Science.gov

Sample records for 12-week treatment period

  1. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  2. Trazodone for the treatment of fibromyalgia: an open-label, 12-week study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite its frequent use as a hypnotic, trazodone has not been systematically assessed in fibromyalgia patients. In the present study have we evaluated the potential effectiveness and tolerability of trazodone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Methods A flexible dose of trazodone (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Secondary outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement Scale (PGI). Trazodone's emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test. Results Trazodone markedly improved sleep quality, with large effect sizes in total PSQI score as well on sleep quality, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Significant improvement, although with moderate effect sizes, were also observed in total FIQ scores, anxiety and depression scores (both HADS and BDI), and pain interference with daily activities. Unexpectedly, the most frequent and severe side effect associated with trazodone in our sample was tachycardia, which was reported by 14 (21.2%) patients. Conclusions In doses higher than those usually prescribed as hypnotic, the utility of trazodone in fibromyalgia management surpasses its hypnotic activity. However, the emergence of tachycardia should be closely monitored. Trial registration This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT-00791739. PMID:20831796

  3. Exercise Training in Treatment and Rehabilitation of Hip Osteoarthritis: A 12-Week Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Radhika; Karinkanta, Saija; Tokola, Kari; Kannus, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is one of the major causes of pain and disability in the older population. Although exercise is an effective treatment for knee OA, there is lack of evidence regarding hip OA. The aim of this trial was to test the safety and feasibility of a specifically designed exercise program in relieving hip pain and improving function in hip OA participants and to evaluate various methods to measure changes in their physical functioning. Materials and Methods. 13 women aged ≥ 65 years with hip OA were recruited in this 12-week pilot study. Results. Pain declined significantly over 30% from baseline, and joint function and health-related quality of life improved slightly. Objective assessment of physical functioning showed statistically significant improvement in the maximal isometric leg extensor strength by 20% and in the hip extension range of motion by 30%. Conclusions. The exercise program was found to be safe and feasible. The present evidence indicates that the exercise program is effective in the short term. However, adequate powered RCTs are needed to determine effects of long-term exercise therapy on pain and progression of hip OA. PMID:28116214

  4. Agomelatine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonio; Micò, Umberto; Lorusso, Simona; Cogliandro, Nadia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Caminiti, Maurizio; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2013-08-01

    Pharmacological therapy for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is actually unsatisfactory; analgetic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not very effective. On the other hand, it is opportune to underline that antidepressant drugs produce positive response on pain in patients with FMS. Furthermore, many studies showed that using variable doses of melatonin (3-6 mg/d) in subjects affected from FMS had significantly been effective on pain, sleep, daytime fatigue, and depression. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of agomelatine on depression, anxiety, cognition, and pain in a sample of drug-free FMS patients. Agomelatine was administered at the single daily dose of 25 mg/d to 15 fibromyalgia "drug-free" female subjects during 12 weeks. Outcome measures included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Visual Analog Scale of Pain, the Quality of Life Index, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Verbal Fluency Task-Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and the Stroop Color-Word Test. Treatment with agomelatine significantly improved depression, anxiety, and pain in patients with FMS. Regarding executive/cognitive symptoms, treatment with agomelatine did not have a significant impact on the explored neuropsychological domains, although there was a trend toward the improvement of performances. The findings showed that agomelatine was effective and well tolerated in patients with FMS. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the role of agomelatine as a potential pharmacological strategy for the treatment of FMS.

  5. Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

    2014-07-01

    Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800 μg and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5 years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18 weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks.

  6. Simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for eight or 12 weeks in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced hepatitis C virus genotype 4 patients with or without cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    El Raziky, M; Gamil, M; Ashour, M K; Sameea, E A; Doss, W; Hamada, Y; Van Dooren, G; DeMasi, R; Keim, S; Lonjon-Domanec, I; Hammad, R; Hashim, M S; Hassany, M; Waked, I

    2017-02-01

    The OSIRIS study investigated efficacy and safety of simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for eight or 12 weeks in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4-infected patients with METAVIR F0-F4 fibrosis. Sixty-three patients (33 treatment-naïve and 30 peg-interferon/ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV)-experienced) enrolled in a partly randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase IIa study. Patients with F0-F3 fibrosis were randomized (1:1) into two groups (A1 and A2), stratified according to treatment experience and METAVIR score, to receive either eight weeks (Group A1, n=20) or 12 weeks (Group A2, n=20) of treatment. Patients with compensated cirrhosis (METAVIR F4) received 12 weeks of treatment (Group B, n=23). Treatment comprised simeprevir 150 mg and sofosbuvir 400 mg daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after planned end of treatment (SVR12). Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout. Overall, 92% (95% CI: 82-97) of patients achieved SVR12; 75% (15/20) in Group A1 and 100% in groups A2 and B. Patients who did not achieve SVR12 (n=5) experienced viral relapse during the first 32 days following treatment and were all prior Peg-IFN/RBV null responders. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were asymptomatic lipase increase (14%), pruritus (14%), headache (13%) and hyperbilirubinaemia (11%). No patients discontinued due to TEAEs. In conclusion, simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks achieved a 100% SVR rate in HCV genotype 4-infected patients with or without compensated cirrhosis (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02278419). The AE and laboratory profile were favourable and consistent with previous data for simeprevir plus sofosbuvir in eight- and 12-week regimens.

  7. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  8. Arabic 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Volumes 1 and 2 (Lesson Units 1-55) of this beginning course in Arabic follow the Defense Language Institute format for intensive 12-week language courses, designed for native-speaker instructors using audiolingual methodology in the classroom. The third (and final) volume in this series constitutes a reference guide to pronunciation and grammar…

  9. Cyclophosphamide treatment of steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome: comparison of eight week with 12 week course. Report of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pädiatrische Nephrologie.

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective study (Cytotoxic Drug Study II), 18 children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and steroid toxicity were treated with cyclophosphamide (2 mg/kg body weight/day) for 12 weeks in combination with reducing doses of prednisone (group A). This group was compared retrospectively with 18 children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome, studied as part of the Cytotoxic Drug Study I, and who had received cyclophosphamide for eight weeks (group B). There were no differences between the groups in age at the onset of the nephrotic syndrome, age at entry into the study, and duration of the nephrotic syndrome before entry into the study. The number of relapses during the six months before the treatment was the same in both groups. Two years after treatment 12 of 18 children treated with cyclophosphamide for 12 weeks were still in remission. By contrast, only four of of 18 children treated with cyclophosphamide for eight weeks were still in remission. The cumulative rates of sustained remissions were significantly higher (67% and 22%, respectively) in group A. All relapses were observed within 400 days of stopping cytotoxic treatment. No severe side effects of cyclophosphamide occurred up to two years after treatment had been stopped. We conclude that for children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome and steroid toxicity cyclophosphamide treatment should be prolonged to 12 weeks to increase the likelihood of a prolonged remission. PMID:3688915

  10. Low baseline interleukin-17A levels are associated with better treatment response at 12 weeks to tocilizumab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jin; Park, Won; Park, Sung Hwan; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Baek, Han Joo; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Soo Kon; Leee, Yun Jong; Park, Young Eun; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Park, Jin Kyun; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Eun Bong; Song, Yeong Wook

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17-related cytokines have been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. The study aimed to identify cytokines associated with the treatment response of RA patients to tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin- (IL-) 6 receptor. As an independent substudy of the 24-week, randomized, double-blinded CWP-TCZ301 trial of TCZ in RA patients with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, serum levels of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, IL-6, and soluble IL-6 receptor were measured. Baseline IL-17A levels were significantly lower in RA patients who achieved disease activity score 28 (DAS28) remission at 12 weeks of TCZ treatment, compared to patients not in remission. Patients were stratified into IL-17A low group and IL-17A high group. Significantly more patients in the IL-17A low group achieved remission as compared to the IL-17A high group (47.6 versus 17.4%, P = 0.032). DAS28 improvement was significantly better in the IL-17A low group than in the IL-17A high group at 12 weeks (P = 0.045) and 24 weeks (P = 0.046) after adjustment. Other baseline cytokines were not associated with treatment response to TCZ. The data demonstrate that low baseline IL-17A levels are associated with better clinical response to TCZ treatment in RA patients.

  11. Oral pilocarpine for the treatment of ocular symptoms in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a randomised 12 week controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tsifetaki, N; Kitsos, G; Paschides, C; Alamanos, Y; Eftaxias, V; Voulgari, P; Psilas, K; Drosos, A

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of oral pilocarpine for the treatment of ocular symptoms in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Methods: A 12 week, single centre, randomised controlled study was performed. Twenty nine patients were randomly assigned to receive oral pilocarpine (5 mg twice a day), 28 only artificial tears, and 28 inferior puncta occlusion. Patients receiving oral pilocarpine and those with inferior puncta occlusion also received artificial tears. Patients were evaluated at baseline and throughout the study for their subjective global assessment of dry eyes and for their objective assessment of dry eyes (Schirmer's-I test, rose bengal test, and imprint test). Results: Patients taking oral pilocarpine had significant improvement in subjective global assessment of dry eyes, as was evaluated by improvement of >55 mm on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for responses to the eye questionnaire, compared with patients treated with artificial tears (p<0.001) and those with inferior puncta occlusion (p<0.05). Furthermore, patients receiving oral pilocarpine also showed greater objective improvement, as measured by the rose bengal test (p<0.05), while Schirmer's-I test showed no differences between the treated groups. Commonly reported adverse events were headache, increased sweating, nausea, and vomiting in the pilocarpine group, while one patient in the inferior puncta occlusion group had blepharitis and was withdrawn from the study. Conclusion: 10 mg of pilocarpine daily given to patients with SS for 12 weeks had a beneficial effect on subjective eye symptoms, as evaluated by improvement >55 mm on a VAS. Additionally, an improvement of rose bengal staining was noted, but an increase in tear production, as measured by the Schirmer-I test, was not substantiated. PMID:14644860

  12. Asenapine as adjunctive treatment for acute mania associated with bipolar disorder: results of a 12-week core study and 40-week extension.

    PubMed

    Szegedi, Armin; Calabrese, Joseph R; Stet, Let; Mackle, Mary; Zhao, Jun; Panagides, John

    2012-02-01

    In a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjunctive asenapine, bipolar I disorder patients experiencing manic or mixed episodes despite pretreatment with lithium or valproate monotherapy were treated with flexible-dose, twice-daily asenapine 5 or 10 mg (n = 158) or placebo (n = 166). The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score at week 3. Secondary outcomes included YMRS response and remission and Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score changes. Patients completing the core study were eligible for a 40-week double-blind extension assessing safety and tolerability. Adjunctive asenapine significantly improved mania versus placebo at week 3 (primary end point) and weeks 2 to 12. The YMRS response rates were similar at week 3 but significantly better with asenapine at week 12. The YMRS remission rates and changes from baseline on Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder for mania and overall illness were significantly better with asenapine at weeks 3 and 12. No other statistically significant differences on secondary outcomes were observed. Only a small number of patients entered the extension, making firm statistical conclusions on efficacy difficult. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by 5% or more of asenapine patients and at twice the incidence of placebo were sedation, somnolence, depression/depressive symptoms, oral hypoesthesia, and increased weight in the 12-week core study. Adjunctive asenapine to lithium or valproate was more effective than mood stabilizer monotherapy in the core study and was well tolerated for up to 52 weeks.

  13. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  14. Fluoxetine versus sertraline in the treatment of patients with undifferentiated somatoform disorder: a randomized, open-label, 12-week, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Changsu; Pae, Chi-Un; Lee, Bun Hee; Ko, Young-Hoon; Masand, Prakash S; Patkar, Ashwin A; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-02-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of fluoxetine and sertraline in the treatment of undifferentiated somatoform disorder (USD), using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15), which was specifically designed for assessing the severity of somatic symptoms. A randomized, 12-week, open-label trial of fluoxetine (10-60 mg/d) and sertraline (25-350 mg/d) in patients with USD was conducted. Six visits, at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12, were scheduled. Assessments for effectiveness and tolerability were conducted at each visit. The primary effectiveness measure was the mean change in PHQ-15 total score, from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary effectiveness measures were the mean changes in total scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), from baseline to the end of treatment. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled; of them, 28 were randomly assigned to receive fluoxetine and 17 to receive sertraline. The total score on the PHQ-15 from baseline to the end of treatment significantly decreased in the fluoxetine (-10.7, p<0.0001) and sertraline (-10.3, p<0.0001) treatment groups, with no between-group difference (F=0.0701, p=0.7924). Overall, both treatments were well tolerated and no serious adverse event was reported. This study suggests that both agents may have a potential role in the treatment of USD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and/or head-to-head comparison study with larger samples are required to draw more definite conclusions.

  15. A 12-Week Assessment of the Treatment of White Spot Lesions with CPP-ACP Paste and/or Fluoride Varnish

    PubMed Central

    Güçlü, Zeynep Aslı; Alaçam, Alev

    2016-01-01

    This 12-week clinical study evaluated the impact of 10% CPP-ACP and 5% sodium fluoride varnish regimes on the regression of nonorthodontic white spot lesions (WSLs). The study included 21 children with 101 WSLs who were randomised into four treatment regimes: weekly clinical applications of fluoride varnish for the first month (FV); twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP); weekly applications of fluoride varnish for the first month and twice daily self-applications of CPP-ACP paste (CPP-ACP-FV); and no intervention (control). All groups undertook a standard oral hygiene protocol and weekly consultation. Visual appraisals and laser fluorescence (LF) measurements were made in weeks one and twelve. The majority of WSLs in the control and FV groups exhibited no shift in appearance, whereas, in the CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP-FV groups, the lesions predominantly regressed. The visual and LF assessments indicated that the extent of remineralisation afforded by the treatments was of the following order: control ~ FV < CPP-ACP ~ CPP-ACP-FV. Self-applications of CPP-ACP paste as an adjunct to standard oral hygiene significantly improved the appearance and remineralisation of WSLs. No advantage was observed for the use of fluoride varnish as a supplement to either the standard or CPP-ACP-enhanced oral hygiene regimes. PMID:27843950

  16. Psychomotor symptoms and treatment outcomes of ziprasidone monotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential parallel comparison trial.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Doorley, James; DiPierro, Moneika; Cardoos, Amber; Papakostas, George I

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of ziprasidone monotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) with and without psychomotor symptoms. In accordance with the sequential parallel comparison design, 106 MDD patients (age 44.0±10.7 years; female, 43.4%) were recruited and a post-hoc analysis was carried out on 12-week double-blind treatment with either ziprasidone (40-160 mg/day) or placebo, divided into two phases of 6 weeks each to the assigned treatment sequences, drug/drug, placebo/placebo, and placebo/drug. Psychomotor symptoms were evaluated on the basis of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline. Efficacy assessments, on the basis of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Scale, Self-Rated (QIDS-SR), were performed every week throughout the trial. In phase I, ziprasidone monotherapy produced significant improvement in patients with psychomotor symptoms compared with placebo on the basis of HDRS-17 (F=5.95, P=0.017) and QIDS-SR (F=5.26, P=0.025) scores, whereas no significant changes were found in HDRS-17 (F=2.32, P=0.15) and QIDS-SR (F=3.70, P=0.074) scores in patients without psychomotor symptoms. In phase II, ziprasidone monotherapy produced no significant differences compared with placebo. In the pooled analysis, ziprasidone monotherapy showed significance according to QIDS-SR (Z=2.00, P=0.046) and a trend toward statistical significance according to the HDRS-17 (Z=1.66, P=0.10) in patients with psychomotor symptoms. Ziprasidone monotherapy may produce significant improvement compared with placebo in MDD patients with psychomotor symptoms.

  17. Ropinirole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome: results from the TREAT RLS 1 study, a 12 week, randomised, placebo controlled study in 10 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Trenkwalder, C; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Montagna, P; Lainey, E; de Weerd, A W; Tidswell, P; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G; Telstad, W; Ferini-Strambi, L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ropinirole in the treatment of patients with restless legs syndrome. Methods: A 12 week, prospective, double blind, randomised comparison involving 284 patients from 10 European countries. All participants had a score of ⩾15 on the international restless legs scale (IRLS). Patients were randomised (1:1) to receive either ropinirole 0.25–4.0 mg once daily or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline to week 12 in total IRLS score. Global improvements (clinical global impression (CGI) scale) and improvements in sleep, health related quality of life (QoL; using generic and disease specific measures), work, and other activities were also assessed. Results: 112/146 patients (76.7%) taking ropinirole and 109/138 (79.0%) taking placebo completed the study. Improvement in IRLS at week 12 with ropinirole (mean (SD) dose, 1.90 (1.13) mg/day) was greater than with placebo (mean (SE): -11.04 (0.719) v -8.03 (0.738) points; adjusted difference = -3.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), -5.03 to -0.99); p = 0.0036). More patients in the ropinirole group (53.4%) showed improvement on the CGI scale at week 12 than in the placebo group (40.9%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.7 (1.02 to 2.69); p = 0.0416). Significant differences on both IRLS and CGI scales favouring ropinirole were apparent by week 1. Ropinirole was also associated with significantly greater improvements in sleep and QoL end points. The most common adverse events were nausea and headache. Conclusions: Ropinirole improves restless legs syndrome compared with placebo, with benefits apparent by week 1. It is generally well tolerated. PMID:14707315

  18. Differential therapeutic effects of 12-week treatment of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on drug-naïve children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A counting Stroop functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tai-Li; Chia, Seng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with underlying distinct pharmacological mechanisms. To relate neural mechanisms to clinical response, we conducted a comparative trial to differentiate the changes in brain activation of drug-naïve children with ADHD when performing neuropsychological tasks after 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy. We randomized 50 drug-naïve children with ADHD, aged 7-17, to treatment with methylphenidate (n=25) or atomoxetine (n=25). These children were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the counting Stroop task before and after treatment. Focused attention and impulsivity were assessed twice by using the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). The final sample for fMRI analysis comprised 20 in the methylphenidate group and 22 in the atomoxetine group. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which correlated with improvement in focused attention assessed by the CCPT. In contrast, methylphenidate increased activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, which correlated with the decreasing severity of impulsivity assessed by the CCPT. The current findings suggest that differential therapeutic effects on neuronal changes induced by 12-week treatment atomoxetine and methylphenidate may contribute to behavioral improvement.

  19. Efficacy of a 12-Week Simeprevir Plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin (PR) Regimen in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 4 (GT4) Infection and Mild-To-Moderate Fibrosis Displaying Early On-Treatment Virologic Response

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Moreno, Christophe; Sarrazin, Christoph; Gschwantler, Michael; Foster, Graham R.; Craxí, Antonio; Buggisch, Peter; Sanai, Faisal; Bicer, Ceyhun; Lenz, Oliver; Van Dooren, Gino; Nalpas, Catherine; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle; Schlag, Michael; Buti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background HCV GT4 accounts for up to 20% of HCV infections worldwide. Simeprevir, given for 12 weeks as part of a 24- or 48-week combination regimen with PR is approved for the treatment of chronic HCV GT4 infection. Primary study objectives were assessment of efficacy and safety of simeprevir plus PR in treatment-naïve patients with HCV GT4 treated for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy outcome was sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). Additional objectives included investigation of potential associations of rapid virologic response and baseline factors with SVR12. Methods This multicentre, open-label, single-arm study (NCT01846832) evaluated efficacy and safety of simeprevir plus PR in 67 patients with HCV GT4 infection. Patients were treatment-naïve, aged 18–70 years with METAVIR F0–F2 fibrosis. Patients with early virologic response (HCV RNA <25 IU/mL [detectable/undetectable in IL28B CC patients or undetectable in IL28B CT/TT patients] at Week 2 and undetectable at Weeks 4 and 8) were eligible to stop all treatment at the end of Week 12, otherwise PR therapy was continued to Week 24. Results Of 67 patients treated, 34 (51%) qualified for 12-week treatment including all but one patient with IL28B CC genotype (14/15). All patients in the 12-week group had undetectable HCV RNA at end of treatment, and 97% (33/34) achieved SVR12. No new safety signals with simeprevir plus PR were identified. The proportion of patients experiencing Grade 3–4 adverse events was lower in the 12-week group than in the 24-week group. Conclusions Our findings on simeprevir plus PR therapy shortened to 12 weeks in patients with HCV GT4 infection with favourable baseline characteristics and displaying early on-treatment virologic response are encouraging. No new safety signals were associated with simeprevir plus PR in this study. Trial Registration NCT01846832 PMID:28056030

  20. Effects of 12-week combined exercise therapy on oxidative stress in female fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Sarıfakıoğlu, Banu; Güzelant, Aliye Yıldırım; Güzel, Eda Celik; Güzel, Savaş; Kızıler, Ali Rıza

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise therapy on the oxidative stress in fibromyalgia patients and relationship between oxidative stress and fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria, and 23 healthy women whose age- and weight-matched women were enrolled the study. Pain intensity with visual analog scale (VAS), the number of tender points, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression inventory (BDI) were evaluated. The oxidative stress parameters thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxide, and antioxidant parameters thiols and catalase were investigated in patients and control group. After, combined aerobic and strengthen exercise regimen was given to fibromyalgia group. Exercise therapy consisted of a warming period of 10 min, aerobic exercises period of 20 min, muscle strengthening exercises for 20 min, and 10 min cooling down period. Therapy was lasting 1 h three times per week over a 12-week period. All parameters were reevaluated after the treatment in the patient group. The oxidative stress parameters levels were significantly higher, and antioxidant parameters were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. VAS, FIQ, and BDI scores decreased significantly with exercise therapy. The exercise improved all parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters. Also, all clinical parameters were improved with exercise. We should focus on oxidative stress in the treatment for fibromyalgia with the main objective of reducing oxidative load.

  1. Effects of 12 Weeks Resistance Training on Serum Irisin in Older Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Su, Zhongjun; Qu, Chaoyi; Dong, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the effects of resistance training on circulating irisin concentration in older male adults, and to investigate the association between resistance training induced alteration of irisin and body fat. Methods: Seventeen older adults (mean age is 62.1 years old) were randomized into old control group (male, n = 7), and old training group (male, n = 10). The control group has no any exercise intervention. The resistance training group underwent leg muscle strength and core strength training program two times/wk, 55 min/class for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level and body composition. Results: Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the resistance training group after the 12 weeks intervention period (P < 0.01), but not in the control group. In the resistance training group, the reduction in whole-body fat percent was negatively correlated with the increase in serum irisin level (r = −0.705, P < 0.05). Conclusion: After the 12 weeks intervention, circulating irisin levels were significantly elevated in the older adults. In summary, serum irisin may be involved in the regulation of body fat in older male adults. PMID:28382004

  2. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity.

    PubMed

    Mackey, A L; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T G; Doessing, S; Kadi, F; Kjaer, M

    2011-12-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry. A significant main effect of time was observed (P<0.001) for the number of CD56+ cells per fiber (L: from 0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.13 ± 0.03; H: from 0.12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells reveals a new aspect of myogenic precursor cell activation and suggests that satellite cells may play a role in skeletal muscle adaptation over a broad physiological range.

  3. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  4. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Roke, Kaitlin; Boville, Stephanie; Mutch, David M.; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22.8 ± 2.6 yr). Subjects were matched for age, RMR, physical activity, VO2max and body mass, and were randomly separated into a group supplemented with either OO (3 g/d) or FO containing 2 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Participants visited the lab for RMR and substrate oxidation measurements after an overnight fast (10–12 hr) at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. There were significant increases in the EPA (413%) and DHA (59%) levels in red blood cells after FO supplementation, with no change of these fatty acids in the OO group. RMR and substrate oxidation did not change after supplementation with OO or FO after 6 and 12 weeks. Since there was no effect of supplementation on metabolic measures, we pooled the two treatment groups to determine whether there was a seasonal effect on RMR and substrate oxidation. During the winter season, there was an increase in FA oxidation (36%) with a concomitant decrease (34%) in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (p < 0.01), with no change in RMR. These measures were unaffected during the summer season. In conclusion, FO supplementation had no effect on RMR and substrate oxidation in healthy young males. Resting FA oxidation was increased and CHO oxidation reduced over a 12 week period in the winter, with no change in RMR. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02092649 PMID:28212390

  5. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Roke, Kaitlin; Boville, Stephanie; Mutch, David M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22.8 ± 2.6 yr). Subjects were matched for age, RMR, physical activity, VO2max and body mass, and were randomly separated into a group supplemented with either OO (3 g/d) or FO containing 2 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Participants visited the lab for RMR and substrate oxidation measurements after an overnight fast (10-12 hr) at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. There were significant increases in the EPA (413%) and DHA (59%) levels in red blood cells after FO supplementation, with no change of these fatty acids in the OO group. RMR and substrate oxidation did not change after supplementation with OO or FO after 6 and 12 weeks. Since there was no effect of supplementation on metabolic measures, we pooled the two treatment groups to determine whether there was a seasonal effect on RMR and substrate oxidation. During the winter season, there was an increase in FA oxidation (36%) with a concomitant decrease (34%) in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (p < 0.01), with no change in RMR. These measures were unaffected during the summer season. In conclusion, FO supplementation had no effect on RMR and substrate oxidation in healthy young males. Resting FA oxidation was increased and CHO oxidation reduced over a 12 week period in the winter, with no change in RMR.

  6. GLYCATED ALBUMIN AT 4 WEEKS CORRELATES WITH A1C LEVELS AT 12 WEEKS AND REFLECTS SHORT-TERM GLUCOSE FLUCTUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Desouza, Cyrus V.; Rosenstock, Julio; Zhou, Rong; Holcomb, Richard G.; Fonseca, Vivian A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the performance of glycated albumin (GA) monitoring by comparing it to other measures of glycemic control during intensification of antidiabetic therapy. Methods This 12-week, prospective, multicenter study compared the diagnostic clinical performance of GA to glycated hemoglobin A1C (A1C), fructosamine corrected for albumin (FRA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and mean blood glucose (MBG) estimated from self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in 30 patients with suboptimally controlled type 1 or 2 diabetes. Results Mean A1C decreased from 9.5% to 8.1%. Mean SMBG correlated closely with CGM (Pearson r = 0.783 for daily estimates and r = 0.746 for weekly estimates, P<.0001). Both GA and FRA levels significantly correlated with changes from baseline in A1C and mean weekly SMBG (P<.001).The lowest observed median GA occurred at 4 weeks, followed by a small increase and then a slight reduction, mirroring changes in overall mean SMBG values. The median A1C fell throughout the treatment period, failing to reflect short-term changes in SMBG. A ≥1% reduction in GA at 4 weeks was significantly associated with a ≥0.5% change in A1C at 12 weeks (odds ratio [OR] = 19.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4, 944, P = .018). Conclusion In patients receiving glucose-lowering therapy, changes in GA at 4 weeks were concordant with changes in A1C at 12 weeks, and both GA and FRA more accurately reflected short-term blood glucose fluctuations than A1C. PMID:26214108

  7. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control.

  8. Prospective randomized clinical trial of hydrophilic tapered implant placement at maxillary posterior area: 6 weeks and 12 weeks loading

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Early loading of implant can be determined by excellent primary stability and characteristic of implant surface. The implant system with recently improved surface can have load application 4-6 weeks after installing in maxilla and mandible. This study evaluated the effect of healing period to the stability of hydrophilic tapered-type implant at maxillary posterior area. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 30 patients treated by hydrophilic tapered-type implants (total 41 implants at maxilla) and classified by two groups depending on healing period. Group 1 (11 patients, 15 implants) was a control group and the healing period was 12 weeks, and Group 2 (19 patients, 26 implants) was test group and the healing period was 6 weeks. Immediately after implant placement, at the first impression taking, implant stability was measured using Osstell Mentor. The patients also took periapical radiographs after restoration delivery, 12 months after restoration and final followup period. The marginal bone loss around the implants was measured using the periapical radiographs. RESULTS All implants were survived and success rate was 97.56%. The marginal bone loss was less than 1mm after 1 year postoperatively except the one implant. The stabilities of the implants were not correlated with age, healing period until loading, insertion torque (IT), the diameter of fixture and the location of implant. Only the quality of bone in group 2 (6 week) was correlated with the stability of implant. CONCLUSION Healing period of 6 weeks can make the similar clinical prognosis of implants to that of healing period of 12 weeks if bone quality is carefully considered in case of early loading. PMID:27826390

  9. Mother-Infant Interaction and Cognitive Development in the 12-Week-Old Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallas, Howard B.; Lewis, Michael

    This study explored the relationship between the mother-infant interaction and the concurrent perceptual-cognitive and intellectual status of the infant. One hundred and eight-nine 12-week-old infants were given a battery of perceptual-cognitive tasks, including the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales, the Corman-Escalona Scales…

  10. Does 12-Week Latin Dance Training Affect the Self-Confidence of the University Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meric, Odemis; Ilhan, Adilogullari

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to investigate the effect of 12-week Latin dance training on the self-confidence of university students. This research was conducted with a total of 60 students, including 30 students as control and 30 students as the working group. A 33-item self-confidence scale developed by Akin (2007) was applied to both control…

  11. Achondrogenesis type 2 diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Soothill, P W; Vuthiwong, C; Rees, H

    1993-06-01

    Ultrasound examination at 12 weeks' gestation revealed severe generalised subcutaneous oedema in a pregnancy at risk for achondrogenesis type II. Transvaginal scanning confirmed the oedema and suggested abnormal limb development. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination after transvaginal termination.

  12. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  13. Effects of barnidipine on blood pressure and left ventricular diastolic function in patients with hypertension and metabolic syndrome: A 12-week, open-label noncomparison study

    PubMed Central

    Angeli, Fabio; Repaci, Salvatore; Borgioni, Claudia; Sardone, Mariagrazia; Scotti, Aurelio; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Barnidipine is one of a new generation of dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers. Despite evidence of favorable effects on blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity, this drug has rarely been tested in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of barnidipine on BP and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with hypertension and MS. Methods: Consecutive subjects aged 18 to 75 years with systolic BP (SBP) of 140 to 179 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) of 90 to 109 mm Hg and MS (based on Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) were assessed for inclusion in the study. Lifestyle changes according to current guidelines were recommended and barnidipine monotherapy 10 mg daily was initiated. All patients entered a 2-week run-in period. After a 6-week treatment period, the daily dosage was doubled for the remainder of the study in patients whose BP remained uncontrolled (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). We assessed the glycolipidic profile and LV structure and function using standard Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiography before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Ambulatory BP records and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic tracings were coded and shipped to a central laboratory for blinded analysis. Possible adverse events (AEs) were recorded at predetermined intervals throughout the follow-up period and at unplanned intervals whenever an AE became known to the investigators. Results: Thirty-four consecutive patients were assessed for inclusion. Thirty consecutive patients (20 men, 10 women; mean {SD| age, 55.9 {10.3| years; 5 current smokers) were included in the study. At study entry, mean office SBP was 146 mm Hg, DBP was 87 mm Hg, and heart rate was 72 beats/min. At the study end, mean office SBP/DBP was <140/90 mm Hg in 20 patients (66.7%). From baseline to study end, 24-hour ambulatory BP decreased significantly by 12 and 8 mm Hg for SBP and DBP, respectively

  14. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO.

  15. Cloacal and surface temperatures of tom turkeys exposed to different rearing temperature regimes during the first 12 weeks of growth.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S L; Strawford, M L; Noble, S D; Classen, H L; Crowe, T G

    2015-06-01

    Years of genetic selection have caused an increase in growth rate and market body mass in agricultural poultry species compared to earlier genetic strains, potentially altering their physiological requirements. The objective of this study was to expose Hybrid Converter tom turkeys on a weekly basis to the recommended rearing temperature regime (TCON: control) or 4°C below the recommended standard (TTRT: treatment) to determine their thermal responses. Once per week for 12 weeks, 12 turkeys were individually exposed to either TCON or TTRT for a 2-h period. Surface temperatures of the breast (TBREAST), wing (TWING), drumstick (TDRUM), head (THEAD), and shank (TSHANK) were measured at 20-min intervals using an infrared camera, while a thermal data logger measured the skin surface temperature under the wing (TLOGGER) at 30-s intervals. The cloacal temperature (TCORE) was measured using a medical thermometer at the start and end of the exposure period. Regardless of exposure temperature, the TBREAST (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), TWING (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001), and TDRUM (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) decreased from weeks 4 to 6 and remained constant from weeks 1 to 3 and 8 to 12. THEAD was elevated in week 2 (TCON: P<0.001) or week 3 (TTRT: P<0.001), TSHANK increased slightly during week 3 for both TCON (P<0.001) and TTRT (P<0.001), and TLOGGER (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P=0.001) and TCORE (TCON: P<0.001 and TTRT: P<0.001) were lower during the first week. Thereafter, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE remained constant. Exposure to TTRT resulted in lower TBREAST, TWING, and TDRUM compared to TCON. Generally, THEAD, TSHANK, TLOGGER, and TCORE were not affected by the different exposure temperatures. The data demonstrated that the degree of thermal response expressed is dependent on the location of measurement, age, and exposure temperature.

  16. 12 Weeks of Daclatasvir in Combination With Sofosbuvir for HIV-HCV Coinfection (ALLY-2 Study): Efficacy and Safety by HIV Combination Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; McDonald, Cheryl; Ramgopal, Moti; Noviello, Stephanie; Bhore, Rafia; Ackerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Highly effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapies that do not require modification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral regimens are needed. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir + sofosbuvir (DCV + SOF) for 12 weeks by antiretroviral (ARV) regimen in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Methods. In the randomized, open-label ALLY-2 study, HIV-HCV-coinfected patients received 8 or 12 weeks of once-daily DCV 60 mg (dose-adjusted as-necessary for concomitant ARVs) + SOF 400 mg. Results were stratified by ARV class for the 151 patients who received 12 weeks of DCV + SOF. Results. Fifty-one patients were HCV treatment experienced, 100 were treatment naive, 89% male and 33% black. HCV genotypes were: genotype 1a (GT1a; 69%), GT1b (15%), GT2 (8%), GT3 (6%), and GT4 (2%). Sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was 97% and was similar across ARV regimens (P = .774): protease inhibitor-based, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-99.7%); nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based, 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%); and integrase inhibitor based, 95% (95% CI, 83%-99.4%). SVR12 among patients receiving either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or abacavir as part of their antiretroviral therapy regimen was 98% (95% CI, 93%-99.5%) and 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%), respectively. Age, gender, race, cirrhosis, HCV treatment history, GT , and baseline HCV RNA did not affect SVR12. No discontinuations were attributed to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions. DCV + SOF x12 weeks is a highly efficacious, all-oral, pan-GT HCV treatment for HIV-HCV coinfected patients across a broad range of ARV regimens. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02032888. PMID:27025835

  17. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly.

  18. Chronic flexibility improvement after 12 week of stretching program utilizing the ACSM recommendations: hamstring flexibility.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Baranda, P; Ayala, F

    2010-06-01

    The ACSM flexibility training recommendations emphasize proper stretching of muscles supporting the major joints, but there is a little evidence to support this recommendation in terms of effectiveness, and which stretching parameters (technique and single stretch duration) are more adequate. A randomized controlled clinical trial design was use to investigate whether the ACSM flexibility training recommendation parameters improve hip flexion range of motion. A total of 173 subjects, 122 men (21.3+/-2.5 years; 176.33+/-8.35 cm; 74.42+/-10.80 kg) and 51 women (20.7+/-1.6 years; 163.43+/-6.57 cm; 60.12+/-7.88 kg), classified as recreationally active young adult university students were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: 1 control group (no stretching) or 1 of 6 stretching groups. All stretching groups performed 12 weeks of flexibility training with a consistent stretch daily dose (180 s) and frequency (3 days per week) parameters and different stretch technique (passive or active) and single stretch duration (15, 30, or 45 s). Hip flexion passive range of motion (PROM) was determined through the bilateral straight-leg raise test before, during (at 4 and 8 weeks), and after the program (12 weeks). All stretching groups performed hip flexion PROM after flexibility training. A significant improvement was identified in mean PROM for each stretching group, but no significant differences were found between stretch technique and single stretch duration (p>0.05). The control group's mean PROM decreased (Delta PROM: -0.08 degrees, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-2.3 to 5.3), whereas all stretching groups increased PROM (Delta PROM: 15.14 degrees, 95% CI=10.19 to 23.56) in hip flexion after 12 weeks of stretching (p<0.05). The present study suggests that the current ACSM flexibility training recommendations are effective for improving hip flexion ROM in recreationally active young adults.

  19. Effect of a 12-week yoga therapy program on mental health status in elderly women inmates of a hospice

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Meena; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2017-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of yoga on the mental health status of elderly women inmates residing in a hospice in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: Forty elderly women were randomly divided into yoga and wait-listed control group. A yoga therapy program of 60 min was given twice a week for 12 weeks. This protocol was specially designed for senior citizens, keeping in mind their health status and physical limitations that included simple warm-up and breath-body movement coordination practices (jathis and kriyas), static stretching postures (asanas), breathing techniques (pranayamas), and relaxation. Hamilton anxiety scale for measuring anxiety, Hamilton rating scale for depression, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure self-esteem were administered to both groups before and after the 12-week study period. Data were assessed for normality, and appropriate parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were applied for intra- and inter-group comparisons. Results: Overall, intra- and inter-group comparison of prepost data showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) differences for all three parameters. There was an overall improvement in the scores indicating decreased levels of depression and anxiety coupled with an increase in the level of self-esteem after the yoga therapy program. Discussion: The influence of yoga in the reduction of depression and anxiety scores and improvement in self-esteem scores in elderly women subjects is evident from this study. As reported in earlier studies, this may be attributed to changes in central neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric-acid coupled with increased parasympathetic tone and decreased sympatho-adrenal activity. Conclusion: It is recommended that yoga should be a part of health-care facilities for elderly as it can enhance the quality of life by improving their overall mental health status. It could provide a healthy and positive alternative from depressing

  20. 12 weeks of simulated barefoot running changes foot-strike patterns in female runners.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, C; Fleming, N; Donne, B; Blanksby, B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of a transition program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinematics and foot-strike patterns, female recreational athletes (n=9, age 29 ± 3 yrs) without SBR experience gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers SBR footwear over 12 weeks. Matched controls (n=10, age 30 ± 4 yrs) continued running in standard footwear. A 3-D motion analysis of treadmill running at 12 km/h(-1) was performed by both groups, barefoot and shod, pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention data indicated a more-forefoot strike pattern in the SBR group compared to controls; both running barefoot (P>0.05), and shod (P<0.001). When assessed barefoot, there were significant kinematic differences across time in the SBR group for ankle flexion angle at toe-off (P<0.01). When assessed shod, significant kinematic changes occurred across time, for ankle flexion angles at foot-strike (P<0.001) and toe-off (P<0.01), and for range of motion (ROM) in the absorptive phase of stance (P<0.01). A knee effect was recorded in the SBR group for flexion ROM in the absorptive phase of stance (P<0.05). No significant changes occurred in controls. Therefore, a 12-week transition program in SBR could assist athletes seeking a more-forefoot strike pattern and "barefoot" kinematics, regardless of preferred footwear.

  1. [Uterine rupture in a patient with bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea: about a case].

    PubMed

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea.

  2. Do 12-week yoga program influence respiratory function of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-09-29

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women.

  3. Do 12-Week Yoga Program Influence Respiratory Function of Elderly Women?

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-01-01

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  4. Improvements in metabolic and neuromuscular fitness after 12-week bodypump® training.

    PubMed

    Greco, Camila C; Oliveira, Anderson S; Pereira, Marcelo P; Figueira, Tiago R; Ruas, Vinícius D; Gonçalves, Mauro; Denadai, Benedito S

    2011-12-01

    Greco, CC, Oliveira, AS, Pereira, MP, Figueira, TR, Ruas, VD, Gonçalves, M, and Denadai, BS. Improvements in metabolic and neuromuscular fitness after 12-week Bodypump® training. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3422-3431, 2011-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week group fitness training program (Bodypump®) on anthropometry, muscle strength, and aerobic fitness. Nineteen women (21.4 ± 2.0 years old) were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) and to a control group (n = 10). We show that this training program improved the 1 repetition maximum squats by 33.1% (p < 0.001) and the maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) by 13.6% (p < 0.05). Additionally, decreases in knee extensor electromyographic activity during the MVC (30%, p < 0.01) and during the squats (15%, p < 0.05) and lunges of a simulated Bodypump® session were observed after the training. Concomitantly, blood lactate and heart rate after squats of a simulated Bodypump® session were decreased by 33 and 7% (p < 0.05), respectively. Body mass, body fat, and the running velocity at the onset of blood lactate accumulation did not change significantly in response to this training program. We conclude that Bodypump® training improves muscular strength and decreases metabolic stress during lower limb exercises. However, no significant improvements in running aerobic fitness nor in body mass and body fat were observed. Practitioners of Bodypump® training may benefit from the increased muscular strength and the decreased muscular fatigability during exercise tasks whose motor patterns are related to those involved in this training program. However, these functional gains do not seem to be transferable into running aerobic fitness.

  5. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  6. Linagliptin monotherapy compared with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis: a 12-week randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Shoji, Tetsuo; Inaba, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Focusing on efficacy and tolerability, we compared linagliptin monotherapy with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Research design and methods In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study, 78 patients were randomized (1:1) to receive a 12-week treatment with 5 mg linagliptin once daily or 0.2 mg voglibose three times a day. To assess whether linagliptin was superior to voglibose, the primary efficacy end point was the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy end points included changes between baseline and week 12 in glycated albumin (GA) and casual plasma glucose (PG) levels. Results At week 12, the adjusted mean HbA1c levels had decreased by −0.60% after treatment with linagliptin and by −0.20% after treatment with voglibose (treatment difference: −0.40%, 95% CI −0.74% to −0.06%, p=0.022). A significant reduction in casual PG level was also observed after treatment with linagliptin compared with treatment with voglibose. Relative to voglibose, linagliptin tended to elicit reductions in GA, although without statistical significance. No hypoglycemic symptoms or severe hypoglycemia occurred during the study. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD, linagliptin monotherapy provided significantly better glycemic control without severe hypoglycemia than voglibose monotherapy. Linagliptin represents a promising agent for glycemic management in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD. Trial registration number UMIN000007635; results. PMID:27547421

  7. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  8. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit.

  9. Aloe sterol supplementation improves skin elasticity in Japanese men with sunlight-exposed skin: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Misawa, Eriko; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Saito, Marie; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    Background/objective Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol) significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. Methods We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30–59 years; average: 45 years). The subjects were instructed to expose the measurement position of the arms to the sunlight outdoors every day for 12 weeks. The skin parameters were measured at 0 (baseline), 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Results Depending on the time for the revelation of the sunlight, the b* value and melanin index increased and the skin moisture decreased. After taking an Aloe sterol tablet daily for 12 weeks, the skin elasticity index (R2, R5, and R7) levels were significantly higher than the baseline value. There were no differences between the groups in these skin elasticity values. In the subgroup analysis of subjects aged <46 years, the change in the R5 and R7 was significantly higher in the Aloe group than in the placebo group at 8 weeks (P=0.0412 and P=0.0410, respectively). There was a difference in the quantity of sun exposure between each subject, and an additional clinical study that standardizes the amount of ultraviolet rays is warranted. No Aloe sterol intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion Aloe sterol ingestion increased skin elasticity in the photodamaged skin of men aged <46 years. PMID:27877061

  10. Better understanding of homologous recombination through a 12-week laboratory course for undergraduates majoring in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Hu, Xiaomei; Hu, Fuquan; Rao, Xiancai

    2017-03-17

    Homologous recombination, a central concept in biology, is defined as the exchange of DNA strands between two similar or identical nucleotide sequences. Unfortunately, undergraduate students majoring in biotechnology often experience difficulties in understanding the molecular basis of homologous recombination. In this study, we developed and implemented a 12-week laboratory course for biotechnology undergraduates in which gene targeting in Streptococcus suis was used to facilitate their understanding of the basic concept and process of homologous recombination. Students worked in teams of two to select a gene of interest to create a knockout mutant using methods that relied on homologous recombination. By integrating abstract knowledge and practice in the process of scientific research, students gained hands-on experience in molecular biology techniques while learning about the principle and process of homologous recombination. The learning outcomes and survey-based assessment demonstrated that students substantially enhanced their understanding of how homologous recombination could be used to study gene function. Overall, the course was very effective for helping biotechnology undergraduates learn the theory and application of homologous recombination, while also yielding positive effects in developing confidence and scientific skills for future work in research. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  11. Effects of a 12-week physical activities programme on sleep in female university students.

    PubMed

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Watier, Timothée; Honn, Kimberly; Pezé, Thierry; Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sleep is known to negatively affect adolescent's health and the links between regular physical activity and sleep are unclear.This pilot study investigated whether the regular practice of physical activities among sedentary female students would improve their sleep. Nineteen female students, identified as sedentary and having poor subjective sleep quality were assigned in two groups to a 12-week university physical activities programme in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organisation (N = 10) or to a control condition (N = 9). Sleep was assessed with actigraphy before and after the study and with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality 15 Index (PSQI) at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. The intensity of physical activities was controlled by heart rate monitor. The analysis showed that sleep quality in the physical activities group improved, with the mean ± SD PSQI score decreasing from 9.1 ± 1.7 to 4.8 ± 2.0. Despite some limitations, these pilot data indicate that a physical activities programme is feasible to implement in students, and that participation in such a programme improves sleep in 18- 24 -year-old female adolescents. Further potential benefits remain to be investigated in follow-up research.

  12. Effect of a 12-week aerobic training program on perceptual and affective responses in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Luís Alberto Garcia; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Freitas, Rosemari Queiroz; Henrique de Souza, Carlos; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to observe the effect of self-selected intensity or imposed intensity during aerobic training on perceptual and affective responses in obese women. [Subjects] The study included 26 obese women aged 30–60 years. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with 13 subjects in each group: self-selected intensity and imposed intensity (10% above ventilatory threshold) groups. All subjects completed an intervention program that lasted 12 weeks, with three exercise sessions a week. The rating of perceived exertion and affective responses (Feeling Scale and Felt Arousal Scale) were monitored in the first, sixth, and twelfth weeks. [Results] Significant differences were observed between groups in heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. The affective responses during exercise were more negative in the imposed intensity group. [Conclusion] Use of a self-selected exercise intensity can promote smaller negative affective responses during exercise and provide a sufficient stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26311958

  13. Treating Veterans With PTSD and Borderline Personality Symptoms in a 12-Week Intensive Outpatient Setting: Findings From a Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Laura; Voller, Emily K; McCallum, Ethan B; Thuras, Paul; Shallcross, Sandra; Velasquez, Tina; Meis, Laura

    2017-03-22

    Rates of comorbidity between borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are high in veteran populations, and clinicians are hesitant to treat PTSD given high rates of suicidality. Given promising early work integrating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and prolonged exposure (PE) therapy, we created a 12-week intensive outpatient program combining these two treatments. PE and DBT were provided concurrently to 33 veterans with PTSD symptoms and BPD symptoms at a large, midwestern Veteran Affairs medical center. Approximately half of the participants were male, with the majority identifying as Caucasian. Participants' ages ranged from 23 to 58 years, with a mean age of 43.21 years. The full-model of DBT was provided; PE was provided twice weekly for approximately 6 weeks of the program. Of participants, 22 veterans successfully completed the program with no dropout during PE. Large pre- to posttreatment effect sizes were found for decreases in PTSD symptoms (d = 1.61) and dysfunctional coping styles (d = 1.55), and an increase in the use of DBT skills (d = 1.02). A moderate effect size was found in the decrease of suicidal ideation (d = 0.64). The results of this pilot program suggest that PTSD can be safely and effectively treated among veterans with comorbid symptoms of borderline personality disorder through the combination of concurrent intensive DBT and PE.

  14. Mechanisms used to increase peak propulsive force following 12-weeks of gait training in individuals poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, HaoYuan; Knarr, Brian A.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Higginson, Jill S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Current rehabilitation efforts for individuals poststroke focus on increasing walking speed because it is a predictor of community ambulation and participation. Greater propulsive force is required to increase walking speed. Previous studies have identified that trailing limb angle (TLA) and ankle moment are key factors to increases in propulsive force during gait. However, no studies have determined the relative contribution of these two factors to increase propulsive force following intervention. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relative contribution of ankle moment and TLA to increases in propulsive force following 12-weeks of gait training for individuals poststroke. Forty-five participants were assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: training at self-selected speeds (SS), at fastest comfortable speeds (Fast), and Fast with functional electrical stimulation (FastFES). For participants who gained paretic propulsive force following training, a biomechanical-based model previously developed for individuals poststroke was used to calculate the relative contributions of ankle moment and TLA. A two-way, mixed-model design, analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline walking speed was performed to analyze changes in TLA and ankle moment across groups. The model showed that TLA was the major contributor to increases in propulsive force following training. Although the paretic TLA increased from pre-training to post-training, no differences were observed between groups. In contrast, increases in paretic ankle moment were observed only in the FastFES group. Our findings suggested that specific targeting may be needed to increase ankle moment. PMID:26776931

  15. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-05-07

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%).

  16. Do soccer and Zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees? A 12-week RCT.

    PubMed

    Barene, S; Krustrup, P; Jackman, S R; Brekke, O L; Holtermann, A

    2014-12-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG). Intervention effects for the two training groups were compared with CG. The training was conducted outside working hours as 2-3 1-h sessions per week for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ), fat percentage, fat mass, bone mineral content, and plasma osteocalcin were measured before and after the intervention period. Based on intention-to-treat-analyses, SG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.02) and decreased heart rate during 100-W cycle exercise (-7 bpm; P = 0.01), total body fat percentage (-1.1%; P = 0.002), and total body fat mass (-1.0 kg; P = 0.001) compared with CG. ZG significantly improved the VO2peak relative to body mass (5%; P = 0.03) and decreased total fat mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05) compared with CG. Plasma osteocalcin increased in SG (21%; P < 0.001) and ZG (10%; P = 0.01) compared with CG. The present study indicates that workplace initiated short-term soccer training as well as Zumba outside working hours may result in fitness and modest health benefits among female hospital employees.

  17. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. Objective The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. Methods A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Results Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow

  18. Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after 12 weeks of rofecoxib, naproxen, or placebo: a multicentre, randomised, double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, C J; Laine, L; Simon, T; Quan, H; Shingo, S; Evans, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in patients with osteoarthritis have suggested that the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor rofecoxib results in less gastrointestinal damage than non-selective non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study compared the incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rofecoxib or a non-selective NSAID. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, double blind, 12 week study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis were allocated to rofecoxib 50 mg once daily (n=219), naproxen 500 mg twice daily (n=220), or placebo (n=221). Endoscopy was performed at baseline and at six and 12 weeks. Lifetable analysis and log rank tests were used to analyse the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers ≥3 mm. Gastric or duodenal ulcers ≥5 mm and erosions were also evaluated as secondary end points. Tolerability was assessed by adverse events. Results: The cumulative incidence of ulcers ≥3 mm at 12 weeks was significantly higher in patients on naproxen (25.5%) than in patients receiving rofecoxib (6.8%; difference 18.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7%, 25.7%); p<0.001) or placebo (2.9%; difference 22.6% (95% CI 16.1%, 29.1%); p<0.001). The difference between rofecoxib (6.8%) and placebo (2.9%) did not reach statistical significance (p=0.066). Results were similar for ulcers ≥5 mm and for mean changes from baseline in the number of gastroduodenal erosions. The overall incidence of clinical adverse events was similar among treatment groups (61% of patients on placebo, 62% in patients on rofecoxib, and 66% in patients on naproxen). Conclusions: Rofecoxib 50 mg daily (twice the dose recommended for this patient population) resulted in a lower incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers and erosions than treatment with naproxen 500 mg twice daily. PMID:12740337

  19. Switching from clozapine to zotepine in patients with schizophrenia: a 12-week prospective, randomized, rater blind, and parallel study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Liou, Ying-Jay; Wang, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia, but many adverse effects are noted. Clinicians usually hesitate to switch from clozapine to other antipsychotics because of the risk of a re-emergence or worsening of the psychosis, although empirical studies are very limited. Zotepine, an atypical antipsychotic with a pharmacologic profile similar to clozapine, was found to be an effective treatment for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia in Japan. This 12-week study is the first prospective, randomized, and rater-blind study to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of switching from clozapine to zotepine. Fifty-nine patients with schizophrenia, who had taken clozapine for at least 6 months with a Clinical Global Impression-Severity score of at least 3, were randomly allocated to the zotepine and the clozapine groups. At the end of the study, 52 patients (88%) had completed the trial. The 7 withdrawal cases were all in the zotepine group. The final mean (SD) dose of zotepine and clozapine was 397.1 (75.7) versus 377.1 (62.5) mg/d, respectively. Patients in the zotepine group showed a significant increase in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [mean (SD), 4.7 (8.7) vs -1.3 (6.3); P = 0.005], more general adverse effects as revealed by the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Rating Scale [mean (SD), 1.74 (3.9) vs -0.2 (2.8); P = 0.039], more extrapyramidal adverse effects as demonstrated by the Simpson and Angus Scale [mean (SD), 1.29 (3.5) vs 0.17 (2.1); P = 0.022], an increased use of propranolol (37.1% vs 0%, P < 0.0001) and anticholinergics (25.7% vs 0%, P = 0.008), and an increased level of prolactin (29.6 vs -3.8 ng/ mL, P < 0.0005), compared with the clozapine group. The results suggested that switching from clozapine to zotepine treatment should be done with caution.

  20. Light and maternal influence in the entrainment of activity circadian rhythm in infants 4-12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of light and maternal activity on early infant activity rhythm were studied in 43 healthy, maternal-infant pairs. Aims included description of infant and maternal circadian rhythm of environmental light, assessing relations among of activity and light circadian rhythm parameters, and exploring the influence of light on infant activity independent of maternal activity. Three-day light and activity records were obtained using actigraphy monitors at infant ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Circadian rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, rhythm center, and regularity were determined using cosinor and nonparametric circadian rhythm analyses (NPCRA). All maternal and infant circadian parameters for light were highly correlated. When maternal activity was controlled, the partial correlations between infant activity and light rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, and rhythm center demonstrated significant relation (r = .338 to .662) at infant age 12 weeks, suggesting entrainment. In contrast, when maternal light was controlled there was significant relation between maternal and infant activity rhythm (r = 0.470, 0.500, and 0.638 at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) suggesting the influence of maternal-infant interaction independent of photo entrainment of cycle timing over the first 12 weeks of life. Both light and maternal activity may offer avenues for shaping infant activity rhythm during early infancy.

  1. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  2. Effect of 12 weeks of yoga training on the somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the practice of yoga reduces perceived stress and negative feelings and that it improves psychological symptoms. Our previous study also suggested that long-term yoga training improves stress-related psychological symptoms such as anxiety and anger. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of yoga practice on somatization, the most common stress-related physical symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. We performed a prospective, single arm study to examine the beneficial effects of 12 weeks of yoga training on somatization, psychological symptoms, and stress-related biomarkers. Methods We recruited healthy women who had no experience with yoga. The data of 24 participants who were followed during 12 weeks of yoga training were analyzed. Somatization and psychological symptoms were assessed before and after 12 weeks of yoga training using the Profile of Mood State (POMS) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaires. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), biopyrrin, and cortisol levels were measured as stress-related biomarkers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the stress-related biomarkers and the scores of questionnaires before and after 12 weeks of yoga training. Results After 12 weeks of yoga training, all negative subscale scores (tension-anxiety, depression, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion) from the POMS and somatization, anxiety, depression, and hostility from the SCL-90-R were significantly decreased compared with those before starting yoga training. Contrary to our expectation, the urinary 8-OHdG concentration after 12 weeks of yoga training showed a significant increase compared with that before starting yoga training. No significant changes were observed in the levels of urinary biopyrrin and cortisol after the 12 weeks of yoga training. Conclusions Yoga training has the potential to reduce the somatization score and the scores related to mental health

  3. Short-term effects of treatment with 300 mg oral-dose diethylcarbamazine on nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia and antigenemia.

    PubMed

    Siriaut, Chumsin; Bhumiratana, Adisak; Koyadun, Surachart; Anurat, Kowit; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2005-07-01

    Seven microfilaremic Myanmar patients were treated with a single 300 mg dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) orally, as part of a case-finding survey in Ranong Province, Southern Thailand. This was conducted in order to evaluate the short-term effects of single-dose DEC on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia and antigenemia during a 12-week course of treatment. Analysis of microfilarial periodicity on initial treatment revealed the microfilarial peak density (k) was at 52 minutes after midnight (0052). The periodicity index was then 103.26%. Single-dose DEC treatment did not affect the k values. A linear model of W. bancrofti microfilarial density reduction predicts a sharp decrease in the mean microfilarial density 2 weeks after DEC intake (Z = -2.197, p = 0.028). Over a longer period, a non-linear model predicts an increase in the mean microfilarial density to pre-treatment levels, having little or no macrofilaricidal effects. We reconfirmed the existence of nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti infection in Myanmar migrants in Ranong Province, and the short-term microfilaricidal activity of 300 mg single-dose DEC treatment used for biannual mass treatment and the DEC provocative test. Without an adequate DEC treatment dose, recrudescence can occur. A rational approach to the management of introduced nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti in Myanmar migrants, who came for short periods of stay in transmission-prone areas, is needed.

  4. Effectiveness and tolerability of rosiglitazone on insulin resistance and body composition in nondiabetic Thai patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: A 12-week pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bunmee, Panipat; Supasyndh, Ouppatham

    2009-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic renal insufficiency, especially those undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), normally have insulin resistance due to deficiencies in insulin secretion and degradation, as well as tissue resistance to insulin at both receptor and postreceptor levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of rosiglitazone on insulin resistance and body composition in patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing CAPD. Methods: This pilot study included a pretest and posttest with a repeated-measure design in a small number of patients. CAPD patients without DM received rosiglitazone 2-mg tablets BID for 12 weeks. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were used to assess insulin resistance and body composition, respectively. Tolerability was assessed using laboratory analyses as well as physical examination findings to evaluate peripheral edema. Peripheral edema was assessed by the study investigators. Results: Thirteen Thai patients (mean [SD] age, 54.17 [11.42] years [range, 35–85 years]; body mass index [BMI], >20 to <30 kg/m2; fasting blood glucose [FBG] concentration, <5.39 mmol/L) were included in the study. One patient was withdrawn due to illness unrelated to the study. No significant difference was found in FBG concentration between baseline and posttreatment (after 12 weeks of treatment) (5.45 [0.59] vs 5.24 [0.51] mmol/L), but fasting plasma insulin concentrations (28.50 [23.70] vs 10.15 [4.22] μIU/mL; P = 0.005) and HOMA-IR score (6.70 [5.23] vs 2.40 [1.15]; P = 0.011) were significantly lower. There were no significant changes in weight or BMI from baseline to posttreatment. Seven subjects (58.3%) experienced weight gain at week 4, while 2 patients (16.7%) still had weight gain after 12 weeks of treatment. A significant increase was found between baseline and posttreatment in total body

  5. Does 12 weeks of regular standing prevent loss of ankle mobility and bone mineral density in people with recent spinal cord injuries?

    PubMed

    Ben, Marsha; Harvey, Lisa; Denis, Sophie; Glinsky, Joanne; Goehl, Gerlinde; Chee, Shane; Herbert, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week standing program on ankle mobility and femur bone mineral density in patients with lower limb paralysis following recent spinal cord injury. An assessor-blinded within-subject randomised controlled trial was undertaken. Twenty patients with lower limb paralysis following a recent spinal cord injury were recruited. Subjects stood weight-bearing through one leg on a tilt-table for 30 minutes, three times each week for 12 weeks. By standing on one leg a large dorsiflexion stretch was applied to the ankle and an axial load was applied to the bones of the weight-bearing leg. Ankle mobility and femur bone mineral density of both legs were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Ankle mobility (range of motion) was measured with the application of a 17 Nm dorsiflexion torque. Femur bone mineral density was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The effect of standing was estimated from the difference between legs in mean change of ankle mobility and femur bone mineral density. The results indicated a mean treatment effect on ankle mobility of 4 degrees (95% CI 2 to 6 degrees) and on femur bone mineral density of 0.005 g/cm(2) (95% CI -0.015 to 0.025 g/cm(2)). Tilt-table standing for 30 minutes, three times per week for 12 weeks has a small effect on ankle mobility, and little or no effect on femur bone mineral density. It is unclear whether clinicians and patients would consider such effects to be clinically worthwhile.

  6. Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration.

  7. Telaprevir combination therapy in HCV/HIV co-infected patients (INSIGHT study): sustained virologic response at 12 weeks final analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Marisa; Nelson, Mark; Marie Girard, Pierre; Sasadeusz, Joe; Horban, Andrzej; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Zakharova, Natalia; Rivero, Antonio; Lathouwers, Erkki; Janssen, Katrien; Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; Witek, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We report the SVR12 final analysis of a phase 3 study of telaprevir in combination with peginterferon (P)/ribavirin (R) in HCV-genotype 1, treatment-naïve and -experienced patients with HCV/HIV co-infection (INSIGHT). Materials and Methods Patients receiving stable, suppressive HIV antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, containing atazanavir/ritonavir, efavirenz, darunavir/ritonavir, raltegravir, etravirine or rilpivirine, received telaprevir 750 mg q8h (1125 mg q8h if on efavirenz) plus P (180 µg once-weekly) and R (800 mg/day) for 12 weeks, followed by an additional 12 weeks (non-cirrhotic HCV treatment-naïve and relapse patients with extended rapid viral response [eRVR]) or 36 weeks (all others) of PR alone. Analysis was performed when all patients had completed the follow-up visit of 12 weeks after last planned dose. Results One hundred sixty-two patients were enrolled and treated (65 efavirenz, 59 atazanavir/ritonavir, 17 darunavir/ritonavir, 17 raltegravir, 4 etravirine). Mean age was 45 years, 78% were male, 92% were Caucasian; mean CD4 count was 687 cells/mm3. Sixty four patients (40%) were HCV treatment-naïve and 98 (60%) were treatment experienced (29 relapsers, 18 partial responders and 51 null responders). 64% were subtype 1a. 30% had bridging fibrosis (17%) or cirrhosis (13%). 19% of patients discontinued telaprevir, including 9% due to an adverse event (AE), 8% reaching a virologic endpoint and 2% for other reasons (non compliance or not defined). Treatment responses are shown in Table 1. There were no HIV RNA breakthroughs. Most frequently reported (≥20% patients) AEs were pruritus 43%; fatigue 27%; rash 34%, anorectal events 30% and influenza-like illness (25%). Anemia was reported in 15% of patients; grade ≥3 haemoglobin decrease occurred in 2.5% of patients. 6% of patients experienced serious AEs. Conclusions In this phase 3 study of HIV-infected, HCV treatment-naïve and -experienced patients, 49% achieved eRVR and 57% reached SVR12

  8. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  9. Trichloroethylene and trichloroethanol-induced formic aciduria and renal injury in male F-344 rats following 12 weeks exposure.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Noreen; Evans, Andrew; Foster, John R; Lock, Edward A

    2014-09-02

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is widely used as a cleaning and decreasing agent and has been shown to cause liver tumours in rodents and a small incidence of renal tubule tumours in male rats. The basis for the renal tubule injury is believed to be related to metabolism of TCE via glutathione conjugation to yield the cysteine conjugate that can be activated by the enzyme cysteine conjugate β-lyase in the kidney. More recently TCE and its major metabolite trichloroethanol (TCE-OH) have been shown to cause formic aciduria which can cause renal injury after chronic exposure in rats. In this study we have compared the renal toxicity of TCE and TCE-OH in rats to try and ascertain whether the glutathione pathway or formic aciduria can account for the toxicity. Male rats were given TCE (500mg/kg/day) or TCE-OH at (100mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks and the extent of renal injury measured at several time points using biomarkers of nephrotoxicity and prior to termination assessing renal tubule cell proliferation. The extent of formic aciduria was also determined at several time points, while renal pathology and plasma urea and creatinine were determined at the end of the study. TCE produced a very mild increase in biomarkers of renal injury, total protein, and glucose over the first two weeks of exposure and increased Kim-1 and NAG in urine after 1 and 5 weeks exposure, while TCE-OH did not produce a consistent increase in these biomarkers in urine. However, both chemicals produced a marked and sustained increase in the excretion of formic acid in urine to a very similar extent. The activity of methionine synthase in the liver of TCE and TCE-OH treated rats was inhibited by about 50% indicative of a block in folate synthesis. Both renal pathology and renal tubule cell proliferation were reduced after TCE and TCE-OH treatment compared to controls. Our findings do not clearly identify the pathway which is responsible for the renal toxicity of TCE but do provide some support for metabolism

  10. Low-dose memantine attenuated methadone dose in opioid-dependent patients: a 12-week double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-05-19

    Low-dose memantine might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. We investigated whether add-on memantine reduced cytokine levels and benefitted patients with opioid dependence undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a group: Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 53) or Placebo (n = 75). The methadone dose required and retention in treatment were monitored. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12. General linear mixed models were used to examine therapeutic effect. After 12 weeks, Memantine-group required a somewhat lower methadone dose than did Placebo-group (P = 0.039). They also had significantly lower plasma TNF-α and significantly higher TGF-β1 levels. We provide evidence of the benefit of add-on memantine in opioid dependent patients undergoing MMT.

  11. Management of osteoarthritis (OA) with the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia): a 12-week registry.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Hu, S; Ippolito, E

    2015-10-22

    This registry study assessed the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia extract in capsules) in the management of symptoms associated to osteoarthritis (OA) also managed with the 'standard management' (SM) in comparison with a group of patients managed only with SM. The 12- week registry included patients with symptomatic knee arthrosis. They were able to walk on a treadmill for a walking test and to complete the WOMAC questionnaire.

  12. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students. PMID:27630436

  13. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  14. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

  15. The Effects of a 12-Week Faculty and Staff Exercise Program on Health-Related Variables in a University Setting.

    PubMed

    Rebold, Michael J; Kobak, Mallory S; Peroutky, Kylene; Glickman, Ellen L

    The obesity epidemic has grown in the past decade due to physical inactivity (i.e., having a sedentary job) and an increase in caloric intake. This problem combined with the reluctance of many faculty and staff members exercising in the same environment as student's presents a unique challenge in an academic setting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12-week exercise program focused toward the faculty and staff in improving several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. Fifty-seven faculty and staff participated in the current study. Participants engaged in a variety of exercise classes taught by certified instructors three days a week for 12-weeks. Paired samples t-tests illustrated a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in body mass and significant (p ≤ 0.001) improvements in curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. This data demonstrates that a 12-week faculty and staff exercise program has the potential to improve performance in several health-related variables such as curl-ups, push-ups, sit-and-reach, and balance. The ability of this program to improve health-related variables and possibly delay or prevent the development of overweight and/or obesity, sarcopenia, and other chronic diseases is encouraging.

  16. LA Sprouts: A 12-week gardening, nutrition, and cooking randomized control trial improves determinants of dietary behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jaimie N; Martinez, Lauren C.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Gatto, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of an exploratory 12-week nutrition, cooking and gardening RCT (“LA Sprouts”) on preference for fruit and vegetables (FV); willingness to try FV; identification of FV; self-efficacy to garden/eat/cook FV; motivation to garden/eat/cook FV; attitudes towards FV; nutrition and gardening knowledge; and home gardening habits. Design and Participants Four elementary schools with 304 predominately Hispanic/Latino 3rd–5th grade students were randomized to either the LA Sprouts (n=167 students) or Control group (n=137 students). LA Sprouts participants received 12 weeks of weekly 90-minute culturally tailored gardening, nutrition, and cooking classes after school. Questionnaire data examining dietary determinants were obtained at baseline and post-intervention. Results After the 12-week program, LA Sprouts participants compared with controls improved scores for identification of vegetables (+11% vs. +5%; P=.001), nutrition and gardening knowledge (+14.5% vs. −5.0%; P =.003), and were more likely to garden at home (+7.5% vs. −4.4%; P=.003). Conclusions The LA Sprouts program positively impacted a number of determinants of dietary behaviors, which suggest possible mechanisms by which gardening and nutrition education act to improve dietary intake and health outcomes. PMID:26453367

  17. Safety and Adherence for 12 Weekly Doses of Isoniazid and Rifapentine for Pediatric Tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andrea T; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2016-07-01

    Traditional treatment of tuberculosis infection (TBI) is efficacious, but adherence is low. Eighty children with TBI received a 12-dose once-weekly isoniazid/rifapentine regimen; 79 (99%) completed therapy, 94% reported no adverse events, 1 child had mildly elevated transaminases but 1 adolescent later developed pulmonary TB. Isoniazid/rifapentine is safe, is well tolerated and has much higher completion rates than traditional TBI regimens.

  18. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β 2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%-8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6-12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6-12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6-12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks.

  19. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  20. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-06-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response.

  1. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response. PMID:26246794

  2. Subchronic (12-week) inhalation toxicity study of methanol-fueled engine exhaust in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Maejima, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Tadao ); Numata, Hiroaki ); Maekawa, Akihiko ); Nagase, Sumi ); Ishinishi, Noburu )

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the inhalation toxicity to rats of exhaust at low concentration for longer periods, Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 3 concentrations of exhaust generated by an M85 methanol-fueled engine (methanol with 15% gasoline) without catalyst for 8 h/d, 6 d/wk for 4, 8, or 12 wk. Concentration- and time-dependent increase carboxyhemoglobin in the erythrocytes and decrease in cytochrome P-450 in the lungs were observed in all treated groups. Furthermore, significant increases in plasma formaldehyde were observed in the group exposed to the highest concentration of exhaust (carbon monoxide, 89.8 ppm; formaldehyde, 2.3 ppm; methanol, 8.1 ppm; nitrogen oxides, 22.9 ppm; nitrogen dioxide, 1.1 ppm) for 8 or 12 wk. No change of plasma folic acid was observed in any group, and no methanol or formic acid was detected in the plasma in any animals. Histopathologically, exposure-related changes were found only in the nasal cavity of the high-concentration group. Slight hyperplasia/squamous metaplasias of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasoturbinate and maxilloturbinate were observed after 4 wk of exposure, and the incidences and degrees of these lesions increased slightly with the exposure time. No changes were found in the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity. As judged by optical microscopy, the exhaust concentration with no effect on the nasal cavity under the experimental conditions was concluded to be the medium concentration level containing 0.55 ppm formaldehyde. In the present study, however, concentration- and time-dependent increase of carboxyhemoglobin in the erythrocytes and decrease of the lung P-450 level were observed. Therefore, further study on more long-term inhalation of lower concentrations of exhaust might be needed. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Periodically operated bioreactors for the treatment of soils and leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Cassidy, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rate and renders solid-phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. Periodic aeration during solid-phase bioremediation has the potential to lower treatment costs relative to continuous aeration. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by periodic aeration in solid-phase sequencing batch reactors (SP-SBRs) was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty loam contaminated predominantly with the plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) or (DEHP) and a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first experiment evaluated the effect of water content and mixing time during slurrying on subsequent treatment in continuously aerated solid-phase bioreactors. The second experiment compared treatment of slurried soil in SP-SBRs using three different periodic aeration strategies with continuous aeration.

  4. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Martin, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Chlorine dioxide was injected into the water intakes at two power plants in Illinois and one in Indiana in an effort to eradicate the existing population of zebra mussels and mitigate further settlement in station river water cooling systems. Results of the treatments at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station on the Mississippi River, Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station on the Illinois River, and SI Energy`s Gallagher Station on the Ohio River are reported. Treatments were performed on a turnkey basis, with three treatments performed at Meredosia Station in 1994, six treatments performed at Wood River Station between July 1993 and September 1994, and 2 treatments performed at Gallagher Station in 1994. For each treatment, a contractor installed and operated a portable chlorine dioxide generator, monitored water quality and oxidant levels, and provided and monitored bioboxes containing test mussels. Results of the treatments were very favorable, indicating a good potential for periodic treatments with chlorine dioxide to control zebra mussel infestations in the raw water systems of power plants and other industrial facilities. Some difficulties with the chlorine dioxide generation system and cold temperature effects reduced the treatment effectiveness, particularly the second treatment at Gallagher Station. Average induced mortalities ranged from 70 to 100% at Wood River, 87 to 92% at Meredosia, and 30 to 100% at Gallagher for native mussels. Dechlorination successfully kept total oxidant residual levels at or below 0.05 ppM during all treatments at all stations.

  5. [Unipolar periodic depressive psychosis and chronic tricyclic antidepressive treatment].

    PubMed

    Pascalis, G

    1981-11-01

    Part of unipolar periodic déxpressions may - enjoy an active and comfortable existence, with-out recourse; - during at the less 10 years after beginning of the cure; - under condition of a long-course treatment by tricyclic antidepressors, the patient being trained to module himself the daily doses.

  6. Effects of 12-week proprioception training program on postural stability, gait, and balance in older adults: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Caballero-Martínez, Isabel; Alvarez, Pablo J; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week-specific proprioceptive training program on postural stability, gait, balance, and fall prevention in adults older than 65 years. The present study was a controlled clinical trial. Forty-four community dwelling elderly subjects (61-90 years; mean age, 78.07 ± 5.7 years) divided into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 24) groups. The participants performed the Berg balance test before and after the training program, and we assessed participants' gait, balance, and the risk of falling, using the Tinetti scale. Medial-lateral plane and anterior-posterior plane displacements of the center of pressure, Sway area, length and speed, and the Romberg quotient about surface, speed, and distance were calculated in static posturography analysis (EPS pressure platform) under 2 conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. After a first clinical evaluation, patients were submitted to 12 weeks proprioception training program, 2 sessions of 50 minutes every week. This program includes 6 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to program proprioceptive training. The training program improved postural balance of older adults in mediolateral plane with eyes open (p < 0.05) and anterior-posterior plane with eyes closed (p < 0.01). Significant improvements were observed in Romberg quotient about surface (p < 0.05) and speed (p < 0.01) but not about distance (p > 0.05). After proprioception training, gait (Tinetti), and balance (Berg) test scores improved 14.66% and 11.47% respectively. These results show that 12 weeks proprioception training program in older adults is effective in postural stability, static, and dynamic balance and could lead to an improvement in gait and balance capacity, and to a decrease in the risk of falling in adults aged 65 years and older.

  7. A Double-Blind, 12-Week Study to Evaluate the Antiaging Efficacy of a Cream Containing the NFκB Inhibitor 4-Hexyl-1, 3-Phenylenediol and Ascorbic Acid-2 Glucoside in Adult Females.

    PubMed

    Roure, Romain; Nollent, Virginie; Dayan, Liliane; Camel, Etienne; Bertin, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The 5 main physical manifestations of aged skin are wrinkles, uneven tone, brown spots, loss of elasticity, and dryness. One mechanism resulting in these physical manifestations is increased activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein. This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized split-face study compared the antiaging effect and safety of a face cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol, an NFκB inhibitor, and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside versus placebo in adult females aged 45-70 years old. Subjects (n=42) applied active treatment or placebo to the same half face twice daily at home for 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation was carried out by a dermatologist. Subjects carried out similar self-grading assessments. Colorimetric measurements analyzed skin color, and biomechanical skin properties were evaluated. Clinical grading showed that most wrinkle parameters were significantly improved after 8 weeks of active treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05), with improvements maintained after 12 weeks. Only Marionette wrinkles did not show a significant improvement. Brown spots (color intensity/number), overall photodamage, and most complexion parameters improved significantly after 8 and 12 weeks compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05). Self-grading yielded similar results compared with baseline. Self-grading did not demonstrate improvements with active treatment versus placebo, except for skin firmness at 8 and 12 weeks (P≤.05). A significant difference was seen with active treatment compared with placebo in all colorimetric parameters (L*, b*, and ITA°) after 8 weeks, and in spot coloration (b*) after 12 weeks (P<.05). Improvements in skin elasticity were not significantly different between treatments. Overall tolerability of active treatment was judged as good. In conclusion, a cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside improves the clinical appearance of aged

  8. Turkish 12 Week Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This audiolingual beginner's course has been prepared for the Defense Language Institute intensive program in modern spoken Turkish. The course, consisting of six volumes of basic text in 55 units begins with an introductory section which presents the linguistic background, phonology, and distinguishing features of Turkish. The lesson format…

  9. Self-presentation in exercise: changes over a 12-week cardiovascular programme for overweight and obese sedentary females.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin S; Hall, Craig R; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2013-01-01

    Self-presentational concerns, shown to influence exercise-related cognitions and behaviours, are evaluated frequently in the absence of exercise or following a single bout of physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally, the extent to which participating in a structured 12-week cardiovascular exercise intervention elicited changes in self-presentational efficacy expectancy (SPEE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). Participants were 80 sedentary women with overweight or obesity (mean body mass index 29.02 kg/m(2), SD=4.71) between the ages of 19 and 45 wanting to begin an exercise programme (mean age 33.4 years, SD=7.6). The Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) were completed by each participant prior to commencing the study, and at the 6- and 12-week time points. For those who completed the programme, repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant increases in SPEE between baseline and week 6 (P<0.001, η(2)=0.37), and week 6 to 12 (P<0.05, η(2)=0.10), while SPA decreased significantly between baseline and week 6 (P<0.01, η(2)=0.16). Bivariate correlation analyses revealed that length of participation in the study was positively related to SPEE and negatively related to SPA. Implications of focusing on these variables within a physical activity intervention are discussed with respect to exercise behaviour, programme development and adherence.

  10. Comparison of metabolic effects of aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone after 12 weeks of treatment in first treated episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Iglesias, Rocio; Ortiz-Garcia de la Foz, Victor; Martínez García, Obdulia; Amado, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Unzueta, M Teresa; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Suarez-Pinilla, Paula; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2014-10-01

    This randomized open-label study compared the incidence of metabolic side effects of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine in a population of medication-naïve first-episode psychosis patients. A total of 202 subjects were enrolled. Body weight, body mass index, leptin, fasting lipids and fasting glycaemic parameters were measured at baseline and at 3 months follow-up. A hundred and sixty-six patients completed the follow-up and were included in the analyses. A high proportion of patients experienced a significant weight increase (>7% of their baseline weight): 23% ziprasidone (n=12), 32% with quetiapine (n=16) and 45% with aripiprazole (n=31). Patients treated with aripiprazole gained significantly more weight than the patients in the ziprasidone group (1.2 kg [SD=4.1] versus 4.3 kg [SD=4.8], respectively). The increase in leptin levels was greater in women treated with aripiprazole than in those treated with ziprasidone (p=0.030). Mean prolactin levels significantly increased in patients treated with quetiapine and ziprasidone but not in those treated with aripiprazole. Patients treated with quetiapine and aripiprazole showed a significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol plasma levels. Quetiapine-treated patients resulted in a higher increase in LDL-cholesterol than patients treated with ziprasidone (p=0.021). No other significant differences between groups were found. No significant changes in glycaemic parameters were observed. Our results suggest that ziprasidone has a lower liability for inducing weight gain and lipid abnormalities than aripiprazole or quetiapine.

  11. Bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension previously treated with latanoprost: two randomized 12-week trials

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan S; Vold, Steven; Zaman, Fiaz; Williams, Julia M; Hollander, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Methods Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ≥20 mmHg after ≥30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily). Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03%) are presented. Results Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean) was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957). In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean) reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001), ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0%) mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8%) mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia of mild or greater severity increased from latanoprost baseline after 12 weeks of treatment only in the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arm. Conclusion Many patients who do not reach their target IOP on latanoprost can achieve additional IOP

  12. Gene expression profiling of kidneys from Sprague-Dawley rats following 12-week inhalation exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mi Sook; Choi, Ji-Yoon; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Jin Sik; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ryu, Hyun Ryol; Lee, Ji Hyun; Bang, In Seok; An, Kangho; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Nam Woong; Yu, Il Je

    2013-07-01

    The specific properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), such as antimicrobial activity and electrical conductivity, allow them to be used in many fields. However, their expanding application is also raising health, environmental and safety concerns. Previous in vivo AgNP toxicity studies have indicated a gender-different accumulation of silver in the kidneys, with 2-3 times more silver in female kidneys compared to male kidneys. However, no other studies have further addressed this gender difference. Accordingly, the current study investigated the gender-dependent effect of AgNPs on the kidney gene level based on toxicogenomic studies of kidneys obtained from rats exposed to AgNPs via inhalation for 12 weeks. When compared with the fresh air control, the silver nanoparticle-exposed kidneys included 104 genes with a more than 1.3-fold expression increase. For the male rat kidneys exposed to a low or high dose of silver nanoparticles, 96 genes exhibited expression changes, where six genes changed with both the low and high dose; four increased and two decreased. Meanwhile, for the female rat kidneys exposed to a low or high dose of silver nanoparticles, 66 genes exhibited expression changes, where 11 genes changed with both the low and high dose; nine increased and two decreased. Gender-dependent gene expression changes of more than 2-fold were linked to 163 genes, with 79 genes in the male kidneys and 84 genes in the female kidneys, plus gender-dependent gene expression changes of more than 5-fold were linked to 21 genes. However, no genes involved in apoptosis or the cell cycle were activated by the 12-week silver nanoparticle inhalation exposure. Overall, the male rat kidneys showed a higher expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, while the female rat kidneys showed a higher expression of genes involved in extracellular signaling.

  13. Efficacy and tolerability balance of oxycodone/naloxone and tapentadol in chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component: a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected routine data from 12-week prospective open-label observations

    PubMed Central

    Ueberall, Michael A; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard H H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the benefit–risk profile (BRP) of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) and tapentadol (TAP) in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) with a neuropathic component (NC) in routine clinical practice. Methods This was a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected 12-week routine/open-label data of the German Pain Registry on adult patients with cLBP-NC who initiated an index treatment in compliance with the current German prescribing information between 1st January and 31st October 2015 (OXN/TAP, n=128/133). Primary end point was defined as a composite of three efficacy components (≥30% improvement of pain, pain-related disability, and quality of life each at the end of observation vs baseline) and three tolerability components (normal bowel function, absence of either central nervous system side effects, and treatment-emergent adverse event [TEAE]-related treatment discontinuation during the observation period) adopted to reflect BRP assessments under real-life conditions. Results Demographic as well as baseline and pretreatment characteristics were comparable for the randomly selected data sets of both index groups without any indicators for critical selection biases. Treatment with OXN resulted formally in a BRP noninferior to that of TAP and showed a significantly higher primary end point response vs TAP (39.8% vs 25.6%, odds ratio: 1.93; P=0.014), due to superior analgesic effects. Between-group differences increased with stricter response definitions for all three efficacy components in favor of OXN: ≥30%/≥50%/≥70% response rates for OXN vs TAP were seen for pain intensity in 85.2%/67.2%/39.1% vs 83.5%/54.1%/15.8% (P= ns/0.031/<0.001), for pain-related disability in 78.1%/64.8%/43.8% vs 66.9%/50.4%/24.8% (P=0.043/0.018/0.001), and for quality of life in 76.6%/68.0%/50.0% vs 63.9%/54.1%/34.6% (P=0.026/0.022/0.017). Overall, OXN vs TAP treatments were well tolerated, and proportions of patients who either maintained a normal bowel

  14. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu's were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this study

  15. Health markers in obese adolescents improved by a 12-week recreational soccer program: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Seabra, Andre; Cunha, Felipe; Montenegro, Rafael; Penha, Jociene; Bouskela, Eliete; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Collett-Solberg, Paulo; Farinatti, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a recreational soccer program (RSP) upon body composition, heart rate variability (HRV), biochemical markers, cardio-respiratory fitness, and endothelial function in obese adolescents were investigated. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted with 30 adolescents aged 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) >2 standard deviations of WHO reference values, which were assigned to RSP (n = 10, 2 girls) and obese control (n = 10, 4 girls) groups. The 12-week RSP included 60-min sessions performed 3 times/week. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, HRV, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were evaluated following standardised procedures. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. After intervention, RSP exhibited significant reductions in BMI (-0.7 ± 0.2 kg · m(-2)), waist circumference (-8.2 ± 1.4 cm), %body fat (-2.2 ± 0.4%), systolic blood pressure (-5.0 ± 2.3 mmHg), total cholesterol (-16.2 ± 5.8 mg · dL(-1)), triglycerides (-20.5 ± 12.9 mg · dL(-1)), C-reactive protein (-0.06 ± 0.01 mg · dL(-1)), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -1.4 ± 0.6), and sympathetic activity (LF, -13.9 ± 6.6 un) vs. controls (P < 0.05). Significant increase was observed in parasympathetic activity (HF, 13.9 ± 6.6 un), VO2peak (7.9 ± 2.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.0 ± 6.3 mg · dL(-1)) (P < 0.05). Vascular conductance (19.5 ± 8.1 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.005) increased and vascular resistance (-5.9 ± 2.4 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.041) decreased in RSP, but not in controls. A 12-week recreational soccer intervention was effective to improve biochemical, cardiovascular, and fitness health markers in obese adolescents.

  16. Tracking Spinal Cord Injury: Differences in Cytokine Expression of IGF-1, TGF- B1, and sCD95l Can Be Measured in Blood Samples and Correspond to Neurological Remission in a 12-Week Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Ferbert, Thomas; Child, Christopher; Graeser, Viola; Swing, Tyler; Akbar, Michael; Heller, Raban; Biglari, Bahram; Moghaddam, Arash

    2017-02-01

    Neuroinflammation presumably has an important impact on the secondary phase of spinal cord injury and is regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. We analyzed serum levels of three different cytokines (insulin-like-growth-factor [IGF]-1, tumor growth factor [TGF]-β1, and soluble CD 95 ligand [sCD95L]), in blood samples of 23 patients admitted with acute traumatic spinal cord injury between November 2010 and July 2013 with a follow-up period of 12 weeks. Quantification was performed using Human Quantikine Immunoassays, classification of neurological impairment was performed using the American Spinal Cord Injury Impairment Scale at time of admission and after 12 weeks. After an initial drop of all three cytokine serum levels, IGF-1, TGF-β1, and sCD95L showed significantly increased serum levels during the acute and sub-acute phases. For IGF-1 and sCD95L, we could also observe significantly higher serum levels in patients without neurological improvement compared with patients who had improvement after 12 weeks. In this study, we were able to show differences in cytokine serum levels in patients with different neurological outcome. Measuring the serum level patterns of IGF-1, TGF-β1, and sCD95L might be a useful tool for prognosis in patients with neurological improvement and tracking the pathophysiology in further studies. Further, our observations might link promising therapeutic efforts in numerous animal studies and future studies in human patients.

  17. Treatment of psychosis and mania in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Bergink, Veerle; Burgerhout, Karin M; Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Kamperman, Astrid M; Hoogendijk, Witte J; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P; Kushner, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    Postpartum psychosis is a severe disorder that warrants acute clinical intervention. Little is known, however, about what interventions are most effective. The authors present treatment response and remission outcomes at 9 months postpartum using a four-step algorithm in patients with first-onset psychosis or mania in the postpartum period. Treatment involved the structured sequential administration of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, lithium, and ECT. The outcome of clinical remission was examined in 64 women consecutively admitted for postpartum psychosis. Remission was defined as the absence of psychotic, manic, and severe depressive symptoms for at least 1 week. Women who remitted on antipsychotic monotherapy were advised to continue this treatment as maintenance therapy, and women who required both antipsychotics and lithium to achieve remission were maintained on lithium monotherapy. Relapse was defined as the occurrence of any mood or psychotic episode fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria. Using this treatment algorithm, the authors observed that nearly all patients (98.4%) achieved complete remission within the first three steps. None of the patients required ECT. At 9 months postpartum, sustained remission was observed in 79.7%. Patients treated with lithium had a significantly lower rate of relapse compared with those treated with antipsychotic monotherapy. Multiparity and nonaffective psychosis were identified as risk factors for relapse. The authors conclude that a structured treatment algorithm with the sequential addition of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and lithium may result in high rates of remission in patients with first-onset postpartum psychosis and that lithium maintenance may be most beneficial for relapse prevention.

  18. Promoting healthful diets and exercise: efficacy of a 12-week after-school program in urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Engels, Hermann-J; Gretebeck, Randall J; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Jiménez, Linda

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a unique extracurricular after-school initiative designed to promote healthy diets and exercise in urban African Americans. The Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit after-school program was offered for 12 weeks to students and their parents/guardians at an urban middle school. Specific aims of the intervention were to increase participants' vegetable and fruit intake by using established 5 A Day for Better Health educational resource materials/activities and to affect their health-related fitness through dance, games, and fitness activities. Fifty-six children and 25 parents/guardians completed a standard battery of evaluations before and after the program. Pre-post pairwise t test revealed that both children and their parents/guardians showed an increase in fruit consumption and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P <.05). Moreover, children showed improvements in systolic blood pressure and fruit juice, salad, and nonfried potato consumption while parents/guardians showed a decrease in body fat, body mass index, and endurance walk/run time (P <.05). Overall, findings indicate that children tended to gain more diet-related benefits while parents/guardians tended to derive more fitness-related benefits. After-school programs like the Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit initiative can potentially contribute to improved health levels in urban African Americans.

  19. A physical fitness follow-up in children with cerebral palsy receiving 12-week individualized exercise training.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shiau-Chian; Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Alice M K; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Physical fitness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is lower than in their peers. A 12-week individualized home-based exercise program completed by 11 children with CP 10 years earlier showed a favorable effect on physical fitness performance. We follow-up the physical fitness of those 11 children with CP, and compare their physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) to children with CP without exercise training matched with age and motor levels. Eleven children with CP in the 2003 program as a follow-up group (FUG) and 12 volunteers recruited as a control group (CG) participated in this study. Physical fitness measures, including cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle strength, body mass index (BMI), flexibility, agility, balance, and the SF-36 Taiwan version, were assessed in both groups. After 10 years, the FUG showed better physical fitness in cardiopulmonary endurance and muscle strength (p<.05). Compared to the CG, the FUG demonstrated better muscle strength, agility, and balance (p<.05). However, the HRQoL did not show a significant difference between the FUG and the CG. Individualized home-based exercise training is beneficial for children with CP. Over 10 years, the FUG was more devoted to physical activity than was the CG. Physical exercise may not directly affect the HRQoL in this study.

  20. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365

  1. DEXA-assessed regional body composition changes in young female military soldiers following 12-weeks of periodised training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Paola S; Krüger, Pieter E; Grant, Catharina C

    2010-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to assess whole body and regional soft tissue mass, fat mass and lean body mass compositional changes in 68 female recruits (age 20.8 +/- 1.14 years; body mass 59.5 +/- 8.79 kg; stature 159.57 +/- 5.53 cm) pre- and post 12-weeks of military basic training. A decrease in total body fat tissue mass (10.2%) and regional percent fat (10.9%) was measured with an increase in total lean body mass (8.7%). Of interest were the differences in the responses in the tissue composition of the arms (16.2% loss in fat mass with an 11.6% gain in lean mass), trunk (17.0% decrease in fat mass with a 10.4% increase in lean mass) and the legs (10.5% increase in lean mass but no change in fat mass). These findings show the importance of considering regional rather than whole body composition changes when assessing the effects of a training programme. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Female soldiers experienced a change in total body fat tissue (-10.2%) and lean body mass (+8.7%) after basic training; however, no significant fat mass decrease was evident in the leg region. Regional rather than whole body composition changes need to be considered when assessing the effects of a training programme.

  2. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M

    2015-09-02

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m²) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%-20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation.

  3. A 12-Week Commercial Web-Based Weight-Loss Program for Overweight and Obese Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Basic Versus Enhanced Features

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Penelope; Fletcher, Kate; Martin, Julia; Aguiar, Elroy J; Lucas, Ashlee; Neve, Melinda J; Callister, Robin

    2012-01-01

    clinically important weight loss. Although the provision of additional personalized feedback did not facilitate greater weight loss after 12 weeks, the impact of superior participant retention on longer-term outcomes requires further study. Further research is required to determine the optimal mix of program features that lead to the biggest treatment impact over time. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): 12610000197033; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?id=335159 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/66Wq0Yb7U) PMID:22555246

  4. Umeclidinium/vilanterol as step-up therapy from tiotropium in patients with moderate COPD: a randomized, parallel-group, 12-week study

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, Edward M; Kalberg, Chris J; Galkin, Dmitry V; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Church, Alison; Riley, John H; Fahy, William A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Patients with COPD who remain symptomatic on long-acting bronchodilator monotherapy may benefit from step-up therapy to a long-acting bronchodilator combination. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of umeclidinium (UMEC)/vilanterol (VI) in patients with moderate COPD who remained symptomatic on tiotropium (TIO). Methods In this randomized, blinded, double-dummy, parallel-group study (NCT01899742), patients (N=494) who were prescribed TIO for ≥3 months at screening (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]: 50%–70% of predicted; modified Medical Research Council [mMRC] score ≥1) and completed a 4-week run-in with TIO were randomized to UMEC/VI 62.5/25 µg or TIO 18 µg for 12 weeks. Efficacy assessments included trough FEV1 at Day 85 (primary end point), 0–3 h serial FEV1, rescue medication use, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Safety evaluations included adverse events (AEs). Results Compared with TIO, UMEC/VI produced greater improvements in trough FEV1 (least squares [LS] mean difference: 88 mL at Day 85 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 45–131]; P<0.001) and FEV1 after 5 min on Day 1 (50 mL [95% CI: 27–72]; P<0.001). Reductions in rescue medication use over 12 weeks were greater with UMEC/VI versus TIO (LS mean change: −0.1 puffs/d [95% CI: −0.2–0.0]; P≤0.05). More patients achieved clinically meaningful improvements in TDI score (≥1 unit) with UMEC/VI (63%) versus TIO (49%; odds ratio at Day 84=1.78 [95% CI: 1.21–2.64]; P≤0.01). Improvements in SGRQ and CAT scores were similar between treatments. The incidence of AEs was similar with UMEC/VI (30%) and TIO (31%). Conclusion UMEC/VI step-up therapy provides clinical benefit over TIO monotherapy in patients with moderate COPD who are symptomatic on TIO alone. PMID:28280319

  5. Propylthiouracil, but not other antithyroid treatments, lengthens hamster circadian period

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, L.P. )

    1988-07-01

    Two experiments were performed to evaluate the role of the thyroid gland as a mediator of circadian rhythms in the hamster. In experiment 1, the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU) lengthened the circadian period ({tau}), increased thyroid weight, and eliminated detectable thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) from blood. A low-iodine diet greatly reduced T{sub 4} levels but had no effect on T{sub 3} or {tau}. Treatment with 500 {mu}Ci of {sup 131}I failed to alter any parameter of physiology or thythmicity measured. In this experiment, some animals in the low-iodine and PTU groups had greatly reduced testes sizes, and testses size was inversely correlated with change in {tau}. In experiment 2, T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} levels detected 11 wk after surgical thyroidectomy were significantly less than those found in sham-operated ammals, but concentrations of the two hormones varied widely across the thyroidectomized group. Thyroidectomy did not increase {tau} either 4 or 11 wk after surgery, nor was there evidence from individuals that level of thyroid function was associated with change in {tau}. The results from these experiments suggest that diminished thyroid function is not causal of lengthened circadian period.

  6. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  7. Agomelatine versus Sertraline: An Observational, Open-labeled and 12 Weeks Follow-up Study on Efficacy and Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Esma; Cerit, Cem; Talas, Anıl; Tural, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this open-labeled, 12 weeks follow-up study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine with sertraline Methods The outpatients of adult psychiatry clinic who have a new onset of depression and diagnosed as ‘major depressive episode’ by clinician according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition and prescribed agomelatine (25 mg/day) or sertraline (50 mg/day) were included in the study. Results The decline of mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores of agomelatine group was significantly higher than the sertraline group at the end of 2nd week; however, the difference was not significant at the end of 3 months. Mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I) scores of agomelatine group was lower than sertraline group at first week. Mean CGI-Severity scale and CGI-I scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Remission rates were 46.7% for sertraline group and 33.3% for agomelatine group while response rates were 76.7% for both groups. Any patient from agomelatine group dropped-out due to adverse effects. The amount of side effects was also less with agomelatine. Conclusion Agomelatine has a rapid onset efficacy on depressive symptoms and this can be beneficial for some critical cases. Considering MADRS scores, agomelatine seems to have similar efficacy with sertraline but we also point the need for long term studies since CGI scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Agomelatine has a favourable tolerability profile both in terms of discontinuation and the amount of side effects compared to sertraline. PMID:27776387

  8. Contribution of magnetic resonance microscopy in the 12-week neurotoxicity evaluation of carbonyl sulfide in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Sills, Robert C; Morgan, Daniel L; Herr, David W; Little, Peter B; George, Nneka M; Ton, Thai Vu; Love, Nancy E; Maronpot, Robert R; Johnson, G Allan

    2004-01-01

    In this carbonyl sulfide (COS) study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and detailed light microscopic evaluation effectively functioned in parallel to assure that the distribution and degree of pathology in the brain was accurately represented. MRM is a powerful imaging modality that allows for excellent identification of neuroanatomical structures coupled with the ability to acquire 200 or more cross-sectional images of the brain, and the ability to display them in multiple planes. F344 rats were exposed to 200-600 ppm COS for up to 12 weeks. Prior to MRM, rats were anesthetized and cardiac perfused with McDowell Trump's fixative containing a gadolinium MR contrast medium. Fixed specimens were scanned at the Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy on a 9.4 Tesla magnetic resonance system adapted explicitly for microscopic imaging. An advantage of MRM in this study was the ability to identify lesions in rats that appeared clinically normal prior to sacrifice and the opportunity to identify lesions in areas of the brain which would not be included in conventional studies. Other advantages include the ability to examine the brain in multiple planes (transverse, dorsal, sagittal) and obtain and save the MRM images in a digital format that allows for postexperimental data processing and manipulation. MRM images were correlated with neuroanatomical and neuropathological findings. All suspected MRM images were compared to corresponding H&E slides. An important aspect of this study was that MRM was critical in defining our strategy for sectioning the brain, and for designing mechanistic studies (cytochrome oxidase evaluations) and functional assessments (electrophysiology studies) on specifically targeted anatomical sites following COS exposure.

  9. Magnesium Replacement Does Not Improve Insulin Resistance in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A 12-Week Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza e Silva, Maria de Lourdes; Cruz, Thomaz; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon; Ladeia, Ana Marice; Bomfim, Olivia; Olivieri, Lucas; Melo, Juliana; Correia, Raquel; Porto, Mirna; Cedro, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes. Methods This 12-week clinical randomized double-blind study compared the effects of 400 mg/day of Mg with those of a placebo (n = 72) on fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and CRP. Mg was measured in serum (SMg) and in mononuclear cells (MMg). Results Hypomagnesemia (SMg < 1.7 mg/dL) was seen in 23.2% of patients and intracellular depletion in 36.1% of patients. The MMg means were lower in patients with obesity (0.94 ± 0.54 μg/mg vs. 1.19 ± 0.6 μg/mg, P = 0.04), and insulin resistance (0.84 ± 0.33 μg/mg vs. 1.14 ± 0.69 µg/mg, P < 0.05). Mg replacement did not alter SMg (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/dL vs. 1.81 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P = 0.877) and tended to increment MMg (0.90 ± 0.40 μg/mg vs. 1.21 ± 0.73 μg/mg, P = 0.089). HOMA-IR did not alter in interventions nor in placebo group (3.2 ± 2.0 to 2.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.368; 3.6 ± 1.9 to 3.2 ± 1.8, respectively), neither did other metabolic parameters. Conclusion Serum and intracellular Mg depletion is common in patients with MS; however, Mg replacement in recommended dosage did not increase significantly Mg levels, neither reduced insulin resistance or metabolic control. PMID:25247020

  10. Effects of a 12 Week SAQ Training Programme on Agility with and without the Ball among Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Trajković, Nebojša; James, Nic; Šamija, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12 week conditioning programme involving speed, agility and quickness (SAQ) training and its effect on agility performance in young soccer players. Soccer players were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental group (EG; n = 66, body mass: 71.3 ± 5.9 kg; body height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m) and control group (CG; n = 66, body mass: 70.6 ± 4.9 kg; body height: 1.76 ± 0.06 m). Agility performance was assessed using field tests: Slalom; Slalom with ball; Sprint with 90° turns; Sprint with 90° turns with ball; Sprint with 180° turns; Sprint with backward and forward running; Sprint 4 x 5 m. Statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) between pre and post training were evident for almost all measures of agility, with and without the ball, with the exception being the Sprint with backward and forward running. This suggests that SAQ training is an effective way of improving agility, with and without the ball, for young soccer players and can be included in physical conditioning programmes. Key points SAQ training appears to be an effective way of improving agility with and without the ball in young soccer players Soccer coaches could use this training during pre-season and in-season training Compared with pre-training, there was a statistically significant improvement in all but one measure of agility, both with and without the ball after SAQ training PMID:24149731

  11. Impact of a 12-week aerobic exercise training program on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of a group of type 2 diabetes Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years

    PubMed Central

    Dahjio, Yves; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Essouma, Mickael; Loni, Gabriel Ekali; Onana, Arnold Ewane; Dehayem, Mesmin; Mvom, Angeline; Tadjore, Maurice Njock

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined whether aerobic exercise could have an impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. Methods We enrolled 23 T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years regularly followed at the National Obesity Center of Yaounde, Cameroon, in a 12-week aerobic exercise program monitored by a pedometer. Exercise intensity was progressively set between 55% and 75% of maximum heart rate. We measured weight, body mass index (BMI), fat, lean mass, visceral fat, maximum oxygen uptake, glycaemia and insulin tolerance index at baseline, after six and twelve weeks. A mixed ANOVA model was used to evaluate changes of outcome measures over time. Results Total body weight was significantly reduced after 12 weeks (P<0.05), waist circumference after 6 and 12 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase of the lean mass from 6 weeks (P<0.001) and a reduction of the mean visceral fat at 12 weeks (P<0.001). At the end of the program, the mean glycaemia was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the maximum oxygen uptake was enhanced (P<0.05). Conclusions The 12-week aerobic exercise program improved the anthropometric and metabolic parameters as well as the aerobic capacity of T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. PMID:27826567

  12. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  13. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  14. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  15. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26157235

  16. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  17. Efficacy of the long-acting nitro vasodilator pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris receiving anti-anginal background therapy with beta-blockers: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Meinertz, Thomas; Tebbe, Ulrich; Schneider, Heinrich Theodor; Stalleicken, Dirk; Wargenau, Manfred; Gori, Tommaso; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background The organic nitrate pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to have ancillary properties that prevent the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (‘CLEOPATRA’ study) was designed to investigate the anti-ischaemic efficacy of PETN 80 mg b.i.d. (morning and mid-day) over placebo in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Methods and results A total of 655 patients were evaluated in the intention-to-treat population, randomized to PETN (80 mg b.i.d., n = 328) or placebo (n = 327) and completed the study. Patients underwent treadmill exercise tests at randomization, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PETN over 12 weeks did not modify the primary endpoint total exercise duration (TED, P = 0.423). In a pre-specified sub-analysis of patients with reduced exercise capacity (TED at baseline ≤9 min, n = 257), PETN appeared more effective than placebo treatment (P = 0.054). Superiority of PETN over placebo was evident in patients who were symptomatic at low exercise levels (n = 120; P = 0.017). Pentaerithrityl tetranitrate 80 mg b.i.d. was well tolerated, and the overall safety profile was comparable with placebo. Conclusion Although providing no additional benefit in unselected patients with known coronary artery disease, PETN therapy, administered in addition to modern anti-ischaemic therapy, could increase exercise tolerance in symptomatic patients with reduced exercise capacity. PMID:24071762

  18. The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.

  19. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-09-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  20. No effect of 12 weeks' supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philippa A; Deary, Michael E; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2012-04-01

    The n-3 PUFA are a unique class of fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body, and must be acquired via dietary sources. In the UK, as well as in other Western nations, these 'essential' fatty acids are consumed in quantities that fall below government guidelines. The present study explored the effects of 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with 1 g/d of two types of fish oil (FO; DHA-rich and EPA-rich) in 159 healthy young adults aged 18-35 years. An assessment of performance on a battery of computerised cognitive tasks and mood measures took place before and following the 12-week treatment regimen. Venous blood samples were also supplied by participants at both time points which were later analysed for serum fatty acid concentrations. Despite good adherence to the study protocol - as reflected in increased concentrations of n-3 serum fatty acids - compared with placebo, the observed effects of both active treatments were minimal. The only finding of note revealed that supplementation with EPA-rich FO may reduce subjective mental fatigue at times of high cognitive demand, although further investigation is required. These findings, taken together with other recent reports of null effects, suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in healthy, normally developing and impairment-free populations is unlikely to result in cognitive enhancement.

  1. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Empirical studies have now established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as early as age 3.0. As empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments. Method A comprehensive literature search revealed several small randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapeutic treatments for preschool anxiety and depression. The literature also contains case series of behavioral and psychopharmacologic interventions for specific anxiety disorders. However, to date, no large-scale RCTs of treatment for any anxiety or depressive disorder specifically targeting preschool populations have been published. Results Several age-adapted forms of cognitive behavioral therapy have been developed and preliminarily tested in small RCTs, and appear promising for a variety of forms of preschool anxiety disorders. Notably, these adaptations centrally involve primary caregivers and utilize age-adjusted methodology such as cartoon-based materials and co-constructed drawing or narratives. Modified forms of Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) have been tested and appear promising for both anxiety and depression. While preventive interventions that target parenting have shown significant promise in anxiety, these methods have not been explored in area of early childhood depression. Studies of the impact of parental treatment on infants suggest that direct treatment of the youngest children may be necessary to affect long-term change. Conclusions Recommendations are made for clinical treatment of these disorders where psychotherapy is the first line of intervention. PMID:23582866

  2. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  3. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  4. A 12 week aerobic exercise program improves fitness, hepatic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in obese Hispanic adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Strictly controlled exercise programs might be useful tools to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose kinetics. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk aerobic exerci...

  5. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  6. The influence of a 12-week program of physical activity on changes in body composition and lipid and carbohydrate status in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294

  7. A cross-cultural comparison of the development of the social smile: a longitudinal study of maternal and infant imitation in 6- and 12-week-old infants.

    PubMed

    Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants.

  8. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  9. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Coyle, J.; Crone, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the EPRI report (TR-105202) on the same topic as well as presents changes in current thinking on the suitability (applicability) of chlorine dioxide for fouling control. Chlorine dioxide was tested as a zebra mussel biocide at two steam electric generating stations in Illinois and one in Indiana. The purpose of these studies was to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in killing zebra mussels and to develop site specific treatment programs for the three utilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Consortium sponsored the testing of this recent use of chlorine dioxide. The raw water system at Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station, on the Illinois River, received applications of chlorine dioxide in April, July, and September 1994. The raw water system at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station, on the Mississippi River, received applications in July 1993, January, April, May, July, and September 1994. The Gallagher Station, on the Ohio River, was treated in July and October 1994. Chlorine dioxide was generated on-site and injected into the water intake structure. Both cooling and service water systems were treated at the facilities. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Effects of a12-week endurance exercise program on adiposity and flexibility of Nigerian perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, O O; Arowojolu, A O; Sanya, A O

    2011-12-20

    Menopause is a sign of aging in the woman. Loss of ovarian function induces a reduction in resting metabolic rate, physical energy expenditure, fat-free mass and abdominal adipose tissue accumulation. Location of adipose tissue deposit in abdominal region plays an important role in occurrence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although regular participation in physical exercise have been suggested to improve adiposity and body flexibility which are important health related components of physical fitness, few published studies are available on the effect of exercise on Nigerian menopausal women. This study investigated effects of a twelve-week endurance exercise program (EEP) on central and abdominal obesity as well as flexibility of perimenopausal and postmenopausal Nigerian women. The study employed a pretest- posttest control group design comprising a sample of 175 apparently healthy, literate, sedentary women within age range 40-59 years. They were workers in state and federal establishments in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Based on history of their last menstrual period, women with regular or irregular menstrual cycle status were allocated into perimenopausal group and those who no longer menstruated into postmenopausal group. A table of random numbers was used for further allocation into perimenopausal exercise group (PEMEG, 45), postmenopausal exercise group (POMEG, 45) perimenopausal control group (PEMCG, 42) and postmenopausal control group (POMCG, 43). Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Mass Index (BMI) as well as Hip and Trunk Flexibility (HTF) were evaluated at baseline and 4weekly intervals until end of 12th week. EEP consisted of a 10-station circuit of cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, coordination, abdominal and pelvic floor muscle exercises. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean age of participants was 52.3±4.1 years, 95% C.I (51.64-52.88) years. Significant

  11. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor combined with dengzhanshengmai capsule improves the fatigue symptoms: a 12-week open-label pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Zhong-Chun; Dai, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was to assess the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) plus Dengzhanshengmai capsule in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods: SSRI at a moderate dose plus Dengzhanshengmai (n = 134) with SSRI alone (n = 134) were compared for the efficacy and safety in the treatment of CFS. The therapeutic efficacy and safety were evaluated. Results: As compared to monotherapy group, the efficacy in combined therapy group was better and characterized by the improvement of general fatigue (0.8±0.6 vs. 1.3±0.7), physical fatigue (0.6±0.3 vs. 1.0±0.4) and reduced activity (1.0±0.5 vs. 1.3±0.6) since the 2nd week (P<0.01) and in reduced motivation (2.1±0.8 vs. 2.4±1.0) since the 8th week (P<0.01) and the improvement continued thereafter. The mental fatigue score and HAD score were comparable between two groups (P>0.05). No significant difference was found in the drop-out rate between SSRI group (15.7%) and SSRI plus Dengzhanshengmai group (18.0%). The reasons for drop out were adverse events (7.5% vs. 9.7%), requests of the patients or career requirement (3.7% vs. 4.5%), loss to follow-up and others (2.2% vs. 3.0%) and lack of efficacy (2.2% vs. 0.7%). Although the patients in combined therapy group experienced a higher rate of hypertension than (5.8% vs. 1.5%), no significant difference was observed (P = 0.08). Conclusion: SSRI combined with Dengzhanshengmai capsule may significantly improve the general fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity and reduced motivation of CFS patients as compared to monotherapy with SSRI. Furthermore, this combined therapy is safe and tolerable. PMID:26380022

  12. Safety and effectiveness of a 12-week course of sofosbuvir and simeprevir ± ribavirin in HCV-infected patients with or without HIV infection: a multicentre observational study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Giuseppe; Saracino, Annalisa; Fabrizio, Claudia; Scudeller, Luigia; Milano, Eugenio; Dell'Acqua, Raffaele; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Fasano, Massimo; Minniti, Salvatore; Buccoliero, Giovanni; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Giammario, Adele; Milella, Michele; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2017-03-01

    The combination of sofosbuvir and simeprevir ± ribavirin (SOF + SMV ± RBV) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment has been associated with high rates of sustained virological response (SVR). Few data are available regarding this regimen in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a 12-week course of SOF + SMV ± RBV in a cohort of HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV co-infected individuals. HCV-infected patients, with or without HIV infection, receiving a 12-week course of SOF + SMV ± RBV in four Italian centres from February to October 2015, were included in this retrospective observational study. Clinical and biochemical data were retrieved for all patients. A total of 88 individuals were evaluated: 29 (33.0%) HIV/HCV co-infected and 59 (67.0%) monoinfected. Most patients were males with HCV genotype 1b (62.5%) and 1a (25%) infection. RBV was used in 41 HCV monoinfected and 6 HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Cirrhosis was found in 67 patients (76.1%). The most common adverse events (AEs) were rash and/or pruritus (23.9%), fatigue (13.6%) and anaemia (9.1%). Serious AEs occurred in three patients (3.4%). No treatment discontinuations were observed. RBV use was associated with multiple AEs (P = 0.02). An overall SVR12 of 93.2% was achieved; 96.6% in HCV monoinfected and 86.2% in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, without significance both in univariate (P = 0.09) and multivariate analyses (P = 0.12). A baseline platelet count ≥90 000/mm(3) was associated with higher rates of SVR (P = 0.005). A 12-week course of SOF + SMV ± RBV was associated with good safety and high SVR12 rate both in HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV co-infected individuals.

  13. Residual {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao; Widder, Joachim; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically inoperable patients with proven Stage I NSCLC or FDG-PET-positive primary lung tumors were analyzed retrospectively. SABR consisted of 60 Gy delivered in 3 to 8 fractions. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the treated lesion was assessed 12 weeks after SABR, using FDG-PET. Patients were subsequently followed at regular intervals using computed tomography (CT) scans. Association between post-SABR SUV{sub max} and local control (LC), mediastinal failure, distant failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 3-40 months). Median lesion size was 25 mm (range, 9-70 mm). There were 6 local failures: 15 mediastinal failures, 15 distant failures, 13 disease-related deaths, and 16 deaths from intercurrent diseases. Glucose corrected post-SABR median SUV{sub max} was 3.0 (range, 0.55-14.50). Using SUV{sub max} 5.0 as a cutoff, the 2-year LC was 80% versus 97.7% for high versus low SUV{sub max}, yielding an adjusted subhazard ratio (SHR) for high post-SABR SUV{sub max} of 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-38.5; p = 0.019). Two-year DSS rates were 74% versus 91%, respectively, for high and low SUV{sub max} values (SHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.3; p = 0.113). Two-year OS was 62% versus 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.7; p = 0.268). Conclusions: Residual FDG uptake (SUV{sub max} {>=}5.0) 12 weeks after SABR signifies increased risk of local failure. A single FDG-PET scan at 12 weeks could be used to tailor further follow-up according to the risk of failure, especially in patients potentially eligible for salvage surgery.

  14. Early changes in bone density, microarchitecture, bone resorption, and inflammation predict the clinical outcome 12 weeks after conservatively treated distal radius fractures: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ursina; de Jong, Joost J; Bours, Sandrine G P; Keszei, András P; Arts, Jacobus J; Brink, Peter R G; Menheere, Paul; van Geel, Tineke A C M; van Rietbergen, Bert; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet P; Willems, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Fracture healing is an active process with early changes in bone and inflammation. We performed an exploratory study evaluating the association between early changes in densitometric, structural, biomechanical, and biochemical bone parameters during the first weeks of fracture healing and wrist-specific pain and disability at 12 weeks in postmenopausal women with a conservatively treated distal radius fracture. Eighteen patients (aged 64 ± 8 years) were evaluated at 1 to 2 and 3 to 4 weeks postfracture, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), micro-finite element analysis, serum procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). After 12 weeks, patients rated their pain and disability using Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) questionnaire. Additionally, Quick Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire and active wrist range of motion was evaluated. Linear regression models were used to study the relationship between changes in bone parameters and in hsCRP from visit 1 to 2 and PRWE score after 12 weeks. A lower PRWE outcome, indicating better outcome, was significantly related to an early increase in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) (β -0.96 [95% CI -1.75 to -0.16], R(2)  = 0.37), in torsional stiffness (-0.14 [-0.28 to -0.004], R(2)  = 0.31), and to an early decrease in trabecular separation (209 [15 to 402], R(2)  = 0.33) and in ICTP (12.1 [0.0 to 24.1], R(2)  = 0.34). Similar results were found for QuickDASH. Higher total dorsal and palmar flexion range of motion was significantly related to early increase in hsCRP (9.62 [3.90 to 15.34], R(2)  = 0.52). This exploratory study indicates that the assessment of early changes in trabecular BMD, trabecular separation, calculated torsional stiffness, bone resorption marker ICTP, and hsCRP after a distal radius fracture provides

  15. Romanian Special Course, 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The format of the first volume in this five-volume accelerated course in Romanian consists of (1) a dialog , which introduces new structures and vocabulary, (2) a dialog translation, (3) grammar drills, (4) a reading, (5) comprehension questions and answers based on the reading, and (6) a vocabulary listing for the lesson. Later volumes include…

  16. Effects of 12-week concurrent high-intensity interval strength and endurance training programme on physical performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Laredo-Aguilera, José A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro A

    2017-03-13

    This study aimed to analyse the effect of 12-week low-volume HIIT-based concurrent training programme on body composition, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, mobility and balance in older adults, as well as to compare it with a low- moderate-intensity continuous training. 90 active older adults were randomly assigned to experimental (EG, n=47), and control (CG, n=43) groups. Body composition and physical functioning were assessed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 12-week intervention. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for an interaction between training programme and groups. The time x group interaction revealed no significant between-group differences at pre-test (p≥0.05). The group x time interaction showed significant improvements for the EG in body composition parameters (p<0.05) and physical functioning (muscle strength: p<0.001; mobility: p<0.001; and balance: p<0.05); while the CG remained unchanged (p≥0.05). This HIIT-based concurrent training programme led to greater improvements in body composition, muscle strength, mobility and balance in healthy older people than a regular low- moderate-intensity continuous training, despite the reduction in overall training volume.

  17. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break. PMID:28377791

  18. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  19. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Burns, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break.

  20. Effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program with music & exercise groups on range of motion in young children with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared with standard of care (SOC). To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the SOC alone. This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages 2 and 6 years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared with 9 patients who received SOC. Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving SOC showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the SOC alone.

  1. The effects of 12-week psyllium fibre supplementation or healthy diet on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness occur early in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and they are both powerful independent predictors of cardiovascular risk. A high-fibre diet has been correlated with lower BMI and a lower incidence of hyperlipidaemia, CVD, hypertension and diabetes. The present randomised, parallel-design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. fibre supplement diets on blood pressure (BP) and vascular function over 12 weeks. Overweight and obese adults were randomised to one of three groups: control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB) or healthy eating group with placebo (HLT). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the FIB group compared with the control group at week 6, but not at week 12. However, SBP was lower in the HLT group compared with control group at week 12. At week 6, the FIB group presented lower diastolic blood pressure and augmentation index compared with the control group, but this result did not persist to the end of the study. The present study did not show any improvements in BP or vascular function in overweight and obese individuals with psyllium fibre supplementation over 12 weeks of intervention. However, a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in BP in overweight and obese subjects. Further research with hypertensive individuals is necessary to elucidate whether increased fibre consumption in the form of psyllium supplementation may provide a safe and acceptable means to reduce BP, vascular function and the risk of developing CVD.

  2. Periodicity in cell dynamics in some mathematical models for the treatment of leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halanay, A.

    2012-11-01

    A model for the evolution of short-term hematopoietic stem cells and of leukocytes in leucemia under periodic treatment is introduced. It consists of a system of periodic delay differential equations and takes into consideration the asymmetric division. A guiding function is used, together with a theorem of Krasnoselskii, to prove the existence of a strictly positive periodic solution and its stability is investigated.

  3. A Guide to Administration, Diagnosis, and Treatment for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Gerald; Scovell, Melvin

    Provided are guidelines on administration, diagnosis, and treatment in federally funded EPSDT--Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Programs, a system for providing health care services to Medicaid-eligible children. Detailed in part one are factors involved in developing EPSDT programs. Four chapters consider the need for EPSDT,…

  4. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  5. Concentration- and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Clewell, H J; Thomas, R S; Kenyon, E M; Hughes, M F; Adair, B M; Gentry, P R; Yager, J W

    2011-10-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As(i)) is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to As(i) in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concentrations of 0.5, 2, 10, and 50 mg As/l. Urinary bladders were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. A consistent reversal was observed in the direction of gene expression change: from predominantly decreased expression at 1 week to predominantly increased expression at 12 weeks. These results are consistent with evidence from in vitro studies of an acute adaptive response that is suppressed on longer exposure due to downregulation of Fos. Pathways with the highest enrichment in gene expression changes were associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and proliferation. Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis determined that the lowest median BMD values for pathways were above 5 mg As/l, despite the fact that pathway enrichment was observed at the 0.5 mg As/l exposure concentration. This disparity may result from the nonmonotonic nature of the concentration-responses for the expression changes of a number of genes, as evidenced by the much fewer gene expression changes at 2 mg As/l compared with lower or higher concentrations. Pathway categories with concentration-related gene expression changes included cellular morphogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis/survival, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. The results of this study provide evidence of a concentration-dependent transition in the mode of action for the subchronic effects of As(i) in mouse bladder cells in the vicinity of 2 mg As(i)/l.

  6. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxi; Xu, Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of 12 Weeks of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir versus Sofosbuvir, Ledipasvir, and Ribavirin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 1, Who Have Cirrhosis and Have Failed Prior Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Carol; James, Matthew; Tang, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The recommended therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), genotype 1, who have cirrhosis and have failed prior therapy is 12 weeks of sofosbuvir (SOF), ledipasvir (LDV), and ribavirin (RBV). This recommendation is based on expert opinion, and the efficacy of 12 weeks of SOF/LDV compared to SOF/LDV/RBV in this patient population has not yet been established. Methods. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Two investigators independently searched electronic databases and relevant conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials comparing rates of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12) when using 12 weeks of SOF/LDV versus 12 weeks of SOF/LDV/RBV in patients with CHC, genotype 1, who have cirrhosis and failed previous therapy. Results. Our search strategy yielded 596 studies of which four met criteria for inclusion. The pooled RR of not achieving SVR12 with SOF/LDV versus SOF/LDV/RBV was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.42–3.48). Adverse events were lower in the SOF/LDV compared to the SOF/LDV/RBV arms (pooled RR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.04–0.29). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that 12 weeks of SOF/LDV cannot be considered noninferior to 12 weeks of SOF/LDV/RBV to achieve SVR12 in patients with CHC who have cirrhosis and failed prior therapy. PMID:28367429

  8. Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko

    The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

  9. A 12-week, randomized, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of tulobuterol patch and salmeterol inhaler as add-on therapy in adult-onset mild-to-moderate asthma.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hideki; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ito, Isao; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Takeda, Tomoshi; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Nagasaki, Tadao; Mishima, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Patch formulation of tulobuterol has been used in asthma treatment as a long-acting β2 -agonist (LABA) through sustained skin absorption. Its treatment efficacy, especially in small airways, remains poorly understood. The study aim was to investigate LABA add-on effects of tulobuterol patch (TP) and salmeterol inhaler (SA) on pulmonary function, asthma control and health status. Patients who had adult-onset under-control asthma, despite taking inhaled corticosteroids, were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of 12-week add-on treatment with TP (n=16) or SA (n=17). Spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled nitric oxide levels, and clinical questionnaires of asthma control, health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire: SGRQ), and symptoms were evaluated every 4 weeks. Add-on treatment of SA significantly improved the spirometric indices of small airway obstruction (forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC: FEF25-75 , and maximum expiratory flow at 25% of FVC: MEF25 ) and IOS indices of whole respiratory resistance (resistance at 5 Hz) as compared to TP. In intra-group comparisons, add-on treatment of TP improved the scores of the asthma control test and the total SGRQ, as well as the symptom and impact components of the SGRQ. SA add-on treatment improved FEV1 and IOS parameters of resistance at 20 Hz and reactance at 5 Hz. Neither of the treatments improved exhaled nitric oxide levels. In conclusion, add-on treatment of TP improved asthma control and health status, whereas SA improved pulmonary function measures associated with large and small airway involvement among patients with adult-onset mild-to-moderate asthma.

  10. Prophylactic exercises among head and neck cancer patients during and after swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation: adherence and exercise performance levels of a 12-week guided home-based program.

    PubMed

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Witte, Birgit I; Aalders, Yke J; de Goede, Cees J T; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H F; Buter, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2017-02-01

    The background and purpose of this paper is to investigate adherence, exercise performance levels and associated factors in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients participating in a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program during and after treatment [swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (SW-IMRT)]. Fifty patients were included in the study. Adherence was defined as the percentage of patients who kept up exercising; exercise performance level was categorized as low: ≤1, moderate: 1-2, and high: ≥2 time(s) per day, on average. Associations between 6- and 12-week exercise performance levels and age, gender, tumour site and stage, treatment, intervention format (online or booklet), number of coaching sessions, and baseline HNC symptoms (EORTC-QLQ-H&N35) were investigated. Adherence rate at 6 weeks was 70% and decreased to 38% at 12 weeks. In addition, exercise performance levels decreased over time (during 6 weeks: 34% moderate and 26% high; during 12 weeks: 28% moderate and 18% high). The addition of chemotherapy to SW-IMRT [(C)SW-IMRT] significantly deteriorated exercise performance level. Adherence to a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program was high during (C)SW-IMRT, but dropped afterwards. Exercise performance level was negatively affected by chemotherapy in combination with SW-IMRT.

  11. Proliferation enhancement of budding yeast and mammalian cells with periodic oxygen radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Murata, Tomiyasu; Hahizume, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have been intensively studied for biological applications. However, the each effect of species in plasmas to biological tissue has not been clarified yet because various factors exist in the plasmas. Accordingly, we have studied effects of atomic oxygen dose on cell growth such as budding yeast and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts of mammalian cells. Both of cells were suspended with PBS, and treated using oxygen radical source. In order to prevent the radicals from reacting with the ambient air, the treatment region was surrounded by a plastic cover and purged with Ar. The proliferative effect of 15 % was observed at the O3Pj dose of around 1 . 0 ×1017 cm-3 in NIH3T3 cells as well as in yeast cells. Moreover, periodic oxygen treatment enhanced the effect in budding yeast cells. The best interval of periodic oxygen radical treatment was around 2 hours, which is almost the same period as that of their cell cycle. With the optimum interval time, we have investigated the effect of the number of the treatments. As the number of treatments increases, the growth rate of budding yeast cells was gradually enhanced and saturated at thrice treatments. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  12. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  14. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  15. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  16. Treatment of acquired periodic alternating nystagmus with memantine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Thomas, Shery; McLean, Rebecca; Proudlock, Frank A; Roberts, Eryl; Boggild, Mike; Gottlob, Irene

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of acquired periodic alternating nystagmus associated with common variable immunodeficiency and cutaneous sarcoid. The patient was initially treated with baclofen with minimal subjective improvement. We found a significant improvement in the patient's symptoms and nystagmus intensity after treatment with memantine.

  17. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention

  18. Lessons learned from muscle fatigue: implications for treatment of patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Jean-Marc; Hayward, Lawrence J

    2012-12-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP) is a disease characterized by periods of myotonic discharges and paralytic attacks causing weakness, the latter associated with increases in plasma [K(+)]. The myotonic discharge is due to increased Na(+) influx through defective Na(+) channels that triggers generation of several action potentials. The subsequent increase in extracellular K(+) concentration causes excessive membrane depolarization that inactivates Na(+) channels triggering the paralysis. None of the available treatments is fully effective. This paper reviews the capacity of Na(+) K(+)ATPase pumps, KATP and ClC-1 Cl(-) channels in improving membrane excitability during muscle activity and how using these three membrane components we can study future and more effective treatments for HyperKPP patients. The review of current patents related to HyperKPP reinforces the need of novel approaches for the treatment of this channelopathy.

  19. Outcome of Youth with Early-Phase Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders and Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified Treated with Second-Generation Antipsychotics: 12 Week Results from a Prospective, Naturalistic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vernal, Ditte L.; Kapoor, Sandeep; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Sheridan, Eva M.; Borenstein, Yehonathan; Mormando, Charles; David, Lisa; Singh, Sukhbir; Seidman, Andrew J.; Carbon, Maren; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Saito, Ema; Kane, John M.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S) and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PsyNOS) during early antipsychotic treatment. Methods: The study was a prospective, naturalistic, inception cohort study of youth ≤19 years old with SCZ-S (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder) or PsyNOS (PsyNOS, brief psychotic disorder) and ≤24 months of lifetime antipsychotic treatment receiving clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. Baseline demographic, illness and treatment variables, and effectiveness outcomes were compared at 12 weeks last-observation-carried-forward across SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients, adjusting for significantly different baseline variables. Results: Altogether, 130 youth with SCZ-S (n=42) or PsyNOS (n=88), mostly antipsychotic naïve (76.9%), were prescribed risperidone (47.7%), olanzapine (19.2%), aripiprazole (14.6%), quetiapine (11.5%), or ziprasidone (6.9%). Compared with those with PsyNOS, SCZ-S youth were older (16.4±2.1 vs. 14.8±3.2, p=0.0040), and less likely to be Caucasian (19.1% vs. 42.5%, p=0.009). At baseline, SCZ-S patients had significantly higher Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scores (6.0±0.9 vs. 5.5±0.8, p=0.0018) and lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores (29.6±9.2 vs. 36.1±8.9, p=0.0002) and were more likely to be in the severely ill CGAS group (i.e., CGAS≤40). SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients did not differ regarding all-cause discontinuation (40.5 vs. 40.3%. p=0.49), discontinuation because of adverse effects (12.2% vs. 12.4%, p=0.97), or nonadherence (29.3% vs. 30.9%, p=0.88), but somewhat more SCZ-S patients discontinued treatment for inefficacy (19.5% vs. 7.4%, p=0.063). CGI-S and CGAS scores improved significantly in both diagnostic groups (p=0.0001, each). Adjusting for baseline differences, PsyNOS patients experienced significantly better CGI-I improvement

  20. Regeneration of Aqueous Periodate Solutions by Ozone Treatment: A Sustainable Approach for Dialdehyde Cellulose Production.

    PubMed

    Koprivica, Slavica; Siller, Martin; Hosoya, Takashi; Roggenstein, Walter; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje

    2016-04-21

    A method for easy and fast regeneration of aqueous periodate solutions from dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) production by ozone treatment is presented, along with a direct and reliable simultaneous quantification of iodate and periodate by reversed-phase HPLC. The influence of iodate and ozone concentration, solution pH, and reaction time on the regeneration efficiency was studied, as well as the reaction kinetics. Regeneration of spent periodate solutions by ozone was successfully performed in alkaline medium, which favors the formation of free (.) OH radicals, as supported by the addition of radical scavengers and quantum mechanical calculations. At pH 13 and an ozone concentration of approximately 150 mg L(-1) , periodate was completely regenerated from a 100 mm solution of iodate within 1 h at room temperature. A cyclic process of cellulose oxidation and subsequent regeneration of spent periodate with 90 % efficiency has been developed. So far, commercial applications of DAC have been hampered by difficulties in reusing the costly periodate. This work overcomes this hurdle and presents a highly efficient, clean, and low-cost protocol for the preparation of DAC with integrated periodate recycling, with the possibility of scaling the process up.

  1. Scald management protocols - outcome differences in two different time periods using different treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Elmasry, M.; Steinvall, I.; Thorfinn, J.; Abbas, A.H..; Adly, O.A.; Abdelrahman, I.; Nagi, M.A.; Sjoberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Over the years the treatment of scalds in our centre has changed, moving more towards the use of biological dressings (xenografts). Management of scalds with mid dermal or deep dermal injuries differs among centers using different types of dressings, and recently biological membrane dressings were recommended for this type of injury. Here we describe differences in treatment outcome in different periods of time. All patients with scalds who presented to the Linkoping Burn Centre during two periods, early (1997-98) and later (2010-12) were included. Data were collected in the unit database and analyzed retrospectively. A lower proportion of autograft operations was found in the later period, falling from 32% to 19%. Hospital stay was shorter in the later period (3.5 days shorter, p=0.01) and adjusted duration of hospital stay/TBSA% was shorter (1.2 to 0.7, p=0.07). The two study groups were similar in most of the studied variables: we could not report any significant differences regarding outcome except for unadjusted duration of hospital stay. Further studies are required to investigate functional and aesthetic outcome differences between the treatment modalities. PMID:28149237

  2. Scald management protocols - outcome differences in two different time periods using different treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, M; Steinvall, I; Thorfinn, J; Abbas, A H; Adly, O A; Abdelrahman, I; Nagi, M A; Sjoberg, F

    2016-06-30

    Over the years the treatment of scalds in our centre has changed, moving more towards the use of biological dressings (xenografts). Management of scalds with mid dermal or deep dermal injuries differs among centers using different types of dressings, and recently biological membrane dressings were recommended for this type of injury. Here we describe differences in treatment outcome in different periods of time. All patients with scalds who presented to the Linkoping Burn Centre during two periods, early (1997-98) and later (2010-12) were included. Data were collected in the unit database and analyzed retrospectively. A lower proportion of autograft operations was found in the later period, falling from 32% to 19%. Hospital stay was shorter in the later period (3.5 days shorter, p=0.01) and adjusted duration of hospital stay/TBSA% was shorter (1.2 to 0.7, p=0.07). The two study groups were similar in most of the studied variables: we could not report any significant differences regarding outcome except for unadjusted duration of hospital stay. Further studies are required to investigate functional and aesthetic outcome differences between the treatment modalities.

  3. Modest weight loss through a 12-week weight management program with behavioral modification seems to attenuate inflammatory responses in young obese Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lee, AeJin; Jeon, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Hye-Kyeong; Han, Sung Nim

    2015-04-01

    Obesity has been reported to impair immune functions and lead to low-grade long-term inflammation; however, studies that have investigated the impact of weight loss on these among the young and slightly obese are limited. Thus, we investigated the effect of a 12-week weight management program with behavioral modifications on cell-mediated immune functions and inflammatory responses in young obese participants. Our hypothesis was that weight loss would result in improved immune functions and decreased inflammatory responses. Sixty-four participants (45 obese and 19 normal weight) finished the program. Obese (body mass index ≥25) participants took part in 5 group education and 6 individual counseling sessions. Normal-weight (body mass index 18.5-23) participants only attended 6 individual sessions. The goal for the obese was to lose 0.5 kg/wk by reducing their intake by 300 to 500 kcal/d and increasing their physical activity. Program participation resulted in a modest but significant decrease in weight (2.7 ± 0.4 kg, P < .001) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin-1β production (from 0.85 ± 0.07 to 0.67 ± 0.07 ng/mL, P < .05) in the obese. In the obese group, increase in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated interleukin-10 production, a TH2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine, approached significance after program participation (from 6181 ± 475 to 6970 ± 632 pg/mL, P = .06). No significant changes in proliferative responses to the optimal concentration of concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin were observed in the obese after program participation. Collectively, modest weight loss did not change the cell-mediated immune functions significantly but did attenuate the inflammatory response in young and otherwise healthy obese adults.

  4. [Treatment with the use of microcurrent lymphatic drainage physiotherapy during the postoperative period following rhinoplastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Aleksanyan, T A; Kazantsev, E V

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined treatment of the patients who had undergone either primary or secondary rhinoplastic surgery with the use of photo- and magnetic therapy in comparison with the effectiveness of phototherapy in the combination with microcurrent therapy. The patients were divided into four groups depending on the type of the surgical intervention and the mode of the combined physiotherapeutic treatment. All the patients were given combined physiotherapeutic treatment in addition to the standard pharmacotherapy starting from the second day of the postoperative period. The patients of groups 1 and 3 received phototherapy in the combination with magnetic therapy while those in groups 2 and 4 were treated by phototherapy in the combination with microcurrent lymphatic drainage physiotherapy. It was shown that the different combinations of physiotherapeutic modalities during the postoperative period following primary «closed» rhinoplasty were not different significantly in terms of effectiveness. After secondary «closed» rhinoplasty, the combination of phototherapy with the application of microcurrents looks more preferable. It is concluded that microcurrent lymphdraining physiotherapy should be regarded as the priority component of the combined physiotherapeutic treatment during the postoperative period following secondary «closed» rhinoplasty.

  5. Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome; treatment with etanercept and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Topaloğlu, Rezan; Ayaz, Nuray Aktay; Waterham, Hans R; Yüce, Aysel; Gumruk, Fatma; Sanal, Ozden

    2008-10-01

    The hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) is an autoinflammatory syndrome. It is caused by the mutations of the mevalonate kinase gene. There is no consensus for specific therapy of HIDS, but there are some case reports and studies in regards to its treatment with drugs like colchicine, steroids, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, simvastatin, anakinra, thalidomide, and etanercept. We are reporting a case evaluated for the complaints of abdominal pain and febrile episodes with massive hepatomegaly, not common finding on physical examination, its treatment with etanercept, and long-term follow-up.

  6. Enhancement in dentin collagen’s biological stability after proanthocyanidins treatment in clinically relevant time periods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Mingsheng; Yao, Xiaomei; Xu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether proanthocyanidins (PA) is capable of improving dentin collagen’s biological stability through cross-linking within time periods that are clinically relevant. Materials and methods Demineralized dentin collagen slabs were treated with 3.75 wt% PA solution for 10 s, 1 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 360 min, and 720 min, respectively. The resultant cross-linked collagen samples were subject to digestion with 0.1% collagenase at 37 °C for 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h. The percentage of weight loss after digestion was calculated to evaluate PA-treated collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic degradation. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe evidences of PA-collagen interactions after various periods of PA treatment. Results The collagenase digestion assay suggests that PA treatment as short as 10 s can enhance collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic challenge. The FTIR spectroscopy further verifies that PA is indeed incorporated into collagen regardless of treatment time, possibly via a mechanism involving the chemical interactions between PA and collagen. Significance This study confirmed that PA can effectively cross-link collagen and improve its biological stability in time periods as short as 10 s. The use of PA as a priming agent is therefore clinically feasible and is a promising approach to improving the durability of current dentin bonding systems. PMID:23434233

  7. HIV-1 Proviral DNA Loads (as Determined by Quantitative PCR) in Patients Subjected to Structured Treatment Interruption after Antiretroviral Therapy Failure

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Domingos E. M.; Santos, Carlos; Oliveros, Márcia P. R.; Sanabani, Sabri; Diaz, Ricardo S.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of Structured Treatment Interruption (STI) in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proviral reservoirs in 41 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated viremic individuals at baseline and 12 weeks after STI was determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Viral load increased 0.7 log10 and CD4 decreased 97.5 cells/mm3 after 12 weeks. A total of 28 of the 41 individuals showed an increased proviral load, 19 with a statistically significant increase above 10%. An increase in active viral replication is an important factor in the replenishment of the proviral reservoir even for short time periods. PMID:22422851

  8. Formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzin, Serguei P.

    2015-09-01

    A method of the formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment was developed. In this study, the multicomponent aluminum-iron brass was considered and the nanoporous structure across the entire cross section of the material with a thickness of 50 μm was formed. The method was implemented using a CO2 laser processing unit. The pulse-periodic laser treatment of the Cu-Zn-Al-Fe alloy with pulse frequency of 5 Hz has led to the formation of nanosized cavities due to accumulation of internal stresses during cyclic heating and cooling at high speeds. It was determined that the pores of a channel type with average widths of 80-100 nm are formed in the central region of the heat-affected zone during laser action with thermocycling. When implementing the chosen conditions of the pulse-periodic laser processing, the localness in depth and area of the physical processes occurring in the heat-affected zone is ensured, while maintaining the original properties of the material and the absence of significant deformations in the rest of the volume. This patented process is perspective for the production not only catalysts for chemical reactions, but for ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes as well.

  9. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS). Results PCOS (n=508) and non-PCOS (n=508) participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit) and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit). A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137) and non-PCOS participants (n=137) (−18.5±6.6 kg vs −19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190). Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08). Conclusion Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight loss in PCOS. PMID:26508882

  10. Efficacy and safety of agomelatine (10 or 25 mg/day) in non-depressed out-patients with generalized anxiety disorder: A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Ahokas, Antti; Jarema, Marek; Avedisova, Alla S; Vavrusova, Livia; Chaban, Oleg; Gruget, Céline; Olivier, Valérie; Picarel-Blanchot, Françoise; de Bodinat, Christian

    2017-03-12

    Agomelatine is efficacious in reducing symptoms and preventing relapse in placebo-controlled trials in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Nevertheless, fixed dose studies of agomelatine in GAD have not been undertaken. To determine the minimally effective optimal dose of agomelatine in GAD, the efficacy of two doses of agomelatine (10 and 25mg/day) was investigated in a 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, international study in patients with a primary diagnosis of GAD. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Anxiety scale (HAM-A). The study was undertaken in 35 clinical centers in Finland, Russia, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine from August 2013 to January 2015. 131 out-patients were included in the agomelatine 10mg group, 139 in the agomelatine 25mg group, and 142 in the placebo group. Both doses of agomelatine were associated with significant decreases in the HAM-A at week 12 (difference versus placebo of 7.16±1.00 at 10mg and 11.08±0.98 at 25mg, p<0.0001). Significant effects on all secondary measures were found for both doses at week 12; including psychic and somatic HAM-A subscales, response rate, remission on the HAM-A, and functional impairment. Findings were confirmed in subsets of more severely ill patients on all endpoints. The low placebo response rate observed in this study was consistent with an increase in the quality of data collected. Agomelatine was well-tolerated by patients, with minimal distinctions from placebo. There was a dose effect of agomelatine, with a greater placebo-agomelatine difference in the agomelatine 25mg group, compared to the agomelatine 10mg group.The present data support early work indicating the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine in the treatment of GAD.

  11. [Levofloxacin and macrolides in chronic bronchitis exacerbation: comparative analysis of the treatment efficacy and nonrelapsing periods].

    PubMed

    Dvoretskiĭ, L I; Dubrovskaia, N V; Grudinina, S A; Filimonova, O Iu; Sidorenko, S V; Iakovlev, S V

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and bacteriological efficacies of levofloxacin versus clarithromycin and azithromycin were evaluated in 41 patients with chronic bronchitis infectious exacerbation in the Respiratory-Recovery Centre of Polyclinic No. 7. The effect of the drugs on the nonrelapsing period was estimated as well. With the use of levofloxacin there was observed a more rapid elimination of the clinical signs of the exacerbation as compared to the use of the macrolides. Levofloxacin provided a more pronounced and stable eradication of the main pathogens of the exacerbation as compared to the macrolide antibiotic. Long-term monitoring for 12 months after discontinuation of the treatment showed that the nonrelapsing period in the patients treated with levofloxacin was higher and the frequency of the relapses and their intensity were lower in comparison to the group of the patients treated with the macrolides.

  12. Effects of feeding transgenic corn with mCry1Ac or maroACC gene to laying hens for 12 weeks on growth, egg quality and organ health.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Q; Chen, L; Gao, L X; Zhang, L L; Yao, B; Yang, X G; Zhang, H F

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding two transgenic corn lines containing the mCry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain (BT-799) and the maroACC gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (CC-2), respectively, on growth, egg quality and organ health indicators. Expression of the mCry1Ac gene confers resistance to Pyrausta nubilalis and the maroACC gene confers tolerance to herbicides. Healthy hens (n=96 placed in cages; 3 hens/cage) were randomly assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (8 cages/treatment) formulated with the following corn: non-transgenic near-isoline control corn (control), BT-799 corn, CC-2 corn and commercially available non-transgenic reference corn (reference). The experiment was divided into three 4-week phases (week 1 to 4, week 5 to 8 and week 9 to 12), during which hens were fed mash diets. Performance (BW, feed intake and egg production) and egg quality were determined. Following slaughter at the end of 12 weeks of feeding (n=8/treatment), carcass yield and organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, stomach and ovary) were recorded; organs and intestines were sampled for histological analysis. Analysis of serum biochemistry parameters to assess the liver and kidney function were performed. No differences in BW, egg production and production efficiency were observed between hens consuming the control diet and hens consuming the BT-799 or CC-2 diet. Haugh unit measures and egg component weights were similar between the control and test groups. Carcass yield was not affected by the diet treatment. Similar organosomatic indices and serum parameters did not indicate the characteristics of organ dysfunction. All observed values of the BT-799 and CC-2 groups were within the calculated tolerance intervals. This research indicates that the performance, egg quality, organ health and carcass yield of laying hens fed diets containing the BT-799 or CC-2 corn line were similar

  13. Effects of a 12-Week Physical Activity Protocol Delivered by YMCA After-School Counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on Fitness and Self-Efficacy Changes in 5-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Westcott, Wayne L.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Unruh, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    To address reduced physical education (PE) in elementary schools, a 12-week physical activity protocol was tested on 5-12-year-old, primarily African American, girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 344) at 14 YMCA after-school care sites. The 3 times/week, 45-min session curriculum included cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training, in which…

  14. A levodopa dry powder inhaler for the treatment of Parkinson's disease patients in off periods.

    PubMed

    Luinstra, Marianne; Grasmeijer, Floris; Hagedoorn, Paul; Moes, Jan Reindert; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2015-11-01

    Adequate treatment of Parkinson's patients in off periods with orally administered levodopa is hindered by a poor bioavailability and a slow onset of action. Hence, there is a need for a fast and reliable alternative as for instance via pulmonary administration of the drug. We developed a levodopa containing powder formulation for pulmonary delivery by a recently presented high dose dry powder inhaler (Cyclops). The objective was to produce the drug formulation by means of simple techniques such as micronization, either as pure active substance or with a minimum amount of excipients. After an initial screening on dispersion behaviour, the most promising formulation in the Cyclops was characterized in vitro over a range of pressure drops (2-6 kPa) and doses (20, 30 and 40 mg), representative of those to be expected in practice. A co-micronized levodopa formulation with 2% L-leucine appeared to yield the best aerosol properties for inhalation and highest delivered dose reproducibility. The combination of this particular formulation and the Cyclops inhaler seems to meet the basic requirements for satisfactory deposition in the airways. This formulation is therefore expected to be a promising candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's patients in an off period.

  15. A 12-week randomized study of topical therapy with three dosages of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) compared with the ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064), in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Kneer, Werner; Rother, Matthias; Mazgareanu, Stefan; Seidel, Egbert J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) in comparison with a ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods Patients with knee OA (N = 866) were randomly assigned to receive topical IDEA-033 containing 100, 50, or 25 mg ketoprofen, or TDT 064 twice daily for 12 weeks, in a double-blind trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC®) Osteoarthritis Index pain subscale score. The coprimary efficacy endpoints were the WOMAC function subscale score and the patient global assessment of response to therapy. The secondary endpoints included the numeric pain rating for the first 14 days of treatment and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT)-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) responder rates. Results The WOMAC pain scores were reduced by approximately 50% or more in all four groups. The 100 and 50 mg ketoprofen groups, but not the 25 mg group, showed a superior reduction in the WOMAC pain score versus the TDT 064 group (100 mg: −57.4% [P = 0.0383]; 50 mg: −57.1% [P = 0.0204]; and 25 mg: −53.4% [P = 0.3616] versus TDT 064: −49.5%). The superiority of the ketoprofen-containing formulations was not demonstrated for the WOMAC function subscale score, whereas the patient global assessment of 50 mg ketoprofen group, but not the 100 or 25 mg group, was superior to that of the TDT 064 group (P = 0.0283). Responder rates were significantly higher for all the IDEA-033 groups versus the TDT 064 group, but were high in all groups (100 mg: 88.6%; 50 mg: 86.8%; 25 mg: 88.6%; and TDT 064: 77.5%). Dermal reactions were the only relevant drug-related adverse events in all four groups. Conclusion The 50 and 100 mg ketoprofen doses of IDEA-033 were only marginally superior to TDT 064 for reducing pain associated with knee OA. The study indicates a high treatment response to the topical

  16. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  17. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  18. Neonatal Bathing and Massage Intervention with Fathers, Behavioural Effects 12 Weeks after Birth of the First Baby: The Sunraysia Australia Intervention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Kim; Samuels, Curtis A.

    1992-01-01

    Examined the effect on father-infant relationships of a parent training program on infant massage and bathing. Infants in the treatment group greeted fathers with more eye contact, smiles, vocalizing, reaching, and orienting responses and showed less avoidance behavior than did control group infants. Fathers in the treatment group showed greater…

  19. Efficacy of treatment with glucosamine sulfate in patients with knee effusion due to osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Murat; Karaaslan, Fatih; Erdogan, Yalcin; Bolat, Esef; Karacavus, Seyhan; Kizilkaya, Hafize; Gunaydin, Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Glucosamine sulfate (GS) versus diclofenac sodium (DS) in effusion of osteoarthritic knees. Methodology: In this study, patients were included in this study from 2007-2010 based on American College of Rheumatology criteria with OA and physical examination in effusion of osteoarthritic knees. The patients were divided into two groups. First group (27 patients) DS was given in doses 75 mg twice daily for ten day. In the group II (25 patients) GS was used in doses of 1500 mg two times daily over the first 12 weeks of the study. A closed aspiration was performed. The knee circumference was measured in patients before and 12 week after treatment. Before and after 12 weeks of treatments, both groups of patients were assessed according to the WOMAC questionnaire of knee pain and function scores. Results: Comparison of knee mean circumference between the two groups was not statistically significant before treatment (p=0.938), but significant after treatment (p<0.001). At the end of the 12 week, there was 66.6% complete resolution of effusion in the DS group (18 patients) and 24.0% (6 patients) in the GS group, this was statistically significant (P<0.001). DS groups, results of the beginning and at the end of 12 week measurement showed significant differences in WOMAC pain mean score (P < 0.001) but GS groups not statistically significant (P=0.160). The WOMAC function mean scores in pre and post-treatment periods of follow-up showed significant variation between the two groups (P< 0.001, P<0.001). Conclusions: Our observations suggest that GS is not able to suppress the progression of adjuvant arthritis in OA with effusion of knee osteoarthritis. GS should not be expected as anti-inflammatory influence as DF in the treatment of OA-related effusion. PMID:24353641

  20. [Anemia and its treatment with peroral anti-anemia agents in women during the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Mára, M; Eretová, V; Zivný, J; Kvasnicka, J; Umlaufová, A; Márová, E

    1999-06-01

    The prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy and post partum is according to the literature and many years clinical experience high. In the submitted work we investigated the incidence of sideropenic anaemia in women during the first three months after a spontaneous delivery, changes of clinical and laboratory indicators of anaemia during this period and the possible effect exerted by administration of iron and iron plus folic acid resp. Ninety pregnant women in the 35th to 39th week of pregnancy were at random divided into three equally sized groups and the following were assessed: haemogram, indicators of iron reserves, serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin B12, erythropoetin and soluble transferrin receptor, liver tests, total protein + electrophoresis, acute stage proteins. In the first group (T) the women were given, starting on the 4th day after delivery 1 tablet of Tardyferon per day for two months. To the second group (F) for an equal period 1 tablet of Tardyferon Fol per day was administered. Women in the control group (K) had no medication. In the investigation women with medium and severe pregnancy anaemia were not included nor women taking during pregnancy or previously iron preparations or those treated in the past by blood transfusion. After spontaneous delivery (women who had Caesarean section or forceps delivery were eliminated from the study) the women were subjected to the same examinations as before delivery. These examinations were made on the fourth day after delivery and then after monthly intervals for a period of three months. At the same time the subjective condition of the mothers was evaluated after delivery, focused on the development of symptoms typical for anaemia and the possible effect of administered treatment. The investigation was completed by 60 women. During treatment no allergic or other serious side-reactions to the administered drugs calling for discontinuation of treatment were recorded. The results of the investigation

  1. Sexual function in the postpartum period: effects of maternal depression and interpersonal psychotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Moel, Joy E; Buttner, Melissa M; O'Hara, Michael W; Stuart, Scott; Gorman, Laura

    2010-12-01

    Women's sexual functioning in the postpartum period is understudied given its potential impact on women's mental health and their relationships with their partners. The sexual functioning of women with postpartum depression (PPD) in particular is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to examine factors associated with the sexual functioning of postpartum women and to compare the long-term sexual functioning of depressed postpartum women treated with interpersonal psychotherapy with a group of postpartum women who had never been depressed. Depressed (120) and never depressed (56) postpartum women were enrolled. Self-report questionnaires and clinician-rated measures were completed at initial entry to study, immediately post-treatment, and at 6, 12, and 18 months post-treatment. Analyses revealed significant differences in sexual interest between depressed and never depressed postpartum women (t (171) = 11.82, p <0.001). Although sexual interest improved significantly following treatment for depression (t (104) = -3.18, p < 0.01), those women who fully recovered continued to experience less interest (F (2, 140) = 32.24, p < 0.0001) and less sexual satisfaction through 2 years postpartum than never depressed women. These findings suggest that differences in sexual functioning exist between depressed and never depressed postpartum women, even after depressed women are treated and have recovered from their depression. Clinicians should inquire about changes in sexual functioning when treating women with PPD.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of the periodic Anderson model:  X-boson treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.; Foglio, M. E.

    2003-11-01

    We study the specific-heat dependence of the periodic Anderson model (PAM) in the limit of U=∞ employing the X-boson treatment in two different regimes of the PAM: the heavy fermion Kondo (HF-K) and the local magnetic moment regime (HF-LMM). We obtain a multiple peak structure for the specific heat in agreement with the experimental results as well as the increase of the electronic effective mass at low temperatures associated with the HF-K regime. The entropy per site at low T tends to zero in the HF-K regime, corresponding to a singlet ground state, and it tends to kBln 2 in the HF-LMM, corresponding to a doublet ground state at each site. The linear coefficient γ(T)=Cv(T)/T of the specific heat qualitatively agrees with the experimental results obtained for different materials in the two regimes considered here.

  3. Treatment trends during a thirteen-year period in a student pediatric dentistry clinic.

    PubMed

    Bimstein, E; Eidelman, E

    1997-01-01

    This manuscript reports the treatment trends in a pediatric dentistry clinic from 1980 to 1992 and discusses their implication in clinical teaching. Analysis of the records of the senior year pediatric dentistry students indicated: no significant change with time in the patients/student ratio, the number of preformed crowns, pulpotomies, and pulpectomies by student or by patient; a significant decrease in the number of one-surface and > or = 2-surface restorations by student and by patient; a significant increase in the number of pit-and-fissure sealants and preventive resin restorations by student and by patient. During the thirteen-year period, the students performed an average of 7.3 one-surface; 12.9 > or = 2-surface restorations; 5.5 preformed crowns; 6.4 pit-and-fissure sealants; 2.4 pulpotomies. There was a significant increase with time in the number of students who performed pit-and-fissure sealants.

  4. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  5. Periodic health examination, 1999 update: 1. Detection, prevention and treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, J D; Feightner, J W; Attia, J; Feldman, W F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the evidence relating to the effectiveness of methods to prevent and treat obesity, and (2) to provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity in adults aged 18 to 65 years and for the measurement of the body mass index (BMI) as part of a periodic health examination. OPTIONS: In adults with obesity (BMI greater than 27) management options include weight reduction, prevention of further weight gain or no intervention. OUTCOMES: The long-term (more than 2 years) effectiveness of (a) methods to prevent obesity and (b) methods to treat obesity. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched for articles published from 1966 to April 1998 that related to the prevention and treatment of obesity; additional articles were identified from the bibliographies of review articles and the listings of Current Contents. Selection criteria were used to limit the analysis to prospective studies with at least 2 years' follow-up. BENEFITS, HARM AND COSTS: Health benefits of weight reduction were evaluated in terms of alleviation of symptoms, improved management of obesity-related diseases and a reduction in major clinical outcomes. The health risk of weight-reduction methods were briefly evaluated in terms of increased mortality and morbidity. VALUES: The recommendations of this report reflect the commitment of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to provide a structured, evidence-based appraisal of whether a manoeuvre should be part of a periodic health examination. RECOMMENDATIONS: (1) Prevention: There is insufficient evidence to recommend in favour of or against community-based obesity prevention programs; however, because of considerable health risks associated with obesity and the limited long-term effectiveness of weight-reduction methods, the prevention of obesity should be a high priority for health care providers (grade C recommendation). (2) Treatment: (a) For obese adults without obesity-related diseases, there is insufficient

  6. Dairy Food Consumption and Meal-Induced Cortisol Response Interacted to Influence Weight Loss in Overweight Women Undergoing a 12-Week, Meal-Controlled, Weight Loss Intervention1234

    PubMed Central

    Witbracht, Megan G.; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.; Laugero, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0–45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal–stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal–stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food. PMID:23190756

  7. Changes induced in spice paprika powder by treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kispéter, J.; Bajúsz-Kabók, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabó, G.; Fodor, E.; Páli, T.

    2003-12-01

    The changes in spice paprika powder induced by ionizing radiation, saturated steam (SS) and their combination were studied as a function of the absorbed radiation dose and the storage time. The SS treatment lead to a decrease in color content (lightening) after 12 weeks of storage, together with the persistence of free radicals and viscosity changes for a longer period. The results suggest that ionizing radiation is a more advantageous method as concerns preservation of the quality of spice paprika.

  8. Anakinra and related drugs targeting interleukin-1 in the treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bachove, Inessa; Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Anakinra is an interleukin (IL) receptor antagonist that works by blocking the biological activity of IL-1 by competitively inhibiting binding of IL-1 to the type 1 interleukin receptor. IL-1 production is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli and mediates various physiological mechanisms, including inflammation and immunological reactions. Patients with neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) produce excess IL-1β, a major proinflammatory cytokine that regulates innate immune responses. Anakinra binds competitively and this results in a rapid reduction in disease severity. NOMID, also known as chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular syndrome, is the most severe clinical phenotype in the spectrum of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. It is characterized by cutaneous symptoms, arthropathy, and central nervous system involvement. Extensive studies in patients with NOMID have led to advances in characterizing the extent of organ-specific involvement and damage that occurs with chronic overproduction of IL-1β. NOMID is caused predominantly by mutations in the NLRP3/CIAS1 gene that encodes for the protein cryopyrin, leading to activation of the “NLRP3 inflammasome complex”. This in turn regulates the maturation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. The clinical value of IL-1β has been demonstrated by the positive response of patients after treatment with anakinra, with rapid improvement in clinical symptoms, markers of inflammation, and a significant decrease in major organ manifestations. PMID:27790031

  9. State estimation and optimal long period clinical treatment of HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed

    Grégio, Juliana M; Caetano, Marco A L; Yoneyama, Takashi

    2009-03-01

    Optimal control theory provides a very interesting quantitative method that can be used to assist the decision making process in several areas of application, such as engineering, biology, economics and sociology. The main idea is to determine the values of the manipulated variables, such as drug doses, so that some cost function is minimized, subject to physical constraints. In this work, the cost function reflects the number of CD4+T cells, viral particles and the drug doses. It is worth noticing that high drug doses are related to more intense side-effects, apart from the impact on the actual cost of the treatment. In a previous paper by the authors, the LQR - Linear Quadratic Regulator approach was proposed for the computation of long period maintenance doses for the drugs, which turns out to be of state feedback form. However, it is not practical to determine all the components of the state vector, due to the fact that infected and uninfected CD4+T cells are not microscopically distinguishable. In order to overcome this difficulty, this work proposes the use of Extended Kalman Filter to estimate the state, even though, because of the nonlinear nature of the involved state equations, the separation principle may not be valid. Extensive simulations were then carried out to investigate numerically if the control strategy consisting of the feedback of estimated states yielded satisfactory clinical results.

  10. [The prevalence, prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic during the Han-Tang Period].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2013-03-01

    About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture.

  11. Whole grain compared with refined wheat decreases the percentage of body fat following a 12-week, energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg; Ross, Alastair B; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2012-04-01

    Observational studies show inverse associations between intake of whole grain and adiposity and cardiovascular risk; however, only a few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole-grain consumption on health outcomes. We studied the effect of replacing refined wheat (RW) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of ~1250 kJ/d) with RW or WW foods providing 2 MJ/d. Body weight and composition, blood pressure, and concentration of circulating risk markers were measured at wk 0, 6, and 12. Fecal output and energy excretion were assessed during run-in and wk 12. Plasma alkylresorcinol analysis indicated good compliance with the intervention diets. Body weight decreased significantly from baseline in both the RW (-2.7 ± 1.9 kg) and WW (-3.6 ± 3.2 kg) groups, but the decreases did not differ between the groups (P = 0.11). The reduction in body fat percentage was greater in the WW group (-3.0%) than in the RW group (-2.1%) (P = 0.04). Serum total and LDL cholesterol increased by ~5% (P < 0.01) in the RW group but did not change in the WW group; hence, the changes differed between the groups (P = 0.02). In conclusion, consumption of whole-grain products resulted in a greater reduction in the percentage fat mass, whereas body weight changes did not differ between the RW and WW groups. Serum total and LDL cholesterol, two important risk factors of cardiovascular disease, increased with RW but not WW consumption, which may suggest a cardioprotective role for whole grain.

  12. Sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset REM periods in MSLT predicts treatment response in patients with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Drakatos, Panagis; Patel, Kishankumar; Thakrar, Chiraag; Williams, Adrian J; Kent, Brian D; Leschziner, Guy D

    2016-04-01

    Current treatment recommendations for narcolepsy suggest that modafinil should be used as a first-line treatment ahead of conventional stimulants or sodium oxybate. In this study, performed in a tertiary sleep disorders centre, treatment responses were examined following these recommendations, and the ability of sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods in the multiple sleep latency test to predict treatment response. Over a 3.5-year period, 255 patients were retrospectively identified in the authors' database as patients diagnosed with narcolepsy, type 1 (with cataplexy) or type 2 (without) using clinical and polysomnographic criteria. Eligible patients were examined in detail, sleep study data were abstracted and sleep-stage sequencing of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods were analysed. Response to treatment was graded utilizing an internally developed scale. Seventy-five patients were included (39% males). Forty (53%) were diagnosed with type 1 narcolepsy with a mean follow-up of 2.37 ± 1.35 years. Ninety-seven percent of the patients were initially started on modafinil, and overall 59% reported complete response on the last follow-up. Twenty-nine patients (39%) had the sequence of sleep stage 1 or wake to rapid eye movement in all of their sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods, with most of these diagnosed as narcolepsy type 1 (72%). The presence of this specific sleep-stage sequence in all sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods was associated with worse treatment response (P = 0.0023). Sleep-stage sequence analysis of sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods in the multiple sleep latency test may aid the prediction of treatment response in narcoleptics and provide a useful prognostic tool in clinical practice, above and beyond their classification as narcolepsy type 1 or 2.

  13. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week study†

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, N; Kondo, K; Yoshinari, T; Maruyama, N; Susuta, Y; Kuki, H

    2013-01-01

    Aims We examined the efficacy, safety and tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) undergoing diet and exercise therapy. Methods Patients aged 20–80 years with T2DM diagnosed ≥3 months previously, and HbA1c of 6.9–9.9% were randomized to 50, 100, 200 or 300 mg canagliflozin or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. The primary and secondary endpoints were changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), urinary glucose/creatinine and postprandial glycaemic parameters following a meal test. The safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) and clinical laboratory tests. Results Overall, 383 patients were randomized to receive either placebo (n = 75), or 50 mg (n = 82), 100 mg (n = 74), 200 mg (n = 77) or 300 mg canagliflozin (n = 75). At week 12, significant reductions in HbA1c were observed in all canagliflozin groups relative to placebo (−0.61, –0.80, –0.79 and −0.88% for 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg, respectively, versus +0.11% for placebo; all, p < 0.01). FPG and postprandial glycaemic parameters improved significantly in the canagliflozin groups. Body weight was significantly decreased by canagliflozin. No deaths or drug-related serious AEs were reported. There was no dose-dependent increase in the incidence of AEs in the canagliflozin groups. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was low; episodes were not severe or dose dependent. Canagliflozin did not affect serum creatinine levels or the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Conclusions Treatment with canagliflozin for 12 weeks significantly improved glycaemic control and reduced body weight in Japanese patients with T2DM. Canagliflozin was well tolerated. PMID:23782594

  14. Effects on outpatient and emergency mental health care of strict Medicaid early periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment enforcement.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary C; Wallace, Neal T; Evans-Cuellar, Allison

    2007-11-01

    We investigated enforcement of mental health benefits provided by California Medicaid's Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program. Enforcement, compelled by a consumer-driven lawsuit, resulted in an almost 4-fold funding increase over a 5-year period. We evaluated the impact of enforcement on outpatient treatment intensity (number of visits per child) and rates of emergency care treatment. Using fixed-effects regression, we examined the number of outpatient mental health visits per client and the percentage of all clients using crisis care across 53 autonomous California county mental health plans over 32 three-month periods (quarters; emergency crisis care rates) and 36 quarters (out-patient mental health visits). Enforcement of EPSDT benefits in accordance with federal law produced favorable changes in patterns of mental health service use, consistent with policy aims.

  15. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465

  16. Heart rate recovery and heart rate variability are unchanged in patients with coronary artery disease following 12 weeks of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity endurance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Rosen, Lee M; Millar, Philip J; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-06-01

    Decreased heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise are associated with an increased risk of mortality in cardiac patients. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) and a novel low-volume high-intensity interval exercise protocol (HIT) on measures of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fourteen males with CAD participated in 12 weeks of END or HIT training, each consisting of 2 supervised exercise sessions per week. END consisted of 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO). HIT involved ten 1-min intervals at 88% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO. Heart rate recovery at 1 min and 2 min was measured before and after training (pre- and post-training, respectively) using a submaximal exercise bout. Resting time and spectral and nonlinear domain measures of heart rate variability were calculated. Following 12 weeks of END and HIT, there was no change in heart rate recovery at 1 min (END, 40 ± 12 beats·min(-1) vs. 37 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 31 ± 8 beats·min(-1) vs. 35 ± 8 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training) or 2 min (END, 44 ± 18 beats·min(-1) vs. 43 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 42 ± 10 beats·min(-1) vs. 50 ± 6 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training). All heart rate variability indices were unchanged following END and HIT training. In conclusion, neither END nor HIT exercise programs elicited training-induced improvements in cardiac autonomic function in patients with CAD. The absence of improvements with training may be attributed to the optimal medical management and normative pretraining state of our sample.

  17. Treatment of a long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning cohort with vitamin K1 during the maintenance period.

    PubMed

    Long, Jianhai; Peng, Xiaobo; Luo, Yuan; Sun, Yawei; Lin, Guodong; Wang, Yongan; Qiu, Zewu

    2016-12-01

    Currently, there are few guidelines for the use of vitamin K1 in the maintenance treatment of long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide (LAAR) poisonings. We explored factors in the treatment of LAAR poisoning during the maintenance period in order to suggest feasible treatment models.Data from 24 cases of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in our hospital were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. The patients' sex, age, coagulation function, total time from poisoning to treatment with vitamin K1 (prehospital time), vitamin K1 sustained treatment time (VKSTT), anticoagulant rodenticide category, and specific poison dosage were collected. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between vitamin K1 dosage and other factors during the maintenance period.Only VKSTT (partial regression coefficient -1.133, 0.59, P = 0.035) had an obvious influence on the therapeutic dose of vitamin K1 required during the maintenance period.After an initial pulse therapy, the bleeding and coagulation functions were stabilized, and the patients were subsequently treated with vitamin K1 during the maintenance period. Over time, the maintenance dose of vitamin K1 (10-120 mg/d, intravenous drip) was gradually decreased and was not related to toxicant concentration.

  18. Treatment of a long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning cohort with vitamin K1 during the maintenance period

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jianhai; Peng, Xiaobo; Luo, Yuan; Sun, Yawei; Lin, Guodong; Wang, Yongan; Qiu, Zewu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there are few guidelines for the use of vitamin K1 in the maintenance treatment of long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide (LAAR) poisonings. We explored factors in the treatment of LAAR poisoning during the maintenance period in order to suggest feasible treatment models. Data from 24 cases of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in our hospital were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. The patients’ sex, age, coagulation function, total time from poisoning to treatment with vitamin K1 (prehospital time), vitamin K1 sustained treatment time (VKSTT), anticoagulant rodenticide category, and specific poison dosage were collected. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between vitamin K1 dosage and other factors during the maintenance period. Only VKSTT (partial regression coefficient −1.133, 0.59, P = 0.035) had an obvious influence on the therapeutic dose of vitamin K1 required during the maintenance period. After an initial pulse therapy, the bleeding and coagulation functions were stabilized, and the patients were subsequently treated with vitamin K1 during the maintenance period. Over time, the maintenance dose of vitamin K1 (10–120 mg/d, intravenous drip) was gradually decreased and was not related to toxicant concentration. PMID:28002326

  19. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe antidepressant (AD) use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis. Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1) 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2) 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment). Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses), epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8%) discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made. Conclusion Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. PMID:26766910

  20. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity is reduced during induction of pituitary tumors by chronic estrogen treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, D.A.; Borgundvaag, B.; Sturtridge, W.C.; George, S.R.

    1987-11-02

    The role that estrogen plays in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is not known. A radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF was utilized to measure the CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol for periods up to 12 weeks. Compared to ovariectomized controls, estradiol treatment resulted in significantly reduced CRF-ir after 3 and 12 weeks, although no significant change was seen after 8 weeks. Anterior pituitary (AP) weight was greatly increased by estradiol treatment at all time points studied. Bromocriptine treatment for the last 3 weeks of the 12-week period, or removal of estradiol for 3 weeks after 9 weeks of treatment did not reverse the changes in CRF-ir even though significant regressions of tumor size was achieved. There was no correlation between AP weight and CRF-ir in individual animals. These data show that chronic treatment with estrogen reduced hypothalamic CRF-ir content. Neither a direct estrogenic effect or an indirect effect mediated through alterations in the adenohypophysis could be ruled out. 21 references, 3 figures.

  1. Effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive program on weight and fasting blood glucose in "at-risk" adolescents of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bani Salameh, Ayman; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; El-Hneiti, Mamdouh; Shaheen, Abeer; Williams, Leonie M; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-02-28

    To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive program for type 2 diabetes by change in weight and fasting blood glucose level in Jordanian adolescents. Sixteen percent of Jordanian adults have obesity-related type 2 diabetes and 5.6% of obese adolescents examined, however one-third unexamined. Rates in Arabic countries will double in 20 years, but this can be prevented and reversed by controlling obesity. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2 unisex high schools in Irbid, Jordan, in 2012. Intervention and control participants, aged 12 to 18 years, were visibly overweight/obese. They were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 205) or control (n = 196) groups. At-risk students were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention, for change in weight and fasting blood glucose level following preventive instruction and parent-supported changes. Mean age of participants was 15.3 years with equal percentages of both males (49.4%) and females. Post intervention, the intervention group, demonstrated statistically significant reductions: mean difference of 3.3 kg in weight (P < .000) and 1.36 mg/dL (0.075 mmol/L) in fasting blood glucose (P < .000). School-based early prevention intervention effectively reduced weight and fasting blood glucose in Jordanian at-risk adolescents.

  2. Improvements Needed to Speed Implementation of Medicaid's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program...Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Congressman Ralph H. Metcalfe asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review implementation of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program administered by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's (HEW's) Social and Rehabilitation Service (SRS). An estimated 10 million children under age 21 are…

  3. [EPSDT: Information Booklets and Training Materials for Use in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    These three booklets present information about selected aspects of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program. A brief history of the development of the EPSDT program, a description of administrative structure at the national, state and local levels, and a description of the lifestyle typical of many EPSDT…

  4. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  5. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  6. Analytical treatment of biased diffusion in tubes with periodic dead ends.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2011-03-28

    Effective mobility and diffusion coefficient of a particle in a tube with identical periodic dead ends characterize the motion on large time scale, when the particle displacement significantly exceeds the tube period. We derive formulas that show how these transport coefficients depend on the driving force and the geometric parameters of the system. Numerical tests show that values of the transport coefficients obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations are in excellent agreement with our theoretical predictions.

  7. Sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in the zebra finch: critical periods for effects of early estrogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, E; Mansukhani, V; Seiwert, C; Thompson, R

    1994-07-01

    In order to determine the critical period(s) during which estrogen alters sexually dimorphic behavior and neuroanatomy in zebra finches (Poephila guttata), nestlings were injected daily with 20 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) during posthatching week 1, week 2, week 3, or weeks 1, 2, and 3. At 7 months of age, birds were implanted with testosterone propionate and tested with female partners for singing, dancing, and copulatory mounting. Brains were subsequently processed for morphometry, and the volumes of the song system nuclei HVC, area X, and RA and the soma sizes and densities of neurons in RA were determined. Males given EB during week 1 failed to mount. Females given EB during week 1 were fully masculinized with respect to dancing and RA neuron soma size and density, and were partially masculinized with respect to song nuclei volumes and singing. Treatment beginning after week 1 was ineffective or less effective for all measures. Only for RA neuron measures was treatment for all three weeks more effective than week 1 treatment. Thus the first post-hatching week is the most influential period of those tested for effects of exogenous estrogen on sexual differentiation in this species, and is a period during which both masculinization of females and demasculinization of males is possible.

  8. Defaulting from tuberculosis treatment in The Netherlands: rates, risk factors and trend in the period 1993-1997.

    PubMed

    Borgdorff, M W; Veen, J; Kalisvaart, N A; Broekmans, J F; Nagelkerke, N J

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of defaulting from treatment among tuberculosis patients diagnosed in the Netherlands in the period 1993-1997, whether risk groups for defaulting can be identified at the start of treatment and the trend of defaulting over time. The Netherlands Tuberculosis Register provided data on all patients diagnosed in the Netherlands during the period 1993-1997. Defaulting probabilities were determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and risk factors were identified with Cox's proportional hazard analysis. Of 7,529 patients with reported treatment outcome, 718 (10%) defaulted or left the country within 1 yr after starting treatment. Defaulting probabilities were 9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 8-10%) among 5,256 patients in low-risk groups, 17% (95% CI 14-19%) among 1,437 asylum seekers and 29% (95% CI 24-34%) among 836 patients in other high-risk groups (other recent immigrants, illegal immigrants, the homeless, prisoners and nationals from Eastern Europe). Defaulting probabilities decreased over time from 12% in 1993 to 7% in 1997. Risk groups for defaulting can be recognized at the start of treatment. The decreasing defaulting probabilities were probably due in part to shortening treatment from 9 to 6 months and improved follow-up of asylum seekers. However, additional measures are needed to reduce defaulting among the homeless, recent immigrants, illegal immigrants and prisoners.

  9. Evaluation of lipids, drug concentration, and safety parameters following cessation of treatment with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib in patients with or at high risk for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gotto, Antonio M; Cannon, Christopher P; Li, Xiujiang Susie; Vaidya, Sanskruti; Kher, Uma; Brinton, Eliot A; Davidson, Michael; Moon, Jennifer E; Shah, Sukrut; Dansky, Hayes M; Mitchel, Yale; Barter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects on lipids and safety during a 12-week reversal period after 18 months of treatment with anacetrapib. The cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib was previously shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 39.8% (estimated using the Friedewald equation) and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 138.1%, with an acceptable side-effect profile, in patients with or at high risk for coronary heart disease in the Determining the Efficacy and Tolerability of CETP Inhibition With Anacetrapib (DEFINE) trial. A total of 1,398 patients entered the 12-week reversal-phase study, either after completion of the active-treatment phase or after early discontinuation of the study medication. In patients allocated to anacetrapib, placebo-adjusted mean percentage decreases from baseline were observed at 12 weeks off the study drug for Friedewald-calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (18.6%), non-HDL cholesterol (17.6%), and apolipoprotein B (10.2%); placebo-adjusted mean percentage increases were observed for HDL cholesterol (73.0%) and apolipoprotein A-I (24.5%). Residual plasma anacetrapib levels (about 40% of on-treatment apparent steady-state trough levels) were also detected 12 weeks after cessation of anacetrapib. No clinically important elevations in liver enzymes, blood pressure, electrolytes, or adverse experiences were observed during the reversal phase. Preliminary data from a small cohort (n = 30) revealed the presence of low concentrations of anacetrapib in plasma 2.5 to 4 years after the last anacetrapib dose. In conclusion, after the cessation of active treatment, anacetrapib plasma lipid changes and drug levels decreased to approximately 40% of on-treatment trough levels at 12 weeks after dosing, but modest HDL cholesterol elevations and low drug concentrations were still detectable 2 to 4 years after the last dosing.

  10. Hypoxemia with air breathing periods in U.S. NAVY Treatment Table 6.

    PubMed

    Weaver, L K; Churchill, S K

    2006-01-01

    Air breathing is used to lessen hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) toxicity. Hypoxemia could occur during hyperbaric air breathing in patients with lung dysfunction, although this has not been previously reported. We report two cases of hypoxemia during air breathing with two patients treated with the US Navy Table 6. Patient 1 was an 11-year-old male with cerebral gas embolism (during cardiac transplantation), patient 2 was a 66-year-old female with cerebral gas embolism from a central venous catheter accident. Both were mechanically ventilated. We monitored arterial blood gas (ABG) during therapy. In both patients, ABG measurements showed hypoxia during the first air breathing period at 1.9 atm abs (192.5 kPa). If patients require > or = 40% inspired oxygen before HBO2 therapy, oxygenation monitoring is advisable during air breathing periods, especially at lower chamber pressures (< or = 2.0 atm abs).

  11. [The international communication and cooperation of prevention and treatment of epidemics in the Republican period of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tai-shan

    2008-07-01

    During the Republican period of China, either the Northern Warlords Government or the National Government at Nanking, to different extent, all conducted international communication and cooperation in the prevention and treatment of epidemics. Firstly, they communicated and cooperated with International League in epidemic information, establishment of new health organization, health investigation and prevention and treatment of epidemics. Secondly, with WHO in epidemic information, live prevention and treatment of epidemics and personnel training. In addition, with international medical academic society by the initiative means of selecting and sending returned students abroad, dispatching overseas staff to study and attend international academic meeting. These communications and cooperations not only created good circumstances of international society for the prevention and treatment of epidemics in the Republican period of China, but also open a special window for the mutual understanding between China and the world, at the same time, promoted and reinforced independent research and development forces of prevention and treatment technology of infectious disease of our nation. Unfortunately, the inherent defects of the society of Republic of China greatly detracted from the effects of these endeavor.

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  13. Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders over Periods Ranging from One to Twenty Years following Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMackin, Robert A.; Tansi, Robert; Lafratta, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the recidivism data for juvenile offenders discharged from a Massachusetts residential treatment center between 1976 and 1995. The criminal histories, juvenile and adult, of 162 delinquent youth referred through the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services who left the program were reviewed. Recidivism was defined as any…

  14. [Clinical and pharmacoeconomic peculiarities of the treatment with cerebrolysin in the period of rehabilitation of is ischemic stroke.].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Gekht, A B; Belousov, Iu B; Pavlov, N A; Galanov, D V; Popov, G R; Mil'chakova, L E

    2007-01-01

    The results of the clinical and pharmacoeconomic study of cerebrolysin in the rehabilitative therapy of ischemic stroke presented in the paper revealed the statistically significant regress of neurological disturbances in patients receiving cerebrolysin in daily dosages of 10 and 20 ml as compared to the control group. The rehabilitation of motor functions was more rapid than sensitive ones in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to those switched to the basic antihypertensive and antiaggregate therapy. The positive dynamics of speech rehabilitation was observed, the regress of aphatic disturbances being more significant for daily dosage of 20 ml. Rehabilitation rate in the period of treatment with cerebrolysin was higher for daily dosage of 20 ml than that of 10 ml. A prolonged effect of the drug during the long period after its withdrawal was found that resulted in higher rates of rehabilitation to the 11th week in patients receiving cerebrolysin as compared to the control group. Average total cost of direct medical expenses per a patient estimated in the pharmacoeconomic analysis for the groups receiving cerebrolysin and the control group was higher in the former groups, in particular in that with 20 ml dosage of cerebrolysin. A cost-efficacy analysis revealed that the cost of cerebrolysin treatment per effective unit (a cost of one score on the Lindmark scale and the Barthel scale) was less or comparable in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to the control group. The study suggests clinical and pharmacoeconomic expediency of cerebrolysin treatment in rehabilitative period of ischemic stroke.

  15. Compensatory growth of juvenile brown flounder Paralichthys olivaceus following low temperature treatment for different periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yinhui; Liu, Xiujia; Huang, Guoqiang; Wei, Liuzhi; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of low temperature (8.5°C) on the growth and feeding rates and feed conversion efficiency of juvenile P. olivaceus with an average initial weight of 3.87 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SE). Fish were exposed to 8.5°C for 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and then to 20°C for 10, 9, 8, 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Low temperature clearly led to growth depression. The weight of fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was restored to that of control, while that of fish exposed to low temperature longer was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05). During the entire low-temperature period, specific growth rate, feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than those of control, while in the whole recovery period, specific growth and average feeding rate were markedly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of control. At the end of experiment, only the feeding rate of the fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was not significantly different from that of control ( P > 0.05). Feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency were reduced at low temperature in juvenile P. olivaceus. The compensatory growth of juvenile P. olivaceus may therefore be attributed to the improvement of feeding rate. Our results suggested that growth depression occurs when juvenile P. olivaceus are exposed to low temperature for more than one week.

  16. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats.

  17. Cost of glaucoma treatment in a developing country over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Ramos-Cadena, María de Los Angeles; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Hernandez de Oteyza, Alejandra; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Jimenez-Román, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose a realistic estimate of primary open-angle glaucoma treatment, follow-up costs, and patients' monthly glaucoma-economic burden in an ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City.Prospective survey of 462 primary open-angle glaucoma patients from 2007 to 2012 was carried out. Costs from visits, glaucoma follow-up studies, laser, and glaucoma surgical procedures were obtained from hospital pricings. Education, employment, and monthly income were interrogated. Total cost was divided into hypotensive treatment cost, nonpharmacologic treatment cost (laser and surgeries), and follow-up studies and consults. Average wholesale price for drugs analyzed was obtained from IMS Health data; monthly cost was calculated using: Monthly cost  = ([average wholesale price/number of drops per eye dropper] × number of daily applications) × 30 days.Patients were classified according to their glaucoma severity, and data were analyzed based on monthly income (average annual exchange rate: 12.85 Mexican pesos = 1 USD).The mean age was 70 ± 10 years, women = 81%, elementary school = 39%, and unemployed = 53%. Low-income group = 266 patients (57%), 146 with mild glaucoma; moderate-income group = 176 patients (38%), 81 with mild glaucoma; high-income group = 20 patients (4.3%), 10 with mild glaucoma. Patients' monthly average economic burden in glaucoma treatment: low-income patients = 61.5%, moderate-income patients = 19.5%, and high-income patients = 7.9%.Glaucoma-economic burden is substantial not only for health systems, but for the family and the patient. Therefore, screening plans for earlier diagnosis, and health policies that lessen the cost of disease management and increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the prevalence of blindness attributed to glaucoma are essential. These would improve quality of life, reduce personal and national expenditure, and help increase national economy.

  18. Cost of glaucoma treatment in a developing country over a 5-year period

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Ramos-Cadena, María de los Angeles; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Hernandez de Oteyza, Alejandra; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Jimenez-Román, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to disclose a realistic estimate of primary open-angle glaucoma treatment, follow-up costs, and patients’ monthly glaucoma-economic burden in an ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City. Prospective survey of 462 primary open-angle glaucoma patients from 2007 to 2012 was carried out. Costs from visits, glaucoma follow-up studies, laser, and glaucoma surgical procedures were obtained from hospital pricings. Education, employment, and monthly income were interrogated. Total cost was divided into hypotensive treatment cost, nonpharmacologic treatment cost (laser and surgeries), and follow-up studies and consults. Average wholesale price for drugs analyzed was obtained from IMS Health data; monthly cost was calculated using: Monthly cost  = ([average wholesale price/number of drops per eye dropper] × number of daily applications) × 30 days. Patients were classified according to their glaucoma severity, and data were analyzed based on monthly income (average annual exchange rate: 12.85 Mexican pesos = 1 USD). The mean age was 70 ± 10 years, women = 81%, elementary school = 39%, and unemployed = 53%. Low-income group = 266 patients (57%), 146 with mild glaucoma; moderate-income group = 176 patients (38%), 81 with mild glaucoma; high-income group = 20 patients (4.3%), 10 with mild glaucoma. Patients’ monthly average economic burden in glaucoma treatment: low-income patients = 61.5%, moderate-income patients = 19.5%, and high-income patients = 7.9%. Glaucoma-economic burden is substantial not only for health systems, but for the family and the patient. Therefore, screening plans for earlier diagnosis, and health policies that lessen the cost of disease management and increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the prevalence of blindness attributed to glaucoma are essential. These would improve quality of life, reduce personal and national expenditure, and help increase national

  19. Current treatment recommendations and considerations for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Galeotti, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) encompasses a spectrum of three phenotypes of increasing severity. The syndrome is due to dominant mutations in NLRP3, which encodes a key component of the innate immunity that regulates the secretion of IL-1β. CAPS manifests as systemic inflammation, which compromises quality of life and leads to serious complications and handicap. Anti-IL-1 drugs have shown remarkable efficacy in treating CAPS symptoms and have significantly changed patients' lives. They have acceptable safety profiles but do have some differences. We review three drugs that are currently marketed for CAPS, give additional information for the practical use of these drugs, and provide some recommendations for management.

  20. The influence of sample freezing at – 80 °C for 2–12 weeks on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration assayed by HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® auto analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Katarzyna; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a single freeze/thaw cycle on HbA1c concentrations measured by commercially available HPLC method. Materials and methods Study included 128 whole blood samples collected from diabetic patients (N = 60) and healthy volunteers (N = 68). HbA1c concentrations were measured in fresh blood samples. Then samples were frozen at - 80 °C for up to 12 weeks. HbA1c was assayed by ion-exchange HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® analyzer. Variables were compared using Wilcoxon and ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis tests. Bias between HbA1c measured in fresh and frozen samples was calculated. The comparability of HbA1c concentrations was assessed by Bland-Altman plot. Results Median (IQR) HbA1c concentration was 45.3 (36.6–61.2) mmol/mol for fresh and 45.3 (36.6–60.6) mmol/mol for frozen/thawed samples. No significant difference in HbA1c concentrations was found comparing fresh and frozen/thawed samples (P = 0.070) in the whole group, as well as in healthy and diabetic subjects. The median calculated bias between fresh and frozen/thawed samples was 0% in whole group and healthy subjects, and 1.19% in diabetic patients. No significant difference was found between the biases according to baseline HbA1c values (P = 0.150). The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed a positive bias of 0.4% (95% CI: - 2.8 - 3.7%), which indicates high compliance between HbA1c values and no relevant influence of sample freezing on clinical significance of HbA1c measurement. Conclusions Storage for up to 12 weeks at – 80 °C with a single freeze/thaw cycle does not affect HbA1c concentrations measured with HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® analyzer. PMID:27812303

  1. [Asthenic syndrome in clinical course of acute period of brain concussion during complex treatment using nootropic agents].

    PubMed

    Tkachov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of a complex examination of 108 persons aged from 16 till 60 years in acute period of closed craniocerebral injury (CCCT) has been done. Every participants have been divided into 2 groups depending on a nootrop medication they receive in a complex treatment. A control group consisted of 30 practically healthy people. Objective examination by means of tests was done on the 1-st, 10-th that 30-th day of treatment. Patients of 1-st (37 persons) group received piracetam in complex treatment and patients of the 2-nd group (71 persons) pramistar. Patients of the first group received a base treatment (analgetics, tranquilizers, vitamins of group B, magnesium sulfate, diuretic preparations) as well as piracetam at dosage 0.2, two tablets three times per day. The Patients of the 2-nd group received a base treatment as well as pramistar at dosage 0.6, one tablet 2 times per day. Specially developed multiaspects scales and questionnaires, MRT of the brain and EEG have been used for objectification of patient, complaints. During a complex clinico-neuropsychological examination it was found that all cases of concussion of the brain are accompanied by those or other asthenic disorders.

  2. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  3. Meaning of leprosy for people who have experienced treatment during the sulfonic and multidrug therapy periods 1

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Karen da Silva; Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Santana, Fabiana Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Marciano, Franciele Maia; Matumoto, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze the meanings of leprosy for people treated during the sulfonic and multidrug therapy periods. Method: qualitative nature study based on the Vigotski's historical-cultural approach, which guided the production and analysis of data. It included eight respondents who have had leprosy and were submitted to sulfonic and multidrug therapy treatments. The participants are also members of the Movement for Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy. Results: the meanings were organized into three meaning cores: spots on the body: something is out of order; leprosy or hanseniasis? and leprosy from the inclusion in the Movement for Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy. Conclusion: the meanings of leprosy for people submitted to both regimens point to a complex construction thereof, indicating differences and similarities in both treatments. Health professionals may contribute to the change of the meanings, since these are socially constructed and the changes are continuous. PMID:26444163

  4. Patterns of nonfatal heroin overdose over a 3-year period: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-03-01

    To determine annual patterns and correlates of nonfatal heroin overdose across 3 years, data were analyzed on 387 heroin users recruited for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), interviewed at 12, 24, and 36 months. A heroin overdose across follow-up was reported by 18.6%, and naloxone had been administered to 11.9%. Annual rates of overdose declined between baseline and 12 months and then remained stable. Previous overdose experience was strongly related to subsequent overdose. Those with a history of overdose before ATOS were significantly more likely to overdose during the study period. In particular, there was a strong association between overdose experience in any 1 year and increased overdose risk in the subsequent year. This is the first study to examine long-term annual trends in nonfatal heroin overdose. While overdose rates declined after extensive treatment, substantial proportions continued to overdose in each year, and this was strongly associated with overdose history.

  5. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2α) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period.

  6. An alternative medicine treatment for Parkinson's disease: results of a multicenter clinical trial. HP-200 in Parkinson's Disease Study Group.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The natural occurrence of antiparkinsonian drugs in plants--anticholinergics in Datura stramonium, levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and Vicia faba, dopamine agonist activity in Claviceps purpura, and MAO inhibitor activity in Banisteria caapi-are known. Our study examined the efficacy and tolerability of HP-200, derived from Mucuna prurient, in patients with Parkinson's disease. Sixty patients with Parkinson's disease (46 male and 14 female) with a mean (+/- SD) age of 59 +/- 9 years were treated in an open study for 12 weeks. Of these, 26 patients were taking synthetic levodopa/carbidopa formulations before treatment with HP-200, and the remaining 34 were levodopa naive. HP-200, a powder (supplied as a 7.5 g sachet), was mixed with water and given orally. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used at baseline and periodically during the 12-week evaluation. Statistically significant reductions in Hoehn and Yahr stage and UPDRS scores were seen from baseline to the end of the 12-week treatment (p < 0.0001, t-test). The group mean (+/- SD) dose for optimal control of symptoms was 6 +/- 3 sachets. Adverse effects were mild and were mainly gastrointestinal in nature. No adverse effects were seen in clinical laboratory reports. HP-200, developed from an alternative medicine source, Ayurveda, was found to be an effective treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease.

  7. Recurrent carcinoma of the head and neck: treatment strategies and survival analysis in a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, A; Barth, E L; Kokemueller, H; Wegener, G

    2004-04-01

    Following clinical diagnosis of a recurrent tumor, curative treatment is seldom available. Depending on the size of the recurrent tumor and the patient's general health condition extensive surgical resections and reconstructions are avoided in favor of non-surgical palliative intended treatment modalities. According to the literature location of the tumor, tumor size, as well as R-1- and R-2-resection rates are the most frequent reasons for the development of recurrent tumors. In a retrospective evaluation a population of 1000 patients who were treated for a primary head and neck cancer during the period from 1979 to 1996 were analysed descriptively. Survival probabilities of patients with recurrent tumors were calculated according to the product-limit method by Kaplan-Meier, different treatment concepts were compared and analysed with the log-rank test for significant differences. The largest proportion of primary tumors involved the floor of mouth ( n = 369, 36.9%). A total of 198 patients (19.8%) developed a recurrent cancer; 79.8% of patients experienced a recurrent cancer within two years following primary treatment. Within the group of T1/T2 tumors the incidence of recurrent tumors was 28.9%, whereas the incidence in the T3/T4 group was 44.6%. Tumor infiltration of the resection margins was detected in 12.9%. In line with the literature, tumor infiltration of the resection margins is a relevant prognostic factor, therefore intraoperative frozen section must be recommended. Treatment with curative intention, in particular extensive surgical resections, is seldom possible, and requires always a very intensive discussion with the patient.

  8. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  9. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E. E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ≤ 0.7 M {sub ☉}).

  10. Fall in incidence of guinea-worm infection in western Nigeria after periodic treatment of infected persons.

    PubMed

    Kale, O O

    1982-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1974 a series of drug trials was conducted in 17 rural communities in western Nigeria where guinea-worm is endemic. During these trials and in subsequent years treatment, in the form of chemotherapy and/or dressing of ulcers, was given to all infected persons. A longitudinal study of infection in these villages showed a marked fall in the annual incidence over an 8-year period. The aggregate reduction in incidence in the three sectors surveyed was from 15.5% to 0.5% in sector 1, 29.8% to 0.4% in sector 2, and 20.3% to 0.0% in sector 3. The change appeared to be partly due to the treatment, which reduced the reservoir of infection and the rate of pollution of the water supply. Most of the sources of water continued to harbour Cyclops, none of which was found to be infected with Dracunculus, but which were shown experimentally to be capable of sustaining infection. The study demonstrates the potential role of therapeutic measures in controlling guinea-worm infection. It is suggested that the satisfactory measure of control that has been achieved could be increased by elimination of the Cyclops, with a view to total eradication of the disease from affected communities. Attention is drawn to the relevance of the findings for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): definition, semiology, prognosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and place relative to other periodic joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Masson, Charles; Simon, Virginie; Hoppé, Emmanuel; Insalaco, Paolo; Cissé, Idrissa; Audran, Maurice

    2004-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition of periodic fever and pain. Most patients are of northern European descent. The attacks manifest as fever and pain in the joints, abdomen, muscles, skin, or eyes, with variations across patients. An acute-phase response occurs during the attacks. Patients with TRAPS are at risk for AA amyloidosis, the most common targets being the kidneys and liver. Soluble TNFRSF1A is usually low between the attacks and may be normal during the attacks, when TNF levels are high. TNFRSF1A is found in abnormally high numbers on leukocyte cell membranes. TRAPS is the first condition for which naturally occurring mutations in a TNF receptor were found; the mutations affect the soluble TNFRSF1A gene in the 12p13 region. In some patients, the pathogenesis involves defective TNFRSF1A shedding from cell membranes in response to a given stimulus. Thus, TRAPS is a model for a novel pathogenic concept characterized by failure to shed a cytokine receptor. This review compares TRAPS to other inherited periodic febrile conditions, namely, familial Mediterranean fever, Muckle-Wells syndrome, cold urticaria, and hyper-IgD syndrome. The place of TRAPS relative to other intermittent systemic joint diseases is discussed. Colchicine neither relieves nor prevents the attacks, whereas oral glucocorticoid therapy is effective when used in dosages greater than 20 mg/day. The pathogenic hypothesis involving defective TNFRSF1A shedding suggests that medications targeting TNF may be effective in TRAPS.

  12. Persistent HIV-related stigma in rural Uganda during a period of increasing HIV incidence despite treatment expansion

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brian T.; Weiser, Sheri D.; Boum, Yap; Siedner, Mark J.; Mocello, A. Rain; Haberer, Jessica E.; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bangsberg, David R.; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Program implementers have argued that the increasing availability of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) will reduce the stigma of HIV. We analyzed data from Uganda to assess how HIV-related stigma has changed during a period of ART expansion. Design Serial cross-sectional surveys. Methods We analyzed data from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) study during 2007-2012 to estimate trends in internalized stigma among people living with HIV (PLHIV) at the time of treatment initiation. We analyzed data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2006 and 2011 to estimate trends in stigmatizing attitudes and anticipated stigma in the general population. We fitted regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, with year of data collection as the primary explanatory variable. Results We estimated an upward trend in internalized stigma among PLHIV presenting for treatment initiation (adjusted b=0.18; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.30). In the general population, the odds of reporting anticipated stigma were greater in 2011 compared to 2006 (adjusted OR=1.80; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.13), despite an apparent decline in stigmatizing attitudes (adjusted OR=0.62; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.74). Conclusions Internalized stigma has increased over time among PLHIV in the setting of worsening anticipated stigma in the general population. Further study is needed to better understand the reasons for increasing HIV-related stigma in Uganda and its impact on HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25268886

  13. An injectable composite material containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 shortens the period of distraction osteogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Yoshitaka; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Naka, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Takaoka, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    To investigate new methods that can decrease the duration of bone transport (BT) distraction osteogenesis, we injected composite materials containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and induced the generation of a callus bridge by rapid segmental transport (4 mm/day) in a rabbit bone defect model. The composite materials consisted of BMP-2 (0, 30, or 100 µg), β-tricalcium phosphate powder (βTCP, 100 mg/animal; particle size, <100 µm), and polyethylene glycol (PEG; 40 mg/animal). A paste of equivalent composition was percutaneously injected at the lengthening and the docking sites after surgery and after BT, respectively. The radiographic, mechanical, and histological examinations 12 weeks post-operative revealed that the generation of bridging callus in the presence and in the absence of BMP-2 was significantly different. The callus mass in the bone defect region was adequately and consistently developed in the presence of 100 µg of BMP (administered for 6 weeks), and the bones were consolidated in 12 weeks. Such an adequate callus formation was not observed in the control animals without BMP-2 treatment. The result of this experimental study suggests the potential application of BMP-2 in accelerating callus formation and in enabling rapid bone transporting, thereby shortening the treatment period for the repair of diaphyseal bone defects by distraction osteogenesis.

  14. Altered Telomere Nuclear Matrix Interactions and Nucleosomal Periodicity in Ataxia Telangiectasia Cells before and after Ionizing Radiation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Dhar, Sonu; Pandita, Tej K.

    1999-01-01

    Cells derived from ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients show a prominent defect at chromosome ends in the form of chromosome end-to-end associations, also known as telomeric associations, seen at G1, G2, and metaphase. Recently, we have shown that the ATM gene product, which is defective in the cancer-prone disorder A-T, influences chromosome end associations and telomere length. A possible hypothesis explaining these results is that the defective telomere metabolism in A-T cells are due to altered interactions between the telomeres and the nuclear matrix. We examined these interactions in nuclear matrix halos before and after radiation treatment. A difference was observed in the ratio of soluble versus matrix-associated telomeric DNA between cells derived from A-T and normal individuals. Ionizing radiation treatment affected the ratio of soluble versus matrix-associated telomeric DNA only in the A-T cells. To test the hypothesis that the ATM gene product is involved in interactions between telomeres and the nuclear matrix, we examined such interactions in human cells expressing either a dominant-negative effect or complementation of the ATM gene. The phenotype of RKO colorectal tumor cells expressing ATM fragments containing a leucine zipper motif mimics the altered interactions of telomere and nuclear matrix similar to that of A-T cells. A-T fibroblasts transfected with wild-type ATM gene had corrected telomere-nuclear matrix interactions. Further, we found that A-T cells had different micrococcal nuclease digestion patterns compared to normal cells before and after irradiation, indicating differences in nucleosomal periodicity in telomeres. These results suggest that the ATM gene influences the interactions between telomeres and the nuclear matrix, and alterations in telomere chromatin could be at least partly responsible for the pleiotropic phenotypes of the ATM gene. PMID:10490633

  15. Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Veny; Bains, Kiran

    2012-04-01

    Germination of legumes followed by hydrothermal treatments is an effective mean of improving nutritive value of legumes. The protein content of mungbean, chickpea and cowpea increased by 9-11, 11-16 and 8-11% after germination. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in protein content was observed on pressure cooking and microwaving in all three legumes. The carbohydrates decreased by 1 to 3% during soaking and 2 to 6% during germination. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) was observed after soaking as well as after three germination periods. Germination resulted in an increase in IVPD from 15 to 25% in mungbean, 6 to 17% in chickpea and 6 to 17% in cowpea. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in IVPD was observed when raw sprouts of three legumes were subjected to pressure cooking and microwaving. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after germination, the percent increase being 8 to 12% in mungbean, 9 to 11% in chickpea and 10 to 13% in cowpea. The duration of germination had significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on IVSD. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in IVSD was observed when legume sprouts were subjected to pressure cooking and microwave cooking.

  16. Qualitative Approach and Treatment of Patients with Prostate Cancer in Cantonal Hospital Bihac During Two Years Period

    PubMed Central

    Kardasevic, Amel; Delic-Redzepagic, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in human pathology. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of new cases. Material and methods: In this article, we want to show the number of patients diagnosed and treated due to prostate cancer in the Cantonal Hospital Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, over a two year period. After examining the medical records, we selected 70 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Average age was 70.9 years (51-91 years). The total PSA ranged from 1.6 to 3332 ng/ml. For each patient is determined the PSA ratio f/t PSA, with an average value of 0.13 (0.02 to 0.627). Results: From the data analysis, we concluded that nearly half of the patients (30 patients), came to the urology clinic with advanced disease. The stage of the disease is well correlated with PSA value. Conclusion: The PSA can be considered as a reliable marker in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Regardless of the current controversy on the issue of screening on prostate cancer using the PSA analysis, we believe that the use of this simple test in selected populations is justified for the purpose of early disease detection. PMID:24757406

  17. Methodological challenges in monitoring new treatments for rare diseases: lessons from the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS) are a group of rare hereditary autoinflammatory diseases and encompass Familial Cold Autoinflammatory Syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells Syndrome (MWS), and Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID). Canakinumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IL-1 beta and approved for CAPS patients but requires post-approval monitoring due to low and short exposures during the licensing process. Creative approaches to observational methodology are needed, harnessing novel registry strategies to ensure Health Care Provider reporting and patient monitoring. Methods A web-based registry was set up to collect information on long-term safety and effectiveness of canakinumab for CAPS. Results Starting in November 2009, this registry enrolled 241 patients in 43 centers and 13 countries by December 31, 2012. One-third of the enrolled population was aged < 18; the overall population is evenly divided by gender. Enrolment is ongoing for children. Conclusions Innovative therapies in orphan diseases require post-approval structures to enable in depth understanding of safety and natural history of disease. The rarity and distribution of such diseases and unpredictability of treatment require innovative methods for enrolment and follow-up. Broad international practice-based recruitment and web-based data collection are practical. PMID:24016338

  18. Interaction of 5-HTT and HTR1A gene polymorphisms in treatment responses to mirtazapine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hun Soo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Cha, Ji-Hyun; Won, Eun Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo; Kim, Bohye; Lee, Min-Soo

    2014-08-01

    We tested for the association of HTR1A and 5-HTT genetic polymorphisms with treatment response to mirtazapine and evaluated the interactive effect between the polymorphisms in 283 patients with major depressive disorder. Korean subjects with diagnosis of major depressive disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders were recruited. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating (HAMD-17) Scale at baseline and after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment with mirtazapine. The genetic association of 5-HTTLPR and HTR1A+272G>A with treatment response was analyzed. We found a significant association of the 12.12-repeat genotype of 5-HTT various number tandem repeat (VNTR) with a large percentage decline in HAMD-17 Scale score after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment with mirtazapine. We also found that the frequency of the 12.12-repeat genotype was higher in responders than in nonresponders at week 8. The HTR1A+272GG genotype was significantly associated with a large percentage decline in HAMD-17 Scale score at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, although the genotypic frequencies were comparable between responders and nonresponders during the study period. Patients with the 12.12-repeat 5-HTT VNTR and GG of HTR1A+272G>A showed the highest HAMD-17 Scale percentage reduction during the study period and a better treatment response status after 4 weeks. These results suggest that the interaction between HTR1A+272G>A and 5-HTT VNTR is involved in the response to mirtazapine treatment and that a combination of these may be a useful marker for predicting treatment response to mirtazapine.

  19. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CONTINUOUS BACTERIAL TREATMENTS OVER A TWO-WEEK PERIOD ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-07-17

    These experiments indicated that in waters at 23 C the window of opportunity to kill zebra mussels with bacterial strain CL0145A is limited to the first two days of treatment. Treatments beyond two days will not increase mortality.

  20. The PRCI study: design of a randomized clinical trial to evaluate a coping intervention for medical waiting periods used by women undergoing a fertility treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many medical situations necessitate a stressful period of waiting for potentially threatening test results. The medical waiting period is often associated with negative anticipatory anxiety and rumination about the outcome of treatment. Few evidence-based self-help coping interventions are available to assist individuals manage these periods. Theory and research suggest that positive reappraisal coping strategies may be particularly useful for this type of unpredictable and uncontrollable stressful context. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention (PRCI) on psychological well-being of women waiting for the outcome of their fertility treatment cycle. Methods/Design In a three-armed randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of the PRCI will be tested. Consecutive patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation in a Dutch university hospital and meeting selection criteria will be invited to participate. Those who agree will be randomized to one of three experimental groups (N=372). The PRCI Intervention group will receive the intervention that comprises an explanatory leaflet and the 10 statements designed to promote positive reappraisal coping, to be read at least once in the morning, once in the evening. To capture the general impact of PRCI on psychological wellbeing patients will complete questionnaires before the waiting period (pre-intervention), on day ten of the 14-day waiting period (intervention) and six weeks after the start of the waiting period (post-intervention). To capture the specific effects of the PRCI during the waiting period, patients will also be asked to monitor daily their emotions and reactions during the 14-day waiting period. The primary outcome is general anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes are positive and negative emotions during the waiting period, depression, quality of life, coping and treatment outcome. During

  1. Changes in fecal microbiota and metabolomics in a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) responding to two treatment periods with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN).

    PubMed

    Berntson, Lillemor; Agback, Peter; Dicksved, Johan

    2016-06-01

    The microbiome and immune system of the digestive tract are highly important in both health and disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a common anti-inflammatory treatment in children with Crohn's disease in the European countries, and the mechanism is most likely linked to changes in the intestinal microbiome. In the present study, EEN was given in two treatment periods several months apart to a patient with very severe, disabling juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), with a remarkable clinical response as the result. The aim of the present study was to study how the EEN treatment influenced the microbiome and metabolome of this patient. Fecal samples from before, during, and between treatments with EEN were studied. The microbiome was analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons using Illumina MiSeq, and the metabolome was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance. The microbiome changed markedly from treatment with EEN, with a strong reduction of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Metabolic profiles showed clear differences before, during, and between treatment with EEN, where butyrate, propionate, and acetate followed a cyclic pattern with the lowest levels at the end of each treatment period. This patient with JIA showed remarkable clinical improvement after EEN treatment, and we found corresponding changes in both the fecal microbiome and the metabolome. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological role of the intestinal canal in children with JIA.

  2. Amantadine as an additive treatment in patients suffering from drug-resistant unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Daniel, Władysława A; Wójcikowski, Jacek; Dudek, Dominika; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of amantadine addition to imipramine therapy in patients suffering from treatment-resistant unipolar depression who fulfilled DSM IV criteria for major (unipolar) depression. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study on the basis of their histories of illness and therapy. After a 2-week drug-free period, 25 subjects belonging to the first group were treated only with imipramine twice daily (100 mg/day) for 12 weeks, and 25 subjects belonging to the second group were treated with imipramine twice daily (100 mg/day) for 6 weeks and then amantadine was introduced (150 mg/day, twice daily) and administered jointly with imipramine for the successive 6 weeks. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used to assess the efficacy of antidepressant therapy. Imipramine did not change the HDRS score after 3, 6 or 12 weeks of treatment when compared with the washout (before treatment). The addition of amantadine to the classic antidepressant reduced HDRS scores after 6-week joint treatment. Moreover, the obtained pharmacokinetic data indicated that amantadine did not significantly influence the plasma concentration of imipramine and its metabolite desipramine in patients treated jointly with imipramine and amantadine, which suggests lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction. The obtained results indicate that joint therapy with an antidepressant and amantadine may be effective in treatment-resistant unipolar depression.

  3. [Preliminary study on detox in outpatient care units with 18 alcoholic patients in Directly Observed Treatment].

    PubMed

    Lloréns Martínez, Ramón; Calatayud Francés, María; Morales Gallús, Esperanza; Añó Cervera, Consol; Adriá Caballero, Librada

    2008-01-01

    Directly Observed Treatment (TOD-DOT) has been tested in different conditions. The objective of this work is to check whether a UCA-CAB (Centre for Addictive Behaviour) can achieve detox and reduce the risk of early relapse (up to 12 weeks) in alcoholic patients. All patients had an established organic addiction and serious withdrawal syndrome, and had undergone multiple previous treatments. Furthermore, they had not managed to abstain for a 3-month consecutive period over the previous 2 years. The aim of the Directly Observed Treatment was to attain detox and reduce relapse by following a multi-method approach: medical, psychological and personal care, based on a brief daily consultation and pharmacological supervision. The results were as follows: Of the 18 patients included in the study, after 12 weeks, 13 (72 %) were still abstinent and 4 (22 %) had relapsed. Thus, 17 (94 %) were still following the treatment, with just one drop-out. We analysed the profiles of the patients abstaining, of those who relapsed (4) and of the one who dropped out. The average CIWA-Ar was 27.05 (21-36). Any value over 20 is considered to indicate serious withdrawal syndrome, though there were no negative events leading to hospitalization. Level of adherence to the treatment (94 %) meant that the most seriously affected patients and those with fewest financial resources could benefit, not only from any auxiliary social schemes, but also from basic health services, permitting them to improve the quality of their everyday life.

  4. Physical Training as Non-Pharmacological Treatment of Neurocardiogenic Syncope

    PubMed Central

    Takahagi, Vanessa Cristina Miranda; Costa, Daniela Caetano; Crescêncio, Júlio César; Gallo, Lourenço

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterized as a sudden and temporary loss of consciousness and postural tone, with quick and spontaneous recovery, syncope is caused by an acute reduction of systemic arterial pressure and, therefore, of cerebral blood flow. Unsatisfactory results with the use of drugs allowed the nonpharmacological treatment of neurocardiogenic syncope was contemplated as the first therapeutic option. Objectives To compare, in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope, the impact of a moderate intensity aerobic physical training (AFT) and a control intervention on the positivity of head-up tilting test (HUT) and orthostatic tolerance time. Methods Were studied 21 patients with a history of recurrent neurocardiogenic syncope and HUT. The patients were randomized into: trained group (TG), n = 11, and control group (CG), n = 10. The TG was submitted to 12 weeks of AFT supervised, in cycle ergometer, and the CG to a control procedure that consisted in 15 minutes of stretching and 15 minutes of light walk. Results The TG had a positive effect to physical training, with a significant increase in peak oxygen consumption. The CG did not show any statistically significant change before and after the intervention. After the intervention period, 72.7% of the TG sample had negative results to the HUT, not having syncope in the revaluation. Conclusion The program of supervised aerobic physical training for 12 weeks was able to reduce the number of positive HUT, as it was able to increase tolerance time in orthostatic position during the HUT after the intervention period. PMID:24714795

  5. Renewable Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, N.

    2003-06-01

    This guidebook will help readers understand where and how renewable energy technologies can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications. It is specifically designed for rural and small urban center water supply and wastewater treatment applications. This guidebook also provides basic information for selecting water resources and for various kinds of commercially available water supply and wastewater treatment technologies and power sources currently in the market.

  6. [Possibilities of magnetic-laser therapy in comprehensive treatment of patients with brain concussion in acute period].

    PubMed

    Zubkova, O V; Samosiuk, I Z; Polishchuk, O V; Shul'ga, N M; Samosiuk, N I

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of magnetic-laser therapy used according to the method developed by us was studied in patients having the brain concussion (BC) in an acute period. The study was based on the dynamics of values of the evoked vestibular potentials and the disease clinical course. It was shown that following the magnetic-laser therapy in combination with traditional pharmacotherapy in BC acute period, the statistically significant positive changes were registered in the quantitative characteristics of the evoked vestibular brain potentials that correlated with the dynamics of the disease clinical course. The data obtained substantiate the possibility of using the magnetic-laser therapy in patients with a mild craniocereblal injury in an acute period.

  7. A collaborative care telemedicine intervention to overcome treatment barriers for Latina women with depression during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Connelly, Cynthia D; Hazen, Andrea L; Dueñas, Cecilia; Landsverk, John A; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-09-01

    Maternal depression is highly prevalent (10-20%) during the perinatal period, with rates as high as 35% to 40% for Latinas. However, few Latinas are either identified or treated during the perinatal period. The Perinatal Mental Health (PMH) model was designed to ameliorate the barriers that prevent adequate diagnoses and intervention. The PMH is a culturally sensitive, short-term telemedicine, collaborative care intervention for addressing depression among Mexican American mothers. It attends to sociocultural and socioeconomic dimensions and is delivered by trained mental health advisors in obstetric care settings. This article describes the feasibility and acceptability of using the PMH. Participants (N = 79) were selected from a 1st-year ongoing randomized trial in community obstetric clinics. The intervention seems feasible and acceptable; low-income Latinas, identified as depressed during the perinatal period, reported having access to a range of appropriate community services and high satisfaction.

  8. A Collaborative Care Telemedicine Intervention to Overcome Treatment Barriers for Latina Women with Depression during the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Dueñas, Cecilia; Landsverk, John A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-01-01

    Maternal depression is highly prevalent (10 to 20%) during the perinatal period with rates as high as 35 to 40% for Latinas. However, few Latinas are either identified or treated during the perinatal period. To address these disparities, the Perinatal Mental Health Model (PMH) was designed to ameliorate the barriers that prevent adequate diagnoses and intervention. The PMH is a culturally sensitive, short-term telemedicine, and collaborative care intervention for addressing depression among Mexican American mothers. It attends to sociocultural and socioeconomic dimensions and is delivered by trained mental health advisors within obstetric care settings. This article describes the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the PMH. Participants (n=79) were selected from a first year ongoing randomized trial in community obstetric clinics. The intervention seems feasible and acceptable; low-income Latinas, identified as depressed during the perinatal period, reported having access to a range of appropriate community services and high satisfaction. PMID:22709321

  9. Rituximab Treatment for PR3-ANCA-Positive Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Associated with Adult-Onset Periodic Fever Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Yoshitomo; Yoshizawa, Hiromichi; Sugase, Taro; Miki, Takuya; Ohtani, Naoko; Hanawa, Shiho; Takeshima, Eri; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Osamu; Takemoto, Fumi; Muto, Shigeaki; Yumura, Wako; Kusano, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old Japanese woman with nephrotic syndrome due to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) Type I diagnosed after a 5-year history of periodic fever syndrome (PFS). Hypocomplementemia and elevation of anti-proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (PR3-ANCA) were observed. HIV, and hepatitis B and C serology were negative. Nephrotic syndrome and periodic fever did not respond to oral steroid and intravenous steroid pulse therapies combined with cyclosporine, dipyridamole, warfarin and losartan. We tried immunotherapy using rituximab, a human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen on mature B cells. This therapeutic approach led to improvement of renal function and remission of nephrotic syndrome and hypocomplementemia. However, it did not have a beneficial effect on periodic fever. Suspecting adult-onset hereditary PFS, we analyzed her genetic alteration of MEFV and TNFRSF1A genes. A rare genotype in intron 6 of TNFRSF1A was revealed. The etiological relationship between periodic fever and MPGN is discussed. Rituximab is a hopeful choice of induction therapy for refractory MPGN. PMID:23197963

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variants may associate with negative symptom response and plasma concentrations of prolactin in schizophrenia after amisulpride treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Yen, Che-Hung; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is involved in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms and may be associated with a therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between COMT variants, plasma prolactin level, and the therapeutic effectiveness of amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A 12-week naturalistic study of amisulpride treatment was carried out in 185 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The patients were screened for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the COMT gene. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the improvement of psychopathological symptoms from the baseline to the end point in each subject. For better presentation of time-course changes in response status, a mixed model for repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis of symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment period was conducted. The change in plasma prolactin level after amisulpride treatment was also examined (n=51). No significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the COMT variants investigated were observed between responders and non-responders. Moreover, an MMRM analysis of psychopathological symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment course showed that it depended significantly on COMT variants (rs4680, rs4633, and rs6267), particularly regarding changes in negative symptoms. The increase in plasma prolactin levels observed was influenced by the COMT rs4680 variant and was positively correlated with a reduction in PANSS negative scores. Our results suggest that variation of the COMT gene is associated with treatment response regarding negative symptoms and prolactin changes after amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  12. Modafinil for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ann L.; Li, Shou-Hua; Biswas, Kousick; McSherry, Frances; Holmes, Tyson; Iturriaga, Erin; Kahn, Roberta; Chiang, Nora; Beresford, Thomas; Campbell, Jan; Haning, William; Mawhinney, Joseph; McCann, Michael; Rawson, Richard; Stock, Christopher; Weis, Dennis; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Modafinil was tested for efficacy in decreasing use in methamphetamine-dependent participants, compared to placebo. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with 12 weeks of treatment and a 4-week follow-up. Eight outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics participated in the study. There were 210 treatment-seekers randomized, who all had a DSM-IV diagnosis of methamphetamine dependence; 68 participants to placebo, 72 to modafinil 200mg, and 70 to modafinil 400mg, taken once daily on awakening. Participants came to the clinic three times per week for assessments, urine drug screens, and group psychotherapy. The primary outcome measure was a methamphetamine non-use week, which required all the week's qualitative urine drug screens to be negative for methamphetamine. Results Regression analysis showed no significant difference between either modafinil group (200 or 400mg) and placebo in change in weekly percentage having a methamphetamine non-use week over the 12-week treatment period (p=0.53). Similarly, a number of secondary outcomes did not show significant effects of modafinil. However, an ad-hoc analysis of medication compliance, by urinalysis for modafinil and its metabolite, did find a significant difference in maximum duration of abstinence (23 days vs. 10 days, p=0.003), between those having the top quartile of compliance (>85% urines modafinil +, N=36), and the lower three quartiles of modafinil 200 and 400mg groups (N=106). Conclusions Although these data suggest that modafinil, plus group behavioral therapy, was not effective for decreasing methamphetamine use, the study is probably inconclusive because of inadequate compliance with taking medication. PMID:21840138

  13. Correlates of satisfaction with pain treatment in the acute postoperative period: results from the international PAIN OUT registry.

    PubMed

    Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Gerbershagen, Hans J; Taylor, Rod S; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Komann, Marcus; Rothaug, Judith; Volk, Thomas; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Zaslansky, Ruth; Brill, Silviu; Ullrich, Kristin; Gordon, Debra B; Meissner, Winfried

    2014-07-01

    Patient ratings of satisfaction with their postoperative pain treatment tend to be high even in those with substantial pain. Determinants are poorly understood and have not previously been studied in large-scale, international datasets. PAIN OUT, a European Union-funded acute pain registry and research project, collects patient-reported outcome data on postoperative day 1 using the self-reported International Pain Outcome Questionnaire (IPO), and patient, clinical, and treatment characteristics. We investigated correlates of satisfaction and consistency of effects across centres and countries using multilevel regression modelling. Our sample comprised 16,868 patients (median age 55 years; 55% female) from 42 centres in 11 European countries plus Israel, USA, and Malaysia, who underwent a wide range of surgical procedures, for example, joint, limb, and digestive tract surgeries. Median satisfaction was 9 (interquartile range 7-10) on a 0-10 scale. Three IPO items showed strong associations and explained 35% of the variability present in the satisfaction variable: more pain relief received, higher allowed participation in pain treatment decisions, and no desire to have received more pain treatment. Patient factors and additional IPO items reflecting pain experience (eg, worst pain intensity), pain-related impairment, and information on pain treatment added little explanatory value, partially due to covariate correlations. Effects were highly consistent across centres and countries. We conclude that satisfaction with postoperative pain treatment is associated with the patients' actual pain experience, but more strongly with impressions of improvement and appropriateness of care. To the degree they desire, patients should be provided with information and involved in pain treatment decisions.

  14. Bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Ganfort) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Ivan; Gil Pina, Rafael; Lanzagorta-Aresti, Aitor; Schiffman, Rhett M; Liu, Charlie; Bejanian, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoints, reflecting differing regional regulatory requirements, included change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12, and the average eye IOP at weeks 2, 6 and 12 in the intent-to-treat population. Results 561 patients were randomised (278 to bimatoprost/timolol PF; 283 to bimatoprost/timolol); 96.3% completed the study. Both treatment groups showed statistically and clinically significant mean decreases from baseline in worse eye IOP and in average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001). Bimatoprost/timolol PF met all pre-established criteria for non-inferiority and equivalence to bimatoprost/timolol. Ocular adverse events were similar between treatment groups, with conjunctival hyperaemia being the most frequent. Most were mild or moderate in severity. Conclusions Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. Trial registration number NCT01177098. PMID:24667994

  15. The postpartum period in dromedary camels: uterine involution, ovarian activity, hormonal changes, and response to GnRH treatment.

    PubMed

    Derar, R; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F A

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the time for complete uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in postpartum dromedary camels, relative to hormonal changes. A total of six females were examined by ultrasonography twice weekly starting 3d after parturition. GnRH was administered when the follicles reached ≥0.9cm diameter. Blood samples were collected for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that the mean intervals for complete involution of the previously gravid horn, non-gravid horn, and cervix were 34.33±3.9, 29.01±0.81, and 28.71±1.51d, respectively. After GnRH treatment (Days 17-34), five of the six camels had ovulated. The corpus luteum was detected by Day 4.1±1.6 after GnRH treatment and lasted for 6±1.1d. Serum progesterone (P4) was basal and increased only after GnRH treatment. Serum estradiol 17-β (E2) peaked twice: when a large follicle was detected and 8.5±2.8d post-GnRH treatment. The serum FSH pattern was biphasic, with two peaks just before the recruitment of small follicles and 4.67±4.1d after GnRH treatment. The five ovulating females were mated; two conceived after the first service and three after the second service. The interval from calving to conception was 78.16±3.71d. It was concluded that in dromedary camels, involution of the uterus is completed by the 5th week postpartum, these camels are highly responsive to early GnRH treatment, and they can be mated between the 5th and 6th week after parturition with encouraging conception rates.

  16. Acute hepatitis C: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Resat; Tahan, Veysel

    2009-04-01

    HCV can cause acute or chronic hepatitis and is a health problem all over the world. It is one of the leading causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is a common indication for liver transplantation. Unrecognized patients with HCV infection may transmit the virus to uninfected people. The acute form of the disease leads to chronic hepatitis in the majority of cases. Since the success rate of treatment given in the chronic phase is much lower than that given in the acute phase, recognizing acute hepatitis is critical. Although HCV is less prevalent since 1990s in the Western world after improved blood-donor screening programs, needle-exchange facilities and education among intravenous drug users, it is still endemic in some regions, including African countries, Egypt, Taiwan, China and Japan. Acute HCV infection may be a challenge for the clinician; since it is often asymptomatic, detection and diagnosis are usually difficult. After an incubation period of 7 weeks (2-12 weeks), only a minority of patients (10-15%) report symptoms. The spontaneous clearance of the virus is more frequent primarily during the first 3 months of clinical onset of the disease, but may occur anytime during the 6 months of acute infection. This spontaneous resolution seems to be more frequent in symptomatic cases. Viremia persisting more than 6 months is accepted as chronic infection. The virus is transmitted more frequently through infected blood or body fluids. Detection of antibodies against HCV is not a reliable method of diagnosing acute HCV infection since the appearance of antibodies against HCV can be delayed in up to 30% of patients at the onset of symptoms. Thus, the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C relies on the qualitative detection of HCV RNA, which may appear as early as 1-2 weeks after exposure quickly followed by highly elevated alanine aminotransferase. After a follow-up period of 8-12 weeks for allowing spontaneous resolution, treatment should be initiated

  17. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items.

  18. Depression Outcomes in Adults Attending Family Practice Were Not Improved by Screening, Stepped-Care, or Online CBT during a 12-Week Study when Compared to Controls in a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, Peter H; Rittenbach, Katherine; Suen, Victoria Y M; Moretzsohn, Andreia; Cribben, Ivor; Bercov, Marni; Allen, Andrea; Pryce, Catherine; Hamza, Deena M; Trew, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is uncertainty regarding possible benefits of screening for depression in family practice, as well as the most effective treatment approach when depression is identified. Here, we examined whether screening patients for depression in primary care, and then treating them with different modalities, was better than treatment-as-usual (TAU) alone. Screening was carried out for depression using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), with a score of ≥10 indicating significant depressive symptoms. PHQ-9 scores were given to family physicians prior to patients being seen (except for the Control group). Patients (n = 1,489) were randomized to one of four groups. Group #1 were controls (n = 432) in which PHQ-9 was administered, but results were not shared. Group #2 was screening followed by TAU (n = 426). Group #3 was screening followed by both TAU and the opportunity to use an online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment program (n = 440). Group #4 utilized an evidence-based Stepped-care pathway for depression (n = 191, note that this was not available at all clinics). Of the study sample 889 (60%) completed a second PHQ-9 rating at 12 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline PHQ-9 scores between these groups. Compared to baseline, mean PHQ-9 scores decreased significantly in the depressed patients over 12 weeks, but there were no statistically significant differences between any groups at 12 weeks. Thus, for those who were depressed at baseline Control group (Group #1) scores decreased from 15.3 ± 4.2 to 4.0 ± 2.6 (p < 0.001), Screening group (Group #2) scores decreased from 15.5 ± 3.9 to 4.6 ± 3.0 (p < 0.001), Online CBT group (Group #3) scores decreased from 15.4 ± 3.8 to 3.4 ± 2.7 (p < 0.01), and the Stepped-care pathway group (Group #4) scores decreased from 15.3 ± 3.6 to 5.4 ± 2.8 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings from this

  19. Depression Outcomes in Adults Attending Family Practice Were Not Improved by Screening, Stepped-Care, or Online CBT during a 12-Week Study when Compared to Controls in a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, Peter H.; Rittenbach, Katherine; Suen, Victoria Y. M.; Moretzsohn, Andreia; Cribben, Ivor; Bercov, Marni; Allen, Andrea; Pryce, Catherine; Hamza, Deena M.; Trew, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is uncertainty regarding possible benefits of screening for depression in family practice, as well as the most effective treatment approach when depression is identified. Here, we examined whether screening patients for depression in primary care, and then treating them with different modalities, was better than treatment-as-usual (TAU) alone. Screening was carried out for depression using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), with a score of ≥10 indicating significant depressive symptoms. PHQ-9 scores were given to family physicians prior to patients being seen (except for the Control group). Patients (n = 1,489) were randomized to one of four groups. Group #1 were controls (n = 432) in which PHQ-9 was administered, but results were not shared. Group #2 was screening followed by TAU (n = 426). Group #3 was screening followed by both TAU and the opportunity to use an online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment program (n = 440). Group #4 utilized an evidence-based Stepped-care pathway for depression (n = 191, note that this was not available at all clinics). Of the study sample 889 (60%) completed a second PHQ-9 rating at 12 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline PHQ-9 scores between these groups. Compared to baseline, mean PHQ-9 scores decreased significantly in the depressed patients over 12 weeks, but there were no statistically significant differences between any groups at 12 weeks. Thus, for those who were depressed at baseline Control group (Group #1) scores decreased from 15.3 ± 4.2 to 4.0 ± 2.6 (p < 0.001), Screening group (Group #2) scores decreased from 15.5 ± 3.9 to 4.6 ± 3.0 (p < 0.001), Online CBT group (Group #3) scores decreased from 15.4 ± 3.8 to 3.4 ± 2.7 (p < 0.01), and the Stepped-care pathway group (Group #4) scores decreased from 15.3 ± 3.6 to 5.4 ± 2.8 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings from this

  20. Hemoglobin level trajectories in the early treatment period are related with survival outcomes in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Lin, Chi-Shy; Li, Yu-Fen; Tzeng, Huey-En

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) levels are reportedly related with treatment outcomes and survival in patients of breast cancer. However, the long-term change in Hb levels after treatment and the effects of Hb on survival remain unknown. This retrospective cohort study enrolled 1931 breast cancer patients with pathological stage I-IV between 1/1/2003 and 12/31/2013. Latent class modeling was used to identify trajectories in monthly Hb levels over time. The primary endpoint was 10-year cancer-related death. We identified 5 distinct Hb trajectories: persistent anemia (5.6 %; n = 109), improved anemia (4.8 %, n = 93), mild anemia (21.0%; n = 406), low normal Hb (46.6 %; n = 899), and normal Hb (21.9%; n = 424). Compared with the normal-Hb group, trajectories with low Hb levels had worst 10-year survival. The adjusted hazard ratios were 1.79(95% CI, 0.91-3.53) for the improved anemia group, 1.09(95% CI, 0.68-1.74) for the mild anemia group, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.71-1.60) for the low normal Hb group, and 2.19(95% CI 1.28-3.75) for the persistent anemia group. Our findings show there are five Hb level trajectories during breast cancer treatment. The anemia Hb level trajectory during the first 12 months after treatment reflect the worst cancer-related 10-year survival in breast cancer patients. PMID:27906669

  1. Use of normative peer data as a standard for evaluating classroom treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Walker, H M; Hops, H

    1976-01-01

    This study illustrated the use of normative behavioral observation data as a standard for evaluating the practicality of treatment effects produced in other settings. Three groups of eight subjects each, displaying relatively low proportions of appropriate classroom behavior when compared with regular classroom peers, were selected for treatment within an experimental classroom setting. The three groups were exposed to intervention procedures designed to reinforce either direct academic performance and/or facilitative nonacademic classroom responses. The treatment was effective in changing levels of appropriate behavior (1) above baseline levels in the experimental classroom, and (2) to within normal peer-defined limits when reintegrated into the regular classroom. Further, the data reflect successful maintenance of these effects for a seven- to 12-week follow-up period. Several applications of a normative model for evaluating treatment, generalization, and maintenance effects were presented and discussed.

  2. Effects of a Family-Implemented Treatment on the Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Stephen G.; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children’s engagement in repetitive behaviors. We developed Family-Implemented Treatment for Behavioral Inflexibility (FITBI) to target the full variety of repetitive behaviors found in autism. For the current study, a therapist and parents of five children with autism (mean age = 48 months) co-implemented FITBI in a clinic setting over a 12-week treatment period. Using single case design methodology, significant reductions in repetitive behaviors were found for all participants and maintenance of treatment effects for 4 of 5 participants. PMID:21161576

  3. Sample size determination for testing nonequality under a three-treatment two-period incomplete block crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-05-01

    To reduce the lengthy duration of a crossover trial for comparing three treatments, the incomplete block design has been often considered. A sample size calculation procedure for testing nonequality between either of the two experimental treatments and a placebo under such a design is developed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed sample size calculation procedure, Monte Carlo simulation is employed. The accuracy of the sample size calculation procedure developed here is demonstrated in a variety of situations. As compared with the parallel groups design, a substantial proportional reduction in the total minimum required sample size in use of the incomplete block crossover design is found. A crossover trial comparing two different doses of formoterol with a placebo on the forced expiratory volume is applied to illustrate the use of the sample size calculation procedure.

  4. Early Exposure of Infants to GI Nematodes Induces Th2 Dominant Immune Responses Which Are Unaffected by Periodic Anthelminthic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Victoria J.; Ame, Shaali Makame; Haji, Haji Said; Weir, Rosemary E.; Goodman, David; Pritchard, David I.; Ramsan Mohamed, Mahdi; Haji, Hamad Juma; Tielsch, James M.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Bickle, Quentin D.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown a reduction in anaemia and wasting malnutrition in infants <3 years old in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, following repeated anthelminthic treatment for the endemic gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. In view of the low intensity of worm infections in this age group, this was unexpected, and it was proposed that immune responses to the worms rather than their direct effects may play a significant role in morbidity in infants and that anthelminthic treatment may alleviate such effects. Therefore, the primary aims of this study were to characterise the immune response to initial/early GI nematode infections in infants and the effects of anthelminthic treatment on such immune responses. The frequency and levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ and IL-10) induced by the worms were evaluated in 666 infants aged 6–24 months using the Whole Blood Assay. Ascaris and hookworm antigens induced predominantly Th2 cytokine responses, and levels of IL-5 and IL-13 were significantly correlated. The frequencies and levels of responses were higher for both Ascaris positive and hookworm positive infants compared with worm negative individuals, but very few infants made Trichuris-specific cytokine responses. Infants treated every 3 months with mebendazole showed a significantly lower prevalence of infection compared with placebo-treated controls at one year following baseline. At follow-up, cytokine responses to Ascaris and hookworm antigens, which remained Th2 biased, were increased compared with baseline but were not significantly affected by treatment. However, blood eosinophil levels, which were elevated in worm-infected children, were significantly lower in treated children. Thus the effect of deworming in this age group on anaemia and wasting malnutrition, which were replicated in this study, could not be explained by modification of cytokine responses but may be related to eosinophil function

  5. Managing Maternal Substance Use in the Perinatal Period: Current Concerns and Treatment Approaches in the United States and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Lucinda; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Breen, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Substance use in pregnancy can have adverse effects on mother and fetus alike. Australia and the US are countries with high levels of substance use and policies advising abstinence, although the Australian approach occurs within a broader framework of harm minimization. Less attention has been paid to treatment of the mothers’ substance use and what is considered gold standard. This is despite evidence that prior substance use in pregnancy is the most important factor in predicting future substance use in pregnancy. This paper draws together information from both the peer-reviewed and gray literature to provide a contemporary overview of patterns and outcomes of the three main drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis, used in Australia and the US during pregnancy and discusses what are considered gold standard screening and treatment approaches for these substances. This paper does not set out to be a comprehensive review of the area but rather aims to provide a concise summary of current guidelines for policy makers and practitioners who provide treatment for women who use substances in pregnancy. PMID:27980414

  6. Notes on testing equality and interval estimation in Poisson frequency data under a three-treatment three-period crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2016-10-01

    When the frequency of event occurrences follows a Poisson distribution, we develop procedures for testing equality of treatments and interval estimators for the ratio of mean frequencies between treatments under a three-treatment three-period crossover design. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we evaluate the performance of these test procedures and interval estimators in various situations. We note that all test procedures developed here can perform well with respect to Type I error even when the number of patients per group is moderate. We further note that the two weighted-least-squares (WLS) test procedures derived here are generally preferable to the other two commonly used test procedures in the contingency table analysis. We also demonstrate that both interval estimators based on the WLS method and interval estimators based on Mantel-Haenszel (MH) approach can perform well, and are essentially of equal precision with respect to the average length. We use a double-blind randomized three-treatment three-period crossover trial comparing salbutamol and salmeterol with a placebo with respect to the number of exacerbations of asthma to illustrate the use of these test procedures and estimators.

  7. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  8. [MVK gene abnormality and new approach to treatment of hyper IgD syndrome and periodic fever syndrome].

    PubMed

    Naruto, Takuya

    2007-04-01

    Hyper IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS; OMIM 260920) is one of the hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation.. HIDS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent fever attacks in early childhood. HIDS caused by mevalonate kinase (MK) mutations, also that is the gene of mevalonic aciduria (OMIM 251170). During febrile episodes, urinary mevalonate concentrations were found to be significantly elevated in patients. Diagnosis of HIDS was retrieving gene or measurement of the enzyme activity in peripheral blood lymphocyte in general. This of HIDS is an activity decline of MK, and a complete deficiency of MK becomes a mevalonic aciduria with a nervous symptom. The relation between the fever and inflammation of mevalonate or isoprenoid products are uncertain. The therapy attempt with statins, which is inhibited the next enzyme after HMG-CoA reductase, or inhibit the proinflammatory cytokines.

  9. Bromocriptine treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, J D; Marsden, C D; Donaldson, I; Galea-Debono, A; Walters, J; Kennedy, G; Asselman, P

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with Parkinson's disease were treated with the ergot alkaloid bromocriptine, a drug which stimulates dopamine receptors. Bromocriptine had a slight therapeutic effect in patients on no other treatment and an additional effect in patients on levodopa. The mean optimum dosage of bromocriptine, established over a 12 week period, was 26 mg daily. In 20 patients bromocriptine was compared with placebo in a double-blind controlled trial. Active treatment caused a significant (P less than 0.02) reduction in total disability and akinesia scores. The least disabled patients showed the greatest response. Side-effects of bromocriptine--nausea, vomiting, hallucinations, and abnormal involuntary movements--were similar to nature to those of levodopa. In most normal subjects, bromocriptine causes an increase in plasma growth hormone concentration. This was determined in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease after 1-15 mg bromocriptine. Only a single patient showed an obvious increase up to 120 minutes after dosage. Bromocriptine was not effective treatment in two patients who had not previously responded to levodopa and replacement of this drug by bromocriptine in patients with end-of-dose akinesia after chronic levodopa treatment did not totally abolish response swings. PMID:772175

  10. Treatment of psoriasis and long-term maintenance using 308 nm excimer laser, clobetasol spray, and calcitriol ointment: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jillian W; Nguyen, Tien V; Bhutani, Tina; Koo, John Y M

    2012-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by thickened red plaques covered with silvery scales. Excimer laser therapy is a cutting-edge advancement in UVB phototherapy. In contrast to traditional phototherapy, the 308 nm excimer laser only targets psoriasis plaques, while it spares uninvolved skin. It allows for treatment with a supra-erythmogenic dose of UVB irradiation. Targeted UVB therapy is a possible treatment especially for many who have failed topical treatments, systemic therapy, and traditional phototherapy. For safe and effective psoriasis treatment, a combination of therapies may be used, including a combination of laser treatment with topical medications. We present two cases demonstrating effective treatment with excimer laser in conjunction with clobetasol spray and calcitriol ointment for 12 weeks. Long-term near-clearance of psoriasis was sustained after 6 months and one-year follow up periods without further therapy.

  11. The effects of early or late treatment of osteochondral defects on joint homoeostasis: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Aydogdu, Semih; Taskiran, Dilek; Sezak, Murat; Hayran, Mutlu; Oztop, Fikri; Ozsoy, Arzu

    2009-06-01

    A 3.5 x 4 mm tubular osteochondral defect was created on the right medial femoral condyles of 51 adult rabbits. In the control group (CG), defects were left untreated. In the early-(ETG) and late-(LTG) treatment groups, defects were treated by an osteoperiosteal graft 1 and 12 weeks, respectively, after the index procedure. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were collected regularly and proteoglycan fragments (PF), total collagen (TC) and collagenase (MMP-1) levels were measured. Rabbits were killed at 4 (early period), 12 (intermediate period), or 24 (late period) weeks postoperatively. Histological examination indicated a more successful healing in both grafting groups than in the CG, but without any difference at any time period between the grafting groups. In the CG, PF, and TC levels in SF increased continuously until the late period, indicating an ongoing degenerative activity in the joints. In contrast, SF marker levels in both grafting groups indicated that normalization in joint metabolism could be achieved-at least partially-after treatment. However, PF levels in the SF showed that the treatment of defects in earlier stages might result in better outcomes since the negative effects were more prominent in chronic stages, presumably due to the more prolonged period of disturbed homeostasis. Thus, histological values and SF marker levels indicated that treatment of osteochondral defects at any time of the disease had a positive effect on healing when compared to no treatment. Early treatment might better assist the recovery of joint homeostasis than late treatment.

  12. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)).

  13. Induction of anoxic microenvironment in multi-phase metabolic shift strategy during periodic discontinuous batch mode operation enhances treatment of azo dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Naresh Kumar, A; Annie Modestra, J; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    Variation in anoxic microenvironment (multi-phase (MP) metabolic shift strategy) during cycle operation of periodic discontinuous batch/sequencing batch (PDBR/SBR) mode operation showed enhanced degradation of recalcitrant azo dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) at higher dye load (1250mg/l). The process performance was evaluated by varying anoxic phasing period during cycle operation. Before multiphase (BMP) operation with 2.1% of anoxic period showed color/COD removal efficiency of 41.9%/46.3%. Increment in anoxic period responded favorable in enhancing treatment efficiency [AMPI (16.2%), 49.4%/52.4%; AMPII (26.6%), 54.7%/57.2%; AMPIII (34.9%), 58.4%/61.5%]. Relatively higher bio-electrochemical activity, persistent reductive behavior (redox catalytic currents, 0.26/-0.72μA), prevalence of redox shuttlers (Fe-S proteins, cytochromes, quinones) facilitating enhanced electron transfer by minimization of associated losses and higher enzyme activities were observed with induction of anoxic phase. Anoxic condition shifts system microenvironment between oxidation and reduction assisting reduction of dye to its intermediates followed by their mineralization.

  14. Adiabatic properties of pulsating DA white dwarfs. I - The treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the region of period formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.; Kawaler, S. D.; Tassoul, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental issue of the region of period formaton in a degenerate star is examined, with special attention given to the treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. It is shown that, in order to obtain reliable numerical results in degenerate stellar models, the Brunt-Vaisala frequency must be appropriately transformed, because it is defined in terms of a difference between two numbers which become nearly equal in highly degenerate matter, causing serious numerical problems and systematic errors. An alternative expression is derived, which is valid for multicomponent nonideal partially degenerate and partially ionized plasmas such as those encountered in white dwarf envelopes. This expression is used to compute the period structure of the same white dwarf considered by Pesnell (1987). It is shown that the implicit numerical differencing used in the Lagrangian pulsation code of Pesnell leads to very serious difficulties when used with models of degenerate stars.

  15. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin reduces sex behavior during a critical period after testosterone treatment in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, David J; Seto, Tiffany; Zucker, Irving

    2012-01-18

    Testosterone (T) is critical for maintaining male sexual behavior (MSB) in rodents, in part by altering protein synthesis in a well-defined neural circuit. The specific timing of protein synthesis essential for expression of MSB has never been investigated. We administered the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (Ani) to castrated male Syrian hamsters treated sc with 100 μg T in an aqueous vehicle once weekly; this T regimen maintains MSB while elevating circulating T concentrations for only a few hours after each injection. Hamsters were injected s.c. with the vehicle or 12.5 mg Ani at one of several times relative to T administration; MSB was assessed once per week, 6 days after the previous T injection, for 5 weeks. Anisomycin administered 6-12 h after T injection significantly reduced the expression of sexual behavior, whereas Ani treatment between 3 h before and 3 h after T injection did not impair MSB. This experiment is the first to assess the specific timing of protein synthesis relative to a T pulse that is required for the expression of MSB. The demarcation of a critical interval for T-induced protein synthesis necessary for maintenance of MSB should facilitate specification of the genomic, proteomic, and biochemical cascades that subserve actions of T on male copulation.

  16. Decreased strongyle egg re-appearance period after treatment with ivermectin and moxidectin in horses in Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; van Doorn, Deborah; Claerebout, Edwin; Kooyman, Frans; De Keersmaecker, Sofie; Vercruysse, Jozef; Besognet, Bruno; Vanimisetti, Bindu; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Beraldo, Paola; Di Cesare, Angela; Traversa, Donato

    2014-08-29

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral treatment with ivermectin (IVM) or moxidectin (MOX) against gastro-intestinal strongyles in naturally infected horses by performing a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and by monitoring the egg reappearance period (ERP) after treatment. Therefore, a field efficacy study with a randomised complete block design for each study site was conducted, with the individual animal as the experimental unit. At least 10 study sites in Italy, Belgium and The Netherlands were selected and animals were allocated to one of the two treatment groups based on the pre-treatment faecal egg counts (FEC). Animals were treated on Day 0 with an oral paste containing either IVM (at 0.2mg/kg bodyweight) or MOX (at 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight). After treatment, faecal samples were collected at least every fortnight during 56 days after treatment with IVM and during 84 days after MOX treatment. In total, 320 horses on 32 farms were examined. The FECRT on Day 14 indicated a 100% efficacy in 59 of the 64 treatment groups and >92% efficacy in the remaining 5 groups. The ERP was decreased for at least one of the anthelmintics on 17 out of 32 study sites (15 sites or 47% for MOX and 17 sites or 53% for IVM) and on 9 sites (28%) the ERP was decreased for both anthelmintics. On some of these study sites the efficacy declined at the end of the expected ERP, often with good efficacy 2 weeks earlier. Nevertheless, on 1, 3 and 5 study sites in Italy, Belgium and The Netherlands respectively, an efficacy below 90% for IVM and MOX was identified as soon as Day 42 or Day 56. In The Netherlands, the efficacy of IVM was below 90% from Day 28 or Day 35 after treatment on 1 site each. The present study reports a high efficacy of MOX and IVM in a FECRT 14 days after treatment, yet does indicate a shortened ERP for these treatments in more than half of the selected study sites.

  17. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms: the outcome of surgical treatment in experienced hands in the period prior to the advent of endovascular coiling

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, J; Maurice-Williams, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the results of treatment of patients with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm treated by a single experienced vascular neurosurgeon in the period prior to the introduction of endovascular coiling. Methods: Over a mean (SD) period of 9 (2) years, between January 1990 and June 1999, 245 consecutive patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated. Patients' details were obtained from a database that had been constructed prospectively. The patients consisted of all those patients treated by the senior author (Mr Maurice-Williams) over this period—that is, every third day on call at his unit. During this period, all patients under the age of 75 years with a diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage were admitted to the neurosurgical unit as soon as was practicable regardless of clinical grade. Results: Of 245 patients, 190 (77.6%) underwent treatment by open surgery using standard microsurgical techniques. At 1 year, the mortality of the operated patients was 2.6%, while 89.5% of the patients had a Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) of 4 and 5. The overall management outcome (all patients treated, including operated and non-operated cases) at 1 year was: 17.1 % dead while 74.3% had GOS 4 and 5. Of the 190 patients who underwent surgery, 38 (20%) required additional operations, totalling 72 operations in all. Of these, 32 were for hydrocephalus and 17 for the evacuation of intracranial haematomas/collections. Complications of surgery occurred in 56 patients (29.5%). Conclusion: Open surgery, despite good eventual results, is associated with a significant rate of re-operations and complications that would probably be largely avoided with endovascular treatment. Nevertheless, although endovascular coiling has these immediate advantages over surgery it is still not certain that the long term results will be superior to surgery which leads to permanent obliteration of the aneurysm. There may still be a need for open surgery in the future. PMID:14638889

  18. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease and Periodic Limb Movements: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Dyveke P

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Willis-Ekbom Disease is a common, but frequently under- recognized and misdiagnosed condition seen in many subspecialty practices including neurology, sleep medicine, primary care and rheumatology. Periodic limb movements are a frequent co-morbid diagnosis in RLS. Despite prior beliefs that the condition was "benign", it has been demonstrated to have a considerable impact on sufferers quality of life, physically and psychologically, as well as socially. This chapter is meant as a comprehensive review of RLS encompassing epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment considerations.

  19. [Diagnosis of siamese twins at 12 weeks gestation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, W; Kubli, F; Heberling, D

    1981-03-01

    Double monsters are a rare obstetric event. The mean incidence is approximately 1:50,000 deliveries. The early diagnosis of siamese twins with the aid of routine ultra-sound investigation is described. Typical ultrasound findings and procedures to verify the diagnosis are described in detail.

  20. The efficacy of 12 weeks supervised exercise in obesity management.

    PubMed

    Herring, L Y; Wagstaff, C; Scott, A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of adding either aerobic training (AT) or resistance training (RT) to a multidisciplinary teamed (MDT) educational weight management programme on the health-related fitness of morbidly obese individuals. Males (n = 9) and females (n = 24) aged between 24 and 68 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥40 kg m(2) (≥35 kg m(2) with comorbidities) undertaking a weight management programme were recruited (Completion: M = 8, F = 19). Participants were randomly allocated to either AT (n = 12), RT (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). AT and RT undertook three structured ∼60 min moderate intensity sessions weekly, two supervised gym-based and one structured home-based session for 12 weeks; CON undertook usual care alone. Anthropometric, psychological and functional capacity measures were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Both exercise interventions elicited improvements compared with CON in the: shuttle walk test (AT [Δ 207.0 ± 123.0 metres, 68.0%, P = 0.04], RT [Δ 165.0 ± 183.3 m, 48.8%, P = 0.06], CON [Δ -14.3 ± 38.7 m, -6.2%]), triceps skin-fold (P ≤ 0.001), self-efficacy (P = 0.005) and interest/enjoyment (P = 0.006). RT displayed additional improvements compared with CON in BMI (RT [Δ -1.02 ± 0.91 kg·m(2) , -2.5%, P = 0.033], AT [Δ -1.84 ± 2.70 kg·m(2) , -4.3%, P = 0.142], CON [Δ -0.31 ± 1.47 kg·m(2) , -0.6%]), waist circumference (P = 0.022), competence (P = 0.019), biceps skin-fold (P = 0.012) and medial calf skin-fold (P = 0.013). No significant differences were observed between exercise modalities. Regardless of exercise mode, the addition of supervised and structured exercise to a MDT weight management programme significantly improved anthropometric, functional and psychological measures in obese participants with a BMI of ≥35 kg·m(2) .

  1. Chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Pires, Vanessa A; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Prediger, Rui D S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2010-12-20

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is frequently used as an experimental model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since it displays behavioural and neurochemical features of ADHD. Increasing evidence suggests that caffeine might represent an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of ADHD and we recently demonstrated that the acute administration of caffeine improves several learning and memory impairments in adult SHR rats. Here we further evaluated the potential of caffeine in ADHD therapy. Female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats were treated with caffeine (3mg/kg, i.p.) or methylphenidate (MPD, 2mg/kg, i.p.) for 14 consecutive days during the prepubertal period (post-natal days 25-38) and they were tested later in adulthood in the object-recognition task. WIS rats discriminated all the objects used, whereas SHR were not able to discriminate pairs of objects with subtle structural differences. Chronic treatment with caffeine or MPD improved the object-recognition deficits in SHR rats. Surprisingly, these treatments impaired the short-term object-recognition ability in adult WIS rats. The present drug effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity, arterial blood pressure and body weight in both rat strains. These findings suggest that chronic caffeine treatment during prepubertal period confers long-term cognitive benefits in discriminative learning impairments of SHR, suggesting caffeine as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the early management of ADHD symptoms. Nevertheless, our results also emphasize the importance of a correct diagnosis and the caution in the use of stimulant drugs such as caffeine and MPD during neurodevelopment since they can disrupt discriminative learning in non-ADHD phenotypes.

  2. Comparison of different combined treatment processes to address the source water with high concentration of natural organic matter during snowmelt period.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojian; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Yani; Liu, Shuming; Chen, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The source water in one forest region of the Northeast China had very high natural organic matter (NOM) concentration and heavy color during snowmelt period. The efficiency of five combined treatment processes was compared to address the high concentration of NOM and the mechanisms were also analyzed. Conventional treatment can hardly remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the source water. KMnO4 pre-oxidization could improve the DOC removal to 22.0%. Post activated carbon adsorption improved the DOC removal of conventional treatment to 28.8%. The non-sufficient NOM removal could be attributed to the dominance of large molecular weight organic matters in raw water, which cannot be adsorbed by the micropore upon activated carbon. O3+activated carbon treatment are another available technology for eliminating the color and UV254 in water. However, its performance of DOC removal was only 36.4%, which could not satisfy the requirement for organic matter. The limited ozone dosage is not sufficient to mineralize the high concentration of NOM. Magnetic ion-exchange resin combined with conventional treatment could remove 96.2% of color, 96.0% of UV254 and 87.1% of DOC, enabling effluents to meet the drinking water quality standard. The high removal efficiency could be explained by the negative charge on the surface of NOM which benefits the static adsorption of NOM on the anion exchange resin. The results indicated that magnetic ion-exchange resin combined with conventional treatment is the best available technology to remove high concentration of NOM.

  3. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  4. Post-treatment Effects of Topiramate Treatment for Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Pond, Timothy; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether the effects of topiramate and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes a kainate receptor subunit, persisted following a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in 138 heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking. During treatment, topiramate 200 mg/day significantly reduced heavy drinking days and increased the frequency of abstinent days (Kranzler et al. 2014a). In the European-American (EA) subsample (n=122), rs2832407 moderated the treatment effect on heavy drinking. Methods Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. During treatment, we obtained 92.4% of drinking data, with 89.1% and 85.5% complete data at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits, respectively. We examined four outcomes over time in the overall sample and the EA subsample: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), percent days abstinent (PDA), serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) concentration, and a measure of alcohol-related problems. Results In the full sample, the lower PHDD and higher PDA seen with topiramate treatment were no longer significant during follow-up. Nonetheless, the topiramate-treated patients had lower alcohol-related problem scores during treatment and both follow-up periods. Further, in the EA subsample, the greater reduction in PHDD seen during treatment in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes persisted throughout follow-up, with no significant effects in A-allele carriers. A reduction in GGTP concentration was consistent with the reduction in heavy drinking, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion There are persistent therapeutic effects of topiramate in heavy drinkers, principally in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes. PMID:25581656

  5. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  6. Transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stems cells for the treatment of Becker muscular dystrophy in affected pedigree members.

    PubMed

    Li, Pang; Cui, Kai; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhendan; Shen, Yangyang; Wang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Jianbo; Tong, Feng; Li, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of muscle tissue has been achieved using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mouse models of injured skeletal muscle. In the present study, the utility of multipotent human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in the treatment of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), a genetic disease where muscle tissue fails to regenerate, was examined in members from a pedigree affected by BMD. The disease status was evaluated in 4 affected pedigree members (II1, II2, II3 and III2; aged 50, 46, 42 and 6 years, respectively). The transplantation of the hUC‑MSCs (performed on 3 patients, I2, II3 and III2) was performed by infusion with an intravenous drip over a 30‑min period, and the patients were evaluated at 1, 3, 4 and 12 weeks following the procedure. The evaluation was based on physical characteristics, as well as on molecular testing for serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and a histological examination of muscle biopsies. The patients suffered no adverse reactions in response to the transplantation of the hUC‑MSCs. At 1 week following transplantation all 3 patients showed improvement in the muscle force of the limbs, muscle size and daily activity. The walking gait of patient III2 had improved by 1 week post-transplantation and reached a normal status by 12 weeks. Serum CK and LDH levels were decreased relative to the baseline levels. A histological examination of muscle biopsies displayed no obvious tissue regeneration. In conclusion, the treatment of patients with BMD using hUC-MSCs was safe and of therapeutic benefit that lasted for up to 12 weeks. hUC-MSCs are, therefore, a potential cell therapy-based treatment option for patients with muscular dystrophies.

  7. Update and future of systemic acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Piquero-Martin, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Systemic treatment is required in patients with moderate-to-severe acne, especially when acne scars start to occur. Antibiotics with anti-inflammatory properties, such as tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline chloride, doxycycline, minocycline and limecycline) and macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin and azithromycin) are the agents of choice for papulopustular acne, even though the emerging resistant bacterial strains are minimizing their effect, especially regarding erythromycin. Systemic antibiotics should be administered during a period of 8-12 weeks. In severe papulopustular and in nodulocystic/conglobate acne, oral isotretinoin is the treatment of choice. Hormonal treatment represents an alternative regimen in female acne, whereas it is mandatory in resistant, severe pubertal or post-adolescent forms of the disease. Compounds with anti-androgenic properties include estrogens combined with progestins, such as ethinyl estradiol with cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate, desogestrel, drospirenone, levonogestrel, norethindrone acetate, norgestimate, and other anti-androgens directly blocking the androgen receptor (flutamide) or inhibiting androgen activity at various levels, corticosteroids, spironolactone, cimetidine, and ketoconazole. After 3 months of treatment control of seborrhea and acne can be obtained. Low-dose corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone, or dexamethasone) are indicated in patients with adrenal hyperandrogenism or acne fulminans. New developments and future trends represent low-dose long-term isotretinoin regimens, new isotretinoin formulations (micronized isotretinoin), isotretinoin metabolites, combination treatments to reduce toxicity, insulin-sensitizing agents, 5alpha-reductase type 1 inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotide molecules, and, especially, new anti-inflammatory agents, such as lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  8. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Dental Unit Biofilms and Treatment Water Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Ming; Svoboda, Kathy K.H.; Giletto, Anthony; Seibert, Jeff; Puttaiah, Raghunath

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study effects of various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide on mature waterline biofilms and in controlling planktonic (free-floating) organisms in simulated dental treatment water systems; and to study in vitro the effects of 2%, 3%, and 7% hydrogen peroxide on the removal of mature biofilms and inorganic compounds in dental waterlines. Methods: Four units of an automated dental unit water system simulation device was used for 12 weeks. All units were initially cleaned to control biofilms and inorganic deposits. H2O2 at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3% was used weekly for periodic cleaning in three treatment group units (units 1, 2 & 3), with 0.05%, 0.15% and 0.25% H2O2 in municipal water used as irrigant respectively. The control unit (unit 4) did not have weekly cleanings and used municipal water as irrigant. Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to study deposits on lines, and weekly heterotrophic plate counts done to study effluent water contamination. A 24 hour in vitro challenge test with 7%, 3% and 2% H2O2 on mature biofilms was conducted using harvested waterlines to study biofilm and inorganic deposit removal. Results: Heterotrophic plate counts of effluent water showed that the control unit reached contamination levels in excess of 400,000 CFU/mL while all treatment units showed contamination levels <500 CFU/mL through most of the 12 weeks. All treatment units showed varying levels of biofilm and inorganic deposit control in this short 12 week study. The in vitro challenge test showed although there was biofilm control, there was no eradication even when 7% H2O2 was used for 24 hours. Conclusions: 2% H2O2 used as a periodic cleaner, and diluted to 0.05% in municipal water for irrigation was beneficial in controlling biofilm and planktonic contamination in dental unit water systems. However, to remove well established biofilms, it may take more than 2 months when initial and multiple periodic cleanings

  9. Relationship status acceptance, alcohol use, and the perpetration of verbal aggression among males mandated to treatment for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Oberleitner, Lindsay M S; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J

    2013-09-01

    Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12-week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects were detected for both alcohol and acceptance variables such that greater verbal aggression was observed among participants with a recent history of heavy episodic drinking and failure to accept the status of the relationship with their female victim. The interaction between time in treatment and relationship status acceptance was significant and showed that participants who accepted their relationship status reported low verbal aggression across measurement occasions while those who did not accept their relationship status reported high initial verbal aggression that decreased over treatment.

  10. Impact of HCV kinetics on treatment outcome differs by the type of real-time HCV assay in NS3/4A protease inhibitor-based triple therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Takeo; Shimizu, Motohiro; Mukae, Haru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Taeko; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Repeated measurement of the HCV RNA level is essential for properly monitoring treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of two HCV real-time assays in the evaluation of the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics on the outcome of triple therapy with NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), telaprevir or simeprevir. This study consisted of 171 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. All 3266 serum samples taken during and post treatment were tested with both the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HCV Test v2.0 and the Abbott RealTime (ART) HCV Test. Of the 2597 samples undetectable (lower limit of detection [treatment, 400 (15.4%) (369 detectable/less than the lower limitation of quantification [treatment. This event in the first 12 weeks (with PI-treatment period) was not related to treatment failure, however, relapse was observed in all patients with a reappearance of residual HCV RNA after 12 weeks (without PI-treatment period). The superior ability to detect low-level HCV RNA by ART could be useful for predicting SVR by difficult-to-treat patients in the early period and relapse in the late period.

  11. Relative performance of biofilm configuration over suspended growth operation on azo dye based wastewater treatment in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Venkata; Reddy, C Nagendranatha; Kumar, A Naresh; Modestra, J Annie

    2013-11-01

    Functional role of biofilm and suspended growth bioreactor configurations in response to the treatment of azo-dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) bearing wastewater was evaluated in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation at varying dye concentrations. The biofilm system depicted higher dye removal efficiency (93.14%) compared to suspended mode (84.29%) at 350 mg dye/l operation. Both the reactor configurations did not show much process inhibition at higher dye loads studied. Azo reductase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities showed significant variation indicating the different metabolic capabilities of the native-microflora, stable proton shuttling between metabolic intermediates and differences in the delivery of reducing powers from the substrate metabolism towards dye removal. Voltammograms visualized marked variations in electron discharge properties with the function of reactor configuration, time intervals and dye load. Higher redox catalytic currents, lower Tafel slopes and polarization resistance showed good correlation with enzyme activities and dye removal.

  12. Establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment: analysis of data from a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Richardson, Barbra A; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Kiarie, James; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Farquhar, Carey; McClelland, R Scott

    2011-07-15

    Data from a randomized trial of oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections were analyzed to assess the effect of the intervention on a healthy vaginal environment (normal flora confirmed by Gram stain with no candidiasis or trichomoniasis). The incidence of a healthy vaginal environment was 608 cases per 100 person-years in the intervention arm and 454 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.58). Sustained vaginal health (healthy vaginal environment for ≥3 consecutive visits) was also more frequent in the intervention arm (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23-2.33). PPT is effective at establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment.

  13. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  14. Effects of low-dose treatment with felodipine versus fosinopril in Chinese patients with nonischemic heart failure and normal blood pressure: A double-blind, randomized, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Shu; Chan, K.Arnold; Wang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Nen-Chang

    2004-01-01

    Background: Two second-generation calcium channel blockers, felodipine and amlodipine besylate, have been associated with similar high mortality rates in patients with ischemic heart failure (HF) but not in patients with nonischemic causes of HF. In patients with nonischemic HF, amlodipine might have a beneficial effect on survival. However, no difference in mortality rates was found between felodipine and placebo in a nonischemic HF group. Felodipine 10 mg/d was used in 1 large study, a dose considered high for nonischemic HF usually associated with normal blood pressure (BP). Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12-week, low-dose treatment with felodipine versus those of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, fosinopril sodium, in patients with nonischemic HF and normal BP. Methods: This double-blind, randomized, crossover trial was conducted at Taipei Medical University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). Patients aged ≥ 18 years with angiographically proved, nonischemic HF and normal BP who were being treated with an optimal regimen of digitalis and diuretics were enrolled. After a 2-week run-in period, patients were randomized to first receive 12 weeks of treatment with felodipine tablets (2.5 mg/d) or fosinopril tablets (7.5 mg/d) and, after a 2-week washout period, were crossed over to the opposite treatment. Efficacy analysis was performed before (baseline) and after treatment and included symptomatic assessment using a 7-grade clinical scale; 2-dimensional echocardiography (2-D echo); exercise tests; and neurohumoral data, including plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, and 24-hour urinary epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) measurements. The primary end point was death due to HF, and the secondary end point was hospital admission due to worsening HF. Compliance was measured using a pill count at the end of each treatment period. Results: We enrolled 33 patients. One developed worsening HF during the run-in period and was

  15. Biohydrogen production from chemical wastewater treatment in biofilm configured reactor operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed consortia.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Vijaya Bhaskar, Y; Sarma, P N

    2007-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) production with simultaneous wastewater treatment was studied in biofilm configured periodic discontinuous/sequencing batch reactor using chemical wastewater as substrate. Anaerobic mixed consortia was sequentially pretreated with repeated heat-shock (100 degrees C; 2 h) and acid (pH-3.0; 24 h) treatment procedures to selectively enrich the H(2) producing mixed consortia prior to inoculation of the reactor. The bioreactor was operated at mesophilic (room) temperature (28+/-2 degrees C) under acidophilic conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h consisting of FILL (15 min), REACT (23 h), SETTLE (30 min) and DECANT (15 min) phases. Reactor was initially operated with synthetic wastewater (SW) at OLR of 4.8 kg COD/m(3)-day and subsequently operated using composite chemical wastewater (CW) at OLR of 5.6 kg COD/m(3)-day by adjusting pH to 6.0 prior to feeding to inhibit the methanogenic activity. H(2) evolution rate differed significantly with the nature of wastewater used as substrate [SW--volumetric H(2) production rate--12.89 mmol H(2)/m(3)-min and specific H(2) production rate--0.0084 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(L) (0.026 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(R)); CW--volumetric H(2) production rate--6.076 mmol H(2)/m(3)-min and specific H(2) production rate--0.0089 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(L) (0.033 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(R))]. Relatively rapid progress towards higher H(2) yield (2 h) was observed with SW compared to the CW (10 h). Substrate (COD) reduction of 32.4% (substrate degradation rate (SDR)--1.55 kg COD/m(3)-day) and 26.7% (SDR-1.49 kg COD/m(3)-day) was observed with SW and CW, respectively. The system showed rapid stabilization tendency (SW--37 days; CW--40 days) with respect to H(2) generation and COD reduction. H(2) evolution showed relatively good correlation with VFA concentration in the case of SW (R(2)-0.961) compared to CW (R(2)-0.912). A surge in pH values from 5.87 to 4.23 (SW) and 5.93 to 4.62 (CW) was observed during the cycle operation. Integration

  16. Surgical Treatment of 55 Patients with Pressure Ulcers at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo during the Period 2000-2010: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Selmani, Mimoza E; Mekaj, Agon Y; Gashi, Musli M; Buja, Zejn A; Ismajli, Vildane H; Kllokoqi, Adem N; Hoxha, Enver T

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of PUs, the distribution of PUs, common injuries contributing to the occurrence of PUs in patients admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo for surgical interventions of PUs, localization of PUs in body, the topical treatment of pressure ulcers before surgical intervention, the methods of surgical interventions, number of surgical interventions, duration of treatment, complications, and mortality. Materials and Methods. This study includes 55 patients with PUs treated surgically in 2000-2010 period in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Data processing was done with the statistical package In Stat 3. From statistical parameters arithmetic median and standard deviation were calculated. Data testing is done with χ (2)-test and the difference is significant if P < 0.05. Conclusion. Despite preventive measures against PUs, the incidence of Pus remains high.

  17. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  18. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  19. Bupropion in the treatment of problematic online game play in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-05-01

    As one of the problematic behaviors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), excessive online game play (EOP) has been reported in a number of recent studies. Bupropion has been evaluated as a potential treatment for MDD and substance dependence. We hypothesized that bupropion treatment would reduce the severity of EOP as well as depressive symptoms. Fifty male subjects with comorbid EOP and MDD were randomly assigned to bupropion + education for internet use (EDU) or placebo + EDU groups. The current study consisted in a 12-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, including an eight-week active treatment phase and a four-week post treatment follow-up period. During the active treatment period, Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and the mean time of online game playing in the bupropion group were greatly reduced compared with those of the placebo group. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores in the bupropion group were also greatly reduced compared with those of the placebo group. During the four-week post-treatment follow-up period, bupropion-associated reductions in online game play persisted, while depressive symptoms recurred. Conclusively, bupropion may improve depressive mood as well as reduce the severity of EOP in patients with comorbid MDD and online game addiction.

  20. Remission and Residual Symptoms after Short-Term Treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  1. Canakinumab treatment for patients with active recurrent or chronic TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): an open-label, phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Gattorno, Marco; Obici, Laura; Cattalini, Marco; Tormey, Vincent; Abrams, Ken; Davis, Nicole; Speziale, Antonio; Bhansali, Suraj G; Martini, Alberto; Lachmann, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of canakinumab, a high-affinity human monoclonal anti-interleukin-1β antibody, in inducing complete or almost complete responses in patients with active tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Methods Twenty patients (aged 7–78 years) with active recurrent or chronic TRAPS were treated with canakinumab 150 mg every 4 weeks for 4 months (2 mg/kg for those ≤40 kg) in this open-label, proof-of-concept, phase II study. Canakinumab was then withdrawn for up to 5 months, with reintroduction on relapse, and 4 weekly administration (subsequently increased to every 8 weeks) for 24 months. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of patients achieving complete or almost complete response at day 15, defined as clinical remission (Physician's Global Assessment score ≤1) and full or partial serological remission. Results Nineteen patients (19/20, 95%; 95% CI 75.1% to 99.9%) achieved the primary efficacy variable. Responses to canakinumab occurred rapidly; median time to clinical remission 4 days (95% CI 3 to 8 days). All patients relapsed after canakinumab was withdrawn; median time to relapse 91.5 days (95% CI 65 to 117 days). On reintroduction of canakinumab, clinical and serological responses were similar to those seen during the first phase, and were sustained throughout treatment. Canakinumab was well tolerated and clinical responses were accompanied by rapid and sustained improvement in health-related quality of life. Weight normalised pharmacokinetics of canakinumab, although limited, appeared to be consistent with historical canakinumab data. Conclusions Canakinumab induces rapid disease control in patients with active TRAPS, and clinical benefits are sustained during long-term treatment. Trial registration number NCT01242813; Results. PMID:27269295

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from pigs during metaphylactic trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole treatment and in the post-exposure period.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Justyna; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-02-16

    The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and 18 weeks after the treatment. MIC values of TMP and SMX were determined for a total of 352 strains. The presence of resistance genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integron-associated dfrA gene cassettes was tested. Resistance to TMP was very high during the administration of the antimicrobial (from 97 to 100%) and amounted to 86% and 69% in the post-exposure period; MIC > 32 mg/L. The isolates from all groups of pigs were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, with MIC > 1028 mg/L. The dfrA1 and sul1 genes (as part of integrons) dominated in E. coli from piglets, but the dfrA12 and sul1 genes were prevalent in E. coli from sows. Coexistence of the different dfrA genes was detected in 71 isolates from all groups of swine. Transcription analysis revealed that most of these genes were not transcribed, particularly gene cassettes of class 1 integrons. The research revealed a high level of resistance associated with the metaphylactic treatment, persistence and circulation of resistance in bacterial populations. Diverse genetic background with multiple and not transcribed resistance genes was observed.

  3. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492

  4. Contingency management is effective in promoting abstinence and retention in treatment among crack cocaine users in Brazil: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miguel, André Q C; Madruga, Clarice S; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Yamauchi, Rodolfo; Simões, Viviane; da Silva, Claudio J; McPherson, Sterling; Roll, John M; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R

    2016-08-01

    Crack cocaine dependence has become a severe public health problem in Brazil, and current psychosocial approaches to this problem have shown little or no effectiveness. Although contingency management is among the most effective behavioral treatments for substance use disorders, it has never been applied in the treatment of crack cocaine-dependent individuals in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of incorporating contingency management into standard outpatient treatment for crack cocaine dependence, as well as the impact that doing so has on treatment attendance, retention in treatment, maintenance of abstinence, and the frequency of substance use. We evaluated 65 treatment-seeking, crack cocaine-dependent individuals, randomized to receive 12 weeks of standard treatment plus contingency management (STCM; n = 33) or 12 weeks of standard treatment alone (STA; n = 32). Those in the STCM group received monetary incentives for being abstinent, earning up to US$235.50 if they remained abstinent throughout the entire treatment period. The STCM group participants attended a mean of 19.5 (SD = 14.9) treatment sessions, compared with 3.7 (SD = 5.9) for the STA group participants (p < .01). Those in the STCM group were 3.8, 4.6, and 68.9 times more likely to be retained in treatment at weeks 4, 8, and 12 than were those in the STA group. The likelihood of detecting 4, 8, and 12 weeks of continuous abstinence was 17.7, 9.9, and 18.6 times higher in the STCM group than in the STA group (p < .05). Compared to the STA group, the STCM group submitted a significantly higher proportion of negative samples for crack cocaine, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and alcohol (p < .001) when all expected samples were included in the denominator but not when only submitted samples were considered. The average monthly cost/participant for incentives was $29.00. Contingency management showed efficacy in a sample of Brazilian crack cocaine users. The intervention holds

  5. A selected controlled trial of supplementary vitamin E for treatment of muscle cramps in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Zaib, Salwat

    2010-01-01

    Muscle cramps are not uncommon complications of hemodialysis (HD) treatments and lead to early termination of HD sessions and are therefore a significant cause of under-dialysis. The etiology of cramps in dialysis patients remains a matter of debate. Many reports suggested that vitamin E (vit. E) may be effective for the prevention of HD-associated cramps. We decided to perform a selected controlled trial of supplementary vit. E for treatment of patients on HD who experience frequent attacks during and between HD sessions. The goal was to compare the number of attacks of muscle cramps with the patient's baseline over a specific period of time. In this study, 19 HD patients were randomly selected of different age groups and ethnicity. Patient must have had at least 60 attacks of muscle cramps during and between HD sessions over a 12-week period. All selected patients received vit. E at a dose of 400 international units daily for 12 weeks, and the number of attacks of muscle cramps was recorded. The frequency of muscle cramps decreased significantly during vit. E therapy, and, at the end of the trial, vit. E led to cramp reductions of 68.3%. The reduction in number of attacks of muscle cramps had no significant correlation with age, sex, etiology of end-stage renal disease, serum electrolytes, or HD duration, and it showed a statistically positive correlation (P = 0.0001) with vit. E therapy. No vit. E-related adverse effects were encountered during the trial. Short-term treatment with vit. E is safe and effective in reducing number of attacks of muscle cramps in HD patients, as shown in our study.

  6. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 3. Following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    SciTech Connect

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  7. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  8. My treatment approach to chronic hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Mitchell L; Long, April G; James, Amy; Alexander, Phillip

    2014-07-01

    The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is evolving rapidly. In 2014, the standard of care and new backbone of HCV treatment is the polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir (SOF). Our treatment approach in patients with HCV genotype 1 is 12 weeks of SOF, peginterferon (PEGINF), and ribavirin (RBV). In patients with cirrhosis or extrahepatic manifestations of HCV who cannot tolerate PEGINF, we use 12 weeks of SOF and simeprevir. The latter is less costly and more effective than SOF and RBV for 24 weeks. Our treatment approach in all patients with genotype 2 is SOF and RBV for 12 weeks. Hepatitis C virus genotype 3 is now the most costly and difficult to cure. Our approach to treatment-naive patients with genotype 3 is SOF and RBV for 24 weeks. In patients who have previously undergone PEGINF and RBV treatment, we use PEGINF, SOF, and RBV for 12 weeks, which is equally if not more effective and less costly than SOF and RBV for 24 weeks. Patients with cirrhosis who cannot tolerate PEGINF should be treated for 24 weeks with SOF and RBV, although the sustained virologic response is suboptimal.

  9. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gengoux, Grace W; Berquist, Kari L; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M; Frazier, Thomas W; Minjarez, Mendy B; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2015-09-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant improvement in frequency of functional utterances, with maintenance at 3-month follow-up [F(2, 21): 5.9, p = .009]. Children also made significant gains on the Vineland Communication Domain Standard Score [F(2, 12):11.74, p = .001] and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning Composite score [F(1, 20) = 5.43, p = .03]. These results suggest that a brief PRT parent group intervention can lead to improvements in language and cognitive functioning that are maintained 12 weeks post treatment.

  10. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gengoux, Grace W.; Berquist, Kari L.; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Minjarez, Mendy B.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant…

  11. Retrospective Analysis of Corticosteroid Treatment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and/or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis over a Period of 10 Years in Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Roongpisuthipong, Wanjarus; Prompongsa, Sirikarn; Klangjareonchai, Theerawut

    2014-01-01

    Background. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and/or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are uncommon and life-threatening drug reaction associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Objective. We studied SJS and/or TEN by conducting a retrospective analysis of 87 patients treated during a 10-year period. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of the records of all patients with a diagnosis of SJS and/or TEN based on clinical features and histological confirmation of SJS and/or TEN was not available at the Department of Medicine, Vajira hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. The data were collected from two groups from 2003 to 2007 and 2008 to 2012. Results. A total of 87 cases of SJS and/or TEN were found, comprising 44 males and 43 females whose mean age was 46.5 years. The average length of stay was 17 days. Antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and allopurinol were the major culprit drugs in both groups. The mean SCORTEN on admission was 2.1 in first the group while 1.7 in second the group. From 2008 to 2012, thirty-nine patients (76.5%) were treated with corticosteroids while only eight patients (22.2%) were treated between 2003 and 2007. The mortality rate declined from 25% from the first group to 13.7% in the second group. Complications between first and second groups had no significant differences. Conclusions. Short-term corticosteroids may contribute to a reduced mortality rate in SJS and/or TEN without increasing secondary infection. Further well-designed studies are required to compare the effect of corticosteroids treatment for SJS and/or TEN.

  12. Phase I/II trial of definitive carbon ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer: evaluation of shortening of treatment period to 3 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Nomiya, T; Tsuji, H; Maruyama, K; Toyama, S; Suzuki, H; Akakura, K; Shimazaki, J; Nemoto, K; Kamada, T; Tsujii, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new shortened 3-week treatment schedule of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for prostate cancer. Methods: Beginning in May 2010, patients with T1b–T3bN0M0, histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma were enrolled in the phase II trial of CIRT. Patients received 51.6 GyE in 12 fractions over 3 weeks (protocol 1002). The primary end point was defined as the incidence of late adverse events that were evaluated based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Biochemical failure was determined using the Phoenix definition (nadir +2.0 ng ml−1). Results: Forty-six patients were enrolled, and all patients were included in the analysis. The number of low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients was 12 (26%), 9 (20%), and 25 (54%), respectively. The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 32.3 months. Two patients had intercurrent death without recurrence, and the remaining 44 patients were alive at the time of this analysis. In the analysis of late toxicities, grade 1 (G1) rectal haemorrhage was observed in 3 (7%) patients. The incidence of G1 haematuria was observed in 6 (13%) patients, and G1 urinary frequency was observed in 17 (37%) patients. No ⩾G2 late toxicities were observed. In the analysis of acute toxicities, 2 (4%) patients showed G2 urinary frequency, and no other G2 acute toxicities were observed. Conclusions: The new shortened CIRT schedule over 3 weeks was considered as feasible. The analysis of long-term outcome is warranted. PMID:24722181

  13. Surgical treatment of 137 cases with chronic subdural hematoma at the university clinical center of Kosovo during the period 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Agon Y.; Morina, Arsim A.; Mekaj, Ymer H.; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Miftari, Ermira I.; Duci, Shkelzen B.; Hamza, Astrit R.; Gashi, Musli M.; Xhelaj, Mentor R.; Kelmendi, Fatos M.; Morina, Qamile Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is frequent pathology in neurosurgical practice. The aim of this study is to present the first series of patients with CSDH, who got surgically treated in Clinic of Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study that included 137 patients with CSDH who had been treated during the period 2008–2012. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Patients were analyzed in many aspects such as age, gender, etiological factors, clinical features, localization, diagnoses, methods of surgical interventions, recurrences and mortality of patients. Results: From 137 patients with CSDH, 106 (77.3%) were males and 31 (22.7%) females. Average age of patients was 62.85 years. Analyzed according to the decades, the highest number of causes with CSDH was between 70 and 79 years (46%). The head trauma has been responsible for CSDH in 88 patients (64.3%), while the main symptom was headache (92 patients or 67.1%). One burr-hole trepanation with closed drainage system has been used in majority of cases (in 101 patients or 73.7%). The recurrence of CSDH was 6.5%, whereas mortality 2.9%. Conclusion: CSDH is more common in elderly patients. The male-female ratio is 3.4:1. Like other authors we also think that treatment with one burr-hole and drainage is a method of choice, because of its simplicity and safety. PMID:25883478

  14. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway to improve venous leg ulcer treatment.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Prof Anneke E; Polignano, Roberto; Abel, Martin

    2009-05-01

      A clinical pathway (CP) was developed and implemented to improve treatment outcomes for patients with venous leg ulcers. The CP and products (Rosidal® sys, Suprasorb® A, Suprasorb® P, and Suprasorb® C, Lohmann & Rauscher GmbH, Rengsdorf, Germany) were tested by case evaluation. Patients from the center were examined to determine his or her general condition, associated factors, wound type and stage, wound evolution, quality of life (QOL), treatment efficacy, and costs. Patients with venous leg ulceration (N = 20) were recruited to the clinical evaluation. Examination was performed upon presentation, and then at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks. The patients were then followed until ulcer closure. The outcome of the study group (SG) was compared to the results of a randomly selected patient control group (CG) at the center before implementing the clinical pathway. Statistic evaluation was performed using StatXact 5.0, double sided (α = 0.05) for paired and Wilcoxon test, and unpaired with Mann-Whitney (N = 20, [10/10]). After implementation, a statistically significant (P < 0.005) shorter period for ulcer closure was demonstrated for the SG when compared to previous treatment given to the CG. In the SG, 5/10 ulcers closed within 12 weeks versus 3/10 in the CG. An improvement in QOL was noted for the SG (P < 0.05 for the combined parameters, and P < 0.005 for pain), as well as cost savings (P < 0.05). The CP applied throughout the complete care chain improved quality of treatment outcomes and made effective use of resources and materials.

  15. Acupuncture in the Treatment of a Female Patient Suffering from Chronic Schizophrenia and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Peggy; Lee, Sook-Hyun; Staudte, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic schizophrenia is investigated. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 44-year-old female outpatient of German origin who had been suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. The patient was treated with manual acupuncture weekly for 12 weeks, and a psychological assessment was performed before, immediately after, and three months after the acupuncture treatment period. In addition, actiwatch data were collected for 14 days both before and after the acupuncture treatment period. Conclusion. Acupuncture treatment led to a decrease in general psychopathology, less severe sleep problems, and markedly improved cognitive functioning (working memory) in the patient; however, the positive and the negative symptoms remained stable. The actiwatch data revealed a beneficial effect of acupuncture, showing better sleep latency, a trend towards better sleep efficiency, and a decrease in the number of minutes that the patient was awake during the night after acupuncture treatment. In sum, this study showed that acupuncture might be beneficial in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia, but future, large, randomized (placebo), controlled, clinical trials are needed in order to replicate the present preliminary findings. PMID:28101392

  16. Estimating Treatment Effects from Contaminated Multi-Period Education Experiments: The Dynamic Impacts of Class Size Reductions. NBER Working Paper No. 15200

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Weili; Lehrer, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an empirical strategy to estimate dynamic treatment effects in randomized trials that provide treatment in multiple stages and in which various noncompliance problems arise such as attrition and selective transitions between treatment and control groups. Our approach is applied to the highly influential four year randomized…

  17. Oral treatments of Echinococcus multilocularis-infected mice with the antimalarial drug mefloquine that potentially interacts with parasite ferritin and cystatin.

    PubMed

    Küster, Tatiana; Stadelmann, Britta; Rufener, Reto; Risch, Corina; Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of oral treatments of Echinococcus multilocularis-infected mice with the antimalarial drug mefloquine (MEF) and identified proteins that bind to MEF in parasite extracts and human cells by affinity chromatography. In a pilot experiment, MEF treatment was applied 5 days per week and was intensified by increasing the dosage stepwise from 12.5 mg/kg to 200 mg/kg during 4 weeks followed by treatments of 100 mg/kg during the last 7 weeks. This resulted in a highly significant reduction of parasite weight in MEF-treated mice compared with mock-treated mice, but the reduction was significantly less efficacious compared with the standard treatment regimen of albendazole (ABZ). In a second experiment, MEF was applied orally in three different treatment groups at dosages of 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, but only twice a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Treatment at 100 mg/kg had a profound impact on the parasite, similar to ABZ treatment at 200 mg/kg/day (5 days/week for 12 weeks). No adverse side effects were noted. To identify proteins in E. multilocularis metacestodes that physically interact with MEF, affinity chromatography of metacestode extracts was performed on MEF coupled to epoxy-activated Sepharose(®), followed by SDS-PAGE and in-gel digestion LC-MS/MS. This resulted in the identification of E. multilocularis ferritin and cystatin as MEF-binding proteins. In contrast, when human cells were exposed to MEF affinity chromatography, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase was identified as a MEF-binding protein. This indicates that MEF could potentially interact with different proteins in parasites and human cells.

  18. Effects of a short outpatient rehabilitation treatment on disability of multiple sclerosis patients--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Patti, Francesco; Ciancio, Maria Rita; Cacopardo, Manuela; Reggio, Ester; Fiorilla, Teresa; Palermo, Filippo; Reggio, Arturo; Thompson, Alan J

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that neurorehabilitation can reduce disability or improve handicap of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a short period (6 weeks) of a tailored, individualised outpatient rehabilitation program in people with progressive MS. A randomised-controlled trial was undertaken in patients with primary and secondary progressive MS referred to the Centro Sclerosi Multipla of Catania. One hundred and eleven patients were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks with validated measures of disability (Functional Independence Measure (FIM)) and impairment (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Functional Systems Scale). Of the 111, 58 were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 53 to the control group. All patients had been previously trained in a home exercise program. Both groups were well matched for age, sex, disease duration and severity, disability and quality of life (Short Form-36). At the end of 6 weeks patients allocated to the rehabilitation treatment group showed significant improvement in their level of disability compared with the control group,while the level of impairment did not change. Thirty-two patients of the treatment group and four of the control group improved on the FIM by two or more steps at 12 weeks (p<0.0001). An improvement by 1 EDSS step occurred in only two patients of the treatment group and in one patient of the control group. Benefits were maintained for a further six weeks. This study demonstrates that a short outpatient rehabilitation treatment improves disability of MS patients, without changing their impairment and confirms the effectiveness of rehabilitation in people with MS.

  19. The Occurrence of Female-to-Male Partner Violence Among Male Intimate Partner Violence Offenders Mandated to Treatment: A Brief Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the perceived perpetration of female-to-male intimate partner violence by victims of male offenders mandated to treatment. Sixty-eight male perpetrators of partner violence completed measures of dyadic violent and aggressive responding at intake and at a 12 week follow-up. Approximately 20% of male offenders reported partner violence perpetration and 30% reported victimization with bi-directional violence as the most common configuration of couple violence. Maladaptive responses to conflict were prevalent across partners. Significant and highly correlated reductions in aversive behaviors were detected across the assessment period for both males and their female partners. Results are interpreted within the context of motivational models of female-to-male partner violence and current treatment approaches. PMID:25750479

  20. Within treatment therapeutic alliance ratings profiles predict posttreatment frequency of alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Mark A.; Connors, Gerard J.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2016-01-01

    While past research has demonstrated a positive relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) and improved drinking outcomes, specific aspects of the alliance have received less attention. In this study, we examined the association between alliance characteristics during treatment and 4-month follow-up drinking reports. 65 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent clients who participated in 12 weeks of individual outpatient treatment provided weekly TA ratings during treatment and reported on pre-treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment alcohol use. Latent profile analysis was conducted to discern distinct profiles of client and therapist ratings of therapeutic alliance with similar alliance characteristics. TA profiles were based on clients’ and therapists’ mean alliance rating, minimum alliance rating, maximum alliance rating, the range of alliance ratings, and the difference in session number between maximum and minimum alliance ratings. 1- through 4- class models were fit to the data. Model fit was judged by comparative fit indices, substantive interpretability, and parsimony. Wald tests of mean equality determined whether classes differed on follow-up percentage of days abstinent (PDA) at 4 months posttreatment. 3-profile solutions provided the best fit for both client and therapist ratings of the therapeutic alliance. Client alliance rating profiles predicted drinking in the follow-up period, but therapist rating profiles did not. These results suggest that distinct profiles of the therapeutic alliance can be identified and that client alliance rating profiles are associated with frequency of alcohol use following outpatient treatment. PMID:26999350

  1. The appropriateness of core group interventions using presumptive periodic treatment among rural Zimbabwean women who exchange sex for gifts or money.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Frances M; Hargrove, John W; Langhaug, Lisa F; Jaffar, Shabbar; Mhuriyengwe, Lovemore; Swarthout, Todd D; Peeling, Rosanna; Latif, Ahmed; Bassett, Mary T; Brown, David W G; Mabey, David; Hayes, Richard J; Wilson, David

    2005-02-01

    To map the characteristics of rural based sex workers in Zimbabwe with regard to demographics, mobility, behavior, HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, to explore the appropriateness and feasibility of presumptive periodic treatment (PPT) for bacterial STIs as an HIV prevention intervention among these women, and to compare tolerability of 2 PPT regimens (1 g of azithromycin and 2 g of metronidazole+/-500 mg of ciprofloxacin). Five commercial farms and 2 mines in Mashonaland West, Zimbabwe. Three hundred sixty-three sex workers were recruited and completed a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Each participant had blood tested for antibody to HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis; urine tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and a vaginal swab tested for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Women were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of 1 of 2 PPT regimens and then followed to assess rates of side effects and reinfection. The overall prevalence of antibody to HIV was 55.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.6-60.9) and that of HSV-2 was 80.8% (95% CI: 76.7-84.9). The prevalence of CT and NG was low (CT=1.7%, 95% CI: 0.3-3.0); (NG=1.9%, 95% CI: 0.5-3.4), with a much higher prevalence of TV (TV=19.3%, 95% CI: 15.2-23.4). Prevalence of CT, NG, and TV was appreciably reduced 1 month after PPT but rose to pretreatment levels at the 2- and 3-month visits. The rate of moderate or severe side effects after PPT was low, but it was higher in the women who received ciprofloxacin in addition to azithromycin and metronidazole (P=0.007). It was feasible to access women who reported exchanging money or gifts for sex in rural communities, although many of these women engaged in sex work only infrequently. The prevalence of bacterial STIs was low, suggesting that PPT may not be an appropriate intervention in this setting. Rapid reinfection after PPT suggests that this needs to be given at monthly

  2. Pharmacological Management of Treatment-Resistant Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Emslie, Graham; March, John

    2005-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy presents with treatment-resistant symptoms of major depression. This is his first episode of depression, initially treated with 200 mg sertraline for 12 weeks with no significant benefit. The severe depression has shown a partial response to weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and fluoxetine, which was titrated up to 60 mg…

  3. Comparison of chloroxylenol 0.5% plus salicylic acid 2% cream and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Boutli, F; Zioga, M; Koussidou, T; Ioannides, D; Mourellou, O

    2003-01-01

    A 12-week double-blind randomized study was performed to compare benzoyl peroxide 5% (BP) gel and chloroxylenol 0.5% plus salicylic acid 2% (PCMX + SA) cream (Nisal cream) for efficacy and adverse reactions. Thirty-seven volunteers participated in the study, 19 in the BP group and 18 in the PCMX + SA group. The patients applied the medication twice daily to the entire face. Clinical evaluation and lesion counts were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. At week 12 both groups showed a marked improvement in both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions (60% and 54% for the BP group and 62% and 56% for and 56% for the PCMX + SA group, respectively). Although PCMX + SA showed a slightly stronger keratolytic effect throughout the study period, there was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of the papulopustules or comedones between the two groups. Adverse effects such as erythema and photosensitivity were significantly fewer in the PCMX + SA group at week 12 (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that PCMX + SA cream is as effective as BP gel in the treatment of papulopustular and comedonal acne and that it is better tolerated.

  4. Treatment of delocalized electron transfer in periodic and embedded cluster DFT calculations: The case of Cu on ZnO (10(1)0).

    PubMed

    Hellström, Matti; Spångberg, Daniel; Hermansson, Kersti

    2015-12-15

    We assess the consequences of the interface model-embedded-cluster or periodic-slab model-on the ability of DFT calculations to describe charge transfer (CT) in a particularly challenging case where periodic-slab calculations indicate a delocalized charge-transfer state. Our example is Cu atom adsorption on ZnO(10(1)0), and in fact the periodic slab calculations indicate three types of CT depending on the adsorption site: full CT, partial CT, and no CT. Interestingly, when full CT occurs in the periodic calculations, the calculated Cu atom adsorption energy depends on the underlying ZnO substrate supercell size, since when the electron enters the ZnO it delocalizes over as many atoms as possible. In the embedded-cluster calculations, the electron transferred to the ZnO delocalizes over the entire cluster region, and as a result the calculated Cu atom adsorption energy does not agree with the value obtained using a large periodic supercell, but instead to the adsorption energy obtained for a periodic supercell of roughly the same size as the embedded cluster. Different density functionals (of GGA and hybrid types) and basis sets (local atom-centered and plane-waves) were assessed, and we show that embedded clusters can be used to model Cu adsorption on ZnO(10(1)0), as long as care is taken to account for the effects of CT.

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of primary progressive aphasia: An open-label pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gervits, Felix; Ash, Sharon; Coslett, H. Branch; Rascovsky, Katya; Grossman, Murray; Hamilton, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by gradual deterioration of language function. We investigated whether two weeks of daily transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) treatment would improve language abilities in six people with a non-fluent form of PPA. tDCS was applied in an unblinded trial at an intensity of 1.5 mA for 20 min/day over 10 days. At the time of stimulation, patients were engaged in narrating one of several children’s wordless picture stories. A battery of neuropsychological assessments was administered four times: at baseline, immediately following the 2-week stimulation period, and then 6-weeks and 12-weeks following the end of stimulation. We observed improvement in linguistic performance in the domains of speech production and grammatical comprehension. Our encouraging results indicate that larger, sham-controlled studies of tDCS as a potential intervention for PPA are warranted. PMID:27522537

  6. Trazodone plus pregabalin combination in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a two-phase, 24-week, open-label uncontrolled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although trazodone is frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, its efficacy on this disease has not been adequately studied. If effective, pregabalin, whose beneficial effects on pain and sleep quality in fibromyalgia have been demonstrated, could complement the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of trazodone. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of trazodone alone and in combination with pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Methods This was an open-label uncontrolled study. Trazodone, flexibly dosed (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients during 12 weeks; 41 patients who completed the treatment accepted to receive pregabalin, also flexibly dosed (75-450 mg/day), added to trazodone treatment for an additional 12-week period. Outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement scale (PGI). Emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test. Results Treatment with trazodone significantly improved global fibromyalgia severity, sleep quality, and depression, as well as pain interference with daily activities although without showing a direct effect on bodily pain. After pregabalin combination additional and significant improvements were seen on fibromyalgia severity, depression and pain interference with daily activities, and a decrease in bodily pain was also apparent. During the second phase of the study, only two patients dropped out due to side effects. Conclusions Trazodone significantly improved fibromyalgia severity and associated symptomatology. Its combination with pregabalin potentiated this improvement and the tolerability of the drugs in association was good. Trial

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Topical 10% Potassium Hydroxide and 30% Trichloroacetic Acid in the Treatment of Plane Warts

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprasad, Sandhaya; Subramaniyan, Radhakrishnan; Devgan, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Plane warts are caused by HPV types 3, 10, 28, and 41, occurring mostly in children and young adults. Among the treatment modalities, topical application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is age old. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) has a keratolytic effect on virus-infected cells. It is less irritating, less painful, less scar forming, and can be safely used in children too. Hence, it could be a better topical agent in the treatment of plane warts. Aims and Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of topical 10% KOH with 30% TCA in the treatment of plane warts. Materials and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with plane warts were randomly assigned into two arms of thirty patients each; arm A received topical 10% KOH and arm B received topical 30% TCA as a once weekly application until the complete clearance of warts or a maximum period of 12 weeks. Results: Statistically no significant difference (P = 0.07) was found between the objective therapeutic response to 10% KOH and 30% TCA at the end of study (12 weeks). However, subjective response to 10% KOH was better and statistically significant (P = 0.03). There was no recurrence of warts seen on follow-up for 3 months of complete responders in both the arms. Conclusion: 10% KOH is found to be equally effective in the treatment of plane warts compared to 30% TCA with the advantage of faster onset of action and tendency of completely clearing warts with fewer side effects. PMID:27904181

  8. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Treatment Recommend on ...

  9. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment of articular branches of femoral and obturator nerves for chronic hip pain

    PubMed Central

    Chye, Cien-Leong; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Lu, Kang; Chen, Ya-Wen; Liliang, Po-Chou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chronic hip pain is a common symptom experienced by many people. Often, surgery is not an option for patients with multiple comorbidities, and conventional drugs either have many side effects or are ineffective. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a new method in the treatment of pain. We attempt to compare the efficacy of PRF relative to conservative management for chronic hip pain. RPatients and methods Between August 2011 and July 2013, 29 patients with chronic hip pain were divided into two groups (PRF and conservative treatment) according to consent or refusal to undergo PRF procedure. Fifteen patients received PRF of the articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves, and 14 patients received conservative treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS), Oxford hip scores (OHS), and pain medications were used for outcome measurement before treatment and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment. Results At 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment initiation, improvements in VAS were significantly greater with PRF. Improvements in OHS were significantly greater in the PRF group at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Patients in the PRF group also used less pain medications. Eight subjects in the conservative treatment group switched to the PRF group after 12 weeks, and six of them had >50% improvement. Conclusion When compared with conservative treatment, PRF of the articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves offers greater pain relief for chronic hip pain and can augment physical functioning. PMID:25834413

  10. Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  11. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  12. Contingency Management Treatments: Reinforcing Abstinence Versus Adherence with Goal-Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Hanson, Tressa; MacKinnon, Stephen; Rounsaville, Bruce; Sierra, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually reinforce submission of drug-negative specimens, but they can also reinforce adherence with goal-related activities. This study compared the efficacy of the 2 approaches. Substance-abusing outpatients (N = 131) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 12-week treatments: standard treatment (ST), ST with CM…

  13. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, flexible-dose study to evaluate the tolerability, efficacy and effects of treatment discontinuation with escitalopram and paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; Cooper, James A; Huusom, Anna K T; Hindmarch, Ian

    2006-05-01

    This multinational, randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose study evaluated the short- and long-term antidepressant tolerability and efficacy of escitalopram and paroxetine. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring adverse events throughout the study, and discontinuation events during brief treatment interruption and tapered withdrawal. Discontinuation-emergent effects were evaluated in two separate double-blind periods. First, to mimic the consequences of non-compliance, patients were randomized to one of two treatment interruption periods (placebo-substitution for 3-5 days). Second, patients were randomized to a 1-2-week tapered withdrawal period randomly scheduled between weeks 28 and 31. The pre-specified primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline in total Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score at week 8, using the principle of last observation carried forward. A total of 323 patients entered 8 weeks of double-blind treatment and received at least one flexible dose of escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) or paroxetine (20-40 mg/day). Patients who demonstrated evidence of a significant clinical improvement (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement of 1 or 2) at week 8 entered a 19-week, double-blind maintenance period during which they were treated with the same dose they received at week 8, followed by a 1-2-week tapered withdrawal period. A total of 89 patients (28%) withdrew during the study; significantly (P<0.01) more patients withdrew from the paroxetine group (34%) than from the escitalopram group (21%), and significantly (P<0.05) more paroxetine patients withdrew due to lack of efficacy. The mean MADRS total score improved for both treatment groups from baseline to week 8, with no statistical difference between groups. In severely depressed patients (baseline MADRS total score >or=30), escitalopram was superior (P<0.05) to paroxetine at week 27 (end of maintenance treatment). There was a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction at

  14. Transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment for patients with shoulder pain booked for surgery: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Taverner, Murray; Loughnan, Terence

    2014-02-01

    Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal problem and accounts for 5% of general practitioner consultations. Although many treatments are described, there is no consensus on optimal treatment and up to 40% of patients still have pain 12 months after initially seeking help for pain. Previously, the effect of transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment (TCPRFT) was evaluated in a retrospective audit that showed good pain relief for a mean 395 days and justified this randomized sham controlled trial. In this study, 51 patients entered into a randomized double-blinded, placebo controlled study of TCPRFT. Patients were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks by a blinded observer and compared with baseline. We observed sustained reductions in pain at night, pain with activity, and functional improvement at 4 and 12 weeks with active but not sham TCPRFT. The 25 subjects who received active treatment showed statistically significant reductions of 24/100 in pain at night and 20/100 of pain with activity at 4 weeks and 18/100 and 19/100, respectively, at 12 weeks from baseline. Statistically significant lower Brief Pain Inventory pain and function scores (4 and 12 weeks), improved pain self-efficacy (4 weeks), Oxford Shoulder scores (12 weeks), and internal rotation (12 weeks) were seen. Pain at both rest and shoulder elevation were not improved by active treatment. No complications were seen. This study of a simple, low risk, outpatient treatment confirms the findings of our earlier study of TCPRFT for knee pain and shoulder pain audit that transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment may help some people with painful shoulders.

  15. Within treatment therapeutic alliance ratings profiles predict posttreatment frequency of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Prince, Mark A; Connors, Gerard J; Maisto, Stephen A; Dearing, Ronda L

    2016-03-01

    Although past research has demonstrated a positive relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) and improved drinking outcomes, specific aspects of the alliance have received less attention. In this study, we examined the association between alliance characteristics during treatment and 4-month follow-up drinking reports. Sixty-five treatment-seeking alcohol dependent clients who participated in 12 weeks of individual outpatient treatment provided weekly TA ratings during treatment and reported on pretreatment, during treatment, and posttreatment alcohol use. Latent profile analysis was conducted to discern distinct profiles of client and therapist ratings of therapeutic alliance with similar alliance characteristics. TA profiles were based on clients' and therapists' mean alliance rating, minimum alliance rating, maximum alliance rating, the range of alliance ratings, and the difference in session number between maximum and minimum alliance ratings. One- through 4-class models were fit to the data. Model fit was judged by comparative fit indices, substantive interpretability, and parsimony. Wald tests of mean equality determined whether classes differed on follow-up percentage of days abstinent (PDA) at 4-months posttreatment. Three-profile solutions provided the best fit for both client and therapist ratings of the therapeutic alliance. Client alliance rating profiles predicted drinking in the follow-up period, but therapist rating profiles did not. These results suggest that distinct profiles of the therapeutic alliance can be identified and that client alliance rating profiles are associated with frequency of alcohol use following outpatient treatment.

  16. The treatment of refractory anaemia of chronic renal failure with cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Duckham, J M; Lee, H A

    1976-04-01

    Twelve anephric patients on maintenance haemodialysis received treatment with oral enteric coated cobalt chloride 25 to 50 mg daily. The change in haemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume, are recorded and discussed with special reference to possible toxicity and mechanism of action of cobalt. Six of eight patients who completed the first course with cobalt chloride 50 mg daily for 12 weeks showed a significant rise in haemoglobin concentration of 26 to 70 per cent and a fall to near pre-therapeutic levels when cobalt was withdrawn. Evidence of a response was present within two months of starting treatment. Four patients showed a diminution in their blood transfusion requirements and three patients experienced a definite sense of increased well-being during treatment. One patient suffered from side effects of the drug and failed to complete the study because of gastrointestinal disturbance. The improvment in haemoglobin concentration was reproducible in four patients who were given second, and in one case third courses courses with varying doses of cobalt over differing periods of time. Serum cobalt levels tended to stabilize after two months continuous treatment to the therapeutic range of 40-100 mumg per 100 ml. A rapid fall in serum cobalt was seen on cessation of treatment. It is suggested that therapy with enteric coated cobalt chloride at a dose of between 25 and 50 mg per day has a definite place in the treatment of the refractory anaemia of chronic renal failure.

  17. Anaerobic treatment of tequila vinasses under seasonal operating conditions: start-up, normal operation and restart-up after a long stop and starvation period.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A; Méndez-Acosta, H O; González-Álvarez, V; Snell-Castro, R; Alcaraz-González, V; Godon, J J

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the performance of an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor under seasonal operating conditions prevailing in medium and small size Tequila factories: start-up, normal operation and particularly, during the restart-up after a long stop and starvation period. The proposed start-up procedure attained a stable biofilm in a rather short period (28 days) despite unbalanced COD/N/P ratio and the use of non-acclimated inoculum. The bioreactor was restarted-up after being shut down for 6 months during which the inoculum starved. Even when biofilm detachment and bioreactor clogging were detected at the very beginning of restart-up, results show that the bioreactor performed better as higher COD removal and methane yield were attained. CE-SSCP and Q-PCR analyses, conducted on the biofilm prokaryotic communities for each operating condition, confirmed that the high COD removal results after the bioreactor clogging and the severe starvation period were mainly due to the stable archaeal and resilient bacterial populations.

  18. Radiosurgical treatment of uterine cervix carcinoma at the 1st Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Turin, (in the period 1972-1978).

    PubMed

    Bocci, A; Sismondi, P; Sinistrero, G; Fessia, L; Zola, P; Giardina, G; Saluzzo, F; Mano, M P; Dalmassso, A

    1981-01-01

    The Authors report the results of a planned prospective study on Radiosurgical treatment of carcinoma of the cervix at stage Ia, Ib, and IIa. The protocol adopted is based on preoperative Curietherapy performed by Ir192 on a after loading technique device, hysterectomy according the Wertheim-Meigs' technique with systematic lymphadenectomy for the internal and external iliacs and obturator stations, Telecobalt therapy in cases with hystological evidence of lymphatic spread. The Authors discuss the results after three and five years in term of survival according to stage and type of treatment, the anatomosurgical examination and the histologic findings of the lymph nodes. At the end, they analysed the complications according to the stage and the kind of treatment, studying only recovered patients and performing the analysis after three years, in order to allow all complications to appear.

  19. Effect of Amitriptyline on Symptoms in Treatment Naïve Patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Harris E.; Hanno, Philip M.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Payne, Christopher K.; Mayer, Robert D.; Burks, David A.; Yang, Claire C.; Chai, Toby C.; Kreder, Karl J.; Peters, Kenneth M.; Lukacz, Emily S.; FitzGerald, Mary P.; Cen, Liyi; Landis, J. Richard; Propert, Kathleen J.; Yang, Wei; Kusek, John W.; Nyberg, Leroy M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Amitriptyline is frequently used to treat patients with IC/PBS. The evidence to support this practice is derived mainly from a small single site clinical trial and case reports. Methods We conducted a multi-center, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of amitriptyline in subjects with IC/PBS who were naive to therapy. Study participants in both treatment arms received a standardized education and behavioral modification program (EBMP). The drug dose was increased over a six-week period from 10 mg up to 75 mg once daily. The primary outcome was a patient-reported global response assessment (GRA) of symptom improvement evaluated after 12 weeks of treatment. Results A total of 271 subjects were randomized and 231 (85%) provided a GRA at 12 weeks of follow-up. Study participants were primarily women (83%), Caucasian (74%) with a median age of 38 years. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n=271), the rate of response of subjects reporting either moderately or markedly improved from baseline in the amitriptyline and placebo groups was 55% and 45% respectively (p=0.12). Among the subgroup of subjects (n=207) who achieved a drug dose of at least 50 mg, a significantly higher response rate was observed in the amitriptyline group (66%) compared to placebo (47%) (p=0.01). Conclusion When all randomized subjects were considered, amitriptyline in combination with an EBMP did not significantly improve symptoms in patients with IC/PBS who are treatment naïve. Amitriptyline, however, may be beneficial in persons who can achieve a daily dose of 50 mg or greater, although this subgroup comparison was not specified in advance. PMID:20303115

  20. Short-term alpha-tocopherol treatment during neonatal period modulates pro-inflammatory response to endotoxin (LPS) challenge in the same calves several months later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E, a major natural antioxidant, has been previously shown to attenuate pro-inflammatory response to immune challenge in cattle. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of short-term treatment with alpha-tocopherol in newborn calves on selected elements of the pro-inflamatory response to LPS...

  1. Extended vs Short-term Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Treatment of Opioid-Addicted Youth

    PubMed Central

    Woody, George E.; Poole, Sabrina A.; Subramaniam, Geetha; Dugosh, Karen; Bogenschutz, Michael; Abbott, Patrick; Patkar, Ashwin; Publicker, Mark; McCain, Karen; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Forman, Robert; Vetter, Victoria; McNicholas, Laura; Blaine, Jack; Lynch, Kevin G.; Fudala, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Context The usual treatment for opioid-addicted youth is detoxification and counseling. Extended medication-assisted therapy may be more helpful. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of continuing buprenorphine-naloxone for 12 weeks vs detoxification for opioid-addicted youth. Design, Setting, and Patients Clinical trial at 6 community programs from July 2003 to December 2006 including 152 patients aged 15 to 21 years who were randomized to 12 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone or a 14-day taper (detox). Interventions Patients in the 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone group were prescribed up to 24 mg per day for 9 weeks and then tapered to week 12; patients in the detox group were prescribed up to 14 mg per day and then tapered to day 14. All were offered weekly individual and group counseling. Main Outcome Measure Opioid-positive urine test result at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results The number of patients younger than 18 years was too small to analyze separately, but overall, patients in the detox group had higher proportions of opioid-positive urine test results at weeks 4 and 8 but not at week 12 ( χ22 = 4.93, P = .09). At week 4, 59 detox patients had positive results (61%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 47%-75%) vs 58 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone patients (26%; 95% CI = 14%-38%). At week 8, 53 detox patients had positive results (54%; 95% CI = 38%-70%) vs 52 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone patients (23%; 95% CI = 11%-35%). At week 12, 53 detox patients had positive results (51%; 95% CI = 35%-67%) vs 49 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone patients (43%; 95% CI = 29%-57%). By week 12, 16 of 78 detox patients (20.5%) remained in treatment vs 52 of 74 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone patients (70%; χ12 = 32.90, P < .001). During weeks 1 through 12, patients in the 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone group reported less opioid use ( χ12 = 18.45, P < .001), less injecting ( χ12 = 6.00, P = .01), and less nonstudy addiction treatment ( χ12 = 25.82, P < .001). High levels of opioid use

  2. Autism Treatment in the First Year of Life: A Pilot Study of Infant Start, a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Symptomatic Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, S. J.; Vismara, L.; Wagner, A. L.; McCormick, C.; Young, G.; Ozonoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of early autism screening is earlier treatment. We pilot-tested a 12-week, low-intensity treatment with seven symptomatic infants ages 7-15 months. Parents mastered the intervention and maintained skills after treatment ended. Four comparison groups were matched from a study of infant siblings. The treated group of infants was…

  3. Changes in soil C-isotopic composition in an agroecosystem under Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) treatment during a crop rotation period.

    PubMed

    Giesemann, Anette

    2005-01-01

    FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) has been used since 1999 to evaluate the effects of future atmospheric CO(2) concentrations on an arable crop agroecosystem. The experiment conducted at the Institute of Agroecology at the Federal Research Centre in Braunschweig consists of a typical local crop rotation of winter barley, a cover crop, sugar beet and winter wheat. The atmospheric CO2 concentration of ambient air is about 375 ppm with a delta13C value of -7 to -9 per thousand, and 550 ppm (delta13C value = -20.2 per thousand) during daylight hours in the rings fumigated with additional CO2. Thus, the surplus C can be traced in the agricultural system. Over the course of the first experimental period (3-year crop rotation period), the C-isotopic composition and the C concentration in soil were monitored monthly. Plant samples were analysed according to the relevant developmental stages of the crop under cultivation. A 13C depletion was observed in plant parts, as well as in soil samples from the FACE rings under CO2 enrichment, indicating that labelled C has reached both respective ecosystem compartments. Albeit farming management practice (especially ploughing) leads to a mixing of 'old' and 'new' C compounds throughout all soil horizons down to the end of the ploughing layer and resulted in a heterogeneous distribution of newly formed C compounds in the soil, isotope analysis of soil C reflected where the surplus C went.

  4. Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with cirrhosis and predictive value of MELD: Analysis of data from the Hepa-C registry.

    PubMed

    Fernández Carrillo, Carlos; Lens, Sabela; Llop, Elba; Pascasio, Juan Manuel; Crespo, Javier; Arenas, Juan; Fernández, Inmaculada; Baliellas, Carme; Carrión, José Antonio; de la Mata, Manuel; Buti, Maria; Castells, Lluís; Albillos, Agustín; Romero, Manuel; Turnes, Juan; Pons, Clara; Moreno-Planas, José María; Moreno-Palomares, José Javier; Fernández-Rodriguez, Conrado; García-Samaniego, Javier; Prieto, Martín; Fernández Bermejo, Miguel; Salmerón, Javier; Badia, Ester; Salcedo, Magdalena; Herrero, José Ignacio; Granados, Rafael; Blé, Michel; Mariño, Zoe; Calleja, José Luis

    2017-02-07

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are highly effective and well tolerated in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including those with compensated cirrhosis. However, fewer data are available in patients with more advanced liver disease. Our retrospective, non-interventional, national, multi-center study in patients from the Spanish Hepa-C registry investigated the effectiveness and safety of interferon-free DAA regimens in patients with advanced liver disease, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, in routine practice (all currently approved regimens were registered). Patients transplanted during treatment or within 12 weeks of completing treatment were excluded. Among 843 cirrhotic patients (Child A, n=564; Child B/C, n=175), 90% achieved sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). Significant differences in SVR12 and relapse rates were observed between Child A and Child B/C patients (94% vs. 78%, and 4% vs. 14%, respectively; both P<0.001). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were more common in Child B/C vs. Child A patients (50% vs. 12%, respectively; P<0.001). Incident decompensation was the most common SAE (7% overall). Death rate during the study period was 16/843 (2%), significantly higher among Child B/C vs. Child A patients (6.4% vs. 0.9%; P<0.001). Baseline Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score alone (cut-off 18) was the best predictor of survival. Conclusions Patients with decompensated cirrhosis receiving DAAs present lower response rates and experience more SAEs. In this setting, a MELD score ≥18 may help clinicians to identify those patients with a higher risk of complications and to individualize treatment decisions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical efficacy of Yingliu treatment for Graves disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Bi, Xiaojuan; Tang, Hong; Zeng, Juanhua; Cong, Yilei; Wu, Tengfei; Chen, Qiuye

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) mixture Yingliu combined with methimazole medication for the treatment of Graves disease (GD). Method: In a randomized, paralleled control study, 92 GD patients were randomized into a Yingliu mixture treatment and a control treatment group, both receiving methimazole. Both treatments lasted for 12 weeks and outcome parameter were thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies, TCM symptome scores and safety indicators. Results: The clinical efficiency of the Yingliu mixture-methimazole combination was 92.5% vs. 82.5% (P < 0.05) of the solely methimazole medication group. After 12 weeks treatments the Yingliu mixture in combination with methimazole improved free triiodothyronine (FT3), free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) values significantly more than methimazole alone and TCM symptome scores were significant lower after 12 week treatment in the Yingliu mixture- methimazole group (P < 0.05). The thyroid enlargement (21 vs. 10, P < 0.05), fatigue (39 vs. 30, P < 0.01) and dry mouth symptoms (37 vs. 29, P < 0.05) were superior improved in the Yingliu than in the control medication group, respectively. There was no significant difference regarding safety evaluations between both treatment groups (P = 0.499). Conclusion: Yingliu mixture as combined medication with methimazole can significantly improve the outcome of a solely methimazole application for GD treatments. PMID:26131218

  6. Treatment of rats with an anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody shortens the duration of action of repeated (+)-methamphetamine challenges over a one month period

    PubMed Central

    Hambuchen, Michael D.; Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Williams, D. Keith; Hendrickson, Howard; Owens, S. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed clinical scenarios of continuing monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment for (+)-methamphetamine (METH) addiction, and the implications of missing or discontinuing this therapy. We hypothesized that chronic anti-METH mAb7F9 (METH KD = 9 nM) treatment of rats could significantly decrease METH-induced behaviors; even with repeated METH challenges, use of METH doses in excess of mAb binding sites, and after discontinuing mAb treatment which results in a 10-fold reduction in mAb7F9 serum concentrations. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=6/group) were treated with i.v. saline or a loading dose of mAb7F9 to achieve instant steady-state conditions followed by two weekly (141 mg/kg) doses ending on day 14. METH (0.56 mg/kg) was administered four hours and three days after each saline or mAb7F9 treatment, and on day 21. This produced locomotion and rearing behavior that lasted about 120 min in control rats. In mAb7F9 treated rats, METH-induced distance traveled was significantly reduced from 60–120 min (P<0.05) on days 0–21 and rearing was significantly reduced from 60–120 min on days 0–17. METH serum concentrations determined 5 hrs after METH dosing was significantly increased in mAb7F9-treated rats after all METH challenges. On days 24 and 28 (the final day), the rats were administered a 3-fold higher METH dose (1.68 mg/kg). MAb7F9 treated rats showed a substantially earlier termination of the METH-induced locomotion on both days, even though the METH dose exceeded mAb7F9’s binding capacity. METH brain concentrations determined 5 hrs after METH on day 28 were also significantly decreased in mAb7F9-treated rats. In conclusion, over one month, mAb7F9 significantly and continuously bound METH and reduced METH-induced locomotor effects even after discontinuation of mAb treatment and challenge with higher METH doses. PMID:25252196

  7. Efficacy of iopanoic acid for treatment of spontaneous hyperthyroidism in cats.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Alexander E; Panciera, David L

    2011-06-01

    Iopanoic acid is an iodine containing oral cholecystographic agent that has been used to treat hyperthyroidism in humans and has recently been evaluated in an experimental model of feline hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of iopanoic acid in cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Eleven cats were included in the study. Eight were treated initially with 50mg orally q 12h and three were treated with 100mg orally q 12h. Prior to treatment (baseline) and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks of treatment, owner questionnaires, physical exams, complete blood count, biochemistry analyses, and T(3) and T(4) concentrations were evaluated. The mean serum T(3) concentration decreased with treatment at all time periods compared to baseline. Mean T(4) concentrations were increased at weeks 4 and 12 compared to baseline. Five cats had a partial response during the initial 4 weeks of therapy, but the effects were transient and no significant improvements in clinical signs or physical exam findings were noted at any time period. Results suggest that iopanoic acid may be beneficial for acute management of thyrotoxicosis in some cats, but is not suitable for long-term management.

  8. Manual therapy as an effective treatment for fibrosis in a rat model of upper extremity overuse injury

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Geoffrey M.; Harris, Michele Y; Zhao, Huaqing; Barbe, Mary F.

    2016-01-01

    Key clinical features of carpal tunnel syndrome and other types of cumulative trauma disorders of the hand and wrist include pain and functional disabilities. Mechanistic details remain under investigation but may involve tissue inflammation and/or fibrosis. We examined the effectiveness of modeled manual therapy (MMT) as a treatment for sensorimotor behavior declines and increased fibrogenic processes occurring in forearm tissues of rats performing an high repetition high force (HRHF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult, female rats were examined: food restricted control rats (FRC, n=12); rats that were trained for 6 weeks before performing the HRHF task for 12 weeks with no treatment (HRHF-CON, n=11); and HRHF task rats received modeled manual therapy (HRHF-MMT, n=5) for 5 days/week for the duration of the 12-week of task. Rats receiving the MMT expressed fewer discomfort-related behaviors, and performed progressively better in the HRHF task. Grip strength, while decreased after training, improved following MMT. Fibrotic nerve and connective tissue changes (increased collagen and TGF-β1 deposition) present in 12-week HRHF-CON rats were significantly decreased in 12-week HRHF-MMT rats. These observations support the investigation of manual therapy as a preventative for repetitive motion disorders. PMID:26810536

  9. Manual therapy as an effective treatment for fibrosis in a rat model of upper extremity overuse injury.

    PubMed

    Bove, Geoffrey M; Harris, Michele Y; Zhao, Huaqing; Barbe, Mary F

    2016-02-15

    Key clinical features of carpal tunnel syndrome and other types of cumulative trauma disorders of the hand and wrist include pain and functional disabilities. Mechanistic details remain under investigation but may involve tissue inflammation and/or fibrosis. We examined the effectiveness of modeled manual therapy (MMT) as a treatment for sensorimotor behavior declines and increased fibrogenic processes occurring in forearm tissues of rats performing a high repetition high force (HRHF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult, female rats were examined: food restricted control rats (FRC, n=12); rats that were trained for 6 weeks before performing the HRHF task for 12 weeks with no treatment (HRHF-CON, n=11); and HRHF task rats received modeled manual therapy (HRHF-MMT, n=5) for 5 days/week for the duration of the 12-week of task. Rats receiving the MMT expressed fewer discomfort-related behaviors, and performed progressively better in the HRHF task. Grip strength, while decreased after training, improved following MMT. Fibrotic nerve and connective tissue changes (increased collagen and TGF-β1 deposition) present in 12-week HRHF-CON rats were significantly decreased in 12-week HRHF-MMT rats. These observations support the investigation of manual therapy as a preventative for repetitive motion disorders.

  10. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of large nodular basal cell carcinoma at the medial canthal area

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Gamze Ozturk; Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Fazil, Korhan; Ocak, Osman Bulut; Taskapılı, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    Context (Background): Imiquimod (IMQ) 5% cream is an immunomodulatory and antitumorigenic agent, which was used as a topical treatment regimen, who had periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Aim: This study aims to present three cases with large BCC at the medial canthal area treated with IMQ 5% cream. Materials and Methods: IMQ 5% cream was used in three patients with ages 45, 49, and 73 who preferred medical treatment over surgery. Following incisional biopsy IMQ cream was used once a day, 5 times a week and the patients were followed up weekly during 12 week treatment period and monthly after the clearance of the lesion. Results: Erythema and erosion on the surface of the lesion, injection of conjunctiva, burning and itching sensation, epiphora and punctate keratitis were seen in all patients during the treatment period. The ophthalmic side effects could be managed by topical lubricating eye drops and the inflammatory reactions resolved within 1 month after cessation of therapy. The patients were followed up for at least 3 years without tumor recurrence and the biopsies taken from the suspected area were found to be tumor free. Conclusion: Surgical excision of carcinoma of the eyelid at medial canthal area can be difficult without causing damage to the lacrimal system and reconstruction of the defect may need grafts or flaps. IMQ may provide an alternative therapy to surgery in certain cases. PMID:28300740

  11. Effects on strength, power, and flexibility in adolescents of nonperiodized vs. daily nonlinear periodized weight training.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Eveline; Fleck, Steven J; Ricardo Dias, Marcelo; Simão, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 models of resistance training (RT) programs, nonperiodized (NP) training and daily nonlinear periodized (DNLP) training, on strength, power, and flexibility in untrained adolescents. Thirty-eight untrained male adolescents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a control group, NP RT program, and DNLP program. The subjects were tested pretraining and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) resistances in the bench press and 45° leg press, sit and reach test, countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). Both training groups performed the same sequence of exercises 3 times a week for a total of 36 sessions. The NP RT consisted of 3 sets of 10-12RM throughout the training period. The DNLP training consisted of 3 sets using different training intensities for each of the 3 training sessions per week. The total volume of the training programs was not significantly different. Both the NP and DNLP groups exhibited a significant increase in the 1RM for the bench press and 45° leg press posttraining compared with that pretraining, but there were no significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). The DNLP group's 1RM changes showed greater percentage improvements and effect sizes. Training intensity for the bench press and 45° leg press did not significantly change during the training. In the CMVJ and SLJ tests, NP and DNLP training showed no significant change. The DNLP group showed a significant increase in the sit and reach test after 8 and 12 weeks of training compared with pretraining; this did not occur with NP training. In summary, in untrained adolescents during a 12-week training period, a DNLP program can be used to elicit similar and possible superior maximal strength and flexibility gains compared with an NP multiset training model.

  12. Effects of combined treatment with ibandronate and pulsed electromagnetic field on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Liao, Yuan; Xie, Haitao; Liao, Ying; Zeng, Yahua; Li, Neng; Sun, Guanghua; Wu, Qi; Zhou, Guijuan

    2017-01-01

    Ibandronate (IBN) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) have each shown positive effects for treating osteoporosis, but no study has evaluated the relative effects of these treatments combined. This study investigated the effects of IBN + PEMF on bone turnover, mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Fifty 3-month-old rats were randomly apportioned to receive a sham-operation (n = 10), or ovariectomy (n = 40). The latter group was equally divided as the model (OVX control) or to receive IBN, PEMF, or IBN + PEMF. Beginning the day after surgery, the IBN and IBN + PEMF groups received weekly subcutaneous IBN; the PEMF and IBN + PEMF groups were given daily PEMF during the same 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatments, biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture parameters, biomechanical properties, and some metabolic modulators that are involved in bone resorption were compared. The L5 lumbar vertebral body BMDs of the IBN, PEMF, and IBN + PEMF groups were 121.6%, 119.5%, and 139.6%; maximum loads were 111.4%, 112.7%, and 121.9%; and energy to failure was 130.8%, 129.2%, and 154.9% of the OVX model, respectively. The IBN + PEMF group had significantly lower levels of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and greater improvement in BMD, bone microarchitecture, and strength of the lumbar spine compared with monotherapy groups. Results showed that IBN + PEMF had a more favorable effect on the lumbar spine in this osteoporosis model than did either monotherapy. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:31-40, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Risk factors for treatment failure in smokers: relationship to alcohol use and to lifetime history of an alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; McKee, Sherry A; Toll, Benjamin A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L; Makuch, Robert W; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of two types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to three levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate, or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol usexAUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and, to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking.

  14. Risk Factors for Treatment Failure in Smokers: Relationship to Alcohol Use and to Lifetime History of an Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; McKee, Sherry A.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L.; Makuch, Robert W.; O’Malley, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to 3 levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol use × AUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking. PMID:19023831

  15. Arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zheng-yan; Wang, Fei; Lu, Keke; Li, Yue-heng; Zhou, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methods Databases including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, China Biology Medicine disc, Wangfang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Trials Register were searched, and Google was used as a supplementary tool to search for information through February 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the treatment of DH with arginine-containing toothpaste were included. Relevant information was extracted, and a quality evaluation was performed. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Eighteen RCTs with 1,423 patients were included. The results of the meta-analyses demonstrated that at days 0 and 3; weeks 2, 4, and 8; and more than 12 weeks, arginine-containing toothpaste led to significantly improved results on the tactile sensitivity test (standardized mean difference [SMD] =1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.14, 2.76]) and the air-blast test (SMD =−1.60, 95% CI [−2.14, −1.05]) at 4 weeks and the tactile sensitivity test (SMD =2.01, 95% CI [1.41, 2.61]) and the air-blast test (SMD =−1.41, 95% CI [−1.83, −0.98]) at 8 weeks compared to toothpastes containing other desensitizing components, thus indicating a superior therapeutic effect of arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste. However, no significant differences between arginine-containing toothpaste and toothpastes containing other desensitizing components were observed in the air-blast test at days 0 and 3 and week 2 and in the tactile sensitivity and air-blast tests at more than 12 weeks. Conclusion The current evidence indicates that arginine-containing toothpaste is effective for DH. However, further high-quality, large-sample RCTs are needed. PMID:26793006

  16. The classical electrostatic periodic table, capacitance of few electron dielectric spheres and a novel treatment of one- and two-electron finite quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, Tim, Jr.

    The centerpiece of this dissertation is the discovery of the classical electrostatic periodic table of elements through non-linear ground state energies coincident with atomic shell-filling resulting from symmetry properties of discrete electrons constrained by a spherically-symmetric system. The time-independent electrostatic equilibrium configuration of few electrons confined to a large classical dielectric sphere is obtained by minimization of the total interaction energy. The interactions model yields more than twice the energy predicted by the classical Gauss model. Each N-electron system is proposed as a unique phase characterized by its symmetry properties. A new mono-phasic capacitance definition of dielectric spheres is derived from the fundamental relation Q=CV. Large differences from the Gauss model are obtained for few-electron systems, but convergence is found in the metallic limit. Of particular significance is the means by which symmetry-dependent properties of atomic-scale devices may be exploited by controlling the internal architecture of charge distributions. This work will be useful to modeling of many-electron chemical and biological systems, such as macromolecules, owing largely to symmetry differences between the Gauss model and the interactions model. The foundation upon which all Nature rests is the symmetry of fundamental particles.

  17. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for treatment of uterine leiomyomas: 750 myomas were treated by LITT and the results over a five-year period are analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1997-05-01

    Approximately 750 leiomyomas of 250 symptomatic patients were treated by LITT over a five-year period. Only 12% were lost to follow-up. Most were treated by a combination of the KTP/YAG laser, rarely by one or the other alone, and a few with the diode laser. The fiber optic was inserted 2 cm apart and, depending on the size of the tumor, 480 - 20,000 Joules were required. Most were treated laparoscopically but very large myomas were treated percutaneously under ultrasound control. Symptoms were nearly always relieved and the six failures were found to be due to unrecognized adenomyosis and other associated pathology. Half the patients complaining of infertility became pregnant and, in those whose only pathology had been leiomyomas it approached 90%. Vaginal delivery was not found to be contraindicated. Finally, oestrogen receptors and epidermal growth factor were found to be destroyed. It is concluded that LITT enables leiomyomas of all sizes and locations to be treated by a minimally invasive method with preservation of the uterus.

  18. Short-duration treatment with elbasvir/grazoprevir and sofosbuvir for hepatitis C: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lawitz, Eric; Poordad, Fred; Gutierrez, Julio A; Wells, Jennifer T; Landaverde, Carmen E; Evans, Barbara; Howe, Anita; Huang, Hsueh-Cheng; Li, Jerry Jing; Hwang, Peggy; Dutko, Frank J; Robertson, Michael; Wahl, Janice; Barr, Eliav; Haber, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) represent the standard of care for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Combining DAAs with different mechanisms may allow for shorter treatment durations that are effective across multiple genotypes. The aim of the C-SWIFT study was to identify the minimum effective treatment duration across multiple genotypes. C-SWIFT was an open-label, single-center trial in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype (GT)1 or 3 infection. All patients received elbasvir (EBR) 50 mg/grazoprevir (GZR) 100 mg with sofosbuvir (SOF) 400 mg for 4-12 weeks. Patients with GT1 infection who failed therapy were eligible for retreatment with EBR/GZR+SOF and ribavirin for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response [SVR]12 (SVR of HCV RNA <15 IU/mL 12 weeks after the end of therapy). Rates of SVR12 were 32% (10 of 31) and 87% (26 of 30) in patients without cirrhosis with GT1 infection treated for 4 and 6 weeks and 80% (16 of 20) and 81% (17 of 21) in GT1-infected patients with cirrhosis treated for 6 and 8 weeks. Among GT3-infected patients without cirrhosis, SVR12 was 93% (14 of 15) and 100% (14 of 14) after 8 and 12 weeks. SVR12 in GT3-infected patients with cirrhosis was 83% (10 of 12) after 12 weeks of treatment. Twenty-three GT1-infected patients who relapsed following initial treatment completed retreatment; all achieved SVR12. In the initial treatment phase, there was one serious adverse event of pneumonia, which led to treatment discontinuation, and during retreatment, 1 patient discontinued ribavirin because of pruritus.

  19. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  20. Chronic treatment with trimetazidine reduces the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide in heart failure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trimetazidine (TMZ) is effective for the treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy; however, little is known about the effect of TMZ in established injury-induced heart failure. When rats with established infarct-induced heart failure were treated for 12 weeks with TMZ there was no effect on left ventric...

  1. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  2. The Use of Phototherapy in Group Treatment for Persons Who Are Chemically Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Miller, Eva

    2006-01-01

    This study used photography as a therapeutic tool and a present-focused approach in a 12-week group intervention to treat adults with chemical dependence enrolled in an outpatient treatment program. A qualitative analysis identified themes related to the topics of trust, honesty, self-worth, power, and abuse. Self-esteem, abuse, and trauma-related…

  3. Comparing Spoken Language Treatments for Minimally Verbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Campbell, Daniel; Gilbert, Kimberly; Tsiouri, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers with severe autism and minimal speech were assigned either a discrete trial or a naturalistic language treatment, and parents of all participants also received parent responsiveness training. After 12 weeks, both groups showed comparable improvement in number of spoken words produced, on average. Approximately half the children in…

  4. Randomized Trial of Periodic Presumptive Treatment With High-Dose Intravaginal Metronidazole and Miconazole to Prevent Vaginal Infections in HIV-negative Women

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, R. Scott; Balkus, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeannette; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Schwebke, Jane; Bragg, Vivian; Lensing, Shelly; Kavak, Lale

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vaginal infections are common, frequently recur, and may increase women's risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We tested the efficacy of a novel regimen to prevent recurrent vaginal infections. Methods. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative women 18–45 years old with 1 or more vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), were randomly assigned to receive vaginal suppositories containing metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or matching placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Primary endpoints, evaluated every 2 months, were BV (Gram stain) and VVC (positive wet mount and culture). Results. Participants (N = 234) were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 118) or placebo (N = 116) arm. Two hundred seventeen (93%) women completed an end-of-study evaluation. The intervention reduced the proportion of visits with BV compared to placebo (21.2% vs 32.5%; relative risk [RR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] .48–.87). In contrast, the proportion of visits with VVC was similar in the intervention (10.4%) versus placebo (11.3%) arms (RR 0.92, 95% CI .62–1.37). Conclusions. Monthly treatment with intravaginal metronidazole plus miconazole reduced the proportion of visits with BV during 12 months of follow-up. Further study will be important to determine whether this intervention can reduce women's risk of STIs. PMID:25526757

  5. Immune tolerance induction for laronidase treatment in mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Vieira, Taiane Alves; Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Muñoz-Rojas, Maria-Veronica; Semyachkina, Alla N; Voinova, Victoria Y; Richards, Susan; Cox, Gerald F; Xue, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) can produce anti-drug antibody (ADA) responses that reduce efficacy or lead to hypersensitivity reactions. Six patients with severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I/Hurler syndrome) who did not receive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation underwent an immunosuppression regimen prior to initiating ERT with laronidase. The primary endpoint for immune tolerance induction was the number of patients with an ADA titer ≤ 3200 after 24 weeks of laronidase at the labeled dose. Cyclosporine levels were measured weekly and doses adjusted to maintain trough levels above 400 mg/mL. A 6-week (Cohort 1) or 12-week (Cohort 2) immune tolerance induction period with cyclosporine (initial dose: 15 or 20 mg/kg/day), azathioprine (initial dose: 2.5 or 5 mg/kg/day) and low-dose laronidase infusions (0.058-0.29 mg/kg/week) was followed by an immune-challenge period with laronidase infusions at the labeled dose (0.58 mg/kg/week) for 24 weeks. Anti-laronidase IgG titers were determined following treatment. There were 147 treatment-emergent adverse events reported, most of which were mild and not related to the study treatment. While there was no evidence of immune tolerance in 3 of 3 patients in Cohort 1, there were some indications of immune tolerance induction in 2 of 3 patients in Cohort 2. Patients with lower ADA titers showed greater reductions in urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion. Routine monitoring of plasma cyclosporine parent-compound levels by high pressure liquid chromatography proved difficult for clinical practice. The evolving clinical management of MPS I and a better understanding of the clinical impact of laronidase-related immunogenicity require reassessment of immune modulation strategies in patients with MPS I receiving laronidase treatment.

  6. The Efficacy of Mirtazapine in the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence with Comorbid Depression

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Maryam; Knapp, Clifford M.; Sarid-Segal, Ofra; Devine, Eric; Colaneri, Laurie Sickles; Tozier, Lisa; Waters, Megan E.; Putnam, Megan A.; Ciraulo, Domenic A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Prior findings concerning the use of mirtazapine in the treatment of a variety of substance use disorders and its antagonistic actions at the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor suggest that this drug may have efficacy in the treatment of cocaine dependence in the presence of a depressive disorder. Methods Depressed cocaine-dependent subjects received either mirtazapine (target dose 45 mg daily) or placebo for 12 weeks. Urine concentrations of benzoylecgonine and self-report were used to assess cocaine consumption. Depression and sleep quality were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Results Cocaine consumption during the treatment period did not differ significantly between the mirtazapine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 13) groups in this study. In week 4 sleep latency was significantly lower in the active medication than in the placebo group. Positive effects of mirtazapine treatment on early insomnia were suggested by an item analysis of the HAM-D. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of this study suggest that mirtazapine is superior to placebo in improving sleep in patients with comorbid depression and cocaine dependence, but is not more effective than placebo in reducing cocaine use. PMID:22221171

  7. Family-focused treatment for childhood-onset depressive disorders: results of an open trial.

    PubMed

    Tompson, Martha C; Pierre, Claudette B; Haber, Fawn McNeil; Fogler, Jason M; Groff, April R; Asarnow, Joan R

    2007-07-01

    Study objectives were to develop a treatment manual for a family-focused intervention for depressed school-aged children, evaluate its feasibility and acceptability, and complete an initial open trial to examine treatment effects. Nine young people meeting criteria for depression (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depression not otherwise specified), completed a 12-week family intervention, and were assessed immediately and at 9 months following treatment completion. The intervention presented an interpersonal model of how depressive symptoms are maintained, and emphasized developing family strategies for altering interpersonal processes, supporting recovery and enhancing resilience. At posttreatment 66% of the young people had recovered from their depressive episodes; by 9 months posttreatment 77% had recovered. Significant improvements in global functioning were noted. There were no relapses in the follow-up period and no instances of suicidal behavior during the intervention or follow-up. Mothers' and fathers' Child Behavior Checklist reports and children's self reports indicated significant symptom reductions. Exploratory analyses suggest particular benefit for young people with parents high in criticism. The family-focused intervention for childhood-onset depression demonstrated gains similar to those seen with empirically supported treatments for depressed adolescents and superior to those seen in naturalistic studies of depression outcomes. This favorable risk/benefit profile supports the value of a randomized controlled trial.

  8. Effects of treatment with a commercially available St John's Wort product (Movina®) on cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia treated with simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Eggertsen, Robert; Andreasson, Åke; Andrén, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of treatment with a St John's Wort product (Movina®) on cholesterol levels (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol) in patients with hypercholesterolemia on treatment with a stable dose of simvastatin. Design Controlled, randomized, open, crossover pharmacodynamic study. Setting Two primary healthcare centres. Intervention Patients were treated with Movina® one tablet (containing 300 mg of Hypericum perforatum) twice daily and control (a commercially available multivitamin tablet, Vitamineral®). The trial started with a run-in period of 4 weeks. Then the treatment order between control and active treatment was decided (randomization using sealed envelopes). The duration of each treatment period was 4 weeks and simvastatin treatment was kept unchanged during the whole study period (12 weeks). Subjects Twenty-four patients with hypercholesterolemia treated with a stable dose of simvastatin (10–40 mg daily) for at least three months. Main outcome measures Assessments of total cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were performed in the morning with the patients in a fasting condition. Results All patients completed the study. LDL-cholesterol was significantly increased during active treatment compared with control. Thus, the mean LDL-cholesterol after 4 weeks’ active treatment was 2.72 mmol/L compared with 2.30 mmol/L after treatment with control (p <0.0001). An increase in total-cholesterol was also observed (5.08 mmol/L compared with 4.56 mmol/L, p <0.0001). Conclusion Products containing St John's Wort should not be given to patients with hypercholesterolemia who are on treatment with simvastatin. PMID:17846933

  9. Factors that Affect the Adherence to ADHD Medications during a Treatment Continuation Period in Children and Adolescents: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study Using Korean Health Insurance Data from 2007 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bhang, Soo-Young; Kwack, Young Sook; Joung, Yoo-Sook; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Kim, Bongseog; Sohn, Seok Han; Chung, Un-Sun; Yang, Jaewon; Hong, Minha; Bahn, Geon Ho; Choi, Hyung-yun; Oh, In Hwan; Lee, Yeon Jung

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several factors, such as male gender, older age, type of insurance, comorbid conditions, and medication type, have been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication adherence rates, but the results have been inconsistent. We analyzed data to answer several questions: 1) How old were patients who first refilled their treatment medications used primarily for ADHD, regardless of the medication type? 2) What socio-demographic factors are associated with medication adherence? 3) What medical conditions, such as medication type and comorbid diagnosis, influence adherence? Methods We analyzed National Health Insurance data, which comprised continuously enrolled Korean National Medical Insurance children (6–18 years) with at least 2 ADHD prescription claims (January 2008–December 2011). The persistence of use regarding the days of continuous therapy without a 30-day gap were measured continuously and dichotomously. Adherence, using a medication possession ratio (MPR), was measured dichotomously (80% cut-off). Results The cumulative incidence of index cases that initiated medication refills for ADHD treatment during the 4 year period was 0.85%. The patients who exhibited a MPR greater than 80 comprised approximately 66%. The medication type, high school age groups, physician speciality, treatment at a private clinic, and comorbid conditions were associated with medication adherence during continuous treatment using a multivariate analysis. Conclusion A better understanding of ADHD treatment patterns may lead to initiatives targeted at the improvement of treatment adherence and persistence. Other factors, including the severity, family history, costs, type of comorbidities, and switching patterns, will be analyzed in future studies. PMID:28326113

  10. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antje; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Kathlen; Dyer, Anne S.; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods Female participants (N=74) were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results During treatment, only one participant (3%) experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome. PMID:25317254

  11. A Manual-Based Intervention to Address Clinical Crises and Retain Patients in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Silva, Susan G.; Rezac, Amy J.; Hallin, Mary J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Simons, Anne D.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a manual-based intervention to address clinical crises and retain participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: The use of adjunct services for attrition prevention (ASAP) is described for adolescents (ages 12-17 years) during the 12-week acute treatment in TADS, from 2000 to 2003.…

  12. Efficacy of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Moayednia, Amir; Emadi, Masoud; Khorami, Mohammad Hatef; Haghdani, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for symptoms alleviation in chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Materials and Methods. 40 patients with CPPS were randomly allocated into either the treatment or sham group. In the first group, patients were treated by ESWT once a week for 4 weeks by a defined protocol. In the sham group, the same protocol was applied but with the probe being turned off. The follow-up assessments were done at 1, 2, 3, and 12 weeks by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and NIH-developed Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Results. Pain domain scores at follow-up points in both treatment and sham groups were reduced, more so in the treatment group, which were significant at weeks 2, 3, and 12. Urinary scores became significantly different at weeks 3 and 12. Also, quality of life (QOL) and total NIH-CPSI scores at all four follow-up time points reduced more significantly in the treatment group as compared to the sham group. Noticeably, at week 12 a slight deterioration in all variables was observed compared to the first 3 weeks of the treatment period. Conclusions. our findings confirmed ESWT therapy as a safe and effective method in CPPS in short term. PMID:24000311

  13. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing sertraline and fluoxetine 6-month treatment in obese patients with Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leombruni, Paolo; Pierò, Andrea; Lavagnino, Luca; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Fassino, Secondo

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies support the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), in overweight patients with Binge Eating Disorder (BED), but results are far from conclusive. Sertraline has been studied less extensively, and there have been a few studies concerning SSRIs that report follow-up data at more than 12 weeks of follow-up. The present study assesses the effectiveness of sertraline and fluoxetine over a period of 24 weeks in obese patients with BED (DSM-IV-TR). Forty-two obese outpatients were randomized and assigned to one of two different drug treatments: 22 were treated with sertraline (dose range: 100-200 mg/day) and 20 with fluoxetine (dose range: 40-80 mg/day). Subjects were assessed at baseline and at 8, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment for binge frequency, weight loss, and severity of psychopathology. No significant differences were found between the two treatments. After 8 weeks of treatment a significant improvement in the Binge Eating Scale score and a significant weight loss emerged. These results were maintained by responders (weigh loss of at least 5% of baseline weight) over 24 weeks. The results suggest that a 6-month treatment with SSRI may be an effective option to treat patients with BED.

  14. Substance Abuse Treatment Patients in Housing Programs Respond to Contingency Management Interventions.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2017-01-01

    Use of homeless and transitional housing (e.g., recovery homes) programs can be associated with success in substance abuse treatment, perhaps because many of these programs encourage or mandate sobriety. In this study, we examined whether contingency management (CM) protocols that use tangible incentives for submission of drug-free specimens or other specific behaviors are effective for treatment-seeking substance abusers whose behavior may also be shaped by housing programs. Of 355 participants in randomized trials of CM, 56 (16%) reported using transitional housing during the 12-week treatment period. Main and interaction effects of housing status and treatment condition were evaluated for the primary substance abuse treatment outcomes: a) longest duration of abstinence from alcohol, cocaine, and opioids, b) percentage of samples submitted that were negative for these substances, and c) treatment retention. After controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics, those who accessed housing programs submitted a higher percentage of negative samples (75%) compared to those who did not access housing programs (67%). Housing status groups did not differ in terms of longest duration of abstinence (accessed housing: M=3.1 weeks, SE=0.6; did not access housing: M=3.9 weeks, SE=0.3) or retention in substance abuse treatment (accessed housing: M=6.4 weeks, SE=0.6; did not access housing: M=6.6 weeks, SE=0.3). Regardless of housing status, CM was associated with longer durations of abstinence and treatment retention. No interactive effects of housing and treatment condition were observed (p>.05). Results suggest that those who accessed housing programs during substance abuse treatment benefit from CM to a comparable degree as their peers who did not use such programs. These effects suggest that CM remains appropriate for those accessing housing in community-based programs.

  15. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  16. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  17. Association of ARRB1 polymorphisms with the risk of major depressive disorder and with treatment response to mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hun Soo; Won, Eun Soo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Ham, Byung-Joo; Kim, Yong-Gu; Lee, Min-Soo

    2015-05-01

    β-Arrestin 1 is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in the underlying mechanism of action of antidepressant therapies. After we screened 39 ARRB1 polymorphisms, we investigated the associations of seven ARRB1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of MDD in 270 patients with MDD and 204 normal subjects, and with mirtazapine treatment response in patients with MDD. The genotype distributions of -132C>T and IVS1+85T>C showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in patients with MDD but not in normal subjects. After four and 12 weeks of mirtazapine treatment, the proportion of haplotype 1 (ht1) carriers was significantly higher in remitters than in non-remitters after corrections for multiple comparisons (corrected p=0.006 and 0.014 at four and 12 weeks, respectively). After eight and 12 weeks of treatment, scores on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD21) were significantly lower in patients with MDD with ARRB1 ht1 than in those without ht1. Similarly, after 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, the percent reduction in HAMD21 scores was significantly higher in patients with MDD with ARRB1 ht1 than in those without ht1. The ARRB1 polymorphisms represent promising genetic markers for the prediction of treatment responses to mirtazapine.

  18. Double-blind trial of recombinant gamma-interferon versus placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. 1989.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Grant W; Pincus, Seth H; Emkey, Ronald D; Denes, Alex; Cohen, Selwyn A; Wolfe, Frederick; Saway, P Anthony; Jaffer, Adrian M; Weaver, Arthur L; Cogen, Lewis; Schindler, John D

    2008-02-01

    One hundred five patients were enrolled in a 12-week, randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant human gamma-interferon (rHu gamma-IFN) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Fifty-four patients received rHu gamma-IFN and 51 received placebo. Forty-two patients in each group completed the 12-week trial. Some clinical improvement occurred in both groups of patients. Although the improvement with rHu gamma-IFN was greater than that with placebo, the differences were generally not statistically significant.

  19. Comparative efficacy and safety of two treatment regimens with a topically applied combination of imidacloprid and moxidectin (Advocate) against generalised demodicosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Delport, Petrus C; Fourie, Leon J; Heine, Josef; Horak, Ivan G; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    This laboratory study compared the efficacy of two treatment regimens using an imidacloprid (10%)/moxidectin (2.5%) topical formulation (Advocate, Bayer) on dogs with generalised demodicosis. Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to two equal groups. One group was treated at 28-day intervals for 12 weeks and the second group at weekly intervals for 15 weeks. Mite numbers were estimated and demodectic lesions were evaluated on each dog before treatment and at approximately 28-day intervals thereafter. Consistently greater reduction in mite numbers was recorded for the weekly treatment regimen. Dogs treated at weekly intervals exhibited markedly fewer clinical signs and greater hair regrowth and weight gain than those treated at 28-day intervals. To assess the safety of a weekly treatment interval in dogs, a study was done in which the investigational compound was administered at weekly intervals at five times the recommended dose for a period of 16 consecutive weeks. Apart from transient erythema at the site of administration in one dog and scaliness of the skin in another, no clinical signs of toxicity could be observed. Assessment of 27 blood parameters indicated that only basophils were outside the reference values on days +13 and +69, during the safety trial period.

  20. Eccentric Exercise Program Design: A Periodization Model for Rehabilitation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Seamon, Bryant A.; Gonzales, Tomas I.; Hernandez, Haniel J.; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0–10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from −5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s−1

  1. Eccentric Exercise Program Design: A Periodization Model for Rehabilitation Applications.

    PubMed

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Seamon, Bryant A; Gonzales, Tomas I; Hernandez, Haniel J; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from -5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s(-1) while

  2. Evaluation of Rifapentine in Long-Term Treatment Regimens for Tuberculosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lenaerts, Anne M. J. A.; Chase, Sharon E.; Chmielewski, Alex J.; Cynamon, Michael H.

    1999-01-01

    Besides direct bactericidal activity, long-term effectiveness is one of the most important features to consider when developing new drugs for chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the ability of rifapentine (RFP), in monotherapy and combination therapy, to completely eradicate a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and to prevent relapse posttreatment in a Swiss mouse model. The combination of RFP, isoniazid (INH), and pyrazinamide (PZA) administered daily resulted in an apparent clearance of M. tuberculosis organisms in the lungs and spleens of infected mice after 10 weeks of treatment. However, 3 months after the cessation of therapy, bacterial regrowth occurred in mice treated for a 12-week period, indicating a relapse of infection. In intermittent treatment regimens of RFP in combination with INH and PZA, sterilization was achieved when mice were treated two to five times per week for 9 weeks. Bacterial growth was still observed in the once-weekly treatment group. Our results show that mouse models can predict important parameters for new drugs. We stress the necessity for long-term posttreatment observation in animal models for the routine evaluation of new drugs for antituberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:10508006

  3. Baclofen as relapse prevention in the treatment of gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Rama M; Loonen, Anton J M; Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cornelis A J

    2015-06-01

    In the last decade, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) abuse and dependence have increased. It has been reported that GHB dependence has a high rate of relapse, serious complications of intoxication, and a potentially life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Nevertheless, in clinical practice, there is no known medical treatment to support GHB relapse prevention. We describe a case series of patients who were supported through an off-label treatment with baclofen to avoid a relapse into GHB abuse, for a period of 12 weeks. Nine of 11 patients did not relapse while taking a dose ranging from 30 to 60 mg per day, one patient relapsed after 5 weeks, and one stopped after 7 weeks. Baclofen was well tolerated; patients reported mild side effects such as fatigue, nausea, dry mouth, excessive sweating, and depressive feelings. Although systematic evidence is still lacking, our practice-based experience suggests that treatment with baclofen to assist abstinence might be effective in patients with GHB dependence. Further systematic controlled studies are necessary to establish the exact efficacy and safety of baclofen as relapse prevention for GHB-dependent patients.

  4. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Birgit; Haupt, Heidemarie; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Sandmann, Jörg; Gross, Johann; Klapp, Burghard F; Kiesewetter, Holger; Kalus, Ulrich; Stöver, Timo; Caffier, Philipp P

    2009-01-01

    Background Vardenafil (Levitra®) represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21) or matching placebo tablets (N = 21) administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication), and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ), the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36), audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds) and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status). Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA). Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36), objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil studies. Conclusion

  5. Predictors of Abstinence: National Institute of Drug Abuse Multisite Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid-Dependent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal)-assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid-dependent youth. Method: Secondary analyses were performed of data from 152 youth (15-21 years old) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification with weekly…

  6. Use of a Drawing Task in the Treatment of Nightmares in Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Charles A.; Johnson, David Read

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of nightmares in two Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder was conducted comparing a drawing task with a writing task. In a 12-week intervention in which drawing and writing were alternated, both subjects reported reduction in frequency and intensity of their nightmares in the drawing condition. (JPS)

  7. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  8. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  9. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M

    2014-04-01

    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  10. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  11. Transcutaneous noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) in the treatment of schizophrenia: a bicentric randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Wolff-Menzler, Claus; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Falkai, Peter; Weidinger, Elif; Jobst, Andrea; Hoell, Imke; Malchow, Berend; Yeganeh-Doost, Peyman; Strube, Wolfgang; Quast, Silke; Müller, Norbert; Wobrock, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Despite many pharmacological and psychosocial treatment options, schizophrenia remains a debilitating disorder. Thus, new treatment strategies rooted in the pathophysiology of the disorder are needed. Recently, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been proposed as a potential treatment option for various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to investigate for the first time the feasibility, safety and efficacy of transcutaneous VNS in stable schizophrenia. A bicentric randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted from 2010 to 2012. Twenty schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The first group (active tVNS) received daily active stimulation of the left auricle for 26 weeks. The second group (sham tVNS) received daily sham stimulation for 12 weeks followed by 14 weeks of active stimulation. Primary outcome was defined as change in the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale total score between baseline and week 12. Various other secondary measures were assessed to investigate safety and efficacy. The intervention was well tolerated with no relevant adverse effects. We could not observe a statistically significant difference in the improvement of schizophrenia psychopathology during the observation period. Neither psychopathological and neurocognitive measures nor safety measures showed significant differences between study groups. Application of tVNS was well tolerated, but did not improve schizophrenia symptoms in our 26-week trial. While unsatisfactory compliance questions the feasibility of patient-controlled neurostimulation in schizophrenia, the overall pattern of symptom change might warrant further investigations in this population.

  12. Percutaneous Adhesiolysis Versus Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Chronic Radicular Pain Caused by Lumbar Foraminal Spinal Stenosis: A Retrospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongbum; Lee, Woo Yong; Ahn, Jae Ki; Nam, Hee-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous adhesiolysis (PA) compared to fluoroscopy (FL)-guided transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) in patients with radicular pain caused by lumbar foraminal spinal stenosis (LFSS) by assessing pain relief and functional improvement at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. Methods This retrospective study included 45 patients who underwent PA or FL-guided TFSEI for radicular pain caused by LFSS of at least 3 months' duration. Outcomes were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Verbal Numeric Pain Scale (VNS) before the procedure and at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. A successful outcome was defined by >50% improvement in the VNS score and >40% improvement in the ODI score. Results ODI and VNS scores improved 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure in both groups. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed in ODI and VNS at 12 weeks (p<0.05). The proportion of patients with successful outcomes was significantly different between the two groups only at the 12-week time point. Conclusion Our study suggests that PA is effective for pain reduction and functional improvement in patients with chronic radicular pain caused by LFSS. Therefore, PA can be considered for patients with previous ineffective responses to conservative treatment. Although PA seems to be more effective than TFEFI according to the results of our study, in order to fully elucidate the difference in effectiveness, a prospective study with a larger sample size is necessary. PMID:26798608

  13. Effect of shear force, solution pH and breakage period on characteristics of flocs formed by Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) with surface water treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y X; Gao, B Y; Shon, H K; Kim, J-H; Yue, Q Y

    2011-03-15

    The growth, breakage and regrowth nature of flocs formed by Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl(4)) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was comparatively evaluated with surface water treatment. A series of jar experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of different operating parameters such as shear force, solution pH and a breakage period on floc strength and re-aggregation potential. Results indicated that the responses of flocs to different operating parameters depend on the coagulant used. The ability of floc to resist breakage decreased with the increase of shear force and breakage period. Floc strength properties were also measured in response to increasing shear force, with the results suggesting that the order of floc strength was TiCl(4)>PACl. Floc regrowth of the two coagulants after exposure to high shear was limited, and flocs formed by TiCl(4) displayed weaker recoverability. The flocs generated in acid conditions were more recoverable than those generated in alkaline conditions no matter which coagulant was used.

  14. Dynamics of nitrifying bacterial communities in the Seine river and estuary as affected by changes in the treatment of Paris wastewater : a comparison of 2001-2003 vs 2012-2013 periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa Grouz, Najla; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Mercier, Benjamin; Martinez, Anun

    2014-05-01

    The major branch of the Seine river from the confluence with the Marne river to the entrance of the estuary is deeply affected by the release of wastewater from the huge Paris agglomeration. In the first years of 2000, the largest part of the effluents were still discharged at the Seine-Aval (Achères) treatment plant with only a standard, low residence time, activated sludge treatment, thus releasing a high ammonium load. NH4 concentration as high as 7 mgN/l were frequently observed downstream from Paris agglomeration. Cébron et al. (2003, 2005) and Garnier et al. 2007 described in details how this massive reduced nitrogen concentrations triggered the growth of nitrifying bacteria, already present in the upstream Seine and Marne rivers, but also brought in large amount by the effluents of the wastewater treatment plant themselves. The decrease of ammonium concentration was slow, however, and was only completed 200 km downstream, in the upper estuarine area, where it causes a severe oxygen deficiency. Since 2007, important changes occurred in the treatment of nitrogen in the Parisian wastewater purification plants. In 2007, the Seine-Aval plant treated up to 90% of the ammonium contained in wastewater through nitrification, and 30% of the total supply of nitrates is treated by denitrification. These modifications have of course favorably affected the water quality of the Seine river: ammonium concentrations are reduced by a factor of 5 and the area of oxygen depletion in the upstream estuary is no more observed. However, nitrites, still released in the effluents, are a matter of concern for the water quality of the Seine downstream from Paris. Using measurements of potential microbial activities carried out with the same experimental protocol for the 2000-2003 and 2012-2013 periods, we here examine and model the dynamics of ammonium oxidizing and nitrite oxidizing microbial populations before and after the implementation of nitrification treatment of Paris

  15. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  16. The Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder in Adults—An Update for 2012: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Rosenberg, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed to update the previous AASM practice parameters on the treatments, both dopaminergic and other, of RLS and PLMD. A considerable amount of literature has been published since these previous reviews were performed, necessitating an update of the corresponding practice parameters. Therapies with a STANDARD level of recommendation include pramipexole and ropinirole. Therapies with a GUIDELINE level of recommendation include levodopa with dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, opioids, gabapentin enacarbil, and cabergoline (which has additional caveats for use). Therapies with an OPTION level of recommendation include carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, clonidine, and for patients with low ferritin levels, iron supplementation. The committee recommends a STANDARD AGAINST the use of pergolide because of the risks of heart valve damage. Therapies for RLS secondary to ESRD, neuropathy, and superficial venous insufficiency are discussed. Lastly, therapies for PLMD are reviewed. However, it should be mentioned that because PLMD therapy typically mimics RLS therapy, the primary focus of this review is therapy for idiopathic RLS. Citation: Aurora RN; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA: Zak RS; Casey KR; Lamm CI; Tracy SL; Rosenberg RS. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults—an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1039-1062. PMID:22851801

  17. Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy with Vaginal Estrogen Cream in Menopausal Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maitri; Karena, Zalak; Patel, Sangita V.; Parmar, Niyati; Singh, Pawan K.; Sharma, Atul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To measure the effect of vaginal estrogen cream in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in menopausal Indian women. Methods A total of 50 menopausal women aged between 40 and 80 years old with symptoms of vaginal atrophy were selected and treated with 0.5 g vaginal estrogen cream, twice weekly for 12 weeks. The women were followed-up monthly where symptom score, Genital Health Clinical Evaluation (GHCE) score, vaginal pH, and vaginal maturation index (VMI) were assessed and compared to baseline data. Any adverse events were recorded. Results There was a significant improvement (p < 0.010) in complaints such as vaginal dryness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia at the end of the study period. The clinical improvement of these patients was reflected in a decrease in GHCE score on every visit. Vaginal pH and VMI score also showed statistically significant improvements (p < 0.010). No side effects with the drugs used were recorded during the study period. Conclusions Vaginal estrogen cream causes symptomatic relief in women of menopausal age in India suffering from vaginal atrophy. PMID:28042397

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antimuscarinics in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder in Spain: A decision-tree model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fesoterodine, a new once daily antimuscarinic, has proven to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). To date, no analysis has evaluated the economic costs and benefits associated with fesoterodine, compared to antimuscarinics in Spain. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic value of OAB treatment with fesoterodine relative to extended release tolterodine and solifenacin, from the societal perspective. Methods The economic model was based on data from two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trials comparing fesoterodine and tolterodine extended released (ER). Treatment response rates for solifenacin were extracted from the published literature. Discontinuation and efficacy were based on the results of a 12-week multinational randomized clinical trial extrapolated to 52 weeks. Changes in health related quality of life were assessed with the King's Health Questionnaire, which was transformed into preference-based utility values. Medical costs included (expressed in € 2010) were antimuscarinics, physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads and the costs of OAB-related comorbidities, fractures, skin infections, urinary tract infections, depression, and nursing home admissions associated with incontinence. Time lost from work was also considered. Univariate sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results At week 12, continents accounted for 50.6%, 40.6% and 47.2% of patients in the fesoterodine, tolterodine, and solifenacin groups, respectively. By week 52, the projected proportions of patients remaining on therapy were 33.1%, 26.5% and 30.8%, respectively. The projected quality- adjusted life years (QALY) gain (compared to baseline) over the 52-week simulation period were 0.01014, 0.00846 and 0.00957, respectively. The overall treatment cost was estimated at €1,937, €2,089 and €1,960 for fesoterodine, tolterodine and solifenacin, respectively. Therefore

  19. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Erin; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pieracci, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:28251004

  20. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

    2010-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED.

  1. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) treatment of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) during early life development disrupts expression of genes directly involved in the feedback cycle of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    Fish are more sensitive to introduced disturbances from synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during early life phases compared with mature stages. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), which is the active compound in human oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies, is today ever present in the effluents from sewage treatment plants. EE2 targets and interacts with the endogenous biological systems of exposed vertebrates resulting in to large extents unknown short- and long-term effects. We investigated how EE2 exposure affects expression profiles of a large number of target genes during early life of roach (Rutilus rutilus). We exposed fertilized roach eggs collected from a lake in Southern Sweden to EE2 for 12weeks together with 1+-year-old roach in aquaria. We measured the gene expression of the estrogen receptor (esr)1/2a/2b, androgen receptor (ar), vitellogenin, cytochrome P450 (cyp)19a1a/1b in fertilized eggs; newly hatched larvae; 12-week-old fry; and juvenile wild roach (1+-year-old). Results shows that an EE2 concentration as low as 0.5ng/L significantly affects gene expression during early development. Gene expression responses vary both among life stages and molecular receptors. We also show that the gene profile of the estrogen feedback cycle to a large extent depends on the relationship between the three esr genes and the two cyp19a1 genes, which are all up-regulated with age. Results indicate that a disruption of the natural activity of the dominant esr gene could lead to detrimental biological effects if EE2 exposure occurs during development, even if this exposure occurred for only a short period.

  2. [Safety ov benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment with alpha-adrenoblocker dalphas].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Pushkar', D Iu; Rasner, P I

    2000-01-01

    The study was made of dalphas-retard safety and effectiveness in 940 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and relevant urination problems. The drug was given in a dose 5-10 mg/day for 12 weeks. The results were assessed in 881 patients who had completed the treatment course. 18 patients (1.9%) discontinued the treatment because of side effects. 38 patients (4%) had side effects once or more times.

  3. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis: a retrospective review of a Brazilian referral centre

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rosiana Estéfane; Toledo, Antonio; Senna, Maria Camilo; Rabello, Ana; Cota, Gláucia

    2016-01-01

    Although intralesional meglumine antimoniate (MA) infiltration is considered an option for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) therapy and is widely used in the Old World, there have been few studies supporting this therapeutic approach in the Americas. This study aims to describe outcomes and adverse events associated with intralesional therapy for CL. This retrospective study reviewed the experience of a Brazilian leishmaniasis reference centre using intralesional MA to treat 31 patients over five years (2008 and 2013). The median age was 63 years (22-86) and the median duration time of the lesions up to treatment was 16 weeks. In 22 patients (71%), intralesional therapy was indicated due to the presence of contraindications or previous serious adverse events with systemic MA. Other indications were failure of systemic therapy or ease of administration. Intralesional treatment consisted of one-six infiltrations (median three) for a period of up to 12 weeks. The initial (three months) and definitive (six months) cure rates were 70.9% and 67.7%, respectively. Most patients reported mild discomfort during infiltration and no serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, these results show that the intralesional MA efficacy rate was very similar to that of systemic MA treatment, and reinforce the need for further studies with adequate design to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic approach. PMID:27508321

  4. Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Zhang, Xian-Wei; Yu, Hong-Xing; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Jian-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

  5. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis: a retrospective review of a Brazilian referral centre.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosiana Estéfane da; Toledo, Antonio; Senna, Maria Camilo; Rabello, Ana; Cota, Gláucia

    2016-08-01

    Although intralesional meglumine antimoniate (MA) infiltration is considered an option for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) therapy and is widely used in the Old World, there have been few studies supporting this therapeutic approach in the Americas. This study aims to describe outcomes and adverse events associated with intralesional therapy for CL. This retrospective study reviewed the experience of a Brazilian leishmaniasis reference centre using intralesional MA to treat 31 patients over five years (2008 and 2013). The median age was 63 years (22-86) and the median duration time of the lesions up to treatment was 16 weeks. In 22 patients (71%), intralesional therapy was indicated due to the presence of contraindications or previous serious adverse events with systemic MA. Other indications were failure of systemic therapy or ease of administration. Intralesional treatment consisted of one-six infiltrations (median three) for a period of up to 12 weeks. The initial (three months) and definitive (six months) cure rates were 70.9% and 67.7%, respectively. Most patients reported mild discomfort during infiltration and no serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, these results show that the intralesional MA efficacy rate was very similar to that of systemic MA treatment, and reinforce the need for further studies with adequate design to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic approach.

  6. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  7. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  8. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  9. Community College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Eldor O.

    Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…

  10. Detection of initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system using 4-week-old rats without hepatocellular proliferative stimuli during the test chemical treatment period.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Yoshiji; Sakai, Hiroki; Hirata, Akihiro; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu; Miyamoto, Yohei; Yanai, Tokuma; Masegi, Toshiaki; Okada, Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system to detect initiation activities of chemicals on multi-organ carcinogenesis. However, cell proliferation stimuli during the test chemical treatment period, required in the previously used assay models using adult rats, are laborious; moreover, those cause decrease of hepatic metabolic enzymes and psychological and physical discomfort to animals resulting in inaccurate interpretation. Therefore, we investigated the utility of another in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without the cell proliferation stimuli. In this study, we confirmed that 4-week-old and 4.5-week-old male rats have high hepatocyte proliferation activity and similar enzyme activities of hepatic Cytochrome P450 subtypes as compared with 8-week-old male rats. Next, the in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without cell proliferation stimuli was evaluated for the detection of the initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), which is a well-known genotoxic carcinogen. Four-week-old rats were orally administered DMH (single dose, 4 or 16 mg/kg; or 4-day repeat, 1 or 4 mg/kg); subsequently, these rats were treated promotion treatment consisted of administration of 2-acetylaminofluorene and carbon tetrachloride. Four weeks after the first DMH administration, the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci induced by DMH in the liver was measured immunohistochemically. The inductions of GST-P-positive foci in all DMH-treated groups were dose-dependent, duration-dependent and significantly higher than that in non-DMH-treated group. From these results, our assay model was detected the initiation activity of DMH simply, and would be useful to evaluate the carcinogenicity of chemicals.

  11. Are improvements in shame and self-compassion early in eating disorders treatment associated with better patient outcomes?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C; Borairi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Compassion-focused therapy (CFT; Gilbert, 2005, 2009) is a transdiagnostic treatment approach focused on building self-compassion and reducing shame. It is based on the theory that feelings of shame contribute to the maintenance of psychopathology, whereas self-compassion contributes to the alleviation of shame and psychopathology. We sought to test this theory in a transdiagnostic sample of eating disorder patients by examining whether larger improvements in shame and self-compassion early in treatment would facilitate faster eating disorder symptom remission over 12 weeks. Participants were 97 patients with an eating disorder admitted to specialized day hospital or inpatient treatment. They completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Experiences of Shame Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale at intake, and again after weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Multilevel modeling revealed that patients who experienced greater decreases in their level of shame in the first 4 weeks of treatment had faster decreases in their eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks of treatment. In addition, patients who had greater increases in their level of self-compassion early in treatment had faster decreases in their feelings of shame over 12 weeks, even when controlling for their early change in eating disorder symptoms. These results suggest that CFT theory may help to explain the maintenance of eating disorders. Clinically, findings suggest that intervening with shame early in treatment, perhaps by building patients' self-compassion, may promote better eating disorders treatment response.

  12. High Power Laser for Treatment of Achilles Tendinosis – a Single Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mårdh, Anders; Lund, Iréne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pain in the Achilles tendon during loading is a very common condition. Conservative treatments, such as low level laser therapy (LLLT) have been reported to give varying results. Recently, a new laser treatment technique, high power laser treatment (HPLT) (Swiss DynaLaser®), was introduced in Scandinavia, but has not, to our knowledge, been systematically tested before. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of HPLT compared to placebo HPLT in rated pain and assessed pain threshold in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis. Methods: The study was a randomized, single blind, placebo controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive 6 treatments of either HPLT or placebo HPLT during a period of 3-4 weeks with a follow up period of 8-12 weeks. Outcome measures were rated pain according to questions of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS, Swedish version LK1.0) and assessment of electro-cutaneous stimulated pain threshold and matched pain (PainMatcher). Results: The results of the study demonstrated significant changes of assessments within groups, that were more pronounced towards lower levels of rated pain in the HPLT group than in the placebo HPLT group. The between group difference were significant in four of nine questions regarding loading activities of the FAOS subscale. Assessed pain thresholds were found increased in the HPLT group, as compared to the placebo HPLT group. At individual level, the results varied. Conclusion: The results indicate that HPLT may provide a future option for treatment of Achilles tendinosis related pain, but further studies are warranted. PMID:27330704

  13. A randomised, independent groups study investigating the sympathetic nervous system responses to two manual therapy treatments in patients with LBP.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jo; Green, Ann; Singh, Sally; Watson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Manual therapy (MT) and exercise therapy techniques are commonly utilised, guideline recommended treatment strategies in the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). Preliminary evidence on asymptomatic participants indicates that two manual therapy techniques; repeated lumbar extension in lying exercise (EIL); and segmental rotational grade V manipulation (manipulation), have significant effects on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as detectable with skin conductance (SC) responses. However, it is not known if these responses occur in patients with LBP. A randomised, independent group's design was utilised to investigate the immediate SC responses in 50 patients with LBP of less than 12 weeks duration. Patients received either the manipulation technique (n = 25) or the EIL exercise (n = 25) and SC activity was recorded, in a single treatment session, pre-, peri- and post-treatment. Both treatments resulted in a sympatho-excitatory response during the intervention period with the manipulation technique having a 255% increase (p < 0.005), and the EIL technique a 94% increase (p = 0.019) with both treatments having responses that were sustained into the final rest period (p < 0.005). Between-group comparisons indicate that the manipulation technique had a significantly greater magnitude of effect (p < 0.001). The results support the sympatho-excitatory responses seen in normative studies but challenge the assumption that normative and patient populations are analogous with respect to the magnitude of effect observed and suggest that SC responses may be a feasible, proxy method of detecting dorsal horn sensitisation and neuro-plastic adaptations occurring in the presence of LBP.

  14. Is switching retinoids a sound strategy for the treatment of acne vulgaris?

    PubMed

    Gold, Linda Stein; Colón, Luz E; Johnson, Lori A; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2008-06-01

    Topical retinoids, such as adapalene gel and tazarotene cream, are considered first-line therapy for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Dermatologists often initiate adapalene gel treatment first, due to its good tolerability, followed by a switch to tazarotene cream in an effort to improve or hasten efficacy outcomes. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 daily regimens for the treatment of acne: adapalene 0.1% gel for 12 weeks and adapalene 0.1% gel for 6 weeks followed by tazarotene 0.1% cream for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was the percent of reduction in total lesion counts posttreatment. Subjects ages 12 to 35 years with acne vulgaris were selected to participate in a 12-week, randomized, evaluator-blind study of once-daily therapy with adapalene 0.1% gel (n=101) or "switch therapy," adapalene 0.1% gel followed by tazarotene 0.1% cream (n=100). Adapalene-treated subjects achieved similar percent reductions in total lesion counts at week 12 compared to subjects receiving switch therapy, demonstrating the noninferiority of adapalene gel treatment (median difference: -3.57%; lower confidence limit [LCL]: -11.25). Adapalene gel was associated with fewer reports of cutaneous irritation, particularly for scaling and stinging/burning, and fewer treatment-related adverse events compared to switch therapy. The results of this study indicate that daily therapy with adapalene 0.1% gel for 12 weeks was noninferior to switch therapy.

  15. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  16. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  17. Optimum Timing for Surgery After Pre-operative Radiotherapy 6 vs 12 Weeks

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-22

    Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  18. Multi-component access to a community-based weight loss program: 12 week results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study examined weight loss between a comprehensive lifestyle modification program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus program) that included three ways to access and a self-help (SH) condition. A total of 293 participants were randomized to either a Weight Watchers condition (WW) (n=148) or a SH...

  19. Characterization of Queso Fresco made with Na/K salt blends and stored for 12 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health-conscious consumers are looking for ways to reduce dietary sodium yet want their cheeses to have the flavor, texture, and shelf-life of full-salt cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different Na-K salt blends and storage on the compositional, sensorial, micro...

  20. NEUROTOXICITY OF CARBONYL SULFIDE IN F344 RATS FOLLOWING INHALATION EXPOSURE FOR UP TO 12 WEEKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) was nominated to the National Toxicology Program for testing in 1996 due to emissions levels and a lack of data. Through an inter-agency collaboration, functional and electrophysiological endpoints were included in the studies. This manuscript describes b...

  1. Periodic Solutions of Spatially Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-10

    Theorem 0.2 generalizes Theorem 1.5 of Rabinowitz in [201. 3 Equation (0.1), under spatially periodic assumptions has been studied by several au...n x n symmetric matrix, H satisfying (HO), (H1) and (H2), and f = (0, fq) satisfying (fM), (fl) and (f2), Rabinowitz in [201 showed the existence of... Rabinowitz [17]. We consider a functional I : E x M ) R of class C’, where E is a Hilbert space and M is a compact manifold. Assuming that I satisfies a

  2. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.426 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period... inpatient psychiatric facility receives a payment comprised of a blend of the estimated Federal per diem... part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment of new inpatient psychiatric facilities. New...

  3. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.426 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period... inpatient psychiatric facility receives a payment comprised of a blend of the estimated Federal per diem... part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment of new inpatient psychiatric facilities. New...

  4. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.426 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period... inpatient psychiatric facility receives a payment comprised of a blend of the estimated Federal per diem... part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment of new inpatient psychiatric facilities. New...

  5. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.426 Transition period. (a) Duration of transition period... inpatient psychiatric facility receives a payment comprised of a blend of the estimated Federal per diem... part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment of new inpatient psychiatric facilities. New...

  6. Botulinum Toxin in Migraine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    ILGAZ AYDINLAR, Elif; YALINAY DİKMEN, Pınar; SAĞDUYU KOCAMAN, Ayşe

    2013-01-01

    Since botulinum toxin might have a therapeutic effect on pain, many studies investigating the efficiency of botulinum toxin in headache treatment have been done. The most satisfying results were achieved by botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the treatment of chronic migraine. In this paper, we reviewed the clinical effectiveness of BoNT/A in migraine and included our clinical experience. In our ongoing pilot study, where we have repeated BoNT/A injections every 12 weeks, The difference in the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) scores between the first and the second injections was 61.1%; and between the first and the 3rd injections was found to be 65.72%.

  7. Usefulness of a Tailored eHealth Service for Informal Caregivers and Professionals in the Dementia Treatment and Care Setting: The eHealthMonitor Dementia Portal

    PubMed Central

    Marinova-Schmidt, Velislava; Setzer, Manuela; Kondylakis, Haridimos; Griebel, Lena; Sedlmayr, Martin; Graessel, Elmar; Maler, Juan Manuel; Kirn, Stefan; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Background The European eHealthMonitor project (eHM) developed a user-sensitive and interactive Web portal for the dementia care setting called the eHM Dementia Portal (eHM-DP). It aims to provide targeted support for informal caregivers of persons with dementia and professionals. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness and impact of the eHM-DP service in the dementia care setting from two user perspectives: informal caregivers and professionals. Methods The evaluation study was conducted from June to September 2014 and followed a before-after, user-participatory, mixed-method design with questionnaires and interviews. The used intervention was the eHM-DP: an interactive Web portal for informal caregivers and professionals that was tested for a 12-week period. Primary outcomes for caregivers included empowerment, quality of life, caregiver burden, decision aid, as well as perceived usefulness and benefits of the eHM-DP. Primary outcomes for professionals involved decision aid, perceived usefulness, and benefits of the eHM-DP. Results A total of 25 informal caregivers and 6 professionals used the eHM-DP over the 12-week study period. Both professionals and informal caregivers indicated perceived benefits and support by the eHM-DP. In total, 65% (16/25) of informal caregivers would use the eHM-DP if they had access to it. Major perceived benefits were individualized information acquisition, improved interaction between informal caregivers and professionals, access to support from home, and empowerment in health-related decisions (PrepDM Score: 67.9). Professionals highlighted the improved treatment and care over the disease course (83%, 5/6) and improved health care access for people living in rural areas (67%, 4/6). However, there was no improvement in caregiver burden (Burden Scale for Family Caregivers) and quality of life (EuroQol-5D-5L) over the study period. Conclusions Our study provides insight into the different user perspectives

  8. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p < 0.05), while 1RM squat increased 6.5% (p < 0.025). EMG activity during the delivery phase was increased significantly (p < 0.025) after the training period. Shot put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p < 0.05 and 0.70, p < 0.05), but not with maximum vertical force. One RM squat was not related significantly with shot put performance. These results suggest that muscular power of the lower extremities is a better predictor of rotational shot put performance than absolute muscular strength in skilled athletes, at least during the competition period.

  9. Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Rossetto, Simone; Halmenschlager, Graziele; Linden, Rafael; Heckler, Eliane; Fernandez, Maria S Poblador; Alonso, José L Lancho

    2008-09-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main compound of Garcinia cambogia extract, is a competitive blocker of ATP-citrate-lyase, presenting a potential inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Glucomannan fibers, abundant in Amorphophallus konjac, seem to reduce the absorption kinetics of dietary fat. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind randomized study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of standardized extracts of G. cambogia (52.4% HCA) plus A. konjac (94.9% glucomannan) in the treatment of obesity. Fifty-eight obese subjects (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the placebo group (n = 26) or the treatment group (n = 32); no dietary restrictions were applied. Over a 12-week period, subjects were given daily doses of either Garcinia (2.4 g) plus Konjac (1.5 g) or placebo prior to their main meals (3 times/day). Before the start of treatment, and every 4 weeks thereafter, the following were recorded: height, weight, circumferences and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid profile and glucose levels. The treatment had no significant effect on anthropometric parameters, REE, triglycerides or glucose levels. However, a significant reduction was observed in total cholesterol (-32.0 +/- 35.1 mg/dL) and LDL-c levels (-28.7 +/- 32.7 mg/dL) in the treated group, the final levels being significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.020, respectively). The results obtained suggest that the treatment had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect, without influencing the anthropometric or calorimetric parameters tested.

  10. Safety Profile of Nifurtimox for Treatment of Chagas Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Colin J.; Hernandez, Salvador; Olmedo, Wilman; Abuhamidah, Adieb; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Sanchez, Daniel R.; Soverow, Jonathan; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nifurtimox is 1 of only 2 medications available for treating Chagas disease (CD) and currently the only drug available in the United States, but its safety and tolerance have not been extensively studied. This is the first study to evaluate tolerance of nifurtimox in US patients with CD. Methods. This investigation assessed side effects in a sample of 53 patients with CD, all Latin American immigrants, who underwent treatment with nifurtimox (8–10 mg/kg in 3 daily doses for 12 weeks) from March 2008 to July 2012. The frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) was recorded. Results. A total of 435 AEs were recorded; 93.8% were mild, 3.0% moderate, and 3.2% severe. Patients experienced a mean of 8.2 AEs; the most frequent were anorexia (79.2%), nausea (75.5%), headache (60.4%), amnesia (58.5%), and >5% weight loss (52.8%). Eleven patients (20.8%) were unable to complete treatment. Experiencing a moderate or severe AE (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; P < .05) and Mexican nationality (OR, 2.29; P < .05) were significant predictors of treatment discontinuation, but sex and cardiac progression at baseline were not. Patients who did not complete treatment experienced nearly 3 times more AEs per 30-day period (P = .05). Conclusions. Nifurtimox produces frequent side effects, but the majority are mild and can be managed with dose reduction and/or temporary suspension of medication. The high frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss mirrors results from prior investigations. Special attention should be paid during the early stages of treatment to potentially severe symptoms including depression, rash, and anxiety. PMID:27432838

  11. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  12. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  13. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  14. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  15. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Kim, Soeun; Cederblom, Lisa; Moe, Ardis; Ling, Walter; Steven, Shoptaw

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare modafinil to placebo for reducing methamphetamine (MA) use, improving retention, and reducing depressive symptoms and MA cravings. Rates of adverse events and cigarette smoking with modafinil versus placebo were also compared. Methods Following a 2-week, non-medication lead-in period, 71 treatment-seeking MA dependent participants were randomly assigned to modafinil (400 mg once daily; N= 34) or placebo (once daily; N= 37) for 12-weeks under double-blind conditions. Participants attended clinic thrice weekly to provide urine samples analyzed for MA-metabolite, to complete research assessments, and to receive contingency management and weekly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) sessions. Results There were no statistically significant effects for modafinil on MA use, retention, depressive symptoms, or MA cravings in pre-planned analyses. Outcomes for retention and MA use favored modafinil in a post hoc analysis among participants with low CBT attendance and among participants with baseline high frequency of MA use (MA use on >18 of past 30 days), but did not reach statistical significance in these small subgroups. Modafinil was safe and well tolerated and did not increase cigarette smoking. Conclusions Modafinil was no more effective than placebo at 400 mg daily in a general sample of MA users. A post hoc analysis showing a trend favoring modafinil among subgroups with baseline high frequency MA use and low CBT attendance suggests that further evaluation of modafinil in MA users is warranted. PMID:20092966

  16. Osteopathic Manual Treatment for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Feasibility Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maggiani, Alberto; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Valentina, Andrea Della; Mapelli, Laurent; Sosio, Silvia; Milano, Valeria; Bianchi, Manuel; Badi, Francesco; Lavazza, Carolina; Grandini, Marco; Corna, Giovanni; Prometti, Paola; Lunetta, Christian; Riva, Nilo; Ferri, Alessandra; Lanfranconi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current interventions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are focused on supporting quality of life (QoL) and easing pain with a multidisciplinary approach. Objective: Primary aim of this pilot work assessed feasibility, safety, tolerability and satisfaction of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) in 14 ALS outpatients. Methods: Patients were randomized according to an initial single-blind design (12 weeks, T0-T1), in order to receive OMT (weekly for 4 weeks, and fortnightly for the following 8 weeks) versus usual-care (n=7 each group), followed by an OMT open period (T1-T2, once a week for 8 weeks, n=10). Secondary aims included blind osteopathic assessment of somatic dysfunctions (SD) for goal attainment scale (GAS) calculation, Brief Pain Inventory-short form and McGill QoL-16 items. Results: OMT was demonstrated feasible and safe and patients displayed high satisfaction (T1-VAS=8.34 ± 0.46; T2-VAS=8.52 ± 0.60). Considering secondary aims no significant differences emerged. Finally, at study entry (T0), a cervico-dorsal SD was found in 78% of ALS patients versus 28% of healthy matched controls (p<0.01). Conclusion: OMT was found feasible, safe and satisfactory in ALS. The lack of secondary aim differences can be due to the limited sample size. OMT could be an interesting option to explore in ALS. PMID:27651843

  17. Treatment of Palatal Fractures by Osteosynthesis with 2.0-mm Locking Plates as External Fixator

    PubMed Central

    Cienfuegos, Ricardo; Sierra, Eduardo; Ortiz, Benjamin; Fernández, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Treatment options for palatal fractures range from orthodontic braces, acrylic bars, and arch bars for maxillomandibular fixation to internal fixation, with plates and screws placed under the palate mucosa and periosteum, together with pyriform aperture or alveolar plating plus buttress reconstruction. Forty-five patients, ages 4 to 56, were treated using medium- or high-profile locking plates placed over the palatal mucosa as an external fixator for palatal fractures, together with treatment for other associated facial fractures. In open fractures, plates were placed after approximating the edges of the mucosal wounds. Plates and screws for palate fixation were removed at 12 weeks, when computed tomography scans provided evidence of fracture healing. All palatal fractures healed by 12 weeks, with no cases of mucosal necrosis, bone exposure, fistulae, or infections. This approach achieves adequate stability, reduces the risk of bone and mucosal necrosis, and promotes healing of mucosal wounds in case of open fractures. PMID:22132261

  18. An Open-Label Study of Risperidone in the Improvement of Quality of Life and Treatment of Symptoms of Violent and Self-Injurious Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Stephen G.; Rendall, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Background: We examined the benefits of risperidone, including quality of life (QoL), in the treatment of violent and self-injurious behaviour in adults with moderate, severe or profound intellectual disability. Methods: Twenty-four participants received open-label, oral, flexible-dose risperidone of 0.5-6 mg/day for 12 weeks. Efficacy was…

  19. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  20. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  1. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  2. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  3. Retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection in a rat model of glaucoma following brimonidine, latanoprost or combined treatments.

    PubMed

    Hernández, María; Urcola, J Haritz; Vecino, Elena

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of two antiglaucomatous substances, regardless of their hypotensive effect in the eye. Brimonidine, which does not reduce IOP when administered intraperitoneally, and latanoprost, which has a renowned hypotensive effect topically. We examined rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and size distribution in experimental glaucoma in response to different glaucomatous agents. IOP was elevated by episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) prior to the application of different treatments: (I) PBS application (control group), (II) intraperitoneal administration of brimonidine (a general hypotensive agent), (III) topical application of latanoprost (an ocular hypotensive agent), and (IV) latanoprost combined with brimonidine. After 12 weeks, RGCs were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold and RGC density was analyzed. EVC caused a significant increase (42%) in IOP in each group before drug treatment. After 12weeks of EVC, RGC survival in control vs. EVC rats was 78.9+/-3.2%. No IOP reduction was observed in brimonidine injected rats, but RGC survival at 12 weeks was total (103.7+/-2.7%). In latanoprost treated rats, IOP dropped by around 22% and 94.7+/-3.7% of the RGC population survived. Finally in the latanoprost+brimonidine combined group, IOP was significantly reduced by 25% and 94.4+/-2.2% of RGCs survived. Surprisingly, whereas EVC led to a 6% increase in RGC soma size, brimonidine treatment was associated with a 9% reduction in the soma size of RGCs at 12 weeks. We conclude that brimonidine exerts a neuroprotective effect via a mechanism which is independent of IOP reduction. These findings indicate that cell survival in glaucoma may be enhanced by neuroprotective strategies which are independent of IOP reduction. No synergistic neuroprotective effect was observed when both treatments were applied simultaneously.

  4. The combination of nebulized sodium cromoglycate and salbutamol in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Furusho, Kenshi; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Sei; Akasaka, Toru; Arita, Masahiko; Edwards, Alan

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this multi-centre prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of the combination of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and salbutamol (administered as a nebulized solution), compared to SCG alone and salbutamol alone, in the management of severe, intractable asthma in childhood. The study was an open, randomized, cross-over trial of 12 weeks' duration in children with moderate-to-severe intractable asthma. All treatments were administered twice daily by powered nebulizer. The primary outcome measure was the change in asthma severity, as measured by the mean asthma score during the last 2 weeks of a baseline period and the last 2 weeks of each treatment. Secondary outcome measure was the patient's opinion of the effectiveness of treatment. The change in asthma scores from baseline values were significantly greater with the combination treatment compared to each component administered separately. The mean difference in asthma score between the combination and salbutamol was: -7.5; 95% CI, -11.70 to -3.29 (p < 0.0001). The mean difference between the combination and SCG was: -8.53; 95% CI, -14.03 to -3.25 (p < 0.0001). Patients were also significantly in favor of combination treatment (p < 0.001 vs. salbutamol; p < 0.01 vs. SCG). Two patients reported adverse effects. We concluded that regular twice-daily inhalation of a combination of SCG and salbutamol gave better control of symptoms than previous treatments in patients with severe, intractable asthma. Few adverse effects with this therapy suggest that it is extremely useful, safe, and effective.

  5. Examining Longitudinal Stimulant Use and Treatment Attendance as Parallel Outcomes in Two Contingency Management Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one 'parallel outcomes' model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β=0.060, p<0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis ((-)UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β=0.069, p<0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and (-)UA submission, but in the first trial a (-)UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r=0.117; r=0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a (-)UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r=0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This 'indirect reinforcement' between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials.

  6. Examining longitudinal stimulant use and treatment attendance as parallel outcomes in two contingency management randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one ‘parallel outcomes’ model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β = 0.060, p < 0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis (−UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β = 0.069, p < 0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and −UA submission, but in the first trial a −UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r = 0.117; r = 0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a −UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r = 0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This ‘indirect reinforcement’ between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials. PMID:26456717

  7. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  8. Quality of life improvement in treatment of psoriasis with intermittent short course cyclosporin (Neoral).

    PubMed

    Salek, M S; Finlay, A Y; Lewis, J J C; Sumner, M I

    2004-02-01

    Due to concern over long term safety of continuous treatment with cyclosporin, the aim of this 1-year study was to assess the effect of intermittent therapy with cyclosporin (Neoral) on the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic plaque psoriasis. A total of 41 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (26 male, mean age: 36 years, range: 18-61; duration of psoriasis 17 years, range: 2-31) entered a 9-centre open study in which cyclosporin was taken as an initial dose of 5 mg/kg/daily for a maximum of 12 weeks for up to three cycles. Each patient completed a psoriasis specific QOL measure (Psoriasis Disability Index, PDI) at the beginning and end of each treatment cycle and at the end of study. Clinical parameters including Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) were measured. The PDI scores showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) between the beginning and end of all three treatment cycles. The various clinical assessments for each treatment period also showed significant improvement (p < 0.001) for all three cycles. When comparing the last follow-up value to baseline there was a clear indication of relapse, but these scores were still significantly better than at baseline (p < 0.01). Notably, the mean PASI score improved by more than 50% (p < 0.001) between first baseline and end of the study. These findings indicate that a short course of intermittent therapy with cyclosporin in microemulsion formulation, used at starting doses of 5 mg/kg/day, improves QOL of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Once again, the applicability and validity of the PDI as a useful QOL tool has been demonstrated.

  9. Mitosis in the oesophageal epithelium of rats during chronic antithyroid treatment with carbimazole.

    PubMed

    Tuffery, A R; Mobarak, M

    1990-11-01

    The mitotic activity of the oesophageal epithelium of male rats maintained under carefully controlled conditions was studied, using the metaphase-arrest agent, vincristine sulphate. The accumulation of metaphases was linear (r = 0.97). In untreated rats there was a clear mitotic rhythm with a peak metaphase index (expressed as a percentage) of 12.4 +/- 0.86 (S.E.M.) at 12.00-15.00 h and a trough of 1.3 +/- 0.35 at 24.00 h. The overall mean metaphase index was 5.4 +/- 0.76. The effect of treatment with the antithyroid agent, carbimazole (0.1 g/100 ml in the drinking water), for 3 weeks was to depress the higher values at 12.00-18.00 h (P less than 0.01), while leaving the overall index unchanged. Carbimazole caused a significant (P less than 0.01), transient 40% increase in the metaphase index after 2 days; thereafter the metaphase index remained at control levels until 12 weeks of treatment when a steady decline occurred until 24 weeks. The results are in contrast to those in previously described experiments on thyroid follicular cells which show a large increase in the first few days of treatment, followed by a steady decline towards control levels at 12 weeks. The metabolic activity of the animals is about 50% of normal at 12 weeks when both the oesophageal epithelium and the thyroid follicular cells begin to show a reduction in proliferative activity.

  10. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  11. Importance of bringing dogs in contact with children during their socialization period for better behavior.

    PubMed

    Arai, Sato; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2011-06-01

    Much attention has been given to the role that dogs play in the social, physical, and psychological development of children. Furthermore, dogs are now playing a new important role in animal-assisted education (AAE). However, some dogs have difficulty getting along with children. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how dogs' contact with children during and after their socialization period influenced their responses toward children. In total, 31 pet dogs were divided into three groups. Group 1 dogs had been in contact with children during the canine socialization period (between 3 and 12 weeks of age); Group 2 dogs had been in contact with children after this socialization period; Group 3 dogs seldom had contact with children. As soon as a child entered the room, the dog was presented three stimuli by the child over the course of several intervals. The dogs' responses were evaluated by analyzing behavior and heart rates. The dogs that had been in contact with children during their socialization period did not show aggressive behavior or excited behavior toward the child in our test. Moreover, their heart rates were significantly decreased even during the last stimulus, which involved the child running around the dog while calling its name. This study suggested that the dogs having contact with children during socialization period might not show inappropriate responses toward children and could be suitable for taking part in AAE.

  12. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  13. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  14. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  15. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

  16. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  17. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  18. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  19. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy withdrawal and re-treatment in hypogonadal elderly men upon obesity, voiding function and prostate safety parameters.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Aksam; Nettleship, Joanne E; Talib, Raidh A; Almehmadi, Yousef; Doros, Gheorge

    2016-01-01

    Whether testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a lifelong treatment for men with hypogonadism remains unknown. We investigated long-term TRT and TRT withdrawal on obesity and prostate-related parameters. Two hundred and sixty-two hypogonadal patients (mean age 59.5) received testosterone undecanoate in 12-week intervals for a maximum of 11 years. One hundred and forty-seven men had TRT interrupted for a mean of 16.9 months and resumed thereafter (Group A). The remaining 115 patients were treated continuously (Group B). Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), residual voiding volume, bladder wall thickness, C-reactive protein (CRP), aging male symptoms (AMS), International Index of erectile function - erectile function (IIEF-EF) and International Prostate Symptoms Scores (IPSS) were measured over the study period with anthropometric parameters of obesity, including weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Prior to interruption, TRT resulted in improvements in residual voiding volume, bladder wall thickness, CRP, AMS, IIEF-EF, IPSS and obesity parameters while PSA and prostate volume increased. TRT interruption reduced total testosterone to hypogonadal levels in Group A and resulted in worsening of obesity parameters, AMS, IPSS, residual voiding volume and bladder wall thickness, IIEF-EF and PSA while CRP and prostate volume were unchanged until treatment resumed whereby these effects were reversed. TRT interruption results in worsening of symptoms. Hypogonadism may require lifelong TRT.

  20. Topiramate Combined with Cognitive Restructuring for the Treatment of Gambling Disorder: A Two-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Antonio Marcelo Cabrita; de Almeida Pinto, Moema Galindo; Bronstein, Gabriel; Carneiro, Elizabeth; Faertes, Daniela; Fukugawa, Viviane; Duque, Angela; Vasconcellos, Fatima; Tavares, Hermano

    2017-03-01

    Gambling disorder (GD) is a prevalent condition for which no pharmacological treatment has yet been approved, although there is evidence that topiramate can reduce impulsivity in GD and craving in various addictive behaviors. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of topiramate combined with cognitive restructuring for GD in a two-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Participants were individuals seeking outpatient treatment for GD (n = 30), treated with either topiramate or placebo combined with a brief cognitive intervention, over a 12-week period, the dose of topiramate being tapered up during the first 8 weeks. The main outcome measures were gambling craving, behavior, and cognitive distortions; impulsivity; depression and s