved by an average increase of 62 kg (p < 0.05), whereas the NL group only increased by an average of 16 kg in the leg press. The FNL group did not significantly differ in chest press or standing long jump performance when compared to the NL group. The conclusion from this study is that an FNL periodization program may be a highly effective method of training for improving leg strength. Coaches can immediately implement an FNL program by evaluating the readiness of an athlete immediately before his or her training session, then adjusting the assigned exercise intensity accordingly.

  7. Efficacy of Olibra: A 12-Week Randomized Controlled Trial and a Review of Earlier Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J; Martin, Corby K; Johnson, William D; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention strategies that harness the body's appetite and satiety regulating signals provide a means of countering excessive energy intake. Methods Eighty-two subjects were enrolled (18–60 years, body mass index: 25–40 kg/m2) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel trial. During a 12-week period, the effects of Olibra™ fat emulsion (2.1 g twice daily) on food intake, appetite, satiety, weight, and body composition were compared with those of a twice daily administered placebo (1.95 g milk fat). On days -7, 0, and 28, Olibra or the placebo added to 200 g of yogurt was served at breakfast and lunch. Food intake, appetite, and satiety were assessed after lunch and dinner. Body weight was measured on days -7, 0, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Body fat, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were determined on days 0 and 84. The Eating Inventory was administered at screening and on day 28. Data relating to 71 subjects were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results At 12 weeks, body weight was reduced in the test group (2.17 ± 0.46 kg standard error of the mean, p < .0001) and the control group (1.68 ± 0.42 kg, p < .0001). Waist circumference decreased by 2.93 ± 0.85 cm in the test group (p = .001) and by 1.78 ± 0.74 cm in the control group (p = .02). Differential weight and waist circumference reductions were not significant. Hunger scores (Eating Inventory) decreased more in the test group (p = .0082). Differential group effects were not significant for body fat, waist-hip ratio, food intake, appetite, and satiety. Conclusions At this dose, Olibra did not exert a consistent effect on food intake, appetite regulation, body weight, or body composition. PMID:22768902

  8. Inflammatory suppression by endodontic sealers after aging 12 weeks In vitro.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Martha Goël; Marshall, Aksana; Lockwood, Petra E; Lewis, Jill B; Messer, Regina L W; Bouillaguet, Serge; Wataha, John C

    2009-11-01

    Dental endodontic sealers are in intimate contact with tissues around the root apex (periapical area) for extended periods. New endodontic sealers have been developed in the past decade, but the biological responses to many new products are not well documented. In this study, we assessed in vitro monocytic cytotoxic and inflammatory responses to several contemporary endodontic sealers. AH-Plus (AH), Pulp Canal Sealer (PC), Epiphany (EPH), Endo-Rez (ER), and an experimental Endo-Rez (ERx) were initially placed in buffered-saline for 12 weeks to simulate in vivo use. After "aging," specimens were placed in direct contact with THP1 monocytes for 72 h and their cytotoxicity (mitochondrial response; MTT) or ability to trigger or suppress cytokine secretion (ELISA; TNFalpha, IL1beta, IL=6; +/- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure) were measured relative to Teflon (Tf) negative controls. Cellular responses among conditions were compared with ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis (alpha = 0.05). Two of the five sealers, EPH and PC, still suppressed cell mitochondrial activity by 70% or more after 12 weeks of conditioning in saline. No sealer alone activated monocytic TNFalpha, IL1beta, or IL6 secretion (p > 0.05 vs. +LPS controls). When THP1 were activated by LPS after exposure to the sealers, differential suppression of TNFalpha, IL1beta, and IL6 secretion was observed for two of the five sealers tested. (EPH and PC) This data suggest that common endodontic sealers do not activate monocytic TNFalpha, IL1beta, and IL6 secretion in vitro by themselves, but degradation products of the sealers may suppress activation of monocytes.

  9. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.92 Training and periodic... provisions of the management plan, that all members of its maintenance and custodial staff (custodians... identified throughout each school building in which they work. (iv) Recognition of damage, deterioration,...

  10. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training and periodic surveillance. 763.92 Section 763.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., electricians, heating/air conditioning engineers, plumbers, etc.) who may work in a building that contains...

  11. A Periodic Compendium of Opportunities in Environmental Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ET Worldwide, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This periodic compendium of environmental training opportunities includes information about educational opportunities for noncredit, and undergraduate through postgraduate studies around the world. The areas of study include the following: environmental science; agriculture education and science; wildlife management; natural resources, land use,…

  12. A Periodic Compendium of Opportunities in Environmental Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ET Worldwide, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This periodic compendium of environmental training opportunities includes information about educational opportunities for noncredit, and undergraduate through postgraduate studies around the world. The areas of study include the following: environmental education; environmental science; environmental management; Africa and global change;…

  13. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  14. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  15. A comparison of traditional and block periodized strength training programs in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Merni, Franco; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different periodization models in strength and power athletes. Twenty-four experienced resistance trained men were randomly assigned to either a block periodization training program (BP; age = 24.2 ± 3.1 years, body mass = 78.5 ± 11.0 kg, height = 177.6 ± 4.9 cm) or to a traditional periodization program (TP; age = 26.2 ± 6.0 years, body mass = 80.5 ± 13.3 kg, height = 179.2 ± 4.6). Participants in both training programs performed 4 training sessions per week. Each training program consisted of the same exercises and same volume of training (total resistance lifted per session). The difference between the groups was in the manipulation of training intensity within each training phase. Strength and power testing occurred before training (PRE) and after 15 weeks (POST) of training. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare strength and power performance between the groups. Participants in BP were more likely (79.8%) to increase the area under the force-power curve than TP. Participants in BP also demonstrated a likely positive (92.76%) decrease in the load corresponding to maximal power at the bench press compared with TP group, and a possible improvement (∼60%) in maximal strength and power in the bench press. No significant changes were noted between groups in lower-body strength or jump power performance after the 15-week training period. Results of this study indicate that BP may enhance upper-body power expression to a greater extent than TP with equal volume; however, no differences were detected for lower-body performance and body composition measures. PMID:24476775

  16. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  17. Preregistration and post graduate practice training period. FDI Working Group.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    Working Group 14 has had formal meetings at FDI Congresses in Milan 1991, Berlin 1992 and Göteborg 1993 and this report was approved by the Commission at the Vancouver FDI World Dental Congress in 1994. At all stages the subject has attracted great interest and working group meetings have been well attended. The agreed terms of reference were: To collect information on practice training systems. To prepare an analytical report to assist those countries that would like to introduce a practice training period. During the early meetings it was quickly realised that no single system could be identified as the desirable global model and that an illustration of some systems currently operating would assist FDI member countries contemplating the commencement of a practice training scheme. To this extent the terms of reference have been fulfilled. This descriptive report makes no attempt to be definitive and there are, of necessity, some anecdotal elements within it. PMID:7558352

  18. Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Kumar, Anita A; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajamanickam, Deepan; Bhaskar, Emmanuel; Paniker, Vinod K; Abraham, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity. Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer. Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland. The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency. He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit. The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 weeks later. Additionally, his adrenals showed no evidence of metastasis. Hence his adrenal insufficiency had been a paraneoplastic manifestation of the lung cancer, and it had also preceded the primary by 12 weeks.

  19. Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Kumar, Anita A; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajamanickam, Deepan; Bhaskar, Emmanuel; Paniker, Vinod K; Abraham, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity. Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer. Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland. The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency. He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit. The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 weeks later. Additionally, his adrenals showed no evidence of metastasis. Hence his adrenal insufficiency had been a paraneoplastic manifestation of the lung cancer, and it had also preceded the primary by 12 weeks. PMID:21686682

  20. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  1. A 12 Week, Open Label, Phase I/IIa Study Using Apatone® for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have Failed Standard Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, Basir; Summers, Jack L.; Jamison, James M.; Neal, Deborah R.; McGuire, Karen; Gerson, Lowell; Diokno, Ananias

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral Apatone® (Vitamin C and Vitamin K3) administration in the treatment of prostate cancer in patients who failed standard therapy. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with 2 successive rises in PSA after failure of standard local therapy were treated with (5,000 mg of VC and 50 mg of VK3 each day) for a period of 12 weeks. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels, PSA velocity (PSAV) and PSA doubling times (PSADT) were calculated before and during treatment at 6 week intervals. Following the initial 12 week trial, 15 of 17 patients opted to continue treatment for an additional period ranging from 6 to 24 months. PSA values were followed for these patients. Results: At the conclusion of the 12 week treatment period, PSAV decreased and PSADT increased in 13 of 17 patients (p ≤ 0.05). There were no dose-limiting adverse effects. Of the 15 patients who continued on Apatone after 12 weeks, only 1 death occurred after 14 months of treatment. Conclusion: Apatone showed promise in delaying biochemical progression in this group of end stage prostate cancer patients. PMID:18392145

  2. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  3. Achondrogenesis type 2 diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Soothill, P W; Vuthiwong, C; Rees, H

    1993-06-01

    Ultrasound examination at 12 weeks' gestation revealed severe generalised subcutaneous oedema in a pregnancy at risk for achondrogenesis type II. Transvaginal scanning confirmed the oedema and suggested abnormal limb development. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination after transvaginal termination. PMID:8372079

  4. 38 CFR 21.6074 - Computing the period of vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computing the period of... Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Duration of Training § 21.6074 Computing the period of vocational training program participation. (a) Computing the participation period. The number of months...

  5. 38 CFR 21.6074 - Computing the period of vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computing the period of... Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Duration of Training § 21.6074 Computing the period of vocational training program participation. (a) Computing the participation period. The number of months...

  6. PMN cell counts and phagocytic activity of highly trained athletes depend on training period.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Strobel, G; Weiss, M; Weicker, H

    1994-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell counts and phagocytic activity determined by latex ingestion and superoxide anion production are influenced by different training periods. We investigated long-distance runners before and up to 24 h after a graded exercise test to exhaustion during moderate training (MT) and intense training (IT) and compared them with untrained (control) subjects. Cell counts and phagocytic activity at rest and after exercise did not differ significantly between MT and control. On the contrary, IT showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) decrease in PMN cell count at rest (2.55 +/- 0.3 cells/nl) compared with MT (3.63 +/- 0.2 cells/nl) and control (3.41 +/- 0.8 cells/nl). Furthermore, phagocytic activity was significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) in IT at rest and after exercise compared with MT and control. A strong inverse correlation (r = -0.75; P < or = 0.01) between epinephrine and superoxide anion production was found. These results provide evidence that the phagocytic activity depends on the training period and indicate impaired PMN functions during IT, which might lead to increased susceptibility to infection.

  7. The influence of a 12-week program of physical activity on changes in body composition and lipid and carbohydrate status in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294

  8. Lateralization of infant holding by mothers: A longitudinal evaluation of variations over the first 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Todd, Brenda K; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The maternal preference to hold infants on the left rather than right side of the body was examined longitudinally, with attention to 4 explanations: maternal monitoring of infant state, maternal handedness, infant proximity to the mother's heartbeat, and preferred infant head position. The side and site of holding were measured over the first 12 weeks of the lives of 24 infants. Information about group and individual consistency in holding side allowed novel evaluation of the theories. A strong bias to hold on the left dropped below significance when the infants were aged 12 weeks and was limited to specific holding positions. Findings were generally consistent with the monitoring hypothesis, and little support was found for the 3 alternative explanations.

  9. Immune Function Alterations during 12 Weeks of Abstinence in Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Yang, X-R; Song, H; Cao, B-R; Yin, F; An, Z-M; Kang, L; Li, J

    2015-01-01

    The intent of the study was to evaluate immune system changes during 12 weeks of abstinence in heroin users. We recruited men (N = 65) aged 18-45 years and collected demographic and heroin use pattern data. Serum blood levels of total interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM were assessed at five time points. The IL-2 level was increased on day 84 as compared to that in healthy controls. The IFN-γ level was higher in heroin users than in healthy controls between days 0 and 28, and was decreased on day 84. IgG and IgM levels in heroin users were higher than those in healthy controls in our 12-week study, and were in positive correlation with the way of using the drug, duration of heroin dependence, and daily heroin intake. Our data revealed that the immune system was not restored during the 12 weeks of heroin withdrawal. PMID:26789146

  10. 38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computing the period for... Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program participation. (a) Computing the participation period. To compute the number of months and days of an eligible...

  11. Escitalopram for treatment of night eating syndrome: a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S; Gang, Catherine H; Griffing, George T; Gadde, Kishore M

    2012-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the short-term effects of escitalopram on symptoms of night eating syndrome (NES) in a randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 40 patients with NES were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with escitalopram 20 mg (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 12 weeks. Escitalopram was started at 10 mg/d with a dosage increase to 20 mg/d after 4 weeks; placebo dosing was identical. The primary end point was a mean change in total score of the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). At 12 weeks, mean (SE) change in NEQ total score was -13.0 (1.6) and -10.6 (2.2) in the escitalopram and placebo groups, respectively (F(1,37) = 2.5, P = 0.124). There was a marginal interaction effect between response to escitalopram and race (F(1,34) = 4.0, P = 0.052), with a favorable effect for white patients (F(1,20) = 6.0, P = 0.024) but not for black patients (F(1,13) = 0.6, P = 0.453). Seven patients in the escitalopram group, compared with 6 patients in the placebo group, showed a 50% NEQ score reduction (P = 0.736). Sixteen patients in the escitalopram group and 12 patients in the placebo group no longer met NES criteria (P = 0.168). Twelve patients in the escitalopram group were classified as responders according to the Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale compared with 7 patients in the placebo group (P = 0.113). No significant between-group differences were found for weight, mood ratings, or adverse events. We conclude that escitalopram treatment for 12 weeks was not superior to placebo in reducing NES symptoms as measured by the NEQ.

  12. A 12-week randomized double-blind parallel pilot trial of Sinetrol XPur on body weight, abdominal fat, waist circumference, and muscle metabolism in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Cases, Julien; Romain, Cindy; Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Rouanet, Jean Max

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated to increased risk of developing non-communicable diseases that might dramatically affect life expectancy according World Health Organization. Overweight, obesity, and decline in physical activity are correlated to a significant propensity to lose skeletal muscle mass as a result of prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress whereas cohort surveys and clinical investigations have demonstrated health benefits of Citrus-based polyphenols to reverse such regression. Overweight men were included in a double-blind, randomized, parallel pilot trial where they received daily for a 12-week period 900 mg of a Citrus-based polyphenol extract, Sinetrol® XPur. Body composition, anthropometric, and blood parameters were assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. After 12 weeks, while the silhouette slimmed down, metabolic parameters were significantly improved and skeletal muscle catabolism held back. These data suggest that over a 12-week period, the efficacy of the supplement improve both overweight process and correlated skeletal muscle mass metabolism. PMID:26037199

  13. Exercise and quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis: A 12-week intervention study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anne Mette; Jacobsen, Ulla; Bregnballe, Vibeke; Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Ingemann-Hansen, Thorsten; Thastum, Mikael; Oluf Schiøtz, Peter

    2011-11-01

    It was hypothesised that increased exercise capacity is related to improved quality of life (QoL) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A 12-week individually tailored unsupervised aerobic exercise programme was offered to 42 patients with CF. At the start and at the end of the exercise programme, data on QoL, current exercise habits and preferences, anthropometric data, exercise test, and lung function test were collected. Adherence was observed by a heart rate (HR) monitor. A total of 24 patients accepted to be enrolled in the exercise programme and 14 completed the programme. Another 14 patients declined to be enrolled in the exercise programme but completed the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (CFQ-R 14+). Four patients did not want to participate at all. The 14 patients completing the exercise programme had a significantly increased VO(2max), but they showed no significant change in total QoL score. However, the scores in the domain of treatment burden and emotional functioning increased significantly. There was no significant difference in QoL and lung function between patients participating in the exercise programme (n = 24) and non-participants (n = 14). A 12-week individually tailored unsupervised aerobic exercise programme where HR monitors were used significantly affected VO(2max). Improvement in QoL could not be demonstrated in this study. PMID:21722067

  14. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Metabolic Risk and Quality of Life in Hong Kong Chinese Adults with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention to improve metabolic risk profiles and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We conducted a controlled trial within an university-affiliated hospital. 173 Chinese men and women aged 18 or above were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the control group (n = 86). Primary outcomes included 12-week change in metabolic risk factors and MetS z score. Secondary outcome was HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey at 12 weeks). Results The mean age of participants was 52.0 (SD 7.4, range 31-71) years. Analysis involving the entire study population revealed that the yoga group achieved greater decline in waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05), and MetS z score (p<0.01). Yoga training also improved general health perceptions (p<0.01), physical component score (p<0.01), and social functioning (p<0.01) domains score of HRQoL. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the mean change of systolic/diastolic blood pressures or high-density lipid protein cholesterol (all p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the intervention effects on waist circumference and MetS z score between the MetS subgroups (both p>0.05). Conclusion A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention improves metabolic risk profiles and HRQoL in Chinese adults with and without MetS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000816752 PMID:26111165

  15. A Pilot Study Exploring the Effects of a 12-Week T'ai Chi Intervention on Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tsuang, Ming; Rusiewicz, Anna; Pandzic, Ines; Cammarata, Stephanie; Rutledge, Thomas; Hong, Suzi; Linke, Sarah; Mills, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and with elevated depression symptoms are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Somatic symptoms of depression are particularly prevalent in HF and are related to worse disease prognosis. T'ai chi practice is related to increased emotional well-being in various clinical populations; however, relatively little is known about t'ai chi's effects on somatic versus cognitive symptom dimensions of depression in HF. Purpose The objective of the study was to measure whether a t'ai chi intervention effectively reduces somatic and/or cognitive symptoms of depression in patients with HF. Methods Patients with HF were assigned to either t'ai chi training (n=16) or a usual-care group (n=12). At baseline and after the 12-week intervention period, participants were evaluated for changes in depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) total scores (BDI-t) and subcategorized scores of BDI-somatic (BDI-s) and BDI-cognitive (BDI-c), and for symptoms of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory–Short Form. Results Patients with HF in the t'ai chi group compared to the usual-care group had reduced BDI-s (p≤0.017), but not BDI-c (p=0.50) scores from pre- to postintervention. Although t'ai chi did not significantly reduce fatigue, changes in physical fatigue (p≤0.05) were independently associated with changes in BDI-t scores. Conclusions T'ai chi practice reduced somatic symptoms of depression, which have been linked to worse prognosis in HF. Reductions in fatigue appear to explain some but not all of the reductions in somatic symptoms of depression. PMID:22845485

  16. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Director, Environmental Assistance Division (7408), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S... 40 CFR part 763, subpart G, and in 40 CFR part 61, subpart M, and OSHA regulations contained in 29 CFR 1926.58. (iv) Hands-on training in the use of respiratory protection, other personal...

  17. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Director, Environmental Assistance Division (7408), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S... 40 CFR part 763, subpart G, and in 40 CFR part 61, subpart M, and OSHA regulations contained in 29 CFR 1926.58. (iv) Hands-on training in the use of respiratory protection, other personal...

  18. [Uterine rupture in a patient with bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea: about a case].

    PubMed

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea.

  19. [Uterine rupture in a patient with bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea: about a case].

    PubMed

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea. PMID:27642490

  20. Clinical pharmacology study of cariprazine (MP-214) in patients with schizophrenia (12-week treatment)

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tadakatsu; Kubota, Tomoko; Iwakaji, Atsushi; Imada, Masayoshi; Kapás, Margit; Morio, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cariprazine is a potent dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist in development for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and depression. Pharmacokinetics of cariprazine and the two clinically relevant metabolites (desmethyl- and didesmethyl-cariprazine) was evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, fixed-dose (3, 6, or 9 mg/day) study of 28-week duration (≤4-week observation, 12-week open-label treatment, and 12-week follow-up). Once-daily cariprazine was administered to 38 adult patients with schizophrenia. The pharmacokinetics of cariprazine, metabolites, and total active moieties (sum of cariprazine and two metabolites) was evaluated; efficacy and safety were also assessed. Results Steady state was reached within 1–2 weeks for cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine, 4 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine, and 3 weeks for total active moieties. Cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine levels decreased >90% within 1 week after the last dose, didesmethyl-cariprazine decreased ~50% at 1 week, and total active moieties decreased ~90% within 4 weeks. Terminal half-lives of cariprazine, desmethyl-cariprazine, and didesmethyl-cariprazine ranged from 31.6 to 68.4, 29.7 to 37.5, and 314 to 446 hours, respectively. Effective half-life (calculated from time to steady state) of total active moieties was ~1 week. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 97.4%; 15.8% of patients discontinued due to adverse events. No abnormal laboratory values or major differences from baseline in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed. Conclusion Cariprazine and its active metabolites reached steady state within 4 weeks, and exposure was dose proportional over the range of 3–9 mg/day. Once-daily cariprazine was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26834462

  1. Do 12-week yoga program influence respiratory function of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-09-29

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  2. Effects of a 12-Week Physical Activity Protocol Delivered by YMCA After-School Counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on Fitness and Self-Efficacy Changes in 5-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Westcott, Wayne L.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Unruh, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    To address reduced physical education (PE) in elementary schools, a 12-week physical activity protocol was tested on 5-12-year-old, primarily African American, girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 344) at 14 YMCA after-school care sites. The 3 times/week, 45-min session curriculum included cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training, in which…

  3. The effects of plyometric training followed by detraining and reduced training periods on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of (a) plyometric training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent male basketball players and (b) detraining and reduced training on previously achieved explosive strength gains. Two groups were formed: an experimental and a control group. The former was submitted to a 10-week in-season plyometric training program, twice weekly, along with regular basketball practice. Simultaneously, the control group participated in regular basketball practice only. At the end of this period, the experimental group was subdivided into 2 groups: a reduced training group and a detraining group. All participants were assessed on squat jump, countermovement jump, Abalakov test, depth jump, mechanical power, and medicine ball throw at the beginning and at the end of the 10-week in-season plyometric training and on weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the in-season detraining and reduced training periods. In the first phase of the study, the experimental group significantly increased all the assessed indicators (p < 0.05). In the following phase and in general all the groups maintained the previously achieved results. In conclusion, plyometric training showed positive effects on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. Moreover, we can state that both detraining and a reduced training program indistinctly contribute to maintenance of strength levels. These results highlight the unique power that basketball-specific training seems to have on the sustainability and maintenance of sport performance.

  4. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  5. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit.

  6. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  7. Physical Fitness and Hormonal Profile During an 11-Week Paratroop Training Period.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Jani P; Kalliomaa, Riikka; Hynninen, Petri; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    Physical fitness and serum hormone concentrations have been shown to change during military training. The purpose was to examine these chronic changes in paratroopers (n = 52 male conscripts) during an 11-week training period, including acute changes induced by strenuous 5-day military field training. Hormonal profiles, body mass, maximal strength, muscle endurance, and 12-minute running test were assessed at several time points during paratrooper training. In the latter part of the training period, conscripts were involved in strenuous military field training (5 days). At week 7, during specialized military training period, aerobic performance decreased (3,146 ± 163 m) but recovered back to a baseline level (3,226 ± 190 m) at the end of the study period (p < 0.001). Standing long jump decreased at week 7 (242 ± 13 cm) (p < 0.001) from the baseline value (248 ± 13 cm), whereas push-up (52 ± 11, 60 ± 13 repetitions per minute) and sit-up (54 ± 6, 56 ± 7 repetitions per minute) performances increased (p < 0.001). No changes were observed in maximal strength and body composition, neither mostly in hormone concentrations, although cortisol decreased but increased back to baseline value at the end of the study period (p ≤ 0.05). Acute responses after the 5-day military field training included decreased maximal strength of the lower extremities and body mass, as well as changes in androgen hormone concentrations ([INCREMENT]testosterone: -46%, [INCREMENT]insulin-like growth factor-1: -28%, [INCREMENT]sex hormone-binding globulin: +25%) compared with all other measurements (p ≤ 0.05). The first 4 weeks of parachute military training decreased maximal aerobic capacity and neuromuscular performance of the lower body, whereas muscular endurance increased. Moreover, 5-day military field training resulted in dramatic changes in hormone concentrations. These findings highlight the importance of periodizing paratrooper training and underline the need for sufficient

  8. Physical Fitness and Hormonal Profile During an 11-Week Paratroop Training Period.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Jani P; Kalliomaa, Riikka; Hynninen, Petri; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    Physical fitness and serum hormone concentrations have been shown to change during military training. The purpose was to examine these chronic changes in paratroopers (n = 52 male conscripts) during an 11-week training period, including acute changes induced by strenuous 5-day military field training. Hormonal profiles, body mass, maximal strength, muscle endurance, and 12-minute running test were assessed at several time points during paratrooper training. In the latter part of the training period, conscripts were involved in strenuous military field training (5 days). At week 7, during specialized military training period, aerobic performance decreased (3,146 ± 163 m) but recovered back to a baseline level (3,226 ± 190 m) at the end of the study period (p < 0.001). Standing long jump decreased at week 7 (242 ± 13 cm) (p < 0.001) from the baseline value (248 ± 13 cm), whereas push-up (52 ± 11, 60 ± 13 repetitions per minute) and sit-up (54 ± 6, 56 ± 7 repetitions per minute) performances increased (p < 0.001). No changes were observed in maximal strength and body composition, neither mostly in hormone concentrations, although cortisol decreased but increased back to baseline value at the end of the study period (p ≤ 0.05). Acute responses after the 5-day military field training included decreased maximal strength of the lower extremities and body mass, as well as changes in androgen hormone concentrations ([INCREMENT]testosterone: -46%, [INCREMENT]insulin-like growth factor-1: -28%, [INCREMENT]sex hormone-binding globulin: +25%) compared with all other measurements (p ≤ 0.05). The first 4 weeks of parachute military training decreased maximal aerobic capacity and neuromuscular performance of the lower body, whereas muscular endurance increased. Moreover, 5-day military field training resulted in dramatic changes in hormone concentrations. These findings highlight the importance of periodizing paratrooper training and underline the need for sufficient

  9. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Bibeau, Wendy S; Bartholomew, John B

    2011-06-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level (e.g., competence, certainty, importance, and ideal self-discrepancy). This allowed for an analysis of cognitive facets as possible contributors to changes in physical self-perceptions. We addressed these aims with a sample of 120 college-age adults who completed a 12-week resistance exercise program. Results indicated significant improvements in self-perception constructs at all levels of the EXSEM. The hierarchical structure of the EXSEM was partially supported, as we observed successively smaller improvements at each level of the model (e.g., self-esteem showed lesser improvements than physical self-worth). In addition, a path model developed to explain the impact of strength changes on self-esteem proved a good fit for the data. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-perception, potential mediators of exercise on self-esteem, and the need to consider cognitive facets of self-perception. PMID:21699109

  10. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition. PMID:23011657

  11. 38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computing the period for vocational training program participation. 21.8074 Section 21.8074 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain...

  12. Training Effects on Immune Function in Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu; Hyung, Gu Am; Park, Jeong Hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Han Byeol; Jung, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that high intensity long term training in elite athletes may increase risk of immune function. Objectives: This study is to examine training effects on immunoglobulin and changes of physiological stress and physical fitness level induced by increased cold stress during 12-week winter off-season training in elite Judoists. Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine male participants (20 ± 1 years) were assigned to only Judo training (CG, n = 9), resistance training combined with Judo training (RJ, n = 10), and interval training combined with Judo training (IJ, n = 10). Blood samples collected at rest, immediately after all-out exercise, and 30-minute recovery period were analyzed for testing IgA, IgG, and IgM, albumin and catecholamine levels. Results: VO2max and anaerobic mean power in IJ (P < 0.05) and anaerobic power in RJ (P < 0.05) were significantly increased after 12-week training compared to CG. There was no significant interaction effect (group × period) in albumin after 12-week training; however, there was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in epinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 3.216, P = 0.002) and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 14.564, P = 0.008). There was significantly higher changes in epinephrine of RJ compared to IJ at 30-minute recovery (P = 0.045). There was a significant interaction effect (group × period) in norepinephrine after 12-week training (F (4, 52) = 8.141, P < 0.0001), at rest and immediately after all-out exercise (F (2, 26) = 9.570, P = 0.001), and immediately after all-out exercise and at 30-minute recovery (F (2, 26) = 8.862, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Winter off-season training of IJ increased physical fitness level as well as physical stress induced by overtraining. Along with increased physical stress, all groups showed reduced trend of IgA; however, there was no group difference based on different training methods. PMID:26448852

  13. The influence of training on the attentional blink and psychological refractory period.

    PubMed

    Garner, K G; Tombu, M N; Dux, P E

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research suggests that dual-task interference in sensory consolidation (e.g., the attentional blink, AB) and response selection (e.g., the psychological refractory period, PRP) stems from a common central bottleneck of information processing. With regard to response selection, it is well known that training reduces dual-task interference. We tested whether training that is known to be effective for response selection can also reduce dual-task interference in sensory consolidation. Over two experiments, performance on a PRP paradigm (Exp. 1) and on AB paradigms (differing in their stimuli and task demands, Exps. 1 and 2) was examined after participants had completed a relevant training regimen (T1 practice for both paradigms), an irrelevant training regimen (comparable sensorimotor training, not related to T1 for both tasks), a visual-search training regimen (Exp. 2 only), or after participants had been allocated to a no-training control group. Training that had shown to be effective for reducing dual-task interference in response selection was also found to be effective for reducing interference in sensory consolidation. In addition, we found some evidence that training benefits transferred to the sensory consolidation of untrained stimuli. Collectively, these findings show that training benefits can transfer across cognitive operations that draw on the central bottleneck in information processing. These findings have implications for theories of the AB and for the design of cognitive-training regimens that aim to produce transferable training benefits.

  14. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-05-07

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%).

  15. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%). PMID:23652638

  16. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control.

  17. Left Ventricular Morphology in Different Periods of the Training Season in Elite Young Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Csajági, Eszter; Szauder, Ipoly; Major, Zsuzsanna; Pavlik, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Training adaptation of the left ventricle (LV) and it's reversibility following the cessation of training in adults is well known and also studied in children. In the current study we describe the changes in the LV morphology in association with the training season during a 1.5 year follow-up period. 15 elite adolescent swimmers, seven girls and 8 boys with 6 years of swimming history and 20 hr per week training were observed. Their data were compared with 15 age and gender matched nonathletes. LV adaptation was measured with 2D-echocardiography at the baseline preseason and every 3 months, according to the macro cyclic periods of training. Nonathletes were observed at the first and fifth stage of the study. Remarkable LV morphological adaptation has been detected in the swimmers. The greatest LV muscle mass (LVMM: 228 ± 46g) and smallest end-diastolic diameter (LVIDd:44.9 ± 3.4mm) were observed at the end of the second general endurance preparation period (GEP2), but the LVMM/BSA (Rel.LVMM: 85 ± 10g/m) failed to change during the follow-up in athletes. On the basis of our results, we suggest comparing absolute LV dimensions only in studies made at the same training period to avoid bias due to alterations with the training season.

  18. The effect of 12 weeks Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) on body stability and pain for fruit farmers with MSDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Nam, Sang-Nam; Bae, Ung Ryel; Hwang, Ryong; Lee, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jong-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible effects of 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) for the fruit farmers (grape, tomato, apple) with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) on body stability and pain. 131 fruit farmers with MSD were selected and asked to join a 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) from 2009 to 2012. The subjects (female=74, male=57) aged 50 to 65 years old voluntarily participated. As a result, it was found that lateral-medial and anterior-posterior of body stability significantly improved in male and female fruit farmers. It was found that pain index (VAS) after 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) showed a significant decrease. PMID:24704650

  19. A 12-week Interdisciplinary Intervention Program for Children who are Obese

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura; Williamson, Megan; Robinson, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem, for which multi-disciplinary interventions are needed. Purpose: This interdisciplinary intervention program was designed to improve the health of children who were obese. Methods: Twenty-five children, mean age 8.1 (1.5) years; body mass index (BMI)> 98th percentile, and their parents completed the 12-week (3 days/wk) intervention consisting of aerobic and resistance exercise appropriate to age and developmental levels. Baseline and posttest measures of blood values, fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors were performed. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests with significance accepted at P ≤ .05. Results: Significant differences between means (SD) for pre- and post-measurements were, respectively: BMI 30.31 (4.56), 27.80 (4.54), body-fat percent 43.7 (11.5), 40.7 (10.9), waist circumference 82.1 (7.1), 80.4(6.1) cm, calf circumference 34.2 (3.1), 35.2 (3.1) cm; step-test heart rate 137 (20), 126 (12) bpm, push-ups 1.0 (1.8), 5.6 (3.8), sit-ups 23.6 (12.7), 33.2 (13.8), sit-and-reach 35.1 (7.4), 41.2 (5.8) cm; systolic BP 102 (10), 108 (9) mmHg, glucose 4.9(0.3), 4.8 (0.4) mmol/L, total cholesterol 4.6 (1.0), 4.2 (0.8) mmol/L, ALT 41 (9), 35 (8) U/L, bilirubin 6.3 (2.4), 5.6 (2.1) μmol/L, and BUN 4.9 (1.1), 4.3 (0.9) mmol/L. Conclusions: This interdisciplinary intervention program positively affected the fitness and health status of children who were obese by involving the children and parents. PMID:22163176

  20. Effect of wrist and forearm training on linear bat-end, center of percussion, and hand velocities and on time to ball contact of high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; McIntyre, Joseph S; Szymanski, Jessica M; Molloy, Joseph M; Madsen, Nels H; Pascoe, David D

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on linear bat-end velocity (BV), center of percussion velocity (CV), hand velocity (HV), and time to ball contact of high school baseball players. Forty-three baseball players were randomly assigned by a stratified sampling technique to 1 of 2 training groups. Group 1 (n = 23) and group 2 (n = 20) performed the same full-body resistance exercises while training 3 days a week for 12 weeks according to a stepwise periodized model. Group 2 also performed wrist and forearm exercises 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Wrist and forearm strength were measured pre- and posttraining. Linear BV, CV, HV, and time to ball contact were recorded pre- and posttraining by a motion-capture system. A 3 repetition maximum (RM) parallel squat and bench press were measured at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. Both groups showed statistically significant increases (p < or = 0.01) in linear BV, CV, and HV (m.s(-1) +/- SD) after 12 weeks of training; however, there were no differences between the 2 groups. Both groups statistically increased wrist and forearm strength (p < or = 0.05). Group 2 had statistically greater increases (p < or = 0.05) in 10 of 12 wrist and forearm strength measures than did group 1. Both groups made statistically significant increases in predicted 1RM parallel squat and bench press after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training; however, there were no differences between groups. These data indicate that a 12-week stepwise periodized training program can significantly increase wrist and forearm strength, linear BV, CV, and HV among high school baseball players. However, increased wrist and forearm strength did not contribute to further increases in linear BV, CV, or HV. PMID:16503687

  1. Effect of wrist and forearm training on linear bat-end, center of percussion, and hand velocities and on time to ball contact of high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; McIntyre, Joseph S; Szymanski, Jessica M; Molloy, Joseph M; Madsen, Nels H; Pascoe, David D

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on linear bat-end velocity (BV), center of percussion velocity (CV), hand velocity (HV), and time to ball contact of high school baseball players. Forty-three baseball players were randomly assigned by a stratified sampling technique to 1 of 2 training groups. Group 1 (n = 23) and group 2 (n = 20) performed the same full-body resistance exercises while training 3 days a week for 12 weeks according to a stepwise periodized model. Group 2 also performed wrist and forearm exercises 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Wrist and forearm strength were measured pre- and posttraining. Linear BV, CV, HV, and time to ball contact were recorded pre- and posttraining by a motion-capture system. A 3 repetition maximum (RM) parallel squat and bench press were measured at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. Both groups showed statistically significant increases (p < or = 0.01) in linear BV, CV, and HV (m.s(-1) +/- SD) after 12 weeks of training; however, there were no differences between the 2 groups. Both groups statistically increased wrist and forearm strength (p < or = 0.05). Group 2 had statistically greater increases (p < or = 0.05) in 10 of 12 wrist and forearm strength measures than did group 1. Both groups made statistically significant increases in predicted 1RM parallel squat and bench press after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training; however, there were no differences between groups. These data indicate that a 12-week stepwise periodized training program can significantly increase wrist and forearm strength, linear BV, CV, and HV among high school baseball players. However, increased wrist and forearm strength did not contribute to further increases in linear BV, CV, or HV.

  2. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J; Preisler, N; Ørngreen, M C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42 years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1 year. The patients had a median disease duration of 3.4 years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4 years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0 years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12 weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)). VO(2max) and maximal workload (W(max)) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9 weeks out of the 12-week program and one dropped out of the study. Training increased VO(2max) and W(max) by 26% and 30% (P < 0.001). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were normal pre-training and did not change with training, reflecting no muscle damage. We also found that at a given workload, heart rate was lowered significantly after the 12-week training period, indicating an improvement in cardiovascular fitness. This study shows that 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training is an effective and safe method to increase oxidative capacity and fitness in persons who have recovered from JDM. The results indicate that the low oxidative capacity in JDM patients in remission is reversible and can be improved. Thus, we recommend frequent aerobic training to be incorporated

  3. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  4. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. Objective The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. Methods A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Results Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow

  5. Prenatal exposure to ethanol disrupts spatial memory: effect of the training-testing delay period.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D B; Simson, P E

    1998-04-01

    The present study investigated how variations in the period of delay between training and testing in the Morris water maze task affect the use of spatial memory in adult rats that were prenatally exposed to ethanol. Previous results utilizing the Morris water maze task have shown that prenatal, or early postnatal, exposure to ethanol produces deficits in the use of spatial memory, a type of memory that is dependent on an intact hippocampus. However, in these prior studies the delay period between the training of animals and the testing of spatial memory is typically fixed at only 1 day. In the current study, which utilized a revised training procedure within the Morris water maze task, the period of delay between training and testing was altered such that it was either 1 day or 3 days. Following the 3-day delay, different levels of prenatal exposure to ethanol impaired the use of spatial memory. In contrast, following the 1-day delay, prenatal exposure to ethanol failed to impair the use of spatial memory. The present study thus shows that prenatal exposure to ethanol differentially affects spatial memory in the Morris water maze task depending on the period of delay between training and testing.

  6. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  7. Effect of twelve weeks of medicine ball training on high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Bradford, T Jason; Schade, Ryan L; Pascoe, David D

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of medicine ball training on high school baseball players. Forty-nine baseball players (age 15.4 +/- 1.2 years) were randomly assigned using a stratified sampling technique to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) performed the same full-body resistance exercises according to a stepwise periodized model and took 100 bat swings a day, 3 days per week, with their normal game bat for 12 weeks. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Pre- and post-testing consisted of a 3 repetition maximum (RM) dominant and nondominant torso rotational strength and sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength (medicine ball hitter's throw). A 3RM parallel squat and bench press were measured at 0 and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. Although both groups made statistically significant increases (p < or = 0.05) in dominant (10.5 vs. 17.1%) and nondominant (10.2 vs. 18.3%) torso rotational strength and the medicine ball hitter's throw (3.0 vs. 10.6%), group 2 showed significantly greater increases in all 3 variables than group 1. Furthermore, both groups made significant increases in predicted 1RM parallel squat and bench press after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training; however, there were no differences between groups. These data indicate that performing a 12-week medicine ball training program in addition to a stepwise periodized resistance training program with bat swings provided greater sport-specific training improvements in torso rotational and sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength for high school baseball players.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Periodized Versus Nonperiodized Strength and Power Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Matthew R.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively combine and examine the results of studies examining the effectiveness of periodized (PER) compared to nonperiodized (Non-PER) training programs for strength and/or power development. Two analyses were conducted to (a) examine the magnitude of treatment effect elicited by PER strength training…

  9. Carbohydrate intake and food sources of junior triathletes during a moderate and an intensive training period.

    PubMed

    Carlsohn, Anja; Nippe, Susanne; Heydenreich, Juliane; Mayer, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the quantity and the main food sources of carbohydrate (CHO) intake of junior elite triathletes during a short-term moderate (MOD; 12 km swimming, 100 km cycling, 30 km running per wk) and intensive training period (INT; 23 km swimming, 200 km cycling, 45 km running per wk). Self-reported dietary-intake data accompanied by training protocols of 7 male triathletes (18.1 ± 2.4 yr, 20.9 ± 1.4 kg/m(2)) were collected on 7 consecutive days during both training periods in the same competitive season. Total energy and CHO intake were calculated based on the German Food Database. A paired t test was applied to test for differences between the training phases (α = .05). CHO intake was slightly higher in INT than in MOD (9.0 ± 1.6 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) vs. 7.8 ± 1.6 g · kg(-1) · d(-1); p = .041). Additional CHO in INT was mainly ingested during breakfast (115 ± 37 g in MOD vs. 175 ± 23 g in INT; p = .002) and provided by beverages (280.5 ± 97.3 g/d vs. 174.0 ± 58.3 g/d CHO; p = .112). Altogether, main meals provided approximately two thirds of the total CHO intake. Pre- and postexercise snacks additionally supplied remarkable amounts of CHO (198.3 ± 84.3 g/d in INT vs. 185.9 ± 112 g/d CHO in MOD; p = .231). In conclusion, male German junior triathletes consume CHO in amounts currently recommended for endurance athletes during moderate to intensive training periods. Main meals provide the majority of CHO and should therefore not be skipped. CHO-containing beverages, as well as pre- and postexercise snacks, may provide a substantial amount of CHO intake in training periods with high CHO requirements.

  10. Improved cognitive function in postmenopausal women after 12 weeks of consumption of a soya extract containing isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosanna; Wiseman, Helen; File, Sandra E

    2003-06-01

    We previously reported that a high soya diet improved memory and frontal lobe function in young volunteers, and since soya isoflavones are agonists at oestrogen receptors, they may improve these functions in postmenopausal women. Thirty-three postmenopausal women (50-65 years) not receiving conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were randomly allocated in a double-blind parallel study to receive a soya supplement (60 mg total isoflavone equivalents/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. They received a battery of cognitive tests and completed analogue rating scales of mood and sleepiness, and a menopausal symptoms questionnaire before the start of treatment and then after 12 weeks of treatment. Those receiving the isoflavone supplement showed significantly greater improvements in recall of pictures and in a sustained attention task. The groups did not differ in their ability to learn rules, but the isoflavone supplement group showed significantly greater improvements in learning rule reversals. They also showed significantly greater improvement in a planning task. There was no effect of treatment on menopausal symptoms, self-ratings of mood, bodily symptoms or sleepiness. Thus, significant cognitive improvements in postmenopausal women can be gained from 12 weeks of consumption of a supplement containing soya isoflavones that are independent of any changes in menopausal symptoms, mood or sleepiness.

  11. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  12. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  13. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools. PMID:27028294

  14. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  15. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  16. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  17. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β 2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%-8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6-12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6-12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6-12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  18. Oxidative stress biomarker monitoring in elite women volleyball athletes during a 6-week training period.

    PubMed

    Martinović, Jelena; Dopsaj, Violeta; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Vujović, Ana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Nešić, Goran

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) if reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are a reliable parameter for monitoring oxidative stress in athletes alone or in association with other parameters of oxidative stress and depending on whether antioxidant supplements are taken or not; (b) the level of oxidative stress in athletes before the competition season; and (c) if oxidative status could be improved in volleyball athletes. Sixteen women athletes (supplemented group) received an antioxidant cocktail containing vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc gluconate, and selenium as a dietary supplement during a 6-week training period, whereas 12 of them (control group) received no dietary supplement. Blood samples were taken before and after the training period. The following parameters were measured: ROMs, superoxide anion (O2⁻₂), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), biological antioxidative potential (BAP), paraoxonase activity toward paraoxon (POase) and diazoxon (DZOase), superoxide dismutase(SOD), total sulfydryl group concentration (SH groups), and lipid status. Reactive oxygen metabolites were taken as the dependent variable and MDA, O2⁻₂, AOPP, and LOOH as independent variables. In the group of athletes who have received supplementation, linear regression analysis revealed that the implemented model had a lower influence on dROMs (70.4 vs. 27.9%) after the training period. The general linear model showed significant differences between parameters before and after training/supplementation (Wilks' lambda = 0.074, F = 11.76, p < 0.01). At the partial level, significant increases in ROM levels (p <0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 286-337), SOD activity (CI: 113-144), and BAP (CI: 2,388-2,580) (p < 0.01) were observed. The association between ROMs and other parameters of oxidative stress was reduced in athletes who received supplements. During the precompetition training period, treatment with dietary

  19. Effects of Short-Term Free-Weight and Semiblock Periodization Resistance Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    South, Mark A; Layne, Andrew S; Stuart, Charles A; Triplett, N Travis; Ramsey, Michael; Howell, Mary E; Sands, William A; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Hornsby, W Guy; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; Stone, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    South, MA, Layne, AS, Stuart, CA, Triplett, NT, Ramsey, MW, Howell, ME, Sands, WA, Mizuguchi, S, Hornsby, WG, Kavanaugh, AA, and Stone, MH. Effects of short-term free-weight and semiblock periodization resistance training on metabolic syndrome. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2682-2696, 2016-The effects of short-term resistance training on performance and health variables associated with prolonged sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome (MS) were investigated. Resistance training may alter a number of health-related, physiological, and performance variables. As a result, resistance training can be used as a valuable tool in ameliorating the effects of a sedentary lifestyle including those associated with MS. Nineteen previously sedentary subjects (10 with MS and 9 with nonmetabolic syndrome [NMS]) underwent 8 weeks of supervised resistance training. Maximum strength was measured using an isometric midthigh pull and resulting force-time curve. Vertical jump height (JH) and power were measured using a force plate. The muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and type were examined using muscle biopsy and standard analysis techniques. Aerobic power was measured on a cycle ergometer using a ParvoMedics 2400 Metabolic system. Endurance was measured as time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. After training, maximum isometric strength, JH, jump power, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased by approximately 10% (or more) in both the metabolic and NMS groups (both male and female subjects). Over 8 weeks of training, body mass did not change statistically, but percent body fat decreased in subjects with the MS and in women, and lean body mass increased in all groups (p ≤ 0.05). Few alterations were noted in the fiber type. Men had larger CSAs compared those of with women, and there was a fiber-specific trend toward hypertrophy over time. In summary, 8 weeks of semiblock free-weight resistance training improved several performance variables and some cardiovascular factors

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy in adults: a 12-week, open-label, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Tariq; Nasrullah, Muhammad; Ghafoor, Adnan; Shahid, Riaz; Islam, Nadeem; Khattak, Mohammad Usman; Maheshwary, Neeta; Siddiqi, Ahson; Khan, Muhammad Athar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anticonvulsants are increasingly being used in the symptomatic management of several neuropathic pain disorders. The present observational study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life (QoL) of carbamazepine use for 12 weeks in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy, in Pakistan. Methods This was a 12-week, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled trial in adult type 2 diabetic patients (aged 18–65 years) suffering from clinically confirmed neuropathic pain (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 [DN4] score ≥4). Change in neuropathic pain at week 12 compared with baseline was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory Scale–Short Form (pain severity score and pain interference score). QoL was determined by the American Chronic Pain Association QoL scale. Safety was assessed based on patient reported adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Results Of the total 500 screened patients, 452 enrolled and completed the study. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) pain interference score decreased from 4.5±2.0 at baseline to 3.1±1.9 at week 12 (P<0.001). The mean (± SD) pain severity score decreased from 5.8±2.0 at baseline to 3.6±2.2 at week 12 (P<0.001). There was a decrease of ≥30% in the pain severity score between visits. The mean (± SD) QoL scale score improved from 5.9±1.6 at baseline to 8.0±1.7 at week 12. A total of ten (2.2%) patients reported AEs during the study period. No patient discontinued the study due to AEs. Conclusion In this real-life experience study, carbamazepine, when prescribed for 12 weeks to adult diabetic patients suffering from neuropathic pain, showed pain-relief effect, with reduced mean pain severity and mean pain interference scores and with improved QoL and good tolerability profile. PMID:25061334

  1. Effects of developmental training of basketball cadets realised in the competitive period.

    PubMed

    Trninić, S; Marković, G; Heimer, S

    2001-12-01

    The analysis of effects of a two-month developmental training cycle realised within a basketball season revealed statistically significant positive changes at the multivariate level in components of motor-functional conditioning (fitness) status of the sample of talented basketball cadets (15-16 years). The greatest correlations with discriminant function were found in variables with statistically significant changes at the univariate level, more explicitly in variables of explosive and repetitive power of the upper body and trunk, anaerobic lactic endurance, as well as in jumping type explosive leg power. The presented developmental conditioning training programme, although implemented within the competitive period, induced multiple positive fitness effects between the two control time points in this sample of basketball players. The authors suggest that, to assess power of shoulders and upper back, the test overgrip pull-up should not be applied to basketball players of this age due to its poor sensitivity. Instead, they propose the undergrip pull-up test, which is a facilitated version of the same test. The results presented in this article reinforce experienced opinion of experts that, in the training process with youth teams, the developmental conditioning training programme is effectively applicable throughout the entire competitive season. The proposed training model is a system of various training procedures, operating synergistically, aimed at enhancing integral fitness (preparedness) of basketball players. Further investigations should be focused on assessing effects of both the proposed and other developmental training cycle programmes, by means of assessing and monitoring actual quality (overall performance) of players, on the one hand, and, on the other, by following-up hormonal and biochemical changes over multiple time points.

  2. Subchronic (12-week) inhalation toxicity study of methanol-fueled engine exhaust in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Maejima, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Tadao ); Numata, Hiroaki ); Maekawa, Akihiko ); Nagase, Sumi ); Ishinishi, Noburu )

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the inhalation toxicity to rats of exhaust at low concentration for longer periods, Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 3 concentrations of exhaust generated by an M85 methanol-fueled engine (methanol with 15% gasoline) without catalyst for 8 h/d, 6 d/wk for 4, 8, or 12 wk. Concentration- and time-dependent increase carboxyhemoglobin in the erythrocytes and decrease in cytochrome P-450 in the lungs were observed in all treated groups. Furthermore, significant increases in plasma formaldehyde were observed in the group exposed to the highest concentration of exhaust (carbon monoxide, 89.8 ppm; formaldehyde, 2.3 ppm; methanol, 8.1 ppm; nitrogen oxides, 22.9 ppm; nitrogen dioxide, 1.1 ppm) for 8 or 12 wk. No change of plasma folic acid was observed in any group, and no methanol or formic acid was detected in the plasma in any animals. Histopathologically, exposure-related changes were found only in the nasal cavity of the high-concentration group. Slight hyperplasia/squamous metaplasias of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasoturbinate and maxilloturbinate were observed after 4 wk of exposure, and the incidences and degrees of these lesions increased slightly with the exposure time. No changes were found in the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity. As judged by optical microscopy, the exhaust concentration with no effect on the nasal cavity under the experimental conditions was concluded to be the medium concentration level containing 0.55 ppm formaldehyde. In the present study, however, concentration- and time-dependent increase of carboxyhemoglobin in the erythrocytes and decrease of the lung P-450 level were observed. Therefore, further study on more long-term inhalation of lower concentrations of exhaust might be needed. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Effects of 12-week oral supplementation of Ecklonia cava polyphenols on anthropometric and blood lipid parameters in overweight Korean individuals: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeon-Cheol; Kim, Seong Ho; Park, Yongju; Lee, Bong Ho; Hwang, Hye Jeong

    2012-03-01

    The effects of 12-week supplementation with a polyphenol extract from Ecklonia cava (ECP) on anthropometry, serum biochemistry and hematology have been investigated. Ninety-seven overweight male and female adults (average age 40.5 ± 9.2 yr and body mass index (BMI) of 26.5 ± 1.6 kg/m²) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Subjects were randomly allocated into three groups designated as PC (placebo), LD (low-dose, 72 mg-ECP/day) and HD (high-dose, 144 mg-ECP/day). Both LD and HD groups showed significant decreases in BMI, body fat ratio, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI) after 12 weeks, as compared with the placebo group. The HD group also showed a significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol as compared with the placebo group. Only the HD group showed significant decreases in serum glucose and systolic blood pressure after 12 weeks. There was no significant adverse event related with ingestion of ECP, and serum biochemical and hematological parameters were maintained within normal range during the intervention period. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that ECP supplementation significantly contributed to lowering body fat and serum lipid parameters such as total and LDL cholesterols with dose dependence. Further studies using different populations, dosages or biological markers are highly recommended to better understand the physiological features of this polyphenol.

  4. The Ontogeny of Face Recognition: Eye Contact and Sweet Taste Induce Face Preference in 9- and 12-Week-Old Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; Camp, Carole A.

    2001-01-01

    Calm or crying 9- and 12-week-olds sat facing a researcher who gazed into their eyes or at their forehead and delivered either a sucrose solution or pacifier or delivered nothing. Found that combining sweet taste and eye contact was necessary and sufficient for calm 9- and 12-week-olds to form a preference for the researcher, but not for crying…

  5. Effect of 12 Weeks of Accelerated Rehabilitation Exercise on Muscle Function of Patients with ACL Reconstruction of the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong-Chul; Kim, Ji Youn; Park, Gi Duck

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] To examine changes in the knee joint's isokinetic muscle functions following systematic and gradual rehabilitation exercises lasting for 12 weeks for male and female patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Differences in muscle functions between the uninvolved side (US) and the involved side (IS) before surgery, differences in muscle functions between US and IS after rehabilitation exercises lasting for 12 weeks, and changes in muscle functions on US and IS between before and after surgery were analyzed to examine the effects of accelerated rehabilitation exercises after ACL reconstruction. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 patients, five females and five males, who underwent ACL reconstruction performed by the same surgeon. [Methods] As a measuring tool, a Biodex Multi-joint system 3pro (USA), which is an isokinetic measuring device, was used to examine the flexion and extension forces of the knee joint. During isokinetic muscle strength evaluation, the ROM of US was set to be the same as that of IS for consistency of measurement. [Results] At 60°/s, the isokinetic muscle functions of the females did not show any significant change between before and after surgery in any of the variables on both US and IS. At 60°/s, the isokinetic muscle functions of the males did not show any significant change between before and after surgery in the peak torque, average power, and entire work done on US. In extension, peak torque on IS did not show any significant change.

  6. Self-presentation in exercise: changes over a 12-week cardiovascular programme for overweight and obese sedentary females.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin S; Hall, Craig R; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2013-01-01

    Self-presentational concerns, shown to influence exercise-related cognitions and behaviours, are evaluated frequently in the absence of exercise or following a single bout of physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally, the extent to which participating in a structured 12-week cardiovascular exercise intervention elicited changes in self-presentational efficacy expectancy (SPEE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). Participants were 80 sedentary women with overweight or obesity (mean body mass index 29.02 kg/m(2), SD=4.71) between the ages of 19 and 45 wanting to begin an exercise programme (mean age 33.4 years, SD=7.6). The Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) were completed by each participant prior to commencing the study, and at the 6- and 12-week time points. For those who completed the programme, repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant increases in SPEE between baseline and week 6 (P<0.001, η(2)=0.37), and week 6 to 12 (P<0.05, η(2)=0.10), while SPA decreased significantly between baseline and week 6 (P<0.01, η(2)=0.16). Bivariate correlation analyses revealed that length of participation in the study was positively related to SPEE and negatively related to SPA. Implications of focusing on these variables within a physical activity intervention are discussed with respect to exercise behaviour, programme development and adherence. PMID:23834547

  7. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    PubMed

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

  8. Turkish 12 Week Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This audiolingual beginner's course has been prepared for the Defense Language Institute intensive program in modern spoken Turkish. The course, consisting of six volumes of basic text in 55 units begins with an introductory section which presents the linguistic background, phonology, and distinguishing features of Turkish. The lesson format…

  9. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  10. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  11. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  12. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  13. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  14. A 12-week comparison regarding symptom improvement in an urban university-based outpatient child psychiatry clinic.

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne L; Meaden, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of pharmacotherapy versus combination pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for externalizing, conduct, and aggressive behaviors in children aged 6 through 18 years in an urban academic outpatient facility. Data from a child psychiatry outpatient population whose scores were identified as "at risk" or "clinically significant" based on a validated and standardized assessment tool were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks or more after treatment. Conduct symptoms worsened with medication management alone but improved with combination treatment (P < 0.05). Females and older youth were more likely to have therapy included in their treatment. Conduct problems that can be seen in a variety of youth disorders, such as disruptive behaviors, mood, and anxiety disorders, have a better probability of improving with treatment that includes psychotherapy versus medication management alone.

  15. The influence of maternal age on the outcomes of pregnancies complicated by bleeding at less than 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Mbugua Gitau, Godfrey; Liversedge, Helen; Goffey, Dawn; Hawton, Annemarie; Liversedge, Neil; Taylor, Myles

    2009-01-01

    The effect of maternal age on the outcome of threatened miscarriage after ultrasound has confirmed fetal heart (FH) pulsation was assessed. At a university teaching hospital, 138 women presenting with bleeding before 12 weeks' gestation were followed up until delivery or pregnancy loss. Those with multiple or ectopic pregnancy, social termination of pregnancy, assisted conception and temporary residence were excluded. Outcome measures were pregnancy loss, fetal abnormalities, preterm delivery, low birthweight and cesarean delivery. Age over 35 years was significantly associated with reduced live-birth and increased miscarriage rates. Women over 35 years of age had higher cesarean section and pregnancy loss rates than the younger women. The combination of bleeding in early pregnancy and advanced age increases risk of pregnancy loss even after ultrasound has confirmed FH pulsation. PMID:19140048

  16. Effectiveness and tissue compatibility of a 12-week treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers with an octenidine based antiseptic--a randomized, double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Harding, Keith; Téot, Luc; Siebert, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of octenidine dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OHP) found in vitro by conducting a randomized, double-blind controlled clinical study focusing on its safe and effective use in chronic venous leg ulcers. In total, 126 male and female patients were treated with either OHP (n = 60) or Ringer solution (n = 66). The treatment lasted over a period of maximum 12 weeks. For the assessment of the wound-healing process, clinical outcome parameters were employed, that is, time span until 100% epithelization, wound status and the wound surface area were analysed. Side effects were recorded during the study period. The median time to complete ulcer healing was comparable between the OHP and Ringer solution groups (92 versus 87 days; P = 0·952), without being influenced by wound size or duration of the target ulcer (P-values: 0·947/0·978). In patients treated with OHP, fewer adverse events (AEs) were observed compared with the Ringer group (17% versus 29% of patients reported 20 versus 38 AEs). OHP is well suitable for the treatment of chronic wounds without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, OHP does not impair the wound healing in chronic venous ulcers.

  17. Initial response as a predictor of 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone treatment response in a prescription opioid dependent population

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Katherine A.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hilario, E. Yvette; Fiellin, David A.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Initial medication response has been shown to predict treatment outcome across a variety of substance use disorders, but no studies have examined the predictive power of initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of prescription opioid dependence. We therefore conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study to determine whether initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone predicted 12-week treatment outcome in a prescription opioid-dependent population. Method Using data from a multi-site, randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine-naloxone plus counseling for DSM-IV prescription opioid dependence (June 2006–July 2009), we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the relationship between initial medication response and 12-week treatment outcome to establish how soon the efficacy of buprenorphine-naloxone could be predicted. Outcomes were determined from the Substance Use Report, a self-report measure of substance use, and confirmatory urinalysis. Predictive values were calculated to determine the importance of abstinence vs. use at various time points within the first month of treatment (week 1, weeks 1–2, 1–3, or 1–4) in predicting successful vs. unsuccessful treatment outcome (based on abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) in the last 4 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (weeks 9–12). Results Outcome was best predicted by medication response after two weeks of treatment. Two weeks of initial abstinence was moderately predictive of treatment success (positive predictive value = 71%), while opioid use in both of the first two weeks was strongly predictive of unsuccessful treatment outcome (negative predictive value (NPV) = 84%), especially when successful outcome was defined as total abstinence from opioids in weeks 9–12 (NPV = 94%). Conclusion Evaluating prescription opioid-dependent patients after two weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment may help determine

  18. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Background Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results At the 12-week visit, half (52%) of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327) of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery. PMID:25160516

  19. Psychological correlates of performance in female athletes during a 12-week off-season strength and conditioning program.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Matthews, Tracey D; Murray, Mimi; Van Raalte, Judy; Jensen, Barbara E

    2010-03-01

    Examination of the relationship between performance testing and psychological measures before and after a 12-week strength and conditioning program was the study's purpose. Female NCAA Division-III soccer (n = 28), field hockey (n = 28), and softball (n = 19) athletes completed pre- and post-testing held 12 weeks apart. On day 1, athletes completed informed consent, 3 psychological measures (Profile of Mood States [POMS], Physical Self Perception Profile [PSPP], and Athlete's Self Perception of Physical Abilities [ASPPA]), and 2 strength tests (1 repetition maximum [1RM] bench, 1RM back squat). Day 2 consisted of the 30-yd sprint, pro agility run (PRO), vertical jump (VJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). All sports improved (p < 0.01) in 1RM bench and squat and reported increases in perceived Physical Strength on the PSPP (p < 0.01). Soccer athletes improved (p < 0.01) in VJ, SLJ, and PRO (p < 0.05). No differences were found in POMS scores. The POMS scores indicated that the athletes were not overtrained or experiencing staleness. A series of correlations showed relationships between physical and psychological measures. Specifically, Physical Strength was correlated with 1RM upper-body (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Physical Strength was correlated with ASPPA ratings of upper-body (r = 0.68, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.57, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Sport Competence correlated with ASPPA ratings of power (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and PRO (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). The study's results highlight the benefits of strength and conditioning. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how physical changes are related to athletes' physical self-perceptions and self-assessment of ability within their teams.

  20. The effect of maximal exercise on the activity of neutrophil granulocytes in highly trained athletes in a moderate training period.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Strobel, G; Rau, J P; Weicker, H

    1992-01-01

    Leucocyte cell counts and the phagocytic and chemotactic activities of neutrophil granulocytes were investigated in highly endurance-trained long-distance runners (n = 10) and triathletes (n = 10) during a moderate training period and compared with untrained subjects (n = 10) before and up to 24 h after a graded exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill. After exercise a leucocytosis was noted with a significant increase in lymphocyte (P < or = 0.01) and neutrophil (P < or = 0.01) counts in all groups. In neutrophils the number of ingested inert latex beads was significantly increased (P < or = 0.01) from 0.21 (SD 0.09) to 0.45 (SD 0.22) in controls, from 0.20 (SD 0.12) to 0.56 (SD 0.16) in long-distance runners and from 0.25 (SD 0.08) to 1.03 (SD 0.42) particles per cell in triathletes 24 h after exercise, compared with resting values. The capability of neutrophils to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species fell (P < or = 0.05) immediately after exercise in all subjects and then increased by 36 (SD 8)%, 31 (SD 6)% and 19 (SD 9)% in controls, runners and triathletes respectively up to 24 h after exercise (P < or = 0.05) compared with pre-start values. With respect to the absolute number of neutrophils, ingestion capacity, production of superoxide anions and chemotactic activity, no significant differences were found between athletes and control subjects at rest and after exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Behavior of testosterone and cortisol during an intensity-controlled high-volume training period measured by a training task-specific test in men rowers.

    PubMed

    Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mäestu, Jarek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the stress hormones testosterone and cortisol after a task-specific exercise during a high-volume endurance training cycle in men rowers. Eight highly trained men rowers were investigated during a high-volume, low-intensity training period. A 2-hour, low-intensity, long-distance rowing (LDT) test was conducted at baseline, after a high-volume period, and after the recovery period. Training and performance intensities were obtained at the graded incremental test, were preset individually, and were the same during all LDTs. Fasting blood samples were taken during the same days as the LDTs. Exercise-induced blood samples were taken before, 5 minutes after, and 30 minutes after (post 30') the completion of each LDT. There were no significant changes in fasting cortisol and testosterone values during the whole study period, and there were no significant changes in cortisol and testosterone concentrations during the LDT. However, testosterone concentration was significantly decreased at post 30' compared with posttest values during the second LDT that was held after the 2-week high-training-volume period, and, during the second LDT, post 30' values of cortisol tended to be decreased compared with posttest values (p = 0.063). In conclusion, changes in the concentrations of testosterone and cortisol after long-distance rowing indicate decreased adaptivity after the training-specific performance test.

  2. Are Transition Periods the Optimal Time for Acceleration? The Training of a First Order Conservation in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskin, Donald S.; Rice, Deborah

    The effectiveness of acceleration training with children who were in a transition period was examined. Forty-eight kindergarten children were separated into four groups on the basis of their status (Preoperational vs. Transitional) and whether or not they received three sessions of inversion-negation training. The results of the immediate and…

  3. 20 CFR 663.530 - Is there a time limit on the period of initial eligibility for training providers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is there a time limit on the period of initial eligibility for training providers? 663.530 Section 663.530 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER...

  4. The effect of early musical training on adult motor performance: evidence for a sensitive period in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Penhune, Virginia; Watanabe, Donald; Savion-Lemieux, Tal

    2005-12-01

    This experiment demonstrates that musicians who began training before age seven perform better on a rhythmic tapping task than musicians who began after the age of seven, when the two groups are matched for years of experience. These results support the idea that there may be a sensitive period in childhood for motor training, similar to that observed for language learning.

  5. A 12-week medical exercise therapy program leads to significant improvement in knee function after degenerative meniscectomy: a randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Østerås, Håvard

    2014-07-01

    There is no consensus in the postoperative rehabilitation regimen for patients who have undergone surgery for medial meniscus damage. The aim of this study was to examine whether it is necessary to undergo postoperative physiotherapy treatment these patients. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. 42 participants (26 males, 16 women) were randomly assigned into an exercise group (EG) (n = 22) or a control group (CG) (n = 20). Prognostic variables were similar between the groups at baseline. The EG achieved significantly better outcome effects than the CG at pain (VAS reduced 1.9 in TG and 0.6 in CG, p < 0.01) and function (KOOS decreased 18.0 in TG and only 6.5 in CG, p < 0.01) during the 12 week intervention period. The results after a 12-month follow-up indicated the same results as at posttest 3 months postoperatively. In patients with surgery for degenerative meniscus damage, postoperative medical exercise therapy - as a model of physiotherapy - is an efficient treatment alternative compared to no systematic rehabilitation.

  6. Effects of 12-Week Bacopa monnieri Consumption on Attention, Cognitive Processing, Working Memory, and Functions of Both Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Systems in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Peth-Nui, Tatimah; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Rangseekajee, Poonsri; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Vittaya-areekul, Sakchai

    2012-01-01

    At present, the scientific evidence concerning the effect of Bacopa monnieri on brain activity together with working memory is less available. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of B. monnieri on attention, cognitive processing, working memory, and cholinergic and monoaminergic functions in healthy elderly. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design was utilized. Sixty healthy elderly subjects (mean age 62.62 years; SD 6.46), consisting of 23 males and 37 females, received either a standardized extract of B. monnieri (300 and 600 mg) or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. The cholinergic and monoaminergic systems functions were determined using AChE and MAO activities. Working memory was assessed using percent accuracy and reaction time of various memory tests as indices, whereas attention and cognitive processing were assessed using latencies and amplitude of N100 and P300 components of event-related potential. All assessments were performed before treatment, every four weeks throughout study period, and at four weeks after the cessation of intervention. B. monnieri-treated group showed improved working memory together with a decrease in both N100 and P300 latencies. The suppression of plasma AChE activity was also observed. These results suggest that B. monnieri can improve attention, cognitive processing, and working memory partly via the suppression of AChE activity. PMID:23320031

  7. Oral Microbiota Shift after 12-Week Supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289; A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Romani Vestman, Nelly; Chen, Tsute; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus spp. potentially contribute to health by modulating bacterial biofilm formation, but their effects on the overall oral microbiota remain unclear. Methods and Findings Oral microbiota was characterized via 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA hypervariable region V3-V4 after 12 weeks of daily Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289 consumption. Forty-four adults were assigned to a test group (n = 22) that received lactobacilli lozenges (108 CFU of each strain/lozenge) or a control group that received placebo (n = 22). Presence of L. reuteri was confirmed by cultivation and species specific PCR. Tooth biofilm samples from 16 adults before, during, and after exposure were analyzed by pyrosequencing. A total of 1,310,292 sequences were quality filtered. After removing single reads, 257 species or phylotypes were identified at 98.5% identity in the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Streptococcus was the most common genus and the S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group comprised the dominant species. The number of observed species was unaffected by L. reuteri exposure. However, subjects who had consumed L. reuteri were clustered in a principal coordinates analysis relative to scattering at baseline, and multivariate modeling of pyrosequencing microbiota, and culture and PCR detected L. reuteri separated baseline from 12-week samples in test subjects. L. reuteri intake correlated with increased S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group and Campylobacter concisus, Granulicatella adiacens, Bergeyella sp. HOT322, Neisseria subflava, and SR1 [G-1] sp. HOT874 detection and reduced S. mutans, S. anginosus, N. mucosa, Fusobacterium periodicum, F. nucleatum ss vincentii, and Prevotella maculosa detection. This effect had disappeared 1 month after exposure was terminated. Conclusions L. reuteri consumption did not affect species

  8. Ischial Tuberosity Avulsion Stress Fracture after Short Period of Repetitive Training

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo-Kyu; Ahn, Young-Joon; Im, Se-Hyuk; Park, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue fracture of the pelvis is the form of fracture due to repetitive micro-stress accumulation, can be affected by a number of factors such as patient's nutritional status, biomechanics, social status and so on. Still there is no study about precise standard degree of external force that lead to stress fracture, but it may caused by compression force, traction force or complex force and others. Avulsion stress to ischial tuberosity or anterior superior iliac spine by attached muscle is known as the main factor for the avulsion fracture. This report will deal with 19 years old conscripted policeman who occurred ischial tuberosity avulsion fracture after training of 6-hour running for 5 days accompanying hip hyper-flexion motion. This reports aims to provide case study of stress fracture occurred after 5 days of exercise which is relatively short period who had no specific trauma history or pain. PMID:27777924

  9. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m²) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%-20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation.

  10. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365

  11. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  12. Predictors of adherence to a 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer: ENGAGE study.

    PubMed

    Craike, Melinda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Courneya, Kerry S; Fraser, Steve F; Salmon, Jo; Owen, Patrick J; Broadbent, Suzanne; Livingston, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence adherence to exercise programs is necessary to develop effective interventions for people with cancer. We examined the predictors of adherence to a supervised exercise program for participants in the ENGAGE study - a cluster randomized controlled trial that assessed the efficacy of a clinician-referred 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer. Demographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial data from 52 participants in the intervention group were collected at baseline through self-report and medical records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was assessed through objective attendance records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was 80.3%. In the univariate analyses, cancer-specific quality of life subscales (role functioning r = 0.37, P = 0.01; sexual activity r = 0.26, P = 0.06; fatigue r = -0.26, P = 0.06, and hormonal symptoms r = -0.31, P = 0.03) and education (d = -0.60, P = 0.011) were associated with adherence. In the subsequent multivariate analysis, role functioning (B = 0.309, P = 0.019) and hormonal symptoms (B = -0.483, P = 0.054) independently predicted adherence. Men who experienced more severe hormonal symptoms had lower levels of adherence to the exercise program. Those who experienced more positive perceptions of their ability to perform daily tasks and leisure activities had higher levels of adherence to the exercise program. Hormonal symptoms and role functioning need to be considered when conducting exercise programs for men who have been treated for prostate cancer. PMID:26872005

  13. Magnesium Replacement Does Not Improve Insulin Resistance in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A 12-Week Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza e Silva, Maria de Lourdes; Cruz, Thomaz; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon; Ladeia, Ana Marice; Bomfim, Olivia; Olivieri, Lucas; Melo, Juliana; Correia, Raquel; Porto, Mirna; Cedro, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes. Methods This 12-week clinical randomized double-blind study compared the effects of 400 mg/day of Mg with those of a placebo (n = 72) on fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and CRP. Mg was measured in serum (SMg) and in mononuclear cells (MMg). Results Hypomagnesemia (SMg < 1.7 mg/dL) was seen in 23.2% of patients and intracellular depletion in 36.1% of patients. The MMg means were lower in patients with obesity (0.94 ± 0.54 μg/mg vs. 1.19 ± 0.6 μg/mg, P = 0.04), and insulin resistance (0.84 ± 0.33 μg/mg vs. 1.14 ± 0.69 µg/mg, P < 0.05). Mg replacement did not alter SMg (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/dL vs. 1.81 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P = 0.877) and tended to increment MMg (0.90 ± 0.40 μg/mg vs. 1.21 ± 0.73 μg/mg, P = 0.089). HOMA-IR did not alter in interventions nor in placebo group (3.2 ± 2.0 to 2.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.368; 3.6 ± 1.9 to 3.2 ± 1.8, respectively), neither did other metabolic parameters. Conclusion Serum and intracellular Mg depletion is common in patients with MS; however, Mg replacement in recommended dosage did not increase significantly Mg levels, neither reduced insulin resistance or metabolic control. PMID:25247020

  14. Linagliptin monotherapy compared with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis: a 12-week randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Shoji, Tetsuo; Inaba, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Focusing on efficacy and tolerability, we compared linagliptin monotherapy with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Research design and methods In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study, 78 patients were randomized (1:1) to receive a 12-week treatment with 5 mg linagliptin once daily or 0.2 mg voglibose three times a day. To assess whether linagliptin was superior to voglibose, the primary efficacy end point was the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy end points included changes between baseline and week 12 in glycated albumin (GA) and casual plasma glucose (PG) levels. Results At week 12, the adjusted mean HbA1c levels had decreased by −0.60% after treatment with linagliptin and by −0.20% after treatment with voglibose (treatment difference: −0.40%, 95% CI −0.74% to −0.06%, p=0.022). A significant reduction in casual PG level was also observed after treatment with linagliptin compared with treatment with voglibose. Relative to voglibose, linagliptin tended to elicit reductions in GA, although without statistical significance. No hypoglycemic symptoms or severe hypoglycemia occurred during the study. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD, linagliptin monotherapy provided significantly better glycemic control without severe hypoglycemia than voglibose monotherapy. Linagliptin represents a promising agent for glycemic management in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD. Trial registration number UMIN000007635; results. PMID:27547421

  15. Agomelatine versus Sertraline: An Observational, Open-labeled and 12 Weeks Follow-up Study on Efficacy and Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Esma; Cerit, Cem; Talas, Anıl; Tural, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this open-labeled, 12 weeks follow-up study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine with sertraline Methods The outpatients of adult psychiatry clinic who have a new onset of depression and diagnosed as ‘major depressive episode’ by clinician according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition and prescribed agomelatine (25 mg/day) or sertraline (50 mg/day) were included in the study. Results The decline of mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores of agomelatine group was significantly higher than the sertraline group at the end of 2nd week; however, the difference was not significant at the end of 3 months. Mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I) scores of agomelatine group was lower than sertraline group at first week. Mean CGI-Severity scale and CGI-I scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Remission rates were 46.7% for sertraline group and 33.3% for agomelatine group while response rates were 76.7% for both groups. Any patient from agomelatine group dropped-out due to adverse effects. The amount of side effects was also less with agomelatine. Conclusion Agomelatine has a rapid onset efficacy on depressive symptoms and this can be beneficial for some critical cases. Considering MADRS scores, agomelatine seems to have similar efficacy with sertraline but we also point the need for long term studies since CGI scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Agomelatine has a favourable tolerability profile both in terms of discontinuation and the amount of side effects compared to sertraline. PMID:27776387

  16. [Chronobiologic aspects of autogenic training. Thermometric findings of autogenic training in relation to diurnal periodicity in autonomic dystonia patients].

    PubMed

    Stetter, F

    1985-01-01

    In a cohort of patients suffering from neuro-dystonia a group of test subjects well acquainted with the techniques of autogenous training and another consisting of patients unfamiliar with these techniques were compared with regard to the rise in the skin temperature in their fingers at various times of the day. Furthermore, the connection between the personal perception of warmth of the test subjects during autogenous training and the actually measured increase the temperature was observed: 1. In the test group as well as among the controls two different patterns of reaction with regard to diurnal fluctuations of the skin temperature occurred which were interpreted as so-called "morning types" and "evening types" respectively. 2. The increase in temperature induced by autogenous training in the test group was always higher than the one in the group of controls. 3. Subject to the circadian reaction pattern of the skin temperature there were fluctuations related to the actual time of day with regard to the increases in temperature induced by autogenous training. 4. There was merely a "slight" correlation between the personal experience or warmth and the measured temperature increase, and the intensity of the temperature experience seems to be influenced more by the relative initial value of the skin temperature than by the objectifyable temperature increase. These results are discussed with regard to practical consequences for the acquisition of autogenous training and its therapeutic application with neuro-dystonic patients. PMID:4002890

  17. The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill) on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clustering of metabolic abnormalities defined as metabolic syndrome is now both a public health and a clinical problem .While interest in herbal medicine has greatly increased, lack of human evidence to support efficacies shown in animals does exist. This clinical trial study designed to investigate whether herbal medicine, Anethum graveolens (dill) extract, could improve metabolic components in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design was conducted. 24 subjects who had metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria (update of ATP III) were randomly assigned to either dill extract (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) for 3 months. Results Across lipid component of metabolic syndrome, no significant differences in triglyceride (TG) concentration and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen between the two groups. However TG improved significantly from baseline (257.0 vs. 201.5p = 0.01) with dill treatment but such a significant effect was not observed in placebo group. Moreover, no significant differences in waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were seen between two groups after 3 months follow up period. Conclusion In this small clinical trial in patients with metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks of dill extract treatment had a beneficial effect in terms of reducing TG from baseline. However dill treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome related markers compared to control group. Larger studies might be required to prove the efficacy and safety of long-term administration of dill to resolve metabolic syndrome components. PMID:23351341

  18. Dietary intake and thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers during different training periods.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M; Rehunen, S; Gref, C G; Laakso, J T; Lehto, J; Ruokonen, I; Himberg, J J

    1992-12-01

    This study evaluated how different training periods affect dietary intake and biochemical indices of thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers. Subjects were 17 skiers and 39 controls, ages 18-38 yrs. Dietary data were collected by 7-day food records at 3-month intervals. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to indicate magnitude of seasonal changes. Energy intake for the year (28 food record days) was 3,802 kcal/day (CV 19.1%) in male skiers, 2,754 kcal/day (CV 3.7%) in male controls, 2,812 kcal/day (CV 9.1%) in female skiers, and 2,013 kcal/day (CV 5.9%) in female controls. CVs for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc intake were 14.1-23.9% (male skiers), 2.9-15.0% (male controls), 4.8-24.5% (female skiers), and 4.3-11.5% (female controls). Seasonal changes in energy, carbohydrate, and micronutrient intakes reflected energy expenditure in male endurance athletes particularly. Erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficients and serum ferritin and zinc concentrations did not differ between skiers and controls. Seasonal variations in these biochemical indices of nutritional status were of the same magnitude in skiers and controls, despite large changes in skiers' physical activity.

  19. Neuromuscular Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training With Traditional and Daily Undulating Periodization in Adolescent Elite Judoka.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Pelzer, Thiemo; Oliveira, Sergio; Pfeiffer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2.7 ± 1.1 years) performed two 4-week strength training mesocycles (each with 12 sessions) with either traditional (TP) or daily undulating (DUP) periodization. Both mesocycles were separated by a 7-week washout period and added to the regular judo training. Strength training was performed as lifting and lowering of weights using squats, knee flexion curl, clean & jerk, snatch, bench press, barbell bench pull, and lat pull-down. The mesocycles were equated for the number of repetitions and different intensity zones (50-90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), addressing the optimization of strength, power, or velocity. Laboratory and 1RM testing was carried out 2 times during the baseline (T1 and T2), after the TP mesocycle (T3), after the washout period (T4), and after the DUP mesocycle (T5). Isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contractive capacity (MVC), electromyographic-estimated neural drive of the quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and 1RMs of all training exercises were measured. ANOVA revealed moderate (5.5-13.5%) but significant (p ≤ 0.05) temporal gains in knee extensor MVC, 1RMs, and VL architecture during both the mesocycles. Wilcoxon tests detected no significant differences for the percentage changes of any outcome between the mesocycles. For adolescent judoka, TP and DUP were equally adept in improving neuromuscular outcomes during short-term training periods. PMID

  20. Effects of Added Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Serum Hormone Concentrations During Eight Weeks of Special Military Training Period.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Jani P; Kokko, Juha; Isoranta, Manne; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    A high volume of military training has been shown to compromise muscle strength development. We examined effects of added low-volume resistance training during special military training (ST) period, which took place after basic training period. Male conscripts (n = 25) were assigned to standardized ST with added resistance training group (TG, n = 13) and group with standardized ST only (control) (CG, n = 12). Standardized ST with added resistance training group performed 2 resistance training sessions per week for 8 weeks: hypertrophic strength (weeks 1-3), maximal strength (weeks 4-6) and power training (weeks 7-8). Maximal strength tests, load carriage performance (3.2 km, 27 kg), and hormone concentrations were measured before and after ST (mean ± SD). Both groups improved similarly in their load carriage performance time (TG: 1,162 ± 116 seconds vs. 1,047 ± 81 seconds; CG: 1,142 ± 95 seconds vs. 1,035 ± 81 seconds) (p < 0.001) but decreased maximal strength of the lower extremities (TG: 5,250 ± 1,110 N vs. 4,290 ± 720 N; CG: 5,170 ± 1,050 N vs. 4,330 ± 1,230 N) and back muscles (TG: 4,290 ± 990 N vs. 3,570 ± 48 N; CG: 3,920 ± 72 N vs. 3,410 ± 53 N) (p ≤ 0.05). Maximal strength of the upper extremities improved in CG (1,040 ± 200 N vs. 1,140 ± 200 N) (p ≤ 0.05) but not in TG. Maximal strength of the abdominal muscles improved in TG (3,260 ± 510 N vs. 3,740 ± 75 N) (p ≤ 0.05) but not in CG. Testosterone concentration increased in CG (15.2 ± 3.6 nmol·L⁻¹ vs. 21.6 ± 5.0 nmol·L⁻¹) (p < 0.01) but not in TG (18.6 ± 4.3 nmol·L⁻¹ vs. 19.5 ± 9.4 nmol·L⁻¹). In conclusion, interference with strength gains might be related to the high volume of aerobic activities and too low volume of resistance training during ST. To develop strength characteristics, careful periodization and individualization should be adopted in ST.

  1. On the Training Model of China's Local Normal University Students during the Transitional Period from the Perspective of Happiness Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiwei, Huang

    2016-01-01

    As a theory based on the hypothesis of "happy man" about human nature, happiness management plays a significant guiding role in the optimization of the training model of local Chinese normal university students during the transitional period. Under the guidance of this theory, China should adhere to the people-oriented principle,…

  2. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  3. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.

    PubMed

    Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ∼30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing pre- with post-training the absolute exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone decreased from 11.1 to 3.1 and 7.0 to 4.4 nmol · L⁻¹ (cortisol), from 407 to 258 and from 473 to 274 pmol · L⁻¹ (testosterone) and from 12 to 4 and 7 to 5 (cortisol/testosterone) for the first and second bouts, respectively (P < 0.05). No differences in the pre- and post-training rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) responses during the cycles or times to fatigue were found (P > 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

  4. 12 Weeks of Daclatasvir in Combination With Sofosbuvir for HIV-HCV Coinfection (ALLY-2 Study): Efficacy and Safety by HIV Combination Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; McDonald, Cheryl; Ramgopal, Moti; Noviello, Stephanie; Bhore, Rafia; Ackerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Highly effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapies that do not require modification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral regimens are needed. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir + sofosbuvir (DCV + SOF) for 12 weeks by antiretroviral (ARV) regimen in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Methods. In the randomized, open-label ALLY-2 study, HIV-HCV-coinfected patients received 8 or 12 weeks of once-daily DCV 60 mg (dose-adjusted as-necessary for concomitant ARVs) + SOF 400 mg. Results were stratified by ARV class for the 151 patients who received 12 weeks of DCV + SOF. Results. Fifty-one patients were HCV treatment experienced, 100 were treatment naive, 89% male and 33% black. HCV genotypes were: genotype 1a (GT1a; 69%), GT1b (15%), GT2 (8%), GT3 (6%), and GT4 (2%). Sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was 97% and was similar across ARV regimens (P = .774): protease inhibitor-based, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-99.7%); nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based, 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%); and integrase inhibitor based, 95% (95% CI, 83%-99.4%). SVR12 among patients receiving either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or abacavir as part of their antiretroviral therapy regimen was 98% (95% CI, 93%-99.5%) and 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%), respectively. Age, gender, race, cirrhosis, HCV treatment history, GT , and baseline HCV RNA did not affect SVR12. No discontinuations were attributed to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions. DCV + SOF x12 weeks is a highly efficacious, all-oral, pan-GT HCV treatment for HIV-HCV coinfected patients across a broad range of ARV regimens. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02032888. PMID:27025835

  5. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-09-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  6. Job Enhancement Training (JET) Program. A Demonstration Workplace Training Program in Partnership with Armstrong World Industries, Inc., Pensacola, Florida. Training Period: May 1991-October 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pensacola Junior Coll., FL.

    The Job Enhancement Training (JET) Program was a partnership between Pensacola Junior College (PJC) and Armstrong World Industries (Florida). The partners implemented a workplace literacy training program at the company's Pensacola plant using a five-phase social context curriculum model. The curriculum, based on job analysis, used small-group…

  7. The Effect of Training for Conservation on Children in Transition Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskin, Donald S.; Rice, Deborah

    1975-01-01

    Forty-eight kindergarten children were divided into four groups on the basis of their status (preoperational vs. transitional) and whether or not they received inversion-negation training. Results indicated no differences due to status, but differences due to training. Results do not confirm the contention that acceleration can only occur during…

  8. ET Worldwide: A Periodic Compendium of Environmental Education and Training Opportunities. No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This document represents an extensively revised and updated United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Directory for Environmental Training Worldwide. It presents a listing of environmental education and training (EE&T) opportunities around the world as well as information on financial assistance for environmental studies abroad. This version has…

  9. The Feasibility of Generalized Acoustic Sensor Operator Training. Final Report for Period February 1974-February 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Richard W.; Alden, David G.

    The feasibility of generalized approaches to training military personnel in the use of different types of sonar/acoustic warfare systems was explored. The initial phase of the project consisted of the analysis of representative sonar and acoustic equipment to identify training areas and operator performance requirements that could be subjected to…

  10. Utility of the multi-component training distress scale to monitor swimmers during periods of training overload.

    PubMed

    Main, Luana C; Warmington, Stuart A; Korn, Emily; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of the multi-component training distress scale (MTDS), in monitoring swimmers prior to national competition. Twenty-one national-level adolescent swimmers completed eight weeks of testing. Once a week participants completed an 8 × 50 m sprint test, vertical jump test, sit-and-reach test, the MTDS and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (REST-Q). All testing was incorporated into the swimmers' normal training programme. The REST-Q accounted for the following variances in performance: flexibility (14.6%, p = 0.009), power output (17.7%, p = 0.003), swimming speed (15.5%, p = 0.006) and swimming endurance (17.5%, p = 0.002). In comparison, the MTDS accounted for the following variances in performance: flexibility (12.1%, p = 0.095), power output (16.4%, p = 0.023), swimming speed (20.5%, p = 0.003) and swimming speed endurance (23.8%, p = 0.001). The findings of the current study suggest that both the REST-Q Sport and the MTDS have the capacity to predict performance on a range of fitness components associated with swimming. PMID:27368060

  11. Learning, neural plasticity and sensitive periods: implications for language acquisition, music training and transfer across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    White, Erin J; Hutka, Stefanie A; Williams, Lynne J; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive periods in human development have often been proposed to explain age-related differences in the attainment of a number of skills, such as a second language (L2) and musical expertise. It is difficult to reconcile the negative consequence this traditional view entails for learning after a sensitive period with our current understanding of the brain's ability for experience-dependent plasticity across the lifespan. What is needed is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying auditory learning and plasticity at different points in development. Drawing on research in language development and music training, this review examines not only what we learn and when we learn it, but also how learning occurs at different ages. First, we discuss differences in the mechanism of learning and plasticity during and after a sensitive period by examining how language exposure versus training forms language-specific phonetic representations in infants and adult L2 learners, respectively. Second, we examine the impact of musical training that begins at different ages on behavioral and neural indices of auditory and motor processing as well as sensorimotor integration. Third, we examine the extent to which childhood training in one auditory domain can enhance processing in another domain via the transfer of learning between shared neuro-cognitive systems. Specifically, we review evidence for a potential bi-directional transfer of skills between music and language by examining how speaking a tonal language may enhance music processing and, conversely, how early music training can enhance language processing. We conclude with a discussion of the role of attention in auditory learning for learning during and after sensitive periods and outline avenues of future research. PMID:24312022

  12. Learning, neural plasticity and sensitive periods: implications for language acquisition, music training and transfer across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    White, Erin J; Hutka, Stefanie A; Williams, Lynne J; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-11-20

    Sensitive periods in human development have often been proposed to explain age-related differences in the attainment of a number of skills, such as a second language (L2) and musical expertise. It is difficult to reconcile the negative consequence this traditional view entails for learning after a sensitive period with our current understanding of the brain's ability for experience-dependent plasticity across the lifespan. What is needed is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying auditory learning and plasticity at different points in development. Drawing on research in language development and music training, this review examines not only what we learn and when we learn it, but also how learning occurs at different ages. First, we discuss differences in the mechanism of learning and plasticity during and after a sensitive period by examining how language exposure versus training forms language-specific phonetic representations in infants and adult L2 learners, respectively. Second, we examine the impact of musical training that begins at different ages on behavioral and neural indices of auditory and motor processing as well as sensorimotor integration. Third, we examine the extent to which childhood training in one auditory domain can enhance processing in another domain via the transfer of learning between shared neuro-cognitive systems. Specifically, we review evidence for a potential bi-directional transfer of skills between music and language by examining how speaking a tonal language may enhance music processing and, conversely, how early music training can enhance language processing. We conclude with a discussion of the role of attention in auditory learning for learning during and after sensitive periods and outline avenues of future research.

  13. Learning, neural plasticity and sensitive periods: implications for language acquisition, music training and transfer across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    White, Erin J.; Hutka, Stefanie A.; Williams, Lynne J.; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive periods in human development have often been proposed to explain age-related differences in the attainment of a number of skills, such as a second language (L2) and musical expertise. It is difficult to reconcile the negative consequence this traditional view entails for learning after a sensitive period with our current understanding of the brain’s ability for experience-dependent plasticity across the lifespan. What is needed is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying auditory learning and plasticity at different points in development. Drawing on research in language development and music training, this review examines not only what we learn and when we learn it, but also how learning occurs at different ages. First, we discuss differences in the mechanism of learning and plasticity during and after a sensitive period by examining how language exposure versus training forms language-specific phonetic representations in infants and adult L2 learners, respectively. Second, we examine the impact of musical training that begins at different ages on behavioral and neural indices of auditory and motor processing as well as sensorimotor integration. Third, we examine the extent to which childhood training in one auditory domain can enhance processing in another domain via the transfer of learning between shared neuro-cognitive systems. Specifically, we review evidence for a potential bi-directional transfer of skills between music and language by examining how speaking a tonal language may enhance music processing and, conversely, how early music training can enhance language processing. We conclude with a discussion of the role of attention in auditory learning for learning during and after sensitive periods and outline avenues of future research. PMID:24312022

  14. Hepatic metabolism, phase I and II biotransformation enzymes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar, L) during a 12 week feeding period with graded levels of the synthetic antioxidant, ethoxyquin.

    PubMed

    Berdikova Bohne, Victoria J; Hamre, Kristin; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-05-01

    The synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin (EQ) is a widely used additive in animal feeds, including farmed fish feed. The use of EQ as food additive is prohibited and it is also undesirable in farmed meat and fish products. The possible negative aspects of EQ in fish feeds, such as modulation of hepatic detoxifying enzymes and possible effects through "carry-over" to edible parts of fish are not known. In addition, the subsequent consequences for human consumers have not been previously studied. In the present work, the alteration in gene and protein expression patterns, and catalytic activities of phase I and II hepatic biotransformation enzymes due to prolonged exposure to graded levels of dietary EQ in the range of 11-1800 mg EQ/kg feed were studied. The kinetics of parent EQ and its major metabolite, ethoxyquin dimer (EQDM) was also studied. In general two weeks seem to be the critical point in the entire toxicological response of salmon to dietary consumed EQ. Biotransformation of EQ to EQDM is shown to be a rapid process. However, the decrease in biotransformation rate results in the accumulation of EQ metabolites, high concentration of which was postulated to alter translation and post-translational modification of CYP3A, GST and UDPGT at feeding day 14 and 42, with subsequent decreases in the biotransformation of consumed EQ. Decrease in the biotransformation of consumed EQ produced the retention of un-metabolized EQ rather than metabolites in salmon liver. This may be considered as undesirable effect, since it could lead to the transport and accumulation in other organs and edible tissues. It may also cause a new wave of biotransformation with formation of metabolites inhibiting detoxifying enzymes. In general, these processes may prolong the excretion of dietary EQ from the fish body and produce EQ-derived residues in the ready-to-consume salmon or fish products. These EQ residues may have higher toxicological effects for human consumers than the parent compound and therefore need to be studied in more detail.

  15. Effects of the type of recovery training on the concentric strength of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Amiridis, I G; Cometti, G; Morlon, B; Martin, L; Martin, A

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of specific concentric and eccentric training on concentric muscular strength following an initial standardized period of excessive training that combined concentric and eccentric actions. For a period of 12 weeks, 37 young elite female basketball players performed standardized training, which included concentric and eccentric actions at 70% and 110% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM), respectively. They were then divided into three groups that followed 12 week programmes which included concentric (C-E/C, n = 13), eccentric (C-E/E, n = 13) or a combination of both concentric and eccentric (C-E/-E, n = 11) exercises. The standardized and specific training programmes consisted of 16 and 8 sets of eight repetitions respectively, performed four times a week. Eleven players who did not participate in either the standardized or specific training programmes served as controls (n = 11). Following the initial 12 weeks of standardized training, the concentric strength of the knee extensors was evaluated isokinetically and using leg-press and squat-jump tests. Significant (P < 0.05) reductions in isokinetic torque, and leg-press and squat-jump performance, were seen. The C-E/C group showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in isokinetic torque, and leg-press and squat-jump performance, after 24 weeks of training when compared with pre-training values. Conversely, no significant differences were noted for the C-E/E and C-E/C-E groups. These findings confirm the mode specificity principle, as only the concentric specific training programme improved the concentric strength of the knee extensors.

  16. Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13–16 years, N = 71) and adults (23–30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior. PMID:25400565

  17. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hartley, D E; Elsabagh, S; File, S E

    2004-01-01

    As memory and concentration impairments are a frequent complaint in post-menopausal women, this well-defined population was selected to investigate the effect on mood and cognition of chronic treatment with Gincosan. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, post-menopausal women aged 51-66 were randomly assigned to 12 weeks' treatment with Gincosan (320mg/day), containing 120mg Ginkgo biloba, and 200mg Panax ginseng (n = 30), or matched placebo (n = 27). They were given measurements of mood, somatic anxiety, sleepiness, and menopausal symptoms and a battery of cognitive tests before treatment and after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. There were no significant effects of Gincosan treatment on ratings of mood, bodily symptoms of somatic anxiety, menopausal symptoms, or sleepiness or on any of the cognitive measures of attention, memory or frontal lobe function. Thus, after chronic administration, Gincosan appeared to have no beneficial effects in post-menopausal women.

  18. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Trabal, Joan; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Torres, Ferran; Rubio, Jordi; Prieto, Esther; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15) or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15), plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation. Results Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes. Conclusion Our combined analysis showed moderate changes in isometric leg muscle strength and certain components of functional status. The magnitude of changes found on these outcomes should be qualified as a positive effect of the concomitant intervention. PMID:25926725

  19. Effect of concurrent resistance and sprint training on body composition and cardiometabolic health indicators in masters cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Delvecchio, Luke; Reaburn, Peter; Trapp, Gail; Korhonen, Marko T.

    2016-01-01

    In older previously sedentary individuals endurance training imposes a more effective stimulus to enhance cardiometabolic health compared with resistance or sprint training. We examined the effect of replacing a portion of endurance training with combined resistance and/or sprint training and how this influences cardiometabolic health indicators in masters endurance cyclists. Twenty-seven well-trained male road cyclists (53.7±8.2 years) were allocated to a resistance and track sprint-cycling training group (RTC, n=10), an endurance and track sprint-cycling group (ETC, n=7) or a control endurance group (CTRL, n=10). Both the RTC and ETC groups completed a 12-week intervention of specific training while the CTRL group maintained their endurance training load. Lower limb lean mass (LLM), trunk fat mass (TFM), fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured before and after the intervention period. TFM decreased for all groups (P<0.05) while LLM significantly increased for RTC and ETC groups (P<0.05). No significant between group or time effects were observed for FBG, TC, TG, SBP, or DBP. The results suggest that replacing a portion of endurance training with 12 weeks of ETC or RTC training favourably affects body composition by lowering TFM and increasing LLM without negatively affecting cardiometabolic health indicators in well-trained masters endurance cyclists. PMID:27807523

  20. A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Jae-Hak; Hong, Ju; Choi, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment.

  1. Transfer of heart rate feedback training to reduce heart rate response to laboratory tasks.

    PubMed

    Goodie, Jeffrey L; Larkin, Kevin T

    2006-09-01

    To examine whether transfer of heart rate (HR) feedback training to tasks not used during training could be improved by using multiple tasks during training, a modified multiple baseline across tasks, single subject design study was conducted using six high HR-reactive young adults. Participants received HR feedback training during the presentation of a videogame, and transfer of training was assessed to a mental arithmetic challenge and handgrip task. Transfer of training was next assessed following training with the mental arithmetic challenge and handgrip task. HR responses to each training task with no HR feedback were assessed during a pre-treatment session, an immediate post-training period following training on each task, a short delay (1-2 days) post-training session, and a long delay (1-2 weeks) post-training session. HR response to a novel speech task was assessed at pre-treatment and during short delay and long delay post-training sessions. Results revealed that participants reduced HR during training and generally maintained this reduction in HR during the immediate post-training assessment when HR feedback was not present. Participants were not able to reduce HR responses to tasks during short delay and long delay post-training sessions, and they were unable to transfer HR reduction skills to the speech task. Transfer of HR feedback training to new tasks was limited in nature and efforts to train across multiple stressors did not appear to improve transfer of training.

  2. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  3. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  4. Quasi-periodic fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains within coronal waveguides associated with flares and CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Broder, Brittany; Karlický, Marian; Downs, Cooper

    2016-03-01

    Quasi-periodic, fast-mode, propagating wave trains (QFPs) are a new observational phenomenon recently discovered in the solar corona by the Solar Dynamics Observatory with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging observations. They originate from flares and propagate at speeds up to ˜2000 km s-1 within funnel-shaped waveguides in the wakes of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). QFPs can carry suffcient energy fluxes required for coronal heating during their occurr ences. They can provide new diagnostics for the solar corona and their associated flares. We present recent observations of QFPs focusing on their spatio-temporal properties, temperature dependence, and statistical correlation with flares and CMEs. Of particular interest is the 2010-Aug-01 C3.2 flare with correlated QFPs and drifting zebra and fiber radio bursts, which might be different manifestations of the same fast-mode wave trains. We also discuss the potential roles of QFPs in accelerating and/or modulating the solar wind.

  5. Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after 12 weeks of rofecoxib, naproxen, or placebo: a multicentre, randomised, double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, C J; Laine, L; Simon, T; Quan, H; Shingo, S; Evans, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in patients with osteoarthritis have suggested that the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor rofecoxib results in less gastrointestinal damage than non-selective non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study compared the incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rofecoxib or a non-selective NSAID. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, double blind, 12 week study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis were allocated to rofecoxib 50 mg once daily (n=219), naproxen 500 mg twice daily (n=220), or placebo (n=221). Endoscopy was performed at baseline and at six and 12 weeks. Lifetable analysis and log rank tests were used to analyse the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers ≥3 mm. Gastric or duodenal ulcers ≥5 mm and erosions were also evaluated as secondary end points. Tolerability was assessed by adverse events. Results: The cumulative incidence of ulcers ≥3 mm at 12 weeks was significantly higher in patients on naproxen (25.5%) than in patients receiving rofecoxib (6.8%; difference 18.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7%, 25.7%); p<0.001) or placebo (2.9%; difference 22.6% (95% CI 16.1%, 29.1%); p<0.001). The difference between rofecoxib (6.8%) and placebo (2.9%) did not reach statistical significance (p=0.066). Results were similar for ulcers ≥5 mm and for mean changes from baseline in the number of gastroduodenal erosions. The overall incidence of clinical adverse events was similar among treatment groups (61% of patients on placebo, 62% in patients on rofecoxib, and 66% in patients on naproxen). Conclusions: Rofecoxib 50 mg daily (twice the dose recommended for this patient population) resulted in a lower incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers and erosions than treatment with naproxen 500 mg twice daily. PMID:12740337

  6. Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration.

  7. Sofosbuvir with peginterferon-ribavirin for 12 weeks in previously treated patients with hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lawitz, Eric; Poordad, Fred; Brainard, Diana M; Hyland, Robert H; An, Di; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Symonds, William T; McHutchison, John G; Membreno, Fernando E

    2015-01-01

    Sofosbuvir (SOF) in combination with ribavirin (RBV) for 12 or 24 weeks is the current standard of care for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 2 and 3, respectively. However, in clinical trials treatment-experienced patients, particularly those with cirrhosis, had suboptimal sustained virological response (SVR) rates. We assessed the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus peginterferon and ribavirin (SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV) administered for 12 weeks to treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, with and without cirrhosis. We enrolled 47 patients in this open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled phase 2 study. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with SVR at 12 weeks after cessation of study treatment (SVR12). The overall rate of SVR12 was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77-97). Rates of SVR12 were higher in patients with genotype 2 than in those with genotype 3, 96% (95% CI: 78-100) and 83% (95% CI: 62-95), respectively. Rates of SVR12 were similar in patients with and without cirrhosis: for genotype 2, 93% of patients with cirrhosis and 100% of patients without cirrhosis achieved SVR12, and for genotype 3, the SVR12 rate was 83% in patients both with and without cirrhosis. One patient discontinued study treatment because of an adverse event and four patients experienced serious adverse events. The most common adverse events were influenza-like illness, fatigue, anemia, and neutropenia. Conclusion: In treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, 12-week administration of SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV provided high SVR rates, irrespective of cirrhosis status. No safety concerns were identified. (Hepatology 2015;61:769–775) PMID:25322962

  8. Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration. PMID:24525660

  9. Residual {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao; Widder, Joachim; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically inoperable patients with proven Stage I NSCLC or FDG-PET-positive primary lung tumors were analyzed retrospectively. SABR consisted of 60 Gy delivered in 3 to 8 fractions. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the treated lesion was assessed 12 weeks after SABR, using FDG-PET. Patients were subsequently followed at regular intervals using computed tomography (CT) scans. Association between post-SABR SUV{sub max} and local control (LC), mediastinal failure, distant failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 3-40 months). Median lesion size was 25 mm (range, 9-70 mm). There were 6 local failures: 15 mediastinal failures, 15 distant failures, 13 disease-related deaths, and 16 deaths from intercurrent diseases. Glucose corrected post-SABR median SUV{sub max} was 3.0 (range, 0.55-14.50). Using SUV{sub max} 5.0 as a cutoff, the 2-year LC was 80% versus 97.7% for high versus low SUV{sub max}, yielding an adjusted subhazard ratio (SHR) for high post-SABR SUV{sub max} of 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-38.5; p = 0.019). Two-year DSS rates were 74% versus 91%, respectively, for high and low SUV{sub max} values (SHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.3; p = 0.113). Two-year OS was 62% versus 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.7; p = 0.268). Conclusions: Residual FDG uptake (SUV{sub max} {>=}5.0) 12 weeks after SABR signifies increased risk of local failure. A single FDG-PET scan at 12 weeks could be used to tailor further follow-up according to the risk of failure, especially in patients potentially eligible for salvage surgery.

  10. Gap solitons and soliton trains in finite-sized two-dimensional periodic and quasiperiodic photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2003-02-01

    We demonstrate the existence of the gap solitons and soliton trains in finite-sized two-dimensional periodic nonlinear photonic crystals by using the mutiple-scattering approach with an iterative scheme. In 12-fold symmetric nonlinear quasicrystals, we also demonstrated the existence of symmetric, regular gap solitons, asymmetric single-soliton states, and two-solitons states. We revealed that the existence of symmetric, regular gap solitons in a 12-fold quasicrystal is limited by the geometrical size of the hexagon that forms the core of the dodecahedral cell, which is the building block of the quasicrystal.

  11. Effects of a12-week endurance exercise program on adiposity and flexibility of Nigerian perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, O O; Arowojolu, A O; Sanya, A O

    2011-12-20

    Menopause is a sign of aging in the woman. Loss of ovarian function induces a reduction in resting metabolic rate, physical energy expenditure, fat-free mass and abdominal adipose tissue accumulation. Location of adipose tissue deposit in abdominal region plays an important role in occurrence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although regular participation in physical exercise have been suggested to improve adiposity and body flexibility which are important health related components of physical fitness, few published studies are available on the effect of exercise on Nigerian menopausal women. This study investigated effects of a twelve-week endurance exercise program (EEP) on central and abdominal obesity as well as flexibility of perimenopausal and postmenopausal Nigerian women. The study employed a pretest- posttest control group design comprising a sample of 175 apparently healthy, literate, sedentary women within age range 40-59 years. They were workers in state and federal establishments in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Based on history of their last menstrual period, women with regular or irregular menstrual cycle status were allocated into perimenopausal group and those who no longer menstruated into postmenopausal group. A table of random numbers was used for further allocation into perimenopausal exercise group (PEMEG, 45), postmenopausal exercise group (POMEG, 45) perimenopausal control group (PEMCG, 42) and postmenopausal control group (POMCG, 43). Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Mass Index (BMI) as well as Hip and Trunk Flexibility (HTF) were evaluated at baseline and 4weekly intervals until end of 12th week. EEP consisted of a 10-station circuit of cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, coordination, abdominal and pelvic floor muscle exercises. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean age of participants was 52.3±4.1 years, 95% C.I (51.64-52.88) years. Significant

  12. Periodic review of pathology training program teaching files: a quality improvement study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew A; Hallmark, Kelly C; Sharkey, Francis E

    2010-08-01

    Pathology training programs typically retain teaching files of classic and unusual diagnostic cases. Since diagnostic criteria and terminology are mutable, we reviewed a surgical pathology teaching archive to determine if the materials continued to be acceptable for educational purposes. Each case (from 2001-2003) consisted of 1 to 3 slides and a 3 x 5 card with clinical information and the diagnosis. Cases were reviewed at a daily faculty consensus conference and categorized as follows: no diagnostic change; diagnosis added; or changed diagnosis. Slides were entirely missing from 79 (35.0%) of the 226 cases reviewed. Of the remaining 147 cases, 28 (19.0%) required additional clinical information and/or slides. The final disposition of the 147 cases was as follows: diagnosis unchanged, 126 (85.7%); diagnosis added, 15 (10.2%); and diagnosis changed, 6 (4.1%). Teaching files should be subject to prospective and retrospective controls to preserve the quality of the educational experience.

  13. Peer attachment formation by systemic redox regulation with social training after a sensitive period

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Karino, Genta; Senoo, Aya; Mimura, Koki; Shirakawa, Yuka; Fukushima, Yuta; Obara, Saya; Sekihara, Hitomi; Ozawa, Shimpei; Ikegami, Kentaro; Ueda, Toyotoshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Nakamura, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Attachment formation is the most pivotal factor for humans and animals in the growth and development of social relationships. However, the developmental processes of attachment formation mediated by sensory-motor, emotional, and cognitive integration remain obscure. Here we developed an animal model to understand the types of social interactions that lead to peer-social attachment formation. We found that the social interaction in a sensitive period was essential to stabilise or overwrite the initially imprinted peer affiliation state and that synchronised behaviour with others based on common motivations could be a driver of peer social attachment formation. Furthermore, feeding experience with supplementation of ubiquinol conferred peer social attachment formation even after the sensitive period. Surprisingly, the experience of feeding beyond the cage window was also effective to reduce the required amount ubiquinol, suggesting that peri-personal space modulation may affect socio-emotional cognition and there by lead to attachment formation. PMID:23974241

  14. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas; Flück, Daniela; Bangsbo, Jens; Lundby, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age 26 ± 2 yr; mean ± SD) performed six HIT sessions (8-12 × 60 s at incremental test peak power; 271 ± 52 W) over a 2-wk period. Before and after the HIT period, V̇o2 kinetics was modeled during moderate-intensity cycling (110 ± 19 W). Mitochondrial function was assessed with high-resolution respirometry (HRR), and maximal activities of oxidative enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) were accordingly determined. In response to HIT, V̇o2 kinetics became faster (τ: 20.4 ± 4.4 vs. 28.9 ± 6.1 s; P < 0.01) and fatty acid oxidation (ETFP) and leak respiration (LN) both became elevated (P < 0.05). Activity of CS and COX did not increase in response to training. Both before and after the HIT period, fast V̇o2 kinetics (low τ values) was associated with large values for ETFP, electron transport system capacity (ETS), and electron flow specific to complex II (CIIP) (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings support that selected measures of mitochondrial function obtained with HRR are important for fast V̇o2 kinetics and better markers than maximal oxidative enzyme activity in describing the speed of the V̇o2 response during moderate-intensity exercise.

  15. Low-dose memantine attenuated methadone dose in opioid-dependent patients: a 12-week double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-05-19

    Low-dose memantine might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. We investigated whether add-on memantine reduced cytokine levels and benefitted patients with opioid dependence undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a group: Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 53) or Placebo (n = 75). The methadone dose required and retention in treatment were monitored. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12. General linear mixed models were used to examine therapeutic effect. After 12 weeks, Memantine-group required a somewhat lower methadone dose than did Placebo-group (P = 0.039). They also had significantly lower plasma TNF-α and significantly higher TGF-β1 levels. We provide evidence of the benefit of add-on memantine in opioid dependent patients undergoing MMT.

  16. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Evaluation through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Analysis in Patients with Psoriasis before and after 12 Weeks of Etanercept Therapy: A Preliminary Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Concetta; Raimondi, Gianfranco; Pampena, Riccardo; Bernardini, Nicoletta; La Viola, Giorgio; Tolino, Ersilia; Zuber, Sara; Scordamaglia, Beatrice; Skroza, Nevena

    2016-08-01

    The association between psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases has been indicated by epidemiological studies. The sub-inflammatory systemic state that characterizes both psoriasis and atherosclerosis has been proposed as the link between these conditions; it cannot, however, explain the increased incidence of sudden cardiac death reported in young patients with severe psoriasis without common cardiovascular risk factors. In a previous study, we reported higher levels of autonomic dysregulation in patients with psoriasis, concluding that the prevalence of the sympathetic arm over the parasympathetic could increase cardiovascular risk. Objective of this study was to assess the influence of etanercept on autonomic cardiovascular regulation in young patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis without cardiovascular risk factors. Five-minute ECG recordings were collected at rest before and after 12 weeks of therapy with etanercept in 19 young patients with psoriasis without cardiovascular risk factors. The Cardiolab CE pocket PC ECG system was used for linear methods of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. No significant change in HRV analysis parameters was apparent after 12 weeks of etanercept therapy. Our data suggest that treatment with etanercept in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis does not affect cardiovascular autonomic regulation and cardiovascular risk. PMID:27663918

  18. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Muscular Strength and Endurance, and Flexibility in Hong Kong Chinese Adults: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. Methods. 173 adults (aged 52.0 ± 7.5 years) were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the waitlist control group (n = 86). 19 dropped out from the study. Primary outcomes were changes in cardiorespiratory endurance (resting heart rate (HR) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)), muscular strength and endurance (curl-up and push-up tests), and lower back and hamstring flexibility (the modified back-saver sit-and-reach (MBS) test). Results. Compared to controls, the yoga group achieved significant improvements in VO2max (P < 0.01), curl-up (P < 0.05) and push-up (P < 0.001) tests, and the MBS left and right leg tests (both P < 0.001) in both genders. Significant change was also found for resting HR between groups in women (P < 0.05) but not in men. Further analysis comparing participants between younger and older subgroups yielded similar findings, except that the older participants in the yoga group failed to improve resting HR or the curl-up test versus control. Adherence (89%) and attendance (94%) were high. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion. A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention has favorable effects on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. PMID:26167196

  19. The effects of 12-week psyllium fibre supplementation or healthy diet on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness occur early in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and they are both powerful independent predictors of cardiovascular risk. A high-fibre diet has been correlated with lower BMI and a lower incidence of hyperlipidaemia, CVD, hypertension and diabetes. The present randomised, parallel-design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. fibre supplement diets on blood pressure (BP) and vascular function over 12 weeks. Overweight and obese adults were randomised to one of three groups: control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB) or healthy eating group with placebo (HLT). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the FIB group compared with the control group at week 6, but not at week 12. However, SBP was lower in the HLT group compared with control group at week 12. At week 6, the FIB group presented lower diastolic blood pressure and augmentation index compared with the control group, but this result did not persist to the end of the study. The present study did not show any improvements in BP or vascular function in overweight and obese individuals with psyllium fibre supplementation over 12 weeks of intervention. However, a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in BP in overweight and obese subjects. Further research with hypertensive individuals is necessary to elucidate whether increased fibre consumption in the form of psyllium supplementation may provide a safe and acceptable means to reduce BP, vascular function and the risk of developing CVD.

  20. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and in the CG (-4.1, -0.7, and -1.8 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 vs CG -11.1, -5.8, and -7.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). These results indicate that a single session of resistance exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  1. Distinct neuroplasticity processes are induced by different periods of acrobatic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Salame, Samira; Garcia, Priscila C; Real, Caroline C; Borborema, Juliana; Mota-Ortiz, Sandra R; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2016-07-15

    Short and long-term physical exercise induce physiological and structural changes in brain motor areas. The relationship between changes of structural and synaptic proteins in brain motor areas and acrobatic exercise is less understood. Our aim was to evaluate the expression of synapsin I (SYS), synaptophysin (SYP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neurofilament (NF), and a marker for recent neuronal activity (Egr-1) in the motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum of adult rats subjected to acrobatic exercise (AE, for 1-4 weeks). We used adult Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups based on duration of acrobatic training, namely 1 week (AE1, n=15), 2 weeks (AE2, n=15), 4 weeks (AE4, n=15), and sedentary (SED, n=15). In AE groups, the rats covered 5 times a circuit that was composed of obstacles, three times a week. The protein levels were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that short-term AE (AE1 and AE2) induced MAP2 decreases and NF, SYP and Egr-1 increases in the motor cortex; an increase of MAP2, SYS and SYP in the dorsolateral striatum, whereas the dorsomedial striatum showed increased NF, SYS, SYP and Egr-1. Granular cerebellar layer showed increased NF and Egr-1, with increased NF and SYP in the molecular layer. Long-term AE (AE4) promoted an increase of MAP2, SYP and Egr-1 in motor cortex; MAP2, SYS and SYP in the dorsomedial striatum; and NF and Egr-1 in the cerebellar granular layer. In conclusion, our data suggest that different durations of AE induce distinct plastic responses among distinct cortical and subcortical circuits. PMID:27126278

  2. Broadband excitation in solid-state NMR using interleaved DANTE pulse trains with N pulses per rotor period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xingyu; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Carnevale, Diego; Ulzega, Simone; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2013-11-01

    We analyze the direct excitation of wide one-dimensional spectra of nuclei with spin I = 1/2 or 1 in rotating solids submitted to pulse trains in the manner of Delays Alternating with Nutations for Tailored Excitation (DANTE), either with one short rotor-synchronized pulse of duration τp in each of K rotor periods (D1K) or with N interleaved equally spaced pulses τp in each rotor period, globally also extending over K rotor periods (DNK). The excitation profile of DNK scheme is a comb of rf-spikelets with NνR = N/TR spacing from the carrier frequency, and a width of each spikelet inversely proportional to the length, KTR, of DNK scheme. Since the individual pulse lengths, τp, are typically of a few hundreds of ns, DNK scheme can readily excite spinning sidebands families covering several MHz, provided the rf carrier frequency is close enough to the resonance frequency of one the spinning sidebands. If the difference of isotropic chemical shifts between distinct chemical sites is less than about 1.35/(KTR), DNK scheme can excite the spinning sidebands families of several sites. For nuclei with I = 1/2, if the homogeneous and inhomogeneous decays of coherences during the DANTE sequence are neglected, the K pulses of a D1K train have a linearly cumulative effect, so that the total nutation angle is θtot = K2πν1τp, where ν1 is the rf-field amplitude. This allows obtaining nearly ideal 90° pulses for excitation or 180° rotations for inversion and refocusing across wide MAS spectra comprising many spinning sidebands. If one uses interleaved DANTE trains DNK with N > 1, only spinning sidebands separated by intervals of NνR with respect to the carrier frequency are observed as if the effective spinning speed was NνR. The other sidebands have vanishing intensities because of the cancellation of the N contributions with opposite signs. However, the intensities of the remaining sidebands obey the same rules as in spectra obtained with νR. With increasing N, the

  3. Engineering Industry Training Board; Report and Statement of Accounts for the Period Ended 31st March 1968; Presented Pursuant to the Industrial Training Act, Section 8 (4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Engineering Industry Training Board, London (England).

    The 1967-68 annual report of the Engineering Industry Training Board (EITB) in Great Britain was mainly devoted to describing progress in training and the development of training standards. Activities included training for craftsmen, supervisors and managers, machine operators, clerical and commercial workers, engineers and technicians, training…

  4. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Materials and Methods Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. Results The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Conclusion Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. Trial Registration CRiS KCT0001771 PMID:27253526

  5. Mode-Locked Spike Trains in Responses of Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Chopper and Onset Neurons to Periodic Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Laudanski, Jonathan; Coombes, Stephen; Palmer, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    We report evidence of mode-locking to the envelope of a periodic stimulus in chopper units of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Mode-locking is a generalized description of how responses in periodically forced nonlinear systems can be closely linked to the input envelope, while showing temporal patterns of higher order than seen during pure phase-locking. Re-analyzing a previously unpublished dataset in response to amplitude modulated tones, we find that of 55% of cells (6/11) demonstrated stochastic mode-locking in response to sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) pure tones at 50% modulation depth. At 100% modulation depth SAM, most units (3/4) showed mode-locking. We use interspike interval (ISI) scattergrams to unravel the temporal structure present in chopper mode-locked responses. These responses compared well to a leaky integrate-and-fire model (LIF) model of chopper units. Thus the timing of spikes in chopper unit responses to periodic stimuli can be understood in terms of the complex dynamics of periodically forced nonlinear systems. A larger set of onset (33) and chopper units (24) of the VCN also shows mode-locked responses to steady-state vowels and cosine-phase harmonic complexes. However, while 80% of chopper responses to complex stimuli meet our criterion for the presence of mode-locking, only 40% of onset cells show similar complex-modes of spike patterns. We found a correlation between a unit's regularity and its tendency to display mode-locked spike trains as well as a correlation in the number of spikes per cycle and the presence of complex-modes of spike patterns. These spiking patterns are sensitive to the envelope as well as the fundamental frequency of complex sounds, suggesting that complex cell dynamics may play a role in encoding periodic stimuli and envelopes in the VCN. PMID:20042702

  6. High volume of endurance training impairs adaptations to 12 weeks of strength training in well-trained endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Raastad, Truls

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of 12 weeks of strength training combined with a large volume of endurance training with the effect of strength training alone on the strength training adaptations. Well-trained cyclists with no strength training experience performed heavy strength training twice a week in addition to a high volume of endurance training during a 12-week preparatory period (S + E; n = 11). A group of non-strength trained individuals performed the same strength training as S + E, but without added endurance training (S; n = 7). Thigh muscle cross-sectional area, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in leg exercises, squat jump performance, and peak rate of force development (RFD) were measured. Following the intervention period, both S + E and S increased 1RM strength, thigh muscle cross-sectional area, and squat jump performance (p < 0.05), and the relative improvements in S were greater than in S + E (p < 0.05). S increased peak RFD while S + E did not, and this improvement was greater than in S + E (p < 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first controlled study to demonstrate that the strength training response on muscle hypertrophy, 1RM strength, squat jump performance, and peak RFD is attenuated in well-trained endurance athletes during a period of concurrent endurance training.

  7. Effect of block-periodized exercise training on bone and coronary heart disease risk factors in early post-menopausal women: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, W; Bebenek, M; von Stengel, S; Engelke, K; Kalender, W A

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this 12 month randomized exercise intervention was to determine the effect of a block-periodized multipurpose exercise program on bone mineral density (BMD) and parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in early post-menopausal women. Eighty-five subjects (52.3 ± 2.4 years) living in the area of Erlangen (Germany) were randomly assigned into an exercise (EG, n=43) or a wellness-control group (CG: n=42). The EG performed a periodized multipurpose exercise program with 4-6-week blocks of high-intensity bone-specific exercise intermitted by 10-12 weeks of exercise dedicated to increase endurance and reduce cardiac and metabolic risk factors. The CG performed a low-volume/low-intensity "wellness" program to increase well-being. After 12 months, significant exercise effects were observed for the lumbar spine (LS) BMD as assessed by quantitative computed tomography [total BMD (EG: -0.3 ± 2.1% vs CG: -2.1 ± 2.2%, P=0.015); trabecular BMD (EG: -0.7 ± 3.4% vs CG: -4.7 ± 4.9%, P=0.001) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (EG: -0.1 ± 2.2% vs CG: -2.0 ± 2.0%, P=0.002)]. However, no significant effects were observed for total hip BMD as assessed by DXA (P=0.152). Although all MetS parameters were favorably affected among the EG, only the effect for waist circumference was significant. In summary, short periods of bone-specific intervention embedded in longer periods of exercises dedicated to improve cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors positively affected BMD at the LS.

  8. Changes of Achilles tendon properties via 12-week PNF based robotic rehabilitation of ankle joints with spasticity and/or contracture.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhihao; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Ninghua; Gao, Fan; Wang, Long; Wei, Kunlin; Wang, Qining

    2014-01-01

    Ankle joint with spasticity and/or contracture can severely affect mobility and independence of stroke survivors. Due to that, the Achilles tendon(AT) is affected. In this paper, we aim to study changes of AT properties via proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) treatment. A robotic ankle-foot rehabilitation system has been proposed, which consists of a robotic ankle-foot platform and a graphic user interface. In this pilot study, two post-stroke patients participated and carried out a 12-week PNF treatment with the robotic system. The treatment is evaluated quantitatively in AT properties. The evaluation shows that after the PNF treatment, the average decrease of AT length is 4.1 mm (6.5%) and the recovery ratio is 30.4%, while the thickness has no change. The results indicate that the PNF based robotic rehabilitation for ankle joints with spasticity and/or contracture is effective to improve the ankle spasticity/contracture.

  9. Evaluating the time limit at maximum aerobic speed in elite swimmers. Training implications.

    PubMed

    Renoux, J C

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to make use of the concepts of maximum aerobic speed (MAS) and time limit (tlim) in order to determine the relationship between these two elements, and this in an attempt to significantly improve both speed and swimming performance during a training season. To this same end, an intermittent training model was used, which was adapted to the value obtained for the time limit at maximum aerobic speed. During a 12 week training period, the maximum aerobic speed for a group of 9 top-ranking varsity swimmers was measured on two occasions, as was the tlim. The values generated indicated that: 1) there was an inverse relationship between MAS and the time this speed could be maintained, thus confirming the studies by Billat et al. (1994b); 2) a significant increase in MAS occurred over the 12 week period, although no such evolution was seen for the tlim; 3) there was an improvement in results; 4) the time limit could be used in designing a training program based on intermittent exercises. In addition, results of the present study should allow swimming coaches to draw up individualized training programs for a given swimmer by taking into consideration maximum aerobic speed, time limit and propelling efficiency.

  10. Concentration- and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Clewell, H J; Thomas, R S; Kenyon, E M; Hughes, M F; Adair, B M; Gentry, P R; Yager, J W

    2011-10-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As(i)) is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to As(i) in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concentrations of 0.5, 2, 10, and 50 mg As/l. Urinary bladders were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. A consistent reversal was observed in the direction of gene expression change: from predominantly decreased expression at 1 week to predominantly increased expression at 12 weeks. These results are consistent with evidence from in vitro studies of an acute adaptive response that is suppressed on longer exposure due to downregulation of Fos. Pathways with the highest enrichment in gene expression changes were associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and proliferation. Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis determined that the lowest median BMD values for pathways were above 5 mg As/l, despite the fact that pathway enrichment was observed at the 0.5 mg As/l exposure concentration. This disparity may result from the nonmonotonic nature of the concentration-responses for the expression changes of a number of genes, as evidenced by the much fewer gene expression changes at 2 mg As/l compared with lower or higher concentrations. Pathway categories with concentration-related gene expression changes included cellular morphogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis/survival, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. The results of this study provide evidence of a concentration-dependent transition in the mode of action for the subchronic effects of As(i) in mouse bladder cells in the vicinity of 2 mg As(i)/l.

  11. Asenapine as adjunctive treatment for acute mania associated with bipolar disorder: results of a 12-week core study and 40-week extension.

    PubMed

    Szegedi, Armin; Calabrese, Joseph R; Stet, Let; Mackle, Mary; Zhao, Jun; Panagides, John

    2012-02-01

    In a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjunctive asenapine, bipolar I disorder patients experiencing manic or mixed episodes despite pretreatment with lithium or valproate monotherapy were treated with flexible-dose, twice-daily asenapine 5 or 10 mg (n = 158) or placebo (n = 166). The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score at week 3. Secondary outcomes included YMRS response and remission and Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score changes. Patients completing the core study were eligible for a 40-week double-blind extension assessing safety and tolerability. Adjunctive asenapine significantly improved mania versus placebo at week 3 (primary end point) and weeks 2 to 12. The YMRS response rates were similar at week 3 but significantly better with asenapine at week 12. The YMRS remission rates and changes from baseline on Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder for mania and overall illness were significantly better with asenapine at weeks 3 and 12. No other statistically significant differences on secondary outcomes were observed. Only a small number of patients entered the extension, making firm statistical conclusions on efficacy difficult. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by 5% or more of asenapine patients and at twice the incidence of placebo were sedation, somnolence, depression/depressive symptoms, oral hypoesthesia, and increased weight in the 12-week core study. Adjunctive asenapine to lithium or valproate was more effective than mood stabilizer monotherapy in the core study and was well tolerated for up to 52 weeks.

  12. Adding Memantine to Rivastigmine Therapy in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a 12-Week, Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riepe, Matthias W.; Adler, Georg; Ibach, Bernd; Weinkauf, Birgit; Gunay, Ibrahim; Tracik, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    Objective: At present, inhibition of cholines-terase is the treatment of choice for subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, is currently used to treat subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. The goal of this multicenter, open-label pilot study was to investigate whether combination therapy with memantine added to rivastigmine is safe and beneficial in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. Method: Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (N = 95), who were treated with rivastigmine (6–12 mg/day) for a maximum duration of 24 weeks prior to baseline, received memantine (5–20 mg/day) in combination with rivastigmine for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) total score at the end of 12 weeks compared with baseline. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and May 27, 2004. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and week 12 for the ADAS-cog total score, showing a positive effect of combination therapy. Combination therapy did not evidence any unexpected safety concerns and was well-tolerated by most patients. Conclusion: Memantine in combination with rivastigmine appears to be safe and beneficial in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. Our results need to be confirmed in a large, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PMID:17235381

  13. Periodization Training Focused on Technical-Tactical Ability in Young Soccer Players Positively Affects Biochemical Markers and Game Performance.

    PubMed

    L Q T Aquino, Rodrigo; Cruz Gonçalves, Luiz G; Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; Oliveira, Lucas P; Alves, Guilherme F; Pereira Santiago, Paulo R; Puggina, Enrico F

    2016-10-01

    Aquino, RLQT, Cruz Gonçalves, LG, Palucci Vieira, LH, Oliveira, LP, Alves, GF, Pereira Santiago, PR, and Puggina, EF. Periodization training focused on technical-tactical ability in young soccer players positively affects biochemical markers and game performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2723-2732, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 22 weeks of periodized training, with an emphasis on technical-tactical ability, on indirect markers of muscle damage, and the on-field performance of young soccer players. Fifteen players (age 15.4 ± 0.2 years, height 172.8 ± 3.6 cm; body mass 61.9 ± 2.9 kg; % fat 11.7 ± 1.6; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 48.67 ± 3.24 ml·kg·min) underwent 4 stages of evaluation: prepreparatory stage-T0; postpreparatory stage-T1; postcompetitive stage I-T2 and; postcompetitive stage II-T3. The plasmatic activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated, as well as the on-field performance (movement patterns, tactical variables). Regarding the plasmatic activity of CK and LDH, there was a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the periodization training (T0: 350 U·L; T3: 150 U·L). Significant increases were observed (p ≤ 0.05) in the intensity of the game, high-intensity activities (HIA) (T0: 22%; T3: 27%), maximum speed (T0: 30 km·h; T3: 34 km·h) and tactical performance, team surface area (T0: 515 m; T3: 683 m), and spread (T0: 130 m; T3: 148 m). In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between the percentage variation of T0 to T3 in CK and LDH activities with percentage variation in high-intensity running (r = -0.85; p ≤ 0.05 and r = -0.84; p < 0.01, respectively) and HIA (r = -0.71 and r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05, respectively) during the matches. We concluded that there was reduced activity in biochemical markers related to muscle damage, as well as increases in-game high-intensity performance and the tactical performance of the study participants. Furthermore

  14. Periodization Training Focused on Technical-Tactical Ability in Young Soccer Players Positively Affects Biochemical Markers and Game Performance.

    PubMed

    L Q T Aquino, Rodrigo; Cruz Gonçalves, Luiz G; Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; Oliveira, Lucas P; Alves, Guilherme F; Pereira Santiago, Paulo R; Puggina, Enrico F

    2016-10-01

    Aquino, RLQT, Cruz Gonçalves, LG, Palucci Vieira, LH, Oliveira, LP, Alves, GF, Pereira Santiago, PR, and Puggina, EF. Periodization training focused on technical-tactical ability in young soccer players positively affects biochemical markers and game performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2723-2732, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 22 weeks of periodized training, with an emphasis on technical-tactical ability, on indirect markers of muscle damage, and the on-field performance of young soccer players. Fifteen players (age 15.4 ± 0.2 years, height 172.8 ± 3.6 cm; body mass 61.9 ± 2.9 kg; % fat 11.7 ± 1.6; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 48.67 ± 3.24 ml·kg·min) underwent 4 stages of evaluation: prepreparatory stage-T0; postpreparatory stage-T1; postcompetitive stage I-T2 and; postcompetitive stage II-T3. The plasmatic activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated, as well as the on-field performance (movement patterns, tactical variables). Regarding the plasmatic activity of CK and LDH, there was a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the periodization training (T0: 350 U·L; T3: 150 U·L). Significant increases were observed (p ≤ 0.05) in the intensity of the game, high-intensity activities (HIA) (T0: 22%; T3: 27%), maximum speed (T0: 30 km·h; T3: 34 km·h) and tactical performance, team surface area (T0: 515 m; T3: 683 m), and spread (T0: 130 m; T3: 148 m). In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between the percentage variation of T0 to T3 in CK and LDH activities with percentage variation in high-intensity running (r = -0.85; p ≤ 0.05 and r = -0.84; p < 0.01, respectively) and HIA (r = -0.71 and r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05, respectively) during the matches. We concluded that there was reduced activity in biochemical markers related to muscle damage, as well as increases in-game high-intensity performance and the tactical performance of the study participants. Furthermore

  15. Strength gains after resistance training: the effect of stressful, negative life events.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, John B; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Elrod, Christopher C; Todd, Janice S

    2008-07-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of self-reported, stressful life events on strength gains after 12 weeks of resistance training. Participants were 135 undergraduates enrolled in weight training classes that met for 1.5 hours, two times per week. After a 2-week period to become familiar with weight training, participants completed the college version of the Adolescent Perceived Events Scale (APES), the Social Support Inventory, and one-repetition maximal lifts (1RM) for the bench press and squat. Maximal lifts were repeated after 12 weeks of training. Median splits for stress and social support were used to form groups. Results indicated that the low stress participants experienced a significantly greater increase in bench press and squat than their high stress counterparts. Strength gains were, however, unrelated to social support scores in either the low or high stress group. High life stress may lessen a person's ability to adapt to weight training. It may benefit coaches to monitor their athletes' stress both within and outside the training setting to maximize their recovery and adaptation.

  16. Computational Approaches for Analyzing Tradeoffs between Training and Aiding. Final Technical Paper for Period February-December 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, William B.; Johnson, William B.

    A methodological framework is presented for representing tradeoffs among alternative combinations of training and aiding for personnel in complex situations. In general, more highly trained people need less aid, and those with less training need more aid. Balancing training and aiding to accomplish the objectives of the system in a cost effective…

  17. A review of 187 gunshot wound admissions to a teaching hospital over a 54-month period: training and service implications.

    PubMed Central

    Cowey, A.; Mitchell, P.; Gregory, J.; Maclennan, I.; Pearson, R.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Violence involving the use of firearms has increased in the UK over the past decade. This study assesses the implications of such injuries for service provision and training by reviewing the experience at one hospital. METHODS: Accident and emergency triage data were searched for patients presenting with gunshot wounds over a 54-month period. Case notes were reviewed and patterns of care established. The resources required for clinical management were ascertained, and the financial consequences determined at contemporary full cost. RESULTS: There were 187 attendances with 247 wounds. Mean age was 21 years (range, 8-63 years). Of the attendances, 69% were out of normal working hours. Of the 187 cases, 97 patients were admitted to one hospital (83 of whom required surgery) and 10 patients were transferred to other hospitals (6 for plastic surgery not available at the Manchester Royal Infirmary and 4 due to lack of beds). Of the 80 patients who were not admitted, 4 died in accident and emergency, the rest were either air gun wounds or relatively simple higher calibre injuries. A wide range of surgical specialties was involved (limb injury, 53; thoraco-abdominal and vascular, 28; head and neck, 5; and orbit, 2), and combinations of injuries transgressed specialty and sub-specialty boundaries. The total cost of patient care was pound 267,000. CONCLUSIONS: Gunshot wounds present a heavy demand on the clinical and financial resources of the receiving hospital, and surgeons responsible for unselected acute admissions in "general surgery" should be capable of dealing with these indiscriminate injuries. Current training and service trends towards increasing sub-specialisation may mitigate against them achieving or retaining this capability. PMID:15005928

  18. Conversion of an electromagnetic wave into a periodic train of solitons under cyclotron resonance interaction with a backward beam of unexcited electron-oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zotova, I V; Ginzburg, N S; Sergeev, A S; Kocharovskaya, E R; Zaslavsky, V Yu

    2014-10-01

    The possibility of the conversion of intense continuous microwave radiation into a periodic train of short pulses by means of resonant interaction with a beam of unexcited cyclotron electron oscillators moving backward is shown. In such a system there is a certain range of parameters where the incident stationary signal splits into a train of short pulses and each of them can be interpreted as a soliton. It is proposed to use this effect for amplitude modulation of radiation of short wavelength gyrotrons.

  19. Conversion of an Electromagnetic Wave into a Periodic Train of Solitons under Cyclotron Resonance Interaction with a Backward Beam of Unexcited Electron-Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotova, I. V.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Sergeev, A. S.; Kocharovskaya, E. R.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.

    2014-10-01

    The possibility of the conversion of intense continuous microwave radiation into a periodic train of short pulses by means of resonant interaction with a beam of unexcited cyclotron electron oscillators moving backward is shown. In such a system there is a certain range of parameters where the incident stationary signal splits into a train of short pulses and each of them can be interpreted as a soliton. It is proposed to use this effect for amplitude modulation of radiation of short wavelength gyrotrons.

  20. Bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension previously treated with latanoprost: two randomized 12-week trials

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan S; Vold, Steven; Zaman, Fiaz; Williams, Julia M; Hollander, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Methods Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ≥20 mmHg after ≥30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily). Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03%) are presented. Results Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean) was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957). In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean) reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001), ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0%) mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8%) mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia of mild or greater severity increased from latanoprost baseline after 12 weeks of treatment only in the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arm. Conclusion Many patients who do not reach their target IOP on latanoprost can achieve additional IOP

  1. Comparison of high and moderate intensity of strength training on mood and anxiety in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, T; Don, B M; Zaichkowsky, L D; Takenaka, K; Oka, K; Ohno, T

    1998-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the psychological benefits of anaerobic exercise for older adults. Specifically, strength training was employed to examine the effects on mood and anxiety in a group of healthy but sedentary older women. 36 women (mean age = 68.5 yr.) were randomly assigned to groups given high intensity or moderate intensity strength training or to a control group. Strength training was conducted three days a week for 12 weeks. After the training period, both high and moderate strength-training programs produced marked improvements in muscle strength and body composition compared to the control subjects. The average improvements in the high and moderate intensity strength-training groups for muscle strength were 40.5 and 35.5%, respectively, and for percent body fat 1.52 and 2.50%, respectively. As for psychological changes, both training groups significantly improved positive mood (vigor), and the moderate intensity group significantly reduced trait anxiety compared to means of the control group. Also, both training groups showed some decrease in tension and state anxiety after the training period. These findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of anaerobic training to enhance perception of psychological well-being in older women. A moderate intensity rather than high intensity of training regimen may be more beneficial for sedentary older women to improve psychological health.

  2. Motivation and ability to walk for a food reward in fast- and slow-growing broilers to 12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, Eddie A M; Koene, Paul

    2004-09-30

    Poor physical abilities of broilers may prevent them from performing behaviours for which they are motivated. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of physical ability and motivation on the performance of broilers in short physical tasks. We tested birds from a fast- and a slow-growing broiler strain in a runway to 12 weeks of age. To manipulate motivation, half of the birds of each strain was feed deprived for 3h and the other half for 24h before testing. Each bird was tested in a control and a slalom runway test once a week. With a similar motivation, slow growers had a shorter latency to start walking and walked faster through the runway than fast growers in both tests. In fast growers walking speed decreased faster with age than in slow growers. Slow growers vocalised more in both tests. In the slalom test, 24h deprived birds vocalised more than 3h deprived birds. Although the fast and slow growers have a different genetic background, the results indicated that motivation is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a low body weight, while physical ability is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a high body weight.

  3. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24611630

  4. A 12-week placebo-controlled double-blind study of prazosin in the treatment of prostatic obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chapple, C R; Stott, M; Abrams, P H; Christmas, T J; Milroy, E J

    1992-09-01

    A series of 93 normotensive patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and maximum urinary flow rates < 15 ml/s, treated at 2 hospital centres using an identical protocol, was randomly assigned to receive a 12-week course of treatment with prazosin or placebo in a double-blind parallel group trial. A total of 75 patients completed the study and were suitable for the final analysis. Prazosin was administered orally in doses of 0.5 mg and then 1 mg twice daily for 4 days and 2 mg twice daily for the remainder of the trial. Patients on treatment with prazosin exhibited a significantly increased maximum urinary flow rate as compared with placebo, with a significant reduction in maximum voiding detrusor pressure. Prazosin therapy did not produce a significant effect on either frequency or standard parameters of detrusor instability. A double-blind overall assessment of drug efficacy and tolerance significantly favoured prazosin therapy. A total of 30 patients receiving prazosin and 28 receiving placebo reported varied adverse effects. Eighteen patients were excluded from the final analysis, 10 being withdrawn because of adverse effects, 7 on treatment with prazosin and 3 in the placebo group. In long-term usage oral prazosin was well tolerated and appeared to improve obstructed voiding in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  5. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.

  6. A study of the distribution of color Doppler flows in the superficial digital flexor tendon of young Thoroughbreds during their training periods

    PubMed Central

    HATAZOE, Takashi; ENDO, Yoshiro; IWAMOTO, Yohei; KOROSUE, Kenji; KURODA, Taisuke; INOUE, Saemi; MURATA, Daiki; HOBO, Seiji; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of exercise and tendon injury with Doppler flows appearing in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of young Thoroughbreds during training periods. The forelimb SDFTs of 24 one- to two-year-old Thoroughbreds clinically free of any orthopaedic disorders were evaluated using grey-scale (GS) and color Doppler (CD) images during two training periods between December 2013 to April 2015. Twelve horses per year were examined in December, February, and April in training periods that began in September and ended in April. The SDFT was evaluated in 3 longitudinal images of equal lengths (labelled 1, 2, 3 in order from proximal to distal), and 6 transversal images separated by equal lengths (labelled 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B in order from proximal to distal) of the metacarpus using both GS and CD. The running (canter and gallop) distance for 1 month before the date of the ultrasonographic examinations was increased in December, February, and April in both of the two training periods. CD flows defined as rhythmically blinking or pulsatory colored signals were found in 56 of 864 (6.4%) transversal CD images, in 28, 12, 13, and 3 images of 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B, respectively, and in 7, 14, and 35 images captured in December, February, and April, respectively. There were no longitudinal or transversal GS images indicating injury in the SDFTs in either of the two training periods. The increase of CD flows in the proximal regions of the SDFT are possibly related to the increase of the running distance during the training periods of the one- to two-year-old Thoroughbreds. Because no injury was diagnosed in the SDFTs by GS images during the training periods, the increase of CD flows in the proximal parts of SDFT is not necessarily predictive of tendon injury in the near future during the training period of young Thoroughbreds. PMID:26858574

  7. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  8. Knee Muscles Isokinetic Evaluation after a Six-Month Regular Combined Swim and Dry-Land Strength Training Period in Adolescent Competitive Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Manou, Vasiliki; Christoulas, Kosmas; Kellis, Spiros

    2015-12-22

    Previous studies demonstrated significant increases in the shoulder internal rotators' peak torque values and unilateral muscular imbalances of the shoulder rotators after a competitive swim period. However, there are no similar data concerning the knee muscles. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a six-month training period on knee flexor and extensor peak torque values, examine a possible bilateral strength deficit and evaluate the unilateral strength balance in competitive swimmers. Eleven male adolescent swimmers (age: 14.82 ± 0.45 years) were tested for concentric knee extension and flexion peak torque (60°/s) with an isokinetic dynamometer, before and after a regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period. A trend towards greater improvements in the knee extensor compared to flexor muscles peak torque was observed. Furthermore, the bilateral strength deficit remained almost unchanged, whereas unilateral strength imbalance was increased for both limbs. However, all results were non-significant (p > 0.05). According to the data presented, a six-month regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period caused non-significant alterations for all the parameters evaluated during isokinetic testing. This study highlights the fact that competitive adolescent swimmers demonstrated unilateral knee strength imbalances throughout a long period of their yearly training macrocycle. PMID:26839619

  9. Knee Muscles Isokinetic Evaluation after a Six-Month Regular Combined Swim and Dry-Land Strength Training Period in Adolescent Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A.; Manou, Vasiliki; Christoulas, Kosmas; Kellis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated significant increases in the shoulder internal rotators’ peak torque values and unilateral muscular imbalances of the shoulder rotators after a competitive swim period. However, there are no similar data concerning the knee muscles. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a six-month training period on knee flexor and extensor peak torque values, examine a possible bilateral strength deficit and evaluate the unilateral strength balance in competitive swimmers. Eleven male adolescent swimmers (age: 14.82 ± 0.45 years) were tested for concentric knee extension and flexion peak torque (60°/s) with an isokinetic dynamometer, before and after a regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period. A trend towards greater improvements in the knee extensor compared to flexor muscles peak torque was observed. Furthermore, the bilateral strength deficit remained almost unchanged, whereas unilateral strength imbalance was increased for both limbs. However, all results were non-significant (p > 0.05). According to the data presented, a six-month regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period caused non-significant alterations for all the parameters evaluated during isokinetic testing. This study highlights the fact that competitive adolescent swimmers demonstrated unilateral knee strength imbalances throughout a long period of their yearly training macrocycle. PMID:26839619

  10. Onion peel extract reduces the percentage of body fat in overweight and obese subjects: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The anti-obesity effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) was suggested in rats, but information from human studies is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of OPE on the body composition of overweight and obese subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, parallel clinical trials were performed in overweight and obese Korean subjects. Randomly assigned subjects were instructed to take daily either the placebo (male, 6 and female, 30) or OPE capsules containing 100 mg of quercetin (male, 5 and female, 31). Body composition was measured by using bioimpedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were evaluated by using indirect calorie measurement methods. Fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and leptin were determined. RESULTS Quercetin-rich OPE supplementation significantly reduced the weight and percentage of body fat as measured by DXA (P = 0.02). These effects were not shown in the control group. Levels of blood glucose (P = 0.04) and leptin (P = 0.001 for placebo, P = 0.002 for OPE) decreased in both groups. Significant increases in REE and RQ were observed in both groups (P = 0.003 for placebo, P = 0.006 for OPE) and in the OPE group alone (P = 0.02), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Quercetin-rich OPE supplementation changed the body composition of the overweight and obese subjects. This result suggests a beneficial role of the anti-obesity effect of OPE human subjects. PMID:27087901

  11. Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib as monotherapy in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-week, randomized, phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshiya; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Toyoizumi, Shigeyuki; Zwillich, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To evaluate oral tofacitinib versus placebo for treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis in Japanese patients with inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group, 12-week, phase 2 study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00687193), 317 patients received tofacitinib: 1, 3, 5, 10, or 15 mg as monotherapy or placebo twice daily (BID). Primary endpoint: response rate by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) ≥ 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) at week 12. Results. ACR20 response rates: 37.7% (20/53), 67.9% (36/53), 73.1% (38/52), 84.9% (45/53), and 90.7% (49/54) with tofacitinib: 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg BID, respectively, versus 15.4% (8/52) with placebo (p < 0.01; all doses). Dose-dependent ACR20 responses with tofacitinib versus placebo occurred from week 2 onward (p < 0.05). Changes from baseline in 28-joint disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate improved with tofacitinib versus placebo from week 4 (p < 0.01; all doses). Six tofacitinib patients experienced treatment-related serious adverse events (AEs). Most common treatment-emergent AEs: nasopharyngitis (10% vs 12%) and hyperlipidemia (5% vs 0%). Serum creatinine, hemoglobin, and total-, low-, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased with tofacitinib. Conclusions. Tofacitinib produced dose-dependent ACR20 responses and reduced disease activity. The safety profile was consistent with that reported from global monotherapy trials. PMID:25496464

  12. Investigation of Peri-Implant Bone Healing Using Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Canine Mandible After 12 Weeks: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Birang, Reza; Tavakoli, Mohammad; Shahabouei, Mohammad; Torabi, Alireza; Dargahi, Ali; Soolari, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Faster reconstruction of patients’ masticatory systems is the aim of modern dentistry. A number of studies have indicated that application of growth factors to the surface of a dental implant leads to accelerated and enhanced osseointegration. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma rich in growth factors on peri-implant bone healing. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, two healthy, mixed-breed canines were selected, and the premolars were extracted from both sides of the mandible. Three months after premolar removal, 12 implants, each 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, were placed in osteotomy sites on both sides of the mandible. Prior to placement, plasma rich in growth factors was applied to the surfaces of six implants, while the other six were used without plasma rich in growth factors. The implants were removed after 12 weeks along with the bone surrounding the sites using a trephine bur. One mesiodistal section containing the surrounding bone from each implant block, 50 µm in diameter, was prepared for histologic and histomorphometric investigation with an optical microscope. Results: The sites with implants treated with plasma rich in growth factors showed more bone-to-implant contact compared to control sites. Also, higher values for bone trabecular thickness and bone maturity were recorded for the PRGF-treated sites than for the control sites. Conclusion: Application of plasma rich in growth factors to the surface of an implant may enhance the bone healing process as well as bone-to-implant contact, thereby helping to achieve faster osseointegration. PMID:22145011

  13. 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of add-on riluzole in the treatment of childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul J; Joseph, Lisa A; Farmer, Cristan A; Luckenbaugh, David A; Lougee, Lorraine C; Zarate, Carlos A; Swedo, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    Many children with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to respond adequately to standard therapies. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system might be an alternative treatment target. This study examined the efficacy of riluzole, a glutamatergic modulator, as an adjunctive therapy for children with treatment-resistant OCD. In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 treatment-resistant children and adolescents (mean age=14.5 ± 2.4 years), with moderate to severe OCD (mean Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS)=28.2 ± 3.7), 17 of whom also had concomitant autism spectrum disorder, were randomized to receive riluzole (final dose of 100 mg/day) or placebo in addition to the existing treatment regimen. Fifty-nine subjects completed the randomized trial. Primary outcome measures were changes on the CY-BOCS, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Riluzole was fairly well tolerated, although it was associated with one case of pancreatitis and five instances of slight increases in transaminases. All subjects showed significant reductions in CY-BOCS scores during treatment; however, there was no significant difference between placebo and riluzole on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. The study failed to demonstrate superiority of riluzole over placebo as an adjunctive treatment for children with childhood-onset OCD. However, future studies may show benefits for less treatment-refractory children with fewer concomitant medications.

  14. Training Tactical Decision-Making Skills: An Emerging Technology. Final Technical Report for Period November 1986-April 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecke, Fritz H.; Young, Michael J.

    Training in decision-making skills directly contributes to the combat readiness of Battle Staff Officers. More affordable, accessible, and effective training technologies are required to supplement the Command Post Exercises currently in use. This is the final report for a 3-year research and development (R&D) effort aimed toward development of…

  15. Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training: Automatic Instructional System. Final Report for the Period March 1971-January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faconti, Victor; Epps, Robert

    The Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) was designed to investigate the role of simulation in the future Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) program. The Automated Instructional System designed for the ASUPT simulator was described in this report. The development of the Automated Instructional System for ASUPT was based upon…

  16. Development of a Screening Methodology for Entry into Medical Technical Training Courses. Final Report for Period October 1975-April 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisey, Sandra A.; Guinn, Nancy

    At the request of the Air Force School of Aviation Medicine, a project was initiated to evaluate the current screening process used for entry into three medical technical training courses: Aeromedical Specialist, Environmental Health Specialist, and Physiological Training Specialist. A sample of 1,003 students were administered the General…

  17. Contributions of Platform Motion to Simulator Training Effectiveness: Study II--Aerobatics. Interim Report for Period March 1976-November 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth L.; Waag, Wayne L.

    A transfer-of-training design was used to evaluate the contributions of simulator training with synergistic six-degrees-of-freedom platform motion to aerobatic skills acquisition in the novice pilot. Thirty-six undergraduate pilot trainees were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: motion, no-motion, and control. Those in the control…

  18. An Open-Label Trial of 12-Week Simeprevir plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin (PR) in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 1 (GT1)

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Moreno, Christophe; Sarrazin, Christoph; Gschwantler, Michael; Foster, Graham R.; Craxí, Antonio; Buggisch, Peter; Ryan, Robert; Lenz, Oliver; Scott, Jane; Van Dooren, Gino; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle; Schlag, Michael; Buti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortening duration of peginterferon-based HCV treatment reduces associated burden for patients. Primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy against the minimally acceptable response rate 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and safety of simeprevir plus PR in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks. Additional objectives included the investigation of potential associations of rapid viral response and baseline factors with SVR12. Methods In this Phase III, open-label study in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients with F0–F2 fibrosis, patients with HCV-RNA <25 IU/mL (detectable/undetectable) at Week 2, and undetectable HCV-RNA at Weeks 4 and 8, stopped all treatment at Week 12. All other patients continued PR for a further 12 weeks. Baseline factors significantly associated with SVR12 were identified through logistic regression. Results Of 163 patients who participated in the study, 123 (75%) qualified for 12-week treatment; of these, 81 (66%) achieved SVR12. Baseline factors positively associated with SVR12 rates in patients receiving the 12-week regimen were: IL28B CC genotype: (94% SVR12); HCV RNA ≤800,000 IU/mL (82%); F0–F1 fibrosis (74%). Among all 163 patients, 94% experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE), 4% a serious AE, and 2.5% discontinued due to an AE. Reduced impairment in patient-reported outcomes was observed in the 12-week vs >12-week regimen. Conclusions Overall SVR12 rate (66%) was below the target of 80%, indicating that shortening of treatment with simeprevir plus PR to 12 weeks based on very early response is not effective. However, baseline factors associated with higher SVR12 rates were identified. Therefore, while Week 2 response alone is insufficient to predict efficacy, GT1 patients with favourable baseline factors may benefit from a shortened simeprevir plus PR regimen. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01846832 PMID:27428331

  19. Effect of ginger powder supplementation on nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in elderly knee osteoarthritis patients: A 12-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Zahra; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Dehghan, Ali; Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh; Huseini, Hassan Fallah

    2016-07-01

    There is limited evidence that ginger ( shēng jiāng) powder consumption can relieve pain and inflammation because of its special phytochemical properties. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of ginger powder supplementation on some inflammatory markers in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. This is a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial with a follow-up period of 3 months that was conducted on 120 outpatients with moderately painful knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomly divided up into two groups: ginger group (GG) or placebo group (PG). Both groups received two identical capsules on a daily basis for 3 months. Each ginger capsule contained 500 mg of ginger powder; the placebo capsules had 500 mg of starch in them. Serum samples were collected prior to and after the intervention and were stored at -70 °C until the end of the study. Serum concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and hs-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of inflammatory markers (i.e., NO and hs-CRP) prior to the intervention. However, after 3 months of supplementation, serum concentration of NO and hs-CRP decreased in the GG. After 12 weeks, the concentration of these markers declined more in the GG than in the PG. Ginger powder supplementation at a dose of 1 g/d can reduce inflammatory markers in patients with knee osteoarthritis, and it thus can be recommended as a suitable supplement for these patients. PMID:27419081

  20. Comparison of creatine supplementation before versus after supervised resistance training in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G; Zello, Gordon A; Ling, Binbing; Farthing, Jonathan P; Chilibeck, Philip D; McLeod, Katherine; Harris, Jonathan; Johnson, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of creatine supplementation (CR) before vs. after supervised resistance training (RT) in healthy older adults. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: CR-Before (0.1g•kg(-1) creatine before + 0.1g•kg(-1) placebo [rice flour] after RT, n = 11) or CR-After (placebo before + creatine after RT, n = 11). Resistance training (RT) was performed 3 days/week, on nonconsecutive days, for 12 weeks. Prior to and following the study, measures were taken for body composition, maximum strength, muscle protein catabolism, and kidney function. Over the 12-week training period, both groups experienced a significant increase in whole-body lean tissue mass, limb muscle thickness, and upper and lower body strength and a decrease in muscle protein catabolism (p < 0.001), with no differences between groups. There was no change in kidney function over time. Changes in muscle mass or strength are similar when creatine is ingested before or after supervised resistance training in older adults.

  1. Linear and undulating periodized strength plus aerobic training promote similar benefits and lead to improvement of insulin resistance on obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daniela Sayuri; De Mello, Marco Túlio; Foschini, Denis; Lira, Fabio Santos; De Piano Ganen, Aline; Da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; De Lima Sanches, Priscila; Silva, Patrícia Leão; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2015-03-01

    The present study compares the effectiveness of three types of physical training for obesity control in adolescents submitted to a long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Forty-five post-puberty obese adolescents (15-18yo) were randomly placed in three different groups of physical trainings: aerobic training (AT n=20), aerobic plus strength training with linear periodization (LP n=13) and aerobic plus strength training with daily undulating periodization (DUP n=12). The body composition was evaluated by air-displacement plethysmography; the rest metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry; serum analysis was collected after an overnight fasting. The most important finding of this study was that both LP and DUP groups improved lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and adiponectin concentration (p<0.01). The linear regression showed a negative association between delta (%) adiponectin and delta (%) insulin (p<0.05). Each group presented a significant reduction in body mass, body mass index and fat mass (kg) after short and long-term intervention (p<0.01). However, the AT group reduced the fat-free mass after short-term intervention (p<0.01) and enhanced protein oxidation (p<0.01), whereas only LP group was able to increase the fat-free mass and maintain the rest metabolic rate (RMR). There was a negative correlation between percentage of protein oxidation and RMR (r=-0.75) in all groups. The interdisciplinary therapy models that included aerobic plus strength training were more effective than only aerobic training to improve lipid profile and insulin sensitivity, as well as the inflammatory state by increasing adiponectin. In all groups were observed an improvement on anthropometric profile.

  2. A Computerized Evaluation and Training System (CETS) for Recruit Training Commands: An Overview. Final Report, for Period January 1977-September 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiwes, Arthur S.; Weller, Dennis R.

    A synopsis is provided of a 6-year research and development effort to investigate the feasibility and desirability of using computer assistance to improve leadership and management practices at RTCs (Recruit Training Commands). Information has been derived on the suitability of two computer systems and various approaches for employing these…

  3. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Morten; Gundersen, Hilde; Leirdal, Stig; Iversen, Vegard V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence, and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists [age: 47 ± 6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 57.9 ± 3.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1] were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate [73–82% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] interval training (5 × 6 min) with a cadence of 40 revolutions per min (rpm) two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 min of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency, or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9 ± 2.4 vs. 62.2 ± 3.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1), VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ± 3.8 vs. 51.8 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1) and during the 30 min performance test (52.8 ± 3.0 vs. 54.7 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1), and power output at lactate threshold (284 ± 47 vs. 294 ± 48 W) and during the 30 min performance test (284 ± 42 vs. 297 ± 50 W). Moreover, a significant difference was seen when comparing the change in freely chosen cadence from pre- to post between the groups during the 30 min performance test (2.4 ± 5.0 vs. −2.7 ± 6.2). Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm) interval training at moderate intensity (73–82% of HRmax) twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists

  4. Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on the modulation of the immune response in basketball players during the training period.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Chen, Chiao-Ming; Hu, Shene-Pin; Kan, Nai-Wen; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) on the immune response and the modulation of that response in 15 basketball players during a training period. They completed the 7-week study consisted of a run-in period (week 1), a PSPLs diet (200 g PSPLs/d; weeks 2, 3), a washout period (weeks 4, 5), and a control diet (low polyphenols content and carotenoid content adjusted to the same level as that of PSPLs diet; weeks 6 and 7). Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The results showed that the plasma polyphenols concentration increased significantly in the PSPLs period. Compared with the control period, the PSPLs consumption produced a significant increase in the proliferation responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), cytotoxic activity of nature killer (NK) cells, and secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma. However, no significant increase in the secretion of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA), interleukin (IL)-2, or interleukin-4 was observed after PSPLs consumption. In conclusion, consumption of a PSPLs diet for 2 weeks can modulate the immune response of basketball players during a training period.

  5. Differences between men and women in dietary intakes and metabolic profile in response to a 12-week nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Vicky; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Bégin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared men and women in response to nutritional interventions but none has assessed differences between men and women in the response to a nutritional intervention programme based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and using the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) as a model of healthy eating, in a context of CVD prevention and within a non-Mediterranean population. The present study aimed to document differences between men and women in changes in dietary, anthropometric and metabolic variables, in response to a nutritional intervention programme promoting the adoption of the MedDiet and based on the SDT. A total of sixty-four men and fifty-nine premenopausal women presenting risk factors for CVD were recruited through different media advertisements in the Québec City Metropolitan area (Canada). The 12-week nutritional programme used a motivational interviewing approach and included individual and group sessions. A validated FFQ was administered to evaluate dietary intakes from which a Mediterranean score (Medscore) was derived. Both men and women significantly increased their Medscore in response to the intervention (P < 0·0001). Men showed a significantly greater decrease in red and processed meat (-0·4 (95 % CI -0·7, -0·1) portions per d) and a greater increase in fruit (0·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·6) portions per d) intakes than women. Significant decreases were observed for BMI and waist circumference in both men and women (P ≤ 0·04). Significant greater decreases were found for total cholesterol (total-C):HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·03) and TAG:HDL-C (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·04) ratios in men than in women. When adjusting for the baseline value of the response variable, differences between men and women became non-significant for red and processed meat and fruit intakes whereas significant differences between men and women (i.e. larger increases in men than women) were observed for legumes, nuts and seeds (0·6

  6. Differences between men and women in dietary intakes and metabolic profile in response to a 12-week nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Vicky; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Bégin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared men and women in response to nutritional interventions but none has assessed differences between men and women in the response to a nutritional intervention programme based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and using the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) as a model of healthy eating, in a context of CVD prevention and within a non-Mediterranean population. The present study aimed to document differences between men and women in changes in dietary, anthropometric and metabolic variables, in response to a nutritional intervention programme promoting the adoption of the MedDiet and based on the SDT. A total of sixty-four men and fifty-nine premenopausal women presenting risk factors for CVD were recruited through different media advertisements in the Québec City Metropolitan area (Canada). The 12-week nutritional programme used a motivational interviewing approach and included individual and group sessions. A validated FFQ was administered to evaluate dietary intakes from which a Mediterranean score (Medscore) was derived. Both men and women significantly increased their Medscore in response to the intervention (P < 0·0001). Men showed a significantly greater decrease in red and processed meat (-0·4 (95 % CI -0·7, -0·1) portions per d) and a greater increase in fruit (0·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·6) portions per d) intakes than women. Significant decreases were observed for BMI and waist circumference in both men and women (P ≤ 0·04). Significant greater decreases were found for total cholesterol (total-C):HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·03) and TAG:HDL-C (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·04) ratios in men than in women. When adjusting for the baseline value of the response variable, differences between men and women became non-significant for red and processed meat and fruit intakes whereas significant differences between men and women (i.e. larger increases in men than women) were observed for legumes, nuts and seeds (0·6

  7. The Effects of Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training Follow a Specific Detraining Cycle in Young School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Albano; Marinho, Daniel A.; Costa, Aldo M.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-week training period of strength training alone (GR), or combined strength and endurance training (GCOM), followed by 12-weeks of de-training (DT) on body composition, power strength and VO2max adaptations in a schooled group of adolescent girls. Methods: Sixty-seven healthy girls recruited from a Portuguese public high school (age: 13.5+1.03 years, from 7th and 9th grade) were divided into three experimental groups to train twice a week for 8 wks: GR (n=21), GCOM (n=25) and a control group (GC: n=21; no training program). Anthropometric parameters variables as well as performance variables (strength and aerobic fitness) were assessed. Results: No significant training-induced differences were observed in 1kg and 3kg medicine ball throw gains (2.7 to 10.8%) between GR and GCOM groups, whereas no significant changes were observed after a DT period in any of the experimental groups. Significant training-induced gains in CMVJ (8 to 12%) and CMSLJ (0.8 to 5.4%) were observed in the experimental groups. Time of 20m significantly decreased (GR: −11.5% and GCOM: −10%) after both treatment periods, whereas only the GR group kept the running speed after a DT period of 12 weeks. After training VO2max increased only slightly for GCOM (4.0%). No significant changes were observed after the DT period in all groups, except to GCOM in CMVJ and CMSLJ. Conclusion: Performing simultaneous strength and endurance training in the same workout does not appear to negatively influence power strength and aerobic fitness development in adolescent girls. Indeed, concurrent strength and endurance training seems to be an effective, well-rounded exercise program that can be prescribed as a means to improve initial or general strength in healthy school girls. De-training period was not sufficient to reduce the overall training effects. PMID:23487482

  8. Neonatal Bathing and Massage Intervention with Fathers, Behavioural Effects 12 Weeks after Birth of the First Baby: The Sunraysia Australia Intervention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Kim; Samuels, Curtis A.

    1992-01-01

    Examined the effect on father-infant relationships of a parent training program on infant massage and bathing. Infants in the treatment group greeted fathers with more eye contact, smiles, vocalizing, reaching, and orienting responses and showed less avoidance behavior than did control group infants. Fathers in the treatment group showed greater…

  9. Changes in Respiratory Parameters and Fin-Swimming Performance Following a 16-Week Training Period with Intermittent Breath Holding.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, Vasileios; Toubekis, Argyris G; Karetsi, Eleni

    2015-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training with intermittent breath holding (IBH) on respiratory parameters, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and performance. Twenty-eight fin-swimming athletes were randomly divided into two groups and followed the same training for 16 weeks. About 40% of the distance of each session was performed with self-selected breathing frequency (SBF group) or IBH (IBH group). Performance time of 50 and 400 m at maximum intensity was recorded and forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and SpO2 were measured before and after the 50 m test at baseline and post-training. Post-training, the respiratory parameters were increased in the IBH but remained unchanged in the SBF group (FEV1: 17 ±15% vs. -1 ±11%; FVC: 22 ±13% vs. 1 ±10%; PEF: 9 ±14% vs. -4 ±15%; p<0.05). Pre compared to post-training SpO2 was unchanged at baseline and decreased post-training following the 50 m test in both groups (p<0.05). The reduction was higher in the IBH compared to the SBF group (p<0.05). Performance in the 50 and 400 m tests improved in both groups, however, the improvement was greater in the IBH compared to the SBF group in both 50 and 400 m tests (p<0.05). The use of IBH is likely to enhance the load on the respiratory muscles, thus, contributing to improvement of the respiratory parameters. Decreased SpO2 after IBH is likely due to adaptation to hypoventilation. IBH favours performance improvement at 50 and 400 m fin-swimming. PMID:26839609

  10. Changes in Respiratory Parameters and Fin-Swimming Performance Following a 16-Week Training Period with Intermittent Breath Holding

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, Vasileios; Toubekis, Argyris G.; Karetsi, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training with intermittent breath holding (IBH) on respiratory parameters, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and performance. Twenty-eight fin-swimming athletes were randomly divided into two groups and followed the same training for 16 weeks. About 40% of the distance of each session was performed with self-selected breathing frequency (SBF group) or IBH (IBH group). Performance time of 50 and 400 m at maximum intensity was recorded and forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and SpO2 were measured before and after the 50 m test at baseline and post-training. Post-training, the respiratory parameters were increased in the IBH but remained unchanged in the SBF group (FEV1: 17 ±15% vs. −1 ±11%; FVC: 22 ±13% vs. 1 ±10%; PEF: 9 ±14% vs. −4 ±15%; p<0.05). Pre compared to post-training SpO2 was unchanged at baseline and decreased post-training following the 50 m test in both groups (p<0.05). The reduction was higher in the IBH compared to the SBF group (p<0.05). Performance in the 50 and 400 m tests improved in both groups, however, the improvement was greater in the IBH compared to the SBF group in both 50 and 400 m tests (p<0.05). The use of IBH is likely to enhance the load on the respiratory muscles, thus, contributing to improvement of the respiratory parameters. Decreased SpO2 after IBH is likely due to adaptation to hypoventilation. IBH favours performance improvement at 50 and 400 m fin-swimming. PMID:26839609

  11. Changes in Respiratory Parameters and Fin-Swimming Performance Following a 16-Week Training Period with Intermittent Breath Holding.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, Vasileios; Toubekis, Argyris G; Karetsi, Eleni

    2015-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training with intermittent breath holding (IBH) on respiratory parameters, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and performance. Twenty-eight fin-swimming athletes were randomly divided into two groups and followed the same training for 16 weeks. About 40% of the distance of each session was performed with self-selected breathing frequency (SBF group) or IBH (IBH group). Performance time of 50 and 400 m at maximum intensity was recorded and forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and SpO2 were measured before and after the 50 m test at baseline and post-training. Post-training, the respiratory parameters were increased in the IBH but remained unchanged in the SBF group (FEV1: 17 ±15% vs. -1 ±11%; FVC: 22 ±13% vs. 1 ±10%; PEF: 9 ±14% vs. -4 ±15%; p<0.05). Pre compared to post-training SpO2 was unchanged at baseline and decreased post-training following the 50 m test in both groups (p<0.05). The reduction was higher in the IBH compared to the SBF group (p<0.05). Performance in the 50 and 400 m tests improved in both groups, however, the improvement was greater in the IBH compared to the SBF group in both 50 and 400 m tests (p<0.05). The use of IBH is likely to enhance the load on the respiratory muscles, thus, contributing to improvement of the respiratory parameters. Decreased SpO2 after IBH is likely due to adaptation to hypoventilation. IBH favours performance improvement at 50 and 400 m fin-swimming.

  12. Incentive Motivation Techniques Evaluation in Air Force Technical Training. Final Report for Period June 1971-April 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Robert D.; And Others

    The report describes an 18-month research project at Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois, designed to evaluate the effectiveness of inceptive motivation techniques in Air Force technical training. The first phase of the research identified incentives. The findings were used in the second phase of the research which made these incentives contingent on…

  13. Systematic Training Program for Enhancing Learning Strategies and Skills: Further Development. Interim Report for Period March 1976-March 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Donald F.; And Others

    The purpose of this current research effort was to identify and validate the effectiveness of alternative learning strategies. Learners employing networking and interactive peer study substrategies achieved more than did no-treatment controls. Similarly, strategies-trained learners reported greater positive learning attitude changes than did…

  14. The Analytic Onion: Examining Training Issues from Different Levels of Analysis. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Theodore A.; Chin, Keric B. O.

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on different levels of analysis using the metaphor of the layers of an onion to help organize and structure thinking on research issues concerning training. It discusses the core of the "analytic onion," the biological level, and seven levels of analysis that surround that core: the individual, the…

  15. Instructor/Operator Station Design Handbook for Aircrew Training Devices. Final Technical Report for Period March 1982-December 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, H. D.

    Human engineering guidelines for the design of instructor/operator stations (IOSs) for aircrew training devices are provided in this handbook. These guidelines specify the preferred configuration of IOS equipment across the range of the anticipated user sizes and performance capabilities. The guidelines are consolidated from various human…

  16. Identification and Analysis of Social Incentives in Air Force Technical Training: Period June 1972-August 1975, Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Michael T.; And Others

    The report describes the procedures followed in identifying and analyzing social incentives which might be used in Air Force technical training. Questionnaire techniques were used to scale a list of 62 potential incentives for attractiveness, feasibility, and other characteristics. Personal motives, background variables, and ambiguous surface…

  17. Improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness during a recreational training program in obese children.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Larizza, Daniela; Codrons, Erwan; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Brambilla, Paola; Abela, Sebastiano; Arpesella, Marisa; Vandoni, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity may protect from the adverse effects of obesity. In obese children, an increased adherence and a decreased drop-out rate during exercise could be achieved with adapted activities. We studied a recreational 12-week controlled training program for sedentary obese children, including interactive video games. We enrolled 22 obese subjects (13.23±1.76 years) in an exercise program, implemented twice a week for a 12-week period. The program consisted of a combination of circuit-based aerobics, strength and resistance exercises; specifically soccer, rugby, volleyball and basketball and interactive video game exercises. Outcome measurements included body composition, metabolic profile and cardiorespiratory fitness. During the 12-week training program there was a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.002), SDS-BMI (p=0.003), waist circumference (p=0.004), waist circumference/height ratio (p=0.001),% fat mass (p=0.001), blood glucose (p=0.001), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.04), triglycerides (p=0.03) and systolic pressure (p=0.04) before and after exercise. Improvement in estimated maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) (p<0.001) correlated with a decrease in fat mass (p=0.01), triglycerides (p=0.04) and insulin resistance (p=0.02). Exercise improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children. Exercise training does not necessarily need to be vigorous, recreational programs are also effective and may encourage children to participate in physical activity and limit initial drop-out. PMID:23327787

  18. Improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness during a recreational training program in obese children.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Larizza, Daniela; Codrons, Erwan; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Brambilla, Paola; Abela, Sebastiano; Arpesella, Marisa; Vandoni, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity may protect from the adverse effects of obesity. In obese children, an increased adherence and a decreased drop-out rate during exercise could be achieved with adapted activities. We studied a recreational 12-week controlled training program for sedentary obese children, including interactive video games. We enrolled 22 obese subjects (13.23±1.76 years) in an exercise program, implemented twice a week for a 12-week period. The program consisted of a combination of circuit-based aerobics, strength and resistance exercises; specifically soccer, rugby, volleyball and basketball and interactive video game exercises. Outcome measurements included body composition, metabolic profile and cardiorespiratory fitness. During the 12-week training program there was a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.002), SDS-BMI (p=0.003), waist circumference (p=0.004), waist circumference/height ratio (p=0.001),% fat mass (p=0.001), blood glucose (p=0.001), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.04), triglycerides (p=0.03) and systolic pressure (p=0.04) before and after exercise. Improvement in estimated maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) (p<0.001) correlated with a decrease in fat mass (p=0.01), triglycerides (p=0.04) and insulin resistance (p=0.02). Exercise improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children. Exercise training does not necessarily need to be vigorous, recreational programs are also effective and may encourage children to participate in physical activity and limit initial drop-out.

  19. Work volume and strength training responses to resistive exercise improve with periodic heat extraction from the palm.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Dennis A; Cao, Vinh H; Nguyen, Christopher M; Liu, Mengyuan T; Heller, H Craig

    2012-09-01

    Body core cooling via the palm of a hand increases work volume during resistive exercise. We asked: (a) "Is there a correlation between elevated core temperatures and fatigue onset during resistive exercise?" and (b) "Does palm cooling between sets of resistive exercise affect strength and work volume training responses?" Core temperature was manipulated by 30-45 minutes of fixed load and duration treadmill exercise in the heat with or without palm cooling. Work volume was then assessed by 4 sets of fixed load bench press exercises. Core temperatures were reduced and work volumes increased after palm cooling (Control: Tes = 39.0 ± 0.1° C, 36 ± 7 reps vs. Cooling: Tes = 38.4 ± 0.2° C, 42 ± 7 reps, mean ± SD, n = 8, p < 0.001). In separate experiments, the impact of palm cooling on work volume and strength training responses were assessed. The participants completed biweekly bench press or pull-up exercises for multiple successive weeks. Palm cooling was applied for 3 minutes between sets of exercise. Over 3 weeks of bench press training, palm cooling increased work volume by 40% (vs. 13% with no treatment; n = 8, p < 0.05). Over 6 weeks of pull-up training, palm cooling increased work volume by 144% in pull-up experienced subjects (vs. 5% over 2 weeks with no treatment; n = 7, p < 0.001) and by 80% in pull-up naïve subjects (vs. 20% with no treatment; n = 11, p < 0.01). Strength (1 repetition maximum) increased 22% over 10 weeks of pyramid bench press training (4 weeks with no treatment followed by 6 weeks with palm cooling; n = 10, p < 0.001). These results verify previous observations about the effects of palm cooling on work volume, demonstrate a link between core temperature and fatigue onset during resistive exercise, and suggest a novel means for improving strength and work volume training responses.

  20. A Double-Blind, 12-Week Study to Evaluate the Antiaging Efficacy of a Cream Containing the NFκB Inhibitor 4-Hexyl-1, 3-Phenylenediol and Ascorbic Acid-2 Glucoside in Adult Females.

    PubMed

    Roure, Romain; Nollent, Virginie; Dayan, Liliane; Camel, Etienne; Bertin, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The 5 main physical manifestations of aged skin are wrinkles, uneven tone, brown spots, loss of elasticity, and dryness. One mechanism resulting in these physical manifestations is increased activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein. This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized split-face study compared the antiaging effect and safety of a face cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol, an NFκB inhibitor, and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside versus placebo in adult females aged 45-70 years old. Subjects (n=42) applied active treatment or placebo to the same half face twice daily at home for 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation was carried out by a dermatologist. Subjects carried out similar self-grading assessments. Colorimetric measurements analyzed skin color, and biomechanical skin properties were evaluated. Clinical grading showed that most wrinkle parameters were significantly improved after 8 weeks of active treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05), with improvements maintained after 12 weeks. Only Marionette wrinkles did not show a significant improvement. Brown spots (color intensity/number), overall photodamage, and most complexion parameters improved significantly after 8 and 12 weeks compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05). Self-grading yielded similar results compared with baseline. Self-grading did not demonstrate improvements with active treatment versus placebo, except for skin firmness at 8 and 12 weeks (P≤.05). A significant difference was seen with active treatment compared with placebo in all colorimetric parameters (L*, b*, and ITA°) after 8 weeks, and in spot coloration (b*) after 12 weeks (P<.05). Improvements in skin elasticity were not significantly different between treatments. Overall tolerability of active treatment was judged as good. In conclusion, a cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside improves the clinical appearance of aged

  1. Effect of proprioceptive training on foot posture, lower limb alignment, and knee adduction moment in patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yumi; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of proprioceptive training on foot progression angle, weight-bearing ratio, and knee adduction moment in patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] The subjects were 37 patients diagnosed with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3 degenerative knee osteoarthritis. They were randomly allocated to three groups: a proprioceptive training group (PT group), quadriceps strengthening group (QS group), and control group. [Methods] The study parameters of the three groups were compared before and after a 12-week training period. Therapeutic exercises were performed twice per week for 12 weeks. Outcomes included the foot progression angle, weight-bearing ratio, and knee adduction moment. [Results] First, a significant difference in the foot progression angle was observed among the groups, significantly increasing in the PTG compared with the CG. Second, a significant difference in the weight-bearing ratio was observed among the groups, significantly increasing in the PTG compared with the CG. Third, a significant difference in the first peak knee adduction moment was observed among the groups, significantly decreasing in the PTG compared with the CG. [Conclusion] The results of the present study indicate that proprioceptive training increased the foot progression angle and weight-bearing ratio and decreased the first peak knee adduction moment. Moreover, incorporating proprioceptive training into a physical therapy exercise program could improve functional ability and delay the progression of degenerative osteoarthritis. PMID:25729170

  2. Effect of proprioceptive training on foot posture, lower limb alignment, and knee adduction moment in patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yumi; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of proprioceptive training on foot progression angle, weight-bearing ratio, and knee adduction moment in patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] The subjects were 37 patients diagnosed with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3 degenerative knee osteoarthritis. They were randomly allocated to three groups: a proprioceptive training group (PT group), quadriceps strengthening group (QS group), and control group. [Methods] The study parameters of the three groups were compared before and after a 12-week training period. Therapeutic exercises were performed twice per week for 12 weeks. Outcomes included the foot progression angle, weight-bearing ratio, and knee adduction moment. [Results] First, a significant difference in the foot progression angle was observed among the groups, significantly increasing in the PTG compared with the CG. Second, a significant difference in the weight-bearing ratio was observed among the groups, significantly increasing in the PTG compared with the CG. Third, a significant difference in the first peak knee adduction moment was observed among the groups, significantly decreasing in the PTG compared with the CG. [Conclusion] The results of the present study indicate that proprioceptive training increased the foot progression angle and weight-bearing ratio and decreased the first peak knee adduction moment. Moreover, incorporating proprioceptive training into a physical therapy exercise program could improve functional ability and delay the progression of degenerative osteoarthritis.

  3. 20 CFR 663.530 - Is there a time limit on the period of initial eligibility for training providers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... eligible providers whose determination of initial eligibility occurs within six months of the date of..., initial eligibility may be extended for a period of up to six additional months, if the...

  4. 20 CFR 663.530 - Is there a time limit on the period of initial eligibility for training providers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... eligible providers whose determination of initial eligibility occurs within six months of the date of..., initial eligibility may be extended for a period of up to six additional months, if the...

  5. Effect of resistance training with different frequencies and detraining on muscular strength and oxidative stress biomarkers in older women.

    PubMed

    Padilha, Camila S; Ribeiro, Alex S; Fleck, Steven J; Nascimento, Matheus A; Pina, Fabio L C; Okino, Alessandra Miyuki; Venturini, Danielle; Barbosa, Décio S; Mayhew, Jerry L; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of resistance training (RT) performed with different frequencies followed by a detraining period on muscular strength and oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers in older women. Twenty-seven physically independent women (68.8 ± 4.8 years, 69.1 ± 14.3 kg, 156.0 ± 6.5 cm, and 28.3 ± 4.9 to kg.m(-2)) were randomly assigned to perform a RT program for 2 or 3 days per week (G2X = 13 vs. G3X = 14) for 12 weeks followed by 12 weeks of detraining period. One repetition maximum (1RM) tests were used as measures of muscular strength (three exercises, three attempts for each exercise, 3-5 min of rest between attempts, and 5 min of rest between exercises). Advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) were used as oxidative stress indicators. Both groups increased muscular strength after 12 weeks of training (P < 0.05) in chest press (G2X = +11.9 % vs. G3X = +27.5 %, P < 0.05), knee extension (G2X = +18.4 % vs. G3X = +16.7 %, P > 0.05), and preacher curl (G2X = +37.6 % vs. G3X = +36.7 %, P > 0.05). On the other hand, 12 weeks of detraining were not sufficient to eliminate the major effects produced by RT on muscular strength, although a significant decrease (P < 0.05) has been observed for chest press (G3X = -9.1 % vs. G2X = -10.2 %, P > 0.05), knee extension (G2X = -14.9 % vs. G3X = -12.1 %, P > 0.05), and preacher curl (G2X = -20.5 % vs. G3X = -17.4 %, P > 0.05). Pre- to post-training, both groups showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in TRAP (G2X = +6.9 % vs. G3X = +15.1 %) with no statistical significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05), and the scores remained elevated compared to pre-training after 12 weeks of detraining. AOPP was not changed by RT or detraining (P > 0.05). The results suggest that a 12-week RT program with a frequency of 2

  6. The impact of a 17-day training period for an international championship on mucosal immune parameters in top-level basketball players and staff members.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Franciscon, Clóvis; Simões, Antonio Carlos; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    This investigation examined the impact of a 17-d training period (that included basketball-specific training, sprints, intermittent running exercises, and weight training, prior to an international championship competition) on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in 10 subjects (athletes and staff members) from a national basketball team, as a biomarker for mucosal immune defence. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at rest at the beginning of the preparation for the Pan American Games and 1 d before the first game. The recovery interval from the last bout of exercise was 4 h. The SIgA level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressed as absolute concentrations, secretion rate, and SIgA level relative to total protein. The decrease in SIgA levels following training was greater in athletes than in support staff; however, no significant differences between the two groups were detected. A decrease in SIgA level, regardless of the method used to express IgA results, was verified for athletes. Only one episode of upper respiratory tract illness symptoms was reported, and it was not associated with changes in SIgA levels. In summary, a situation of combined stress for an important championship was found to decrease the level of SIgA-mediated immune protection at the mucosal surface in team members, with greater changes observed in the athletes.

  7. Leukocyte, red blood cell and morphological adaptation to moderate physical training in rats undernourished in the neonatal period

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Perez, Manuella Cavalcanti; Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Gilberto de Freire; de Castro, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the impact of moderate physical exercise on the total and differential leukocyte counts and red blood cell count of 36 sixty-day-old adult male Wistar rats subjected to early malnourishment. Methods The rats were divided in nourished (N - casein 17%) and malnourished groups (M - casein 8%) and thesegroups were then subdivided in trained (T) untrained (U) creating four groups NT, NU, MT and MU. The NT and MTgroups were submitted to moderate physical exercise using a treadmill (60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Onthe 1st day, before the training started T0 and 24 hours after the last training day of the week (T1 until T8), a 1 mLaliquot of blood was collected from the animals' tails for analysis. The total leukocyte count was evaluated in a cellcounter with an electronic microscope. The cyanmethemoglobin technique was used to measure the hemoglobin level. The hematocrit values were determined as a percentage using the micro-hematocrit technique with a microcapillaryreader and a cell counter was used to determine the red blood cell count. The t-test was used for statistical analysis and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Results There was a significant difference in the total leukocyte count between the NT (9.1 ± 0.1) and MT groups (8.0 ± 0.1) from T1 and in neutrophils between the NT (22.1 ± 0.6) and MT groups (24.6 ± 1.8) from T7 (p < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in the hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count from T1. Conclusions According to the results of this study, moderate physical exercise seems to have induced physiologic adaptation in adult rats from T1. PMID:23049442

  8. The effect of 16-week plyometric training on explosive actions in early to mid-puberty elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Söhnlein, Quirin; Müller, Erich; Stöggl, Thomas L

    2014-08-01

    Plyometric training (PT) programs are widely used to improve explosive actions in soccer players of various ages, although there is debate about optimal training duration and time course of improvement. Twenty-two early to mid-puberty elite soccer players were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 10, regular soccer training) or a plyometric training group (PTG, n = 12, regular soccer training substituted with 2 PT sessions each week). Both groups trained for 16 weeks during the in-season period. Control group performed only tests at baseline and after intervention, whereas PTG performed additional tests after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During each test, subjects' performances in speed (10 and 30 m; 5 and 20 m), agility, shuttle run, multiple 5 bounds (MB5), and standing long jump (LJ) were recorded. The PTG showed improved performance in 20-m sprint time (-3.2%), agility time (-6.1%), MB5 distance (+11.8%), and LJ distance (+7.3%) (all, p ≤ 0.05) after 16 weeks. All these improvements were higher compared with CG (all, p ≤ 0.05). The time course of improvement in the PT group showed that 20-m sprint time improved after 16 weeks (p = 0.012); agility after 4 (p = 0.047) and 8 weeks (p = 0.004) but stopped after 12 weeks (p = 0.007); MB5 after 8 (p = 0.039), 12 (p = 0.028), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001); and LJ improved after 4 (p = 0.045), 12 (p = 0.008), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001). Plyometric training seems to be an appropriate training tool to enhance some but not all explosive actions. The results indicate that the duration of a PT program is highly dependent on what type of explosive actions should be improved, or whether several explosive actions should be improved at the same time.

  9. The effect of 16-week plyometric training on explosive actions in early to mid-puberty elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Söhnlein, Quirin; Müller, Erich; Stöggl, Thomas L

    2014-08-01

    Plyometric training (PT) programs are widely used to improve explosive actions in soccer players of various ages, although there is debate about optimal training duration and time course of improvement. Twenty-two early to mid-puberty elite soccer players were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 10, regular soccer training) or a plyometric training group (PTG, n = 12, regular soccer training substituted with 2 PT sessions each week). Both groups trained for 16 weeks during the in-season period. Control group performed only tests at baseline and after intervention, whereas PTG performed additional tests after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During each test, subjects' performances in speed (10 and 30 m; 5 and 20 m), agility, shuttle run, multiple 5 bounds (MB5), and standing long jump (LJ) were recorded. The PTG showed improved performance in 20-m sprint time (-3.2%), agility time (-6.1%), MB5 distance (+11.8%), and LJ distance (+7.3%) (all, p ≤ 0.05) after 16 weeks. All these improvements were higher compared with CG (all, p ≤ 0.05). The time course of improvement in the PT group showed that 20-m sprint time improved after 16 weeks (p = 0.012); agility after 4 (p = 0.047) and 8 weeks (p = 0.004) but stopped after 12 weeks (p = 0.007); MB5 after 8 (p = 0.039), 12 (p = 0.028), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001); and LJ improved after 4 (p = 0.045), 12 (p = 0.008), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001). Plyometric training seems to be an appropriate training tool to enhance some but not all explosive actions. The results indicate that the duration of a PT program is highly dependent on what type of explosive actions should be improved, or whether several explosive actions should be improved at the same time. PMID:24476783

  10. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on 6H-SiC single crystals using temporally delayed femtosecond laser double-pulse trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Juan; Tao, Wenjun; Song, Hui; Gong, Min; Ma, Guohong; Dai, Ye; Zhao, Quanzhong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a time-delay-adjustable double-pulse train with 800-nm wavelength, 200-fs pulse duration and a repetition rate of 1 kHz, produced by a collinear two-beam optical system like a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, was employed for irradiation of 6H-SiC crystal. The dependence of the induced structures on time delay of double-pulse train for parallel-polarization configuration was studied. The results show that as the time delay of collinear parallel-polarization dual-pulse train increased, the induced near-subwavelength ripples (NSWRs) turn from irregular rippled pattern to regularly periodic pattern and have their grooves much deepened. The characteristics timescale for this transition is about 6.24 ps. Besides, the areas of NSWR were found to decay exponentially for time delay from 0 to 1.24 ps and then slowly increase for time delay from 1.24 to 14.24 ps. Analysis shows that multiphoton ionization effect, grating-assisted surface plasmon coupling effect, and timely intervene of second pulse in a certain physical stage experienced by 6H-SiC excited upon first pulse irradiation may contribute to the transition of morphology details.

  11. QUASI-PERIODIC FAST-MODE WAVE TRAINS WITHIN A GLOBAL EUV WAVE AND SEQUENTIAL TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS DETECTED BY SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Ofman, Leon

    2012-07-01

    We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances {approx}> R{sub Sun }/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 km s{sup -1} decelerating to {approx}650 km s{sup -1}. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by {approx}50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.

  12. Quasi-periodic Fast-mode Wave Trains Within a Global EUV Wave and Sequential Transverse Oscillations Detected by SDO-AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Nitta, Nariaki; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances greater than approximately solar radius/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 kilometers per second decelerating to approximately 650 kilometers per second. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by approximately 50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.

  13. Sex-specific responses to self-paced, high-intensity interval training with variable recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Laurent, C Matthew; Vervaecke, Lauren S; Kutz, Matthew R; Green, J Matthew

    2014-04-01

    This study examined sex-specific responses during self-paced, high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen (8 men and 8 women) individuals completed a peak oxygen uptake test and 3 treadmill HIIT sessions on separate days. The HIIT sessions consisted of six 4-minute intervals performed at the highest self-selected intensity individuals felt they could maintain. Recovery between intervals was counterbalanced and consisted of 1-, 2-, or 4-minute recovery during each trial. Relative measures of intensity, including percentage of velocity at VO2peak (vVO2peak), %VO2peak, %HRmax, and blood lactate concentration ([La]), were observed during the trials. Perceived readiness was recorded immediately before and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at the end of each interval with session RPE recorded after each trial. Results revealed a significant effect of sex on %vVO2peak (p < 0.01) and %HRmax (p < 0.01). Data show that across trials, men self-select higher %vVO2peak (84.5 vs. 80.7%), whereas women produce higher %HRmax (96.9 vs. 92.1%) and %VO2peak (89.6 vs. 86.1%) with no difference in [La] or perceptual responses. These findings support the notion that women may demonstrate improved recovery during high-intensity exercise, as they will self-select intensities resulting in greater cardiovascular strain. Moreover, results confirm previous findings suggesting that a 2:1 work-to-rest ratio is optimal during HIIT for both men and women.

  14. Lower extremity power training in elderly subjects with moderate mobility limitations: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults were randomized to either high-velocity high-power training (POW), slow-velocity progressive resistance training (STR) or a control group of lower extremity stretching (CON). Training was performed three times per week for 12 weeks and subjects completed t...

  15. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465

  16. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health. PMID:27523646

  17. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p < 0.01) and slower cardiac conduction (p = 0.04) compared with the CTL group. LIT and HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT had significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and cardiac conduction compared with the CTL and SED groups whilst HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p < 0.05). LIT and HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  18. Effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Reichert, Thais; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Almada, Bruna Pereira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults. Thirty-four older adults men were placed into two groups: deep water endurance training (ET; n = 16; 66 ± 4 years) and deep water strength prior to endurance training (concurrent training: CT; n = 18; 64 ± 4 years). The training period lasted 12 weeks, with three sessions a week. The resting heart rate and the oxygen uptake at peak (VO2peak) and at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2VT2) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after training. In addition, maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test--1RM) and local muscular resistance (maximum repetitions at 60% 1RM) of the knee extensors and flexors were evaluated. After the training period, the heart rate at rest decreased significantly, while the VO2peak and VO2VT2 showed significant increases in both groups (p<0.05). Only the VO2VT2 resulted in significantly greater values for the ET compared to the CT group after the training (p<0.05). In addition, after training, there was a significant increase in the maximal dynamic strength of the knee extensors and the local muscular endurance of the knee extensors and flexors, with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). In summary, the two training programs were effective at producing significant improvements in cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adult men. However, deep water endurance training at high intensities provides increased cardiorespiratory responses compared to CT and results in similar muscular strength responses. PMID:25700846

  19. A New Training for Older Adults Using Combined Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Volitional Contraction: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yoshio; Matsuse, Hiroo; Tsukada, Yuuya; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid training system (HTS) resists the motion of a volitionally contracting agonist muscle using force generated by its electrically stimulated antagonist. We have developed a new training method using the principle of HTS. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of HTS with electrical stimulation on muscle strength and physical function by comparing it against training without electrical stimulation in older adults. 16 subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the squat and single leg lift training (control, CTR) group, and the CTR with HTS training group. Some electrical stimulation was applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in the HTS group. The subjects performed training for 25 min per session 3 times a week for 12 weeks. At points before and after the research maximal isokinetic torque, knee-flexors (KFT) and knee-extensors (KET), a one-leg standing test (OLT), a functional reach test (FRT), a 10-meter maximal gait time (10MGT) and Timed up & go test (TUG) were conducted. None of the subjects had any injuries during the study period. TUG significantly improved after the training period in both the HTS group (7.15 sec to 6.01 sec P = 0.01) and in the CTR. PMID:27237936

  20. Differential therapeutic effects of 12-week treatment of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on drug-naïve children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A counting Stroop functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tai-Li; Chia, Seng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with underlying distinct pharmacological mechanisms. To relate neural mechanisms to clinical response, we conducted a comparative trial to differentiate the changes in brain activation of drug-naïve children with ADHD when performing neuropsychological tasks after 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy. We randomized 50 drug-naïve children with ADHD, aged 7-17, to treatment with methylphenidate (n=25) or atomoxetine (n=25). These children were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the counting Stroop task before and after treatment. Focused attention and impulsivity were assessed twice by using the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). The final sample for fMRI analysis comprised 20 in the methylphenidate group and 22 in the atomoxetine group. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which correlated with improvement in focused attention assessed by the CCPT. In contrast, methylphenidate increased activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, which correlated with the decreasing severity of impulsivity assessed by the CCPT. The current findings suggest that differential therapeutic effects on neuronal changes induced by 12-week treatment atomoxetine and methylphenidate may contribute to behavioral improvement.

  1. Differential therapeutic effects of 12-week treatment of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on drug-naïve children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A counting Stroop functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tai-Li; Chia, Seng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with underlying distinct pharmacological mechanisms. To relate neural mechanisms to clinical response, we conducted a comparative trial to differentiate the changes in brain activation of drug-naïve children with ADHD when performing neuropsychological tasks after 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy. We randomized 50 drug-naïve children with ADHD, aged 7-17, to treatment with methylphenidate (n=25) or atomoxetine (n=25). These children were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the counting Stroop task before and after treatment. Focused attention and impulsivity were assessed twice by using the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). The final sample for fMRI analysis comprised 20 in the methylphenidate group and 22 in the atomoxetine group. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which correlated with improvement in focused attention assessed by the CCPT. In contrast, methylphenidate increased activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, which correlated with the decreasing severity of impulsivity assessed by the CCPT. The current findings suggest that differential therapeutic effects on neuronal changes induced by 12-week treatment atomoxetine and methylphenidate may contribute to behavioral improvement. PMID:26409297

  2. No effect of 12 weeks' supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philippa A; Deary, Michael E; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2012-04-01

    The n-3 PUFA are a unique class of fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body, and must be acquired via dietary sources. In the UK, as well as in other Western nations, these 'essential' fatty acids are consumed in quantities that fall below government guidelines. The present study explored the effects of 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with 1 g/d of two types of fish oil (FO; DHA-rich and EPA-rich) in 159 healthy young adults aged 18-35 years. An assessment of performance on a battery of computerised cognitive tasks and mood measures took place before and following the 12-week treatment regimen. Venous blood samples were also supplied by participants at both time points which were later analysed for serum fatty acid concentrations. Despite good adherence to the study protocol - as reflected in increased concentrations of n-3 serum fatty acids - compared with placebo, the observed effects of both active treatments were minimal. The only finding of note revealed that supplementation with EPA-rich FO may reduce subjective mental fatigue at times of high cognitive demand, although further investigation is required. These findings, taken together with other recent reports of null effects, suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in healthy, normally developing and impairment-free populations is unlikely to result in cognitive enhancement.

  3. Resistance exercise training and the orthostatic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, J. P.; Bamman, M. M.; Yelle, J. M.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Rowe, R. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Lee, S. M.; Spector, E. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been suggested to increase blood volume, increase the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response (BARO), and decrease leg compliance, all factors that are expected to improve orthostatic tolerance. To further test these hypotheses, cardiovascular responses to standing and to pre-syncopal limited lower body negative pressure (LBNP) were measured in two groups of sedentary men before and after a 12-week period of either exercise (n = 10) or no exercise (control, n = 9). Resistance exercise training consisted of nine isotonic exercises, four sets of each, 3 days per week, stressing all major muscle groups. After exercise training, leg muscle volumes increased (P < 0.05) by 4-14%, lean body mass increased (P = 0.00) by 2.0 (0.5) kg, leg compliance and BARO were not significantly altered, and the maximal LBNP tolerated without pre-syncope was not significantly different. Supine resting heart rate was reduced (P = 0.03) without attenuating the heart rate or blood pressure responses during the stand test or LBNP. Also, blood volume (125I and 51Cr) and red cell mass were increased (P < 0.02) by 2.8% and 3.9%, respectively. These findings indicate that intense resistance exercise increases blood volume but does not consistently improve orthostatic tolerance.

  4. Supplemental choline during the periweaning period protects against trace conditioning impairments attributable to post-training ethanol exposure in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Pamela S

    2012-08-01

    Supplemental choline during early stages of development can result in long-lasting improvements to memory function. In addition, pre- or postnatal choline has been shown to be protective against some of the adverse effects of early alcohol exposure. The present experiment examined whether supplemental choline given to rats would protect against the effects of posttraining alcohol administration on trace fear conditioning. Posttraining alcohol exposure in adolescent rats results in poor performance in this hippocampus-dependent task, although delay conditioning is unaffected. Here, rats were given an s.c. injection of either saline or choline chloride daily on postnatal days (PD) 15-26. On PD 30 subjects were trained in a trace fear conditioning procedure. For the next 3 days animals were administered 2.5 g/kg ethanol or water control, and conditional stimulus (CS)-elicited freezing was measured on PD 34. Results indicated that posttraining alcohol disrupted the expression of trace conditioning and that supplemental choline on PD 15-26 was protective against this effect. That is, choline-treated animals subsequently given posttraining ethanol performed as well as animals not given ethanol. These results indicate that supplemental choline given during the periweaning period protects against ethanol-induced impairments in a hippocampus-dependent learning task. Findings contribute to the growing literature showing improvements in learning and memory in subjects given extra dietary choline during critical periods of brain development.

  5. Cellular fibronectin response to supervised moderate aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is one of the most pivotal targets for the prevention and management of vascular complications, especially endothelial dysfunctions. Cellular fibronectin is an endothelium-derived protein involved in subendothelial matrix assembly. Its plasma levels reflect matrix alterations and vessel wall destruction in patients with type II diabetes. This study investigated the influence of 12 weeks of supervised aerobic training on cellular fibronectin and its relationship with insulin resistance and body weight in type II diabetic subjects. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 50 men with type II diabetes who had a mean age of 48.8 ± 14.6 years and were randomly divided into two groups: an aerobic exercise group (12 weeks, three 50 minutes sessions per week) and control group. To examine changes in cellular fibronectin, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile, 5 ml of blood was taken from the brachial vein of patients before and 48 hours after completion of the exercise period and after 12 hours of fasting at rest. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS-16 software with the independent and paired t-tests. [Results] A significant decrease was observed in body mass index and body fat percentage in the experimental group. Compared with the control group, the aerobic exercise group showed a significant decrease in cellular fibronectin, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. The change in cellular fibronectin showed positive significant correlation with body mass index, diabetic biomarkers, and physical activity level. [Conclusion] The results showed that supervised aerobic exercise as a stimulus can change the levels of cellular fibronectin as matrix metalloproteinase protein a long with improvement of insulin sensitivity and glycosylated hemoglobin in order to prevent

  6. Olfactory training induces changes in regional functional connectivity in patients with long-term smell loss

    PubMed Central

    Kollndorfer, K.; Fischmeister, F.Ph.S.; Kowalczyk, K.; Hoche, E.; Mueller, C.A.; Trattnig, S.; Schöpf, V.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, olfactory training has been introduced as a promising treatment for patients with olfactory dysfunction. However, less is known about the neuronal basis and the influence on functional networks of this training. Thus, we aimed to investigate the neuroplasticity of chemosensory perception through an olfactory training program in patients with smell loss. The experimental setup included functional MRI (fMRI) experiments with three different types of chemosensory stimuli. Ten anosmic patients (7f, 3m) and 14 healthy controls (7f, 7m) underwent the same testing sessions. After a 12-week olfactory training period, seven patients (4f, 3m) were invited for follow-up testing using the same fMRI protocol. Functional networks were identified using independent component analysis and were further examined in detail using functional connectivity analysis. We found that anosmic patients and healthy controls initially use the same three networks to process chemosensory input: the olfactory; the somatosensory; and the integrative network. Those networks did not differ between the two groups in their spatial extent, but in their functional connectivity. After the olfactory training, the sensitivity to detect odors significantly increased in the anosmic group, which was also manifested in modifications of functional connections in all three investigated networks. The results of this study indicate that an olfactory training program can reorganize functional networks, although, initially, no differences in the spatial distribution of neural activation were observed. PMID:26594622

  7. Strength Training Reduces Injury Rate in Elite Young Soccer Players During One Season.

    PubMed

    Zouita, Sghair; Zouita, Amira B M; Kebsi, Wiem; Dupont, Grégory; Ben Abderrahman, Abderraouf; Ben Salah, Fatma Z; Zouhal, Hassane

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of strength training on physical fitness parameters and injuries occurrence in young elite soccer players. Fifty-two elite young soccer players (13-14 years) were divided on a randomized order into experimental group (EG, n = 26) and control group (CG, n = 26). For EG, 2 to 3 sessions of strength training (90 minutes) were introduced weekly in their training program for 12 weeks (4 × 3 weeks separated by 1-week recovery). Sprint tests (10-20-30 m), T-test time, and jumping tests were measured at the start (T0), at the middle (T1), and at the end of the experiment period (T2). The injury rate was recorded by the medical and fitness training staff throughout the soccer season. Compared to CG, EG performed significantly better in sprint running and T-test time at T2 (p < 0.01). Similarly, the improvement amount for jumping tests was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) in EG than in CG. A total of 17 injuries were recorded over the soccer season. The rate was higher in CG (13 injuries) than in training group (4 injuries). This study showed that strength training accurately and efficiently scheduled in youth soccer players, induced performance improvement, and reduced the rate of injuries. PMID:26918277

  8. Implementation of a 12-week disease management program improved clinical outcomes and quality of life in adults with asthma in a rural district hospital: pre- and post-intervention study.

    PubMed

    Chamnan, Parinya; Boonlert, Kittipa; Pasi, Wanit; Yodsiri, Songkran; Pong-on, Sirinya; Khansa, Bhoonsab; Yongkulwanitchanan, Pichapat

    2010-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective medical treatment and disease management guidelines, asthma remains a poorly controlled disease in developing countries. There is little evidence of the effectiveness of disease management guidelines in rural clinical practice. The effect of disease management guidelines on clinical outcomes and quality of life in asthmatic patients in a rural community hospital was examined. Fifty-seven patients aged > or = 16 years with physician-diagnosed asthma from a hospital outpatient clinic in Ubon-ratchathani, Thailand, were recruited. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing clinical records. We implemented a 12-week disease management program, including the use of written asthma treatment plan and asthma action plan tailored to individual patients. Using one-group pre- and post-intervention design, we compared the average number of emergency visits and hospitalizations from acute asthmatic attacks before and after the implementation of interventions using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. We also compared patient's asthma quality of life (AQL) scores, measured using the 7-point scaled Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. It was found that among the 57 patients, 38 (67%) were women, and the mean age (SD) of the patients was 47.6 (17.0) years. Sixteen patients (28%) had a family history of asthma. Emergency visits decreased from 0.48 (SD = 0.83) per patient before implementation of interventions to 0.11 (0.37) per patient after implementation of interventions (p = 0.003). Hospitalizations with acute asthma attacks reduced from 0.14 (0.35) per patient to 0.04 (0.27) per patient (p = 0.034). Overall AQL scores increased significantly from 3.7 to 5.4 (p < 0.001), with most improvement observed in symptoms and emotions. It was concluded that implementation of a 12-week asthma disease management program could reduce emergency visits and hospitalizations, and improve patients' quality of life in a rural practice setting.

  9. Isokinetic strength training in below-knee amputees.

    PubMed

    Klingenstierna, U; Renström, P; Grimby, G; Morelli, B

    1990-01-01

    Eight below-knee amputees performed isokinetic training of knee extensor- and knee-flexor muscles for a period of 8-12 weeks at angular velocities of 60 degrees/s, 180 degrees/s and 240 degrees/s. Before and after training isokinetic and isometric knee extensor/flexor strength was measured. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis and the cross-sectional area of the thigh muscles was measured with computerized tomography. Peak torque of the amputated leg increased significantly in all knee-extension tests and in knee-flexion at 180 degrees/s, and in the non-amputated leg in extension at 180 degrees/s, 240 degrees/s and for isometric strength at 60 degrees knee angle. Knee-flexion strength increased at 240 degrees/s. The cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers increased in the amputated leg in all patients except one. There was no significant increase in the non-amputated leg which also was trained. The quotient between the cross-sectional areas of type II and type I fibers increased from 1.04 to 1.20 in the amputated leg, demonstrating an increase specially in the type II fibers. There was no difference in the non-amputated leg. The cross-sectional area of the thigh muscles did not show any significant change in either leg. The patients estimated their ability to walk after training to more than double the distance compared to before training. They could also manage better without walking aids. The increase in strength and the synchronous increase in the size of type II (fast twitch) fibers indicate that the training model has activated also these motor units which probably have not been given as much training earlier. PMID:2326608

  10. Monitoring Project CANAL: An Overview of Year 4 Training (September 1991 through February 1992). Progress Report. Third Quarter, Year 4 Report (Period Ending May 31, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary E.; Kurtz, Norman R.

    An evaluation review was done of the training activities of the Creating a New Approach to Learning Project (Project CANAL) during the first half of Year 4 of the project. The review covered types of training opportunities that were available, observations on participation by members of the groups for whom the training was designed, some…

  11. Explosive Resistance Training Increases Rate of Force Development in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Gait Function in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend S; Lorentzen, Jakob; Krarup, Kasper B; Bandholm, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens B

    2016-10-01

    Kirk, H, Geertsen, SS, Lorentzen, J, Krarup, KB, Bandholm, T, and Nielsen, JB. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2749-2760, 2016-Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated whether 12 weeks of explosive and progressive heavy-resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force development of ankle dorsiflexors (RFDdf), improves gait function, and affects passive ankle joint stiffness in adults with CP. Thirty-five adults (age: 36.5; range: 18-59 years) with CP were nonrandomly assigned to a PRT or nontraining control (CON) group in this explorative trial. The PRT group trained ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, leg press, hamstring curls, abdominal curls, and back extension 3 days per week for 12 weeks, with 3 sets per exercise and progressing during the training period from 12 to 6 repetition maximums. RFDdf, 3-dimensional gait analysis, functional performance, and ankle joint passive and reflex-mediated muscle stiffness were evaluated before and after. RFDdf increased significantly after PRT compared to CON. PRT also caused a significant increase in toe lift late in swing and a significantly more dorsiflexed ankle joint at ground contact and during stance. The increased toe-lift amplitude was correlated to the increased RFDdf (r = 0.73). No other between-group differences were observed. These findings suggest that explosive PRT may increase RFDdf and facilitate larger range of movement in the ankle joint during gait. Explosive PRT should be tested in clinical practice as part of a long-term training program for adults with CP.

  12. The effect of a traditional dance training program on the physical fitness of adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tsimaras, Vasileios K; Kyriazis, Dimitrios A; Christoulas, Kosmas I; Fotiadou, Eleni G; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Angelopoulou, Nikoletta A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a traditional dance training program on aerobic capacity and muscle strength of adults with hearing loss. Twenty-three adults with hearing loss were separated into 2 groups. Thirteen subjects (6 men, 7 women, mean age, 25.7 +/- 3.9 years) constituted the intervention group, whereas 10 subjects (5 men, 5 women, mean age, 26.4 +/- 5.9 years) formed the control group. Pretraining and posttraining treadmill tests were performed to determine heart rate (HR peak), peak minute ventilation (VE peak), peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak, absolute and relative), and time to exhaustion (min). Peak torque of hamstring and quadriceps muscles at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 180 degrees /s, and 300 degrees /s was also measured. The intervention group followed a 12-week traditional dance training program, whereas the control group received no training during this period. Repeated measures of multiple analyses of variance were used to test mean differences between the values of both groups. A paired t-test was used to compare the values within each group prior and after program participation. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. Following the 12-week training program, significant improvements in peak physiological parameters were seen for the intervention group for peak minute ventilation, peak oxygen consumption (both absolute and relative), time to exhaustion, and peak torque values between the 2 measurements (initial and final). No significant improvements in peak physiological parameters and peak torque were noticed in the control group. In conclusion, adults with hearing loss can improve their physical fitness levels with the application of a systematic and well-designed traditional dance training program.

  13. Interval Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  14. Combined intervention of dietary soybean proteins and swim training: effects on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Figard, Hélène; Mougin, Fabienne; Gaume, Vincent; Berthelot, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Soybean proteins, a rich source of isoflavones, taken immediately after an ovariectomy prevent bone loss in rats. Exercise-induced stimuli are essential for bone growth. Few studies exist about the combined effects of swim training and soybean protein supplementation on bone metabolism. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate, in 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) the effects of an 8-week swim-training regimen (1 h/day, 5 days/week) and dietary soybean proteins (200 g/kg diet) on bone metabolism. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) ovariectomized fed with a semisynthetic control diet; (2) ovariectomized fed with a soybean protein-enriched semisynthetic diet; (3) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with control diet; (4) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with a soybean protein diet. Following the treatment period, body weight gain was identical in the four groups. Soybean protein supplementation increased bone calcium content, and reduced plasma osteocalcin values, without significant modification of calcium balance and net calcium absorption. Swim training enhanced plasma and bone calcium content and calcium balance and net calcium absorption. It did not modify either plasma osteocalcin values or urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion. Both exercise and soybean protein intake increased plasma on bone calcium without modifying net calcium absorption or bone markers. In conclusion, we demonstrated, in ovariectomized rats, that swimming exercise and dietary supplementation with soy proteins do not have synergistic effects on calcium metabolism and bone markers.

  15. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, C; Grossi, L; Dwyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Resistance or strength exercise training may help reverse the malnutrition common among patients in chronic renal failure and delay the progression of renal disease. Resistance training is characterized by resisting, lifting, and lowering weights. It results in muscle mass accretion, improved physical function, and slowed progression of muscle wasting. Resistance exercise training for a period of 8 to 12 weeks results in significant increases in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in frail "healthy" elderly individuals as well as in specific patient populations. States of malnutrition leading to muscle wasting directly affect lean tissue mass and functional capacity. Even at dietary protein intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowances, resistance training appears to exert an anabolic effect by improving energy intake and protein use allowing nitrogen retention. The potential benefits of resistance exercise extend beyond this direct impact on protein metabolism. They include improvements in functional capacity such as gait, balance, mobility, strength, exercise tolerance, improved glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and self-efficacy and self-esteem. Currently, the effects of resistance exercise in renal patients are unknown, although they are well shown in the case of other diseases. The potential benefits that resistance exercise training may have on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, hyperglycemia, disease progression, and the overall mental well-being of renal patients deserve further investigation. As an adjunct to current treatment modalities for chronic renal failure, resistance exercise may serve as a cost-effective, interdisciplinary, noninvasive approach to counteract malnutrition and improve the quality of life. PMID:9724824

  16. The influence of sample freezing at – 80 °C for 2–12 weeks on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration assayed by HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® auto analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Katarzyna; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a single freeze/thaw cycle on HbA1c concentrations measured by commercially available HPLC method. Materials and methods Study included 128 whole blood samples collected from diabetic patients (N = 60) and healthy volunteers (N = 68). HbA1c concentrations were measured in fresh blood samples. Then samples were frozen at - 80 °C for up to 12 weeks. HbA1c was assayed by ion-exchange HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® analyzer. Variables were compared using Wilcoxon and ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis tests. Bias between HbA1c measured in fresh and frozen samples was calculated. The comparability of HbA1c concentrations was assessed by Bland-Altman plot. Results Median (IQR) HbA1c concentration was 45.3 (36.6–61.2) mmol/mol for fresh and 45.3 (36.6–60.6) mmol/mol for frozen/thawed samples. No significant difference in HbA1c concentrations was found comparing fresh and frozen/thawed samples (P = 0.070) in the whole group, as well as in healthy and diabetic subjects. The median calculated bias between fresh and frozen/thawed samples was 0% in whole group and healthy subjects, and 1.19% in diabetic patients. No significant difference was found between the biases according to baseline HbA1c values (P = 0.150). The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed a positive bias of 0.4% (95% CI: - 2.8 - 3.7%), which indicates high compliance between HbA1c values and no relevant influence of sample freezing on clinical significance of HbA1c measurement. Conclusions Storage for up to 12 weeks at – 80 °C with a single freeze/thaw cycle does not affect HbA1c concentrations measured with HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® analyzer. PMID:27812303

  17. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention

  18. High Incidence of Stress Fractures in Military Cadets During Training: A Point of Concern

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Shivanna, Deepak; Bahubali, Aski; Manjunath, Dayanand

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress fractures occur due to repetitive cumulative micro trauma on the bone over a period of time. Stress fractures in military cadets is a rising cause of concern. It increases morbidity, long periods of absence from training and economic losses. Aim The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the incidence and distribution of stress fracture (SFs) in Border Security Forces (BSF) cadets in Bangalore during their basic training tenure. Materials and Methods A detailed analysis of history and physical assessment was performed of those presenting with symptoms of pain, swelling or deformity. These cadets then underwent radiographic imaging for the evaluation of symptoms. All cadets with clinical and radiological diagnosis of SFs were appropriately managed and followed up every two weeks till the time of union. Results Three hundred BSF candidates had clinical and radiological signs of SF with an overall incidence rate of 15%. The average age of the patients with SFs was 23 years (range 20-26). The incidence of SFs was highest during their physical training exercises and reached maximum at 12 weeks of the training schedule. Overall, the most common sites of bone injuries were the tibia (87.66%), fibula (7.8%), and metatarsals (2%). There were 5 femur fractures including one bilateral femur(1.67%) and two neck of femur (0.67%). Three tibia, three femur shaft and two neck femur fractures were operated and rest treated conservatively. All fractures healed in an average period of seven weeks. All cadets returned to their full activity in an average period of nine weeks. Conclusion The study provides evidence that SF among BSF cadets occur frequently during their training period with undoubtedly high incidence rate which is probably underrated in Indian setting. To prevent stress fractures, modifiable causes and risk factors must be identified and a proactive approach which can help the cadets withstand intense physical activity should be adopted

  19. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    PubMed

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η(2) = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active

  20. Effects of High Intensity Training and Continuous Endurance Training on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Recreationally Active Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish

  1. A Proposed Modified Technical Order System and Its Impact on Maintenance, Personnel and Training. Final Report for Period December 1974-September 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John P., Jr.

    The document presents immediate and long range plans for the systematic injection of Symbolic Integrated Maintenance Systems (SIMS) and Fully Proceduralized Job Performance Aids (FPJPA) materials into the current technical order system and the inclusion of job-oriented training matched to FPJPA into the training system of the Air Force. The text…

  2. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    PubMed Central

    Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S.; dos Reis, Ivan G. M.; Beck, Wladimir R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  3. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  4. Knee-Extension Training with a Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb during the Early Postoperative Period after Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Patient with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Hisashi; Kubota, Shigeki; Onishi, Mio; Kanamori, Akihiro; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The knee range of motion is an important outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to previous studies, the knee range of motion temporarily decreases for approximately 1 month after TKA due to postoperative pain and quadriceps dysfunction following surgical invasion into the knee extensor mechanism. We describe our experience with a knee-extension training program based on a single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ, Cyberdyne Inc., Tsukuba, Japan) during the acute recovery phase after TKA. HAL-SJ is a wearable robot suit that facilitates the voluntary control of knee joint motion. A 76-year-old man underwent HAL-SJ-based knee-extension training, which enabled him to perform knee function training during the acute phase after TKA without causing increased pain. Thus, he regained the ability to fully extend his knee postoperatively. HAL-SJ-based knee-extension training can be used as a novel post-TKA rehabilitation modality. PMID:27774330

  5. Outcome of Youth with Early-Phase Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders and Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified Treated with Second-Generation Antipsychotics: 12 Week Results from a Prospective, Naturalistic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vernal, Ditte L.; Kapoor, Sandeep; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Sheridan, Eva M.; Borenstein, Yehonathan; Mormando, Charles; David, Lisa; Singh, Sukhbir; Seidman, Andrew J.; Carbon, Maren; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Saito, Ema; Kane, John M.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S) and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PsyNOS) during early antipsychotic treatment. Methods: The study was a prospective, naturalistic, inception cohort study of youth ≤19 years old with SCZ-S (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder) or PsyNOS (PsyNOS, brief psychotic disorder) and ≤24 months of lifetime antipsychotic treatment receiving clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. Baseline demographic, illness and treatment variables, and effectiveness outcomes were compared at 12 weeks last-observation-carried-forward across SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients, adjusting for significantly different baseline variables. Results: Altogether, 130 youth with SCZ-S (n=42) or PsyNOS (n=88), mostly antipsychotic naïve (76.9%), were prescribed risperidone (47.7%), olanzapine (19.2%), aripiprazole (14.6%), quetiapine (11.5%), or ziprasidone (6.9%). Compared with those with PsyNOS, SCZ-S youth were older (16.4±2.1 vs. 14.8±3.2, p=0.0040), and less likely to be Caucasian (19.1% vs. 42.5%, p=0.009). At baseline, SCZ-S patients had significantly higher Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scores (6.0±0.9 vs. 5.5±0.8, p=0.0018) and lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores (29.6±9.2 vs. 36.1±8.9, p=0.0002) and were more likely to be in the severely ill CGAS group (i.e., CGAS≤40). SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients did not differ regarding all-cause discontinuation (40.5 vs. 40.3%. p=0.49), discontinuation because of adverse effects (12.2% vs. 12.4%, p=0.97), or nonadherence (29.3% vs. 30.9%, p=0.88), but somewhat more SCZ-S patients discontinued treatment for inefficacy (19.5% vs. 7.4%, p=0.063). CGI-S and CGAS scores improved significantly in both diagnostic groups (p=0.0001, each). Adjusting for baseline differences, PsyNOS patients experienced significantly better CGI-I improvement

  6. Doenjang, a Korean fermented soy food, exerts antiobesity and antioxidative activities in overweight subjects with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism: 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cha, Youn-Soo; Park, Yongsoon; Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo-Wan; Park, Kungmin; Kim, Yeonsoo; Lee, Haeng-Shin

    2014-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity and antioxidant effects of supplementation with doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, in overweight Koreans with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism. Sixty overweight subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 9.8 g/day of doenjang or placebo for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic parameters, along with abdominal fat distribution and PPAR-γ2 polymorphisms, were measured. Fifty-one subjects completed the study, doenjang (n=26) and placebo (n=25) groups. Relative frequencies of the PPAR-γ2 genotypes CC, TC, and TT were 70% (n=41), 25.9% (15), and 3.4% (2), whereas those of the PPAR-γ2 alleles C and T were 81.6% and 18.4%. Visceral fat area (VFA) was significantly decreased by doenjang supplementation in subjects with a mutant T allele of PPAR-γ2 compared to those with a C allele after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Plasma free fatty acid, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were also significantly increased in the doenjang group. Doenjang pills significantly activated radical clearance capacity (ORAC and DNA tail length) in subjects with the C allele. The catalase (CAT) activity was increased twofold in the doenjang-treated group with the C allele, but this phenomenon was reversed in those with the T allele. Doenjang-treated subjects tended to have low dietary carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared with those given placebo. We found that doenjang supplementation decreased visceral fat accumulation and aging most effectively in subjects with PPAR-γ polymorphisms. This study suggests that doenjang has antiobesity and antioxidative effects in overweight individuals with mutant alleles of PPAR-γ2. PMID:24456362

  7. Efficacy and safety of the oral Janus kinase inhibitor peficitinib (ASP015K) monotherapy in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis in Japan: a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Iwasaki, Manabu; Ishikura, Hiroaki; Saeki, Satoshi; Kaneko, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety and dose response of a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor, peficitinib (ASP015K), as monotherapy in Japanese patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In a 12-week, double-blind study, 281 adult patients with RA with active disease not on concomitant disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy were randomised equally to once-daily placebo or peficitinib 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg. The primary endpoint was American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response in the peficitinib treatment groups versus placebo at week 12. Results Mean age was 53.0 years, 81.1% were female and 25.3% had previously used antitumour necrosis factor therapy. Peficitinib 50, 100 and 150 mg each showed statistically significantly higher ACR20 response rates compared with placebo, and response rates increased up to 150 mg with a statistically significant dose response. The total incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the placebo (64.3%) and peficitinib 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg groups (70.9%, 64.9%, 52.7% and 67.2%, respectively). TEAEs occurring more frequently in the peficitinib group compared with the placebo group included nasopharyngitis, increased blood creatine phosphokinase and diarrhoea. No cases of serious infections were reported. Herpes zoster occurred in four patients (two each in peficitinib 25 and 100 mg). Conclusions Treatment with peficitinib as monotherapy for 12 weeks in Japanese patients with moderate to severe RA is efficacious and showed acceptable safety profile. These findings support further developments of peficitinib for RA treatment. Trial registration number NCT01649999; Results. PMID:26672064

  8. Gifted Children as Tutors of Educable Mental Retardates. Mental Retardation Training Program Technical Report Series 68-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Valerie A.

    Nine gifted fifth grade students received a 2-week training program, tutored 36 educable mentally retarded (EMR) first grade students for 12 weeks, and later gave responses on an attitude scale (as did 15 gifted nonparticipating controls). During training the experimental Ss were taught to use materials such as readiness books and a flannel board,…

  9. Influence of Resistance Training on Blood Pressure in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Glêbia Alexa; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; de Souza, Alesandra Araújo; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio Pereira; da Silva, Raquel Suelen Brito; de Lacerda, Lavoisiana Mateus; Motae, Maria Paula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the chronic and acute influence of resistance exercise on blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome before and after climacteric. Twenty sedentary women, nine non-menopausal (RNM) and 11 menopausal (RM), performed training for 12 weeks. Meanwhile, 23 controls, 11 not menopausal (CNM) and 12 menopausal (CM), remained sedentary. Blood pressure was measured before and after the training period in conditions of rest and after a session of exercise. Training promoted variations in blood pressure at rest from 116±13 to 118±10 mmHg (p=0.73) and from 128±12 mmHg to 120±11mmHg (p=0.12) in RNM and RM, respectively. CNM and CM varied from 115±11 to 116±12 mmHg (p=0.9) and from 115±14 mmHg to 116±13 mmHg (p=0.74). Blood pressure values in one acute session did not differ between groups (p>0.05). Resistance training did not improve blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome, regardless of climacteric. PMID:25713648

  10. Influence of resistance training on blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome and menopause.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Glêbia Alexa; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; de Souza, Alesandra Araújo; Dos Santos, Marcos Antônio Pereira; da Silva, Raquel Suelen Brito; de Lacerda, Lavoisiana Mateus; Motae, Maria Paula

    2014-09-29

    This study investigated the chronic and acute influence of resistance exercise on blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome before and after climacteric. Twenty sedentary women, nine non-menopausal (RNM) and 11 menopausal (RM), performed training for 12 weeks. Meanwhile, 23 controls, 11 not menopausal (CNM) and 12 menopausal (CM), remained sedentary. Blood pressure was measured before and after the training period in conditions of rest and after a session of exercise. Training promoted variations in blood pressure at rest from 116±13 to 118±10 mmHg (p=0.73) and from 128±12 mmHg to 120±11mmHg (p=0.12) in RNM and RM, respectively. CNM and CM varied from 115±11 to 116±12 mmHg (p=0.9) and from 115±14 mmHg to 116±13 mmHg (p=0.74). Blood pressure values in one acute session did not differ between groups (p>0.05). Resistance training did not improve blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome, regardless of climacteric.

  11. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J E; Périard, J D

    2015-06-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat. PMID:25943653

  12. Consensus Recommendations on Training and Competing in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, Sébastien; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Coutts, Aaron J; Flouris, Andreas D; Girard, Olivier; González-Alonso, José; Hausswirth, Christophe; Jay, Ollie; Lee, Jason K W; Mitchell, Nigel; Nassis, George P; Nybo, Lars; Pluim, Babette M; Roelands, Bart; Sawka, Michael N; Wingo, Jonathan; Périard, Julien D

    2015-07-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in an euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vests), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat. PMID:26002286

  13. Consensus Recommendations on Training and Competing in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, Sébastien; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Coutts, Aaron J; Flouris, Andreas D; Girard, Olivier; González-Alonso, José; Hausswirth, Christophe; Jay, Ollie; Lee, Jason K W; Mitchell, Nigel; Nassis, George P; Nybo, Lars; Pluim, Babette M; Roelands, Bart; Sawka, Michael N; Wingo, Jonathan; Périard, Julien D

    2015-07-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in an euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vests), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat.

  14. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J; Périard, J D

    2015-09-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimise performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimise performance is to heat acclimatise. Heat acclimatisation should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimise dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (eg, cooling-vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organisers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimising the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events, for hydration and body cooling opportunities, when competitions are held in the heat.

  15. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J; Périard, J D

    2015-09-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimise performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimise performance is to heat acclimatise. Heat acclimatisation should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimise dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (eg, cooling-vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organisers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimising the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events, for hydration and body cooling opportunities, when competitions are held in the heat. PMID:26069301

  16. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Alonso, J M; Coutts, A J; Flouris, A D; Girard, O; González-Alonso, J; Hausswirth, C; Jay, O; Lee, J K W; Mitchell, N; Nassis, G P; Nybo, L; Pluim, B M; Roelands, B; Sawka, M N; Wingo, J E; Périard, J D

    2015-06-01

    Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise. Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat.

  17. Resting salivary levels of IgA and cortisol are significantly affected during intensive resistance training periods in elite male weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Lung; Li, Tzai-Li; Chou, Li-Wei; Chang, Chen-Kang; Huang, Shu-Yi; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative effects of intensive resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cortisol responses in elite male weightlifters. Eleven elite male Taiwanese weightlifters were trained through 3 training stages before a national weightlifting competition, and this was followed by a 2-week recovery stage. Resting saliva samples were collected once in each of the 4 stages. Salivary concentrations of total protein (TP), SIgA, lactoferrin, and cortisol were measured. The results showed that (a) salivary TP concentrations were not significantly affected; (b) resting levels of SIgA, the ratio of SIgA to TP (SIgA/TP), cortisol, and the ratio of cortisol to TP (cortisol/TP) were significantly higher in the training stages than in the recovery stage; (c) a positive correlation was revealed between the ratios of SIgA/TP and cortisol/TP; and (d) the resting salivary lactoferrin concentrations and the ratio of lactoferrin to TP (lactoferrin/TP) were significantly lower in stage 1 than in the recovery stage. The findings in this study suggest that prolonged, intensive resistance training exerts cumulative effects on SIgA and cortisol responses in elite weightlifters.

  18. Effects of closed versus open kinetic chain knee extensor resistance training on knee laxity and leg function in patients during the 8- to 14-week post-operative period after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mark C; Morrissey, Matthew C; King, John B; Morrissey, Dylan; Earnshaw, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Open kinetic chain (OKC) knee extensor resistance training has lost favour in ACLR rehabilitation due to concerns that this exercise is harmful to the graft and will be less effective in improving function. In this randomized, single-blind clinical trial OKC and closed kinetic chain (CKC) knee extensor training were compared for their effects on knee laxity and function in the middle period of ACLR rehabilitation. The study subjects were 49 patients recovering from ACLR surgery (37 M, 12 F; mean age=33 years). Tests were carried out at 8 and 14 weeks after ACLR with knee laxity measured using a ligament arthrometer and function with the Hughston Clinic knee self-assessment questionnaire and single leg, maximal effort jump testing (post-test only). Between tests, subjects trained using either OKC or CKC resistance of their knee and hip extensors as part of formal physical therapy sessions three times per week. No statistically significant (one-way ANOVA, p>0.05) differences were found between the treatment groups in knee laxity or leg function. OKC and CKC knee extensor training in the middle period of rehabilitation after ACLR surgery do not differ in their effects on knee laxity or leg function. Exercise dosages are described in this study and further research is required to assess whether the findings in this study are dosage specific.

  19. Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Ori; Terkel, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Captive environments encompass various factors that can elevate stress levels and jeopardize the wellbeing of the captive animals. The use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enables researchers and caretakers to reduce tension directly associated with potentially stressful procedures and states. The current study tested the general effect of PRT on the wellbeing of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by measuring behaviors that reflect poor and good welfare and that were not directly connected to the specific aim of the training session. The behavior of a group of twelve chimpanzees was measured throughout the day from the exhibition yard, at baseline (12 weeks) and during the PRT period (10 weeks). The results show a significant decrease in abnormal and stress-related behaviors and a significant rise in prosocial affiliative behaviors following implementation of the training program. The training was shown to have a greater positive effect on low-ranking individuals compared with high-ranking ones. This research shows for the first time that PRT offers an enrichment effect whose general influence lasts throughout the day, irrespective of any direct link to a specific trained behavior. Consequently, it can be claimed that PRT presents an effective enrichment tool that can be implemented with captive animals. Because of the above-noted differential effect between high- and low-ranking chimpanzees, however, this should be taken into consideration when combining PRT with the non-human primates' daily routine.

  20. The Effect of Instructor-Student Interaction on Achievement in Computer-Based Training (CBT). Interim Technical Paper for Period April 1990-February 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Stanley D.

    The role of the instructor in computer-based training (CBT) has not been previously studied. However, the role of instructor in traditional instruction (TI) has been studied and has been shown to influence student achievement. A key finding from TI research is that instructor-student interaction is positively related to achievement. This…

  1. Relationship between Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Scores and Success in Air Weapons Controller Training. Interim Report for the Period November 1982-February 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lawrence S.; Rogers, Deborah

    This project investigated the relationship between Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) composite scores and student performance in Air Force air weapons controller training. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using AFOQT scores as one selection criteria for entry to the air weapons controller field. An analysis of…

  2. A Model for Integrating a Job-Aiding, Training, and Performance Assessment System--A Preliminary Concept Paper. Final Technical Paper for Period June-August 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Charles R., Jr.; Lester, Mark

    This paper presents a model for an integrated system used for job-aiding, training, and performance assessment for persons who maintain systems of various types. The model is driven by updatable job aids, by integrated human-machine heuristics, and by an expanding matrix of maintenance activities. The model uses the job-aiding base, updated by…

  3. Effects of feeding transgenic corn with mCry1Ac or maroACC gene to laying hens for 12 weeks on growth, egg quality and organ health.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Q; Chen, L; Gao, L X; Zhang, L L; Yao, B; Yang, X G; Zhang, H F

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding two transgenic corn lines containing the mCry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain (BT-799) and the maroACC gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (CC-2), respectively, on growth, egg quality and organ health indicators. Expression of the mCry1Ac gene confers resistance to Pyrausta nubilalis and the maroACC gene confers tolerance to herbicides. Healthy hens (n=96 placed in cages; 3 hens/cage) were randomly assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (8 cages/treatment) formulated with the following corn: non-transgenic near-isoline control corn (control), BT-799 corn, CC-2 corn and commercially available non-transgenic reference corn (reference). The experiment was divided into three 4-week phases (week 1 to 4, week 5 to 8 and week 9 to 12), during which hens were fed mash diets. Performance (BW, feed intake and egg production) and egg quality were determined. Following slaughter at the end of 12 weeks of feeding (n=8/treatment), carcass yield and organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, stomach and ovary) were recorded; organs and intestines were sampled for histological analysis. Analysis of serum biochemistry parameters to assess the liver and kidney function were performed. No differences in BW, egg production and production efficiency were observed between hens consuming the control diet and hens consuming the BT-799 or CC-2 diet. Haugh unit measures and egg component weights were similar between the control and test groups. Carcass yield was not affected by the diet treatment. Similar organosomatic indices and serum parameters did not indicate the characteristics of organ dysfunction. All observed values of the BT-799 and CC-2 groups were within the calculated tolerance intervals. This research indicates that the performance, egg quality, organ health and carcass yield of laying hens fed diets containing the BT-799 or CC-2 corn line were similar

  4. Effect of 12-week vanadate and magnesium co-administration on chosen haematological parameters as well as on some indices of iron and copper metabolism and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Gołębiowska, Dorota; Niedźwiecka, Irmina

    2012-09-01

    Changes in some blood parameters after 12-week administration of sodium metavanadate (SMV; 0.125mgV/ml) or/and magnesium sulphate (MS; 0.06mgMg/ml) in drinking water were studied in outbred male Wistar rats (16 rats/each group) to explore the probable mechanism(s) underlying SMV toxicity and check whether Mg at the level selected during SMV co-administration can protect, at least in part, from a possible deleterious action of SMV. Exposure to SMV alone and in combination with MS (a) led to a decrease in fluid and food intake and body weight gain; (b) predisposed the animals to the development of microcytic-hypochromic anaemia (with excessive liver and spleen Fe deposition, unaltered plasma Fe level and enhanced Zn concentration in the erythrocytes (RBCs) characterized by a reduced haematocrit (Ht) index and haemoglobin (Hb) level, unchanged erythrocyte and reticulocyte count, anisocytosis, lowered total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and elevated transferrin saturation (TS); (c) disturbed Cu homeostasis, but (d) did not influence the leukocyte count and the plasma total antioxidant status (TAS). We suggest that abnormal metabolism and accumulation of Fe as well as an altered Cu status and the RBC Zn level might lead to defective Fe utilization and be a factor promoting the development of Fe-utilization anaemia. The disturbances in the antioxidative capacity reported previously in rats' RBCs after SMV intoxication (Ścibior, Zaporowska, Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 30 (2010) 153-161) may suggest that oxidative stress (OS) could also be, in part, involved in the mechanism responsible for the development of anaemia. The Mg dose ingested in combination with V under SMV-MS co-administration (a) was able to decrease, to some extent, the V concentration in the blood, (b) normalized the RBC Mg and Fe levels and (c) restored the values of some parameters of the Fe status near the control values. These results allow a supposition that a higher Mg dose consumed during SMV

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Supervised Strength Training Adopted in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Patrick J.; Poudevigne, Melanie S.; Cress, M. Elaine; Motl, Robert W.; Clapp, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe safety and efficacy of a supervised, low-to-moderate intensity strength training program adopted during pregnancy among women at increased risk for back pain. Methods 32 women adopted strength training twice per week for 12 weeks. Data on musculoskeletal injuries, symptoms, blood pressure, and the absolute external load used for 5 of 6 exercises were obtained during each session. A submaximal lumbar extension endurance exercise test was performed at weeks 5, 10, and 13. Results The mean (± SD) exercise session attendance rate was 80.5% (± 11.3%). No musculoskeletal injuries occurred. Potentially adverse symptoms (eg, dizziness) were infrequent (2.1% of sessions). Repeated-measures ANOVA showed large increases in the external load across 12 weeks (all P values < .001) and the percentage increases in external load from weeks 1 to 12 were 36% for leg press, 39% for leg curl, 39% for lat pull down, 41% for lumbar extension and 56% for leg extension. Training was associated with a 14% increase in lumbar endurance. Blood pressure was unchanged following acute exercise sessions and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Conclusion The adoption of a supervised, low-to-moderate intensity strength training program during pregnancy can be safe and efficacious for pregnant women. PMID:21487130

  6. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Itshak; Elbar, Ori; Tsedek, Irit; Oddsson, Lars IE

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136). Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88) with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training). Voluntary step reaction times

  7. Effects and costs of home-based training with telemonitoring guidance in low to moderate risk patients entering cardiac rehabilitation: The FIT@Home study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical training has beneficial effects on exercise capacity, quality of life and mortality in patients after a cardiac event or intervention and is therefore a core component of cardiac rehabilitation. However, cardiac rehabilitation uptake is low and effects tend to decrease after the initial rehabilitation period. Home-based training has the potential to increase cardiac rehabilitation uptake, and was shown to be safe and effective in improving short-term exercise capacity. Long-term effects on physical fitness and activity, however, are disappointing. Therefore, we propose a novel strategy using telemonitoring guidance based on objective training data acquired during exercise at home. In this way, we aim to improve self-management skills like self-efficacy and action planning for independent exercise and, consequently, improve long-term effectiveness with respect to physical fitness and physical activity. In addition, we aim to compare costs of this strategy with centre-based cardiac rehabilitation. Methods/design This randomized controlled trial compares a 12-week telemonitoring guided home-based training program with a regular, 12-week centre-based training program of equal duration and training intensity in low to moderate risk patients entering cardiac rehabilitation after an acute coronary syndrome or cardiac intervention. The home-based group receives three supervised training sessions before they commence training with a heart rate monitor in their home environment. Participants are instructed to train at 70-85% of their maximal heart rate for 45–60 minutes, twice a week. Patients receive individual coaching by telephone once a week, based on measured heart rate data that are shared through the internet. Primary endpoints are physical fitness and physical activity, assessed at baseline, after 12 weeks and after one year. Physical fitness is expressed as peak oxygen uptake, assessed by symptom limited exercise testing with gas exchange

  8. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition. PMID:25387489

  9. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  10. Resistance Exercise Training Alters Mitochondrial Function in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Craig; Reidy, Paul T.; Bhattarai, Nisha; Sidossis, Labros S.; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loss of mitochondrial competency is associated with several chronic illnesses. Therefore, strategies that maintain or increase mitochondrial function will likely be of benefit in a number of clinical settings. Endurance exercise has long been known to increase mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Comparatively little is known regarding the impact of resistance exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of chronic resistance training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function. Methods Here, we studied the impact of a 12-week resistance exercise training program on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in eleven young healthy men. Muscle biopsies were collected before and after the 12-week training program and mitochondrial respiratory capacity determined in permeabilized myofibers by high-resolution respirometry. Results Resistance exercise training increased lean body mass and quadriceps muscle strength by 4 and 15%, respectively (P<0.001). Coupled mitochondria respiration supported by complex I, and complex I and II substrates, increased by 2- and 1.4-fold, respectively (P<0.01). The ratio of coupled complex I supported respiration to maximal respiration increased with resistance exercise training (P<0.05), as did complex I protein abundance (P<0.05), while the substrate control ratio for succinate was reduced after resistance exercise training (P<0.001). Transcripts responsible for proteins critical to electron transfer and NAD+ production increased with training (P<0.05), while transcripts involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were unaltered. Conclusion Collectively, 12-weeks of resistance exercise training resulted in qualitative and quantitative changes in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. This adaptation occurs with modest changes in mitochondrial proteins and transcript expression. Resistance exercise training

  11. The Effects of Walking or Walking-with-Poles Training on Tissue Oxygenation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Eileen G.; McBurney, Conor; Butler, Jolene; Jelinek, Christine; O'Connell, Susan; Fritschi, Cynthia; Reda, Domenic

    2012-01-01

    This randomized trial proposed to determine if there were differences in calf muscle StO2 parameters in patients before and after 12 weeks of a traditional walking or walking-with-poles exercise program. Data were collected on 85 patients who were randomized to a traditional walking program (n = 40) or walking-with-poles program (n = 45) of exercise training. Patients walked for 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Seventy-one patients completed both the baseline and the 12-week follow-up progressive treadmill tests (n = 36 traditional walking and n = 35 walking-with-poles). Using the near-infrared spectroscopy measures, StO2 was measured prior to, during, and after exercise. At baseline, calf muscle oxygenation decreased from 56 ± 17% prior to the treadmill test to 16 ± 18% at peak exercise. The time elapsed prior to reaching nadir StO2 values increased more in the traditional walking group when compared to the walking-with-poles group. Likewise, absolute walking time increased more in the traditional walking group than in the walking-with-poles group. Tissue oxygenation decline during treadmill testing was less for patients assigned to a 12-week traditional walking program when compared to those assigned to a 12-week walking-with-poles program. In conclusion, the 12-week traditional walking program was superior to walking-with-poles in improving tissue deoxygenation in patients with PAD. PMID:23050152

  12. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy – a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles

    PubMed Central

    Scholtes, Vanessa A; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Verschuren, Olaf; Tempelaars, Els; Hensen, Maartje; Becher, Jules G

    2008-01-01

    Background Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased strength and improved function, but low methodological quality and incomplete reporting on the training protocols hampers adequate interpretation of the results. This paper describes the design and training protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a school-based progressive functional strength training program for children with CP. Methods/Results Fifty-one children with Gross Motor Function Classification Systems levels I to III, aged of 6 to 13 years, were recruited. Using stratified randomization, each child was assigned to an intervention group (strength training) or a control group (usual care). The strength training was given in groups of 4–5 children, 3 times a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Each training session focussed on four exercises out of a 5-exercise circuit. The training load was gradually increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, as determined by the 8 Repetition Maximum (8 RM). To evaluate the effectiveness of the training, all children were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention period. Primary outcomes in this study were gross motor function (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure and functional muscle strength tests) and walking ability (measured with the 10-meter, the 1-minute and the timed stair test). Secondary outcomes were lower limb muscle strength (measured with a 6 RM test, isometric strength tests, and a sprint capacity test), mobility (measured with a mobility questionnaire), and sport activities (measured with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment). Spasticity and range of motion were assessed to evaluate any adverse events

  13. Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Jeanie; Strulovitch, Jack; Tagalakis, Vicki; Meng, Linyan; Fombonne, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of a social skills training group for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) was evaluated. Parents of six groups of adolescents (n = 46, 61% male, mean age 14.6) completed questionnaires immediately before and after the 12-week group. Parents and adolescents were surveyed regarding their…

  14. Transit Officer Training Recommendations to Improve Safety in a High Stress Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Christine; Quin, Robyn; Green, Lelia; Bahn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the experience of one of the authors, an ethnographic researcher who, in the course of her investigation into the everyday work and communication cultures of Australian public transport officers, spent 12 weeks undergoing training as a rail transit officer before spending four months on the job where she was rostered on duty…

  15. Effects of Tennis Training on Personality Development in Children and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Erdal; Sahin, Gülsah; Sentürk, Ugur; Aydin, Halide; Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week basic tennis training program on the personality development of early adolescents aged between 9 and 11 years. The research methodology consisted of a single group pre-test/post-test design implemented with a total of eight volunteer children (three boys and five girls). The…

  16. A Training Program to Reduce "Visitation Stress" in Single Parents and Their Latency Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ron

    This practicum was designed to decrease single parent and latency age child stress associated with child and noncustodial parent visitations, and to improve children's school behaviors. A 9-session, 12-week education and training program for single mothers (N=6) and their elementary school age children (N=15), designed to reduce stress by…

  17. Parent-Assisted Friendship Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Psychotropic Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Fred; Myatt, Robert; Feinberg, David

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five 6 to 13-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders, who were high functioning, were given 12 weeks of parent-assisted children's friendship training. Thirteen were prescribed various psychotropic medications by physicians in the community prior to treatment (medicated) while 12 were not (unmedicated). Two parent-rated and three…

  18. Autogenic Training and Hand Temperature Biofeedback in the Treatment of Migraine: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, B.; And Others

    The possibility of alleviating migraine headaches by autogenic relaxation training, with or without hand temperature biofeedback, was assessed. The study examined five independent groups in a bi-directional control group design. Volunteer migraine sufferers served as subjects, each participating for 12 weeks. The first four weeks of the study were…

  19. Effect of Reaction Developing Training on Audio-Visual Feet Reaction Time in Wrestlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the most determinative elements for a successful sports performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 12-week feet reaction developing trainings upon feet reaction time of females at 11-13 age interval. Volunteer sportsmen between 11 and 13 age interval who were active in Tokat Provincial…

  20. The Effects of Swim Training on Respiratory Aspects of Speech Production in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Amanda Faith; Emes, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated…

  1. Microteaching Experience in Distance English Language Teacher Training: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merc, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this single-subject case study was to document the experiences of a teacher trainee during a 12-week microteaching process in the Distance English Language Teacher Training program (DELT). The student teacher subject responded to questionnaires, submitted online dialogue journals, and answered open-ended questions before and after…

  2. Supervised Home Training of Dialogue Skills in Chronic Aphasia: A Randomized Parallel Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobis-Bosch, Ruth; Springer, Luise; Radermacher, Irmgard; Huber, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of supervised self-training for individuals with aphasia. Linguistic and communicative performance in structured dialogues represented the main study parameters. Method: In a cross-over design for randomized matched pairs, 18 individuals with chronic aphasia were examined during 12 weeks of…

  3. A Training and Support Group for Elderly Diabetics: Description and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Floyd F.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted 12-week diabetes support-training group for older adults having difficulty managing their diabetes because of poor dietary compliance. Results revealed that group participants (n=12 women) successfully improved their compliance to diet plans and lowered their peak blood glucose levels. (Author/NB)

  4. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  5. Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of the leg extensors in well-trained athletes: the incremental load power profile.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Cormack, Stuart; Taylor, Kristie-Lee; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the methodology of an iso-inertial force-velocity assessment utilizing a range of loads and a group of high-performance athletes. A total of 26 subjects (19.8 +/- 2.6 years, 196.3 +/- 9.6 cm, 88.6 +/- 8.9 kg) participated in this study. Interday reliability of various force-time measures obtained during the performance of countermovement jumps with a range of loads was examined, followed by a validity assessment of the various measures' ability to discriminate among performance levels, while the ability of the test protocol to detect training-induced changes was assessed by comparing results before and after an intensive 12-week training period. Force and velocity variables were observed to be reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.74-0.99). Large effect size statistic (ES > 0.50) differences among player groups were observed for peak power (1.36-2.25), relative peak power (1.57-2.42), and peak force (0.74-0.95). Significant (p < 0.05) and large (ES > 0.50) improvements were observed in the kinetic values after the intensive training period. The results of this study indicate that the incremental load power profile is an acceptably reliable, valid, and sensitive method of assessing force and power capabilities of the leg extensors in high-performance and elite volleyball players.

  6. Anthropogenic impacts on photosynthetic activity: a multidisciplinary context for research training. Final report for period September 15, 1992 - September 14, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Colin A. Wraight

    1999-01-01

    Under the federal agency initiative for Collaborative Research in Plant Biology, the intrinsic breadth of photosynthesis research at the University of Illinois was developed as a paradigm for training in modern biology. Research projects were developed to prepare students for understanding and contributing to the solution of pressing issues of plant biology, broadly defined as anthropogenic impacts on photosynthesis and plant productivity, and to provide students with an interdisciplinary outlook and multidisciplinary technical abilities. By coordinating the expertise of two or more faculty laboratories, the projects took and integrated and comparative approach to investigating the varied mechanisms adopted by plants for coping with environmental limitations and stresses, especially those that are at risk for increased impact due to human activities and technology. In addition to graduate and post-doctoral training, the program supported undergraduate involvement in hands-on research, through Summer Fellowships. A two week Summer workshop was also developed specifically for high school and community college science teachers. Offered each year, the Workshop provided perspectives on modern science, arming the participants with knowledge of societally important issues such as global climate change and prospects for biotechnology, and providing easily transferable techniques to take back to their own classrooms.

  7. Toppling Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Malcolm

    1998-01-01

    Explains a novel way of approaching centripetal force: theory is used to predict an orbital period at which a toy train will topple from a circular track. The demonstration has elements of prediction (a criterion for a good model) and suspense (a criterion for a good demonstration). The demonstration proved useful in undergraduate physics and…

  8. Hands-on training in health district management.

    PubMed

    De Brouwere, V; Van Balen, H

    1996-01-01

    In 1985 in Zaire, a 12-week training course began in Kasongo district to prepare physicians to use sound management of primary and secondary health services, supervision of health centers, and commitment to team work to operate districts in an integrated way. Only 1 new physician trainee was accepted every 4 weeks. During the first week, trainees observed work at an outpatient clinic for 2-3 hours/day to learn about the links between the primary and secondary levels of health care. During the second week, they observed staff at an urban health center in Kasongo city so they could become familiar with strategies for diagnosis and treatment in curative consultations and with instructions for follow-up. During the third week, the trainees returned to the outpatient clinic to practice interviewing patients. During the fourth week, they observed work in a rural health center and in remote villages. During the second 4-week period, trainees worked in a hospital department of their choice to learn how to use files and to evaluate quality of care. They visited health centers 1-2 times/week to examine supervisory techniques of different resident physicians. Trainees were part of the health team during the third 4-week period. They were responsible for a hospital department and supervised health centers under a resident physician. The trainees also attended management committee meetings addressing quality of care, staff management, and feedback from health center supervisions. The cost for this health district management training was US $100/trainee. Between mid-1985 and mid-1988, 18 physicians underwent this training. 12 of these physicians are now working in health districts in Zaire. A follow-up survey in 1995 showed that most trainees were applying the requisite skills and knowledge acquired during the training. Further supervision or self-training, involving team analysis of problems and possible solutions, are needed. Factors contributing to the course's success

  9. Effects of exercise training on atrophy gene expression in skeletal muscle of mice with chronic allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Durigan, J L Q; Peviani, S M; Russo, T L; Silva, A C D; Vieira, R P; Martins, M A; Carvalho, C R F; Salvini, T F

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of chronic allergic airway inflammation and of treadmill training (12 weeks) of low and moderate intensity on muscle fiber cross-sectional area and mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in the mouse tibialis anterior muscle. Six 4-month-old male BALB/c mice (28.5 +/- 0.8 g) per group were examined: 1) control, non-sensitized and non-trained (C); 2) ovalbumin sensitized (OA, 20 microg per mouse); 3) non-sensitized and trained at 50% maximum speed _ low intensity (PT50%); 4) non-sensitized and trained at 75% maximum speed _ moderate intensity (PT75%); 5) OA-sensitized and trained at 50% (OA+PT50%), 6) OA-sensitized and trained at 75% (OA+PT75%). There was no difference in muscle fiber cross-sectional area among groups and no difference in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 expression between C and OA groups. All exercised groups showed significantly decreased expression of atrogin-1 compared to C (1.01 +/- 0.2-fold): PT50% = 0.71 +/- 0.12-fold; OA+PT50% = 0.74 +/- 0.03-fold; PT75% = 0.71 +/- 0.09-fold; OA+PT75% = 0.74 +/- 0.09-fold. Similarly significant results were obtained regarding MuRF1 gene expression compared to C (1.01 +/- 0.23-fold): PT50% = 0.53 +/- 0.20-fold; OA+PT50% = 0.55 +/- 0.11-fold; PT75% = 0.35 +/- 0.15-fold; OA+PT75% = 0.37 +/- 0.08-fold. A short period of OA did not induce skeletal muscle atrophy in the mouse tibialis anterior muscle and aerobic training at low and moderate intensity negatively regulates the atrophy pathway in skeletal muscle of healthy mice or mice with allergic lung inflammation.

  10. Functional Training Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siff, Mel C.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that though functional training is vital in all sporting preparation, it is only one aspect of the overall process. The paper defines functional training; discusses facets of functionality, functionality and balancing drills, and functional training and periodization; and concludes that functionality is best defined in terms of the outcome…

  11. Resistance training increases SHBG in overweight/obese, young men

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Christian K.; Croymans, Daniel M.; Aziz, Najib; Butch, Anthony W.; Lee, Cathy C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that SHBG affects glycemic control, predicts both T2D and metabolic syndrome, and is low in obese subjects. We sought to determine if resistance exercise training (RT) can increase sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and ameliorate levels of related steroid hormones in overweight/obese, sedentary young men. Materials/Methods 36 participants (BMI 31.4 kg/m2, age 22 years) were randomized into an RT (12 weeks of training, 3/week) or control group (C, 12 weeks no training), and assessed for changes in SHBG, cortisol, testosterone, free testosterone (FT) and free androgen index (FAI). In addition, body composition and oral glucose tolerance testing was performed. Results 12 weeks of RT increased SHBG (P=0.01) and decreased FAI (P<0.05) and cortisol (P<0.05) compared to C. FT decreased in RT (P=0.01). Total testosterone did not change in either group. These changes were noted without weight loss, and in concert with increases in lean body mass (P=0.0002 vs C) and decreases in glucose area under the curve (AUC) (P= 0.004), insulin AUC (P=0.03), and total (P=0.002) and trunk (P=0.003) fat mass in RT. Conclusion In overweight/obese young men, RT increases SHBG and lowers FAI in obese young adult men. PMID:23318050

  12. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two community activity centers for the elderly. Three different tests from the Senior Fitness Test were used in order to test a variety of health parameters of the community-dwelling elderly, including those parameters related to fall prevention. Materials and Methods: Eighteen community-dwelling elderly individuals (63–95 years of age; mean, 83.2 years of age) were assessed in one intervention group without the use of a control group. The intervention group performed nine group sessions (1–1.5 hours each) of playful training with the modular interactive tiles over a 12-week period in two community activity centers for the elderly. Data were collected using pre-tests and post-tests of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the 8-foot Timed Up & Go Test (TUG), and the Chair-Stand Test (CS). Data were analyzed for statistically significant differences and increases of means. Results: The 6MWT, TUG, and CS measurements showed statistically significant differences and increases of means between the pre-tests and post-tests with the 6MWT (P<0.001) (means difference, 22.4 percent), TUG (P<0.001) (means difference, 15 percent), and CS (P<0.002) (means difference, 14 percent). Fifty-six percent of the elderly progressed from one health risk level to a better level, according to the three tests. Conclusions: Statistically significant increases in scores were found across all tests, suggesting an improvement of many different health parameters for the elderly. Well-established research has shown the relationship between such test scores and fall incidents, balancing, mobility, agility, etc. This significant improvement in the health status of the elderly is obtained in as few as nine

  13. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles.

    PubMed

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-10-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two community activity centers for the elderly. Three different tests from the Senior Fitness Test were used in order to test a variety of health parameters of the community-dwelling elderly, including those parameters related to fall prevention. Materials and Methods: Eighteen community-dwelling elderly individuals (63-95 years of age; mean, 83.2 years of age) were assessed in one intervention group without the use of a control group. The intervention group performed nine group sessions (1-1.5 hours each) of playful training with the modular interactive tiles over a 12-week period in two community activity centers for the elderly. Data were collected using pre-tests and post-tests of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the 8-foot Timed Up & Go Test (TUG), and the Chair-Stand Test (CS). Data were analyzed for statistically significant differences and increases of means. Results: The 6MWT, TUG, and CS measurements showed statistically significant differences and increases of means between the pre-tests and post-tests with the 6MWT (P<0.001) (means difference, 22.4 percent), TUG (P<0.001) (means difference, 15 percent), and CS (P<0.002) (means difference, 14 percent). Fifty-six percent of the elderly progressed from one health risk level to a better level, according to the three tests. Conclusions: Statistically significant increases in scores were found across all tests, suggesting an improvement of many different health parameters for the elderly. Well-established research has shown the relationship between such test scores and fall incidents, balancing, mobility, agility, etc. This significant improvement in the health status of the elderly is obtained in as few as nine training

  14. Vision and agility training in community dwelling older adults: incorporating visual training into programs for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of visual training on obstacle course performance of independent community dwelling older adults. Agility is the ability to rapidly alter ongoing motor patterns, an important aspect of mobility which is required in obstacle avoidance. However, visual information is also a critical factor in successful obstacle avoidance. We compared obstacle course performance of a group that trained in visually driven body movements and agility drills, to a group that trained only in agility drills. We also included a control group that followed the American College of Sports Medicine exercise recommendations for older adults. Significant gains in fitness, mobility and power were observed across all training groups. Obstacle course performance results revealed that visual training had the greatest improvement on obstacle course performance (22%) following a 12 week training program. These results suggest that visual training may be an important consideration for fall prevention programs.

  15. Interaction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Rathmacher, John A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Shelley, Mack C; Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-07-01

    Lowery, RP, Joy, JM, Rathmacher, JA, Baier, SM, Fuller, JC Jr, Shelley, MC II, Jäger, R, Purpura, M, Wilson, SMC, and Wilson, JM. Interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid and adenosine triphosphate on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1843-1854, 2016-Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation helps maintain performance under high fatiguing contractions and with greater fatigue recovery demands also increase. Current evidence suggests that the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) acts by speeding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity or prolonged exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA (3 g) and ATP (400 mg) administration on lean body mass (LBM), strength, and power in trained individuals. A 3-phase double-blind, placebo-, and diet-controlled study was conducted. Phases consisted of an 8-week periodized resistance training program (phase 1), followed by a 2-week overreaching cycle (phase 2), and a 2-week taper (phase 3). Lean body mass was increased by a combination of HMB-FA/ATP by 12.7% (p < 0.001). In a similar fashion, strength gains after training were increased in HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented subjects by 23.5% (p < 0.001). Vertical jump and Wingate power were increased in the HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented group compared with the placebo-supplemented group, and the 12-week increases were 21.5 and 23.7%, respectively. During the overreaching cycle, strength and power declined in the placebo group (4.3-5.7%), whereas supplementation with HMB-FA/ATP resulted in continued strength gains (1.3%). In conclusion, HMB-FA and ATP in combination with resistance exercise training enhanced LBM, power, and strength. In addition, HMB-FA plus ATP blunted the typical response to overreaching, resulting in a further increase in strength during that period. It seems that the combination of HMB-FA/ATP could benefit those who

  16. The Effects of Physical Training on Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, B. N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) participated in a 12-week exercise program to determine whether such training would bring about changes in blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles. The findings support the beneficial effects of regular exercise for individuals with IDDM. (MT)

  17. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  18. Tablet-Based Strength-Balance Training to Motivate and Improve Adherence to Exercise in Independently Living Older People: A Phase II Preclinical Exploratory Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    autonomously perform strength–balance exercises (median 6 on a 7-point Likert scale). Social motivation strategies proved more effective than individual strategies to stimulate the participants to comply with the training plan, as well as to change their behavior permanently toward a more physically active lifestyle. The exercises were effective to improve preferred and fast gait speed. Conclusions ActiveLifestyle assisted and motivated independently living and healthy older people to autonomously perform strength–balance exercises over 12 weeks and had low dropout rates. The social motivation strategies were more effective to stimulate the participants to comply with the training plan and remain on the intervention. The adoption of assistive technology devices for physical intervention tends to motivate and retain older people exercising for longer periods of time. PMID:23939401

  19. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks During Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju

    2010-11-01

    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were composed of 12 topics taught over a 12-week period. To measure change in student competence and brain networks, a paper & pencil test and an fMRI scanning session were administered before and after the training programs. Unlike the hypothesis-understanding group, a before and after training comparison for the hypothesis-generating group showed significantly strong changes in hypothesis explanation quotients and functional brain connectivity associated with hypothesis-generating. However, for the hypothesis-understanding group, the brain network related to hypothesis-understanding significantly strengthened, not from hypothesis-generating type learning, but from hypothesis-understanding type learning. These findings suggest that for hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding there are at least two specialized brain network systems or processes at work in the brain. Furthermore, hypothesis-generating competence could be developed by appropriate training programs such as teaching by way of active hypothesis generation rather than present passive expository teaching practices.

  20. The effect of muscle power training with elastic band on blood glucose, cytokine, and physical function in elderly women with hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Eun Hee; Park, Sok; So, Jae Moo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of muscle power training with elastic band on body composition, glucose relation factor, and physical function in elderly women with hyperglycemia. [Methods] A total of 16 elderly women volunteered to participate in this study as subjects, and they were randomly assigned into one of the following two groups: muscle power training group (MPT: n = 8) and control group (CON: n = 8). The muscle power training group took exercise program using elastic band for 12 weeks, and the other group did not receive any exercise program during the same period. Before and after the experiment, both of the two groups received measurement in body composition (BMI, %Fat, skeletal muscle mass), glucose, cytokine (interleukin 6, adiponectin), and physical function (IPPB, grip strength). With these methods, the following conclusions were achieved. [Results] The results showed significant increases in adiponectin (p = 0.006), interleukin 6 (p = 0.018), SPPB (p = 0.024), and grip strength (P=.014). Blood glucose was significantly decreased in exercise group than contruo group. [Conclusion] It shows that the muscle power training with elastic band can give positive effects in elderly women with hyperglycemia. PMID:25960951

  1. Resistance training with excessive training load and insufficient recovery alters skeletal muscle mass-related protein expression.

    PubMed

    Alves Souza, Rodrigo Wagner; Aguiar, Andreo F; Vechetti-Júnior, Ivan J; Piedade, Warlen Pereira; Rocha Campos, Gerson Eduardo; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program with excessive training load and insufficient recovery time between bouts on muscle hypertrophy- and atrophy-related protein expression. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a trained (TR, N = 9) or a sedentary (SE, N = 9) group. The TR group was subjected to a 12-week resistance training program with excessive training load and insufficient recovery between bouts that was designed to induce plantaris muscle atrophy. After the 12-week experiment, the plantaris muscle was collected to analyze the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the muscle fibers, and MAFbx, MyoD, myogenin, and IGF-I protein expression (Western blot). The CSA was reduced significantly (-17%, p ≤ 0.05) in the TR group compared with the SE group. Reciprocally, there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) 20% increase in MAFbx protein expression, whereas the MyoD (-27%), myogenin (-29%), and IGF-I (-43%) protein levels decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in the TR group compared with the SE group. In conclusion, our data indicated that muscle atrophy induced by resistance training with excessive training load and insufficient recovery was associated with upregulation of the MAFbx catabolic protein and downregulation of the MyoD, myogenin, and IGF-I anabolic proteins. These findings suggest that quantitative analysis of these proteins can be important and complementary with other biochemical markers to confirm a possible overtraining diagnosis.

  2. Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chtara, M; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Koubaa, D; Feki, Y; Millet, G; Amri, M

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of the sequencing order of individualised intermittent endurance training combined with muscular strengthening on aerobic performance and capacity. Methods: Forty eight male sport students (mean (SD) age 21.4 (1.3) years) were divided into five homogeneous groups according to their maximal aerobic speeds (vV·O2MAX). Four groups participated in various training programmes for 12 weeks (two sessions a week) as follows: E (n = 10), running endurance training; S (n = 9), strength circuit training; E+S (n = 10) and S+E (n = 10) combined the two programmes in a different order during the same training session. Group C (n = 9) served as a control. All the subjects were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) the training period using four tests: (1) a 4 km time trial running test; (2) an incremental track test to estimate vV·O2MAX; (3) a time to exhaustion test (tlim) at 100% vV·O2MAX; (4) a maximal cycling laboratory test to assess V·O2MAX. Results: Training produced significant improvements in performance and aerobic capacity in the 4 km time trial with interaction effect (p<0.001). The improvements were significantly higher for the E+S group than for the E, S+E, and S groups: 8.6%, 5.7%, 4.7%, and 2.5% for the 4 km test (p<0.05); 10.4%, 8.3%, 8.2%, and 1.6% for vV·O2MAX (p<0.01); 13.7%, 10.1%, 11.0%, and 6.4% for V·O2MAX (ml/kg0.75/min) (p<0.05) respectively. Similar significant results were observed for tlim and the second ventilatory threshold (%V·O2MAX). Conclusions: Circuit training immediately after individualised endurance training in the same session (E+S) produced greater improvement in the 4 km time trial and aerobic capacity than the opposite order or each of the training programmes performed separately. PMID:16046343

  3. Predictive risk factors of postoperative urinary incontinence following holmium laser enucleation of the prostate during the initial learning period

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Yano, Masataka; Nakayama, Takayuki; Kitahara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the predictive factors for postoperative urinary incontinence (UI) following holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the initial learning period. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 127 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent HoLEP between January 2011 and December 2013. We recorded clinical variables, including blood loss, serum prostate-specific antigen levels, and the presence or absence of UI. Blood loss was estimated as a decline in postoperative hemoglobin levels. The predictive factors for postoperative UI were determined using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Postoperative UI occurred in 31 patients (24.4%), but it cured in 29 patients (93.5%) after a mean duration of 12 weeks. Enucleation time >100 min (p=0.043) and blood loss >2.5g/dL (p=0.032) were identified as significant and independent risk factors for postoperative UI. Conclusions: Longer enucleation time and increased blood loss were independent predictors of postoperative UI in patients who underwent HoLEP during the initial learning period. Surgeons in training should take care to perform speedy enucleation maneuver with hemostasis. PMID:27564285

  4. Effects of oral adenosine-5′-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lack of studies examining the effects of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation utilizing a long-term, periodized resistance-training program (RT) in resistance-trained populations. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of 400 mg per day of oral ATP on muscular adaptations in trained individuals. We also sought to determine the effects of ATP on muscle protein breakdown, cortisol, and performance during an overreaching cycle. Methods The study was a 3-phase randomized, double-blind, and placebo- and diet-controlled intervention. Phase 1 was a periodized resistance-training program. Phase 2 consisted of a two week overreaching cycle in which volume and frequency were increased followed by a 2-week taper (Phase 3). Muscle mass, strength, and power were examined at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 to assess the chronic effects of ATP; assessment performance variables also occurred at the end of weeks 9 and 10, corresponding to the mid and endpoints of the overreaching cycle. Results There were time (p < 0.001), and group x time effects for increased total body strength (+55.3 ± 6.0 kg ATP vs. + 22.4 ± 7.1 kg placebo, p < 0.001); increased vertical jump power (+ 796 ± 75 ATP vs. 614 ± 52 watts placebo, p < 0.001); and greater ultrasound determined muscle thickness (+4.9 ± 1.0 ATP vs. (2.5 ± 0.6 mm placebo, p < 0.02) with ATP supplementation. During the overreaching cycle, there were group x time effects for strength and power, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo group. Protein breakdown was also lower in the ATP group. Conclusions Our results suggest oral ATP supplementation may enhance muscular adaptations following 12-weeks of resistance training, and prevent decrements in performance following overreaching. No statistically or clinically significant changes in blood chemistry or hematology were observed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01508338 PMID

  5. Early Postmenopausal Phase Is Associated With Reduced Prostacyclin-Induced Vasodilation That Is Reversed by Exercise Training: The Copenhagen Women Study.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Nielsen, Mads B; Mogensen, Alexander S; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We examined the function of the vascular prostanoid system in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1±0.5 [mean±SE] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50±0 versus 54±1) years of age were included. Before the training period, the vasodilator response to intra-arterial infusion of either the prostacyclin analog epoprostenol or acetylcholine was lower (≈13%-41%; P<0.05) in the postmenopausal compared with the premenopausal women. Acetylcholine infusion induced a similar release of prostacyclin (6-keto prostaglandin F1a). To elucidate the role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids, acetylcholine infusion was combined with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac and here the vascular response to acetylcholine was reduced to a similar extent in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training increased (P<0.05) the vasodilator response to epoprostenol (≈100%-150%) and acetylcholine (≈100%-120%) infusion in the postmenopausal group. These findings demonstrate that the early postmenopausal phase is associated with a marked reduction in vascular function. Despite of a reduced sensitivity to prostacyclin, the overall balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor prostanoids does not seem to be altered. Exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular sensitivity to epoprostenol and acetylcholine, suggesting that beneficial vascular adaptations with exercise training are preserved in recent postmenopausal women. PMID:27550922

  6. [Elective periods in the medical curriculum. Madness or academic challenge?].

    PubMed

    Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1993-01-10

    The medical curriculum at the University of Tromsø reserves 23 weeks, divided into four periods, for elective work, including 12 weeks at the end of the fifth year, when the student carries out an independent study and writes a short thesis. 84.2% of 417 physicians (graduation year 1979-89) answered a mailed questionnaire asking them to evaluate these periods. The postgraduates report high levels of satisfaction with this part of the curriculum, thought they had benefited from it. As many as 86.0% evaluate the gain from the first three periods as good or very good. 26.8% started working on their thesis before the final 12 week period. 88.1% found the fourth, and longest period, assigned for their thesis to be an important part of the curriculum. One third had also published their material, half of these in international journals. 75.6% found the skills acquired during the final elective period to be useful in their present work, independent of specialty.

  7. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  8. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers. PMID:25867005

  9. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items.

  10. Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Kojedal, Oystein; Losnegard, Thomas; Kvamme, Bent; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training without heavy strength training (CON; n = 9). The strength training performed by STR consisted of one lower-body exercise and two upper-body exercises [3-5 repetition maximum (RM) sets of 3-8 repetitions], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Architectural changes in m. vastus lateralis, 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, squat jump (SJ) height, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), work economy during submaximal treadmill skate rollerskiing, and performance in a 7.5-km rollerski time trial were measured before and after the intervention. STR increased 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, muscle thickness, and SJ performance more than CON (p < 0.05). There was no difference between groups in change in work economy. The two groups showed no changes in total body mass, VO(2max), or time-trial performance. In conclusion, 12 weeks of supplemental strength training improved determinants of performance in Nordic Combined by improving the athletes' strength and vertical jump ability without increasing total body mass or compromising the development of VO(2max).

  11. THE FEASIBILITY OF TRAINING NON-SKILLED PERSONNEL TO ASSIST PROFESSIONAL STAFF IN THE CARE AND TREATMENT OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN, A CHILD WELFARE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retarded Infants Services, Inc., New York, NY.

    A 12-WEEK TRAINING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED TO PREPARE NONPROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL TO SERVE MENTAL RETARDATES IN THE AREAS OF HOMEMAKING AND CHILD CARE, PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND NURSING CARE, SPEECH THERAPY, PLAY ACTIVITY, AND AUXILIARY MATERNAL CARE. RECRUITMENT WAS THROUGH NEWSPAPER ANNOUNCEMENT, THE RETARDED INFANTS SERVICE REFERRAL AGENCIES, POVERTY…

  12. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content. PMID:25114739

  13. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  14. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low. PMID:27526151

  15. Media Training

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-11

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  16. Media Training

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  17. Effect of Regular Resistance Training on Motivation, Self-Perceived Health, and Quality of Life in Previously Inactive Overweight Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rustaden, Anne Mette; Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n = 143), mean BMI 31.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mean age 39.9 ± 10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training), B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer), C (nonsupervised exercise), or D (controls). The intervention included 12 weeks of 45–60 minutes' full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1 ± 10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A–C) had better scores on exercise motivation (A = 43.9 ± 19.8, B = 47.6 ± 15.4, C = 48.4 ± 17.8) compared to the control group (D) (26.5 ± 18.2) (p < 0.001). Groups B and C scored better on self-perceived health (B = 1.9 ± 0.8, C = 2.3 ± 0.8), compared to group D (3.0 ± 0.6) (p < 0.001). For quality of life measurement, there was no statistically significant difference between either intervention groups or the control. Conclusions. Resistance training contributed to higher scores in important variables related to exercise motivation and self-perceived health. Low adherence showed that it was difficult to motivate previously inactive, overweight women to participate in regular strength training. PMID:27462608

  18. Effect of Regular Resistance Training on Motivation, Self-Perceived Health, and Quality of Life in Previously Inactive Overweight Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Heiestad, Hege; Rustaden, Anne Mette; Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene A H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n = 143), mean BMI 31.3 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), mean age 39.9 ± 10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training), B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer), C (nonsupervised exercise), or D (controls). The intervention included 12 weeks of 45-60 minutes' full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1 ± 10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A-C) had better scores on exercise motivation (A = 43.9 ± 19.8, B = 47.6 ± 15.4, C = 48.4 ± 17.8) compared to the control group (D) (26.5 ± 18.2) (p < 0.001). Groups B and C scored better on self-perceived health (B = 1.9 ± 0.8, C = 2.3 ± 0.8), compared to group D (3.0 ± 0.6) (p < 0.001). For quality of life measurement, there was no statistically significant difference between either intervention groups or the control. Conclusions. Resistance training contributed to higher scores in important variables related to exercise motivation and self-perceived health. Low adherence showed that it was difficult to motivate previously inactive, overweight women to participate in regular strength training. PMID:27462608

  19. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Elsisi, Hany Farid Eid Morsy; Mousa, Gihan Samir Mohamed; ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF) or circuit weight training (CWT) on short-run basis (after 12 weeks). Patients and methods Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT) (n=15 each group). The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05). But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. PMID:25834412

  20. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Paulseth, John E.; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P.; Hicks, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0–8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS. PMID:27803637

  1. Resistance Strength Training Exercise in Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L.; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A.; White, Andrea T.; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H.; Carey, John C.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. Methods We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Results Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4±3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. Conclusions A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3 days/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. PMID:25597614

  2. Twelve-week exercise training and the quality of life in menopausal women – clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska, Jolanta; Rutkowska, Magdalena; Michalski, Bogdan Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The menopause transition is associated with decreased health functioning. About 80-90% of women experience mild to severe physical or physiological menopause-related complaints per year when approaching menopause. Physical activity may reduce some climacteric symptoms and improve the quality of life. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a 12-week training programme on the quality of life (QoL) in menopausal-aged women living in a rural area. Material and methods Participants were 80 women aged 40-65 years and divided into two randomly selected groups in training sessions (exercising group, n = 40 and control group, n = 40). SF36 was used to assess the quality of life in both groups before and after 12 weeks. Exercising women participated in training session 3 times a week. Each 60-minute exercise session included warming-up exercises, walking, stretching, strengthening exercises with an elastic band and cooling down exercises. Results A non-significant positive difference in all SF36 domains in the exercising group was observed. The results of the study showed a statistically significant higher QoL in the exercising group compared to the control group after 12-week training in two domains: vitality and mental health. The improvement in the quality of life in the study group was 0.19 points (role limits – physical domain, least change) and 4.96 (vitality domain, most change). Conclusions Controlled and regular exercise for 12 weeks was significantly correlated with a positive change in vitality and mental health. Sedentary women should consider modification of their lifestyle to include physical activity as it leads to improvement of their quality of life. PMID:27095954

  3. A water-based training program that includes perturbation exercises improves speed of voluntary stepping in older adults: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Elbar, Ori; Tzedek, Irit; Vered, Elisha; Shvarth, Gali; Friger, Michael; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a water exercise training program that includes perturbation exercises (WEP) to improve the speed of voluntary stepping reaction in older adults. Speed of voluntary stepping considered as an important skill to prevent a fall when balance is lost. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a crossover design thirty-six independent old adults (64-88 years old) were divided into two groups. Group A received WEP for the first 12 weeks, followed by no intervention for the second 12 weeks. Group B did not receive intervention for the first 12 weeks and received WEP for the second 12 weeks. Voluntary Step Execution Test and postural stability in upright standing (eyes open and closed conditions) were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A significant interaction effect between group and time was found for the step execution, due to improvement in initiation phase and swing phase durations in the WEP group. Also significant improvement in postural stability parameters in eyes open and closed conditions is noted. The present results indicate that the primary benefit of WEP that include perturbations to induce stepping, was a reduction in voluntary stepping times. The WEP generalized to a better control of balance in up-right standing. PMID:22951028

  4. A water-based training program that includes perturbation exercises improves speed of voluntary stepping in older adults: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Elbar, Ori; Tzedek, Irit; Vered, Elisha; Shvarth, Gali; Friger, Michael; Melzer, Itshak

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a water exercise training program that includes perturbation exercises (WEP) to improve the speed of voluntary stepping reaction in older adults. Speed of voluntary stepping considered as an important skill to prevent a fall when balance is lost. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with a crossover design thirty-six independent old adults (64-88 years old) were divided into two groups. Group A received WEP for the first 12 weeks, followed by no intervention for the second 12 weeks. Group B did not receive intervention for the first 12 weeks and received WEP for the second 12 weeks. Voluntary Step Execution Test and postural stability in upright standing (eyes open and closed conditions) were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A significant interaction effect between group and time was found for the step execution, due to improvement in initiation phase and swing phase durations in the WEP group. Also significant improvement in postural stability parameters in eyes open and closed conditions is noted. The present results indicate that the primary benefit of WEP that include perturbations to induce stepping, was a reduction in voluntary stepping times. The WEP generalized to a better control of balance in up-right standing.

  5. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    PubMed Central

    Esmarck, B; Andersen, J L; Olsen, S; Richter, E A; Mizuno, M; Kjær, M

    2001-01-01

    Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake remains unresolved. The study investigated the importance of immediate (P0) or delayed (P2) intake of an oral protein supplement upon muscle hypertrophy and strength over a period of resistance training in elderly males. Thirteen men (age, 74 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI), 25 ± 1 kg m−2 (means ± S.E.M.)) completed a 12 week resistance training programme (3 times per week) receiving oral protein in liquid form (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) immediately after (P0) or 2 h after (P2) each training session. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and from muscle biopsies and muscle strength was determined using dynamic and isokinetic strength measurements. Body composition was determined from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and food records were obtained over 4 days. The plasma insulin response to protein supplementation was also determined. In response to training, the cross-sectional area of m. quadriceps femoris (54.6 ± 0.5 to 58.3 ± 0.5 cm2) and mean fibre area (4047 ± 320 to 5019 ± 615 μm2) increased in the P0 group, whereas no significant increase was observed in P2. For P0 both dynamic and isokinetic strength increased, by 46 and 15 %, respectively (P < 0.05), whereas P2 only improved in dynamic strength, by 36 % (P < 0.05). No differences in glucose or insulin response were observed between protein intake at 0 and 2 h postexercise. We conclude that early intake of an oral protein supplement after resistance training is important for the development of hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of elderly men in response to resistance training. PMID:11507179

  6. Project Management Plan/Progress Report UT/GTKS Training Program Development for Commercial Building Operators

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-03-31

    Universidad del Turabo (UT), in a collaborative effort with Global Turn Key Services, Inc. (GTKS), proposed to develop a training program and a commercialization plan for the development of Commercial Building Operators (CBOs). The CBOs will operate energy efficient buildings to help maintain existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance level, and ensure that net-zero-energy buildings continuously operate at design specifications, thus helping achieve progress towards meeting BTP Strategic Goals of creating technologies and design approaches that enable net-zero-energy buildings at low incremental costs by 2025. The proposed objectives were then: (1) Develop a Commercial Building Operator (CBO) training program and accreditation that will in turn provide a certification to participants recognized by Accreditation Boards such as the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Designs (LEED). (2) Develop and implement a commercialization and sustainability plan that details marketing, deployment, financial characterization, job placement, and other goals required for long-term sustainability of the project after the funding period. (3) After program development and deployment, provide potential candidates with the knowledge and skill sets to obtain employment in the commercial building green energy (net-zero-energy building) job market. The developed CBO training program will focus on providing skills for participants, such as displaced and unemployed workers, to enter the commercial building green energy (net-zeroenergy building) job market. This course was designed to allow a participant with minimal to no experience in commercial building green technology to obtain the required skill sets to enter the job market in as little as 12 weeks of intensive multi-faceted learning. After completion of the course, the CBO staff concluded the participant will meet minimum established accreditation

  7. Impact of locomotion training with a neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton on neuropathic pain and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic SCI: a case study (.).

    PubMed

    Cruciger, Oliver; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Citak, Mustafa; Aach, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) is a common condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been reported to be severe, disabling and often treatment-resistant and therefore remains a clinical challenge for the attending physicians. The treatment usually includes pharmacological and/or nonpharmacological approaches. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and locomotion training with driven gait orthosis (DGO) have evolved over the last decades and are now considered to be an established part in the rehabilitation of SCI patients. Conventional locomotion training goes along with improvements of the patients' walking abilities in particular speed and gait pattern. The neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL®, Cyberdyne Inc., Ibraki, Japan) exoskeleton, however, is a new tailored approach to support motor functions synchronously to the patient's voluntary drive. This report presents two cases of severe chronic and therapy resistant neuropathic pain due to chronic SCI and demonstrates the beneficial effects of neurologic controlled exoskeletal intervention on pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Both of these patients were engaged in a 12 weeks period of daily HAL®-supported locomotion training. In addition to improvements in motor functions and walking abilities, both show significant reduction in pain severity and improvements in all HRQoL domains. Although various causal factors likely contribute to abatement of CNP, the reported results occurred due to a new approach in the rehabilitation of chronic spinal cord injury patients. These findings suggest not only the feasibility of this new approach but in conclusion, demonstrate the effectiveness of neurologic controlled locomotion training in the long-term management of refractory neuropathic pain. Implications for Rehabilitation CNP remains a challenge in the rehabilitation of chronic SCI patients. Locomotion training with the HAL exoskeleton seems to improve CNP

  8. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  9. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract may improve body composition without affecting hematology in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Falcone, Paul H; Vogel, Roxanne M; Mosman, Matt M; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-11-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the supplement's effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts (TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm(2)) versus PLA (-0.08 cm(2)), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: -20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT: +4.9; PLA: -3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry in healthy males.

  10. Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Della Gatta, Paul A; Garnham, Andrew P; Peake, Jonathan M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-07-01

    Aging is associated with increased circulating pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines. Exercise training, in addition to improving muscle function, reduces these circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Yet, few studies have evaluated changes in the expression of cytokines within skeletal muscle after exercise training. The aim of the current study was to examine the expression of cytokines both at rest and following a bout of isokinetic exercise performed before and after 12weeks of resistance exercise training in young (n=8, 20.3±0.8yr) and elderly men (n=8, 66.9±1.6yr). Protein expression of various cytokines was determined in muscle homogenates. The expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 (which are traditionally classified as 'pro-inflammatory') increased substantially after acute exercise. By contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 increased only slightly (or not at all) after acute exercise. These responses were not significantly different between young and elderly men, either before or after 12weeks of exercise training. However, compared with the young men, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines 2h post exercise tended to be greater in the elderly men prior to training. Training attenuated this difference. These data suggest that the inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise increases with age. Furthermore, regular exercise training may help to normalize this inflammatory response, which could have important implications for muscle regeneration and adaptation in the elderly.

  11. Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlie, John E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for training and education in new skill areas. Points out that the right people often do not get the right training. Too often engineers and skilled workers are trained to the exclusion of supervisors and operators. (JOW)

  12. Effect of Overground Training Augmented By Mental Practice On Gait Velocity in Chronic, Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Kelli G.; Gramer, Robert; Butler, Laine; Cramer, Steven C.; Hade, Erinn; Page, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare efficacy of a regimen combining mental practice (MP) with overground training with the efficacy of a regimen comprised of overground training only on gait velocity and lower extremity motor outcomes in individuals with chronic (> 12 months post injury), incomplete, spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Randomized controlled, single blinded, study Setting Outpatient rehabilitation laboratories located in the Midwestern and Western United States Participants 18 subjects with chronic, incomplete SCI Interventions Subjects were randomly assigned to receive: (a) Overground Training only (OT), occurring 3 days/week for 8 weeks; or (b) OT augmented by MP (MP + OT), during which randomly assigned subjects listened to a mental practice audio recording directly following OT sessions. Main Outcome Measures Subjects were administered a test of gait velocity as well as the Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), Spinal Cord Injury Independence Measure (SCIM), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) on 2 occasions before intervention, 1 week after intervention, and 12 weeks after intervention. Results A significant increase in gait velocity was exhibited across subjects at both 1 week post-therapy (p=0.0046) and at 12 weeks post-therapy (p=0.0056). However, no differences were seen in intervention response at either 1 or 12 weeks post intervention among subjects in the MP + OT versus the OT groups. Conclusion Overground training was associated with significant gains in gait velocity, and that these gains were not augmented by further addition of mental practice. PMID:24342552

  13. Training, leptin receptors and SOCS3 in human muscle.

    PubMed

    Olmedillas, H; Guerra, B; Guadalupe-Grau, A; Santana, A; Fuentes, T; Dorado, C; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Calbet, J A L

    2011-05-01

    Endurance exercise induces SUPPRESSOR of CYTOKINE SIGNALING 3 (SOCS3) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle and endurance training overimposed on strength training blunts the hypertrophic response to strength training by an unknown mechanism. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on fat mass, serum leptin concentration, muscle morphology, and muscle vastus lateralis leptin receptors (OB-Rb) and SOCS3 protein expression. 16 healthy young men were assigned to a control (C; n=7), and to a 12-week weightlifting (3 sessions/week)+endurance training program (T; n=9) group. Training enhanced maximal dynamic strength in lower and upper body exercises (18-54%), reduced fat mass by 1.8 kg and serum leptin concentration per kg of fat mass, and elicited muscle hypertrophy of type 2 (+18.5%, P<0.05) but not of type 1 muscle fibres (+4.6%, P=NS). No significant changes were observed in either OB-Rb or SOCS3 protein expression with training. In conclusion, concurrent strength and endurance training reduces fat mass and serum leptin and the ratio leptin/fat mass without significant effects on vastus lateralis OB-Rb protein expression. Training does not increase the basal expression of SOCS3 protein in humans.

  14. Aerobic training during hemodialysis improves body composition, muscle function, physical performance, and quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min; Jo, Jong Il

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the influences of individualized aerobic training on body composition, knee joint muscle function, physical performance, and quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients. [Subjects] Ten chronic kidney disease patients undergoing dialysis. [Methods] Overall physical function and quality of life before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training were evaluated by body composition, the six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise tests, and Short Form 36-item questionnaire. [Results] The six-minute walk test distance increased significantly after 12 weeks aerobic training. Resting metabolic rate, lactate threshold, maximum oxygen uptake, and quality of life tended to increase after training. Post-training weight, muscle mass, body fat mass, fat percentage, body mass index, and peak torque of right and left knee extension and flexion did not change significantly. [Conclusion] Intra-dialytic training can a safe approach to maintain or improve physical performance and quality of life of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis without adverse events or negative cardiovascular responses. Aerobic training may prevent a decline in body composition and knee joint muscle function due to inactivity in chronic kidney disease patients. Clinically, aerobic training may initially be adapted to maintain overall physical function or improve quality of life in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:26157237

  15. EBT Fidelity Trajectories Across Training Cohorts Using the Interagency Collaborative Team Strategy.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark; Hecht, Debra; Aarons, Greg; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Ledesma, Karla

    2016-03-01

    The Interdisciplinary Collaborative Team (ICT) strategy uses front-line providers as adaptation, training and quality control agents for multi-agency EBT implementation. This study tests whether an ICT transmits fidelity to subsequent provider cohorts. SafeCare was implemented by home visitors from multiple community-based agencies contracting with child welfare. Client-reported fidelity trajectories for 5,769 visits, 957 clients and 45 providers were compared using three-level growth models. Provider cohorts trained and live-coached by the ICT attained benchmark fidelity after 12 weeks, and this was sustained. Hispanic clients reported high cultural competency, supporting a cultural adaptation crafted by the ICT.

  16. EBT Fidelity Trajectories Across Training Cohorts Using the Interagency Collaborative Team Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Debra; Aarons, Greg; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Ledesma, Karla

    2015-01-01

    The Interdisciplinary Collaborative Team (ICT) strategy uses front-line providers as adaptation, training and quality control agents for multi-agency EBT implementation. This study tests whether an ICT transmits fidelity to subsequent provider cohorts. SafeCare was implemented by home visitors from multiple community-based agencies contracting with child welfare. Client-reported fidelity trajectories for 5,769 visits, 957 clients and 45 providers were compared using three-level growth models. Provider cohorts trained and live-coached by the ICT attained benchmark fidelity after 12 weeks, and this was sustained. Hispanic clients reported high cultural competency, supporting a cultural adaptation crafted by the ICT. PMID:25586878

  17. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Transdiagnostic CBT for Anxiety Disorder by Comparison to Relaxation Training

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders have been gaining increased attention and empirical study in recent years. Despite this, all of the research on transdiagnostic anxiety treatments to date have either not used a control condition, or have relied on no-treatment or delayed-treatment controls, thus limiting inferences about comparative efficacy. The current study was a randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of a 12-week transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral group treatment in comparison to a 12-week comprehensive relaxation training program. Results from 87 treatment initiators suggested significant and statistically equivalent/non-inferior outcomes across conditions, although relaxation was associated with a greater rate of dropout despite no differences in treatment credibility. No evidence was found for any differential effects of transdiagnostic CBT for any primary or comorbid diagnoses. PMID:22697440

  18. The effects of an exercise training program on hand and wrist strength, and function, and activities of daily living, in adults with severe cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Lamela Rodríguez, Beatriz; Mendoza Laiz, Nuria; Díez, Isabel; Barak, Sharon

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to establish measurement reliability in adults with Cerebral Palsy (CP), and to examine the feasibility and outcomes of an upper extremity strength training program (three times per week for 90 min each time). A control group design mixed with a prospective time series design for the intervention group was completed, including a pre-test, a post-test after a 12-week intervention period, and a follow-up in the intervention group after an additional 10-week period. Seventeen adults with CP with severe motor impairment took part in the study (10 in the intervention and seven in the control group). The test battery was comprised of wrist and hand dynamometry; dominant hand upper-extremity function measures (Jebsen Hand Function Test=JHFT, Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test=MMDT, and the Nine Hole Peg Test=NHPT); and activity of daily living with the Barthel Index. The results indicated that in both the control and the intervention groups, the strength tests exhibited good-to-excellent reliability during pre-test and post-test. The group comparison revealed that while in the pre-test no between-group differences existed, in the post-test the strength training group demonstrated significantly higher values in five out of eight strength measures, as well as in the MMDT. Discontinuing the program for eight weeks reversed the effects almost to baseline. In conclusion, the outcomes demonstrated the reliability of the assessments utilized in this study, as well as the feasibility of the strength training program, in adults with severe motor impairment due to CP.

  19. Effect of exhaustive ultra-endurance exercise in muscular glycogen and both Alpha1 and Alpha2 Ampk protein expression in trained rats.

    PubMed

    Tarini, V A F; Carnevali, L C; Arida, R M; Cunha, C A; Alves, E S; Seeleander, M C L; Schmidt, B; Faloppa, F

    2013-09-01

    Glycogen is the main store of readily energy in skeletal muscle and plays a key role in muscle function, demonstrated by the inability to sustain prolonged high-intensity exercise upon depletion of these glycogen stores. With prolonged exercise, glycogen depletion occurs and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a potent regulator of muscle metabolism and gene expression, is activated promoting molecular signalling that increases glucose uptake by muscular skeletal cells. The aim of this study was primarily to determine the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on muscle glycogen reserves and secondly to verify the influence of this type of exercise on AMPK protein expression. Twenty-four male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were divided into four experimental groups: sedentary, sedentary exhausted (SE), endurance trained (T) and endurance trained exhausted (TE). The animals ran for 10 to 90 min/day, 5 days/week, for 12 weeks to attain trained status. Rats were killed immediately after the exhaustion protocol, which consisted of running on a treadmill (at approximately 60% Vmax until exhaustion). Optical density of periodic acid-Schiff was detected and glycogen depletion observed predominantly in type I muscle fibres of the TE group and in both type I and II muscle fibres in the SE group. Plasma glucose decreased only in the TE group. Hepatic glycogen was increased in T group and significantly depleted in TE group. AMPK protein expression was significantly elevated in TE and T groups. In conclusion, acute exhaustive ultra-endurance exercise promoted muscle glycogen depletion. It seems that total AMPK protein and gene expression is more influenced by status training.

  20. Exercise-Based Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention for Firefighters: Contrasting the Fitness- and Movement-Related Adaptations to Two Training Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Using exercise to enhance physical fitness may have little impact on performers' movement patterns beyond the gym environment. This study examined the fitness and movement adaptations exhibited by firefighters in response to 2 training methodologies. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to a movement-guided fitness (MOV), conventional fitness (FIT), or control (CON) group. Before and after 12 weeks of training, participants performed a fitness evaluation and laboratory-based test. Three-dimensional lumbar spine and frontal plane knee kinematics were quantified. Five whole-body tasks not included in the interventions were used to evaluate the transfer of training. FIT and MOV groups exhibited significant improvements in all aspects of fitness; however, only MOV exhibited improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control when performing each transfer task (effect sizes [ESs] of 0.2-1.5). FIT exhibited less controlled spine and frontal plane knee motions while squatting, lunging, pushing, and pulling (ES: 0.2-0.7). More MOV participants (43%) exhibited only positive posttraining changes (i.e., improved control), in comparison with FIT (30%) and CON (23%). Fewer negative posttraining changes were also noted (19, 25, and 36% for MOV, FIT, and CON). These findings suggest that placing an emphasis on how participants move while exercising may be an effective training strategy to elicit behavioral changes beyond the gym environment. For occupational athletes such as firefighters, soldiers, and police officers, this implies that exercise programs designed with a movement-oriented approach to periodization could have a direct impact on their safety and effectiveness by engraining desirable movement patterns that transfer to occupational tasks.

  1. 49 CFR 232.203 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incorporate a training curriculum that includes both classroom and “hands-on” lessons designed to impart the... adopt and comply with a plan to periodically assess the effectiveness of its training program....

  2. 49 CFR 232.203 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... incorporate a training curriculum that includes both classroom and “hands-on” lessons designed to impart the... adopt and comply with a plan to periodically assess the effectiveness of its training program....

  3. 49 CFR 232.203 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporate a training curriculum that includes both classroom and “hands-on” lessons designed to impart the... adopt and comply with a plan to periodically assess the effectiveness of its training program....

  4. 49 CFR 232.203 - Training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... incorporate a training curriculum that includes both classroom and “hands-on” lessons designed to impart the... adopt and comply with a plan to periodically assess the effectiveness of its training program....

  5. Physical fitness and psychological benefits of strength training in community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, T; Don, B M; Zaichkowsky, L D; Delizonna, L L

    1997-11-01

    Previous studies concerning psychological benefits of exercise among the elderly has focused predominantly on the effects of aerobic exercise. In the present study, psychological and behavioral adaptations in response to 12-weeks of strength training were examined in medically healthy but sedentary 42 older adults (mean age = 68 years). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high and low intensity resistance training intensity on a) muscular fitness, b) psychological affect, and c) neurocognitive functioning. Subjects were randomly assigned to high intensity/low volume (EXH: 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions for 75 to 85% of 1 RM), low intensity/high volume (EXL: 2 sets of 14 to 16 repetitions for 55 to 65% of 1 RM), or no exercise control programs. Prior to and following the 12-week program, subjects underwent comprehensive physiological and psychological evaluations. Physiological assessment included measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, arm and leg muscle strength, body composition, and oxygen consumption (VO2max). Psychological measures included evaluations of mood, anxiety, and physical self-efficacy as well as cognitive functioning. The results of this study indicated that both high and low intensity strength programs were associated with marked improvements in physiological fitness and psychological functioning. Specifically, subjects in the strength training programs increased overall muscle strength by 38.6% and reduced percent body fat by 3.0%. Favorable psychological changes in the strength-trained subjects included improvements in positive and negative mood, trait anxiety, and perceived confidence for physical capability. The treatment effects of neurocognitive functioning were not significant. In summary, this study demonstrated that participation in 12-weeks of high or low intensity strength training can improve overall physical fitness, mood, and physical self-efficacy in older adults while cognitive functioning remains constant.

  6. Altitude and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (< 2000-2200 m) and/or too short an altitude training period (<3-4 weeks); (2) the training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  7. Altitude and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (< 2000-2200 m) and/or too short an altitude training period (<3-4 weeks); (2) the training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study

  8. Monitoring Project CANAL, Total Site Training for 42 Phase I Schools (September 13, 1990 to June 6, 1991). First Quarter, Year 4 Progress Report (Period Ending November 30, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary E.; Kurtz, Norman R.

    This report examines the participation of 42 Phase I Chicago (Illinois) Project CANAL public schools in total site training (TST). TST is intended to provide participating schools and their core planning team (CPT) members with information on instructional strategies and program models for improving academic achievement. Participation by the CPTs,…

  9. Design and evaluation of the computer-based training program Calcularis for enhancing numerical cognition.

    PubMed

    Käser, Tanja; Baschera, Gian-Marco; Kohn, Juliane; Kucian, Karin; Richtmann, Verena; Grond, Ursina; Gross, Markus; von Aster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the design and a first pilot evaluation of the computer-based training program Calcularis for children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) or difficulties in learning mathematics. The program has been designed according to insights on the typical and atypical development of mathematical abilities. The learning process is supported through multimodal cues, which encode different properties of numbers. To offer optimal learning conditions, a user model completes the program and allows flexible adaptation to a child's individual learning and knowledge profile. Thirty-two children with difficulties in learning mathematics completed the 6-12-weeks computer training. The children played the game for 20 min per day for 5 days a week. The training effects were evaluated using neuropsychological tests. Generally, children benefited significantly from the training regarding number representation and arithmetic operations. Furthermore, children liked to play with the program and reported that the training improved their mathematical abilities.

  10. Design and evaluation of the computer-based training program Calcularis for enhancing numerical cognition

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Tanja; Baschera, Gian-Marco; Kohn, Juliane; Kucian, Karin; Richtmann, Verena; Grond, Ursina; Gross, Markus; von Aster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the design and a first pilot evaluation of the computer-based training program Calcularis for children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) or difficulties in learning mathematics. The program has been designed according to insights on the typical and atypical development of mathematical abilities. The learning process is supported through multimodal cues, which encode different properties of numbers. To offer optimal learning conditions, a user model completes the program and allows flexible adaptation to a child's individual learning and knowledge profile. Thirty-two children with difficulties in learning mathematics completed the 6–12-weeks computer training. The children played the game for 20 min per day for 5 days a week. The training effects were evaluated using neuropsychological tests. Generally, children benefited significantly from the training regarding number representation and arithmetic operations. Furthermore, children liked to play with the program and reported that the training improved their mathematical abilities. PMID:23935586

  11. Acute responses to exercise training and relationship with exercise adherence in moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Amanda K; Wardini, Rima; Chan-Thim, Emilie; Bacon, Simon L; Lavoie, Kim L; Pepin, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of our study were to (i) compare, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, acute responses to continuous training at high intensity (CTHI), continuous training at ventilatory threshold (CTVT) and interval training (IT); (ii) examine associations between acute responses and 12-week adherence; and (iii) investigate whether the relationship between acute responses and adherence is mediated/moderated by affect/vigour. Thirty-five COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second = 60.2 ± 15.8% predicted), underwent baseline assessments, were randomly assigned to CTHI, CTVT or IT, were monitored throughout about before training, and underwent 12 weeks of exercise training during which adherence was tracked. Compared with CTHI, CTVT was associated with lower respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and respiratory rate (RR), while IT induced higher [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]maximal voluntary ventilation, RR and lower pulse oxygen saturation. From pre- to post-exercise, positive affect increased (F = 9.74, p < 0.001) and negative affect decreased (F = 6.43, p = 0.005) across groups. CTVT reported greater end-exercise vigour compared to CTHI (p = 0.01) and IT (p = 0.02). IT exhibited lowest post-exercise vigour (p = 0.04 versus CTHI, p = 0.02 versus CTVT) and adherence rate (F = 6.69, p = 0.004). Mean [Formula: see text] (r = -0.466, p = 0.007) and end-exercise vigour (r = 0.420, p = 0.017) were most strongly correlated with adherence. End-exercise vigour moderated the relationship between [Formula: see text] and adherence (β = 2.74, t(32) = 2.32, p = 0.03). In summary, CTHI, CTVT and IT improved affective valence from rest to post-exercise and induced a significant 12-week exercise training effect. However, they elicited different acute physiological responses, which in turn were associated with differences in 12-week adherence to the target training intensity. This association was moderated by acute end-exercise vigour.

  12. Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S.; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. PMID:25206611

  13. Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

    2013-11-01

    The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex.

  14. Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.

  15. Hazmat training.

    PubMed

    Borak, J

    1991-04-01

    Federal laws and regulations require hazardous-materials-response training for EMS personnel and other emergency responders. The requirements, however, aren't entirely clear about the amount of time and topics to be covered for EMS training. EMTs and paramedics should either be trained to the highest level at which they are likely to perform, or their performance levels should be restricted to the highest level to which they have been trained.

  16. Toilet training.

    PubMed

    Choby, Beth A; George, Shefaa

    2008-11-01

    Toilet training is a developmental task that impacts families with small children. All healthy children are eventually toilet trained, and most complete the task without medical intervention. Most research on toilet training is descriptive, although some is evidence based. In the United States, the average age at which training begins has increased over the past four decades from earlier than 18 months of age to between 21 and 36 months of age. Newer studies suggest no benefit of intensive training before 27 months of age. Mastery of the developmental skills required for toilet training occurs after 24 months of age. Girls usually complete training earlier than boys. Numerous toilet-training methods are available. The Brazelton child-oriented approach uses physiologic maturity, ability to understand and respond to external feedback, and internal motivation to assess readiness. Dr. Spock's toilet-training approach is another popular method used by parents. The American Academy of Pediatrics incorporates components of the child-oriented approach into its guidelines for toilet training. "Toilet training in a day," a method by Azrin and Foxx, emphasizes operant conditioning and teaches specific toileting components. Because each family and child are unique, recommendations about the ideal time or optimal method must be customized. Family physicians should provide guidance about toilet-training methods and identify children who have difficulty reaching developmental milestones.

  17. Training Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

  18. Personality Characteristics of Trained vs. Non-Trained Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Gerald D.; Schlegelmilch, Ron

    This document presents the results of two studies investiqating (1) the personality traits of physically trained and physically untrained individuals, and (2) the changes effected in personality traits by an exercise program. Training programs consisted of ten-week periods of activity in fencing, body conditioning, and weightlifting. Analysis of…

  19. United Airlines LOFT training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, D.; Traub, B.

    1981-01-01

    Line oriented training is used in a broader, more generic sense that as a specific program under FAR 12.1409 and AC 120-35. A company policy was adopted more than twenty years ago requiring that all pilot checks and recurrent training be conducted with a full crew occupying the seats they occupy on the line. Permission was obtained to reschedule the hours for recurrent proficiency training to include one and one-half hours of LOFT flight. The number of emergencies and abnormal procedures which could be undertaken were considered and the introduction of an a occasional incapacitation revealed which person is the most difficult to replace on the widebodies. By using the LOFT concept, every training period can be structured like a typical line flight. The use of LOFT in simulator syllabus development and problems that need to be refined are discussed.

  20. Training compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A.N. )

    1989-02-01

    Legally mandated training to effect compliance with environmental regulations came into prominence with RCRA. Training and its associated recordkeeping requirements were to be in place by May 18, 1981, but, for the most part, this deadline went unnoticed. Whether the lack of response reflected that fact that the RCRA regulations were extremely confusing or that the training requirements were not taken seriously is hard to determine. Ironically, while RCRA facilities were frequently deficient in meeting the training requirements, it was this specific aspect of the regulations that inexperienced inspectors often targeted and cited. Over the years, through a combination of citations and, more importantly, an increasing appreciation of the benefits of training, the attitude toward regulatory compliance training slowly improved. This paper reflects the attitudes of both management and the workers receiving the training.

  1. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2013-10-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (ρ[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ≤ 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances.

  2. Effects of training on postural stability in young basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Tafuri, Silvio; Pesce, Vito; Digiglio, Donatello; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background in basketball, balance ability is important to reduce non-contact injuries. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of training on balance. Methods thirty-two healthy male volunteers were recruited from amateur basketball teams. They were asked to perform the Balance Error Scoring System BESS test in order to measure the number of stability errors in six conditions. The test was performed at the beginning of the season (T0) and after 12 weeks (T1). In both cases the test was carried out before (pre-session) and after a training session (post-session). Results the comparison of the total BESS scores both pre- and post-session showed a statistically significant increase of stability errors at both T0 and T1 (T0: pre-session 8.6±6.1 errors, post-session 10.7±6.3 errors; t=−4.03; p=0.002) (T1: pre-session 7.2±3.8 errors, post-session 9.1±5.4 errors; t=−1.93; p=0.03). Between T0 and T1 we noticed a reduction of errors which reached a statistical significance during the pre-session time (t=2.75; p=0.0049). Conclusion stability improved after 12 weeks of training, even for those conditions for which no specific training was done to improve, such as on the soft surface and feet aligned in a tandem stance. PMID:26958542

  3. Safety and efficacy of strength training in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Spector, S A; Lemmer, J T; Koffman, B M; Fleisher, T A; Feuerstein, I M; Hurley, B F; Dalakas, M C

    1997-10-01

    We studied the effects of a 12-week progressive resistance strength training program in weakened muscles of 5 patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM). Strength was evaluated with Medical Research Council (MRC) scale ratings and quantitative isometric and dynamic tests. Changes in serum creatine kinase (CK), lymphocyte subpopulations, muscle size (determined by magnetic resonance imaging), and histology in repeated muscle biopsies were examined before and after training. After 12 weeks, the values of repetition maximum improved in the least weakened muscles, 25-120% from baseline. This dynamic effect was not captured by MRC or isometric muscle strength measurements. Serum CK, B cells, T-cell subsets, and NK cells remained unchanged. Repeat muscle biopsies did not reveal changes in the number and degree of degenerating fibers or inflammation. The size of the trained muscles did not change. We conclude that a supervised progressive resistance training program in IBM patients can lead to gains in dynamic strength of the least weak muscles without causing muscle fatigue and muscle injury or serological, histological, and immunological abnormalities. Even though the functional significance of these gains is unclear, this treatment modality is a safe and perhaps overlooked means of rehabilitation of IBM patients. PMID:9324080

  4. Water safety training as a potential means of reducing risk of young children's drowning.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, K. N.; Rivara, F. P.; Felix, D.; Vance, L.; Dunne, R.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of training in swimming and water safety on young preschool-children's ability to recover safely from a simulated episode of falling into a swimming pool. DESIGN: Randomized trial of 12 or eight weeks' duration water safety and swimming lessons for children 24 to 42 months old. OUTCOME MEASURES: Swimming ability, deck behavior, water recovery, and swimming to side after jumping into pool were measured before, during, and after the training program. RESULTS: 109 children completed the study (61 in the 12 week group, 48 in the eight week group). The average age was 34.2 months, 54% were male. Swimming ability, deck behavior, water recovery, and jump and swim skills improved over baseline levels in both groups. By the end of training, the 12 week group improved more than the eight week group only in swimming ability. Improvements in water recovery and jump and swim skills were associated positively with changes in swimming ability. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming ability and safety skills of young preschool children can be improved through training. Such programs may offer some protection for children at risk of drowning and there was no indication that this program increased the risk of drowning. However, pool fencing, other barriers around water, and parental supervision still remain the most important prevention strategies to reduce drowning in young children. PMID:9346036

  5. Positive effects of computer-based cognitive training in adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Herrera, C; Chambon, C; Michel, B F; Paban, V; Alescio-Lautier, B

    2012-07-01

    Considering the high risk for individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (A-MCI) to progress towards Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention, that is, cognitive training that could reduce cognitive difficulties and delay the cognitive decline. For this, we evaluated the efficacy of a 12-week computer-based memory-attention training program based on recognition in subjects with A-MCI and compared their performances with those of A-MCI controls trained in cognitively stimulating activities. The effect of training was assessed by comparing outcome measures in pre- and post-tests 15 days before and after training. To evaluate the duration of training benefits, a follow-up test session was performed 6 months after memory and attention training or cognitively stimulating activities. Outcome measures showed that the trained group, compared to control group, improved episodic recall and recognition. Six months after training, scores remained at the level of the post-test. Since the training program was exclusively based on recognition, our results showed a generalization from recognition to recall processes, which are memory components that represent part of the core cognitive impairments in individuals at risk of converting to AD. Thus, cognitive training based on recognition holds promise as a preventive therapeutic method and could be proposed as a non-pharmacological early-intervention strategy. Future investigations need to focus on methodological constraints and delineating possible neuroplastic mechanisms of action. PMID:22525705

  6. Computer Technology Training in the Workplace: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Effect of Mood.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Speier

    1999-07-01

    How does a person's mood during technology training influence motivation, intentions, and, ultimately, usage of the new technology? Do these mood effects dissipate or are they sustainable over time? A repeated-measures field study (n = 316) investigated the effect of mood on employee motivation and intentions toward using a specific computer technology at two points in time: immediately after training and 6 weeks after training. Actual usage behavior was assessed for 12 weeks after training. Each individual was assigned to one of three mood treatments: positive, negative, or control. Results indicated that there were only short-term boosts in intrinsic motivation and intention to use the technology among individuals in the positive mood intervention. However, a long-term lowering of intrinsic motivation and intention was observed among those in the negative mood condition. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10388607

  7. Effect of the low- versus high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and GLP-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; So, Yong Seok

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of low-intensity exercise training compare with high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The low-intensity exercise training group performed aerobic exercise training at an intensity of ≤ 45% of the heart rate reserve. The high-intensity interval exercise training group performed interval exercise training at an intensity of ≥ 80% of the heart rate reserve. The exercise-related energy consumption was determined for both groups on a per-week basis (1,200 kcal/week). [Results] Both groups showed improvement in the glucose-regulated protein 78 and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, but the size of the between-group effect was not statistically significant. The high-intensity interval exercise training group showed a significant reduction in percentage body fat. The C-peptide level increased after the 12-weeks programs and was significantly different, between the groups. Fasting glucose, insulin resistance in the fasting state according to homeostasis model assessment, and leptin decreased after the 12-weeks exercise program and were significantly different between the groups, and glucagon-like peptide-1 increased after the 12-week exercise programs and was significantly different between the groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion high-intensity interval exercise training, as defined in this study, may lead to improvements in body composition, glycemic control, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. 29 CFR 71.15 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training. 71.15 Section 71.15 Labor Office of the Secretary... § 71.15 Training. All DOL systems managers, disclosure officers, and employees with responsibilities under the Privacy Act shall periodically attend training offered by the Department on the Privacy Act....

  9. 20 CFR 628.710 - Period of program operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period of program operation. 628.710 Section 628.710 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT The Summer Youth Employment and Training Program §...

  10. 20 CFR 628.710 - Period of program operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period of program operation. 628.710 Section 628.710 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT The Summer Youth Employment and Training Program §...

  11. Preparing to perform: periodization and dance.

    PubMed

    Wyon, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the historical and current literature on periodization in sport before applying the concept to dance from scientific and anecdotal points of view. Preparing the dancer through the use of a periodization model, in a professional or vocational setting, will potentially help prevent overtraining and its link to injury, while improving the dancer's readiness to perform optimally. Practical examples of tapering and periodization of training are discussed for companies and vocational schools.

  12. Enhancing performance in professional water polo players: dryland training, in-water training, and combined training.

    PubMed

    Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Ramos Veliz, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We compared the effects of 6 weeks of dryland, in-water-specific strength training and plyometric training combined with a water polo (WP) training program on 7 sport-specific performance parameters. Thirty professional players were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: combined training (CG), in-water-specific strength (WSG), and plyometrics (PG). The program included 3 weekly strength training sessions and 5 days of WP training per week for a total of 6 weeks during the preseason. The 10-m T-agility test, 20-m maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM], bench press [BP] and full squat [FS]), in-water boost, countermovement jump (CMJ) and throwing speed (ThS) were measured before and after the 6-week training period. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the tested variables before the initiation of the 6-week training period. After 6 weeks of training, significant improvements (p ≤ 0.001) were found in the PG group for the CMJ (6.1%) and in all groups for the in-water boost (4.4-5.1%) test. The 1RM BP (7.6-12.6%) and FS (11.5-14.6%) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased in all groups. Additionally, ThS significantly increased in all groups (11.4-17.5%), whereas the agility test was significantly decreased (-7.3%) in only the CG group. Combined, in-water-specific strength and plyometric training produced medium to large effects on most WP-specific performance parameters. Therefore, we propose preseason WP training should include a combined training program that contains dryland and in-water-specific strength and plyometric training to optimize the WP preparation for competition.

  13. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  14. [Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue collects three articles concerning reading-teacher training. "Language, Failure, and Panda Bears" by Patricia M. Cunningham calls attention to dialect difficulties in the classroom and provides ideas for teacher training programs and for public schools to solve this problem. William H. Rupley, in "Improving Teacher Effectiveness in…

  15. Control issues in toilet training.

    PubMed

    Kinservik, M A; Friedhoff, M M

    2000-01-01

    There are many control issues surrounding toilet training that involve the child, the family, and the environment. Loss of control by the child during this period can result in significant physical and psychologic consequences as well as a failure to complete the developmental task of autonomy. A review of both professional and lay literature showed various approaches to toilet training with little reference to the control issues involved. Toilet training is a dynamic process that does not always go smoothly. Constipation often develops during toilet training and may be related to control issues. Neuman's Systems Model is used to identify the types of control issues often involved in toilet training. Anticipatory guidance specifically developed to address issues of control may help alleviate problems in the toilet training process. Changes for current practice are recommended.

  16. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects.

  17. A supervised training program in flexible sigmoidoscopy: evaluating skills from residency training to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lewan, R B; Baskin, W N; Sharon, M W; Greenlaw, R L; Frakes, J T; Vidican, D E

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a training program in flexible sigmoidoscopy for family practice residents, we prospectively studied the performance of four residents during their training and after graduation. One hundred and four training exams performed with the assistance of an experienced gastroenterologist were compared with 118 unassisted post-training, post-residency exams. The mean depth of insertion for the post-training period was 51.1 +/- 1.2 cm, which was significantly greater (P less than .05, Student's t test) than the mean training period depth of 47.6 +/- 1.2 cm. There was no significant difference in the identification of polyps or cancer between the training and post-training periods. The mean duration of an exam was 17.3 +/- 0.6 minutes in the post-training period. No significant complications were encountered in either period. The residency trained family physicians obtained results similar to those reported by trained endoscopists in depth of examination and pathology detected, although their examinations required more time. We conclude that this model of training was effective in the development of flexible sigmoidoscopy procedural skill for family practice residents.

  18. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p < 0.05) and meaningful difference between power development among the 2 groups, with the VertiMax eliciting a greater treatment effect (effect size = 0.54) over conventional resistance and plyometric training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.

  19. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (p<.05). During the experimental welding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (p<.05). While no changes of neither cardiovascular nor metabolic parameters were found, subjects of the exercise group rated a significantly decreased rate of perceived exertion welding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work. PMID:26323773

  20. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (p<.05). During the experimental welding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (p<.05). While no changes of neither cardiovascular nor metabolic parameters were found, subjects of the exercise group rated a significantly decreased rate of perceived exertion welding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  1. Project Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Hubert

    1970-01-01

    The training manager of the Aero Engine Division of Rolls Royce Limited describes his graduate level program for retaining and developing mechanical engineers, mathematicians, scientists, and other college graduates. Three diagrams. (LY)

  2. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    PubMed

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries. PMID:12265562

  3. Military anesthesia trainees in WWII at the University of Wisconsin: their training, careers, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Parks, Colby L; Schroeder, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    The emerging medical specialty of anesthesiology experienced significant advances in the decade prior to World War II but had limited numbers of formally trained practitioners. With war looming, a subcommittee of the National Research Council, chaired by Ralph M. Waters, MD., was charged with ensuring sufficient numbers of anesthesiologists for military service. A 12-week course was developed to train military physicians at academic institutions across the country, including the Wisconsin General Hospital. A total of 17 officers were trained in Madison between September 1942 and December 1943. Notably, Virgil K. Stoelting, the future chair of anesthesiology at Indiana University, was a member of this group.A rigorous schedule of study and clinical work ensured the officers learned to administer anesthesia safely while using a variety of techniques. Their leadership and contributions in the military and after the war contributed significantly to the further growth of anesthesiology. PMID:23358128

  4. Military anesthesia trainees in WWII at the University of Wisconsin: their training, careers, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Parks, Colby L; Schroeder, Mark E

    2013-05-01

    The emerging medical specialty of anesthesiology experienced significant advances in the decade prior to World War II but had limited numbers of formally trained practitioners. With war looming, a subcommittee of the National Research Council, chaired by Ralph M. Waters, MD., was charged with ensuring sufficient numbers of anesthesiologists for military service. A 12-week course was developed to train military physicians at academic institutions across the country, including the Wisconsin General Hospital. A total of 17 officers were trained in Madison between September 1942 and December 1943. Notably, Virgil K. Stoelting, the future chair of anesthesiology at Indiana University, was a member of this group.A rigorous schedule of study and clinical work ensured the officers learned to administer anesthesia safely while using a variety of techniques. Their leadership and contributions in the military and after the war contributed significantly to the further growth of anesthesiology.

  5. The use of positive reinforcement in training zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    PubMed

    Marranzino, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) was used on 4 adult zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, housed at the Downtown Aquarium, Denver, to determine the ability of zebra sharks to become desensitized to various stimuli associated with veterinary procedures. One male and 3 female sharks were trained for 12 weeks. As a result of PRT, all 4 zebra sharks were desensitized to staying within a closed holding tank off of the main exhibit, the presence of multiple trainers in the closed holding tank, and tactile stimulation. One of the 4 zebra sharks was also successfully desensitized to the presence of a stretcher being brought into the holding tank. All of these procedures are common in veterinary examinations, and it is hoped that desensitization to these stimuli will reduce the stress associated with examinations. The training accomplished has allowed for easier maintenance of the zebra sharks by the aquarium staff and an improvement in the care of the sharks.

  6. Parent Training for Young Children With Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2009-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group (n = 23) received usual care, including early childhood education and related services. Results suggest that this parent training intervention was superior to usual care for young children with developmental delays or disabilities in reducing negative parent–child interactions and child behavior problems. Participants in the experimental group indicated high satisfaction with treatment. Additional research is necessary to document maintenance and generalization of treatment outcomes. PMID:18702556

  7. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  8. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on cardiovascular response to mental and physical challenge.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on the cardiovascular and autonomic response of males to mental and physical challenge. Thirty four young overweight males were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The exercise group completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program three times per week for 12weeks. Cardiovascular response to the Stroop task was determined before and after the intervention by assessing heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), arterial stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and skeletal muscle blood flow. The exercise group improved their aerobic fitness levels by 17% and reduced their body weight by 1.6kg. Exercisers compared to controls experienced a significant reduction in HR (p<0.001) and a significant increase in SV (p<0.001) at rest and during Stroop and exercise. For exercisers, arterial stiffness significantly decreased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01), whereas BRS was increased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01). Forearm blood flow was significantly increased during the first two minutes of Stroop (p<0.05). HIIE induced significant cardiovascular and autonomic changes at rest and during mental and physical challenge after 12weeks of training. PMID:23220158

  9. The efficacy of training of stress-coping strategies on marital satisfaction of spouses of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed kaveh; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Rezaei, Mahdi; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Talebi, Moosa Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Marital satisfaction is an important factor in people’s quality of life. It has become increasingly crucial in healthcare and health research and is dependent on coping styles of people exposed to traumatic events. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of coping-style training on increasing the marital satisfaction of wives of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods In this experimental study, 60 subjects were selected from the spouses of veterans with PTSD. The veterans were chosen from the Veterans Foundation of Northern Khorasan Province (Iran) in 2014. In this study, we used the Enrich questionnaire to determine the marital satisfaction of the aforementioned spouses. Subjects were assigned randomly to study and control groups. We used the training package of a Practical Guide for Stress Management according to cognitive behavioral approaches. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy was administered in 90-minute sessions over a 12-week period. We used the paired-samples t-test and ANCOVA to determine the effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) between the two groups. Results The mean and the standard deviation of age in the study and control groups were 36.8 ± 4.33 years and 35.3 ± 4.7 years, respectively. According to p < 0.005, a significant difference was observed between the subjects in the two groups. Therefore, treatment with cognitive behavioral group therapy showed evidence of clinical improvements in marital satisfaction of the study group. Conclusion The results of our study showed that methods of coping with stress based on CBT are effective in increasing the marital satisfaction of wives of veterans with PTSD. PMID:27279997

  10. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  11. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract may improve body composition without affecting hematology in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Falcone, Paul H; Vogel, Roxanne M; Mosman, Matt M; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-11-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the supplement's effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts (TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm(2)) versus PLA (-0.08 cm(2)), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: -20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT: +4.9; PLA: -3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry in healthy males. PMID:26489051

  12. Water-Based Concurrent Training Improves Peak Oxygen Uptake, Rate of Force Development, Jump Height, and Neuromuscular Economy in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Cadore, Eduardo L; Zaffari, Paula; Baroni, Bruno M; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Radaelli, Régis; Pantoja, Patrícia D; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo A; Wolf Schoenell, Maira C; Vaz, Marco A; Kruel, Luiz F M

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of different intrasession exercise sequences on the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular adaptations induced by water-based concurrent training in young subjects. Twenty-six healthy young women (25.1 ± 2.9 years) were placed into 2 water-based concurrent training groups: resistance before (RA, n = 13) or after (AR, n = 13) aerobic training. Subjects trained resistance and aerobic training during 12 weeks, 2 times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), rate of force development (RFD) obtained during an isometric peak torque knee extension protocol, jump height, and neuromuscular economy (normalized electromyography at 80% of pretraining knee extension isometric peak torque) in young women were determined. After training, there was a significant increase (p < 0.001) in both RA and AR in the V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with no differences between groups (7 vs. 5%). The maximal isometric knee extension RFD showed significant increases (p = 0.003) after training (RA: 19 vs. AR: 30%), and both groups presented similar gains. In addition, the countermovement jump height also increased (p = 0.034) after training (RA: 5% vs. AR: 6%), with no difference between groups. After training, there were significant improvements on vastus lateralis (p < 0.001) (RA: -13% vs. AR: -20%) and rectus femoris (p = 0.025) (RA: -17% vs. AR: -7%) neuromuscular economy, with no difference between groups. In conclusion, 12 weeks of water-based concurrent training improved the peak oxygen uptake, RFD, jump height, and neuromuscular economy in young women independent from the intrasession exercise sequence.

  13. The Influence of Functional Fitness and Cognitive Training of Physical Disabilities of Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Ko-Chia; Hong, Wei-Chin; Lu, Yu-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA). The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions. PMID:25756064

  14. Training Unpolluters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower, 1970

    1970-01-01

    The shortage of trained manpower remains a troublesome problem that must be overcome if the national attack on water pollution succeeds. The total number of persons treating waste water in 1967 was 11,300 professionals, 10,300 technicians, 23,500 sewage treatment plant operators, and 50,000 maintenance workers. (BC)

  15. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  16. Bullet Train.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge Universe is a conglomerate that includes an assortment of training companies, a chain of child-care centers, a knowledge-management consulting business, and an educational toy maker. KU's mission includes building human capital from birth to post-retirement, providing lifelong learning opportunities, and helping businesses use the power…

  17. Evaluating Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Karen S.; Rummler, Geary A.

    1979-01-01

    Presents general systems models (ballistic system, guided system, and adaptive system) and an evaluation matrix to help in examining training evaluation alternatives and in deciding what evaluation is appropriate. Includes some guidelines for conducting evaluation studies using four designs (control group, reversal, multiple baseline, and "before…

  18. Youth Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    A descriptive study was made of the roles of training and federal programs in helping youths gain employment in selected high-wage occupations that do not require a four-year college degree. Interviews conducted with federal agency officials and industry representatives found little hard data but elicited officials' views on this issue. The study…

  19. Extreme Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezalek, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Can one learn to lead on the flying trapeze? That's the question prompted by the exotic variations on the theme of experiential learning. By taking employees or executives (or both) out of their work element and putting them through an experience together, training professionals try to create learning that is more meaningful than PowerPoint…

  20. The effect of a complex training and detraining programme on selected strength and power variables in early pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Lee; Sleap, Mike; Tolfrey, Keith

    2006-09-01

    Complex training, a combination of resistance training and plyometrics is growing in popularity, despite limited support for its efficacy. In pre- and early pubertal children, the study of complex training has been limited, and to our knowledge an examination of its effect on anaerobic performance characteristics of the upper and lower body has not been undertaken. Furthermore, the effect of detraining after complex training requires clarification. The physical characteristics (mean+/-s) of the 54 male participants in the present study were as follows: age 12.3 +/- 0.3 years, height 1.57 +/- 0.07 m, body mass 50.3 +/- 11.0 kg. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 33) or control group (n = 21). The training, which was performed three times a week for 12 weeks, included a combination of dynamic constant external resistance and plyometrics. After training, participants completed 12 weeks of detraining. At baseline, after training and after detraining, peak and mean anaerobic power, dynamic strength and athletic performance were assessed. Twenty-six participants completed the training and none reported any training-related injury. Complex training was associated with small increases (< or =5.5%) in peak and mean power during training, followed by decreases of a similar magnitude (< or = -5.9%) during detraining (P < 0.05). No changes or minor, progressive increases (< or =1.5%) were evident in the control group (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, dynamic strength was increased by 24.3 - 71.4% (dependent on muscle group; P < 0.01), whereas growth-related changes in the control group varied from 0 to 4.4% (P > 0.05). For 40-m sprint running, basketball chest pass and vertical jump test performance, the experimental group saw a small improvement (< or =4.0%) after training followed by a decline (< or = -4.4%) towards baseline during detraining (P < 0.05), whereas the control group experienced no change (P > 0.05). In conclusion, in pre- and early

  1. 20 CFR 655.205 - Recruitment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recruitment period. 655.205 Section 655.205 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and...

  2. Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grivas, Gerasimos V

    2016-08-01

    Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Santos-Concejero, J, and Grivas, GV. Effects of strength training on running economy in highly trained runners: a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2361-2368, 2016-The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to determine the effect of strength training programs on the running economy (RE) of high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four electronic databases were searched in September 2015 (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) for original research articles. After analyzing 699 resultant original articles, studies were included if the following criteria were met: (a) participants were competitive middle- or long-distance runners; (b) participants had a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max >60 ml·kg·min; (c) studies were controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals; (d) studies analyzed the effects of strength training programs with a duration greater than 4 weeks; and (e) RE was measured before and after the strength training intervention. Five studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a total sample size of 93 competitive, high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four of the 5 included studies used low to moderate training intensities (40-70% one repetition maximum), and all of them used low to moderate training volume (2-4 resistance lower-body exercises plus up to 200 jumps and 5-10 short sprints) 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks. The meta-analyzed effect of strength training programs on RE in high-level middle- and long-distance runners showed a large, beneficial effect (standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -1.42 [-2.23 to -0.60]). In conclusion, a strength training program including low to high intensity resistance exercises and plyometric exercises performed 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks is an appropriate strategy to improve RE in highly trained middle- and long-distance runners

  3. Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grivas, Gerasimos V

    2016-08-01

    Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Santos-Concejero, J, and Grivas, GV. Effects of strength training on running economy in highly trained runners: a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2361-2368, 2016-The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to determine the effect of strength training programs on the running economy (RE) of high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four electronic databases were searched in September 2015 (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) for original research articles. After analyzing 699 resultant original articles, studies were included if the following criteria were met: (a) participants were competitive middle- or long-distance runners; (b) participants had a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max >60 ml·kg·min; (c) studies were controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals; (d) studies analyzed the effects of strength training programs with a duration greater than 4 weeks; and (e) RE was measured before and after the strength training intervention. Five studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a total sample size of 93 competitive, high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four of the 5 included studies used low to moderate training intensities (40-70% one repetition maximum), and all of them used low to moderate training volume (2-4 resistance lower-body exercises plus up to 200 jumps and 5-10 short sprints) 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks. The meta-analyzed effect of strength training programs on RE in high-level middle- and long-distance runners showed a large, beneficial effect (standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -1.42 [-2.23 to -0.60]). In conclusion, a strength training program including low to high intensity resistance exercises and plyometric exercises performed 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks is an appropriate strategy to improve RE in highly trained middle- and long-distance runners.

  4. Efficacy of Resistance Training as an Aid to Smoking Cessation: Rationale and Design of the Strength To Quit Study

    PubMed Central

    Ciccolo, Joseph T.; Williams, David M.; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Whitworth, James W.; McCullough, Aston K.; Bock, Beth B.; Marcus, Bess H.; Myerson, Merle

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent declines in the rates of cigarette smoking, smoking remains prevalent among individuals with lower income, less education, and those with mental illness or HIV. Exercise is promoted as an aid to smoking cessation; however, the evidence for this recommendation is equivocal. To date, the majority of studies have only examined aerobic exercise; there is a poor understanding of the mechanisms of action; and there is an under-representation of male smokers. The goal of this trial is to produce new data that will help to address each of these gaps. A total of 206 male and female smokers will receive a brief smoking cessation education session prior to being randomized into a 12-week Resistance Training (RT) or Wellness Contact Control group. Both groups will have the option of using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and both will meet on-site twice per week during the 12-week program (24 total sessions). Follow-up assessments will occur at the end of the 12-weeks (3-month), and at a 6-month and 12-month (post-randomization) visit. Participants will not receive any additional smoking cessation treatment during follow-up; however, the RT group will receive a 9-month membership to a fitness center to encourage continued resistance training as a way to maintain cessation, and attendance will be tracked. The primary outcome is salivary-cotinine-verified 7-Day Point Prevalence Abstinence (PPA) at the 3-month assessment, and at the 6 and 12-month follow-ups. Secondary outcomes include effects of resistance training on nicotine withdrawal symptoms, indicators of mental health, and markers of disease risk. PMID:25157265

  5. Structural Brain Changes after Traditional and Robot-Assisted Multi-Domain Cognitive Training in Community-Dwelling Healthy Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geon Ha; Jeon, Seun; Im, Kiho; Kwon, Hunki; Lee, Byung Hwa; Kim, Ga Young; Jeong, Hana; Han, Noh Eul; Seo, Sang Won; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Hojeong; Hwang, Jung Won; Yoon, Cindy W.; Kim, Hee Jin; Ye, Byoung Seok; Chin, Ju Hee; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Suh, Mee Kyung; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Mun-Taek; Kim, Mun Sang; Heilman, Kenneth M; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if multi-domain cognitive training, especially robot-assisted training, alters cortical thickness in the brains of elderly participants. A controlled trial was conducted with 85 volunteers without cognitive impairment who were 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 48 participants who would receive cognitive training and 37 who would not receive training. The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 24 who received traditional cognitive training and 24 who received robot-assisted cognitive training. The training for both groups consisted of daily 90-min-session, five days a week for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in cortical thickness. When compared to the control group, both groups who underwent cognitive training demonstrated attenuation of age related cortical thinning in the frontotemporal association cortices. When the robot and the traditional interventions were directly compared, the robot group showed less cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortices. Our results suggest that cognitive training can mitigate age-associated structural brain changes in the elderly. Trial Registration ClnicalTrials.gov NCT01596205 PMID:25898367

  6. Management Training, Yes! Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary E.

    1990-01-01

    Management training programs are a necessity for transportation supervisors. Basic and advanced training programs are available through associations for business officials and university fleet management training programs. (MLF)

  7. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O'Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5-6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. -5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (-5 ± 9 vs. -11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p < .001) and hip (p < .01) circumference,, trunk and leg fat mass (FM; p < .01) and an increase in trunk and leg fat free mass (FFM; p < .01) and cardiovascular fitness (VO2max in ml/kg/min; p < .001) with exercise. However, no significant differences were observed between groups. There was no significant change in RMR, RER, nonexercise PA levels, fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals.

  9. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study †

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Ives, Stephen J.; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O’Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p < .001) and hip (p < .01) circumference,, trunk and leg fat mass (FM; p < .01) and an increase in trunk and leg fat free mass (FFM; p < .01) and cardiovascular fitness (VO2max in ml/kg/min; p < .001) with exercise. However, no significant differences were observed between groups. There was no significant change in RMR, RER, nonexercise PA levels, fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals. PMID:26479856

  11. Up-regulation of lipolysis genes and increased production of AMP-activated protein kinase protein in the skeletal muscle of rats after resistance training.

    PubMed

    An, Jae-Heung; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Suk, Min-Hwa; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lipogenesis- and lipolysis-related genes and proteins in skeletal muscles after 12 weeks of resistance training. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into control (resting) and resistance training groups. A tower-climbing exercise, in which rats climbed to the top of their cage with a weight applied to their tails, used for resistance training. After 12 weeks, rats from the resistance training group had lower body weights (411.66±14.71 g vs. 478.33±24.63 g in the control), there was no significant difference between the two groups in the concentrations of total cholesterol, and high or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the concentration of triglyceride was lower in resistance-trained rats (59.83±14.05 μg/mL vs 93.33±33.89 μg/mL in the control). The mRNA expression levels of the lipogenesis-related genes sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase were not significantly different between the resistance-trained and control rats; however, mRNA expression of the lipolysis-related carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and malonyl-CoA decarboxylase increased significantly with resistance training. AMP-activated protein kinase protein levels also significantly increased in resistance training group compared with in the control group. These results suggested that resistance exercise training contributing to reduced weight gain may be in part be due to increase the lipolysis metabolism and energy expenditure in response to resistance training. PMID:27419110

  12. Up-regulation of lipolysis genes and increased production of AMP-activated protein kinase protein in the skeletal muscle of rats after resistance training

    PubMed Central

    An, Jae-Heung; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Suk, Min-Hwa; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lipogenesis- and lipolysis-related genes and proteins in skeletal muscles after 12 weeks of resistance training. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into control (resting) and resistance training groups. A tower-climbing exercise, in which rats climbed to the top of their cage with a weight applied to their tails, used for resistance training. After 12 weeks, rats from the resistance training group had lower body we