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Sample records for 12-week treatment period

  1. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  2. Escitalopram for treatment of night eating syndrome: a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S; Gang, Catherine H; Griffing, George T; Gadde, Kishore M

    2012-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the short-term effects of escitalopram on symptoms of night eating syndrome (NES) in a randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 40 patients with NES were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with escitalopram 20 mg (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 12 weeks. Escitalopram was started at 10 mg/d with a dosage increase to 20 mg/d after 4 weeks; placebo dosing was identical. The primary end point was a mean change in total score of the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). At 12 weeks, mean (SE) change in NEQ total score was -13.0 (1.6) and -10.6 (2.2) in the escitalopram and placebo groups, respectively (F(1,37) = 2.5, P = 0.124). There was a marginal interaction effect between response to escitalopram and race (F(1,34) = 4.0, P = 0.052), with a favorable effect for white patients (F(1,20) = 6.0, P = 0.024) but not for black patients (F(1,13) = 0.6, P = 0.453). Seven patients in the escitalopram group, compared with 6 patients in the placebo group, showed a 50% NEQ score reduction (P = 0.736). Sixteen patients in the escitalopram group and 12 patients in the placebo group no longer met NES criteria (P = 0.168). Twelve patients in the escitalopram group were classified as responders according to the Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale compared with 7 patients in the placebo group (P = 0.113). No significant between-group differences were found for weight, mood ratings, or adverse events. We conclude that escitalopram treatment for 12 weeks was not superior to placebo in reducing NES symptoms as measured by the NEQ.

  3. Clinical pharmacology study of cariprazine (MP-214) in patients with schizophrenia (12-week treatment)

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tadakatsu; Kubota, Tomoko; Iwakaji, Atsushi; Imada, Masayoshi; Kapás, Margit; Morio, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cariprazine is a potent dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist in development for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and depression. Pharmacokinetics of cariprazine and the two clinically relevant metabolites (desmethyl- and didesmethyl-cariprazine) was evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, fixed-dose (3, 6, or 9 mg/day) study of 28-week duration (≤4-week observation, 12-week open-label treatment, and 12-week follow-up). Once-daily cariprazine was administered to 38 adult patients with schizophrenia. The pharmacokinetics of cariprazine, metabolites, and total active moieties (sum of cariprazine and two metabolites) was evaluated; efficacy and safety were also assessed. Results Steady state was reached within 1–2 weeks for cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine, 4 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine, and 3 weeks for total active moieties. Cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine levels decreased >90% within 1 week after the last dose, didesmethyl-cariprazine decreased ~50% at 1 week, and total active moieties decreased ~90% within 4 weeks. Terminal half-lives of cariprazine, desmethyl-cariprazine, and didesmethyl-cariprazine ranged from 31.6 to 68.4, 29.7 to 37.5, and 314 to 446 hours, respectively. Effective half-life (calculated from time to steady state) of total active moieties was ~1 week. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 97.4%; 15.8% of patients discontinued due to adverse events. No abnormal laboratory values or major differences from baseline in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed. Conclusion Cariprazine and its active metabolites reached steady state within 4 weeks, and exposure was dose proportional over the range of 3–9 mg/day. Once-daily cariprazine was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26834462

  4. A 12 Week, Open Label, Phase I/IIa Study Using Apatone® for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have Failed Standard Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, Basir; Summers, Jack L.; Jamison, James M.; Neal, Deborah R.; McGuire, Karen; Gerson, Lowell; Diokno, Ananias

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral Apatone® (Vitamin C and Vitamin K3) administration in the treatment of prostate cancer in patients who failed standard therapy. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with 2 successive rises in PSA after failure of standard local therapy were treated with (5,000 mg of VC and 50 mg of VK3 each day) for a period of 12 weeks. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels, PSA velocity (PSAV) and PSA doubling times (PSADT) were calculated before and during treatment at 6 week intervals. Following the initial 12 week trial, 15 of 17 patients opted to continue treatment for an additional period ranging from 6 to 24 months. PSA values were followed for these patients. Results: At the conclusion of the 12 week treatment period, PSAV decreased and PSADT increased in 13 of 17 patients (p ≤ 0.05). There were no dose-limiting adverse effects. Of the 15 patients who continued on Apatone after 12 weeks, only 1 death occurred after 14 months of treatment. Conclusion: Apatone showed promise in delaying biochemical progression in this group of end stage prostate cancer patients. PMID:18392145

  5. Initial response as a predictor of 12-week buprenorphine-naloxone treatment response in a prescription opioid dependent population

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Katherine A.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hilario, E. Yvette; Fiellin, David A.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Initial medication response has been shown to predict treatment outcome across a variety of substance use disorders, but no studies have examined the predictive power of initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone in the treatment of prescription opioid dependence. We therefore conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study to determine whether initial response to buprenorphine-naloxone predicted 12-week treatment outcome in a prescription opioid-dependent population. Method Using data from a multi-site, randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine-naloxone plus counseling for DSM-IV prescription opioid dependence (June 2006–July 2009), we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate the relationship between initial medication response and 12-week treatment outcome to establish how soon the efficacy of buprenorphine-naloxone could be predicted. Outcomes were determined from the Substance Use Report, a self-report measure of substance use, and confirmatory urinalysis. Predictive values were calculated to determine the importance of abstinence vs. use at various time points within the first month of treatment (week 1, weeks 1–2, 1–3, or 1–4) in predicting successful vs. unsuccessful treatment outcome (based on abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) in the last 4 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment (weeks 9–12). Results Outcome was best predicted by medication response after two weeks of treatment. Two weeks of initial abstinence was moderately predictive of treatment success (positive predictive value = 71%), while opioid use in both of the first two weeks was strongly predictive of unsuccessful treatment outcome (negative predictive value (NPV) = 84%), especially when successful outcome was defined as total abstinence from opioids in weeks 9–12 (NPV = 94%). Conclusion Evaluating prescription opioid-dependent patients after two weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone treatment may help determine

  6. Effects of a 12-week intervention period with football and running for habitually active men with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, C; Sennhauser, C; Toigo, M; Boutellier, U; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of football (F, n=15) training on the health profile of habitually active 25-45-year-old men with mild hypertension and compared it with running (R, n=15) training and no additional activity (controls, C, n=17). The participants in F and R completed a 1-h training session 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in all groups but the decrease in diastolic blood pressure in F (-9 +/- 5 (+/- SD) mmHg) was higher than that in C (-4 +/- 6 mmHg). F was as effective as R in decreasing body mass (-1.6 +/- 1.8 vs-1.5 +/- 2.1 kg) and total fat mass (-2.0 +/- 1.5 vs -1.6 +/- 1.5 kg) and in increasing supine heart rate variability, whereas no changes were detected for C. Maximal stroke volume improved in F (+13.1%) as well as in R (+10.1%) compared with C (-4.9%). Total cholesterol decreased in F (5.8 +/- 1.2 to 5.5 +/- 0.9 mmol/L) but was not altered in R and C. We conclude that football training, consisting of high-intensity intermittent exercise, results in positive effects on blood pressure, body composition, stroke volume and supine heart rate variability, and elicits at least the same cardiovascular health benefits as continuous running exercise in habitually active men with mild hypertension.

  7. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  8. Effectiveness and tissue compatibility of a 12-week treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers with an octenidine based antiseptic--a randomized, double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Harding, Keith; Téot, Luc; Siebert, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of octenidine dihydrochloride/phenoxyethanol (OHP) found in vitro by conducting a randomized, double-blind controlled clinical study focusing on its safe and effective use in chronic venous leg ulcers. In total, 126 male and female patients were treated with either OHP (n = 60) or Ringer solution (n = 66). The treatment lasted over a period of maximum 12 weeks. For the assessment of the wound-healing process, clinical outcome parameters were employed, that is, time span until 100% epithelization, wound status and the wound surface area were analysed. Side effects were recorded during the study period. The median time to complete ulcer healing was comparable between the OHP and Ringer solution groups (92 versus 87 days; P = 0·952), without being influenced by wound size or duration of the target ulcer (P-values: 0·947/0·978). In patients treated with OHP, fewer adverse events (AEs) were observed compared with the Ringer group (17% versus 29% of patients reported 20 versus 38 AEs). OHP is well suitable for the treatment of chronic wounds without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, OHP does not impair the wound healing in chronic venous ulcers.

  9. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hartley, D E; Elsabagh, S; File, S E

    2004-01-01

    As memory and concentration impairments are a frequent complaint in post-menopausal women, this well-defined population was selected to investigate the effect on mood and cognition of chronic treatment with Gincosan. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, post-menopausal women aged 51-66 were randomly assigned to 12 weeks' treatment with Gincosan (320mg/day), containing 120mg Ginkgo biloba, and 200mg Panax ginseng (n = 30), or matched placebo (n = 27). They were given measurements of mood, somatic anxiety, sleepiness, and menopausal symptoms and a battery of cognitive tests before treatment and after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. There were no significant effects of Gincosan treatment on ratings of mood, bodily symptoms of somatic anxiety, menopausal symptoms, or sleepiness or on any of the cognitive measures of attention, memory or frontal lobe function. Thus, after chronic administration, Gincosan appeared to have no beneficial effects in post-menopausal women.

  10. Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy in adults: a 12-week, open-label, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Tariq; Nasrullah, Muhammad; Ghafoor, Adnan; Shahid, Riaz; Islam, Nadeem; Khattak, Mohammad Usman; Maheshwary, Neeta; Siddiqi, Ahson; Khan, Muhammad Athar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anticonvulsants are increasingly being used in the symptomatic management of several neuropathic pain disorders. The present observational study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life (QoL) of carbamazepine use for 12 weeks in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy, in Pakistan. Methods This was a 12-week, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled trial in adult type 2 diabetic patients (aged 18–65 years) suffering from clinically confirmed neuropathic pain (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 [DN4] score ≥4). Change in neuropathic pain at week 12 compared with baseline was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory Scale–Short Form (pain severity score and pain interference score). QoL was determined by the American Chronic Pain Association QoL scale. Safety was assessed based on patient reported adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Results Of the total 500 screened patients, 452 enrolled and completed the study. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) pain interference score decreased from 4.5±2.0 at baseline to 3.1±1.9 at week 12 (P<0.001). The mean (± SD) pain severity score decreased from 5.8±2.0 at baseline to 3.6±2.2 at week 12 (P<0.001). There was a decrease of ≥30% in the pain severity score between visits. The mean (± SD) QoL scale score improved from 5.9±1.6 at baseline to 8.0±1.7 at week 12. A total of ten (2.2%) patients reported AEs during the study period. No patient discontinued the study due to AEs. Conclusion In this real-life experience study, carbamazepine, when prescribed for 12 weeks to adult diabetic patients suffering from neuropathic pain, showed pain-relief effect, with reduced mean pain severity and mean pain interference scores and with improved QoL and good tolerability profile. PMID:25061334

  11. Asenapine as adjunctive treatment for acute mania associated with bipolar disorder: results of a 12-week core study and 40-week extension.

    PubMed

    Szegedi, Armin; Calabrese, Joseph R; Stet, Let; Mackle, Mary; Zhao, Jun; Panagides, John

    2012-02-01

    In a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjunctive asenapine, bipolar I disorder patients experiencing manic or mixed episodes despite pretreatment with lithium or valproate monotherapy were treated with flexible-dose, twice-daily asenapine 5 or 10 mg (n = 158) or placebo (n = 166). The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score at week 3. Secondary outcomes included YMRS response and remission and Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score changes. Patients completing the core study were eligible for a 40-week double-blind extension assessing safety and tolerability. Adjunctive asenapine significantly improved mania versus placebo at week 3 (primary end point) and weeks 2 to 12. The YMRS response rates were similar at week 3 but significantly better with asenapine at week 12. The YMRS remission rates and changes from baseline on Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder for mania and overall illness were significantly better with asenapine at weeks 3 and 12. No other statistically significant differences on secondary outcomes were observed. Only a small number of patients entered the extension, making firm statistical conclusions on efficacy difficult. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by 5% or more of asenapine patients and at twice the incidence of placebo were sedation, somnolence, depression/depressive symptoms, oral hypoesthesia, and increased weight in the 12-week core study. Adjunctive asenapine to lithium or valproate was more effective than mood stabilizer monotherapy in the core study and was well tolerated for up to 52 weeks.

  12. Morphological adaptation of muscle collagen and receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) in osteoarthritis patients with 12 weeks of resistance training: influence of anti-inflammatory or glucosamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana Claudia; Petersen, Susanne G; Kjaer, Michael; Mackey, Abigail L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12-week resistance training on morphological presence of collagen and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) in skeletal muscle of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Little is known about the influence of exercise on the skeletal muscle matrix that supports joints affected by OA mainly when it is associated with medication taken by OA patients (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and glucosamine). A biopsy was collected from the vastus lateralis muscle in all patients before and after 12-week period of training. The patients (age 55-69 years) were divided into three groups, treated with NSAID, glucosamine or placebo. In addition, the muscle samples were analysed by immunohistochemistry for collagen types, RAGE and capillaries ratio. An increment in immunoreactivity for type IV collagen after the training period was observed in 72 % of all biopsies when compared with their respective baseline samples. Reduced immunoreactivity of collagen type I was observed in all patients treated with glucosamine. A significant increase with training in the amount of RAGE was detected in the placebo group only (p < 0.05). Comparison of post-treatment states indicated significant differences between the placebo and glucosamine group data, demonstrating increased levels in the placebo group (p < 0.05). These findings suggest a basement membrane remodelling in favour of a strengthened extracellular matrix surrounding individual muscle fibres after 12 weeks of resistance training. Glucosamine with training appeared to attenuate RAGE accumulation more than was seen with NSAID or placebo in skeletal muscle of OA patients.

  13. A 12-week placebo-controlled double-blind study of prazosin in the treatment of prostatic obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chapple, C R; Stott, M; Abrams, P H; Christmas, T J; Milroy, E J

    1992-09-01

    A series of 93 normotensive patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and maximum urinary flow rates < 15 ml/s, treated at 2 hospital centres using an identical protocol, was randomly assigned to receive a 12-week course of treatment with prazosin or placebo in a double-blind parallel group trial. A total of 75 patients completed the study and were suitable for the final analysis. Prazosin was administered orally in doses of 0.5 mg and then 1 mg twice daily for 4 days and 2 mg twice daily for the remainder of the trial. Patients on treatment with prazosin exhibited a significantly increased maximum urinary flow rate as compared with placebo, with a significant reduction in maximum voiding detrusor pressure. Prazosin therapy did not produce a significant effect on either frequency or standard parameters of detrusor instability. A double-blind overall assessment of drug efficacy and tolerance significantly favoured prazosin therapy. A total of 30 patients receiving prazosin and 28 receiving placebo reported varied adverse effects. Eighteen patients were excluded from the final analysis, 10 being withdrawn because of adverse effects, 7 on treatment with prazosin and 3 in the placebo group. In long-term usage oral prazosin was well tolerated and appeared to improve obstructed voiding in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  14. 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of add-on riluzole in the treatment of childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul J; Joseph, Lisa A; Farmer, Cristan A; Luckenbaugh, David A; Lougee, Lorraine C; Zarate, Carlos A; Swedo, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    Many children with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to respond adequately to standard therapies. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system might be an alternative treatment target. This study examined the efficacy of riluzole, a glutamatergic modulator, as an adjunctive therapy for children with treatment-resistant OCD. In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 treatment-resistant children and adolescents (mean age=14.5 ± 2.4 years), with moderate to severe OCD (mean Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS)=28.2 ± 3.7), 17 of whom also had concomitant autism spectrum disorder, were randomized to receive riluzole (final dose of 100 mg/day) or placebo in addition to the existing treatment regimen. Fifty-nine subjects completed the randomized trial. Primary outcome measures were changes on the CY-BOCS, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Riluzole was fairly well tolerated, although it was associated with one case of pancreatitis and five instances of slight increases in transaminases. All subjects showed significant reductions in CY-BOCS scores during treatment; however, there was no significant difference between placebo and riluzole on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. The study failed to demonstrate superiority of riluzole over placebo as an adjunctive treatment for children with childhood-onset OCD. However, future studies may show benefits for less treatment-refractory children with fewer concomitant medications.

  15. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  16. An Open-Label Trial of 12-Week Simeprevir plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin (PR) in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 1 (GT1)

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Moreno, Christophe; Sarrazin, Christoph; Gschwantler, Michael; Foster, Graham R.; Craxí, Antonio; Buggisch, Peter; Ryan, Robert; Lenz, Oliver; Scott, Jane; Van Dooren, Gino; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle; Schlag, Michael; Buti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortening duration of peginterferon-based HCV treatment reduces associated burden for patients. Primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy against the minimally acceptable response rate 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and safety of simeprevir plus PR in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks. Additional objectives included the investigation of potential associations of rapid viral response and baseline factors with SVR12. Methods In this Phase III, open-label study in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients with F0–F2 fibrosis, patients with HCV-RNA <25 IU/mL (detectable/undetectable) at Week 2, and undetectable HCV-RNA at Weeks 4 and 8, stopped all treatment at Week 12. All other patients continued PR for a further 12 weeks. Baseline factors significantly associated with SVR12 were identified through logistic regression. Results Of 163 patients who participated in the study, 123 (75%) qualified for 12-week treatment; of these, 81 (66%) achieved SVR12. Baseline factors positively associated with SVR12 rates in patients receiving the 12-week regimen were: IL28B CC genotype: (94% SVR12); HCV RNA ≤800,000 IU/mL (82%); F0–F1 fibrosis (74%). Among all 163 patients, 94% experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE), 4% a serious AE, and 2.5% discontinued due to an AE. Reduced impairment in patient-reported outcomes was observed in the 12-week vs >12-week regimen. Conclusions Overall SVR12 rate (66%) was below the target of 80%, indicating that shortening of treatment with simeprevir plus PR to 12 weeks based on very early response is not effective. However, baseline factors associated with higher SVR12 rates were identified. Therefore, while Week 2 response alone is insufficient to predict efficacy, GT1 patients with favourable baseline factors may benefit from a shortened simeprevir plus PR regimen. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01846832 PMID:27428331

  17. Differential therapeutic effects of 12-week treatment of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on drug-naïve children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A counting Stroop functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tai-Li; Chia, Seng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with underlying distinct pharmacological mechanisms. To relate neural mechanisms to clinical response, we conducted a comparative trial to differentiate the changes in brain activation of drug-naïve children with ADHD when performing neuropsychological tasks after 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy. We randomized 50 drug-naïve children with ADHD, aged 7-17, to treatment with methylphenidate (n=25) or atomoxetine (n=25). These children were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the counting Stroop task before and after treatment. Focused attention and impulsivity were assessed twice by using the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). The final sample for fMRI analysis comprised 20 in the methylphenidate group and 22 in the atomoxetine group. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which correlated with improvement in focused attention assessed by the CCPT. In contrast, methylphenidate increased activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, which correlated with the decreasing severity of impulsivity assessed by the CCPT. The current findings suggest that differential therapeutic effects on neuronal changes induced by 12-week treatment atomoxetine and methylphenidate may contribute to behavioral improvement.

  18. Differential therapeutic effects of 12-week treatment of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on drug-naïve children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A counting Stroop functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tai-Li; Chia, Seng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with underlying distinct pharmacological mechanisms. To relate neural mechanisms to clinical response, we conducted a comparative trial to differentiate the changes in brain activation of drug-naïve children with ADHD when performing neuropsychological tasks after 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy. We randomized 50 drug-naïve children with ADHD, aged 7-17, to treatment with methylphenidate (n=25) or atomoxetine (n=25). These children were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the counting Stroop task before and after treatment. Focused attention and impulsivity were assessed twice by using the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). The final sample for fMRI analysis comprised 20 in the methylphenidate group and 22 in the atomoxetine group. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which correlated with improvement in focused attention assessed by the CCPT. In contrast, methylphenidate increased activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, which correlated with the decreasing severity of impulsivity assessed by the CCPT. The current findings suggest that differential therapeutic effects on neuronal changes induced by 12-week treatment atomoxetine and methylphenidate may contribute to behavioral improvement. PMID:26409297

  19. Effect of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Molloy, Joseph M; Pascoe, David D

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of wrist and forearm training on male high school baseball players (mean age = 15.3 +/- 1.1 years). Participants (N = 43) were tested for 10 repetition maximum (RM) wrist barbell flexion, wrist barbell extension, dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) hand-forearm supination, D and ND forearm pronation, D and ND wrist radial deviation, D and ND wrist ulnar deviation, D and ND grip strength, and a 3RM parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP). Group 1 (n = 23) and group 2 (n = 20), randomly assigned by a stratified sampling technique, performed the same resistance exercises while training 3 days a week for 12 weeks according to a stepwise periodized model. Group 2 also performed wrist and forearm exercises 3 days a week for 12 weeks to determine if additional wrist and forearm training provided further wrist and forearm strength improvements. All wrist and forearm strength variables were measured before and after 12 weeks of training. The 3RM PS and BP were measured at 0 and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. Both groups significantly increased wrist and forearm strength (kg +/- SD) except 10RM D and ND forearm supination for group 1 (p < 0.05). Group 2 showed statistically greater improvements (p < 0.05) in all wrist and forearm strength variables than did group 1 except for D and ND grip strength. Predicted 1RM (kg +/- SD) PS and BP increased significantly (p < 0.05) after weeks 4, 8, and 12 for both groups. These data indicate that a 12-week stepwise periodized training program can significantly increase wrist, forearm, PS, and BP strength for both groups. Additionally, group 2 had further wrist and forearm strength gains.

  20. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  1. Exercise and quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis: A 12-week intervention study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anne Mette; Jacobsen, Ulla; Bregnballe, Vibeke; Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Ingemann-Hansen, Thorsten; Thastum, Mikael; Oluf Schiøtz, Peter

    2011-11-01

    It was hypothesised that increased exercise capacity is related to improved quality of life (QoL) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A 12-week individually tailored unsupervised aerobic exercise programme was offered to 42 patients with CF. At the start and at the end of the exercise programme, data on QoL, current exercise habits and preferences, anthropometric data, exercise test, and lung function test were collected. Adherence was observed by a heart rate (HR) monitor. A total of 24 patients accepted to be enrolled in the exercise programme and 14 completed the programme. Another 14 patients declined to be enrolled in the exercise programme but completed the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (CFQ-R 14+). Four patients did not want to participate at all. The 14 patients completing the exercise programme had a significantly increased VO(2max), but they showed no significant change in total QoL score. However, the scores in the domain of treatment burden and emotional functioning increased significantly. There was no significant difference in QoL and lung function between patients participating in the exercise programme (n = 24) and non-participants (n = 14). A 12-week individually tailored unsupervised aerobic exercise programme where HR monitors were used significantly affected VO(2max). Improvement in QoL could not be demonstrated in this study. PMID:21722067

  2. Efficacy of Olibra: A 12-Week Randomized Controlled Trial and a Review of Earlier Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J; Martin, Corby K; Johnson, William D; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention strategies that harness the body's appetite and satiety regulating signals provide a means of countering excessive energy intake. Methods Eighty-two subjects were enrolled (18–60 years, body mass index: 25–40 kg/m2) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel trial. During a 12-week period, the effects of Olibra™ fat emulsion (2.1 g twice daily) on food intake, appetite, satiety, weight, and body composition were compared with those of a twice daily administered placebo (1.95 g milk fat). On days -7, 0, and 28, Olibra or the placebo added to 200 g of yogurt was served at breakfast and lunch. Food intake, appetite, and satiety were assessed after lunch and dinner. Body weight was measured on days -7, 0, 14, 28, 56, and 84. Body fat, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were determined on days 0 and 84. The Eating Inventory was administered at screening and on day 28. Data relating to 71 subjects were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results At 12 weeks, body weight was reduced in the test group (2.17 ± 0.46 kg standard error of the mean, p < .0001) and the control group (1.68 ± 0.42 kg, p < .0001). Waist circumference decreased by 2.93 ± 0.85 cm in the test group (p = .001) and by 1.78 ± 0.74 cm in the control group (p = .02). Differential weight and waist circumference reductions were not significant. Hunger scores (Eating Inventory) decreased more in the test group (p = .0082). Differential group effects were not significant for body fat, waist-hip ratio, food intake, appetite, and satiety. Conclusions At this dose, Olibra did not exert a consistent effect on food intake, appetite regulation, body weight, or body composition. PMID:22768902

  3. Inflammatory suppression by endodontic sealers after aging 12 weeks In vitro.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Martha Goël; Marshall, Aksana; Lockwood, Petra E; Lewis, Jill B; Messer, Regina L W; Bouillaguet, Serge; Wataha, John C

    2009-11-01

    Dental endodontic sealers are in intimate contact with tissues around the root apex (periapical area) for extended periods. New endodontic sealers have been developed in the past decade, but the biological responses to many new products are not well documented. In this study, we assessed in vitro monocytic cytotoxic and inflammatory responses to several contemporary endodontic sealers. AH-Plus (AH), Pulp Canal Sealer (PC), Epiphany (EPH), Endo-Rez (ER), and an experimental Endo-Rez (ERx) were initially placed in buffered-saline for 12 weeks to simulate in vivo use. After "aging," specimens were placed in direct contact with THP1 monocytes for 72 h and their cytotoxicity (mitochondrial response; MTT) or ability to trigger or suppress cytokine secretion (ELISA; TNFalpha, IL1beta, IL=6; +/- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure) were measured relative to Teflon (Tf) negative controls. Cellular responses among conditions were compared with ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis (alpha = 0.05). Two of the five sealers, EPH and PC, still suppressed cell mitochondrial activity by 70% or more after 12 weeks of conditioning in saline. No sealer alone activated monocytic TNFalpha, IL1beta, or IL6 secretion (p > 0.05 vs. +LPS controls). When THP1 were activated by LPS after exposure to the sealers, differential suppression of TNFalpha, IL1beta, and IL6 secretion was observed for two of the five sealers tested. (EPH and PC) This data suggest that common endodontic sealers do not activate monocytic TNFalpha, IL1beta, and IL6 secretion in vitro by themselves, but degradation products of the sealers may suppress activation of monocytes.

  4. Improved cognitive function in postmenopausal women after 12 weeks of consumption of a soya extract containing isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosanna; Wiseman, Helen; File, Sandra E

    2003-06-01

    We previously reported that a high soya diet improved memory and frontal lobe function in young volunteers, and since soya isoflavones are agonists at oestrogen receptors, they may improve these functions in postmenopausal women. Thirty-three postmenopausal women (50-65 years) not receiving conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were randomly allocated in a double-blind parallel study to receive a soya supplement (60 mg total isoflavone equivalents/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. They received a battery of cognitive tests and completed analogue rating scales of mood and sleepiness, and a menopausal symptoms questionnaire before the start of treatment and then after 12 weeks of treatment. Those receiving the isoflavone supplement showed significantly greater improvements in recall of pictures and in a sustained attention task. The groups did not differ in their ability to learn rules, but the isoflavone supplement group showed significantly greater improvements in learning rule reversals. They also showed significantly greater improvement in a planning task. There was no effect of treatment on menopausal symptoms, self-ratings of mood, bodily symptoms or sleepiness. Thus, significant cognitive improvements in postmenopausal women can be gained from 12 weeks of consumption of a supplement containing soya isoflavones that are independent of any changes in menopausal symptoms, mood or sleepiness.

  5. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  6. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control.

  7. Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Kumar, Anita A; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajamanickam, Deepan; Bhaskar, Emmanuel; Paniker, Vinod K; Abraham, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity. Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer. Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland. The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency. He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit. The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 weeks later. Additionally, his adrenals showed no evidence of metastasis. Hence his adrenal insufficiency had been a paraneoplastic manifestation of the lung cancer, and it had also preceded the primary by 12 weeks.

  8. Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Kumar, Anita A; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajamanickam, Deepan; Bhaskar, Emmanuel; Paniker, Vinod K; Abraham, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity. Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer. Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland. The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency. He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit. The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 weeks later. Additionally, his adrenals showed no evidence of metastasis. Hence his adrenal insufficiency had been a paraneoplastic manifestation of the lung cancer, and it had also preceded the primary by 12 weeks. PMID:21686682

  9. A 12-week comparison regarding symptom improvement in an urban university-based outpatient child psychiatry clinic.

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne L; Meaden, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of pharmacotherapy versus combination pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for externalizing, conduct, and aggressive behaviors in children aged 6 through 18 years in an urban academic outpatient facility. Data from a child psychiatry outpatient population whose scores were identified as "at risk" or "clinically significant" based on a validated and standardized assessment tool were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks or more after treatment. Conduct symptoms worsened with medication management alone but improved with combination treatment (P < 0.05). Females and older youth were more likely to have therapy included in their treatment. Conduct problems that can be seen in a variety of youth disorders, such as disruptive behaviors, mood, and anxiety disorders, have a better probability of improving with treatment that includes psychotherapy versus medication management alone.

  10. The Effects of a 12-Week Walking Program on Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Tzu-I; Lii, Yun-Kung; Yu, Shu; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chen, I-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a popular and easily accessible form of physical activity. However, walking instruction for older adults is based on the evidence gathered from younger populations. This study evaluated walking conditions, strength, balance, and subjective health status after a 12-week walking-training program in community-dwelling adults greater than…

  11. Achondrogenesis type 2 diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Soothill, P W; Vuthiwong, C; Rees, H

    1993-06-01

    Ultrasound examination at 12 weeks' gestation revealed severe generalised subcutaneous oedema in a pregnancy at risk for achondrogenesis type II. Transvaginal scanning confirmed the oedema and suggested abnormal limb development. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed by X-ray examination after transvaginal termination. PMID:8372079

  12. 12 Weeks of Daclatasvir in Combination With Sofosbuvir for HIV-HCV Coinfection (ALLY-2 Study): Efficacy and Safety by HIV Combination Antiretroviral Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; McDonald, Cheryl; Ramgopal, Moti; Noviello, Stephanie; Bhore, Rafia; Ackerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Highly effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapies that do not require modification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral regimens are needed. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir + sofosbuvir (DCV + SOF) for 12 weeks by antiretroviral (ARV) regimen in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. Methods. In the randomized, open-label ALLY-2 study, HIV-HCV-coinfected patients received 8 or 12 weeks of once-daily DCV 60 mg (dose-adjusted as-necessary for concomitant ARVs) + SOF 400 mg. Results were stratified by ARV class for the 151 patients who received 12 weeks of DCV + SOF. Results. Fifty-one patients were HCV treatment experienced, 100 were treatment naive, 89% male and 33% black. HCV genotypes were: genotype 1a (GT1a; 69%), GT1b (15%), GT2 (8%), GT3 (6%), and GT4 (2%). Sustained virologic response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was 97% and was similar across ARV regimens (P = .774): protease inhibitor-based, 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-99.7%); nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based, 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%); and integrase inhibitor based, 95% (95% CI, 83%-99.4%). SVR12 among patients receiving either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or abacavir as part of their antiretroviral therapy regimen was 98% (95% CI, 93%-99.5%) and 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%), respectively. Age, gender, race, cirrhosis, HCV treatment history, GT , and baseline HCV RNA did not affect SVR12. No discontinuations were attributed to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions. DCV + SOF x12 weeks is a highly efficacious, all-oral, pan-GT HCV treatment for HIV-HCV coinfected patients across a broad range of ARV regimens. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02032888. PMID:27025835

  13. Lateralization of infant holding by mothers: A longitudinal evaluation of variations over the first 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Todd, Brenda K; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The maternal preference to hold infants on the left rather than right side of the body was examined longitudinally, with attention to 4 explanations: maternal monitoring of infant state, maternal handedness, infant proximity to the mother's heartbeat, and preferred infant head position. The side and site of holding were measured over the first 12 weeks of the lives of 24 infants. Information about group and individual consistency in holding side allowed novel evaluation of the theories. A strong bias to hold on the left dropped below significance when the infants were aged 12 weeks and was limited to specific holding positions. Findings were generally consistent with the monitoring hypothesis, and little support was found for the 3 alternative explanations.

  14. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  15. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  16. Immune Function Alterations during 12 Weeks of Abstinence in Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Yang, X-R; Song, H; Cao, B-R; Yin, F; An, Z-M; Kang, L; Li, J

    2015-01-01

    The intent of the study was to evaluate immune system changes during 12 weeks of abstinence in heroin users. We recruited men (N = 65) aged 18-45 years and collected demographic and heroin use pattern data. Serum blood levels of total interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM were assessed at five time points. The IL-2 level was increased on day 84 as compared to that in healthy controls. The IFN-γ level was higher in heroin users than in healthy controls between days 0 and 28, and was decreased on day 84. IgG and IgM levels in heroin users were higher than those in healthy controls in our 12-week study, and were in positive correlation with the way of using the drug, duration of heroin dependence, and daily heroin intake. Our data revealed that the immune system was not restored during the 12 weeks of heroin withdrawal. PMID:26789146

  17. A 12-week medical exercise therapy program leads to significant improvement in knee function after degenerative meniscectomy: a randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Østerås, Håvard

    2014-07-01

    There is no consensus in the postoperative rehabilitation regimen for patients who have undergone surgery for medial meniscus damage. The aim of this study was to examine whether it is necessary to undergo postoperative physiotherapy treatment these patients. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. 42 participants (26 males, 16 women) were randomly assigned into an exercise group (EG) (n = 22) or a control group (CG) (n = 20). Prognostic variables were similar between the groups at baseline. The EG achieved significantly better outcome effects than the CG at pain (VAS reduced 1.9 in TG and 0.6 in CG, p < 0.01) and function (KOOS decreased 18.0 in TG and only 6.5 in CG, p < 0.01) during the 12 week intervention period. The results after a 12-month follow-up indicated the same results as at posttest 3 months postoperatively. In patients with surgery for degenerative meniscus damage, postoperative medical exercise therapy - as a model of physiotherapy - is an efficient treatment alternative compared to no systematic rehabilitation.

  18. Chronic flexibility improvement after 12 week of stretching program utilizing the ACSM recommendations: hamstring flexibility.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Baranda, P; Ayala, F

    2010-06-01

    The ACSM flexibility training recommendations emphasize proper stretching of muscles supporting the major joints, but there is a little evidence to support this recommendation in terms of effectiveness, and which stretching parameters (technique and single stretch duration) are more adequate. A randomized controlled clinical trial design was use to investigate whether the ACSM flexibility training recommendation parameters improve hip flexion range of motion. A total of 173 subjects, 122 men (21.3+/-2.5 years; 176.33+/-8.35 cm; 74.42+/-10.80 kg) and 51 women (20.7+/-1.6 years; 163.43+/-6.57 cm; 60.12+/-7.88 kg), classified as recreationally active young adult university students were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: 1 control group (no stretching) or 1 of 6 stretching groups. All stretching groups performed 12 weeks of flexibility training with a consistent stretch daily dose (180 s) and frequency (3 days per week) parameters and different stretch technique (passive or active) and single stretch duration (15, 30, or 45 s). Hip flexion passive range of motion (PROM) was determined through the bilateral straight-leg raise test before, during (at 4 and 8 weeks), and after the program (12 weeks). All stretching groups performed hip flexion PROM after flexibility training. A significant improvement was identified in mean PROM for each stretching group, but no significant differences were found between stretch technique and single stretch duration (p>0.05). The control group's mean PROM decreased (Delta PROM: -0.08 degrees, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-2.3 to 5.3), whereas all stretching groups increased PROM (Delta PROM: 15.14 degrees, 95% CI=10.19 to 23.56) in hip flexion after 12 weeks of stretching (p<0.05). The present study suggests that the current ACSM flexibility training recommendations are effective for improving hip flexion ROM in recreationally active young adults.

  19. A 12-week randomized double-blind parallel pilot trial of Sinetrol XPur on body weight, abdominal fat, waist circumference, and muscle metabolism in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Cases, Julien; Romain, Cindy; Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Rouanet, Jean Max

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated to increased risk of developing non-communicable diseases that might dramatically affect life expectancy according World Health Organization. Overweight, obesity, and decline in physical activity are correlated to a significant propensity to lose skeletal muscle mass as a result of prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress whereas cohort surveys and clinical investigations have demonstrated health benefits of Citrus-based polyphenols to reverse such regression. Overweight men were included in a double-blind, randomized, parallel pilot trial where they received daily for a 12-week period 900 mg of a Citrus-based polyphenol extract, Sinetrol® XPur. Body composition, anthropometric, and blood parameters were assessed before and at the end of the intervention period. After 12 weeks, while the silhouette slimmed down, metabolic parameters were significantly improved and skeletal muscle catabolism held back. These data suggest that over a 12-week period, the efficacy of the supplement improve both overweight process and correlated skeletal muscle mass metabolism. PMID:26037199

  20. Effects of 12-Week Bacopa monnieri Consumption on Attention, Cognitive Processing, Working Memory, and Functions of Both Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Systems in Healthy Elderly Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Peth-Nui, Tatimah; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Rangseekajee, Poonsri; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Vittaya-areekul, Sakchai

    2012-01-01

    At present, the scientific evidence concerning the effect of Bacopa monnieri on brain activity together with working memory is less available. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of B. monnieri on attention, cognitive processing, working memory, and cholinergic and monoaminergic functions in healthy elderly. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design was utilized. Sixty healthy elderly subjects (mean age 62.62 years; SD 6.46), consisting of 23 males and 37 females, received either a standardized extract of B. monnieri (300 and 600 mg) or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. The cholinergic and monoaminergic systems functions were determined using AChE and MAO activities. Working memory was assessed using percent accuracy and reaction time of various memory tests as indices, whereas attention and cognitive processing were assessed using latencies and amplitude of N100 and P300 components of event-related potential. All assessments were performed before treatment, every four weeks throughout study period, and at four weeks after the cessation of intervention. B. monnieri-treated group showed improved working memory together with a decrease in both N100 and P300 latencies. The suppression of plasma AChE activity was also observed. These results suggest that B. monnieri can improve attention, cognitive processing, and working memory partly via the suppression of AChE activity. PMID:23320031

  1. The effect of 12 weeks Anethum graveolens (dill) on metabolic markers in patients with metabolic syndrome; a randomized double blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clustering of metabolic abnormalities defined as metabolic syndrome is now both a public health and a clinical problem .While interest in herbal medicine has greatly increased, lack of human evidence to support efficacies shown in animals does exist. This clinical trial study designed to investigate whether herbal medicine, Anethum graveolens (dill) extract, could improve metabolic components in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design was conducted. 24 subjects who had metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria (update of ATP III) were randomly assigned to either dill extract (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) for 3 months. Results Across lipid component of metabolic syndrome, no significant differences in triglyceride (TG) concentration and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were seen between the two groups. However TG improved significantly from baseline (257.0 vs. 201.5p = 0.01) with dill treatment but such a significant effect was not observed in placebo group. Moreover, no significant differences in waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were seen between two groups after 3 months follow up period. Conclusion In this small clinical trial in patients with metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks of dill extract treatment had a beneficial effect in terms of reducing TG from baseline. However dill treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome related markers compared to control group. Larger studies might be required to prove the efficacy and safety of long-term administration of dill to resolve metabolic syndrome components. PMID:23351341

  2. [Uterine rupture in a patient with bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea: about a case].

    PubMed

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea.

  3. [Uterine rupture in a patient with bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea: about a case].

    PubMed

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea. PMID:27642490

  4. Do 12-week yoga program influence respiratory function of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Lídia Aguiar; de Melo, Helton Fabrício; Garay, Ana Paula; Reis, Victor Machado; Aidar, Felipe José; Bodas, Ana Rita; Garrido, Nuno Domingos; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó

    2014-09-29

    Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women. PMID:25713658

  5. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  6. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m2) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  7. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit.

  8. Effects of 12-week Vegetarian Diet on the Nutritional Status, Stress Status and Bowel Habits in Middle School Students and Teachers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ra; Ko, Yu Mi; Cho, Mi Hee; Yoon, Young Ran; Kye, Seung Hee; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of switching normal diet to vegetarian diet rich in vegetables and fruits for school foodservice and home meal on the nutritional status, bowel habit improvement and stress reduction of teachers and adolescents. A total of 40 research subjects (26 students, 14 teachers) from one middle school voluntarily participated in the research. Questionnaire surveys and blood analysis were conducted before and after a 12-week vegetarian diet period. The participants were asked on their dietary habit, bowel habit and stress measurement. After 12 weeks, reduction of BMI (kg/m(2)) in the students (p < 0.05) and reduction of TC (mg/dL) in both teachers and students (p < 0.05) were observed. Also reduction of LDL-C (mg/dL) was observed in the teachers (p < 0.05) whereas serum calcium and Vitamin B12 was increased in the students and teachers (p < 0.005). The teacher's stress level was reduced (p < 0.05) after the 12-week vegetarian diet. As for the changes in bowel habit, the number of the students and teachers classified as experiencing functional constipation was decreased respectively from 10 to 7, from 7 to 5. Based on the result, it is considered that the vegetarian diet rich in fruits and vegetables improved general health status of study subjects suggesting that such a dietary habit would substantially contribute to improving nutritional status and bowel habit. PMID:27152300

  9. Linagliptin monotherapy compared with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis: a 12-week randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Shoji, Tetsuo; Inaba, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Focusing on efficacy and tolerability, we compared linagliptin monotherapy with voglibose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Research design and methods In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study, 78 patients were randomized (1:1) to receive a 12-week treatment with 5 mg linagliptin once daily or 0.2 mg voglibose three times a day. To assess whether linagliptin was superior to voglibose, the primary efficacy end point was the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy end points included changes between baseline and week 12 in glycated albumin (GA) and casual plasma glucose (PG) levels. Results At week 12, the adjusted mean HbA1c levels had decreased by −0.60% after treatment with linagliptin and by −0.20% after treatment with voglibose (treatment difference: −0.40%, 95% CI −0.74% to −0.06%, p=0.022). A significant reduction in casual PG level was also observed after treatment with linagliptin compared with treatment with voglibose. Relative to voglibose, linagliptin tended to elicit reductions in GA, although without statistical significance. No hypoglycemic symptoms or severe hypoglycemia occurred during the study. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD, linagliptin monotherapy provided significantly better glycemic control without severe hypoglycemia than voglibose monotherapy. Linagliptin represents a promising agent for glycemic management in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing HD. Trial registration number UMIN000007635; results. PMID:27547421

  10. Sofosbuvir with peginterferon-ribavirin for 12 weeks in previously treated patients with hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lawitz, Eric; Poordad, Fred; Brainard, Diana M; Hyland, Robert H; An, Di; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Symonds, William T; McHutchison, John G; Membreno, Fernando E

    2015-01-01

    Sofosbuvir (SOF) in combination with ribavirin (RBV) for 12 or 24 weeks is the current standard of care for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 2 and 3, respectively. However, in clinical trials treatment-experienced patients, particularly those with cirrhosis, had suboptimal sustained virological response (SVR) rates. We assessed the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus peginterferon and ribavirin (SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV) administered for 12 weeks to treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, with and without cirrhosis. We enrolled 47 patients in this open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled phase 2 study. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with SVR at 12 weeks after cessation of study treatment (SVR12). The overall rate of SVR12 was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77-97). Rates of SVR12 were higher in patients with genotype 2 than in those with genotype 3, 96% (95% CI: 78-100) and 83% (95% CI: 62-95), respectively. Rates of SVR12 were similar in patients with and without cirrhosis: for genotype 2, 93% of patients with cirrhosis and 100% of patients without cirrhosis achieved SVR12, and for genotype 3, the SVR12 rate was 83% in patients both with and without cirrhosis. One patient discontinued study treatment because of an adverse event and four patients experienced serious adverse events. The most common adverse events were influenza-like illness, fatigue, anemia, and neutropenia. Conclusion: In treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, 12-week administration of SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV provided high SVR rates, irrespective of cirrhosis status. No safety concerns were identified. (Hepatology 2015;61:769–775) PMID:25322962

  11. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Bibeau, Wendy S; Bartholomew, John B

    2011-06-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level (e.g., competence, certainty, importance, and ideal self-discrepancy). This allowed for an analysis of cognitive facets as possible contributors to changes in physical self-perceptions. We addressed these aims with a sample of 120 college-age adults who completed a 12-week resistance exercise program. Results indicated significant improvements in self-perception constructs at all levels of the EXSEM. The hierarchical structure of the EXSEM was partially supported, as we observed successively smaller improvements at each level of the model (e.g., self-esteem showed lesser improvements than physical self-worth). In addition, a path model developed to explain the impact of strength changes on self-esteem proved a good fit for the data. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-perception, potential mediators of exercise on self-esteem, and the need to consider cognitive facets of self-perception. PMID:21699109

  12. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-05-07

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%).

  13. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%). PMID:23652638

  14. The effect of 12 weeks Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) on body stability and pain for fruit farmers with MSDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Nam, Sang-Nam; Bae, Ung Ryel; Hwang, Ryong; Lee, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jong-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible effects of 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) for the fruit farmers (grape, tomato, apple) with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) on body stability and pain. 131 fruit farmers with MSD were selected and asked to join a 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) from 2009 to 2012. The subjects (female=74, male=57) aged 50 to 65 years old voluntarily participated. As a result, it was found that lateral-medial and anterior-posterior of body stability significantly improved in male and female fruit farmers. It was found that pain index (VAS) after 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) showed a significant decrease. PMID:24704650

  15. Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after 12 weeks of rofecoxib, naproxen, or placebo: a multicentre, randomised, double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, C J; Laine, L; Simon, T; Quan, H; Shingo, S; Evans, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in patients with osteoarthritis have suggested that the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor rofecoxib results in less gastrointestinal damage than non-selective non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study compared the incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rofecoxib or a non-selective NSAID. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, double blind, 12 week study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis were allocated to rofecoxib 50 mg once daily (n=219), naproxen 500 mg twice daily (n=220), or placebo (n=221). Endoscopy was performed at baseline and at six and 12 weeks. Lifetable analysis and log rank tests were used to analyse the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers ≥3 mm. Gastric or duodenal ulcers ≥5 mm and erosions were also evaluated as secondary end points. Tolerability was assessed by adverse events. Results: The cumulative incidence of ulcers ≥3 mm at 12 weeks was significantly higher in patients on naproxen (25.5%) than in patients receiving rofecoxib (6.8%; difference 18.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7%, 25.7%); p<0.001) or placebo (2.9%; difference 22.6% (95% CI 16.1%, 29.1%); p<0.001). The difference between rofecoxib (6.8%) and placebo (2.9%) did not reach statistical significance (p=0.066). Results were similar for ulcers ≥5 mm and for mean changes from baseline in the number of gastroduodenal erosions. The overall incidence of clinical adverse events was similar among treatment groups (61% of patients on placebo, 62% in patients on rofecoxib, and 66% in patients on naproxen). Conclusions: Rofecoxib 50 mg daily (twice the dose recommended for this patient population) resulted in a lower incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers and erosions than treatment with naproxen 500 mg twice daily. PMID:12740337

  16. A 12-week Interdisciplinary Intervention Program for Children who are Obese

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura; Williamson, Megan; Robinson, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem, for which multi-disciplinary interventions are needed. Purpose: This interdisciplinary intervention program was designed to improve the health of children who were obese. Methods: Twenty-five children, mean age 8.1 (1.5) years; body mass index (BMI)> 98th percentile, and their parents completed the 12-week (3 days/wk) intervention consisting of aerobic and resistance exercise appropriate to age and developmental levels. Baseline and posttest measures of blood values, fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors were performed. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests with significance accepted at P ≤ .05. Results: Significant differences between means (SD) for pre- and post-measurements were, respectively: BMI 30.31 (4.56), 27.80 (4.54), body-fat percent 43.7 (11.5), 40.7 (10.9), waist circumference 82.1 (7.1), 80.4(6.1) cm, calf circumference 34.2 (3.1), 35.2 (3.1) cm; step-test heart rate 137 (20), 126 (12) bpm, push-ups 1.0 (1.8), 5.6 (3.8), sit-ups 23.6 (12.7), 33.2 (13.8), sit-and-reach 35.1 (7.4), 41.2 (5.8) cm; systolic BP 102 (10), 108 (9) mmHg, glucose 4.9(0.3), 4.8 (0.4) mmol/L, total cholesterol 4.6 (1.0), 4.2 (0.8) mmol/L, ALT 41 (9), 35 (8) U/L, bilirubin 6.3 (2.4), 5.6 (2.1) μmol/L, and BUN 4.9 (1.1), 4.3 (0.9) mmol/L. Conclusions: This interdisciplinary intervention program positively affected the fitness and health status of children who were obese by involving the children and parents. PMID:22163176

  17. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-06-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response.

  18. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Martin, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Chlorine dioxide was injected into the water intakes at two power plants in Illinois and one in Indiana in an effort to eradicate the existing population of zebra mussels and mitigate further settlement in station river water cooling systems. Results of the treatments at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station on the Mississippi River, Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station on the Illinois River, and SI Energy`s Gallagher Station on the Ohio River are reported. Treatments were performed on a turnkey basis, with three treatments performed at Meredosia Station in 1994, six treatments performed at Wood River Station between July 1993 and September 1994, and 2 treatments performed at Gallagher Station in 1994. For each treatment, a contractor installed and operated a portable chlorine dioxide generator, monitored water quality and oxidant levels, and provided and monitored bioboxes containing test mussels. Results of the treatments were very favorable, indicating a good potential for periodic treatments with chlorine dioxide to control zebra mussel infestations in the raw water systems of power plants and other industrial facilities. Some difficulties with the chlorine dioxide generation system and cold temperature effects reduced the treatment effectiveness, particularly the second treatment at Gallagher Station. Average induced mortalities ranged from 70 to 100% at Wood River, 87 to 92% at Meredosia, and 30 to 100% at Gallagher for native mussels. Dechlorination successfully kept total oxidant residual levels at or below 0.05 ppM during all treatments at all stations.

  19. Changes of Achilles tendon properties via 12-week PNF based robotic rehabilitation of ankle joints with spasticity and/or contracture.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhihao; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Ninghua; Gao, Fan; Wang, Long; Wei, Kunlin; Wang, Qining

    2014-01-01

    Ankle joint with spasticity and/or contracture can severely affect mobility and independence of stroke survivors. Due to that, the Achilles tendon(AT) is affected. In this paper, we aim to study changes of AT properties via proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) treatment. A robotic ankle-foot rehabilitation system has been proposed, which consists of a robotic ankle-foot platform and a graphic user interface. In this pilot study, two post-stroke patients participated and carried out a 12-week PNF treatment with the robotic system. The treatment is evaluated quantitatively in AT properties. The evaluation shows that after the PNF treatment, the average decrease of AT length is 4.1 mm (6.5%) and the recovery ratio is 30.4%, while the thickness has no change. The results indicate that the PNF based robotic rehabilitation for ankle joints with spasticity and/or contracture is effective to improve the ankle spasticity/contracture.

  20. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  1. Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration.

  2. Improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kim, Ji-Hae; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) complain of neurocognitive impairment, the effects of antidepressant medications on neurocognitive functions remain unclear. This study compares neurocognitive effects of tianeptine and escitalopram in MDD. Patients with MDD (N = 164) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine (37.5 mg/d) or escitalopram (10 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included clinical improvement, subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Continuous Performance Test, the Verbal Learning Test, and the Raven Progressive Matrices, assessed every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, the tianeptine group showed significant improvement in commission errors (P = 0.002), verbal immediate memory (P < 0.0001), Mini-Mental State Examination (P < 0.0001), delayed memory (P < 0.0001), and reasoning ability (P = 0.0010), whereas the escitalopram group improved in delayed memory and reasoning ability but not in the other measures. Both groups significantly improved in subjective cognitive impairment in memory (P < 0.0001) and concentration (P < 0.0001). Mixed effects model repeated measures analyses revealed that the tianeptine group had a significant improvement in scores of commission errors (F = 6.64, P = 0.011) and verbal immediate memory (F = 4.39, P = 0.038) from baseline to 12 weeks, compared with the escitalopram group, after controlling for age, sex, education years, baseline scores, and changes of depression severity. The treatment of MDD with tianeptine led to more improvements in neurocognitive functions, especially in commission errors and verbal immediate memory, compared with escitalopram, after controlling for changes in depression severity. Both drugs improved subjective cognitive impairment of memory and concentration. PMID:24525660

  3. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. Objective The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. Methods A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Results Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow

  4. Treatment delay period: the case of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Brock, Vicki L Tinnon

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations of tubewell water that exceed acceptable limits poses a serious health problem in Bangladesh. Many Bangladeshis are now suffering from arsenic-related diseases. The objectives of this paper are to examine the extent of delay in seeking medical treatment by victims of arsenic poisoning and to identify factors contributing to this delay. Questionnaire survey successfully administered to 663 victims living in two rural areas of Bangladesh provided the major data source for this study. Analysis of survey data reveal that median delay period was 12 months, but the delay period ranged from 1 month to 18 years. Because of this extremely large range, the mean delay period was about 22 months. The study identified time of identification of symptoms of arsenicosis as the most significant determinant of treatment delay followed by treatment sought from members of mobile medical teams, perceived threat, and level of education. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that the Bangladesh government and NGOs involved in arsenic mitigation and prevention efforts should educate individuals at risk for arsenic poisoning about the benefits of seeking early treatment. This study also recommends to continue to dispatch mobile medical teams to the arsenic-impacted areas.

  5. Low-dose memantine attenuated methadone dose in opioid-dependent patients: a 12-week double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Po See; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-05-19

    Low-dose memantine might have anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects mechanistically remote from an NMDA receptor. We investigated whether add-on memantine reduced cytokine levels and benefitted patients with opioid dependence undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled 12-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a group: Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 53) or Placebo (n = 75). The methadone dose required and retention in treatment were monitored. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12. General linear mixed models were used to examine therapeutic effect. After 12 weeks, Memantine-group required a somewhat lower methadone dose than did Placebo-group (P = 0.039). They also had significantly lower plasma TNF-α and significantly higher TGF-β1 levels. We provide evidence of the benefit of add-on memantine in opioid dependent patients undergoing MMT.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Evaluation through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Analysis in Patients with Psoriasis before and after 12 Weeks of Etanercept Therapy: A Preliminary Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Concetta; Raimondi, Gianfranco; Pampena, Riccardo; Bernardini, Nicoletta; La Viola, Giorgio; Tolino, Ersilia; Zuber, Sara; Scordamaglia, Beatrice; Skroza, Nevena

    2016-08-01

    The association between psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases has been indicated by epidemiological studies. The sub-inflammatory systemic state that characterizes both psoriasis and atherosclerosis has been proposed as the link between these conditions; it cannot, however, explain the increased incidence of sudden cardiac death reported in young patients with severe psoriasis without common cardiovascular risk factors. In a previous study, we reported higher levels of autonomic dysregulation in patients with psoriasis, concluding that the prevalence of the sympathetic arm over the parasympathetic could increase cardiovascular risk. Objective of this study was to assess the influence of etanercept on autonomic cardiovascular regulation in young patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis without cardiovascular risk factors. Five-minute ECG recordings were collected at rest before and after 12 weeks of therapy with etanercept in 19 young patients with psoriasis without cardiovascular risk factors. The Cardiolab CE pocket PC ECG system was used for linear methods of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. No significant change in HRV analysis parameters was apparent after 12 weeks of etanercept therapy. Our data suggest that treatment with etanercept in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis does not affect cardiovascular autonomic regulation and cardiovascular risk. PMID:27663918

  7. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  8. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  9. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students. PMID:27630436

  10. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants' exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects' body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students. PMID:27630436

  11. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  12. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants’ exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects’ body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students.

  13. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  14. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β 2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%-8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6-12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6-12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6-12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  15. A Double-Blind, 12-Week Study to Evaluate the Antiaging Efficacy of a Cream Containing the NFκB Inhibitor 4-Hexyl-1, 3-Phenylenediol and Ascorbic Acid-2 Glucoside in Adult Females.

    PubMed

    Roure, Romain; Nollent, Virginie; Dayan, Liliane; Camel, Etienne; Bertin, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The 5 main physical manifestations of aged skin are wrinkles, uneven tone, brown spots, loss of elasticity, and dryness. One mechanism resulting in these physical manifestations is increased activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein. This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized split-face study compared the antiaging effect and safety of a face cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol, an NFκB inhibitor, and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside versus placebo in adult females aged 45-70 years old. Subjects (n=42) applied active treatment or placebo to the same half face twice daily at home for 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation was carried out by a dermatologist. Subjects carried out similar self-grading assessments. Colorimetric measurements analyzed skin color, and biomechanical skin properties were evaluated. Clinical grading showed that most wrinkle parameters were significantly improved after 8 weeks of active treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05), with improvements maintained after 12 weeks. Only Marionette wrinkles did not show a significant improvement. Brown spots (color intensity/number), overall photodamage, and most complexion parameters improved significantly after 8 and 12 weeks compared with baseline and placebo (P≤.05). Self-grading yielded similar results compared with baseline. Self-grading did not demonstrate improvements with active treatment versus placebo, except for skin firmness at 8 and 12 weeks (P≤.05). A significant difference was seen with active treatment compared with placebo in all colorimetric parameters (L*, b*, and ITA°) after 8 weeks, and in spot coloration (b*) after 12 weeks (P<.05). Improvements in skin elasticity were not significantly different between treatments. Overall tolerability of active treatment was judged as good. In conclusion, a cream containing 4-Hexyl-1, 3-phenylenediol and ascorbic acid-2 glucoside improves the clinical appearance of aged

  16. Predictors of Relapse and Dropout During a 12-Week Relapse Prevention Program for Methamphetamine Users.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chih; Chen, Chih-Ken; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the possible neuropsychological predictors of relapse and dropout of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for methamphetamine (MA) users were explored. Participants were 42 MA users sentenced by the judicial system to take part in an out-patient relapse prevention program for MA abuse and dependence that employs a CBT model once a week over the course of 12 weeks. Baseline neuropsychological functions were evaluated with the Conners' Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Task, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. All participants had to submit to urine drug tests every week. Of the 42 participants, 69.0% had a MA positive urine screening result at least once throughout the program (relapse), while 40.5% dropped out of the treatment program prior to its completion. Short duration of MA abstinence at baseline and poor attention predicted relapse. Predictors of dropout included being unmarried and having risky decision making. Findings may be helpful for clinicians, who can screen for the aforementioned risk factors and provide strategies for high-risk patients to help prevent relapse and dropout among MA users in treatment programs. PMID:26267045

  17. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  18. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  19. Subchronic (12-week) inhalation toxicity study of methanol-fueled engine exhaust in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Maejima, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Tadao ); Numata, Hiroaki ); Maekawa, Akihiko ); Nagase, Sumi ); Ishinishi, Noburu )

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the inhalation toxicity to rats of exhaust at low concentration for longer periods, Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 3 concentrations of exhaust generated by an M85 methanol-fueled engine (methanol with 15% gasoline) without catalyst for 8 h/d, 6 d/wk for 4, 8, or 12 wk. Concentration- and time-dependent increase carboxyhemoglobin in the erythrocytes and decrease in cytochrome P-450 in the lungs were observed in all treated groups. Furthermore, significant increases in plasma formaldehyde were observed in the group exposed to the highest concentration of exhaust (carbon monoxide, 89.8 ppm; formaldehyde, 2.3 ppm; methanol, 8.1 ppm; nitrogen oxides, 22.9 ppm; nitrogen dioxide, 1.1 ppm) for 8 or 12 wk. No change of plasma folic acid was observed in any group, and no methanol or formic acid was detected in the plasma in any animals. Histopathologically, exposure-related changes were found only in the nasal cavity of the high-concentration group. Slight hyperplasia/squamous metaplasias of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasoturbinate and maxilloturbinate were observed after 4 wk of exposure, and the incidences and degrees of these lesions increased slightly with the exposure time. No changes were found in the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity. As judged by optical microscopy, the exhaust concentration with no effect on the nasal cavity under the experimental conditions was concluded to be the medium concentration level containing 0.55 ppm formaldehyde. In the present study, however, concentration- and time-dependent increase of carboxyhemoglobin in the erythrocytes and decrease of the lung P-450 level were observed. Therefore, further study on more long-term inhalation of lower concentrations of exhaust might be needed. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Effects of 12-week proprioception training program on postural stability, gait, and balance in older adults: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Caballero-Martínez, Isabel; Alvarez, Pablo J; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week-specific proprioceptive training program on postural stability, gait, balance, and fall prevention in adults older than 65 years. The present study was a controlled clinical trial. Forty-four community dwelling elderly subjects (61-90 years; mean age, 78.07 ± 5.7 years) divided into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 24) groups. The participants performed the Berg balance test before and after the training program, and we assessed participants' gait, balance, and the risk of falling, using the Tinetti scale. Medial-lateral plane and anterior-posterior plane displacements of the center of pressure, Sway area, length and speed, and the Romberg quotient about surface, speed, and distance were calculated in static posturography analysis (EPS pressure platform) under 2 conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. After a first clinical evaluation, patients were submitted to 12 weeks proprioception training program, 2 sessions of 50 minutes every week. This program includes 6 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to program proprioceptive training. The training program improved postural balance of older adults in mediolateral plane with eyes open (p < 0.05) and anterior-posterior plane with eyes closed (p < 0.01). Significant improvements were observed in Romberg quotient about surface (p < 0.05) and speed (p < 0.01) but not about distance (p > 0.05). After proprioception training, gait (Tinetti), and balance (Berg) test scores improved 14.66% and 11.47% respectively. These results show that 12 weeks proprioception training program in older adults is effective in postural stability, static, and dynamic balance and could lead to an improvement in gait and balance capacity, and to a decrease in the risk of falling in adults aged 65 years and older.

  1. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Materials and Methods Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. Results The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Conclusion Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. Trial Registration CRiS KCT0001771 PMID:27253526

  2. Effects of 12-week oral supplementation of Ecklonia cava polyphenols on anthropometric and blood lipid parameters in overweight Korean individuals: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeon-Cheol; Kim, Seong Ho; Park, Yongju; Lee, Bong Ho; Hwang, Hye Jeong

    2012-03-01

    The effects of 12-week supplementation with a polyphenol extract from Ecklonia cava (ECP) on anthropometry, serum biochemistry and hematology have been investigated. Ninety-seven overweight male and female adults (average age 40.5 ± 9.2 yr and body mass index (BMI) of 26.5 ± 1.6 kg/m²) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Subjects were randomly allocated into three groups designated as PC (placebo), LD (low-dose, 72 mg-ECP/day) and HD (high-dose, 144 mg-ECP/day). Both LD and HD groups showed significant decreases in BMI, body fat ratio, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI) after 12 weeks, as compared with the placebo group. The HD group also showed a significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol as compared with the placebo group. Only the HD group showed significant decreases in serum glucose and systolic blood pressure after 12 weeks. There was no significant adverse event related with ingestion of ECP, and serum biochemical and hematological parameters were maintained within normal range during the intervention period. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that ECP supplementation significantly contributed to lowering body fat and serum lipid parameters such as total and LDL cholesterols with dose dependence. Further studies using different populations, dosages or biological markers are highly recommended to better understand the physiological features of this polyphenol.

  3. The Ontogeny of Face Recognition: Eye Contact and Sweet Taste Induce Face Preference in 9- and 12-Week-Old Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; Camp, Carole A.

    2001-01-01

    Calm or crying 9- and 12-week-olds sat facing a researcher who gazed into their eyes or at their forehead and delivered either a sucrose solution or pacifier or delivered nothing. Found that combining sweet taste and eye contact was necessary and sufficient for calm 9- and 12-week-olds to form a preference for the researcher, but not for crying…

  4. Adding Memantine to Rivastigmine Therapy in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a 12-Week, Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riepe, Matthias W.; Adler, Georg; Ibach, Bernd; Weinkauf, Birgit; Gunay, Ibrahim; Tracik, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    Objective: At present, inhibition of cholines-terase is the treatment of choice for subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, is currently used to treat subjects with moderate-to-severe AD. The goal of this multicenter, open-label pilot study was to investigate whether combination therapy with memantine added to rivastigmine is safe and beneficial in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. Method: Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (N = 95), who were treated with rivastigmine (6–12 mg/day) for a maximum duration of 24 weeks prior to baseline, received memantine (5–20 mg/day) in combination with rivastigmine for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) total score at the end of 12 weeks compared with baseline. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and May 27, 2004. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and week 12 for the ADAS-cog total score, showing a positive effect of combination therapy. Combination therapy did not evidence any unexpected safety concerns and was well-tolerated by most patients. Conclusion: Memantine in combination with rivastigmine appears to be safe and beneficial in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. Our results need to be confirmed in a large, long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PMID:17235381

  5. Effect of 12 Weeks of Accelerated Rehabilitation Exercise on Muscle Function of Patients with ACL Reconstruction of the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong-Chul; Kim, Ji Youn; Park, Gi Duck

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] To examine changes in the knee joint's isokinetic muscle functions following systematic and gradual rehabilitation exercises lasting for 12 weeks for male and female patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Differences in muscle functions between the uninvolved side (US) and the involved side (IS) before surgery, differences in muscle functions between US and IS after rehabilitation exercises lasting for 12 weeks, and changes in muscle functions on US and IS between before and after surgery were analyzed to examine the effects of accelerated rehabilitation exercises after ACL reconstruction. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 patients, five females and five males, who underwent ACL reconstruction performed by the same surgeon. [Methods] As a measuring tool, a Biodex Multi-joint system 3pro (USA), which is an isokinetic measuring device, was used to examine the flexion and extension forces of the knee joint. During isokinetic muscle strength evaluation, the ROM of US was set to be the same as that of IS for consistency of measurement. [Results] At 60°/s, the isokinetic muscle functions of the females did not show any significant change between before and after surgery in any of the variables on both US and IS. At 60°/s, the isokinetic muscle functions of the males did not show any significant change between before and after surgery in the peak torque, average power, and entire work done on US. In extension, peak torque on IS did not show any significant change.

  6. Effects of 12-week medicine ball training on muscle strength and power in young female handball players.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar M; Markovic, Zivorad M; Radovanovic, Dragan S

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of medicine ball training on the strength and power in young female handball athletes. Twenty-one young female handball players (age, 16.9 ± 1.2 years) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Experimental group (n = 11) participated in a 12-week medicine ball training program incorporated into the regular training session, whereas controls (n = 10) participated only in the regular training. Performance in the medicine ball throws in standing and sitting positions, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench and shoulder press, and power test at 2 different loads (30 and 50% of 1RM) on bench and shoulder press were assessed at pre- and posttraining testing. The athletes participating in the medicine ball training program made significantly greater gains in all medicine ball throw tests compared with the controls (p < 0.01). Also, the experimental group made significantly greater gains in bench and shoulder press power than control group (p < 0.05). Both training groups (E) and (C) significantly (p < 0.05) increased 1RM bench and shoulder strength, with no differences observed between the groups. Additionally, medicine ball throw tests showed stronger correlation with power tests, than with 1RM tests. These data suggest that 12-week medicine ball training, when incorporated into a regular training session, can provide greater sport-specific training improvements in the upper body for young female handball players. PMID:22027860

  7. Self-presentation in exercise: changes over a 12-week cardiovascular programme for overweight and obese sedentary females.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin S; Hall, Craig R; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2013-01-01

    Self-presentational concerns, shown to influence exercise-related cognitions and behaviours, are evaluated frequently in the absence of exercise or following a single bout of physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally, the extent to which participating in a structured 12-week cardiovascular exercise intervention elicited changes in self-presentational efficacy expectancy (SPEE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). Participants were 80 sedentary women with overweight or obesity (mean body mass index 29.02 kg/m(2), SD=4.71) between the ages of 19 and 45 wanting to begin an exercise programme (mean age 33.4 years, SD=7.6). The Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) were completed by each participant prior to commencing the study, and at the 6- and 12-week time points. For those who completed the programme, repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant increases in SPEE between baseline and week 6 (P<0.001, η(2)=0.37), and week 6 to 12 (P<0.05, η(2)=0.10), while SPA decreased significantly between baseline and week 6 (P<0.01, η(2)=0.16). Bivariate correlation analyses revealed that length of participation in the study was positively related to SPEE and negatively related to SPA. Implications of focusing on these variables within a physical activity intervention are discussed with respect to exercise behaviour, programme development and adherence. PMID:23834547

  8. Bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension previously treated with latanoprost: two randomized 12-week trials

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan S; Vold, Steven; Zaman, Fiaz; Williams, Julia M; Hollander, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. Methods Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ≥20 mmHg after ≥30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily). Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03%) are presented. Results Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean) was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957). In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean) reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001), ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0%) mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8%) mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia of mild or greater severity increased from latanoprost baseline after 12 weeks of treatment only in the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arm. Conclusion Many patients who do not reach their target IOP on latanoprost can achieve additional IOP

  9. Turkish 12 Week Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This audiolingual beginner's course has been prepared for the Defense Language Institute intensive program in modern spoken Turkish. The course, consisting of six volumes of basic text in 55 units begins with an introductory section which presents the linguistic background, phonology, and distinguishing features of Turkish. The lesson format…

  10. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N.; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (V.O2max). Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved V.O2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively), v V.O2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively), and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively). Conclusions After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of V.O2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only partially, both

  11. Comparison of metabolic effects of aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone after 12 weeks of treatment in first treated episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Iglesias, Rocio; Ortiz-Garcia de la Foz, Victor; Martínez García, Obdulia; Amado, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Unzueta, M Teresa; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Suarez-Pinilla, Paula; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2014-10-01

    This randomized open-label study compared the incidence of metabolic side effects of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine in a population of medication-naïve first-episode psychosis patients. A total of 202 subjects were enrolled. Body weight, body mass index, leptin, fasting lipids and fasting glycaemic parameters were measured at baseline and at 3 months follow-up. A hundred and sixty-six patients completed the follow-up and were included in the analyses. A high proportion of patients experienced a significant weight increase (>7% of their baseline weight): 23% ziprasidone (n=12), 32% with quetiapine (n=16) and 45% with aripiprazole (n=31). Patients treated with aripiprazole gained significantly more weight than the patients in the ziprasidone group (1.2 kg [SD=4.1] versus 4.3 kg [SD=4.8], respectively). The increase in leptin levels was greater in women treated with aripiprazole than in those treated with ziprasidone (p=0.030). Mean prolactin levels significantly increased in patients treated with quetiapine and ziprasidone but not in those treated with aripiprazole. Patients treated with quetiapine and aripiprazole showed a significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol plasma levels. Quetiapine-treated patients resulted in a higher increase in LDL-cholesterol than patients treated with ziprasidone (p=0.021). No other significant differences between groups were found. No significant changes in glycaemic parameters were observed. Our results suggest that ziprasidone has a lower liability for inducing weight gain and lipid abnormalities than aripiprazole or quetiapine.

  12. The influence of maternal age on the outcomes of pregnancies complicated by bleeding at less than 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Mbugua Gitau, Godfrey; Liversedge, Helen; Goffey, Dawn; Hawton, Annemarie; Liversedge, Neil; Taylor, Myles

    2009-01-01

    The effect of maternal age on the outcome of threatened miscarriage after ultrasound has confirmed fetal heart (FH) pulsation was assessed. At a university teaching hospital, 138 women presenting with bleeding before 12 weeks' gestation were followed up until delivery or pregnancy loss. Those with multiple or ectopic pregnancy, social termination of pregnancy, assisted conception and temporary residence were excluded. Outcome measures were pregnancy loss, fetal abnormalities, preterm delivery, low birthweight and cesarean delivery. Age over 35 years was significantly associated with reduced live-birth and increased miscarriage rates. Women over 35 years of age had higher cesarean section and pregnancy loss rates than the younger women. The combination of bleeding in early pregnancy and advanced age increases risk of pregnancy loss even after ultrasound has confirmed FH pulsation. PMID:19140048

  13. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Background Cash transfers (CTs) are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG) is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30). Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results At the 12-week visit, half (52%) of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327) of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery. PMID:25160516

  14. Psychological correlates of performance in female athletes during a 12-week off-season strength and conditioning program.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Matthews, Tracey D; Murray, Mimi; Van Raalte, Judy; Jensen, Barbara E

    2010-03-01

    Examination of the relationship between performance testing and psychological measures before and after a 12-week strength and conditioning program was the study's purpose. Female NCAA Division-III soccer (n = 28), field hockey (n = 28), and softball (n = 19) athletes completed pre- and post-testing held 12 weeks apart. On day 1, athletes completed informed consent, 3 psychological measures (Profile of Mood States [POMS], Physical Self Perception Profile [PSPP], and Athlete's Self Perception of Physical Abilities [ASPPA]), and 2 strength tests (1 repetition maximum [1RM] bench, 1RM back squat). Day 2 consisted of the 30-yd sprint, pro agility run (PRO), vertical jump (VJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). All sports improved (p < 0.01) in 1RM bench and squat and reported increases in perceived Physical Strength on the PSPP (p < 0.01). Soccer athletes improved (p < 0.01) in VJ, SLJ, and PRO (p < 0.05). No differences were found in POMS scores. The POMS scores indicated that the athletes were not overtrained or experiencing staleness. A series of correlations showed relationships between physical and psychological measures. Specifically, Physical Strength was correlated with 1RM upper-body (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Physical Strength was correlated with ASPPA ratings of upper-body (r = 0.68, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.57, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Sport Competence correlated with ASPPA ratings of power (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and PRO (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). The study's results highlight the benefits of strength and conditioning. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how physical changes are related to athletes' physical self-perceptions and self-assessment of ability within their teams.

  15. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  16. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu’s were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this

  17. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu's were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this study

  18. Oral Microbiota Shift after 12-Week Supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289; A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Romani Vestman, Nelly; Chen, Tsute; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla; Öhman, Carina; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus spp. potentially contribute to health by modulating bacterial biofilm formation, but their effects on the overall oral microbiota remain unclear. Methods and Findings Oral microbiota was characterized via 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA hypervariable region V3-V4 after 12 weeks of daily Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289 consumption. Forty-four adults were assigned to a test group (n = 22) that received lactobacilli lozenges (108 CFU of each strain/lozenge) or a control group that received placebo (n = 22). Presence of L. reuteri was confirmed by cultivation and species specific PCR. Tooth biofilm samples from 16 adults before, during, and after exposure were analyzed by pyrosequencing. A total of 1,310,292 sequences were quality filtered. After removing single reads, 257 species or phylotypes were identified at 98.5% identity in the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Streptococcus was the most common genus and the S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group comprised the dominant species. The number of observed species was unaffected by L. reuteri exposure. However, subjects who had consumed L. reuteri were clustered in a principal coordinates analysis relative to scattering at baseline, and multivariate modeling of pyrosequencing microbiota, and culture and PCR detected L. reuteri separated baseline from 12-week samples in test subjects. L. reuteri intake correlated with increased S. oralis/S. mitis/S. mitis bv2/S. infantis group and Campylobacter concisus, Granulicatella adiacens, Bergeyella sp. HOT322, Neisseria subflava, and SR1 [G-1] sp. HOT874 detection and reduced S. mutans, S. anginosus, N. mucosa, Fusobacterium periodicum, F. nucleatum ss vincentii, and Prevotella maculosa detection. This effect had disappeared 1 month after exposure was terminated. Conclusions L. reuteri consumption did not affect species

  19. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m²) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%-20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation.

  20. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365

  1. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  2. Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib as monotherapy in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-week, randomized, phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshiya; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Toyoizumi, Shigeyuki; Zwillich, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To evaluate oral tofacitinib versus placebo for treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis in Japanese patients with inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group, 12-week, phase 2 study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00687193), 317 patients received tofacitinib: 1, 3, 5, 10, or 15 mg as monotherapy or placebo twice daily (BID). Primary endpoint: response rate by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) ≥ 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) at week 12. Results. ACR20 response rates: 37.7% (20/53), 67.9% (36/53), 73.1% (38/52), 84.9% (45/53), and 90.7% (49/54) with tofacitinib: 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg BID, respectively, versus 15.4% (8/52) with placebo (p < 0.01; all doses). Dose-dependent ACR20 responses with tofacitinib versus placebo occurred from week 2 onward (p < 0.05). Changes from baseline in 28-joint disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate improved with tofacitinib versus placebo from week 4 (p < 0.01; all doses). Six tofacitinib patients experienced treatment-related serious adverse events (AEs). Most common treatment-emergent AEs: nasopharyngitis (10% vs 12%) and hyperlipidemia (5% vs 0%). Serum creatinine, hemoglobin, and total-, low-, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased with tofacitinib. Conclusions. Tofacitinib produced dose-dependent ACR20 responses and reduced disease activity. The safety profile was consistent with that reported from global monotherapy trials. PMID:25496464

  3. Predictors of adherence to a 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer: ENGAGE study.

    PubMed

    Craike, Melinda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Courneya, Kerry S; Fraser, Steve F; Salmon, Jo; Owen, Patrick J; Broadbent, Suzanne; Livingston, Patricia M

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence adherence to exercise programs is necessary to develop effective interventions for people with cancer. We examined the predictors of adherence to a supervised exercise program for participants in the ENGAGE study - a cluster randomized controlled trial that assessed the efficacy of a clinician-referred 12-week exercise program among men treated for prostate cancer. Demographic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial data from 52 participants in the intervention group were collected at baseline through self-report and medical records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was assessed through objective attendance records. Adherence to the supervised exercise program was 80.3%. In the univariate analyses, cancer-specific quality of life subscales (role functioning r = 0.37, P = 0.01; sexual activity r = 0.26, P = 0.06; fatigue r = -0.26, P = 0.06, and hormonal symptoms r = -0.31, P = 0.03) and education (d = -0.60, P = 0.011) were associated with adherence. In the subsequent multivariate analysis, role functioning (B = 0.309, P = 0.019) and hormonal symptoms (B = -0.483, P = 0.054) independently predicted adherence. Men who experienced more severe hormonal symptoms had lower levels of adherence to the exercise program. Those who experienced more positive perceptions of their ability to perform daily tasks and leisure activities had higher levels of adherence to the exercise program. Hormonal symptoms and role functioning need to be considered when conducting exercise programs for men who have been treated for prostate cancer. PMID:26872005

  4. Magnesium Replacement Does Not Improve Insulin Resistance in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: A 12-Week Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza e Silva, Maria de Lourdes; Cruz, Thomaz; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon; Ladeia, Ana Marice; Bomfim, Olivia; Olivieri, Lucas; Melo, Juliana; Correia, Raquel; Porto, Mirna; Cedro, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes. Methods This 12-week clinical randomized double-blind study compared the effects of 400 mg/day of Mg with those of a placebo (n = 72) on fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile and CRP. Mg was measured in serum (SMg) and in mononuclear cells (MMg). Results Hypomagnesemia (SMg < 1.7 mg/dL) was seen in 23.2% of patients and intracellular depletion in 36.1% of patients. The MMg means were lower in patients with obesity (0.94 ± 0.54 μg/mg vs. 1.19 ± 0.6 μg/mg, P = 0.04), and insulin resistance (0.84 ± 0.33 μg/mg vs. 1.14 ± 0.69 µg/mg, P < 0.05). Mg replacement did not alter SMg (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/dL vs. 1.81 ± 0.16 mg/dL, P = 0.877) and tended to increment MMg (0.90 ± 0.40 μg/mg vs. 1.21 ± 0.73 μg/mg, P = 0.089). HOMA-IR did not alter in interventions nor in placebo group (3.2 ± 2.0 to 2.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.368; 3.6 ± 1.9 to 3.2 ± 1.8, respectively), neither did other metabolic parameters. Conclusion Serum and intracellular Mg depletion is common in patients with MS; however, Mg replacement in recommended dosage did not increase significantly Mg levels, neither reduced insulin resistance or metabolic control. PMID:25247020

  5. Agomelatine versus Sertraline: An Observational, Open-labeled and 12 Weeks Follow-up Study on Efficacy and Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Esma; Cerit, Cem; Talas, Anıl; Tural, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this open-labeled, 12 weeks follow-up study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine with sertraline Methods The outpatients of adult psychiatry clinic who have a new onset of depression and diagnosed as ‘major depressive episode’ by clinician according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition and prescribed agomelatine (25 mg/day) or sertraline (50 mg/day) were included in the study. Results The decline of mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores of agomelatine group was significantly higher than the sertraline group at the end of 2nd week; however, the difference was not significant at the end of 3 months. Mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (CGI-I) scores of agomelatine group was lower than sertraline group at first week. Mean CGI-Severity scale and CGI-I scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Remission rates were 46.7% for sertraline group and 33.3% for agomelatine group while response rates were 76.7% for both groups. Any patient from agomelatine group dropped-out due to adverse effects. The amount of side effects was also less with agomelatine. Conclusion Agomelatine has a rapid onset efficacy on depressive symptoms and this can be beneficial for some critical cases. Considering MADRS scores, agomelatine seems to have similar efficacy with sertraline but we also point the need for long term studies since CGI scores were favour to sertraline group at the end of the study. Agomelatine has a favourable tolerability profile both in terms of discontinuation and the amount of side effects compared to sertraline. PMID:27776387

  6. [Familial gastric cancer: diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance].

    PubMed

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Vasen, Hans F A; Cats, Anemieke

    2011-01-01

    The only known genetic causes of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) are germline mutations in the CDH1 gene.- CDH1 mutation carriers have a lifetime risk of 70-80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early stages of HDGC, prophylactic gastrectomy is advised for this patient group. This group is small and little is known about other types of familial gastric cancer. The Dutch Working Group on Hereditary Gastric Cancer has formulated criteria for various aspects of medical care for families and individuals at high risk of developing gastric cancer, including criteria for diagnostics and periodic gastric surveillance. In order to optimize the care and increase the knowledge on hereditary gastric cancer it is important to centralize medical care for these patients.

  7. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  8. A Pilot Study Exploring the Effects of a 12-Week T'ai Chi Intervention on Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tsuang, Ming; Rusiewicz, Anna; Pandzic, Ines; Cammarata, Stephanie; Rutledge, Thomas; Hong, Suzi; Linke, Sarah; Mills, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and with elevated depression symptoms are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Somatic symptoms of depression are particularly prevalent in HF and are related to worse disease prognosis. T'ai chi practice is related to increased emotional well-being in various clinical populations; however, relatively little is known about t'ai chi's effects on somatic versus cognitive symptom dimensions of depression in HF. Purpose The objective of the study was to measure whether a t'ai chi intervention effectively reduces somatic and/or cognitive symptoms of depression in patients with HF. Methods Patients with HF were assigned to either t'ai chi training (n=16) or a usual-care group (n=12). At baseline and after the 12-week intervention period, participants were evaluated for changes in depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) total scores (BDI-t) and subcategorized scores of BDI-somatic (BDI-s) and BDI-cognitive (BDI-c), and for symptoms of fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory–Short Form. Results Patients with HF in the t'ai chi group compared to the usual-care group had reduced BDI-s (p≤0.017), but not BDI-c (p=0.50) scores from pre- to postintervention. Although t'ai chi did not significantly reduce fatigue, changes in physical fatigue (p≤0.05) were independently associated with changes in BDI-t scores. Conclusions T'ai chi practice reduced somatic symptoms of depression, which have been linked to worse prognosis in HF. Reductions in fatigue appear to explain some but not all of the reductions in somatic symptoms of depression. PMID:22845485

  9. Chronic Alcohol Treatment in Rats Alters Sleep by Fragmenting Periods of Vigilance Cycling in the Light Period with Extended Wakenings

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sanjib; Simasko, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that disturbed sleep produced by chronic alcohol abuse in humans can predict relapse drinking after periods of abstinence. How alcohol produces disturbed sleep remains unknown. In this study we used a novel analysis of sleep to examine the effects of alcohol on sleep patterns in rats. This analysis separates waking into multiple components and defines a period labeled vigilance cycling (VC) in which the rat rapidly cycles through various vigilance states. These VC episodes are separated by long duration wake periods (LDW). We find that 6 weeks of alcohol (6% in a liquid diet) caused fragmentation of extended VC episodes that normally occur in the light period. However, total daily amounts of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) remained constant. The daily amount of wake, SWS, and REMS remained constant because the alcohol treated rats increased the amount of VC in the dark period, and the sleep nature of VC in the dark period became more intense. In addition, we observed more wake and less REMS early in the light period in alcohol treated rats. All effects completely reversed by day 16 of alcohol withdrawal. Comparison of the effects of chronic alcohol to acute alcohol exposure demonstrated the effects of chronic alcohol are due to adaptation and not the acute presence of alcohol. The effects of chronic alcohol treatment in rats mimic the effects reported in humans (REMS suppression, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty remaining asleep). PMID:19014977

  10. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  11. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  12. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  13. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels.

  14. Effects of 12-week exercise training on osteocalcin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and insulin resistance in elderly females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Kijin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of exercise training on bone metabolism markers, inflammatory markers, and physical fitness in patients with osteoporosis from an osteoporosis-related immunological perspective. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine elderly female subjects (age, 74.2 ± 3.2 years) were classified into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on the T-score measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The exercise was performed voluntarily by the patients for 1 hour per day, three times per week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The differences between bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and osteocalcin concentrations increased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise and were significantly higher than those in the normal and osteopenia groups. However, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance score decreased significantly in the osteoporosis group after 12 weeks of exercise. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations tended to decrease in all groups after 12 weeks of exercise and showed an inverse correlation with osteocalcin concentration; however, no statistical significance was observed. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that an exercise program in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis effectively reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture and related diseases since it improves bone density and physical fitness and reduces inflammatory marker levels. PMID:27630402

  15. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Coyle, J.; Crone, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the EPRI report (TR-105202) on the same topic as well as presents changes in current thinking on the suitability (applicability) of chlorine dioxide for fouling control. Chlorine dioxide was tested as a zebra mussel biocide at two steam electric generating stations in Illinois and one in Indiana. The purpose of these studies was to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in killing zebra mussels and to develop site specific treatment programs for the three utilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Consortium sponsored the testing of this recent use of chlorine dioxide. The raw water system at Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station, on the Illinois River, received applications of chlorine dioxide in April, July, and September 1994. The raw water system at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station, on the Mississippi River, received applications in July 1993, January, April, May, July, and September 1994. The Gallagher Station, on the Ohio River, was treated in July and October 1994. Chlorine dioxide was generated on-site and injected into the water intake structure. Both cooling and service water systems were treated at the facilities. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  16. No effect of 12 weeks' supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philippa A; Deary, Michael E; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2012-04-01

    The n-3 PUFA are a unique class of fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body, and must be acquired via dietary sources. In the UK, as well as in other Western nations, these 'essential' fatty acids are consumed in quantities that fall below government guidelines. The present study explored the effects of 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with 1 g/d of two types of fish oil (FO; DHA-rich and EPA-rich) in 159 healthy young adults aged 18-35 years. An assessment of performance on a battery of computerised cognitive tasks and mood measures took place before and following the 12-week treatment regimen. Venous blood samples were also supplied by participants at both time points which were later analysed for serum fatty acid concentrations. Despite good adherence to the study protocol - as reflected in increased concentrations of n-3 serum fatty acids - compared with placebo, the observed effects of both active treatments were minimal. The only finding of note revealed that supplementation with EPA-rich FO may reduce subjective mental fatigue at times of high cognitive demand, although further investigation is required. These findings, taken together with other recent reports of null effects, suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA in healthy, normally developing and impairment-free populations is unlikely to result in cognitive enhancement.

  17. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-09-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  18. Hepatic metabolism, phase I and II biotransformation enzymes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar, L) during a 12 week feeding period with graded levels of the synthetic antioxidant, ethoxyquin.

    PubMed

    Berdikova Bohne, Victoria J; Hamre, Kristin; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-05-01

    The synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin (EQ) is a widely used additive in animal feeds, including farmed fish feed. The use of EQ as food additive is prohibited and it is also undesirable in farmed meat and fish products. The possible negative aspects of EQ in fish feeds, such as modulation of hepatic detoxifying enzymes and possible effects through "carry-over" to edible parts of fish are not known. In addition, the subsequent consequences for human consumers have not been previously studied. In the present work, the alteration in gene and protein expression patterns, and catalytic activities of phase I and II hepatic biotransformation enzymes due to prolonged exposure to graded levels of dietary EQ in the range of 11-1800 mg EQ/kg feed were studied. The kinetics of parent EQ and its major metabolite, ethoxyquin dimer (EQDM) was also studied. In general two weeks seem to be the critical point in the entire toxicological response of salmon to dietary consumed EQ. Biotransformation of EQ to EQDM is shown to be a rapid process. However, the decrease in biotransformation rate results in the accumulation of EQ metabolites, high concentration of which was postulated to alter translation and post-translational modification of CYP3A, GST and UDPGT at feeding day 14 and 42, with subsequent decreases in the biotransformation of consumed EQ. Decrease in the biotransformation of consumed EQ produced the retention of un-metabolized EQ rather than metabolites in salmon liver. This may be considered as undesirable effect, since it could lead to the transport and accumulation in other organs and edible tissues. It may also cause a new wave of biotransformation with formation of metabolites inhibiting detoxifying enzymes. In general, these processes may prolong the excretion of dietary EQ from the fish body and produce EQ-derived residues in the ready-to-consume salmon or fish products. These EQ residues may have higher toxicological effects for human consumers than the parent compound and therefore need to be studied in more detail.

  19. Treatment with an orthopedic appliance system in relation to treatment intensity and growth periods. A study of initial effects.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, O; Omblus, J; Hägg, U; Pancherz, H

    1987-02-01

    The study comprises an analysis of the effect of treatment with a modified activator combined with a high-pull headgear during a standardized observation period of the initial 6 months of treatment. All patients (24 girls and 32 boys, aged 8.5 to 15 years) had severe skeletal Class II malocclusion. In the first part of the study, the effect of treatment with the appliance both day and night is compared with the effect when it was worn only at night. Only a small and nonsignificant difference was found, but the patients tended to cooperate better if they were instructed to wear the appliance continuously. In the second part of the study, the effect of treatment is related to the somatic maturation of the patients. Longitudinal records of standing height were used to assess whether treatment had been performed before maximal pubertal growth (prepeak period), during maximal pubertal growth (peak period), or after maximal pubertal growth (postpeak period). The skeletal effect was significantly greater in boys treated during the peak period than in those treated during the prepeak period and a similar tendency, although not significant, was found among girls. The number of patients treated during the postpeak period was too small for statistical analysis.

  20. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Metabolic Risk and Quality of Life in Hong Kong Chinese Adults with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention to improve metabolic risk profiles and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods We conducted a controlled trial within an university-affiliated hospital. 173 Chinese men and women aged 18 or above were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the control group (n = 86). Primary outcomes included 12-week change in metabolic risk factors and MetS z score. Secondary outcome was HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey at 12 weeks). Results The mean age of participants was 52.0 (SD 7.4, range 31-71) years. Analysis involving the entire study population revealed that the yoga group achieved greater decline in waist circumference (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05), and MetS z score (p<0.01). Yoga training also improved general health perceptions (p<0.01), physical component score (p<0.01), and social functioning (p<0.01) domains score of HRQoL. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in the mean change of systolic/diastolic blood pressures or high-density lipid protein cholesterol (all p>0.05). There were no significant differences in the intervention effects on waist circumference and MetS z score between the MetS subgroups (both p>0.05). Conclusion A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention improves metabolic risk profiles and HRQoL in Chinese adults with and without MetS. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000816752 PMID:26111165

  1. The influence of a 12-week program of physical activity on changes in body composition and lipid and carbohydrate status in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294

  2. A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Jae-Hak; Hong, Ju; Choi, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment.

  3. Periodicity in cell dynamics in some mathematical models for the treatment of leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halanay, A.

    2012-11-01

    A model for the evolution of short-term hematopoietic stem cells and of leukocytes in leucemia under periodic treatment is introduced. It consists of a system of periodic delay differential equations and takes into consideration the asymmetric division. A guiding function is used, together with a theorem of Krasnoselskii, to prove the existence of a strictly positive periodic solution and its stability is investigated.

  4. A 12 week aerobic exercise program improves fitness, hepatic insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in obese Hispanic adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Strictly controlled exercise programs might be useful tools to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose kinetics. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk aerobic exerci...

  5. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  6. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) METHODS: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) RESULTS: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) CONCLUSION: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  7. Effect of 12-Week Vitamin D Supplementation on 25[OH]D Status and Performance in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schlaepfer, Max Walter; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: studies with able-bodied athletes showed that performance might possibly be influenced by vitamin D status. Vitamin D seems to have a direct impact on neuromuscular function by docking on vitamin D receptors in the muscle tissue. Additionally, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was shown not only in infants and in the elderly but also in healthy adults and spinal cord injured individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether a vitamin D dose of 6000 IU daily over 12 weeks would be sufficient to increase vitamin D status in indoor wheelchair athletes to a normal or optimal vitamin D level and whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with an impairment in muscle performance in these individuals; (2) Methods: vitamin D status was assessed in indoor elite wheelchair athletes in order to have a baseline measurement. If vitamin D status was below 75 nmol/L, athletes were supplemented with 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over 12 weeks. A vitamin D status over 75 nmol/L was supplemented with a placebo supplement. Vitamin D status, as well as a Wingate test and an isokinetic dynamometer test, were performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks; (3) Results: 20 indoor elite wheelchair athletes participated in this double-blind study. All of these athletes showed an insufficient vitamin D status at baseline and were, therefore, supplemented with vitamin D. All athletes increased vitamin D status significantly over 12 weeks and reached an optimal level. Wingate performance was not significantly increased. Isokinetic dynamometer strength was significantly increased but only in the non-dominant arm in isometric and concentric elbow flexion; (4) Conclusion: a dose of 6000 IU of vitamin D daily over a duration of 12 weeks seems to be sufficient to increase vitamin D status to an optimal level in indoor wheelchair athletes. It remains unclear, whether upper body performance or muscle strength and vitamin D status are associated with each

  8. Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko

    The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

  9. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery of a 12-week scar pregnancy with temporary occlusion of the uterine blood supply.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jan; Gunnarson, Gudmundur; Lindahl, Bengt

    2009-03-01

    A Cesarean section scar pregnancy is a serious obstetric complication. For all treatment modalities there are risks of heavy bleeding and emergency hysterectomy. Here we report the use of the da Vinci robot for removal of the pregnancy with adequate bleeding control. A 36-year-old para-3 was diagnosed having a 11 + 3 week live cesarean scar pregnancy and a complete placenta previa. S-hCG was 52 726 IU/l. One week after methotrexate treatment the pregnancy was uneventfully and completely removed by robot-assisted laparoscopy with minimal blood loss. The uterine defect was repaired. Bleeding was controlled by temporary application of metal clips to the distal internal iliac arteries and the propria ligaments. Postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography revealed normal uterine blood flow, a repaired uterine defect, and no remaining pregnancy tissue. S-hCG was normalized (<3 IU/l) 38 days after surgery. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery with temporary occlusion of the main uterine blood supply is a feasible and safe technique for surgery of a Cesarean scar pregnancy. PMID:27628455

  10. Implementation of a 12-week disease management program improved clinical outcomes and quality of life in adults with asthma in a rural district hospital: pre- and post-intervention study.

    PubMed

    Chamnan, Parinya; Boonlert, Kittipa; Pasi, Wanit; Yodsiri, Songkran; Pong-on, Sirinya; Khansa, Bhoonsab; Yongkulwanitchanan, Pichapat

    2010-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective medical treatment and disease management guidelines, asthma remains a poorly controlled disease in developing countries. There is little evidence of the effectiveness of disease management guidelines in rural clinical practice. The effect of disease management guidelines on clinical outcomes and quality of life in asthmatic patients in a rural community hospital was examined. Fifty-seven patients aged > or = 16 years with physician-diagnosed asthma from a hospital outpatient clinic in Ubon-ratchathani, Thailand, were recruited. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing clinical records. We implemented a 12-week disease management program, including the use of written asthma treatment plan and asthma action plan tailored to individual patients. Using one-group pre- and post-intervention design, we compared the average number of emergency visits and hospitalizations from acute asthmatic attacks before and after the implementation of interventions using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. We also compared patient's asthma quality of life (AQL) scores, measured using the 7-point scaled Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. It was found that among the 57 patients, 38 (67%) were women, and the mean age (SD) of the patients was 47.6 (17.0) years. Sixteen patients (28%) had a family history of asthma. Emergency visits decreased from 0.48 (SD = 0.83) per patient before implementation of interventions to 0.11 (0.37) per patient after implementation of interventions (p = 0.003). Hospitalizations with acute asthma attacks reduced from 0.14 (0.35) per patient to 0.04 (0.27) per patient (p = 0.034). Overall AQL scores increased significantly from 3.7 to 5.4 (p < 0.001), with most improvement observed in symptoms and emotions. It was concluded that implementation of a 12-week asthma disease management program could reduce emergency visits and hospitalizations, and improve patients' quality of life in a rural practice setting.

  11. Residual {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao; Widder, Joachim; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically inoperable patients with proven Stage I NSCLC or FDG-PET-positive primary lung tumors were analyzed retrospectively. SABR consisted of 60 Gy delivered in 3 to 8 fractions. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the treated lesion was assessed 12 weeks after SABR, using FDG-PET. Patients were subsequently followed at regular intervals using computed tomography (CT) scans. Association between post-SABR SUV{sub max} and local control (LC), mediastinal failure, distant failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 3-40 months). Median lesion size was 25 mm (range, 9-70 mm). There were 6 local failures: 15 mediastinal failures, 15 distant failures, 13 disease-related deaths, and 16 deaths from intercurrent diseases. Glucose corrected post-SABR median SUV{sub max} was 3.0 (range, 0.55-14.50). Using SUV{sub max} 5.0 as a cutoff, the 2-year LC was 80% versus 97.7% for high versus low SUV{sub max}, yielding an adjusted subhazard ratio (SHR) for high post-SABR SUV{sub max} of 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-38.5; p = 0.019). Two-year DSS rates were 74% versus 91%, respectively, for high and low SUV{sub max} values (SHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.3; p = 0.113). Two-year OS was 62% versus 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.7; p = 0.268). Conclusions: Residual FDG uptake (SUV{sub max} {>=}5.0) 12 weeks after SABR signifies increased risk of local failure. A single FDG-PET scan at 12 weeks could be used to tailor further follow-up according to the risk of failure, especially in patients potentially eligible for salvage surgery.

  12. Effects of a12-week endurance exercise program on adiposity and flexibility of Nigerian perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, O O; Arowojolu, A O; Sanya, A O

    2011-12-20

    Menopause is a sign of aging in the woman. Loss of ovarian function induces a reduction in resting metabolic rate, physical energy expenditure, fat-free mass and abdominal adipose tissue accumulation. Location of adipose tissue deposit in abdominal region plays an important role in occurrence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although regular participation in physical exercise have been suggested to improve adiposity and body flexibility which are important health related components of physical fitness, few published studies are available on the effect of exercise on Nigerian menopausal women. This study investigated effects of a twelve-week endurance exercise program (EEP) on central and abdominal obesity as well as flexibility of perimenopausal and postmenopausal Nigerian women. The study employed a pretest- posttest control group design comprising a sample of 175 apparently healthy, literate, sedentary women within age range 40-59 years. They were workers in state and federal establishments in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Based on history of their last menstrual period, women with regular or irregular menstrual cycle status were allocated into perimenopausal group and those who no longer menstruated into postmenopausal group. A table of random numbers was used for further allocation into perimenopausal exercise group (PEMEG, 45), postmenopausal exercise group (POMEG, 45) perimenopausal control group (PEMCG, 42) and postmenopausal control group (POMCG, 43). Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Mass Index (BMI) as well as Hip and Trunk Flexibility (HTF) were evaluated at baseline and 4weekly intervals until end of 12th week. EEP consisted of a 10-station circuit of cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, coordination, abdominal and pelvic floor muscle exercises. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean age of participants was 52.3±4.1 years, 95% C.I (51.64-52.88) years. Significant

  13. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  14. Effects of a 12-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Muscular Strength and Endurance, and Flexibility in Hong Kong Chinese Adults: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Caren; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of a 12-week Hatha yoga intervention on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. Methods. 173 adults (aged 52.0 ± 7.5 years) were assigned to either the yoga intervention group (n = 87) or the waitlist control group (n = 86). 19 dropped out from the study. Primary outcomes were changes in cardiorespiratory endurance (resting heart rate (HR) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)), muscular strength and endurance (curl-up and push-up tests), and lower back and hamstring flexibility (the modified back-saver sit-and-reach (MBS) test). Results. Compared to controls, the yoga group achieved significant improvements in VO2max (P < 0.01), curl-up (P < 0.05) and push-up (P < 0.001) tests, and the MBS left and right leg tests (both P < 0.001) in both genders. Significant change was also found for resting HR between groups in women (P < 0.05) but not in men. Further analysis comparing participants between younger and older subgroups yielded similar findings, except that the older participants in the yoga group failed to improve resting HR or the curl-up test versus control. Adherence (89%) and attendance (94%) were high. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion. A 12-week Hatha yoga intervention has favorable effects on cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility in Chinese adults. PMID:26167196

  15. The effects of 12-week psyllium fibre supplementation or healthy diet on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Khossousi, Alireza; Binns, Colin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness occur early in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and they are both powerful independent predictors of cardiovascular risk. A high-fibre diet has been correlated with lower BMI and a lower incidence of hyperlipidaemia, CVD, hypertension and diabetes. The present randomised, parallel-design study compared the effects of fibre intake from a healthy diet v. fibre supplement diets on blood pressure (BP) and vascular function over 12 weeks. Overweight and obese adults were randomised to one of three groups: control (with placebo), fibre supplement (FIB) or healthy eating group with placebo (HLT). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the FIB group compared with the control group at week 6, but not at week 12. However, SBP was lower in the HLT group compared with control group at week 12. At week 6, the FIB group presented lower diastolic blood pressure and augmentation index compared with the control group, but this result did not persist to the end of the study. The present study did not show any improvements in BP or vascular function in overweight and obese individuals with psyllium fibre supplementation over 12 weeks of intervention. However, a healthy diet provided the greatest improvements in BP in overweight and obese subjects. Further research with hypertensive individuals is necessary to elucidate whether increased fibre consumption in the form of psyllium supplementation may provide a safe and acceptable means to reduce BP, vascular function and the risk of developing CVD.

  16. Proliferation enhancement of budding yeast and mammalian cells with periodic oxygen radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Murata, Tomiyasu; Hahizume, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have been intensively studied for biological applications. However, the each effect of species in plasmas to biological tissue has not been clarified yet because various factors exist in the plasmas. Accordingly, we have studied effects of atomic oxygen dose on cell growth such as budding yeast and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts of mammalian cells. Both of cells were suspended with PBS, and treated using oxygen radical source. In order to prevent the radicals from reacting with the ambient air, the treatment region was surrounded by a plastic cover and purged with Ar. The proliferative effect of 15 % was observed at the O3Pj dose of around 1 . 0 ×1017 cm-3 in NIH3T3 cells as well as in yeast cells. Moreover, periodic oxygen treatment enhanced the effect in budding yeast cells. The best interval of periodic oxygen radical treatment was around 2 hours, which is almost the same period as that of their cell cycle. With the optimum interval time, we have investigated the effect of the number of the treatments. As the number of treatments increases, the growth rate of budding yeast cells was gradually enhanced and saturated at thrice treatments. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  17. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  18. Marketing EPSDT to Clients: A Self-Instructional Module for Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, John L.; McArdle, Patricia

    Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) is a program of preventive health services available to individuals under 21 years of age who are eligible for Medicaid benefits. As of July 1, 1973, all states operating a Medicaid program were required to provide EPSDT services to all those eligible. The purpose of this module is to…

  19. Lessons learned from muscle fatigue: implications for treatment of patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Jean-Marc; Hayward, Lawrence J

    2012-12-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP) is a disease characterized by periods of myotonic discharges and paralytic attacks causing weakness, the latter associated with increases in plasma [K(+)]. The myotonic discharge is due to increased Na(+) influx through defective Na(+) channels that triggers generation of several action potentials. The subsequent increase in extracellular K(+) concentration causes excessive membrane depolarization that inactivates Na(+) channels triggering the paralysis. None of the available treatments is fully effective. This paper reviews the capacity of Na(+) K(+)ATPase pumps, KATP and ClC-1 Cl(-) channels in improving membrane excitability during muscle activity and how using these three membrane components we can study future and more effective treatments for HyperKPP patients. The review of current patents related to HyperKPP reinforces the need of novel approaches for the treatment of this channelopathy.

  20. Regeneration of Aqueous Periodate Solutions by Ozone Treatment: A Sustainable Approach for Dialdehyde Cellulose Production.

    PubMed

    Koprivica, Slavica; Siller, Martin; Hosoya, Takashi; Roggenstein, Walter; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje

    2016-04-21

    A method for easy and fast regeneration of aqueous periodate solutions from dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) production by ozone treatment is presented, along with a direct and reliable simultaneous quantification of iodate and periodate by reversed-phase HPLC. The influence of iodate and ozone concentration, solution pH, and reaction time on the regeneration efficiency was studied, as well as the reaction kinetics. Regeneration of spent periodate solutions by ozone was successfully performed in alkaline medium, which favors the formation of free (.) OH radicals, as supported by the addition of radical scavengers and quantum mechanical calculations. At pH 13 and an ozone concentration of approximately 150 mg L(-1) , periodate was completely regenerated from a 100 mm solution of iodate within 1 h at room temperature. A cyclic process of cellulose oxidation and subsequent regeneration of spent periodate with 90 % efficiency has been developed. So far, commercial applications of DAC have been hampered by difficulties in reusing the costly periodate. This work overcomes this hurdle and presents a highly efficient, clean, and low-cost protocol for the preparation of DAC with integrated periodate recycling, with the possibility of scaling the process up.

  1. Is psychotherapy mandatory during the acute refeeding period in the treatment of anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Danziger, Y; Carel, C A; Tyano, S; Mimouni, M

    1989-07-01

    Forty-five adolescent and preadolescent patients (42 females, three males) with anorexia nervosa (AN) were treated in a pediatric day care unit of a large urban hospital by a multidisciplinary team. In our treatment model, the pediatrician has the responsibility for the initial evaluation and physical rehabilitation while the pediatric psychiatrist does the initial evaluation of the patient and family and is available for intervention in an emergency. Parents are actively involved in the treatment program. Family psychotherapy is recommended for each patient and his or her family. Among 45 patients, 24 did not enter psychotherapy during the first 2 months of the refeeding period, while the remaining 21 patients started psychotherapy (family and/or individual) during this period. Weight gain was higher in the group without formal psychotherapy during the initial period of refeeding (7.3 +/- 3.1 kg versus 5 +/- 2.5 kg; p less than 0.01). It is suggested that the initiation of structured psychotherapy is not mandatory and does not contribute to treatment effectiveness in the acute phase when emaciation and negativism may hinder the psychotherapeutic process. We believe a multidisciplinary team, together with the parents, is the treatment of choice during the acute phase of AN.

  2. Concentration- and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Clewell, H J; Thomas, R S; Kenyon, E M; Hughes, M F; Adair, B M; Gentry, P R; Yager, J W

    2011-10-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As(i)) is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to As(i) in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concentrations of 0.5, 2, 10, and 50 mg As/l. Urinary bladders were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. A consistent reversal was observed in the direction of gene expression change: from predominantly decreased expression at 1 week to predominantly increased expression at 12 weeks. These results are consistent with evidence from in vitro studies of an acute adaptive response that is suppressed on longer exposure due to downregulation of Fos. Pathways with the highest enrichment in gene expression changes were associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and proliferation. Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis determined that the lowest median BMD values for pathways were above 5 mg As/l, despite the fact that pathway enrichment was observed at the 0.5 mg As/l exposure concentration. This disparity may result from the nonmonotonic nature of the concentration-responses for the expression changes of a number of genes, as evidenced by the much fewer gene expression changes at 2 mg As/l compared with lower or higher concentrations. Pathway categories with concentration-related gene expression changes included cellular morphogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis/survival, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. The results of this study provide evidence of a concentration-dependent transition in the mode of action for the subchronic effects of As(i) in mouse bladder cells in the vicinity of 2 mg As(i)/l.

  3. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  4. [The treatment of bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Gülöksüz, Sinan; Akdeniz, Fisun; Ince, Bahri; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD) in males and females is almost equal. The onset of BD in females typically occurs during the reproductive years, complicating its treatment. Although it was once believed that pregnancy prevents recurrence, studies have shown that recurrence is common and severe during pregnancy. On the other hand, the effects of pharmacological treatment on obstetrical outcome are not well known and some of these agents are considered teratogenic. Thus, the decision to treat pregnant patients with psychotropic agents requires solving an ethical dilemma. Risk-benefit decisions should be made while considering both the risk of relapse of BD and its morbidity, and the risk of fetal exposure to psychotropic medications. Moreover, the risk of recurrence increases dramatically in the postpartum period. It is well known that all of the psychotropic medications studied enter the breast milk. Thus, their effects on infants should be considered while prescribing for a breastfeeding mother. The aim of this review was to discuss the safety profiles of the treatment options for pregnant and breastfeeding BD patients. Firstly, each medication's effects on organ dysgenesis, neonatal toxicity, and neurobehavioral development, and their associated adverse events during pregnancy and the postpartum period are discussed, with a focus on the emerging literature. Given this background, practical suggestions on tailoring treatment in BD patients, from preconception to breastfeeding are highlighted.

  5. Treatment of Class II, Division 2 in the late growth period.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, H; Hirschfelder, U

    1998-01-01

    The "Deckbiss" with skeletal Class II jaw relationship sometimes presents a considerable therapeutic problem, particularly in the late growth period (DP3U), as regards the coordination of dental and skeletal treatment objectives. An effective treatment approach was demonstrated: a modified Herbst appliance used simultaneously with fixed appliances in the maxilla. The sample comprised 12 male (14.0 +/- 0.9 years old) and 10 female (12.3 +/- 0.4 years old) patients. Correction of the distal occlusion was achieved in all patients by means of the Herbst appliance, which was removed after an average time period of 6.4 +/- 0.2 months. In the mandible the multibracket appliances were then immediately inserted, and Class II elastics were used for retention. Maximum anchorage was required in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. Complete diagnostic records were made at the beginning of the treatment as well as 6 and 12 months later, in order to document skeletal and dental changes. A dental and skeletal Class I relationship was achieved in all cases. A significant improvement was recorded in the vertical jaw base relationship; this was still stable after a period of 12 months. In the dental area in particular, a so-called high-pull headgear effect (intrusion and distalization 16, 26) and intrusion of teeth 34, 44 were registered. Only a minor protrusion of the mandibular incisors was observed. Reinforcement of the bands reduced the failure rate significantly. The Herbst appliance does not represent a standard treatment for Class II. Its indication range is limited.

  6. Formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzin, Serguei P.

    2015-09-01

    A method of the formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment was developed. In this study, the multicomponent aluminum-iron brass was considered and the nanoporous structure across the entire cross section of the material with a thickness of 50 μm was formed. The method was implemented using a CO2 laser processing unit. The pulse-periodic laser treatment of the Cu-Zn-Al-Fe alloy with pulse frequency of 5 Hz has led to the formation of nanosized cavities due to accumulation of internal stresses during cyclic heating and cooling at high speeds. It was determined that the pores of a channel type with average widths of 80-100 nm are formed in the central region of the heat-affected zone during laser action with thermocycling. When implementing the chosen conditions of the pulse-periodic laser processing, the localness in depth and area of the physical processes occurring in the heat-affected zone is ensured, while maintaining the original properties of the material and the absence of significant deformations in the rest of the volume. This patented process is perspective for the production not only catalysts for chemical reactions, but for ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes as well.

  7. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention

  8. Efficacy and safety of the oral Janus kinase inhibitor peficitinib (ASP015K) monotherapy in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis in Japan: a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Iwasaki, Manabu; Ishikura, Hiroaki; Saeki, Satoshi; Kaneko, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety and dose response of a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor, peficitinib (ASP015K), as monotherapy in Japanese patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In a 12-week, double-blind study, 281 adult patients with RA with active disease not on concomitant disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy were randomised equally to once-daily placebo or peficitinib 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg. The primary endpoint was American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response in the peficitinib treatment groups versus placebo at week 12. Results Mean age was 53.0 years, 81.1% were female and 25.3% had previously used antitumour necrosis factor therapy. Peficitinib 50, 100 and 150 mg each showed statistically significantly higher ACR20 response rates compared with placebo, and response rates increased up to 150 mg with a statistically significant dose response. The total incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the placebo (64.3%) and peficitinib 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg groups (70.9%, 64.9%, 52.7% and 67.2%, respectively). TEAEs occurring more frequently in the peficitinib group compared with the placebo group included nasopharyngitis, increased blood creatine phosphokinase and diarrhoea. No cases of serious infections were reported. Herpes zoster occurred in four patients (two each in peficitinib 25 and 100 mg). Conclusions Treatment with peficitinib as monotherapy for 12 weeks in Japanese patients with moderate to severe RA is efficacious and showed acceptable safety profile. These findings support further developments of peficitinib for RA treatment. Trial registration number NCT01649999; Results. PMID:26672064

  9. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  10. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  11. Motivation and ability to walk for a food reward in fast- and slow-growing broilers to 12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, Eddie A M; Koene, Paul

    2004-09-30

    Poor physical abilities of broilers may prevent them from performing behaviours for which they are motivated. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of physical ability and motivation on the performance of broilers in short physical tasks. We tested birds from a fast- and a slow-growing broiler strain in a runway to 12 weeks of age. To manipulate motivation, half of the birds of each strain was feed deprived for 3h and the other half for 24h before testing. Each bird was tested in a control and a slalom runway test once a week. With a similar motivation, slow growers had a shorter latency to start walking and walked faster through the runway than fast growers in both tests. In fast growers walking speed decreased faster with age than in slow growers. Slow growers vocalised more in both tests. In the slalom test, 24h deprived birds vocalised more than 3h deprived birds. Although the fast and slow growers have a different genetic background, the results indicated that motivation is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a low body weight, while physical ability is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a high body weight.

  12. The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Baati, Hamza; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio) 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR) are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress. PMID:25664340

  13. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  14. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  15. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24611630

  16. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Outcome of Youth with Early-Phase Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders and Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified Treated with Second-Generation Antipsychotics: 12 Week Results from a Prospective, Naturalistic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vernal, Ditte L.; Kapoor, Sandeep; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Sheridan, Eva M.; Borenstein, Yehonathan; Mormando, Charles; David, Lisa; Singh, Sukhbir; Seidman, Andrew J.; Carbon, Maren; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Saito, Ema; Kane, John M.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S) and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PsyNOS) during early antipsychotic treatment. Methods: The study was a prospective, naturalistic, inception cohort study of youth ≤19 years old with SCZ-S (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder) or PsyNOS (PsyNOS, brief psychotic disorder) and ≤24 months of lifetime antipsychotic treatment receiving clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. Baseline demographic, illness and treatment variables, and effectiveness outcomes were compared at 12 weeks last-observation-carried-forward across SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients, adjusting for significantly different baseline variables. Results: Altogether, 130 youth with SCZ-S (n=42) or PsyNOS (n=88), mostly antipsychotic naïve (76.9%), were prescribed risperidone (47.7%), olanzapine (19.2%), aripiprazole (14.6%), quetiapine (11.5%), or ziprasidone (6.9%). Compared with those with PsyNOS, SCZ-S youth were older (16.4±2.1 vs. 14.8±3.2, p=0.0040), and less likely to be Caucasian (19.1% vs. 42.5%, p=0.009). At baseline, SCZ-S patients had significantly higher Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scores (6.0±0.9 vs. 5.5±0.8, p=0.0018) and lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores (29.6±9.2 vs. 36.1±8.9, p=0.0002) and were more likely to be in the severely ill CGAS group (i.e., CGAS≤40). SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients did not differ regarding all-cause discontinuation (40.5 vs. 40.3%. p=0.49), discontinuation because of adverse effects (12.2% vs. 12.4%, p=0.97), or nonadherence (29.3% vs. 30.9%, p=0.88), but somewhat more SCZ-S patients discontinued treatment for inefficacy (19.5% vs. 7.4%, p=0.063). CGI-S and CGAS scores improved significantly in both diagnostic groups (p=0.0001, each). Adjusting for baseline differences, PsyNOS patients experienced significantly better CGI-I improvement

  18. Periodic mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine for the control of filariasis in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, John F.; Siliga, Nofo; Tompkins, Harry; Jones, Kenneth

    1970-01-01

    Filariasis surveys made during 1962-63 in 5 villages in American Samoa among persons over 5 years of age gave an elephantiasis rate of 3.4%, a microfilarial rate of 26% and a median microfilarial rate (MfD50) of 29. These rates were somewhat higher than those found in surveys made in the same villages among villagers of the same ages some 20 years previously. A mass treatment programme with diethylcarbamazine was then decided on. Preliminary treatment with a single total regimen of 72 mg of the drug per kg of body weight, given in 12 doses of 6 mg/kg, was administered in several villages over a period of 6 months. Among villagers of all ages at the end of 3 years, the microfilarial rate was 7.3% and the MfD50 value was 2. These results appeared to be inadequate for a successful control programme and a periodic mass treatment project of 2 or more regimens of 72 mg/kg to be administered every 2 years was instituted on the Island of Tutuila, to be continued until considered no longer necessary. Surveys made 2 years after the second mass treatment in the villages of Amouli, Amanave, Onenoa, Tula, Alao, Utumea and Alofau, in which 1407 persons were examined, showed that 3 villages were negative for microfilariae, that the average microfilarial rate in all 7 villages was 0.4% and that the MfD50 was 1. These villages were also negative in intensive mosquito surveys for infective-stage larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti. It is suggested that interruption of transmission has been observed in the 3 villages negative for both microfilariae and infective-stage larvae and that, if favourable surveys continue, eradication programmes should be established. PMID:4396819

  19. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  20. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  1. Linear-scaling explicitly correlated treatment of solids: Periodic local MP2-F12 method

    SciTech Connect

    Usvyat, Denis

    2013-11-21

    Theory and implementation of the periodic local MP2-F12 method in the 3*A fixed-amplitude ansatz is presented. The method is formulated in the direct space, employing local representation for the occupied, virtual, and auxiliary orbitals in the form of Wannier functions (WFs), projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and atom-centered Gaussian-type orbitals, respectively. Local approximations are introduced, restricting the list of the explicitly correlated pairs, as well as occupied, virtual, and auxiliary spaces in the strong orthogonality projector to the pair-specific domains on the basis of spatial proximity of respective orbitals. The 4-index two-electron integrals appearing in the formalism are approximated via the direct-space density fitting technique. In this procedure, the fitting orbital spaces are also restricted to local fit-domains surrounding the fitted densities. The formulation of the method and its implementation exploits the translational symmetry and the site-group symmetries of the WFs. Test calculations are performed on LiH crystal. The results show that the periodic LMP2-F12 method substantially accelerates basis set convergence of the total correlation energy, and even more so the correlation energy differences. The resulting energies are quite insensitive to the resolution-of-the-identity domain sizes and the quality of the auxiliary basis sets. The convergence with the orbital domain size is somewhat slower, but still acceptable. Moreover, inclusion of slightly more diffuse functions, than those usually used in the periodic calculations, improves the convergence of the LMP2-F12 correlation energy with respect to both the size of the PAO-domains and the quality of the orbital basis set. At the same time, the essentially diffuse atomic orbitals from standard molecular basis sets, commonly utilized in molecular MP2-F12 calculations, but problematic in the periodic context, are not necessary for LMP2-F12 treatment of crystals.

  2. Onion peel extract reduces the percentage of body fat in overweight and obese subjects: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The anti-obesity effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) was suggested in rats, but information from human studies is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of OPE on the body composition of overweight and obese subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, parallel clinical trials were performed in overweight and obese Korean subjects. Randomly assigned subjects were instructed to take daily either the placebo (male, 6 and female, 30) or OPE capsules containing 100 mg of quercetin (male, 5 and female, 31). Body composition was measured by using bioimpedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were evaluated by using indirect calorie measurement methods. Fasting blood levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and leptin were determined. RESULTS Quercetin-rich OPE supplementation significantly reduced the weight and percentage of body fat as measured by DXA (P = 0.02). These effects were not shown in the control group. Levels of blood glucose (P = 0.04) and leptin (P = 0.001 for placebo, P = 0.002 for OPE) decreased in both groups. Significant increases in REE and RQ were observed in both groups (P = 0.003 for placebo, P = 0.006 for OPE) and in the OPE group alone (P = 0.02), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Quercetin-rich OPE supplementation changed the body composition of the overweight and obese subjects. This result suggests a beneficial role of the anti-obesity effect of OPE human subjects. PMID:27087901

  3. Investigation of Peri-Implant Bone Healing Using Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Canine Mandible After 12 Weeks: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Birang, Reza; Tavakoli, Mohammad; Shahabouei, Mohammad; Torabi, Alireza; Dargahi, Ali; Soolari, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Faster reconstruction of patients’ masticatory systems is the aim of modern dentistry. A number of studies have indicated that application of growth factors to the surface of a dental implant leads to accelerated and enhanced osseointegration. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma rich in growth factors on peri-implant bone healing. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, two healthy, mixed-breed canines were selected, and the premolars were extracted from both sides of the mandible. Three months after premolar removal, 12 implants, each 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, were placed in osteotomy sites on both sides of the mandible. Prior to placement, plasma rich in growth factors was applied to the surfaces of six implants, while the other six were used without plasma rich in growth factors. The implants were removed after 12 weeks along with the bone surrounding the sites using a trephine bur. One mesiodistal section containing the surrounding bone from each implant block, 50 µm in diameter, was prepared for histologic and histomorphometric investigation with an optical microscope. Results: The sites with implants treated with plasma rich in growth factors showed more bone-to-implant contact compared to control sites. Also, higher values for bone trabecular thickness and bone maturity were recorded for the PRGF-treated sites than for the control sites. Conclusion: Application of plasma rich in growth factors to the surface of an implant may enhance the bone healing process as well as bone-to-implant contact, thereby helping to achieve faster osseointegration. PMID:22145011

  4. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plants optimisation to face pollution overloads during grape harvest periods.

    PubMed

    Beck, C; Prades, G; Sadowski, A G

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of our study was to optimise a municipal activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to face high organic flows due to viticulture effluents inputs. Treatment file optimization consisted in testing different treatment lines, changing the number and volume of biological basins and clarifiers, with or without a buffer basin upstream, with a view to achieving a better reduction of COD. The actual WWTP biological stage is composed of two aerated basins whose total volume is 1365 m3. The studied cases are successively, the installation of a single basin of 1365 m3, then of several basins whose total volume remains constant and equal to 1365 m3. Another case was also considered, that of an aerated basin followed by a first clarifier and then, by another aerated basin and a second clarifier. All scenarios presented below were evaluated, for standard dry weather conditions and for high organic load conditions, as encountered during the grape harvest period. The method used was to carry out various simulations, using numerical modelling, and to compare the impact of different process line scenarios and management strategies on the activated sludge WWTP efficiencies.

  5. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  6. Effect of ginger powder supplementation on nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in elderly knee osteoarthritis patients: A 12-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Zahra; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Dehghan, Ali; Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh; Huseini, Hassan Fallah

    2016-07-01

    There is limited evidence that ginger ( shēng jiāng) powder consumption can relieve pain and inflammation because of its special phytochemical properties. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of ginger powder supplementation on some inflammatory markers in patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. This is a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial with a follow-up period of 3 months that was conducted on 120 outpatients with moderately painful knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomly divided up into two groups: ginger group (GG) or placebo group (PG). Both groups received two identical capsules on a daily basis for 3 months. Each ginger capsule contained 500 mg of ginger powder; the placebo capsules had 500 mg of starch in them. Serum samples were collected prior to and after the intervention and were stored at -70 °C until the end of the study. Serum concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and hs-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of inflammatory markers (i.e., NO and hs-CRP) prior to the intervention. However, after 3 months of supplementation, serum concentration of NO and hs-CRP decreased in the GG. After 12 weeks, the concentration of these markers declined more in the GG than in the PG. Ginger powder supplementation at a dose of 1 g/d can reduce inflammatory markers in patients with knee osteoarthritis, and it thus can be recommended as a suitable supplement for these patients. PMID:27419081

  7. Effects of feeding transgenic corn with mCry1Ac or maroACC gene to laying hens for 12 weeks on growth, egg quality and organ health.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Q; Chen, L; Gao, L X; Zhang, L L; Yao, B; Yang, X G; Zhang, H F

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding two transgenic corn lines containing the mCry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain (BT-799) and the maroACC gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (CC-2), respectively, on growth, egg quality and organ health indicators. Expression of the mCry1Ac gene confers resistance to Pyrausta nubilalis and the maroACC gene confers tolerance to herbicides. Healthy hens (n=96 placed in cages; 3 hens/cage) were randomly assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (8 cages/treatment) formulated with the following corn: non-transgenic near-isoline control corn (control), BT-799 corn, CC-2 corn and commercially available non-transgenic reference corn (reference). The experiment was divided into three 4-week phases (week 1 to 4, week 5 to 8 and week 9 to 12), during which hens were fed mash diets. Performance (BW, feed intake and egg production) and egg quality were determined. Following slaughter at the end of 12 weeks of feeding (n=8/treatment), carcass yield and organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, stomach and ovary) were recorded; organs and intestines were sampled for histological analysis. Analysis of serum biochemistry parameters to assess the liver and kidney function were performed. No differences in BW, egg production and production efficiency were observed between hens consuming the control diet and hens consuming the BT-799 or CC-2 diet. Haugh unit measures and egg component weights were similar between the control and test groups. Carcass yield was not affected by the diet treatment. Similar organosomatic indices and serum parameters did not indicate the characteristics of organ dysfunction. All observed values of the BT-799 and CC-2 groups were within the calculated tolerance intervals. This research indicates that the performance, egg quality, organ health and carcass yield of laying hens fed diets containing the BT-799 or CC-2 corn line were similar

  8. Effects of a 12-Week Physical Activity Protocol Delivered by YMCA After-School Counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on Fitness and Self-Efficacy Changes in 5-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Westcott, Wayne L.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Unruh, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    To address reduced physical education (PE) in elementary schools, a 12-week physical activity protocol was tested on 5-12-year-old, primarily African American, girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 344) at 14 YMCA after-school care sites. The 3 times/week, 45-min session curriculum included cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training, in which…

  9. Interleukin-1 antagonists in the treatment of autoinflammatory syndromes, including cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Quartier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) include a group of rare autoinflammatory disorders, the spectrum of which ranges from the mildest form, ie, familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome to more severe phenotypes, ie, Muckle-Wells syndrome, and chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome, also known as neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. Three interleukin (IL)-1 antagonists have been tested in adults and children with CAPS, ie, anakinra, a recombinant homolog of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist; rilonacept, a fusion protein comprising the extracellular domains of IL-1 receptor I and the IL-1 adaptor protein, IL-1RAcP, attached to a human immunoglobulin G molecule; and canakinumab, the anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody. Following rapid clinical development, rilonacept and canakinumab were approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in adults and children. This review describes how the study of CAPS has helped us to understand better the way the innate immune system works, the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes, and the key role of IL-1. It also reviews the effects of IL-1 blockade in CAPS and other disorders, in particular systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still’s disease, and gout. Finally, this review covers some issues addressed by very recent and ongoing work regarding treatment indications, from orphan diseases to common disorders, continuous versus intermittent treatment, the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and optimal dosages of the different drugs, as well as the need for Phase IV trials, exhaustive registries, and long-term follow-up of several patient cohorts.

  10. Differences between men and women in dietary intakes and metabolic profile in response to a 12-week nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Vicky; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Bégin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared men and women in response to nutritional interventions but none has assessed differences between men and women in the response to a nutritional intervention programme based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and using the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) as a model of healthy eating, in a context of CVD prevention and within a non-Mediterranean population. The present study aimed to document differences between men and women in changes in dietary, anthropometric and metabolic variables, in response to a nutritional intervention programme promoting the adoption of the MedDiet and based on the SDT. A total of sixty-four men and fifty-nine premenopausal women presenting risk factors for CVD were recruited through different media advertisements in the Québec City Metropolitan area (Canada). The 12-week nutritional programme used a motivational interviewing approach and included individual and group sessions. A validated FFQ was administered to evaluate dietary intakes from which a Mediterranean score (Medscore) was derived. Both men and women significantly increased their Medscore in response to the intervention (P < 0·0001). Men showed a significantly greater decrease in red and processed meat (-0·4 (95 % CI -0·7, -0·1) portions per d) and a greater increase in fruit (0·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·6) portions per d) intakes than women. Significant decreases were observed for BMI and waist circumference in both men and women (P ≤ 0·04). Significant greater decreases were found for total cholesterol (total-C):HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·03) and TAG:HDL-C (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·04) ratios in men than in women. When adjusting for the baseline value of the response variable, differences between men and women became non-significant for red and processed meat and fruit intakes whereas significant differences between men and women (i.e. larger increases in men than women) were observed for legumes, nuts and seeds (0·6

  11. Differences between men and women in dietary intakes and metabolic profile in response to a 12-week nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Vicky; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Bégin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared men and women in response to nutritional interventions but none has assessed differences between men and women in the response to a nutritional intervention programme based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and using the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) as a model of healthy eating, in a context of CVD prevention and within a non-Mediterranean population. The present study aimed to document differences between men and women in changes in dietary, anthropometric and metabolic variables, in response to a nutritional intervention programme promoting the adoption of the MedDiet and based on the SDT. A total of sixty-four men and fifty-nine premenopausal women presenting risk factors for CVD were recruited through different media advertisements in the Québec City Metropolitan area (Canada). The 12-week nutritional programme used a motivational interviewing approach and included individual and group sessions. A validated FFQ was administered to evaluate dietary intakes from which a Mediterranean score (Medscore) was derived. Both men and women significantly increased their Medscore in response to the intervention (P < 0·0001). Men showed a significantly greater decrease in red and processed meat (-0·4 (95 % CI -0·7, -0·1) portions per d) and a greater increase in fruit (0·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·6) portions per d) intakes than women. Significant decreases were observed for BMI and waist circumference in both men and women (P ≤ 0·04). Significant greater decreases were found for total cholesterol (total-C):HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·03) and TAG:HDL-C (-0·2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·04) ratios in men than in women. When adjusting for the baseline value of the response variable, differences between men and women became non-significant for red and processed meat and fruit intakes whereas significant differences between men and women (i.e. larger increases in men than women) were observed for legumes, nuts and seeds (0·6

  12. Anakinra and related drugs targeting interleukin-1 in the treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bachove, Inessa; Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Anakinra is an interleukin (IL) receptor antagonist that works by blocking the biological activity of IL-1 by competitively inhibiting binding of IL-1 to the type 1 interleukin receptor. IL-1 production is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli and mediates various physiological mechanisms, including inflammation and immunological reactions. Patients with neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) produce excess IL-1β, a major proinflammatory cytokine that regulates innate immune responses. Anakinra binds competitively and this results in a rapid reduction in disease severity. NOMID, also known as chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular syndrome, is the most severe clinical phenotype in the spectrum of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. It is characterized by cutaneous symptoms, arthropathy, and central nervous system involvement. Extensive studies in patients with NOMID have led to advances in characterizing the extent of organ-specific involvement and damage that occurs with chronic overproduction of IL-1β. NOMID is caused predominantly by mutations in the NLRP3/CIAS1 gene that encodes for the protein cryopyrin, leading to activation of the “NLRP3 inflammasome complex”. This in turn regulates the maturation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. The clinical value of IL-1β has been demonstrated by the positive response of patients after treatment with anakinra, with rapid improvement in clinical symptoms, markers of inflammation, and a significant decrease in major organ manifestations.

  13. [The prevalence, prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic during the Han-Tang Period].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2013-03-01

    About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture.

  14. Effects on outpatient and emergency mental health care of strict Medicaid early periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment enforcement.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary C; Wallace, Neal T; Evans-Cuellar, Allison

    2007-11-01

    We investigated enforcement of mental health benefits provided by California Medicaid's Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program. Enforcement, compelled by a consumer-driven lawsuit, resulted in an almost 4-fold funding increase over a 5-year period. We evaluated the impact of enforcement on outpatient treatment intensity (number of visits per child) and rates of emergency care treatment. Using fixed-effects regression, we examined the number of outpatient mental health visits per client and the percentage of all clients using crisis care across 53 autonomous California county mental health plans over 32 three-month periods (quarters; emergency crisis care rates) and 36 quarters (out-patient mental health visits). Enforcement of EPSDT benefits in accordance with federal law produced favorable changes in patterns of mental health service use, consistent with policy aims.

  15. Neonatal Bathing and Massage Intervention with Fathers, Behavioural Effects 12 Weeks after Birth of the First Baby: The Sunraysia Australia Intervention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Kim; Samuels, Curtis A.

    1992-01-01

    Examined the effect on father-infant relationships of a parent training program on infant massage and bathing. Infants in the treatment group greeted fathers with more eye contact, smiles, vocalizing, reaching, and orienting responses and showed less avoidance behavior than did control group infants. Fathers in the treatment group showed greater…

  16. Theoretical treatment of the interaction between two-level atoms and periodic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaorun; Lalanne, Philippe

    2015-08-15

    Light transport in periodic waveguides coupled to two-level atoms is investigated theoretically. By using optical Bloch equations and a photonic modal formalism, we derive a convenient semi-analytical expression for calculating the scattering matrix of single atoms trapped in periodic waveguides. The expression that holds for both photonic and plasmonic waveguides represents a basic building block toward the study of collective effects arising from photon-mediated multi-atom interactions in periodic waveguides. PMID:26274681

  17. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity is reduced during induction of pituitary tumors by chronic estrogen treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, D.A.; Borgundvaag, B.; Sturtridge, W.C.; George, S.R.

    1987-11-02

    The role that estrogen plays in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is not known. A radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF was utilized to measure the CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol for periods up to 12 weeks. Compared to ovariectomized controls, estradiol treatment resulted in significantly reduced CRF-ir after 3 and 12 weeks, although no significant change was seen after 8 weeks. Anterior pituitary (AP) weight was greatly increased by estradiol treatment at all time points studied. Bromocriptine treatment for the last 3 weeks of the 12-week period, or removal of estradiol for 3 weeks after 9 weeks of treatment did not reverse the changes in CRF-ir even though significant regressions of tumor size was achieved. There was no correlation between AP weight and CRF-ir in individual animals. These data show that chronic treatment with estrogen reduced hypothalamic CRF-ir content. Neither a direct estrogenic effect or an indirect effect mediated through alterations in the adenohypophysis could be ruled out. 21 references, 3 figures.

  18. From methadone to buprenorphine: changes during a 10 year period within a national opioid maintenance treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Riksheim, Marianne; Gossop, Michael; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is the most widely used treatment for opioid dependence. Maintenance programmes differ in various aspects and may also change over time. This paper investigates the changes in treatment practices within a national OMT programme during a 10 year period (2002-2011), especially with regard to the prescribing of methadone and buprenorphine. Data (n=34,001) were collected by annual assessments questionnaires. In 2002, only 16% of the OMT patients received buprenorphine as their maintenance medication. By 2011 this percentage had increased significantly (p<.001) to 50.3%. In the same period the number of patients more than tripled (from 1,984 to 6,640, p<.001), and programme attrition rates decreased (p=.020). This relatively rapid shift is a part of the increasing reliance of addiction medicine upon a range of medications administered by different routes which has not been previously charted within a national treatment programme.

  19. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe antidepressant (AD) use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis. Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1) 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2) 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment). Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses), epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8%) discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made. Conclusion Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. PMID:26766910

  20. A Guide to Dental Care for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Roy L.; Young, Wesley O.

    This guide has been developed to assist administrators, providers of dental care, and others involved in carrying out the dental care provisions of the EPSDT program (Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program). It is intended to assist in the development of programs concerned with the unique characteristics of dental diseases…

  1. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  2. Improvements Needed to Speed Implementation of Medicaid's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program...Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Congressman Ralph H. Metcalfe asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review implementation of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program administered by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's (HEW's) Social and Rehabilitation Service (SRS). An estimated 10 million children under age 21 are…

  3. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  4. Effectiveness of Periodic Treatment of Quercetin against Influenza A Virus H1N1 through Modulation of Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bipin; Cho, Se-Young; Oh, Kyung-Seo; Kim, Song Hak; Kim, Yeong O; Jeong, Eun-Hye; Nguyen, Thoa Thi; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, In Seon; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Duwoon

    2016-06-01

    Kimchi, a traditional fermented food regularly consumed in Korea, contains various types of antimicrobial compounds. Among the tested compounds present in common spices used in Kimchi, quercetin showed the highest selectivity index against influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1. In this study, the effect of pretreatment and periodic treatment with quercetin against IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was observed. Compared to pretreatment, periodic treatment resulted in significantly higher cell viability but lower relative expression of the IAV PA gene and total apoptosis and cell death. To explain the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of quercetin treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in four samples (mock, quercetin-treated, IAV-infected, and quercetin-treated IAV-infected). Among the 220 proteins, 56 proteins were classified nonhierarchically into three clusters and were differentially modulated by quercetin treatment in IAV-infected cells. Post-translational modifications were identified in 68 proteins. In conclusion, periodic treatment with quercetin is effective in reducing IAV infection, and differentially regulates the expression of key proteins, including heat shock proteins, fibronectin 1, and prohibitin to reduce IAV replication.

  5. Effectiveness of Periodic Treatment of Quercetin against Influenza A Virus H1N1 through Modulation of Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bipin; Cho, Se-Young; Oh, Kyung-Seo; Kim, Song Hak; Kim, Yeong O; Jeong, Eun-Hye; Nguyen, Thoa Thi; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, In Seon; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Duwoon

    2016-06-01

    Kimchi, a traditional fermented food regularly consumed in Korea, contains various types of antimicrobial compounds. Among the tested compounds present in common spices used in Kimchi, quercetin showed the highest selectivity index against influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1. In this study, the effect of pretreatment and periodic treatment with quercetin against IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was observed. Compared to pretreatment, periodic treatment resulted in significantly higher cell viability but lower relative expression of the IAV PA gene and total apoptosis and cell death. To explain the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of quercetin treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in four samples (mock, quercetin-treated, IAV-infected, and quercetin-treated IAV-infected). Among the 220 proteins, 56 proteins were classified nonhierarchically into three clusters and were differentially modulated by quercetin treatment in IAV-infected cells. Post-translational modifications were identified in 68 proteins. In conclusion, periodic treatment with quercetin is effective in reducing IAV infection, and differentially regulates the expression of key proteins, including heat shock proteins, fibronectin 1, and prohibitin to reduce IAV replication. PMID:27157719

  6. Evaluation of lipids, drug concentration, and safety parameters following cessation of treatment with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib in patients with or at high risk for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gotto, Antonio M; Cannon, Christopher P; Li, Xiujiang Susie; Vaidya, Sanskruti; Kher, Uma; Brinton, Eliot A; Davidson, Michael; Moon, Jennifer E; Shah, Sukrut; Dansky, Hayes M; Mitchel, Yale; Barter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects on lipids and safety during a 12-week reversal period after 18 months of treatment with anacetrapib. The cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib was previously shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 39.8% (estimated using the Friedewald equation) and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 138.1%, with an acceptable side-effect profile, in patients with or at high risk for coronary heart disease in the Determining the Efficacy and Tolerability of CETP Inhibition With Anacetrapib (DEFINE) trial. A total of 1,398 patients entered the 12-week reversal-phase study, either after completion of the active-treatment phase or after early discontinuation of the study medication. In patients allocated to anacetrapib, placebo-adjusted mean percentage decreases from baseline were observed at 12 weeks off the study drug for Friedewald-calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (18.6%), non-HDL cholesterol (17.6%), and apolipoprotein B (10.2%); placebo-adjusted mean percentage increases were observed for HDL cholesterol (73.0%) and apolipoprotein A-I (24.5%). Residual plasma anacetrapib levels (about 40% of on-treatment apparent steady-state trough levels) were also detected 12 weeks after cessation of anacetrapib. No clinically important elevations in liver enzymes, blood pressure, electrolytes, or adverse experiences were observed during the reversal phase. Preliminary data from a small cohort (n = 30) revealed the presence of low concentrations of anacetrapib in plasma 2.5 to 4 years after the last anacetrapib dose. In conclusion, after the cessation of active treatment, anacetrapib plasma lipid changes and drug levels decreased to approximately 40% of on-treatment trough levels at 12 weeks after dosing, but modest HDL cholesterol elevations and low drug concentrations were still detectable 2 to 4 years after the last dosing.

  7. Defaulting from tuberculosis treatment in The Netherlands: rates, risk factors and trend in the period 1993-1997.

    PubMed

    Borgdorff, M W; Veen, J; Kalisvaart, N A; Broekmans, J F; Nagelkerke, N J

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of defaulting from treatment among tuberculosis patients diagnosed in the Netherlands in the period 1993-1997, whether risk groups for defaulting can be identified at the start of treatment and the trend of defaulting over time. The Netherlands Tuberculosis Register provided data on all patients diagnosed in the Netherlands during the period 1993-1997. Defaulting probabilities were determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and risk factors were identified with Cox's proportional hazard analysis. Of 7,529 patients with reported treatment outcome, 718 (10%) defaulted or left the country within 1 yr after starting treatment. Defaulting probabilities were 9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 8-10%) among 5,256 patients in low-risk groups, 17% (95% CI 14-19%) among 1,437 asylum seekers and 29% (95% CI 24-34%) among 836 patients in other high-risk groups (other recent immigrants, illegal immigrants, the homeless, prisoners and nationals from Eastern Europe). Defaulting probabilities decreased over time from 12% in 1993 to 7% in 1997. Risk groups for defaulting can be recognized at the start of treatment. The decreasing defaulting probabilities were probably due in part to shortening treatment from 9 to 6 months and improved follow-up of asylum seekers. However, additional measures are needed to reduce defaulting among the homeless, recent immigrants, illegal immigrants and prisoners.

  8. Effects of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats after treatment and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Simão, Vinícius Augusto; Berloffa Belardin, Larissa; Araújo Leite, Gabriel Adan; de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2015-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) will cause changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of adult rats; and investigated the duration of the recovery period that is sufficient to restore the damage in the animals treated with different doses. Wistar rats were treated with ND at doses of 1.87, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg body weight, or received mineral oil (control group) for 15 days, subcutaneously. All animals were divided into three groups according to the treatment periods: (i) ND treatment for 15 days; (ii) ND treatment followed by a 30-day recovery; and (iii) ND treatment followed by a 60-day recovery. Estrous cycle was monitored daily, and at the end of each period, the animals were euthanized for histopathological analysis. During ND treatment and after 30-day recovery, all animals exhibited persistent diestrus. After a 60-day recovery, persistent diestrus was only maintained in the group that had received the highest dose. Ovarian weight was decreased significantly after the 30-day recovery, regardless of ND doses, compared with the control group. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of corpora lutea and antral and growing follicles, in contrast to an increase (P < 0.05) in atretic follicles in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Remarkable histopathological changes occurred in the ovaries of all ND-treated groups. In conclusion, the different doses of ND caused changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats, and recovery periods (30 and 60 days) were insufficient to completely restore the damage in the animals treated with the highest dose. PMID:26575430

  9. Successful treatment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) with tocilizumab: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Soyfoo, Muhammad S.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disease linked to chromosome 12p13 and, more specifically, with mutations within the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A gene (TNFRSF1A gene). It is characterized by the presence of fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, arthralgia or arthritis, and skin rash. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) treated successfully with the anti-interleukin-6 (anti-IL-6) receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab, while treatment with anti-TNF α etanercept and infliximab had both failed.

  10. Delay discounting is associated with treatment response among cocaine-dependent outpatients.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Higgins, Stephen T; Heil, Sarah H; McKerchar, Todd L; Badger, Gary J; Skelly, Joan M; Dantona, Robert L

    2011-06-01

    Delay discounting (DD) describes the rate at which reinforcers lose value as the temporal delay to their receipt increases. Steeper discounting has been positively associated with vulnerability to substance use disorders, including cocaine use disorders. In the present study, we examined whether DD of hypothetical monetary reinforcers is associated with the duration of cocaine abstinence achieved among cocaine-dependent outpatients. Participants were 36 adults who were participating in a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of voucher-based contingency management (CM) using low-magnitude (N = 18) or high-magnitude (N = 18) voucher monetary values. DD was associated with the number of continuous weeks of cocaine abstinence achieved, even after adjusting for treatment condition during the initial 12-week, t(33) = 2.48, p = .045 and entire recommended 24-week of treatment, t(33) = 2.40, p = .022. Participants who exhibited steeper discounting functions achieved shorter periods of abstinence in the Low-magnitude voucher condition (12-week: t(16) = 2.48, p = .025; 24-week: t(16) = 2.68, p = .017), but not in the High-magnitude voucher condition (12-week: t(16) = 0.51, p = .618; 24-week: t(16) = 1.08, p = .298), although the interaction between DD and treatment condition was not significant (12-week: t(32) = -1.12, p = .271; 24-week: t(32) = -0.37, p = .712). These results provide further evidence on associations between DD and treatment response and extend those observations to a new clinical population (i.e., cocaine-dependent outpatients), while also suggesting that a more intensive intervention like the High-magnitude CM condition may diminish this negative relationship between DD and treatment response.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  12. CRYSCOR: a program for the post-Hartree-Fock treatment of periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cesare; Schütz, Martin; Casassa, Silvia; Usvyat, Denis; Maschio, Lorenzo; Lorenz, Marco; Erba, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Cryscor is a periodic post-Hartree-Fock program based on local functions in direct space, i.e., Wannier functions and projected atomic orbitals. It uses atom centered Gaussians as basis functions. The Hartree-Fock reference, as well as symmetry information, is provided by the Crystal program. Cryscor presently features an efficient and parallel implementation of periodic local second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), which allows us to study 1D-, 2D- and 3D-periodic systems beyond 1000 basis functions per unit cell. Apart from the correlation energy also the MP2 density matrix, and from that the Compton profile, are available. Very recently, a new module for calculating excitonic band gaps at the uncorrelated Configuration-Interaction-Singles (CIS) level has been added. Other advancements include new extrapolation techniques for calculating surface adsorption on semi-infinite solids. In this paper the diverse features and recent advances of the present Cryscor version are illustrated by exemplary applications to various systems: the adsorption of an argon monolayer on the MgO (100) surface, the rolling energy of a boron nitride nanoscroll, the relative stability of different aluminosilicates, the inclusion energy of methane in methane-ice-clathrates, and the effect of electron correlation on charge and momentum density of α-quartz. Furthermore, we present some first tentative CIS results for excitonic band gaps of simple 3D-crystals, and their dependence on the diffuseness of the basis set. PMID:22334044

  13. Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders over Periods Ranging from One to Twenty Years following Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMackin, Robert A.; Tansi, Robert; Lafratta, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the recidivism data for juvenile offenders discharged from a Massachusetts residential treatment center between 1976 and 1995. The criminal histories, juvenile and adult, of 162 delinquent youth referred through the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services who left the program were reviewed. Recidivism was defined as any…

  14. [Clinical and pharmacoeconomic peculiarities of the treatment with cerebrolysin in the period of rehabilitation of is ischemic stroke.].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Gekht, A B; Belousov, Iu B; Pavlov, N A; Galanov, D V; Popov, G R; Mil'chakova, L E

    2007-01-01

    The results of the clinical and pharmacoeconomic study of cerebrolysin in the rehabilitative therapy of ischemic stroke presented in the paper revealed the statistically significant regress of neurological disturbances in patients receiving cerebrolysin in daily dosages of 10 and 20 ml as compared to the control group. The rehabilitation of motor functions was more rapid than sensitive ones in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to those switched to the basic antihypertensive and antiaggregate therapy. The positive dynamics of speech rehabilitation was observed, the regress of aphatic disturbances being more significant for daily dosage of 20 ml. Rehabilitation rate in the period of treatment with cerebrolysin was higher for daily dosage of 20 ml than that of 10 ml. A prolonged effect of the drug during the long period after its withdrawal was found that resulted in higher rates of rehabilitation to the 11th week in patients receiving cerebrolysin as compared to the control group. Average total cost of direct medical expenses per a patient estimated in the pharmacoeconomic analysis for the groups receiving cerebrolysin and the control group was higher in the former groups, in particular in that with 20 ml dosage of cerebrolysin. A cost-efficacy analysis revealed that the cost of cerebrolysin treatment per effective unit (a cost of one score on the Lindmark scale and the Barthel scale) was less or comparable in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to the control group. The study suggests clinical and pharmacoeconomic expediency of cerebrolysin treatment in rehabilitative period of ischemic stroke.

  15. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark; Sanders, David; Swanevelder, Sonja; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of community-based counselling on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks after birth, and to study whether the effect differs by maternal HIV status, educational level or household wealth. Design Cluster-randomized trial with fifteen clusters in each arm to evaluate an integrated package providing two pregnancy and five postnatal home visits delivered by community health workers. Infant feeding data were collected using 24 h recall of nineteen food and fluid items. Setting A township near Durban, South Africa. Subjects Pregnant women (1894 intervention and 2243 control) aged 17 yearsor more. Results Twelve weeks after birth, 1629 (intervention) and 1865 (control) mother–infant pairs were available for analysis. Socio-economic conditions differed slightly across intervention groups, which were considered in the analyses. There was no effect on early initiation of breast-feeding. At 12 weeks of age the intervention doubled exclusive breast-feeding (OR=2·29; 95 % CI 1·80, 2·92), increased exclusive formula-feeding (OR=1·70; 95 % CI 1·28, 2·27), increased predominant breast-feeding (OR=1·71; 95 % CI 1·34, 2·19), decreased mixed formula-feeding (OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·83) and decreased mixed breast-feeding (OR=0·54; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·67). The effect on exclusive breast-feeding at 12 weeks was stronger among HIV-negative mothers than HIV-positive mothers (P=0·01), while the effect on mixed formula feeding was significant only among HIV-positive mothers (P=0·03). The effect on exclusive feeding was not different by household wealth or maternal education levels. Conclusions A perinatal intervention package delivered by community health workers was effective in increasing exclusive breast-feeding, exclusive formula feeding and decreasing mixed feeding. PMID:25660465

  16. Heart rate recovery and heart rate variability are unchanged in patients with coronary artery disease following 12 weeks of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity endurance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Rosen, Lee M; Millar, Philip J; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-06-01

    Decreased heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise are associated with an increased risk of mortality in cardiac patients. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) and a novel low-volume high-intensity interval exercise protocol (HIT) on measures of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fourteen males with CAD participated in 12 weeks of END or HIT training, each consisting of 2 supervised exercise sessions per week. END consisted of 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO). HIT involved ten 1-min intervals at 88% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO. Heart rate recovery at 1 min and 2 min was measured before and after training (pre- and post-training, respectively) using a submaximal exercise bout. Resting time and spectral and nonlinear domain measures of heart rate variability were calculated. Following 12 weeks of END and HIT, there was no change in heart rate recovery at 1 min (END, 40 ± 12 beats·min(-1) vs. 37 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 31 ± 8 beats·min(-1) vs. 35 ± 8 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training) or 2 min (END, 44 ± 18 beats·min(-1) vs. 43 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 42 ± 10 beats·min(-1) vs. 50 ± 6 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training). All heart rate variability indices were unchanged following END and HIT training. In conclusion, neither END nor HIT exercise programs elicited training-induced improvements in cardiac autonomic function in patients with CAD. The absence of improvements with training may be attributed to the optimal medical management and normative pretraining state of our sample.

  17. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  18. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week study†

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, N; Kondo, K; Yoshinari, T; Maruyama, N; Susuta, Y; Kuki, H

    2013-01-01

    Aims We examined the efficacy, safety and tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) undergoing diet and exercise therapy. Methods Patients aged 20–80 years with T2DM diagnosed ≥3 months previously, and HbA1c of 6.9–9.9% were randomized to 50, 100, 200 or 300 mg canagliflozin or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. The primary and secondary endpoints were changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), urinary glucose/creatinine and postprandial glycaemic parameters following a meal test. The safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) and clinical laboratory tests. Results Overall, 383 patients were randomized to receive either placebo (n = 75), or 50 mg (n = 82), 100 mg (n = 74), 200 mg (n = 77) or 300 mg canagliflozin (n = 75). At week 12, significant reductions in HbA1c were observed in all canagliflozin groups relative to placebo (−0.61, –0.80, –0.79 and −0.88% for 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg, respectively, versus +0.11% for placebo; all, p < 0.01). FPG and postprandial glycaemic parameters improved significantly in the canagliflozin groups. Body weight was significantly decreased by canagliflozin. No deaths or drug-related serious AEs were reported. There was no dose-dependent increase in the incidence of AEs in the canagliflozin groups. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was low; episodes were not severe or dose dependent. Canagliflozin did not affect serum creatinine levels or the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Conclusions Treatment with canagliflozin for 12 weeks significantly improved glycaemic control and reduced body weight in Japanese patients with T2DM. Canagliflozin was well tolerated. PMID:23782594

  19. A Case Report on Juvenile Neuromyelitis Optica: Early Onset, Long Remission Period, and Atypical Treatment Response.

    PubMed

    Elpers, Christiane; Gross, Catharina C; Fiedler, Barbara; Meuth, Sven G; Kurlemann, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and preferentially targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO is rare in children and clinical course of the disease is highly variable as described in studies. Here, we present a case report of a young girl presenting with a rare course of pediatric NMO with an early disease onset at the age of 12 years, a relapse free interval of 4 years, evidence of NMO immunoglobulin G (IgG) and an unusual response against immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this report is to highlight the potentially long remission period between relapses complicating proper diagnosis despite well defined diagnostic criteria. In addition, we want to encourage the use of rituximab in pediatric NMO, although larger cohorts are warranted to establish B cell depleting therapies in juvenile NMO.

  20. Current treatment recommendations and considerations for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Galeotti, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) encompasses a spectrum of three phenotypes of increasing severity. The syndrome is due to dominant mutations in NLRP3, which encodes a key component of the innate immunity that regulates the secretion of IL-1β. CAPS manifests as systemic inflammation, which compromises quality of life and leads to serious complications and handicap. Anti-IL-1 drugs have shown remarkable efficacy in treating CAPS symptoms and have significantly changed patients' lives. They have acceptable safety profiles but do have some differences. We review three drugs that are currently marketed for CAPS, give additional information for the practical use of these drugs, and provide some recommendations for management. PMID:26312542

  1. Dark Period Following UV-C Treatment Enhances Killing of Botrytis cinerea Conidia and Controls Gray Mold of Strawberries.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Takeda, Fumiomi; Glenn, D Michael; Camp, Mary J; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Strawberries are available throughout the year either from production in the field or from high and low tunnel culture. Diversity of production conditions results in new challenges in controlling diseases before and after harvest. Fungicides have traditionally been used to control these diseases; however, their limitations necessitate a search for new approaches. We found that UV-C irradiation of Botrytis cinerea, a major pathogen of strawberry, can effectively kill this fungus if a dark period follows the treatment. The inclusion of a 4-h dark period resulted in almost complete kill of B. cinerea conidia on agar media at a dose of 12.36 J/m2. The UV-C dose did not cause a reduction in photosynthesis in strawberry leaves or discoloration of sepals, even after exposing plants repeatedly (twice a week) for 7 weeks. Although irradiation of dry conidia of B. cinerea with this dose resulted in some survival, the conidia were not infective and not able to cause decay even when inoculated onto a highly susceptible mature apple fruit. Irradiation of strawberry pollen at 12.36 J/m2 did not affect pollen germination, tube growth and length in vitro, or germination and tube growth in the style of hand-pollinated emasculated strawberry flowers. No negative effect of the UV-C treatment was observed on fruit yield and quality in high tunnel culture. In the fruit and flower petal inoculation tests, the UV-C treatment was highly effective in reducing fruit decay and petal infection. This UV-C treatment with an exposure time of 60 s may be useful in controlling gray mold in tunnel production of strawberries and may also have the potential for use in intensive field and indoor production of other fruits and vegetables providing that a 4-h dark period follows the irradiation.

  2. Dark Period Following UV-C Treatment Enhances Killing of Botrytis cinerea Conidia and Controls Gray Mold of Strawberries.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Takeda, Fumiomi; Glenn, D Michael; Camp, Mary J; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Strawberries are available throughout the year either from production in the field or from high and low tunnel culture. Diversity of production conditions results in new challenges in controlling diseases before and after harvest. Fungicides have traditionally been used to control these diseases; however, their limitations necessitate a search for new approaches. We found that UV-C irradiation of Botrytis cinerea, a major pathogen of strawberry, can effectively kill this fungus if a dark period follows the treatment. The inclusion of a 4-h dark period resulted in almost complete kill of B. cinerea conidia on agar media at a dose of 12.36 J/m2. The UV-C dose did not cause a reduction in photosynthesis in strawberry leaves or discoloration of sepals, even after exposing plants repeatedly (twice a week) for 7 weeks. Although irradiation of dry conidia of B. cinerea with this dose resulted in some survival, the conidia were not infective and not able to cause decay even when inoculated onto a highly susceptible mature apple fruit. Irradiation of strawberry pollen at 12.36 J/m2 did not affect pollen germination, tube growth and length in vitro, or germination and tube growth in the style of hand-pollinated emasculated strawberry flowers. No negative effect of the UV-C treatment was observed on fruit yield and quality in high tunnel culture. In the fruit and flower petal inoculation tests, the UV-C treatment was highly effective in reducing fruit decay and petal infection. This UV-C treatment with an exposure time of 60 s may be useful in controlling gray mold in tunnel production of strawberries and may also have the potential for use in intensive field and indoor production of other fruits and vegetables providing that a 4-h dark period follows the irradiation. PMID:26714103

  3. [Asthenic syndrome in clinical course of acute period of brain concussion during complex treatment using nootropic agents].

    PubMed

    Tkachov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of a complex examination of 108 persons aged from 16 till 60 years in acute period of closed craniocerebral injury (CCCT) has been done. Every participants have been divided into 2 groups depending on a nootrop medication they receive in a complex treatment. A control group consisted of 30 practically healthy people. Objective examination by means of tests was done on the 1-st, 10-th that 30-th day of treatment. Patients of 1-st (37 persons) group received piracetam in complex treatment and patients of the 2-nd group (71 persons) pramistar. Patients of the first group received a base treatment (analgetics, tranquilizers, vitamins of group B, magnesium sulfate, diuretic preparations) as well as piracetam at dosage 0.2, two tablets three times per day. The Patients of the 2-nd group received a base treatment as well as pramistar at dosage 0.6, one tablet 2 times per day. Specially developed multiaspects scales and questionnaires, MRT of the brain and EEG have been used for objectification of patient, complaints. During a complex clinico-neuropsychological examination it was found that all cases of concussion of the brain are accompanied by those or other asthenic disorders.

  4. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  5. [Complex pathogenetic treatment schemes of vascular dyscirculatory disorders in the remote period after exposure to low dose radiation].

    PubMed

    Holodova, N B; Zhavoronkova, L A; Ryzhov, B N

    2013-01-01

    Complex studies including modern methods of investigation of structures and functions of nervous system: electroencephalograsphy (EEG), coherent analysis, neuropsychological study and methods of neuroimaging were performed in 517 participants in liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1987. Dyscirculatory metabolic encephalopathy was revealed to be the main pathology with the etiological mechanism based on dyscirculatorhypoxic and metabolic disorders. Complexity of the revealed symptoms testified to an early organism aging in remote periods after exposure to low dose radiation. Pathogenetic schemes were developed for treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators, which include drugs improving blood supply, antiaggregants, antioxidants and metabolites of the brains in various combinations. Taking into consideration that early appearance of vascular dyscirculatory disorders observed in liquidators is the sign of early aging of the organism, geroprotectors were added to treatment schemes.

  6. [Experience of systematization on the treatment of patients with upper jaws fractures, during the period 1991-2000].

    PubMed

    Khinkov, D

    2005-01-01

    A retrospecive analysis was done of the 128 patients with fractures in a upper jaw, treated during the period 1991-2000. The treatment of the patients with partial fractures in a alveolar part of maxilla and frontal wall of maxillary sinus, consist of debridement on the open wound, primery stiched and stabilization by arch bar of perspective teeth. In the cases with fractures of tuber maxilla and opening of maxillary sinus they tray to clouse it by Rhermann technique, with or without radical antrothomy by Caldwell-Luc technique. On the patients by total upper jaw fractures they try lead by princip of duble stage fixation: from one side-of intact upper bone structures and the other side-on a mandible. On the cases of upper jaw fractures, combine with barain traums. was treated conservativly - the specialize treatment of facial injures was postpoun until stabilization of brain status.

  7. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24), 12 hr (post-36) and 0 hr (post-48) after the start of maturation culture, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the post-24, post-36 and post-48 groups (3.3%, 4.0% and 2.6%, respectively) than those in the control group without treatment (0%). Furthermore, when the oocytes were cultured with Ca-EDTA for 0 hr (control), 12 hr (pre-12), 24 hr (pre-24), 36 hr (pre-36) and 48 hr (pre-48) from the start of maturation culture, the oocytes formed blastocysts only in the pre-36 and pre-48 groups (0.4% or 0.8%, respectively). Pronuclei (<66.7%) were observed only when the periods of Ca-EDTA treatment were more than 12 hr during maturation culture. In the control group, no pronuclei were detected. Our findings demonstrate that porcine immature oocytes can be parthenogenetically activated by Ca-EDTA treatment for at least 24 hr to 36 hr during maturation culture, leading to pronucleus formation followed by the formation of blastocysts. PMID:26947170

  8. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2α) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period. PMID:25958084

  9. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2α) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period.

  10. Epidermal permeability barrier in the treatment of keratosis pilaris.

    PubMed

    Kootiratrakarn, Tanawatt; Kampirapap, Kowit; Chunhasewee, Chakkrapong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate and compare the efficacy, safety, hydrating properties, and tolerability of 10% lactic acid (LA) and 5% salicylic acid (SA) in the therapy of keratosis pilaris (KP). Material and Method. Patients with KP were randomized for treatment with either 10% LA or 5% SA creams being applied twice daily for 3 months. The patients were clinically assessed at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment and 4 weeks after treatment. The functional properties of the stratum corneum (SC) were determined before treatment, 12 weeks, and follow-up phase by high-frequency conductance and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Results. At the end of the trial, the mean reduction of the lesions from baseline was statistically significant for 10% LA (66%) and 5% SA (52%). During the treatment, higher conductance values were found on both group and this improvement was maintained until the follow up period. No significant differences in transepidermal water loss were observed after treatment. The adverse effects were limited to mild irritation localized on the skin without systemic side effect. Conclusion. The study demonstrated that 10% LA and 5% SA are beneficial to treat KP with the significantly clearance and marked improvement as by instrumental evaluation. PMID:25802513

  11. [Establishment of the intestinal microflora and regulation of bacterial translocation after caffeine citrate treatment during postnatal period in rat].

    PubMed

    Moumen Chentouf, W; Tir Touil Meddah, A; Léké, A; Mullié, C; Krim, G; Canarelli, J-P; Meddah, B

    2012-10-01

    To relieve respiratory problems such as apnea in newborns, caffeine citrate is the drug of choice because of its good tolerance and therapeutic index. However, its impact on the intestinal microbial ecosystem and on bacterial translocation in the neonatal period remains insufficiently investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine citrate on the establishment of the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation in rats from birth to the 30th day of life. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 14 animals, each subdivided into a control group receiving a placebo (12mL tap water/kg/day) and another treated with caffeine citrate (12mg/kg/day). The animals were nursed by their mothers and weighed daily. A group of 14 rats was killed at birth and after 10, 20, or 30 days of life. Organs in which translocation was assessed (liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys) and various fragments of intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) were surgically removed. The bacteriological analysis performed involved enumeration of the total microflora, staphylococci, enterobacteria, and lactobacilli. From the 10th day, caffeine was shown to significantly decrease the weight of treated animals as compared with controls (P<0.05). However, caffeine treatment did not drastically alter the kinetics of establishment of the intestinal microflora as only enterobacteria were found to be significantly lower in any intestinal segment of the treated group (P<0.05). Moreover, from the 20th day of life, caffeine citrate significantly downregulated bacterial translocation of both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (P<0.05). This preliminary study on the effects of treatment with caffeine citrate may open opportunities in clinical pediatrics; the treatment will remain partially effective in preventing bacterial translocation in the neonatal period. PMID:22920890

  12. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E. E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ≤ 0.7 M {sub ☉}).

  13. Fall in incidence of guinea-worm infection in western Nigeria after periodic treatment of infected persons.

    PubMed

    Kale, O O

    1982-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1974 a series of drug trials was conducted in 17 rural communities in western Nigeria where guinea-worm is endemic. During these trials and in subsequent years treatment, in the form of chemotherapy and/or dressing of ulcers, was given to all infected persons. A longitudinal study of infection in these villages showed a marked fall in the annual incidence over an 8-year period. The aggregate reduction in incidence in the three sectors surveyed was from 15.5% to 0.5% in sector 1, 29.8% to 0.4% in sector 2, and 20.3% to 0.0% in sector 3. The change appeared to be partly due to the treatment, which reduced the reservoir of infection and the rate of pollution of the water supply. Most of the sources of water continued to harbour Cyclops, none of which was found to be infected with Dracunculus, but which were shown experimentally to be capable of sustaining infection. The study demonstrates the potential role of therapeutic measures in controlling guinea-worm infection. It is suggested that the satisfactory measure of control that has been achieved could be increased by elimination of the Cyclops, with a view to total eradication of the disease from affected communities. Attention is drawn to the relevance of the findings for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

  14. The influence of sample freezing at – 80 °C for 2–12 weeks on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration assayed by HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® auto analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Katarzyna; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a single freeze/thaw cycle on HbA1c concentrations measured by commercially available HPLC method. Materials and methods Study included 128 whole blood samples collected from diabetic patients (N = 60) and healthy volunteers (N = 68). HbA1c concentrations were measured in fresh blood samples. Then samples were frozen at - 80 °C for up to 12 weeks. HbA1c was assayed by ion-exchange HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® analyzer. Variables were compared using Wilcoxon and ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis tests. Bias between HbA1c measured in fresh and frozen samples was calculated. The comparability of HbA1c concentrations was assessed by Bland-Altman plot. Results Median (IQR) HbA1c concentration was 45.3 (36.6–61.2) mmol/mol for fresh and 45.3 (36.6–60.6) mmol/mol for frozen/thawed samples. No significant difference in HbA1c concentrations was found comparing fresh and frozen/thawed samples (P = 0.070) in the whole group, as well as in healthy and diabetic subjects. The median calculated bias between fresh and frozen/thawed samples was 0% in whole group and healthy subjects, and 1.19% in diabetic patients. No significant difference was found between the biases according to baseline HbA1c values (P = 0.150). The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed a positive bias of 0.4% (95% CI: - 2.8 - 3.7%), which indicates high compliance between HbA1c values and no relevant influence of sample freezing on clinical significance of HbA1c measurement. Conclusions Storage for up to 12 weeks at – 80 °C with a single freeze/thaw cycle does not affect HbA1c concentrations measured with HPLC method on Bio-Rad D-10® analyzer. PMID:27812303

  15. A conditional analysis for two-treatment multiple-period crossover designs with binomial or poisson outcomes and subjects who drop out.

    PubMed

    McKnight, B; Van den Eeden, S K

    1993-05-15

    We propose a conditional analysis for outcome data on numbers of recurrent symptoms arising in a two-treatment, multiple-period crossover trial. Conditioning on subject-specific totals removes any dependence on mean subject-specific symptom rates and permits the use of standard software to perform regression analysis to examine treatment, period, carryover and interaction effects. The addition of offsets to the regression equations allows the incorporation of data from subjects who do not complete all periods in the trial. We apply the proposed method to data from a crossover trial and discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Differential efficacy of treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease over a 6-month period.

    PubMed

    López-Pousa, S; Turon-Estrada, A; Garre-Olmo, J; Pericot-Nierga, I; Lozano-Gallego, M; Vilalta-Franch, M; Hernández-Ferràndiz, M; Morante-Muñoz, V; Isern-Vila, A; Gelada-Batlle, E; Majó-Llopart, J

    2005-01-01

    There are various anticholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AChEIs have shown greater efficacy than placebo in randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trials. No differential studies have yet been made of the efficacy between all AChEIs. The study aims to determine the differential efficacy of the AChEIs with respect to a historical sample of patients with AD that were not treated with AChEIs. An open-label, prospective, observational study with a retrospective control group was undertaken to examine the evolution of the cognitive function over a 6-month period. The patients were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at study entry and at 6 months. A general linear model was applied for repeated measurements with the MMSE score as the dependent variable, treatment type as an independent variable and the severity of the deterioration, age and the MMSE baseline score as covariables. Of the sample of 147 patients, 40 initiated treatment with donepezil, 32 with galantamine, 30 with rivastigmine and 45 were part of a historical sample of the memory clinic patients between 1991 and 1996 that had not been treated with AChEIs. The average age was 73.7 years (SD = 6.9; range = 52-86), 67.3% were women, 78.2% of the cases were mild and the MMSE baseline score was 18.1 points (range = 11-27). No significant intergroup differences were observed in these variables. The average doses of donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine were 5.87 mg/day (SD = 1.92), 14.81 mg/day (SD = 6.25) and 6.41 mg/day (SD = 1.82), respectively. At 6 months, the difference in the MMSE score with respect to the untreated group was 1.6 points for donepezil (95% CI 0.79-2.37; p < 0.001), 0.99 points for galantamine (95% CI 0.14-1.85; p = 0.01) and 0.90 points for rivastigmine (95% CI 0.05-1.74; p = 0.03). No significant differences were observed in the efficacy among the groups treated with AChEIs (p

  17. Treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome with low-dose natural human interferon-alpha administered by the oral mucosal route: a phase II clinical trial. IFN Protocol Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ship, J A; Fox, P C; Michalek, J E; Cummins, M J; Richards, A B

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the safety and efficacy of four dosages of natural human interferon-alpha (nHuIFN-alpha) delivered over a 12-week period orally in lozenges (150 IU and 450 IU, once [QD] or three times [TID] daily) compared to placebo in subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome. This randomized, double-blinded clinical trial demonstrated that nHuIFN-alpha at a dose of 150 IU administered TID by oral lozenge significantly improved stimulated whole saliva output compared to placebo after 12 weeks of treatment. The 150 IU TID dose also was suggestive of benefit for 5 of 7 subjective measures of oral and ocular comfort. IFN lozenges demonstrated a good safety profile, with no serious adverse events found in any treatment group. There were no significant differences between the placebo and the four doses of IFN for adverse events by total number, organ system, severity, dropouts, and number judged to be related to treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the use of 150 IU IFN lozenges TID for 12 weeks in subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome improved salivary output and decreased complaints of xerostomia without causing significant adverse medical events. PMID:10476942

  18. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  19. Doenjang, a Korean fermented soy food, exerts antiobesity and antioxidative activities in overweight subjects with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism: 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cha, Youn-Soo; Park, Yongsoon; Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo-Wan; Park, Kungmin; Kim, Yeonsoo; Lee, Haeng-Shin

    2014-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity and antioxidant effects of supplementation with doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, in overweight Koreans with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism. Sixty overweight subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 9.8 g/day of doenjang or placebo for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic parameters, along with abdominal fat distribution and PPAR-γ2 polymorphisms, were measured. Fifty-one subjects completed the study, doenjang (n=26) and placebo (n=25) groups. Relative frequencies of the PPAR-γ2 genotypes CC, TC, and TT were 70% (n=41), 25.9% (15), and 3.4% (2), whereas those of the PPAR-γ2 alleles C and T were 81.6% and 18.4%. Visceral fat area (VFA) was significantly decreased by doenjang supplementation in subjects with a mutant T allele of PPAR-γ2 compared to those with a C allele after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Plasma free fatty acid, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were also significantly increased in the doenjang group. Doenjang pills significantly activated radical clearance capacity (ORAC and DNA tail length) in subjects with the C allele. The catalase (CAT) activity was increased twofold in the doenjang-treated group with the C allele, but this phenomenon was reversed in those with the T allele. Doenjang-treated subjects tended to have low dietary carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared with those given placebo. We found that doenjang supplementation decreased visceral fat accumulation and aging most effectively in subjects with PPAR-γ polymorphisms. This study suggests that doenjang has antiobesity and antioxidative effects in overweight individuals with mutant alleles of PPAR-γ2. PMID:24456362

  20. FAST CP: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a 12-week combined Functional Anaerobic and Strength Training programme on muscle properties and mechanical gait deficiencies in adolescents and young adults with spastic-type cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have muscles that are smaller, weaker and more resistant to stretch compared to typically developing people. Progressive resistance training leads to increases in muscle size and strength. In CP, the benefits of resistance training alone may not transfer to improve other activities such as walking; however, the transfer of strength improvements to improved mobility may be enhanced by performing training that involves specific functional tasks or motor skills. This study aims to determine the efficacy of combined functional anaerobic and strength training in (1) influencing muscle strength, structure and function and (2) to determine if any changes in muscle strength and structure following training impact on walking ability and gross motor functional capacity and performance in the short (following 3 months of training) and medium terms (a further 3 months post-training). Methods and analysis 40 adolescents and young adults with CP will be recruited to undertake a 12-week training programme. The training programme will consist of 3×75 min sessions per week, made up of 5 lower limb resistance exercises and 2–3 functional anaerobic exercises per session. The calf muscles will be specifically targeted, as they are the most commonly impacted muscles in CP and are a key muscle group involved in walking. If, as we believe, muscle properties change following combined strength and functional training, there may be long-term benefits of this type of training in slowing the deterioration of muscle function in people with spastic-type CP. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at The University of Queensland (2014000066) and Children's Health Queensland (HREC/15/QRCH/30). The findings will be disseminated by publications in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and local research organisations’ media. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  1. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CONTINUOUS BACTERIAL TREATMENTS OVER A TWO-WEEK PERIOD ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-07-17

    These experiments indicated that in waters at 23 C the window of opportunity to kill zebra mussels with bacterial strain CL0145A is limited to the first two days of treatment. Treatments beyond two days will not increase mortality.

  2. Non-hormonal treatment of vulvo-vaginal atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tersigni, C; Di Simone, N; Tempestilli, E; Cianfrini, F; Russo, R; Moruzzi, M C; Amar, I D; Fiorelli, A; Scambia, G; Villa, P

    2015-01-01

    In post-menopausal period vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA)-related symptoms may seriously affect women's quality of life. Hormonal replacement therapy effectively relieves these symptoms but it is not always safe or accepted, and a non-hormonal treatment is often needed instead. Over a period of 12 weeks, we tested the effect of a twice-a-week vulvo-vaginal application of a hyaluronic acid, AC collagen, isoflavones and vitamins-based cream (Perilei Pausa) on 35 women in post-menopausal period, reporting VVA-related symptoms. After 12 weeks of treatment with Perilei Pausa a significant improvement in vaginal dryness, vulvo-vaginal itching, dyspareunia (P < 0.001), dysuria (P = 0.02), nocturia (P = 0.009) and pollakiuria (P = 0.005) was reported by the women. Colposcopical score assessing the intensity of atrophic colpitis, cervico-vaginal paleness and petechiae was also reduced (P = 0.037, P = 0.016 and P = 0.032, respectively). No significant difference in terms of maturation value of cervico-vaginal epithelium was observed. In conclusion, Perilei Pausa may represent an effective and safe alternative treatment of symptomatic VVA in post-menopausal women.

  3. Quality of life under oxycodone/naloxone, oxycodone, or morphine treatment for chronic low back pain in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ueberall, Michael A; Eberhardt, Alice; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard HH

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the quality of life of patients with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain under treatment with the WHO-step III opioids oxycodone/naloxone, oxycodone, or morphine in routine clinical practice. Study design Prospective, 12-week, randomized, open-label, blinded end-point study in 88 medical centers in Germany. Patients and methods A total of 901 patients requiring around-the-clock pain treatment with a WHO-step III opioid were randomized to either morphine, oxycodone, or oxycodone/naloxone (1:1:1). Changes from baseline to week 12 in quality of life were assessed using different validated tools (EuroQoL-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Short Form 12 [SF-12], quality of life impairment by pain inventory [QLIP]). Results EQ-5D weighted index scores significantly improved over the 12-week treatment period under all three opioids (P<0.001) with significantly greater improvements under oxycodone/naloxone (65.2% vs 49.6% for oxycodone and 48.2% for morphine, P<0.001). The proportion of patients without EQ-5D complaints was also significantly higher under oxycodone/naloxone (P<0.001). Although quality of life ratings with the QLIP inventory showed significant improvements in all the three treatment arms, improvements were significantly higher under oxycodone/naloxone than under oxycodone and morphine (P<0.001): 90.7% of all oxycodone/naloxone patients achieved ≥30% improvements in quality of life, 72.8% had ≥50%, and 33.2% ≥70% improvements. Similarly, both physical and mental SF-12 component scores showed significantly greater improvements under oxycodone/naloxone with both scores close to the German population norm after 12 weeks. Conclusion Treatment with morphine, oxycodone, or oxycodone/naloxone under routine daily practice conditions significantly improved state of health and quality of life of patients with moderate-to-severe low back pain over a 12-week treatment period. Comparison between the treatment groups showed significantly greater

  4. Effect of 12-week vanadate and magnesium co-administration on chosen haematological parameters as well as on some indices of iron and copper metabolism and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Gołębiowska, Dorota; Niedźwiecka, Irmina

    2012-09-01

    Changes in some blood parameters after 12-week administration of sodium metavanadate (SMV; 0.125mgV/ml) or/and magnesium sulphate (MS; 0.06mgMg/ml) in drinking water were studied in outbred male Wistar rats (16 rats/each group) to explore the probable mechanism(s) underlying SMV toxicity and check whether Mg at the level selected during SMV co-administration can protect, at least in part, from a possible deleterious action of SMV. Exposure to SMV alone and in combination with MS (a) led to a decrease in fluid and food intake and body weight gain; (b) predisposed the animals to the development of microcytic-hypochromic anaemia (with excessive liver and spleen Fe deposition, unaltered plasma Fe level and enhanced Zn concentration in the erythrocytes (RBCs) characterized by a reduced haematocrit (Ht) index and haemoglobin (Hb) level, unchanged erythrocyte and reticulocyte count, anisocytosis, lowered total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and elevated transferrin saturation (TS); (c) disturbed Cu homeostasis, but (d) did not influence the leukocyte count and the plasma total antioxidant status (TAS). We suggest that abnormal metabolism and accumulation of Fe as well as an altered Cu status and the RBC Zn level might lead to defective Fe utilization and be a factor promoting the development of Fe-utilization anaemia. The disturbances in the antioxidative capacity reported previously in rats' RBCs after SMV intoxication (Ścibior, Zaporowska, Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 30 (2010) 153-161) may suggest that oxidative stress (OS) could also be, in part, involved in the mechanism responsible for the development of anaemia. The Mg dose ingested in combination with V under SMV-MS co-administration (a) was able to decrease, to some extent, the V concentration in the blood, (b) normalized the RBC Mg and Fe levels and (c) restored the values of some parameters of the Fe status near the control values. These results allow a supposition that a higher Mg dose consumed during SMV

  5. Renewable Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, N.

    2003-06-01

    This guidebook will help readers understand where and how renewable energy technologies can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications. It is specifically designed for rural and small urban center water supply and wastewater treatment applications. This guidebook also provides basic information for selecting water resources and for various kinds of commercially available water supply and wastewater treatment technologies and power sources currently in the market.

  6. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variants may associate with negative symptom response and plasma concentrations of prolactin in schizophrenia after amisulpride treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Yen, Che-Hung; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is involved in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms and may be associated with a therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between COMT variants, plasma prolactin level, and the therapeutic effectiveness of amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A 12-week naturalistic study of amisulpride treatment was carried out in 185 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The patients were screened for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the COMT gene. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the improvement of psychopathological symptoms from the baseline to the end point in each subject. For better presentation of time-course changes in response status, a mixed model for repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis of symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment period was conducted. The change in plasma prolactin level after amisulpride treatment was also examined (n=51). No significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the COMT variants investigated were observed between responders and non-responders. Moreover, an MMRM analysis of psychopathological symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment course showed that it depended significantly on COMT variants (rs4680, rs4633, and rs6267), particularly regarding changes in negative symptoms. The increase in plasma prolactin levels observed was influenced by the COMT rs4680 variant and was positively correlated with a reduction in PANSS negative scores. Our results suggest that variation of the COMT gene is associated with treatment response regarding negative symptoms and prolactin changes after amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. [Possibilities of magnetic-laser therapy in comprehensive treatment of patients with brain concussion in acute period].

    PubMed

    Zubkova, O V; Samosiuk, I Z; Polishchuk, O V; Shul'ga, N M; Samosiuk, N I

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of magnetic-laser therapy used according to the method developed by us was studied in patients having the brain concussion (BC) in an acute period. The study was based on the dynamics of values of the evoked vestibular potentials and the disease clinical course. It was shown that following the magnetic-laser therapy in combination with traditional pharmacotherapy in BC acute period, the statistically significant positive changes were registered in the quantitative characteristics of the evoked vestibular brain potentials that correlated with the dynamics of the disease clinical course. The data obtained substantiate the possibility of using the magnetic-laser therapy in patients with a mild craniocereblal injury in an acute period.

  8. A Collaborative Care Telemedicine Intervention to Overcome Treatment Barriers for Latina Women with Depression during the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Dueñas, Cecilia; Landsverk, John A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-01-01

    Maternal depression is highly prevalent (10 to 20%) during the perinatal period with rates as high as 35 to 40% for Latinas. However, few Latinas are either identified or treated during the perinatal period. To address these disparities, the Perinatal Mental Health Model (PMH) was designed to ameliorate the barriers that prevent adequate diagnoses and intervention. The PMH is a culturally sensitive, short-term telemedicine, and collaborative care intervention for addressing depression among Mexican American mothers. It attends to sociocultural and socioeconomic dimensions and is delivered by trained mental health advisors within obstetric care settings. This article describes the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the PMH. Participants (n=79) were selected from a first year ongoing randomized trial in community obstetric clinics. The intervention seems feasible and acceptable; low-income Latinas, identified as depressed during the perinatal period, reported having access to a range of appropriate community services and high satisfaction. PMID:22709321

  9. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  10. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., assume that X is a regulated investment company that computes its income on a calendar year basis, and that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency... period of 1988. X has no post-October currency loss and no post-October capital loss for 1988, and...

  11. Correlates of satisfaction with pain treatment in the acute postoperative period: results from the international PAIN OUT registry.

    PubMed

    Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Gerbershagen, Hans J; Taylor, Rod S; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Komann, Marcus; Rothaug, Judith; Volk, Thomas; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Zaslansky, Ruth; Brill, Silviu; Ullrich, Kristin; Gordon, Debra B; Meissner, Winfried

    2014-07-01

    Patient ratings of satisfaction with their postoperative pain treatment tend to be high even in those with substantial pain. Determinants are poorly understood and have not previously been studied in large-scale, international datasets. PAIN OUT, a European Union-funded acute pain registry and research project, collects patient-reported outcome data on postoperative day 1 using the self-reported International Pain Outcome Questionnaire (IPO), and patient, clinical, and treatment characteristics. We investigated correlates of satisfaction and consistency of effects across centres and countries using multilevel regression modelling. Our sample comprised 16,868 patients (median age 55 years; 55% female) from 42 centres in 11 European countries plus Israel, USA, and Malaysia, who underwent a wide range of surgical procedures, for example, joint, limb, and digestive tract surgeries. Median satisfaction was 9 (interquartile range 7-10) on a 0-10 scale. Three IPO items showed strong associations and explained 35% of the variability present in the satisfaction variable: more pain relief received, higher allowed participation in pain treatment decisions, and no desire to have received more pain treatment. Patient factors and additional IPO items reflecting pain experience (eg, worst pain intensity), pain-related impairment, and information on pain treatment added little explanatory value, partially due to covariate correlations. Effects were highly consistent across centres and countries. We conclude that satisfaction with postoperative pain treatment is associated with the patients' actual pain experience, but more strongly with impressions of improvement and appropriateness of care. To the degree they desire, patients should be provided with information and involved in pain treatment decisions. PMID:24785269

  12. Effect of adjuvant imiquimod 5% cream on sustained clearance of anogenital warts following laser treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyme, U B; Hagedorn, M; Schindler, A E; Schneede, P; Hopfenmüller, W; Schorn, K; Eul, A

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Imiquimod is an immune response modifier that has demonstrated a good efficacy and relatively low recurrence rates in comparison to other genital wart treatment modalities. The primary objective of this open-label study was to evaluate the effect on sustained clearance of treated lesions and the safety of patient-applied topical imiquimod after laser therapy of external anogenital warts. METHODS: After laser treatment of visible external anogenital warts the ablated region(s) were treated with imiquimod 5% cream three times/week over 12 weeks beginning when the wound healing process was completed, followed by a six-month treatment-free observation period for the assessment of sustained clearance of treated lesions. RESULTS: A total of 211 male and female patients was enrolled in the study. After 12 weeks of treatment, 65.4% of all patients showed sustained clearance. During the treatment period, 15 patients (7.1% of 211 patients) presented with recurrent warts in the treated areas, and 58 (27.5%) patients were excluded for other reasons. During the six-month follow-up period, ten additional patients (7.3% of 138 patients) developed wart recurrences. The application of imiquimod 5% cream was well tolerated. The number of patients with adverse events related to study medication declined from the first month of treatment until the end of the third month. Most frequently, mild to moderate itching, burning, pain and erythema were reported. CONCLUSIONS: After laser therapy and sufficient wound healing, administration of imiquimod 5% cream three times/week appears to be safe and to reduce the incidence of wart recurrences. PMID:12530484

  13. Bromocriptine treatment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, J D; Marsden, C D; Donaldson, I; Galea-Debono, A; Walters, J; Kennedy, G; Asselman, P

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with Parkinson's disease were treated with the ergot alkaloid bromocriptine, a drug which stimulates dopamine receptors. Bromocriptine had a slight therapeutic effect in patients on no other treatment and an additional effect in patients on levodopa. The mean optimum dosage of bromocriptine, established over a 12 week period, was 26 mg daily. In 20 patients bromocriptine was compared with placebo in a double-blind controlled trial. Active treatment caused a significant (P less than 0.02) reduction in total disability and akinesia scores. The least disabled patients showed the greatest response. Side-effects of bromocriptine--nausea, vomiting, hallucinations, and abnormal involuntary movements--were similar to nature to those of levodopa. In most normal subjects, bromocriptine causes an increase in plasma growth hormone concentration. This was determined in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease after 1-15 mg bromocriptine. Only a single patient showed an obvious increase up to 120 minutes after dosage. Bromocriptine was not effective treatment in two patients who had not previously responded to levodopa and replacement of this drug by bromocriptine in patients with end-of-dose akinesia after chronic levodopa treatment did not totally abolish response swings. PMID:772175

  14. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of certain losses attributable to... that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency...) 100 01/01 to 10/31/89 30 40 (5) (20) 25 20 11/01 to 12/31/89 35 100 (0) (50) 35 50 X has a...

  15. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of certain losses attributable to... that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency...) 100 01/01 to 10/31/89 30 40 (5) (20) 25 20 11/01 to 12/31/89 35 100 (0) (50) 35 50 X has a...

  16. Experimental Treatment of Early Stuttering: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Marie-Christine J.; Kielstra-Van der Schalk, Carine J.; Boelens, Harrie

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study compared two treatments for stuttering in preschool-age children. Thirty children were randomly assigned to either a Lidcombe Program (LP) treatment or a Demands and Capacities Model (DCM) treatment. Stuttering frequencies and severity ratings were obtained immediately before and after treatment (12 weeks). The stuttering…

  17. Efficacy of contingency management in improving retention and compliance to methadone maintenance treatment: a random controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Wu, Fei; Wang, Zhaowei; Fan, Shujun; Li, Zhibin; Hser, Yih-Ing; Zhao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background Compliance with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in China is poor. Objective To evaluate the effects of adjunctive contingency management (CM) on the efficacy of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in patients with opioid dependence. Hypothesis A 12-week prize-based contingency management (CM) intervention can increase the retention and compliance of heroin abusers to standardized MMT programs in Shanghai. Methods 160 heroin-dependent patients from three voluntary MMT clinics in Shanghai were randomly assigned to a treatment as usual group (MMT, n=80) and an intervention group (MMT+CM, n=80). Daily use of methadone was recorded and urine drug tests were conducted weekly during the first 12 weeks and then at week 16, week 20 and week 24. Results The 12-week retention rates for the intervention (MMT+CM) and treatment-as-usual (MMT) groups were both quite high: 87.5% and 86.2%, respectively. The average durations of using methadone in the two groups were equal (70 days versus 71 days, respectively). There was a non-significant increase in the mean longest drug-free period (7.4 weeks versus 6.5 weeks) and in the mean number of negative urine tests (7.9 versus 7.6). Secondary analysis of the 24-week outcomes (12 weeks after termination of the adjunctive CM treatment) also found no significant differences between the groups. Among those who remained in the program the severity of addiction as assessed by the Addiction Severity Index decreased dramatically over the 24 weeks but, again, there were no significant differences in the addiction measures between those in the intervention group and those in the treatment-as-usual group. Conclusion Prize-based CM is not effective in improving the retention and compliance of heroin abusers to MMT in Shanghai. The main reasons for failure to replicate western studies were the unexpectedly high baseline rates of compliance in this sample (86%) and the relatively weak financial incentives provided by the CM program

  18. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  19. [Prevention and treatment of pressure sores--a neglected research subject? An overview of clinically controlled studies in the period 1987-91].

    PubMed

    Tewes, M

    1993-01-01

    Pressure sores are frequently seen in elderly hospitalized patients and leads to prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality. The object of this paper was to retrieve the last five years literature regarding prevention and treatment of pressure sores. During the period 1987-1991, 751 papers on this topic were published and indexed in Medline. Only 9 of these papers represented controlled clinical trials. Three of them dealt with prevention, and the remaining 6 with treatment. Although 4 of 9 studies showed statistically significant differences between the actively treated group and the placebo group, none of the studies showed convincing clinical differences. Serious methodological flaws with respect to design, blinding, randomisation, sample size and statistical analysis were found in 8 of 9 studies. None of the clinical controlled studies on prevention of pressure sores showed any statistically significant differences between the control group and treatment with, respectively Prevasore lotion, Foam cushion and Silicore mattress. In the 6 trials on treatment of pressure sores, respectively mucopolysaccharide polysulphate creme, ketanserin creme and air-fluidized beds showed statistically better results than control treatment. We conclude that well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to establish rational routines for prevention and treatment of pressure sores.

  20. The effects of early or late treatment of osteochondral defects on joint homoeostasis: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Aydogdu, Semih; Taskiran, Dilek; Sezak, Murat; Hayran, Mutlu; Oztop, Fikri; Ozsoy, Arzu

    2009-06-01

    A 3.5 x 4 mm tubular osteochondral defect was created on the right medial femoral condyles of 51 adult rabbits. In the control group (CG), defects were left untreated. In the early-(ETG) and late-(LTG) treatment groups, defects were treated by an osteoperiosteal graft 1 and 12 weeks, respectively, after the index procedure. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were collected regularly and proteoglycan fragments (PF), total collagen (TC) and collagenase (MMP-1) levels were measured. Rabbits were killed at 4 (early period), 12 (intermediate period), or 24 (late period) weeks postoperatively. Histological examination indicated a more successful healing in both grafting groups than in the CG, but without any difference at any time period between the grafting groups. In the CG, PF, and TC levels in SF increased continuously until the late period, indicating an ongoing degenerative activity in the joints. In contrast, SF marker levels in both grafting groups indicated that normalization in joint metabolism could be achieved-at least partially-after treatment. However, PF levels in the SF showed that the treatment of defects in earlier stages might result in better outcomes since the negative effects were more prominent in chronic stages, presumably due to the more prolonged period of disturbed homeostasis. Thus, histological values and SF marker levels indicated that treatment of osteochondral defects at any time of the disease had a positive effect on healing when compared to no treatment. Early treatment might better assist the recovery of joint homeostasis than late treatment.

  1. Time Trends of Cannabis Use Among Treatment-seeking Individuals at Government De-addiction Centers Across India Over a Period of 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani; Sethi, Hem; Singh, Shalini; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number) across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013) period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001) of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4%) tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%). Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country. PMID:27570345

  2. Cardiac Atrial Circadian Rhythms in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE and per1:luc Mice: Amplitude and Phase Responses to Glucocorticoid Signaling and Medium Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yang; Li, Lei; Duffield, Giles E.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in cardiac function are apparent in e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, and acute adverse cardiac events. A circadian clock in heart tissue has been identified, but entrainment pathways of this clock are still unclear. We cultured tissues of mice carrying bioluminescence reporters of the core clock genes, period 1 or 2 (per1luc or PER2LUC) and compared in vitro responses of atrium to treatment with medium and a synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone [DEX]) to that of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and liver. We observed that PER2LUC, but not per1luc is rhythmic in atrial tissue, while both per1luc and PER2LUC exhibit rhythmicity in other cultured tissues. In contrast to the SCN and liver, both per1luc and PER2LUC bioluminescence amplitudes were increased in response to DEX treatment, and the PER2LUC amplitude response was dependent on the time of treatment. Large phase-shift responses to both medium and DEX treatments were observed in the atrium, and phase responses to medium treatment were not attributed to serum content but the treatment procedure itself. The phase-response curves of atrium to both DEX and medium treatments were found to be different to the liver. Moreover, the time of day of the culturing procedure itself influenced the phase of the circadian clock in each of the cultured tissues, but the magnitude of this response was uniquely large in atrial tissue. The current data describe novel entrainment signals for the atrial circadian clock and specifically highlight entrainment by mechanical treatment, an intriguing observation considering the mechanical nature of cardiac tissue. PMID:23110090

  3. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)).

  4. Administration of Mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid complex in the immediate postoperative period for the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This review sought to investigate the safety of intravesical administration of Mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid (MCNA) in the immediate postoperative period after biopsy/resection for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods: Patients with NMIBC who failed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy and at high risk of recurrence and progression participated in this study. Treatment involved an induction phase of six weeks and maintenance of three weekly instillations every six months for two years. Biopsies were mandatory at six months and resections/biopsies as indicated. Of the 129 patients enrolled, 18 (14%) received one or more instillations of MCNA within 24 hours of an endoscopic procedure for a total of 32 instillations. Results: Fourteen patients (78%) received MCNA in the immediate postoperative period. Two (11%) received treatment the day after surgery, but a second treatment immediately after a transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The remaining two patients received an instillation each the day after surgery. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 31.3% of those treated immediately after the procedure; they were mild, limited to the lower urinary tract, and not drug-related. Only one patient experienced systemic symptoms of moderate severity. None of the AEs resulted in postponement of treatment. There were no AEs among those receiving MCNA the day after surgery. Conclusions: The dual mechanism of action of MCNA suggests that early treatment would take advantage of its chemotherapeutic (pro-apoptotic) activity. Concerns about early administration due to the presence of live bacteria are circumvented with this sterile preparation. These preliminary results warrant further investigation to confirm the safety of perioperative administration of MCNA. PMID:27800054

  5. Induction of anoxic microenvironment in multi-phase metabolic shift strategy during periodic discontinuous batch mode operation enhances treatment of azo dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Naresh Kumar, A; Annie Modestra, J; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    Variation in anoxic microenvironment (multi-phase (MP) metabolic shift strategy) during cycle operation of periodic discontinuous batch/sequencing batch (PDBR/SBR) mode operation showed enhanced degradation of recalcitrant azo dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) at higher dye load (1250mg/l). The process performance was evaluated by varying anoxic phasing period during cycle operation. Before multiphase (BMP) operation with 2.1% of anoxic period showed color/COD removal efficiency of 41.9%/46.3%. Increment in anoxic period responded favorable in enhancing treatment efficiency [AMPI (16.2%), 49.4%/52.4%; AMPII (26.6%), 54.7%/57.2%; AMPIII (34.9%), 58.4%/61.5%]. Relatively higher bio-electrochemical activity, persistent reductive behavior (redox catalytic currents, 0.26/-0.72μA), prevalence of redox shuttlers (Fe-S proteins, cytochromes, quinones) facilitating enhanced electron transfer by minimization of associated losses and higher enzyme activities were observed with induction of anoxic phase. Anoxic condition shifts system microenvironment between oxidation and reduction assisting reduction of dye to its intermediates followed by their mineralization.

  6. Adiabatic properties of pulsating DA white dwarfs. I - The treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the region of period formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.; Kawaler, S. D.; Tassoul, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental issue of the region of period formaton in a degenerate star is examined, with special attention given to the treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. It is shown that, in order to obtain reliable numerical results in degenerate stellar models, the Brunt-Vaisala frequency must be appropriately transformed, because it is defined in terms of a difference between two numbers which become nearly equal in highly degenerate matter, causing serious numerical problems and systematic errors. An alternative expression is derived, which is valid for multicomponent nonideal partially degenerate and partially ionized plasmas such as those encountered in white dwarf envelopes. This expression is used to compute the period structure of the same white dwarf considered by Pesnell (1987). It is shown that the implicit numerical differencing used in the Lagrangian pulsation code of Pesnell leads to very serious difficulties when used with models of degenerate stars.

  7. Case report: Successful treatment of recurrent chordoma and bilateral pulmonary metastases following an 11-year disease-free period

    PubMed Central

    Erkmen, Cherie P.; Barth, Richard J.; Raman, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chordomas are rare but aggressive tumors due to local recurrence and distant metastases. They originate commonly in the sphenooccipital and sacrococcygeal regions, and metastasize to the lungs, bone, skin, liver, and lymph nodes. They occur more frequently in men and people over the age of 40. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 28 year-old female presented with sacrococcygeal chordoma for which she received wide local excision and adjuvant radiation therapy. She enjoyed an unusual disease-free survival for 11 years until a routine surveillance scan of the pelvis identified local recurrence. Further work up revealed bilateral pulmonary metastases. She underwent local excision of the recurrent tumor and video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) wedge resection of pulmonary metastases. She also received adjuvant radiation therapy to the recurrent resection bed. Two years later, she remains free of disease and symptoms. DISCUSSION Chordomas are commonly insensitive to chemotherapy and radiation, making surgery the most successful therapeutic modality. However, there are few guidelines on the surveillance and treatment of recurrent chordoma. We report success with aggressive surgical resection of recurrence and metastasis as well as adjuvant radiation therapy. CONCLUSION The prolonged survival of our patient underscores the importance of (1) aggressive surgical resection of chordoma, whether primary, recurrent, or metastatic, with adjuvant radiation therapy, (2) minimization of surgical seeding of tumor, and (3) diligent cancer surveillance. PMID:24907541

  8. Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia Through an One-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Gkini, Maria-Angeliki; Kouskoukis, Alexandros-Efstratios; Tripsianis, Gregory; Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA). Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA). Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001). At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001) and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001) respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. PMID:25722600

  9. Post-treatment Effects of Topiramate Treatment for Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Pond, Timothy; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether the effects of topiramate and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes a kainate receptor subunit, persisted following a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in 138 heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking. During treatment, topiramate 200 mg/day significantly reduced heavy drinking days and increased the frequency of abstinent days (Kranzler et al. 2014a). In the European-American (EA) subsample (n=122), rs2832407 moderated the treatment effect on heavy drinking. Methods Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. During treatment, we obtained 92.4% of drinking data, with 89.1% and 85.5% complete data at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits, respectively. We examined four outcomes over time in the overall sample and the EA subsample: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), percent days abstinent (PDA), serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) concentration, and a measure of alcohol-related problems. Results In the full sample, the lower PHDD and higher PDA seen with topiramate treatment were no longer significant during follow-up. Nonetheless, the topiramate-treated patients had lower alcohol-related problem scores during treatment and both follow-up periods. Further, in the EA subsample, the greater reduction in PHDD seen during treatment in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes persisted throughout follow-up, with no significant effects in A-allele carriers. A reduction in GGTP concentration was consistent with the reduction in heavy drinking, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion There are persistent therapeutic effects of topiramate in heavy drinkers, principally in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes. PMID:25581656

  10. Comparison of different combined treatment processes to address the source water with high concentration of natural organic matter during snowmelt period.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojian; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Yani; Liu, Shuming; Chen, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The source water in one forest region of the Northeast China had very high natural organic matter (NOM) concentration and heavy color during snowmelt period. The efficiency of five combined treatment processes was compared to address the high concentration of NOM and the mechanisms were also analyzed. Conventional treatment can hardly remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the source water. KMnO4 pre-oxidization could improve the DOC removal to 22.0%. Post activated carbon adsorption improved the DOC removal of conventional treatment to 28.8%. The non-sufficient NOM removal could be attributed to the dominance of large molecular weight organic matters in raw water, which cannot be adsorbed by the micropore upon activated carbon. O3+activated carbon treatment are another available technology for eliminating the color and UV254 in water. However, its performance of DOC removal was only 36.4%, which could not satisfy the requirement for organic matter. The limited ozone dosage is not sufficient to mineralize the high concentration of NOM. Magnetic ion-exchange resin combined with conventional treatment could remove 96.2% of color, 96.0% of UV254 and 87.1% of DOC, enabling effluents to meet the drinking water quality standard. The high removal efficiency could be explained by the negative charge on the surface of NOM which benefits the static adsorption of NOM on the anion exchange resin. The results indicated that magnetic ion-exchange resin combined with conventional treatment is the best available technology to remove high concentration of NOM.

  11. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  12. Effect of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Inoculated During Anti-Cancer Treatment Period in Elderly Lung Cancer Patients on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shen, Bing-Jie; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Lee, Moon-Sing; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) inoculated during defined “vaccination period,” first 6 months post cancer diagnosis (ie, an anti-cancer treatment period), in elderly lung cancer patients on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalization incidence. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of 157 newly diagnosed elderly lung cancer patients receiving PPSV23 during “vaccination period”, and 628 age and sex one-to-one matched controls enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. All patients were ≥75 years old and still survival post “vaccination period.” Incidence density (ID) of all-cause inpatient CAP and cumulative survival risk were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression and Kaplan–Meier method, respectively. After a 4-year follow-up, IDs of all-cause inpatient CAP for vaccination and control cohorts were 297 and 444 per 1000 PYs, respectively. Less vaccinated patients had CAP incidence density >1 time per PY (12.7% vs 21.2%) than non-vaccinated patients. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, like influenza vaccination, comorbidities, cancer treatment modalities, and socioeconomic status, adjusted inpatient CAP incidence rate in PPSV23 vaccination cohort was 0.74 times lower than control cohort (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.740, P = 0.0339). Two-year cumulative CAP hospitalization rates and overall survival rates were 37.1% vs. 55.4%, and 46.6% vs. 26.2%, respectively, for lung cancer patients with and without PPSV23 (both P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that for elderly lung cancer patients not ever receiving influenza vaccine, PPSV23 still had trend to reduce all-cause inpatient CAP. For elderly lung cancer patients aged ≥75 years, PPSV23 inoculated during anti-cancer treatment period could reduce CAP hospitalizations and improve survival. PMID:26131806

  13. [Elective periods in the medical curriculum. Madness or academic challenge?].

    PubMed

    Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1993-01-10

    The medical curriculum at the University of Tromsø reserves 23 weeks, divided into four periods, for elective work, including 12 weeks at the end of the fifth year, when the student carries out an independent study and writes a short thesis. 84.2% of 417 physicians (graduation year 1979-89) answered a mailed questionnaire asking them to evaluate these periods. The postgraduates report high levels of satisfaction with this part of the curriculum, thought they had benefited from it. As many as 86.0% evaluate the gain from the first three periods as good or very good. 26.8% started working on their thesis before the final 12 week period. 88.1% found the fourth, and longest period, assigned for their thesis to be an important part of the curriculum. One third had also published their material, half of these in international journals. 75.6% found the skills acquired during the final elective period to be useful in their present work, independent of specialty.

  14. Bian Zheng Lun Zhi as a Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Menstrual Cramps in Women with Dysmenorrhea: A Prospective Clinical Observation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pin-Yi; Yeh, Chia-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Background. Limited scientific evidence supports the positive effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating dysmenorrhea. Thus, an observation period of 3 months could verify the ancient indication that TCM treatments effectively alleviate menstrual cramps in women with primary dysmenorrhea or endometriosis. Methods. A prospective, nonrandomized study (primary dysmenorrhea and endometriosis groups) was conducted in women with dysmenorrhea for more than three consecutive menstrual cycles. All patients received TCM prescriptions based on bian zheng lun zhi theory 14 days before menstruation for a period of 12 weeks. Pain intensity was evaluated using a 10-cm visual analogue scale and two validated questionnaires (the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire). Results. Of the initial 70 intent-to-treat participants, the women with dysmenorrhea reported significant alleviation of cramps during menstruation after the 12-week TCM treatment. Mixed model analysis revealed that TCM prescriptions were more effective in alleviating fatigue, hot flashes, dizziness, painful breasts, excitement, and irritability in the primary dysmenorrhea group (N = 36) than in the endometriosis group (N = 34). Conclusion. TCM prescriptions based on syndrome differentiation theory might be a potentially viable choice for treating painful menstruation and premenstrual symptoms after ruling out endometriosis. PMID:25202332

  15. Bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Ganfort) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Ivan; Gil Pina, Rafael; Lanzagorta-Aresti, Aitor; Schiffman, Rhett M; Liu, Charlie; Bejanian, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoints, reflecting differing regional regulatory requirements, included change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12, and the average eye IOP at weeks 2, 6 and 12 in the intent-to-treat population. Results 561 patients were randomised (278 to bimatoprost/timolol PF; 283 to bimatoprost/timolol); 96.3% completed the study. Both treatment groups showed statistically and clinically significant mean decreases from baseline in worse eye IOP and in average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001). Bimatoprost/timolol PF met all pre-established criteria for non-inferiority and equivalence to bimatoprost/timolol. Ocular adverse events were similar between treatment groups, with conjunctival hyperaemia being the most frequent. Most were mild or moderate in severity. Conclusions Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. Trial registration number NCT01177098. PMID:24667994

  16. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  17. Criminal convictions among dependent heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment: a longitudinal national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bukten, Anne; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Stangeland, Per; Gossop, Michael; Willersrud, Astrid B; Waal, Helge; Havnes, Ingrid; Clausen, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates frequency and types of criminal convictions among a national sample of heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). All heroin users (N = 3,789) in Norway who applied for and were eligible for OMT (1997-2003) were included. The OMT records were cross-linked to Norwegian crime statistics. During observation, 24,478 convictions were recorded among 60.9% of the sample. Differences of criminal convictions were found within the group; a large proportion (39.1%) had no convictions, whereas 10% of the sample was responsible for 37.8% of all convictions. Convictions for acquisitive crimes and drug crimes were the most common. Variations in the cohort's individual crime sequences were found. The heavy involvement of heroin users with the criminal justice system provides an opportunity to intervene with dependent offenders. Coordination between treatment providers and police or courts can play an important role in improving outcomes through better access to treatment.

  18. Bimatoprost 0.03% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution (Lumigan) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week, randomised, double-masked trial

    PubMed Central

    Day, Douglas G; Walters, Thomas R; Schwartz, Gail F; Mundorf, Thomas K; Liu, Charlie; Schiffman, Rhett M; Bejanian, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim To evaluate efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.03% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03% (Lumigan) ophthalmic solution for glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this double-masked, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost PF or bimatoprost for 12 weeks. The primary analysis for non-inferiority was change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12. For equivalence, it was average eye IOP in the intent-to-treat population at each time point at weeks 2, 6 and 12. Results 597 patients were randomised (bimatoprost PF, n=302 and bimatoprost, n=295). The 95% CI upper limit for worse eye IOP change from baseline was <1.5 mm Hg at each week 12 time point, meeting prespecified non-inferiority criteria. The 95% CI upper limit for the treatment difference for average IOP was 0.69 mm Hg and the lower limit was −0.50 mm Hg at all follow-up time points (hours 0, 2 and 8 at weeks 2, 6 and 12), meeting equivalence criteria. Both treatments showed decreases in mean average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001), were safe and well tolerated. Conclusions Bimatoprost PF is non-inferior and equivalent to bimatoprost in its ability to reduce IOP-lowering with a safety profile similar to bimatoprost. PMID:23743437

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Granulocyte/Monocyte Apheresis in Steroid-Dependent Active Ulcerative Colitis with Insufficient Response or Intolerance to Immunosuppressants and/or Biologics [the ART Trial]: 12-week Interim Results

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Ayesha; Hart, Ailsa; Subramanian, Sreedhar; Bommelaer, Gilles; Baumgart, Daniel C.; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Cadiot, Guillaume; Makins, Richard; Hoque, Syed; Bouguen, Guillaume; Bonaz, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Patients with active, steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis with insufficient response or intolerance to immunosuppressants and/or biologic therapies have limited treatment options. Adacolumn, a granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis device, has shown clinical benefit in these patients. This study aimed to provide additional clinical data regarding the safety and efficacy of Adacolumn in this patient subgroup. Methods: This single-arm, open-label, multicentre trial [ART] was conducted at 18 centres across the UK, France, and Germany. Eligible patients were 18–75 years old with moderate-to-severe, steroid-dependent active ulcerative colitis with insufficient response or intolerance to immunosuppressants and/or biologics. Patients received ≥ 5 weekly apheresis sessions with Adacolumn. The primary endpoint was clinical remission rate [clinical activity index ≤ 4] at Week 12. Results: In all, 86 patients were enrolled. At Week 12, 33/84 [39.3%] of patients in the intention-to-treat population achieved clinical remission, with 47/84 [56.0%] achieving a clinical response [clinical activity index reduction of ≥ 3]. Clinical remission was achieved in 30.0% of patients with previous immunosuppressant and biologic failure; steroid-free clinical remission and response were observed in 22.6% and 35.7% of these patients, respectively. Quality of life [Short Health Scale] significantly improved at Week 12 [p < 0.0001]. The majority of adverse events were of mild/moderate intensity. Conclusions: At Week 12, Adacolumn provided significant clinical benefit in a large cohort of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis patients with previous failure to immunosuppressant and/or biologic treatment, with a favourable safety profile. These results are consistent with previous studies and support Adacolumn use in this difficult-to-treat patient subgroup. PMID:26818659

  20. Protocol: the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to exercise and wait-list comparison groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Lal, Sara; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Stress is a major problem in today's fast-paced society and can lead to serious psychosomatic complications. The ancient Chinese mind-body exercise of Tai Chi may provide an alternative and self-sustaining option to pharmaceutical medication for stressed individuals to improve their coping mechanisms. The protocol of this study is designed to evaluate whether Tai Chi practice is equivalent to standard exercise and whether the Tai Chi group is superior to a wait-list control group in improving stress coping levels. This study is a 6-week, three-arm, parallel, randomized, clinical trial designed to evaluate Tai Chi practice against standard exercise and a Tai Chi group against a nonactive control group over a period of 6 weeks with a 6-week follow-up. A total of 72 healthy adult participants (aged 18-60 years) who are either Tai Chi naïve or have not practiced Tai Chi in the past 12 months will be randomized into a Tai Chi group (n = 24), an exercise group (n = 24) or a wait-list group (n = 24). The primary outcome measure will be the State Trait Anxiety Inventory with secondary outcome measures being the Perceived Stress Scale 14, heart rate variability, blood pressure, Short Form 36 and a visual analog scale. The protocol is reported using the appropriate Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) items.

  1. Impact of HCV kinetics on treatment outcome differs by the type of real-time HCV assay in NS3/4A protease inhibitor-based triple therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Takeo; Shimizu, Motohiro; Mukae, Haru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Taeko; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Repeated measurement of the HCV RNA level is essential for properly monitoring treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of two HCV real-time assays in the evaluation of the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics on the outcome of triple therapy with NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), telaprevir or simeprevir. This study consisted of 171 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. All 3266 serum samples taken during and post treatment were tested with both the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HCV Test v2.0 and the Abbott RealTime (ART) HCV Test. Of the 2597 samples undetectable (lower limit of detection [treatment, 400 (15.4%) (369 detectable/less than the lower limitation of quantification [treatment. This event in the first 12 weeks (with PI-treatment period) was not related to treatment failure, however, relapse was observed in all patients with a reappearance of residual HCV RNA after 12 weeks (without PI-treatment period). The superior ability to detect low-level HCV RNA by ART could be useful for predicting SVR by difficult-to-treat patients in the early period and relapse in the late period. PMID:26692214

  2. Impact of HCV kinetics on treatment outcome differs by the type of real-time HCV assay in NS3/4A protease inhibitor-based triple therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Takeo; Shimizu, Motohiro; Mukae, Haru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Taeko; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Repeated measurement of the HCV RNA level is essential for properly monitoring treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of two HCV real-time assays in the evaluation of the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics on the outcome of triple therapy with NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), telaprevir or simeprevir. This study consisted of 171 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. All 3266 serum samples taken during and post treatment were tested with both the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HCV Test v2.0 and the Abbott RealTime (ART) HCV Test. Of the 2597 samples undetectable (lower limit of detection [treatment, 400 (15.4%) (369 detectable/less than the lower limitation of quantification [treatment. This event in the first 12 weeks (with PI-treatment period) was not related to treatment failure, however, relapse was observed in all patients with a reappearance of residual HCV RNA after 12 weeks (without PI-treatment period). The superior ability to detect low-level HCV RNA by ART could be useful for predicting SVR by difficult-to-treat patients in the early period and relapse in the late period.

  3. Osseointegration on metallic implant surfaces: effects of microgeometry and growth factor treatment.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Sally R; Simon, Jordan; Alexander, Harold; Dennis, Michael; Ricci, John L

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic implants often loosen due to the invasion of fibrous tissue. The aim of this study was to devise a novel implant surface that would speed healing adjacent to the surface, and create a stable interface for bone integration, by using a chemoattractant for bone precursor cells, and by controlling tissue migration at implant surfaces via specific surface microgeometry design. Experimental surfaces were tested in a canine implantable chamber that simulates the intramedullary bone response around total joint implants. Titanium and alloy surfaces were prepared with specific microgeometries, designed to optimize tissue attachment and control fibrous encapsulation. TGF beta, a mitogen and chemoattractant (Hunziker EB, Rosenberg LC. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996;78:721-733) for osteoprogenitor cells, was used to recruit progenitor cells to the implant surface and to enhance their proliferation. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CS) was the delivery vehicle for TGF beta; CS resorbs rapidly and appears to be osteoconductive. Animals were sacrificed at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Results indicated that TGFbeta can be reliably released in an active form from a calcium sulfate carrier in vivo. The growth factor had a significant effect on bone ingrowth into implant channels at an early time period, although this effect was not seen with higher doses at later periods. Adjustment of dosage should render TGF beta more potent at later time periods. Calcium sulfate treatment without TGF beta resulted in a significant increase in bone ingrowth throughout the 12-week time period studied. Bone response to the microgrooved surfaces was dramatic, causing greater ingrowth in 9 of the 12 experimental conditions. Microgrooves also enhanced the mechanical strength of CS-coated specimens. The grooved surface was able to control the direction of ingrowth. This surface treatment may result in a clinically valuable implant design to induce rapid ingrowth and a strong bone-implant interface

  4. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  5. Establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment: analysis of data from a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Richardson, Barbra A; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Kiarie, James; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Farquhar, Carey; McClelland, R Scott

    2011-07-15

    Data from a randomized trial of oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections were analyzed to assess the effect of the intervention on a healthy vaginal environment (normal flora confirmed by Gram stain with no candidiasis or trichomoniasis). The incidence of a healthy vaginal environment was 608 cases per 100 person-years in the intervention arm and 454 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.58). Sustained vaginal health (healthy vaginal environment for ≥3 consecutive visits) was also more frequent in the intervention arm (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23-2.33). PPT is effective at establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment.

  6. Comparison between Long- and Short-Acting Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in the Period Required for Haemoglobin Stabilisation in Treatment of Anaemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Matsushita, Ayako; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Nishibe, Seira; Noguchi, Ayaka; Kato, Rina; Toda, Takahiro; Tanaka, Junko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Yuzawa, Yukio; Yamada, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies of the potency of long- and short-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (L-ESAs and S-ESAs) on erythropoietic activity in patients with chronic kidney disease without dialysis have not been performed, although L-ESAs are used in many countries. We performed a retrospective analysis of non-dialysis (ND) patients who had received L-ESA or S-ESA. More days were needed for the S-ESA-treated group (368 d) to reach the haemoglobin (Hb) reference range than for the L-ESA-treated group (126 d). Therefore, we investigated risk factors that influence the period until the Hb level reaches the reference range. Patients were classified into two groups by the period until the Hb level was stabilised within the reference range: the short- and long-term group. Two risk factors for delayed Hb stabilisation were identified: age ≥60 years; and administration of an S-ESA for initial treatment. These findings suggest that the Hb level should be carefully monitored during ESA therapy in elderly ND patients, and that the ESA dose should be increased or L-ESA therapy should be utilised to treat renal anaemia.

  7. Bupropion in the treatment of problematic online game play in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-05-01

    As one of the problematic behaviors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), excessive online game play (EOP) has been reported in a number of recent studies. Bupropion has been evaluated as a potential treatment for MDD and substance dependence. We hypothesized that bupropion treatment would reduce the severity of EOP as well as depressive symptoms. Fifty male subjects with comorbid EOP and MDD were randomly assigned to bupropion + education for internet use (EDU) or placebo + EDU groups. The current study consisted in a 12-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, including an eight-week active treatment phase and a four-week post treatment follow-up period. During the active treatment period, Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and the mean time of online game playing in the bupropion group were greatly reduced compared with those of the placebo group. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores in the bupropion group were also greatly reduced compared with those of the placebo group. During the four-week post-treatment follow-up period, bupropion-associated reductions in online game play persisted, while depressive symptoms recurred. Conclusively, bupropion may improve depressive mood as well as reduce the severity of EOP in patients with comorbid MDD and online game addiction.

  8. Remission and Residual Symptoms after Short-Term Treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  9. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492

  10. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): a pilot trial of an interactive text-messaging intervention for medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Link, Peter C; Bradshaw, Kristen R; Holden, Jason L

    2012-05-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from pigs during metaphylactic trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole treatment and in the post-exposure period.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Justyna; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and 18 weeks after the treatment. MIC values of TMP and SMX were determined for a total of 352 strains. The presence of resistance genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integron-associated dfrA gene cassettes was tested. Resistance to TMP was very high during the administration of the antimicrobial (from 97 to 100%) and amounted to 86% and 69% in the post-exposure period; MIC > 32 mg/L. The isolates from all groups of pigs were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, with MIC > 1028 mg/L. The dfrA1 and sul1 genes (as part of integrons) dominated in E. coli from piglets, but the dfrA12 and sul1 genes were prevalent in E. coli from sows. Coexistence of the different dfrA genes was detected in 71 isolates from all groups of swine. Transcription analysis revealed that most of these genes were not transcribed, particularly gene cassettes of class 1 integrons. The research revealed a high level of resistance associated with the metaphylactic treatment, persistence and circulation of resistance in bacterial populations. Diverse genetic background with multiple and not transcribed resistance genes was observed. PMID:25689993

  12. The efficacy of 12 weeks supervised exercise in obesity management.

    PubMed

    Herring, L Y; Wagstaff, C; Scott, A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of adding either aerobic training (AT) or resistance training (RT) to a multidisciplinary teamed (MDT) educational weight management programme on the health-related fitness of morbidly obese individuals. Males (n = 9) and females (n = 24) aged between 24 and 68 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥40 kg m(2) (≥35 kg m(2) with comorbidities) undertaking a weight management programme were recruited (Completion: M = 8, F = 19). Participants were randomly allocated to either AT (n = 12), RT (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). AT and RT undertook three structured ∼60 min moderate intensity sessions weekly, two supervised gym-based and one structured home-based session for 12 weeks; CON undertook usual care alone. Anthropometric, psychological and functional capacity measures were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Both exercise interventions elicited improvements compared with CON in the: shuttle walk test (AT [Δ 207.0 ± 123.0 metres, 68.0%, P = 0.04], RT [Δ 165.0 ± 183.3 m, 48.8%, P = 0.06], CON [Δ -14.3 ± 38.7 m, -6.2%]), triceps skin-fold (P ≤ 0.001), self-efficacy (P = 0.005) and interest/enjoyment (P = 0.006). RT displayed additional improvements compared with CON in BMI (RT [Δ -1.02 ± 0.91 kg·m(2) , -2.5%, P = 0.033], AT [Δ -1.84 ± 2.70 kg·m(2) , -4.3%, P = 0.142], CON [Δ -0.31 ± 1.47 kg·m(2) , -0.6%]), waist circumference (P = 0.022), competence (P = 0.019), biceps skin-fold (P = 0.012) and medial calf skin-fold (P = 0.013). No significant differences were observed between exercise modalities. Regardless of exercise mode, the addition of supervised and structured exercise to a MDT weight management programme significantly improved anthropometric, functional and psychological measures in obese participants with a BMI of ≥35 kg·m(2) . PMID:25826793

  13. The efficacy of 12 weeks supervised exercise in obesity management.

    PubMed

    Herring, L Y; Wagstaff, C; Scott, A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of adding either aerobic training (AT) or resistance training (RT) to a multidisciplinary teamed (MDT) educational weight management programme on the health-related fitness of morbidly obese individuals. Males (n = 9) and females (n = 24) aged between 24 and 68 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥40 kg m(2) (≥35 kg m(2) with comorbidities) undertaking a weight management programme were recruited (Completion: M = 8, F = 19). Participants were randomly allocated to either AT (n = 12), RT (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). AT and RT undertook three structured ∼60 min moderate intensity sessions weekly, two supervised gym-based and one structured home-based session for 12 weeks; CON undertook usual care alone. Anthropometric, psychological and functional capacity measures were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Both exercise interventions elicited improvements compared with CON in the: shuttle walk test (AT [Δ 207.0 ± 123.0 metres, 68.0%, P = 0.04], RT [Δ 165.0 ± 183.3 m, 48.8%, P = 0.06], CON [Δ -14.3 ± 38.7 m, -6.2%]), triceps skin-fold (P ≤ 0.001), self-efficacy (P = 0.005) and interest/enjoyment (P = 0.006). RT displayed additional improvements compared with CON in BMI (RT [Δ -1.02 ± 0.91 kg·m(2) , -2.5%, P = 0.033], AT [Δ -1.84 ± 2.70 kg·m(2) , -4.3%, P = 0.142], CON [Δ -0.31 ± 1.47 kg·m(2) , -0.6%]), waist circumference (P = 0.022), competence (P = 0.019), biceps skin-fold (P = 0.012) and medial calf skin-fold (P = 0.013). No significant differences were observed between exercise modalities. Regardless of exercise mode, the addition of supervised and structured exercise to a MDT weight management programme significantly improved anthropometric, functional and psychological measures in obese participants with a BMI of ≥35 kg·m(2) .

  14. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  15. Treatment of fatty solid waste from the meat industry in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor: start-up period and establishment of the design criteria.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sosa, D; Torrijos, M; Buitron, G; Sousbie, P; Devillers, P H; Delgenès, J P

    2009-01-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) was used to treat the dissolved air flotation skimmings from a cooked pork meat plant. During the start-up period, the reactor was operated in fed-batch mode for 25 days and 7 batches were treated. The SBR was inoculated with sludge taken from a reactor treating distillery vinasse. The results showed that this kind of sludge is a very good source of inoculum for digesters treating residues with a high content in fats and long-chain fatty acids because it was able to adapt very rapidly to the new substrate and, from the second batch on, the sludge was already able to metabolize the fatty residue at quite high rates. The AnSBR was then operated with 5 batches per week for 110 days and the quantity of VS added per batch was regularly increased until the maximum treatment capacity of the reactor (i.e. maximum loading rate) was reached. The maximum organic loading rates were found to be 0.16 g VS/g VSS d, or 0.224 g VS/g VSS.batch when the reactor is fed 5 times a week. The biodegradability of the skimmings was very high, with more than 97% of TS removal, and the methane production was 880+/-90 mL of methane/g of VS(added).

  16. Randomized, observer-blind, split-face study to compare the irritation potential of 2 topical acne formulations over a 14-day treatment period.

    PubMed

    Ting, William

    2012-08-01

    This randomized, observer-blind, split-face study assessed the irritation potential and likelihood of continued use of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% gel or adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel once daily over a 14-day treatment period in 21 participants (11 males; 10 females) with acne who were 18 years or older. Investigator clinical assessment (erythema and dryness) and self-assessment (dryness and burning/stinging) were performed at baseline and each study visit (days 1-14) using a 4-point scale (O = none; 3 = severe). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry measurements were performed at baseline and days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14. Lesions were counted at baseline and on day 14. Participant satisfaction questionnaires were completed on days 7 and 14. At the end of the study, investigators reported none or only mild erythema in 86% (18/21) of participants treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel compared with 62% (13/21) of participants treated with adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel. No severe erythema was reported with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel was prematurely discontinued due to severe erythema in 1 participant on day 5 and a second participant on day 9. Additionally, 2 more participants reported severe erythema on day 14. Mean erythema scores were 0.9 (mean change from baseline, 0.7) with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel and 1.4 (mean change from baseline, 1.3) with adapalene 0. 1%--BPO 2.5% gel on day 14 (P < .05 for days 6-14). Similar results were seen with dryness. Mean scores were 0.5 (mean change from baseline, 0.4) and 1.0 (mean change from baseline, 1.0), respectively (P < .05 for days 6-14). Self-assessment, TEWL, and corneometry results underscored the investigator clinical assessment. Participant preference and likelihood of continued usage was greater with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Continued use and efficacy results for the treatment of acne were

  17. Effects of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyung-Hun; Suk, Min-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Woo; Shin, Yun-A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. The linear resistance training model (6 days/week) and nonlinear underwater training (4 days/week) were applied to 12 finswimmers (age, 16.08± 1.44 yr; career, 3.78± 1.90 yr) for 12 weeks. Body composition measures included weight, body mass index (BMI), percent fat, and fat-free mass. Physical fitness measures included trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, 1 RM dead lift, knee extension, knee flexion, trunk extension, trunk flexion, and competition times. Body composition and physical fitness were improved after the 12-week periodic training program. Weight, BMI, and percent fat were significantly decreased, and trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1 RM squat, 1 RM dead lift, and knee extension (right) were significantly increased. The 50- and 100-m times significantly decreased in all 12 athletes. After 12 weeks of training, all finswimmers who participated in this study improved their times in a public competition. These data indicate that combined linear and nonlinear periodic training enhanced the physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. PMID:25426469

  18. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gengoux, Grace W; Berquist, Kari L; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M; Frazier, Thomas W; Minjarez, Mendy B; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2015-09-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant improvement in frequency of functional utterances, with maintenance at 3-month follow-up [F(2, 21): 5.9, p = .009]. Children also made significant gains on the Vineland Communication Domain Standard Score [F(2, 12):11.74, p = .001] and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning Composite score [F(1, 20) = 5.43, p = .03]. These results suggest that a brief PRT parent group intervention can lead to improvements in language and cognitive functioning that are maintained 12 weeks post treatment.

  19. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gengoux, Grace W.; Berquist, Kari L.; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Minjarez, Mendy B.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant…

  20. The successful use of etanercept in combination therapy for treatment of acrodermatitis continua of hallopeau.

    PubMed

    Kazinski, Kimberly; Joyce, Kathleen M; Hodson, Darryl

    2005-01-01

    Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH) is a rare form of pustular psoriasis which poses a challenge to treat and causes considerable pain and suffering for those afflicted. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of ACH and other forms of psoriasis. Inhibition of TNF-alpha has been shown to provide benefit in such inflammatory conditions as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and, most recently, plaque psoriasis. In this report, we present the case of a 65-year-old man with a 9-year history of recalcitrant ACH who demonstrated significant and sustained clinical improvement when etanercept, a competitive inhibitor of TNF-alpha, was added to his treatment regimen of acitretin and topical corticosteroids over a 12-week period.

  1. The effects of bright-light therapy on actigraphical measured sleep last for several weeks post-treatment. A study in a nursing home population.

    PubMed

    Fetveit, Arne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the time-course of nocturnal actigraphic measures, following the termination of bright-light therapy for sleep disturbances in demented nursing home patients. From an earlier study, 11 nursing home patients (86 +/- 9 years, Mini-Mental Status Examination score 12 +/- 4) with actigraphically measured sleep efficiency < 85%, were recruited to morning bright-light treatment (6000-8000 lux) 2 h per day for 14 days. Actigraphic measures were registered at pretreatment, treatment and at four monthly post-treatment periods. Each actigraphic recording period consisted of seven consecutive days. Sleep improved substantially with treatment; sleep efficiency increased from 73% to 86% and total nocturnal wake time was reduced by nearly 2 h. During the 16 weeks post-treatment period, actigraphic measures gradually returned to pretreatment levels. Sleep efficiency remained significantly higher than the pretreatment level 4 weeks after treatment termination. Sleep onset latency remained significantly reduced up until 12 weeks post-treatment. This study supports previous findings of beneficial effects of bright-light therapy for sleep disturbances in demented nursing home patients. Furthermore, these results are the first to suggest that post-treatment effects of short-term bright-light therapy may last longer than previously assumed. PMID:15175095

  2. Neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in late-life depression and antidepressant treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Genevieve S.; Gunning, Faith M.; Woods, Eric; Klimstra, Sibel A.; Hoptman, Matthew J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Apathy is a prominent feature of geriatric depression that predicts poor clinical outcomes and hinders depression treatment. Yet little is known about the neurobiology and treatment of apathy in late-life depression. This study examined apathy prevalence in a clinical sample of depressed elderly, response of apathy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, and neuroanatomical correlates that distinguished responders from nonresponders and healthy controls. Methods Participants included 45 non-demented, elderly with major depression and 43 elderly comparison individuals. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, depressed participants received escitalopram 10mg daily for 12 weeks. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were administered at baseline and 12 weeks. MRI scans were acquired at baseline for concurrent structural and diffusion tensor imaging of anterior cingulate grey matter and associated white matter tracts. Results 35.5% of depressed patients suffered from apathy. This declined to 15.6% (p<0.1) following treatment, but 43% of initial sufferers continued to report significant apathy. Improvement of apathy with SSRI was independent of change in depression but correlated with larger left posterior subgenual cingulate volumes and greater fractional anisotropy of left uncinate fasciculi. Limitations modest sample size, no placebo control, post-hoc secondary analysis, use of 1.5T MRI scanner Conclusions While prevalent in geriatric depression, apathy is separable from depression with regards to medication response. Structural abnormalities of the posterior subgenual cingulate and uncinate fasciculus may perpetuate apathetic states by interfering with prefrontal cortical recruitment of limbic activity essential to motivated behavior. PMID:25012429

  3. The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. II. Proliferative retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C C; Sparrow, J M; Grey, R H; Cheng, H

    1998-01-01

    The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit is a prospective survey of laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy throughout the United Kingdom. This paper presents data on 284 patients who were undergoing their first panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative retinopathy during a 2 month period in 1995, describing the demographic features, the level of systematic screening, the sources of referral, and the waiting times. For those cases where proliferative retinopathy was present at the first ophthalmology outpatient visit, the retinopathy was detected as a result of systematic screening in 46.8%, whilst 28.7% presented symptomatically. Of these patients 28.4% waited for more than 12 weeks from referral to the time of laser treatment, but once the patient had been listed for laser treatment this was performed within 8 weeks in 95.3%. The retinopathy features and the type of treatment given are also described. Compared with the DRS and ETDRS recommendations, at least 32.5-40.2% of eyes may be undertreated initially, and for those with high-risk characteristics these figures were at least 30.8-38.5%.

  4. Surgical treatment of 137 cases with chronic subdural hematoma at the university clinical center of Kosovo during the period 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Agon Y.; Morina, Arsim A.; Mekaj, Ymer H.; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Miftari, Ermira I.; Duci, Shkelzen B.; Hamza, Astrit R.; Gashi, Musli M.; Xhelaj, Mentor R.; Kelmendi, Fatos M.; Morina, Qamile Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is frequent pathology in neurosurgical practice. The aim of this study is to present the first series of patients with CSDH, who got surgically treated in Clinic of Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study that included 137 patients with CSDH who had been treated during the period 2008–2012. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Patients were analyzed in many aspects such as age, gender, etiological factors, clinical features, localization, diagnoses, methods of surgical interventions, recurrences and mortality of patients. Results: From 137 patients with CSDH, 106 (77.3%) were males and 31 (22.7%) females. Average age of patients was 62.85 years. Analyzed according to the decades, the highest number of causes with CSDH was between 70 and 79 years (46%). The head trauma has been responsible for CSDH in 88 patients (64.3%), while the main symptom was headache (92 patients or 67.1%). One burr-hole trepanation with closed drainage system has been used in majority of cases (in 101 patients or 73.7%). The recurrence of CSDH was 6.5%, whereas mortality 2.9%. Conclusion: CSDH is more common in elderly patients. The male-female ratio is 3.4:1. Like other authors we also think that treatment with one burr-hole and drainage is a method of choice, because of its simplicity and safety. PMID:25883478

  5. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  6. Period Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check with a doctor to find out about pain relievers and other treatments that can reduce cramps. If you get them, don't let cramps sneak up on you! It's best to start taking pain relievers slightly in advance of the cramps. Your mom ...

  7. Oral treatments of Echinococcus multilocularis-infected mice with the antimalarial drug mefloquine that potentially interacts with parasite ferritin and cystatin.

    PubMed

    Küster, Tatiana; Stadelmann, Britta; Rufener, Reto; Risch, Corina; Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of oral treatments of Echinococcus multilocularis-infected mice with the antimalarial drug mefloquine (MEF) and identified proteins that bind to MEF in parasite extracts and human cells by affinity chromatography. In a pilot experiment, MEF treatment was applied 5 days per week and was intensified by increasing the dosage stepwise from 12.5 mg/kg to 200 mg/kg during 4 weeks followed by treatments of 100 mg/kg during the last 7 weeks. This resulted in a highly significant reduction of parasite weight in MEF-treated mice compared with mock-treated mice, but the reduction was significantly less efficacious compared with the standard treatment regimen of albendazole (ABZ). In a second experiment, MEF was applied orally in three different treatment groups at dosages of 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, but only twice a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Treatment at 100 mg/kg had a profound impact on the parasite, similar to ABZ treatment at 200 mg/kg/day (5 days/week for 12 weeks). No adverse side effects were noted. To identify proteins in E. multilocularis metacestodes that physically interact with MEF, affinity chromatography of metacestode extracts was performed on MEF coupled to epoxy-activated Sepharose(®), followed by SDS-PAGE and in-gel digestion LC-MS/MS. This resulted in the identification of E. multilocularis ferritin and cystatin as MEF-binding proteins. In contrast, when human cells were exposed to MEF affinity chromatography, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase was identified as a MEF-binding protein. This indicates that MEF could potentially interact with different proteins in parasites and human cells. PMID:26395219

  8. The Occurrence of Female-to-Male Partner Violence Among Male Intimate Partner Violence Offenders Mandated to Treatment: A Brief Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the perceived perpetration of female-to-male intimate partner violence by victims of male offenders mandated to treatment. Sixty-eight male perpetrators of partner violence completed measures of dyadic violent and aggressive responding at intake and at a 12 week follow-up. Approximately 20% of male offenders reported partner violence perpetration and 30% reported victimization with bi-directional violence as the most common configuration of couple violence. Maladaptive responses to conflict were prevalent across partners. Significant and highly correlated reductions in aversive behaviors were detected across the assessment period for both males and their female partners. Results are interpreted within the context of motivational models of female-to-male partner violence and current treatment approaches. PMID:25750479

  9. Safety and efficacy of dapoxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad R

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drug dapoxetine in delaying ejaculation in patients with premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 212 potent men with PE were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg orally dapoxetine (group 1, N=106) twice daily or similar regimen of placebo (group 2, N=106) during a 12-week period for each agent. Pretreatment evaluation included history and physical examination, geometric mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, primary outcome measure), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The efficacy of two treatments was assessed every 2 weeks during treatment, at the end of study, and in 3-month follow-up after cessation of treatment. We measured geometric mean IELT. Thus, the IELT values were logarithmically transformed before statistical analysis, and the results are reported as fold increases from baseline with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). The independent sample two-tailed t-test was used to compare the IELTs. At the end of 12-week treatment, the dapoxetine group had a 2.9- (95% CI, 1.84-4.16) fold increase of the geometric mean IELT, while after placebo the geometric mean IELT did not increase significantly (1.4-fold increase; 95% CI, 0.84-1.63) (p=0.001). The mean weekly intercourse episodes increased from pretreatment values of 1.16 and 1.14 to 2.2 and 1.4, for dapoxetine and placebo, respectively (p=0.04). Baseline mean intercourse satisfaction domain values of IIEF, 12 and 11, reached to 16 and 10 at the 12-week treatment in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.04). At the end of 3-month follow-up period, the geometric mean IELT in dapoxetine and placebo group demonstrated 1.4- (95% CI, 0.66-1.46) and 1.3- (95% CI, 0.77-1.63) fold increase, respectively (p=0.1). Three-month intercourse satisfaction domain value of IIEF was 11 in group 1 and 10 in group 2 (p=0.1). Mean number of adverse events was 19 for dapoxetine and 7 for

  10. Safety and efficacy of dapoxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad R

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drug dapoxetine in delaying ejaculation in patients with premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 212 potent men with PE were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg orally dapoxetine (group 1, N=106) twice daily or similar regimen of placebo (group 2, N=106) during a 12-week period for each agent. Pretreatment evaluation included history and physical examination, geometric mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, primary outcome measure), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The efficacy of two treatments was assessed every 2 weeks during treatment, at the end of study, and in 3-month follow-up after cessation of treatment. We measured geometric mean IELT. Thus, the IELT values were logarithmically transformed before statistical analysis, and the results are reported as fold increases from baseline with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). The independent sample two-tailed t-test was used to compare the IELTs. At the end of 12-week treatment, the dapoxetine group had a 2.9- (95% CI, 1.84-4.16) fold increase of the geometric mean IELT, while after placebo the geometric mean IELT did not increase significantly (1.4-fold increase; 95% CI, 0.84-1.63) (p=0.001). The mean weekly intercourse episodes increased from pretreatment values of 1.16 and 1.14 to 2.2 and 1.4, for dapoxetine and placebo, respectively (p=0.04). Baseline mean intercourse satisfaction domain values of IIEF, 12 and 11, reached to 16 and 10 at the 12-week treatment in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.04). At the end of 3-month follow-up period, the geometric mean IELT in dapoxetine and placebo group demonstrated 1.4- (95% CI, 0.66-1.46) and 1.3- (95% CI, 0.77-1.63) fold increase, respectively (p=0.1). Three-month intercourse satisfaction domain value of IIEF was 11 in group 1 and 10 in group 2 (p=0.1). Mean number of adverse events was 19 for dapoxetine and 7 for

  11. Pharmacological Management of Treatment-Resistant Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Emslie, Graham; March, John

    2005-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy presents with treatment-resistant symptoms of major depression. This is his first episode of depression, initially treated with 200 mg sertraline for 12 weeks with no significant benefit. The severe depression has shown a partial response to weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and fluoxetine, which was titrated up to 60 mg…

  12. Comparison of chloroxylenol 0.5% plus salicylic acid 2% cream and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Boutli, F; Zioga, M; Koussidou, T; Ioannides, D; Mourellou, O

    2003-01-01

    A 12-week double-blind randomized study was performed to compare benzoyl peroxide 5% (BP) gel and chloroxylenol 0.5% plus salicylic acid 2% (PCMX + SA) cream (Nisal cream) for efficacy and adverse reactions. Thirty-seven volunteers participated in the study, 19 in the BP group and 18 in the PCMX + SA group. The patients applied the medication twice daily to the entire face. Clinical evaluation and lesion counts were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. At week 12 both groups showed a marked improvement in both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions (60% and 54% for the BP group and 62% and 56% for and 56% for the PCMX + SA group, respectively). Although PCMX + SA showed a slightly stronger keratolytic effect throughout the study period, there was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of the papulopustules or comedones between the two groups. Adverse effects such as erythema and photosensitivity were significantly fewer in the PCMX + SA group at week 12 (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.05, respectively). These results suggest that PCMX + SA cream is as effective as BP gel in the treatment of papulopustular and comedonal acne and that it is better tolerated.

  13. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  14. Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  15. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  16. Contingency Management Treatments: Reinforcing Abstinence Versus Adherence with Goal-Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Hanson, Tressa; MacKinnon, Stephen; Rounsaville, Bruce; Sierra, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually reinforce submission of drug-negative specimens, but they can also reinforce adherence with goal-related activities. This study compared the efficacy of the 2 approaches. Substance-abusing outpatients (N = 131) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 12-week treatments: standard treatment (ST), ST with CM…

  17. Treatment of delocalized electron transfer in periodic and embedded cluster DFT calculations: The case of Cu on ZnO (10(1)0).

    PubMed

    Hellström, Matti; Spångberg, Daniel; Hermansson, Kersti

    2015-12-15

    We assess the consequences of the interface model-embedded-cluster or periodic-slab model-on the ability of DFT calculations to describe charge transfer (CT) in a particularly challenging case where periodic-slab calculations indicate a delocalized charge-transfer state. Our example is Cu atom adsorption on ZnO(10(1)0), and in fact the periodic slab calculations indicate three types of CT depending on the adsorption site: full CT, partial CT, and no CT. Interestingly, when full CT occurs in the periodic calculations, the calculated Cu atom adsorption energy depends on the underlying ZnO substrate supercell size, since when the electron enters the ZnO it delocalizes over as many atoms as possible. In the embedded-cluster calculations, the electron transferred to the ZnO delocalizes over the entire cluster region, and as a result the calculated Cu atom adsorption energy does not agree with the value obtained using a large periodic supercell, but instead to the adsorption energy obtained for a periodic supercell of roughly the same size as the embedded cluster. Different density functionals (of GGA and hybrid types) and basis sets (local atom-centered and plane-waves) were assessed, and we show that embedded clusters can be used to model Cu adsorption on ZnO(10(1)0), as long as care is taken to account for the effects of CT. PMID:26525161

  18. Extended treatment of older cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor I.; Robbins, Julie A.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Tobacco dependence treatments achieve abstinence rates of 25–30% at 1 year. Low rates may reflect failure to conceptualize tobacco dependence as a chronic disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the efficacy of extended cognitive behavioral and pharmacological interventions in smokers ≥ 50 years of age, and to determine if gender differences in efficacy existed. Design Open randomized clinical trial. Setting A free-standing, smoking treatment research clinic. Participants A total of 402 smokers of ≥ 10 cigarettes per day, all 50 years of age or older. Intervention Participants completed a 12-week treatment that included group counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion. Participants, independent of smoking status, were then assigned randomly to follow-up conditions: (i) standard treatment (ST; no further treatment); (ii) extended NRT (E-NRT; 40 weeks of nicotine gum availability); (iii) extended cognitive behavioral therapy (E-CBT; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions over a 40-week period); or (iv) E-CBT plus E-NRT (E-combined; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions plus 40 weeks nicotine gum availability). Measurements Primary outcome variable was 7-day point prevalence cigarette abstinence verified biochemically at weeks 24, 52, 64 and 104. Findings The most clinically important findings were significant main effects for treatment condition, time and the treatment × time interaction. The E-CBT condition produced high cigarette abstinence rates that were maintained throughout the 2-year study period [(week 24 (58%), 52 (55%), 64 (55%) and 104 (55%)], and was significantly more effective than E-NRT and ST across that period. No other treatment condition was significantly different to ST. No effects for gender were found. Conclusions Extended cognitive behavioral treatments can produce high and stable cigarette abstinence rates for both men and women. NRT does not add to the efficacy of extended CBT, and may hamper its efficacy

  19. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... or check their website. Prescription Assistance Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Benefit Medicare pays for prescription medications ... you during the Annual Open Enrollment Period. Part D Low-Income Subsidy (LIS) If you have Medicare ...

  20. Early antipsychotic treatment in childhood/adolescent period has long-term effects on depressive-like, anxiety-like and locomotor behaviours in adult rats.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Childhood/adolescent antipsychotic drug (APD) use is exponentially increasing worldwide, despite limited knowledge of the long-term effects of early APD treatment. Whilst investigations have found that early treatment has resulted in some alterations to dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission systems (essential to APD efficacy), there have only been limited studies into potential long-term behavioural changes. This study, using an animal model for childhood/adolescent APD treatment, investigated the long-term effects of aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone on adult behaviours of male and female rats. Open-field/holeboard, elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction and forced swim (FS) tests were then conducted in adult rats. Our results indicated that in the male cohort, early risperidone and olanzapine treatment elicited long-term hyper-locomotor effects (open-field/holeboard and FS tests), whilst a decrease in depressive-like behaviour (in FS test) was observed in response to olanzapine treatment. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like behaviours were found following testing in the open-field/holeboard and EPM in response to all three drug treatments. Effects in the female cohort, however, were to a far lesser extent, with behavioural attributes indicative of an increased depressive-like behaviour and hypo-locomotor activity exhibited in the FS test following early risperidone and olanzapine treatment. These results suggest that various APDs have different long-term effects on the behaviours of adult rats.

  1. Transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment for patients with shoulder pain booked for surgery: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Taverner, Murray; Loughnan, Terence

    2014-02-01

    Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal problem and accounts for 5% of general practitioner consultations. Although many treatments are described, there is no consensus on optimal treatment and up to 40% of patients still have pain 12 months after initially seeking help for pain. Previously, the effect of transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment (TCPRFT) was evaluated in a retrospective audit that showed good pain relief for a mean 395 days and justified this randomized sham controlled trial. In this study, 51 patients entered into a randomized double-blinded, placebo controlled study of TCPRFT. Patients were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks by a blinded observer and compared with baseline. We observed sustained reductions in pain at night, pain with activity, and functional improvement at 4 and 12 weeks with active but not sham TCPRFT. The 25 subjects who received active treatment showed statistically significant reductions of 24/100 in pain at night and 20/100 of pain with activity at 4 weeks and 18/100 and 19/100, respectively, at 12 weeks from baseline. Statistically significant lower Brief Pain Inventory pain and function scores (4 and 12 weeks), improved pain self-efficacy (4 weeks), Oxford Shoulder scores (12 weeks), and internal rotation (12 weeks) were seen. Pain at both rest and shoulder elevation were not improved by active treatment. No complications were seen. This study of a simple, low risk, outpatient treatment confirms the findings of our earlier study of TCPRFT for knee pain and shoulder pain audit that transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment may help some people with painful shoulders.

  2. A PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MEMANTINE FOR COCAINE DEPENDENCE WITH HIGH-VALUE VOUCHER INCENTIVES DURING A PRE-RANDOMIZATION LEAD-IN PERIOD

    PubMed Central

    Bisaga, Adam; Aharonovich, Efrat; Cheng, Wendy Y.; Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John J; Raby, Wilfrid N.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical findings suggest that the inhibition of NMDA glutamatergic neurotransmission may have beneficial effects in the treatment of cocaine dependence. We hypothesized that memantine, a low potency, uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, would be safe and effective in the treatment of cocaine dependence, particularly in preventing relapse to cocaine use in abstinent individuals. Cocaine dependent patients (N =112) were enrolled. The trial began with a 2-week placebo lead-in period during which patients received high-value voucher contingency management to induce abstinence. Participants were then randomized to receive either memantine 20 mg bid (N=39) or placebo (N=42) for 12-weeks in combination with individual relapse-prevention therapy. The randomization was stratified by abstinence status during the lead-in period. The primary outcome was the weekly proportion of days of cocaine use. There were no significant differences in cocaine use outcome between the groups treated with memantine versus placebo. Thus, the efficacy of memantine 40 mg/d for the treatment of cocaine dependence was not supported. Urine-confirmed abstinence during the lead-in period was achieved by 44% of participants, and was a strong predictor of subsequent cocaine abstinence during the trial. This suggests that this clinical trial design, an intensive behavioral intervention during a lead-in period, resolves cocaine dependent patients into two subgroups, one that rapidly achieves sustained abstinence and may not need a medication, and another that displays persistent cocaine use and would most likely benefit from a medication to help induce abstinence. Targeting the latter subgroup may advance medication development efforts. PMID:20537812

  3. Long-term and preventative treatment for seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Westrin, Asa; Lam, Raymond W

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent major depressive disorder with regular seasonal patterns, commonly known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD), has evoked substantial research in the last two decades. It is now recognised that SAD is a common condition with prevalence rates between 0.4% and 2.9% of the general population, and that patients with SAD experience significant morbidity and impairment in psychosocial function. There is good evidence that bright light therapy and antidepressant medications are effective for the short-term treatment of SAD; however, given that SAD is characterised by recurrent major depressive episodes, long-term and maintenance treatment must be considered. Unfortunately, there are few studies of longer term (>8 weeks) and maintenance (preventative) treatments for SAD. The weight of evidence suggests that light therapy usually needs to be continued daily throughout the winter season because of rapid relapse when light is stopped too early in the treatment period. However, some studies support the use of antidepressants to continue the response from a brief (1-2 weeks) course of light therapy early in the depressive episode, as soon as the first symptoms emerge in autumn. Only small studies have examined preventative treatment (before onset of symptoms) with light therapy, all of which have methodological limitations. The best evidence for preventative treatment in SAD comes from antidepressant studies. Three large, randomised, placebo-controlled studies have shown that preventative treatment with bupropion XL reduces the recurrence rate of depressive episodes in patients with SAD. Given the limitations in the evidence base and the inconsistent recurrence rate of winter depressive episodes, clinical recommendations for long-term and preventative treatment must individualise treatment choices and weigh potential benefits against possible adverse effects. PMID:17927295

  4. Early Response to Antipsychotic Drug Therapy as a Clinical Marker of Subsequent Response in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kinon, Bruce J; Chen, Lei; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Stauffer, Virginia L; Kollack-Walker, Sara; Zhou, Wei; Kapur, Shitij; Kane, John M

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to prospectively assess whether early (ie, 2 weeks) response to an antipsychotic predicts later (12-week) response and whether ‘switching' early non-responders to another antipsychotic is a better strategy than ‘staying'. This randomized, double-blind, flexible-dosed, 12-week study enrolled 628 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. All initiated treatment with risperidone. Early response was defined as ⩾20% improvement on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score following 2 weeks of treatment. Early responders (ERs) continued on risperidone, whereas early non-responders (ENRs) were randomized (1 : 1) to continue on risperidone 2–6 mg/day or switch to olanzapine 10–20 mg/day for 10 additional weeks. Compared with ENRs, risperidone ERs showed significantly greater reduction in PANSS total score (end point; p<001). Early response/non-response was highly predictive of subsequent clinical outcomes. Switching risperidone ENRs to olanzapine at week 2 resulted in a small but significantly greater reduction in PANSS total score (end point; p=0.020) and in depressive symptoms (end point; p=0.004); the reduction in PANSS was greater among those who were still moderately ill at 2 weeks. Switching risperidone ENRs to olanzapine also resulted in significantly greater increases in triglycerides, a significantly greater decrease in prolactin, and significantly less treatment-emergent dyskinesia. This is the first study to prospectively show that early response/non-response to an antipsychotic (risperidone) is a reliable clinical marker of subsequent clinical outcomes and that a ‘switching' strategy based on this information may lead to greater clinical improvement than staying on a drug for a longer period in some patients. PMID:19890258

  5. The role of parental motivation in family-based treatment for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Njardvik, Urdur; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Craighead, Linda W; Bjarnason, Ragnar

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the role of parental motivation (importance, confidence and readiness) for predicting dropout and outcome from family-based behavioral treatment for childhood obesity. Parent and child demographics, adherence to treatment, and weight loss parameters were also explored as potential predictors. Eighty-four obese children (BMI-standard deviation scores (SDS) >2.14) and a participating parent with each child started treatment consisting of 12 weeks of group and individual treatment sessions (24 sessions total) delivered over a period of 18 weeks. Sixty-one families (73%) completed treatment and attended follow-up at 1 year after treatment. Child session attendance and completion of self-monitoring records served as measures of adherence. In regression analyses, parent reports (pretreatment) of confidence for doing well in treatment was the strongest predictor of treatment completion (P = 0.003) as well as early treatment response (weight loss at week 5) (P = 0.003). This variable remained a significant predictor of child weight loss at post-treatment (P = 0.014), but was not associated with child outcome at 1-year follow-up (P > 0.05). The only significant predictor of child weight loss at that point was child baseline weight (P = 0.001). However, pretreatment parent ratings of importance of and readiness for treatment did not predict dropout or weight loss at any point. The results underscore the importance of addressing parental motivation, specifically parental confidence for changing lifestyle related behaviors, early in the treatment process. Doing so may reduce treatment dropout and enhance treatment outcome.

  6. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  7. Autism Treatment in the First Year of Life: A Pilot Study of Infant Start, a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Symptomatic Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, S. J.; Vismara, L.; Wagner, A. L.; McCormick, C.; Young, G.; Ozonoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of early autism screening is earlier treatment. We pilot-tested a 12-week, low-intensity treatment with seven symptomatic infants ages 7-15 months. Parents mastered the intervention and maintained skills after treatment ended. Four comparison groups were matched from a study of infant siblings. The treated group of infants was…

  8. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R. Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale—21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P < 0.001). Similar improvements in efficacy measures were observed between subjects receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. Efficacy benefits persisted throughout the 25-week period. The most common adverse events were akathisia (11.1%), injection-site pain (10.6%), and insomnia (10.0%). Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly administered as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers or antidepressants in patients with an acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  9. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-08-01

    The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P < 0.001). Similar improvements in efficacy measures were observed between subjects receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. Efficacy benefits persisted throughout the 25-week period. The most common adverse events were akathisia (11.1%), injection-site pain (10.6%), and insomnia (10.0%). Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly administered as monotherapy or in combination with mood stabilizers or antidepressants in patients with an acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  10. Anaerobic treatment of tequila vinasses under seasonal operating conditions: start-up, normal operation and restart-up after a long stop and starvation period.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A; Méndez-Acosta, H O; González-Álvarez, V; Snell-Castro, R; Alcaraz-González, V; Godon, J J

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the performance of an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor under seasonal operating conditions prevailing in medium and small size Tequila factories: start-up, normal operation and particularly, during the restart-up after a long stop and starvation period. The proposed start-up procedure attained a stable biofilm in a rather short period (28 days) despite unbalanced COD/N/P ratio and the use of non-acclimated inoculum. The bioreactor was restarted-up after being shut down for 6 months during which the inoculum starved. Even when biofilm detachment and bioreactor clogging were detected at the very beginning of restart-up, results show that the bioreactor performed better as higher COD removal and methane yield were attained. CE-SSCP and Q-PCR analyses, conducted on the biofilm prokaryotic communities for each operating condition, confirmed that the high COD removal results after the bioreactor clogging and the severe starvation period were mainly due to the stable archaeal and resilient bacterial populations.

  11. Clinical efficacy of Yingliu treatment for Graves disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Bi, Xiaojuan; Tang, Hong; Zeng, Juanhua; Cong, Yilei; Wu, Tengfei; Chen, Qiuye

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) mixture Yingliu combined with methimazole medication for the treatment of Graves disease (GD). Method: In a randomized, paralleled control study, 92 GD patients were randomized into a Yingliu mixture treatment and a control treatment group, both receiving methimazole. Both treatments lasted for 12 weeks and outcome parameter were thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies, TCM symptome scores and safety indicators. Results: The clinical efficiency of the Yingliu mixture-methimazole combination was 92.5% vs. 82.5% (P < 0.05) of the solely methimazole medication group. After 12 weeks treatments the Yingliu mixture in combination with methimazole improved free triiodothyronine (FT3), free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) values significantly more than methimazole alone and TCM symptome scores were significant lower after 12 week treatment in the Yingliu mixture- methimazole group (P < 0.05). The thyroid enlargement (21 vs. 10, P < 0.05), fatigue (39 vs. 30, P < 0.01) and dry mouth symptoms (37 vs. 29, P < 0.05) were superior improved in the Yingliu than in the control medication group, respectively. There was no significant difference regarding safety evaluations between both treatment groups (P = 0.499). Conclusion: Yingliu mixture as combined medication with methimazole can significantly improve the outcome of a solely methimazole application for GD treatments. PMID:26131218

  12. Short-term alpha-tocopherol treatment during neonatal period modulates pro-inflammatory response to endotoxin (LPS) challenge in the same calves several months later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin E, a major natural antioxidant, has been previously shown to attenuate pro-inflammatory response to immune challenge in cattle. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of short-term treatment with alpha-tocopherol in newborn calves on selected elements of the pro-inflamatory response to LPS...

  13. Manual therapy as an effective treatment for fibrosis in a rat model of upper extremity overuse injury.

    PubMed

    Bove, Geoffrey M; Harris, Michele Y; Zhao, Huaqing; Barbe, Mary F

    2016-02-15

    Key clinical features of carpal tunnel syndrome and other types of cumulative trauma disorders of the hand and wrist include pain and functional disabilities. Mechanistic details remain under investigation but may involve tissue inflammation and/or fibrosis. We examined the effectiveness of modeled manual therapy (MMT) as a treatment for sensorimotor behavior declines and increased fibrogenic processes occurring in forearm tissues of rats performing a high repetition high force (HRHF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult, female rats were examined: food restricted control rats (FRC, n=12); rats that were trained for 6 weeks before performing the HRHF task for 12 weeks with no treatment (HRHF-CON, n=11); and HRHF task rats received modeled manual therapy (HRHF-MMT, n=5) for 5 days/week for the duration of the 12-week of task. Rats receiving the MMT expressed fewer discomfort-related behaviors, and performed progressively better in the HRHF task. Grip strength, while decreased after training, improved following MMT. Fibrotic nerve and connective tissue changes (increased collagen and TGF-β1 deposition) present in 12-week HRHF-CON rats were significantly decreased in 12-week HRHF-MMT rats. These observations support the investigation of manual therapy as a preventative for repetitive motion disorders. PMID:26810536

  14. Manual therapy as an effective treatment for fibrosis in a rat model of upper extremity overuse injury.

    PubMed

    Bove, Geoffrey M; Harris, Michele Y; Zhao, Huaqing; Barbe, Mary F

    2016-02-15

    Key clinical features of carpal tunnel syndrome and other types of cumulative trauma disorders of the hand and wrist include pain and functional disabilities. Mechanistic details remain under investigation but may involve tissue inflammation and/or fibrosis. We examined the effectiveness of modeled manual therapy (MMT) as a treatment for sensorimotor behavior declines and increased fibrogenic processes occurring in forearm tissues of rats performing a high repetition high force (HRHF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult, female rats were examined: food restricted control rats (FRC, n=12); rats that were trained for 6 weeks before performing the HRHF task for 12 weeks with no treatment (HRHF-CON, n=11); and HRHF task rats received modeled manual therapy (HRHF-MMT, n=5) for 5 days/week for the duration of the 12-week of task. Rats receiving the MMT expressed fewer discomfort-related behaviors, and performed progressively better in the HRHF task. Grip strength, while decreased after training, improved following MMT. Fibrotic nerve and connective tissue changes (increased collagen and TGF-β1 deposition) present in 12-week HRHF-CON rats were significantly decreased in 12-week HRHF-MMT rats. These observations support the investigation of manual therapy as a preventative for repetitive motion disorders.

  15. Anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment increases circulating T helper type 17 cells similarly in different types of inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hull, D N; Williams, R O; Pathan, E; Alzabin, S; Abraham, S; Taylor, P C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in circulating T helper type 17 (Th17) cells following anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from 25 RA, 15 AS and eight PsA patients at baseline 4 and 12 weeks after treatment, and Th17 cell frequencies were analysed using interleukin (IL)-17 enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and flow cytometry. A significant increase in IL-17-producing cells was observed by ELISPOT in RA and AS patients at 12 weeks. Flow cytometry confirmed significant increases in CD4+IL-17+ cells at 12 weeks in RA and AS and 4 weeks in PsA patients. Anti-TNF treatment increases circulating Th17 cells in three different diseases. PMID:25766640

  16. Use of cervical cerclage as a treatment option for cervical incompetence: patient characteristics, presentation and management over a 9 year period in a Kenyan centre.

    PubMed

    Karau, Paul B; Mutwiri, Mwikamba G; Ogeng'o, Julius A; Karau, Geoffrey M

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of cervical incompetence by cerclage and other methods has yet to be standardized, as its diagnosis is not uniformly accepted. Its diagnosis, particularly in the African setting, is mostly based on past obstetric history of pregnancy losses, while in developed centres; ultrasound diagnosis is increasingly being used. The mainstay of treatment in developing countries is cervical cerclage, although the indications and contraindications of this mode of treatment are not documented. Our aim was to appraise this practice in terms of patient characteristics, the diagnostic process and management at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. This was a descriptive retrospective study over 9 years. Predesigned questionnaires were employed to collect data on patient's socio-demographic profile, presentation, risk factors, diagnosis and management of cervical incompetence. Chi-squared test and student's t-test were used to correlate variables. A total of 199 patients were treated for cervical incompetence, with the patient mean age being 27.97. 87.4% of the patients (p = 0.02) were in the 20 to 35 years category. Most of the patients (60.1%) were of low socio-economic status. Cervical cerclage was employed in all the patients, although ultrasound investigation was not employed in 65.8% of them. Diagnosis of cervical incompetence still relies on history of previous pregnancy losses, with the standard transvaginal ultrasound relatively unemployed. There is need to intensify investigations for this condition, standardize the indications for cerclage, and diversify management to other newer modalities.

  17. Long-term efficacy of psoriasis vulgaris treatments: analysis of treatment with topical corticosteroid and/or vitamin D3 analog, oral cyclosporin, etretinate and phototherapy over a 35-year period, 1975-2010.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Emiko; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Manabe, Yasuaki; Yahagi, Eiichiro; Yamada-Hiruma, Azusa; Yamaoka, Hanako; Kojima, Tomoko; Kato, Masayuki; Ikoma, Norihiro; Ozawa, Akira; Haruki, Yasuo

    2013-04-01

    Various therapies have been tried for psoriasis. In Japan, biologics began to be used for psoriasis treatment in January 2010. Their clinical efficacy is well known, but biologics cannot be used in all psoriasis patients for reasons such as side-effects and cost. It is necessary to evaluate the effect of long-term psoriasis treatment, but there have been no reports evaluating long-term treatment. Therefore, the outcomes of patients who had been treated at the Tokai University Hospital for more than 5 years, before biological agents were released, were examined. Three categories, classified by initial severity, changes in severity by method of treatment and background characteristics, were investigated. In conclusion, cases of long-term treatment with a combination of topical corticosteroid and topical vitamin D3 analog or oral cyclosporin were found to be effective therapies. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease of psoriasis were likely to be treatment resistant.

  18. Changes in soil C-isotopic composition in an agroecosystem under Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) treatment during a crop rotation period.

    PubMed

    Giesemann, Anette

    2005-01-01

    FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) has been used since 1999 to evaluate the effects of future atmospheric CO(2) concentrations on an arable crop agroecosystem. The experiment conducted at the Institute of Agroecology at the Federal Research Centre in Braunschweig consists of a typical local crop rotation of winter barley, a cover crop, sugar beet and winter wheat. The atmospheric CO2 concentration of ambient air is about 375 ppm with a delta13C value of -7 to -9 per thousand, and 550 ppm (delta13C value = -20.2 per thousand) during daylight hours in the rings fumigated with additional CO2. Thus, the surplus C can be traced in the agricultural system. Over the course of the first experimental period (3-year crop rotation period), the C-isotopic composition and the C concentration in soil were monitored monthly. Plant samples were analysed according to the relevant developmental stages of the crop under cultivation. A 13C depletion was observed in plant parts, as well as in soil samples from the FACE rings under CO2 enrichment, indicating that labelled C has reached both respective ecosystem compartments. Albeit farming management practice (especially ploughing) leads to a mixing of 'old' and 'new' C compounds throughout all soil horizons down to the end of the ploughing layer and resulted in a heterogeneous distribution of newly formed C compounds in the soil, isotope analysis of soil C reflected where the surplus C went.

  19. Growth hormone treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period: results of a survey among adult and paediatric endocrinologists from Italy. Endorsed by SIEDP/ISPED, AME, SIE, SIMA.

    PubMed

    Aimaretti, G; Attanasio, R; Cannavò, S; Nicoletti, M C; Castello, R; Di Somma, C; Garofalo, P; Iughetti, L; Loche, S; Maghnie, M; Mazzanti, L; Saggese, G; Salerno, M; Tonini, G; Toscano, V; Zucchini, S; Cappa, M

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period is a controversial issue. This paper is a contribution from the Italian community of paediatric and adult endocrinologists surveyed in a Delphi panel. The Delphi method is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method that relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. There was substantial agreement on the definition of the problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with GHD in the transition period, as well as on the identification of the controversial issues which need further studies. There is general consensus on the need of re-testing all isolated idiopathic GHD after at least 30-day withdrawn from treatment, while in patients with multiple pituitary deficiency and low IGF-I levels there is generally no need to re-test. In patients with permanent or confirmed GHD, a starting low rhGH dose (0.01-0.03 mg per day) to be adjusted according to IGF-I concentrations is also widely accepted. For those continuing treatment, the optimal therapeutic schedule to obtain full somatic maturation, normalization of body composition and bone density, cardiovascular function and Quality of Life, need to be evaluated. PMID:25362629

  20. [Treatment response of depressive patients with comorbid problem drink].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Eri; Tayama, Masaya; Saito, Toshikazu

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of Problem Drink on depression. Forty participants with depression were divided into 2 groups: non-Problem Drinker (NPD) group (n = 22) and Problem Drinker (PD) group (n = 18) according to Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score (NPD < 12, PD > or = 12). Depression was assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The effect of medication on depressive symptoms was monitored over 12 weeks using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Significant improvement in HAM-D score was observed at 2 weeks in NPD patients but not until 4 weeks in PD patients. Total HAM-D scores were lower in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. Therapeutic doses (dose of antidepressant used was equivalent to greater than 75 mg of imipramine) of antidepressants resulted in significant improvement in HAM-D scores at 2 weeks in NPD patients, but not until 8 weeks in PD patients and brought lower HAM-D scores in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. The AUDIT score and total alcohol consumption during the study period were negatively correlated to the improvement in HAM-D score. In NPD patients, the level of education of patients in remission was higher than those by patients not in remission. In contrast, level of education of patients in remission were similar to those in PD patients not in remission. The above results suggest that co-occurrence of alcohol use disorders with depression is associated with a lower response to antidepressants which may reflect not only the result of biological alterations in the brain by chronic ethanol ingestion but also an inhibitory effect of ethanol on antidepressant action in the brain. Drinking-related cognitive dysfunction may also relate to the decreased response to treatment in the depressed patients with comorbid Problem Drinker. PMID:24427900

  1. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P < 0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%(b) (n = 129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P = 0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control = 42.5%(b) (n = 94); UPI = 58.5%(a) (n= 130); UPI + EB = 64.0%(a) (n = 128); UPI + EC = 67.2%(a) (n = 128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P < 0.001]. Thus, UPI + EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers.

  2. Arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zheng-yan; Wang, Fei; Lu, Keke; Li, Yue-heng; Zhou, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methods Databases including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, China Biology Medicine disc, Wangfang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Trials Register were searched, and Google was used as a supplementary tool to search for information through February 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the treatment of DH with arginine-containing toothpaste were included. Relevant information was extracted, and a quality evaluation was performed. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Eighteen RCTs with 1,423 patients were included. The results of the meta-analyses demonstrated that at days 0 and 3; weeks 2, 4, and 8; and more than 12 weeks, arginine-containing toothpaste led to significantly improved results on the tactile sensitivity test (standardized mean difference [SMD] =1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.14, 2.76]) and the air-blast test (SMD =−1.60, 95% CI [−2.14, −1.05]) at 4 weeks and the tactile sensitivity test (SMD =2.01, 95% CI [1.41, 2.61]) and the air-blast test (SMD =−1.41, 95% CI [−1.83, −0.98]) at 8 weeks compared to toothpastes containing other desensitizing components, thus indicating a superior therapeutic effect of arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste. However, no significant differences between arginine-containing toothpaste and toothpastes containing other desensitizing components were observed in the air-blast test at days 0 and 3 and week 2 and in the tactile sensitivity and air-blast tests at more than 12 weeks. Conclusion The current evidence indicates that arginine-containing toothpaste is effective for DH. However, further high-quality, large-sample RCTs are needed. PMID:26793006

  3. Antianemic Treatment of Cancer Patients in German Routine Practice: Data from a Prospective Cohort Study—The Tumor Anemia Registry

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Tilman; Schröder, Jan; Plath, Margarete; Link, Hartmut; Vogt, Michèle; Frank, Melanie; Marschner, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess current antianemic treatment of cancer patients in German routine practice, including diagnostics, treatments, and quality of life (QoL). 88 study sites recruited 1018 patients at the start of antianemic treatment with hemoglobin (Hb) levels <11 g/dL (females) or <12 g/dL (males). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. 63% of the patients had inoperable solid tumors, 22% operable solid tumors, and 15% hematological malignancies. Over 85% received chemotherapy. Median age was 67 years; 48% were male. Red blood cell transfusions (RBCTx) were given to 59% of all patients and to 55% of the patients with Hb ≥8 g/dL on day 1 of the observation period (day 1 treatment). Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were the second most frequently applied day 1 treatment (20%), followed by intravenous (IV) iron (15%) and ESA + IV iron (6%). Only about a third of patients were tested for blood serum iron parameters at the start of treatment. Overall, more than half of the patients had long-term responses to antianemic therapy. Our data suggest that in routine practice diagnostics for treatable causes of anemia are underused. A high proportion of cancer patients receive RBCTx. It should be discussed whether thorough diagnostics and earlier intervention could decrease the need for RBCTx. This trial is registered with NCT01795690. PMID:26966573

  4. Antianemic Treatment of Cancer Patients in German Routine Practice: Data from a Prospective Cohort Study-The Tumor Anemia Registry.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Tilman; Schröder, Jan; Plath, Margarete; Link, Hartmut; Vogt, Michèle; Frank, Melanie; Marschner, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess current antianemic treatment of cancer patients in German routine practice, including diagnostics, treatments, and quality of life (QoL). 88 study sites recruited 1018 patients at the start of antianemic treatment with hemoglobin (Hb) levels <11 g/dL (females) or <12 g/dL (males). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. 63% of the patients had inoperable solid tumors, 22% operable solid tumors, and 15% hematological malignancies. Over 85% received chemotherapy. Median age was 67 years; 48% were male. Red blood cell transfusions (RBCTx) were given to 59% of all patients and to 55% of the patients with Hb ≥8 g/dL on day 1 of the observation period (day 1 treatment). Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were the second most frequently applied day 1 treatment (20%), followed by intravenous (IV) iron (15%) and ESA + IV iron (6%). Only about a third of patients were tested for blood serum iron parameters at the start of treatment. Overall, more than half of the patients had long-term responses to antianemic therapy. Our data suggest that in routine practice diagnostics for treatable causes of anemia are underused. A high proportion of cancer patients receive RBCTx. It should be discussed whether thorough diagnostics and earlier intervention could decrease the need for RBCTx. This trial is registered with NCT01795690. PMID:26966573

  5. Chronic treatment with trimetazidine reduces the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide in heart failure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trimetazidine (TMZ) is effective for the treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy; however, little is known about the effect of TMZ in established injury-induced heart failure. When rats with established infarct-induced heart failure were treated for 12 weeks with TMZ there was no effect on left ventric...

  6. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  7. The Use of Phototherapy in Group Treatment for Persons Who Are Chemically Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Miller, Eva

    2006-01-01

    This study used photography as a therapeutic tool and a present-focused approach in a 12-week group intervention to treat adults with chemical dependence enrolled in an outpatient treatment program. A qualitative analysis identified themes related to the topics of trust, honesty, self-worth, power, and abuse. Self-esteem, abuse, and trauma-related…

  8. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  9. Should home-based HIV testing and counseling services be offered periodically in programs of ARV treatment as prevention? A case study in Likoma (Malawi)

    PubMed Central

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Mkandawire, James; Reniers, Georges; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    To reduce HIV incidence, prevention programs centered on the use of antiretrovirals require scaling-up HIV testing and counseling (HTC). Home-based HTC services (HBHTC) increase HTC coverage, but HBHTC has only been evaluated during one-off campaigns. Two years after an initial HBHTC campaign (“round 1”), we conducted another HBHTC campaign (“round 2”) in Likoma (Malawi). HBHTC participation increased during round 2 among women (from 74% to 83%, p<0.01). New HBHTC clients were recruited, especially at ages 25 and older. Only 6.9% of women but 15.9% of men remained unreached by HBHTC after round 2. HIV prevalence during round 2 was low among clients who were HIV-negative during round 1 (0.7%), but high among women who first tested during round 2 (42.8%). The costs per newly diagnosed infection increased significantly during round 2. Periodically conducting HBHTC campaigns can further increase HTC, but supplementary interventions to enroll individuals not reached by HBHTC are needed. PMID:23180155

  10. The classical electrostatic periodic table, capacitance of few electron dielectric spheres and a novel treatment of one- and two-electron finite quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, Tim, Jr.

    The centerpiece of this dissertation is the discovery of the classical electrostatic periodic table of elements through non-linear ground state energies coincident with atomic shell-filling resulting from symmetry properties of discrete electrons constrained by a spherically-symmetric system. The time-independent electrostatic equilibrium configuration of few electrons confined to a large classical dielectric sphere is obtained by minimization of the total interaction energy. The interactions model yields more than twice the energy predicted by the classical Gauss model. Each N-electron system is proposed as a unique phase characterized by its symmetry properties. A new mono-phasic capacitance definition of dielectric spheres is derived from the fundamental relation Q=CV. Large differences from the Gauss model are obtained for few-electron systems, but convergence is found in the metallic limit. Of particular significance is the means by which symmetry-dependent properties of atomic-scale devices may be exploited by controlling the internal architecture of charge distributions. This work will be useful to modeling of many-electron chemical and biological systems, such as macromolecules, owing largely to symmetry differences between the Gauss model and the interactions model. The foundation upon which all Nature rests is the symmetry of fundamental particles.

  11. Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Possible Role of Comorbid Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morley, K.C.; Baillie, A.; Leung, S.; Addolorato, G.; Leggio, L.; Haber, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Methods: Out of 69 participants consecutively screened, 42 alcohol-dependent patients were randomized to receive placebo, baclofen 30 mg/day or baclofen 60 mg/day for 12 weeks. All subjects were offered BRENDA, a structured psychosocial therapy for alcohol dependence that seeks to improve motivation for change, enhance strategies to prevent relapse and encourage compliance with treatment. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that alcohol consumption (heavy drinking days, drinks per drinking day) significantly reduced across all three groups during the treatment period. There were no statistically significant advantages to treatment on time to first heavy drinking day (relapse) (P = 0.08), nor time to first drink (lapse) (P = 0.18). A post hoc analysis stratifying according to whether there had been a comorbid anxiety disorder, revealed a beneficial effect of baclofen 30 mg/day versus placebo on time to lapse and relapse (P < 0.05). There was also a beneficial effect for baclofen 60 mg/day relative to placebo on time to relapse in this comorbid group (P < 0.05). Both doses of baclofen were well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions: In spite of the small sample for a 3-arm clinical trial, this study suggests a specific role of baclofen in alcohol-dependent individuals with comorbid anxiety. Replication in larger, fully-powered studies is required. PMID:25246489

  12. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael; Sheran, Jane; Smith, Natalie; Fonseca, Sofia; Lee, Amanda J

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite effective treatments, asthma outcomes remain suboptimal. Interest exists in complementary therapies, particularly in herbal remedies for asthma treatment, currently with inconclusive evidence of efficacy. The encapsulated botanical mixture AKL1 has anecdotal evidence of effectiveness in asthma. Methods We performed a randomised controlled cross over study comparing the effectiveness of AKL1 with indistinguishable placebo as add-on therapy in patients uncontrolled on standard asthma treatment. Thirty two adult asthmatics completed a 36 week trial consisting of a 4 week single blind run in period, during which placebo was added to usual treatment, a 12 week double blind active phase in which subjects received AKL1 or placebo, a single blind 8 week washout period receiving placebo and a final 12 week double blind cross-over active treatment phase. Daily diaries were kept of peak expiratory flow and symptoms, and spirometry, validated symptom and health status questionnaire scores and adverse events were monitored at study visits. Paired T tests were used to compare the effects of placebo and AKL1 on outcomes. Changes in outcome measures over treatment phases are presented as means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of means. Results No significant differences in lung function (active-placebo) were found (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second: mean difference [95% CI] = 0.01 [-0.12 to 0.14] L, p = 0.9. Peak Expiratory Flow: -4.08 [-35.03 to 26.89]. L/min, p = 0.8). Trends to clinical improvements favouring active treatment were however consistently seen in the patient-centered outcomes: Asthma Control Questionnaire mean difference (active – placebo) [95% CI] = -0.35 [-0.78 to 0.07], p = 0.10, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire mean difference 0.42 [-0.08 to 0.93], p = 0.09, Leicester Cough Questionnaire mean difference 0.49, [-0.18 to 1.16], p = 0.15. Nine exacerbations occurred during placebo treatment and five whilst on AKL1. No significant

  13. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone-based support versus usual care for treatment of pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury in low-income and middle-income countries: study protocol for a 12-week randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Mohit; Harvey, Lisa Anne; Hayes, Alison Joy; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Glinsky, Joanne Valentina; Cameron, Ian Douglas; Lavrencic, Lucija; Arumugam, Narkeesh; Hossain, Sohrab; Bedi, Parneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pressure ulcers are a common and severe complication of spinal cord injury, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries where people often need to manage pressure ulcers alone and at home. Telephone-based support may help people in these situations to manage their pressure ulcers. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone-based support to help people with spinal cord injury manage pressure ulcers at home in India and Bangladesh. Methods and analysis A multicentre (3 sites), prospective, assessor-blinded, parallel, randomised controlled trial will be undertaken. 120 participants with pressure ulcers on the sacrum, ischial tuberosity or greater trochanter of the femur secondary to spinal cord injury will be randomly assigned to a Control or Intervention group. Participants in the Control group will receive usual community care. That is, they will manage their pressure ulcers on their own at home but will be free to access whatever healthcare support they can. Participants in the Intervention group will also manage their pressure ulcers at home and will also be free to access whatever healthcare support they can, but in addition they will receive weekly telephone-based support and advice for 12 weeks (15–25 min/week). The primary outcome is the size of the pressure ulcer at 12 weeks. 13 secondary outcomes will be measured reflecting other aspects of pressure ulcer resolution, depression, quality of life, participation and satisfaction with healthcare provision. An economic evaluation will be run in parallel and will include a cost-effectiveness and a cost-utility analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee at each site. The results of this study will be disseminated through publications and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001225707. PMID:26220871

  14. Randomized Trial of Periodic Presumptive Treatment With High-Dose Intravaginal Metronidazole and Miconazole to Prevent Vaginal Infections in HIV-negative Women

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, R. Scott; Balkus, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeannette; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Schwebke, Jane; Bragg, Vivian; Lensing, Shelly; Kavak, Lale

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vaginal infections are common, frequently recur, and may increase women's risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We tested the efficacy of a novel regimen to prevent recurrent vaginal infections. Methods. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative women 18–45 years old with 1 or more vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), were randomly assigned to receive vaginal suppositories containing metronidazole 750 mg plus miconazole 200 mg or matching placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months. Primary endpoints, evaluated every 2 months, were BV (Gram stain) and VVC (positive wet mount and culture). Results. Participants (N = 234) were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 118) or placebo (N = 116) arm. Two hundred seventeen (93%) women completed an end-of-study evaluation. The intervention reduced the proportion of visits with BV compared to placebo (21.2% vs 32.5%; relative risk [RR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] .48–.87). In contrast, the proportion of visits with VVC was similar in the intervention (10.4%) versus placebo (11.3%) arms (RR 0.92, 95% CI .62–1.37). Conclusions. Monthly treatment with intravaginal metronidazole plus miconazole reduced the proportion of visits with BV during 12 months of follow-up. Further study will be important to determine whether this intervention can reduce women's risk of STIs. PMID:25526757

  15. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antje; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Kathlen; Dyer, Anne S.; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods Female participants (N=74) were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results During treatment, only one participant (3%) experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome. PMID:25317254

  16. A Manual-Based Intervention to Address Clinical Crises and Retain Patients in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Silva, Susan G.; Rezac, Amy J.; Hallin, Mary J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Simons, Anne D.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a manual-based intervention to address clinical crises and retain participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: The use of adjunct services for attrition prevention (ASAP) is described for adolescents (ages 12-17 years) during the 12-week acute treatment in TADS, from 2000 to 2003.…

  17. Treating tobacco use disorder in pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Akerman, Sarah C; Brunette, Mary F; Green, Alan I; Goodman, Daisy J; Blunt, Heather B; Heil, Sarah H

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is associated with adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, yet 88-95% of pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder smoke cigarettes. This review summarizes existing knowledge about smoking cessation treatments for pregnant women on buprenorphine or methadone, the two forms of medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder indicated for prenatal use. We performed a systematic review of the literature using indexed terms and key words to capture the concepts of smoking, pregnancy, and opioid substitution and found that only three studies met search criteria. Contingency management, an incentive based treatment, was the most promising intervention: 31% of participants achieved abstinence within the 12-week study period, compared to 0% in a non-contingent behavior incentive group and a group receiving usual care. Two studies of brief behavioral interventions resulted in reductions in smoking but not cessation. Given the growing number of pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder and the negative consequences of smoking on pregnancy, further research is needed to develop and test effective cessation strategies for this group. PMID:25592332

  18. Efficacy of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Moayednia, Amir; Emadi, Masoud; Khorami, Mohammad Hatef; Haghdani, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for symptoms alleviation in chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Materials and Methods. 40 patients with CPPS were randomly allocated into either the treatment or sham group. In the first group, patients were treated by ESWT once a week for 4 weeks by a defined protocol. In the sham group, the same protocol was applied but with the probe being turned off. The follow-up assessments were done at 1, 2, 3, and 12 weeks by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and NIH-developed Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Results. Pain domain scores at follow-up points in both treatment and sham groups were reduced, more so in the treatment group, which were significant at weeks 2, 3, and 12. Urinary scores became significantly different at weeks 3 and 12. Also, quality of life (QOL) and total NIH-CPSI scores at all four follow-up time points reduced more significantly in the treatment group as compared to the sham group. Noticeably, at week 12 a slight deterioration in all variables was observed compared to the first 3 weeks of the treatment period. Conclusions. our findings confirmed ESWT therapy as a safe and effective method in CPPS in short term. PMID:24000311

  19. Association of ARRB1 polymorphisms with the risk of major depressive disorder and with treatment response to mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hun Soo; Won, Eun Soo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Ham, Byung-Joo; Kim, Yong-Gu; Lee, Min-Soo

    2015-05-01

    β-Arrestin 1 is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in the underlying mechanism of action of antidepressant therapies. After we screened 39 ARRB1 polymorphisms, we investigated the associations of seven ARRB1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of MDD in 270 patients with MDD and 204 normal subjects, and with mirtazapine treatment response in patients with MDD. The genotype distributions of -132C>T and IVS1+85T>C showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in patients with MDD but not in normal subjects. After four and 12 weeks of mirtazapine treatment, the proportion of haplotype 1 (ht1) carriers was significantly higher in remitters than in non-remitters after corrections for multiple comparisons (corrected p=0.006 and 0.014 at four and 12 weeks, respectively). After eight and 12 weeks of treatment, scores on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD21) were significantly lower in patients with MDD with ARRB1 ht1 than in those without ht1. Similarly, after 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, the percent reduction in HAMD21 scores was significantly higher in patients with MDD with ARRB1 ht1 than in those without ht1. The ARRB1 polymorphisms represent promising genetic markers for the prediction of treatment responses to mirtazapine. PMID:25294870

  20. A multi-site dose ranging study of nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Pettinati, Helen; Zweben, Allen; Kranzler, Henry R; Johnson, Bankole; Bohn, Michael J; McCaul, Mary E; Anthenelli, Robert; Salloum, Ihsan; Galloway, Gantt; Garbutt, James; Swift, Robert; Gastfriend, David; Kallio, Antero; Karhuvaara, Sakari

    2004-08-01

    The opiate antagonist nalmefene has been shown in 2 single-site studies to reduce alcohol consumption and relapse drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. This safety and preliminary multisite efficacy study evaluated 3 doses of nalmefene (5, 20, or 40 mg) in a double-blind comparison to placebo over a 12-week treatment period in 270 recently abstinent outpatient alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants concomitantly received 4 sessions of a motivational enhancement therapy (with a medication compliance component) delivered from trained counselors. Although more subjects in the active medication groups terminated the study early secondary to adverse events, the rates did not differ significantly from that of placebo. The 20-mg/d group experienced more insomnia, dizziness, and confusion, while the 5-mg group also had more dizziness and the 40-mg group had more nausea than the placebo group. Most of these symptoms were mild and improved over time. Although all subjects had a reduction in heavy drinking days, craving, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin concentrations over the course of the study, there was no difference between the active medication and placebo groups on these measures. The time to first heavy drinking day was also not significantly different between the placebo and the active treatment groups. This relatively small multisite trial showed that nalmefene was reasonably well tolerated in recently abstinent alcoholics. However, possibly because of variation among the sites or the comparatively small sample size, there was no evidence of superior efficacy outcomes with nalmefene treatment.

  1. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Birgit; Haupt, Heidemarie; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Sandmann, Jörg; Gross, Johann; Klapp, Burghard F; Kiesewetter, Holger; Kalus, Ulrich; Stöver, Timo; Caffier, Philipp P

    2009-01-01

    Background Vardenafil (Levitra®) represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21) or matching placebo tablets (N = 21) administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication), and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ), the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36), audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds) and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status). Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA). Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36), objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil studies. Conclusion

  2. Predictors of Abstinence: National Institute of Drug Abuse Multisite Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid-Dependent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal)-assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid-dependent youth. Method: Secondary analyses were performed of data from 152 youth (15-21 years old) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification with weekly…

  3. Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminths indigenous to Japan and their treatment historically studied in an attempt to control the diseases in countries where they are still rampant: (1) the Jomon to Edo periods.

    PubMed

    Maki, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kuwada, Masahiro; Caceres, Armando; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Tamai, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasitic helminthes were historically surveyed from the Jomon period to the end of the Edo period in Japan. The parasitic helminthes whose eggs or symptoms were shown in the remains and bibliographies are the roundworm, whipworm, liver fluke, Yokogawa's fluke and the cestode, Diphyllobothrium sp. The first two are soil-transmitted nematodes and the other three parasitic helminths are those with which people are infected following eating raw fish. The infection routes provide valuable information on the environments, life-style and customs in those days. The eggs of the soil-transmitted parasites have the thick shells resistant to the environments. Humans are infected with the parasites after the eggs are orally ingested with soil, dust, vegetables grown with night soil or manure. When the custom of the night soil was started in the history of Japan was discussed with this infection route. In ancient times, feces are thought to have been discarded. In the Medieval Period, they were started to be used as a fertilizer. No mature types of manure were used until the modern times (already in the Edo period). To our idea, no recoveries of eggs of hookworms causing severe anemia do not necessarily mean that people were not infected with the parasites in those days because the eggs are covered with thin shells liable to rupture. The latter fact of the eggs of the platihelminths, C. sinensis, M. yokogawai and D. latum has something to do with Japanese traditional eating customs, unequivocally demonstrating that they ate raw fish from the Nara Period, at latest, until today. Whether eggs of the cestode (D. latum) are found in Jomon remains, Momijiyama Iseki, Hokkaido should be investigated. If no eggs of the cestode are found in their toilet site or elsewhere, it could be concluded that they did not have the custom of eating raw salmon. Such a conclusion would be itself a new fact. One of the effective treatments for the cestode (D. latum

  4. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M

    2014-04-01

    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  5. Injectable poly-L: -lactic acid: a novel sculpting agent for the treatment of dermal fat atrophy after severe acne.

    PubMed

    Sadove, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects up to 80% of people 11 to 30 years of age, and scarring can occur for up to 95% of these patients. Scarring may be pitted or hypertrophic in nature, although in most cases it is atrophic. Atrophic acne scarring follows dermal collagen and fat loss after moderate to severe acne infection. Injectable poly-L-acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer device that is hypothesized to enhance dermal volume via the endogenous production of fibroblasts and, subsequently, collagen. The gradual improvements in cutaneous volume observed after treatment with injectable PLLA have been noted to last up to 2 years. The case studies presented describe the use of injectable PLLA to correct dermal fat loss in macular atrophic acne scarring of the cheeks. Two female patients underwent three treatment sessions with injectable PLLA over a 12-week period. At each treatment session, the reconstituted product was injected into the deep dermis under the depressed portion of the scar. Both patients were extremely pleased with their results at, respectively, 1- and 4-year follow-up evaluations. Patients experienced minimal swelling and redness after injection and no product-related adverse events such as papule and/or nodule formation. The author believes these data suggest that injectable PLLA is a good treatment option for the correction of macular atropic scarring with thin dermis (off-label use), particularly compared with other injectable fillers currently used for this indication that have shorter durations of effect. PMID:18923863

  6. Transcutaneous noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) in the treatment of schizophrenia: a bicentric randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Wolff-Menzler, Claus; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Falkai, Peter; Weidinger, Elif; Jobst, Andrea; Hoell, Imke; Malchow, Berend; Yeganeh-Doost, Peyman; Strube, Wolfgang; Quast, Silke; Müller, Norbert; Wobrock, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Despite many pharmacological and psychosocial treatment options, schizophrenia remains a debilitating disorder. Thus, new treatment strategies rooted in the pathophysiology of the disorder are needed. Recently, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been proposed as a potential treatment option for various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to investigate for the first time the feasibility, safety and efficacy of transcutaneous VNS in stable schizophrenia. A bicentric randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted from 2010 to 2012. Twenty schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The first group (active tVNS) received daily active stimulation of the left auricle for 26 weeks. The second group (sham tVNS) received daily sham stimulation for 12 weeks followed by 14 weeks of active stimulation. Primary outcome was defined as change in the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale total score between baseline and week 12. Various other secondary measures were assessed to investigate safety and efficacy. The intervention was well tolerated with no relevant adverse effects. We could not observe a statistically significant difference in the improvement of schizophrenia psychopathology during the observation period. Neither psychopathological and neurocognitive measures nor safety measures showed significant differences between study groups. Application of tVNS was well tolerated, but did not improve schizophrenia symptoms in our 26-week trial. While unsatisfactory compliance questions the feasibility of patient-controlled neurostimulation in schizophrenia, the overall pattern of symptom change might warrant further investigations in this population.

  7. Percutaneous Adhesiolysis Versus Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection for the Treatment of Chronic Radicular Pain Caused by Lumbar Foraminal Spinal Stenosis: A Retrospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongbum; Lee, Woo Yong; Ahn, Jae Ki; Nam, Hee-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous adhesiolysis (PA) compared to fluoroscopy (FL)-guided transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) in patients with radicular pain caused by lumbar foraminal spinal stenosis (LFSS) by assessing pain relief and functional improvement at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. Methods This retrospective study included 45 patients who underwent PA or FL-guided TFSEI for radicular pain caused by LFSS of at least 3 months' duration. Outcomes were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Verbal Numeric Pain Scale (VNS) before the procedure and at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. A successful outcome was defined by >50% improvement in the VNS score and >40% improvement in the ODI score. Results ODI and VNS scores improved 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure in both groups. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed in ODI and VNS at 12 weeks (p<0.05). The proportion of patients with successful outcomes was significantly different between the two groups only at the 12-week time point. Conclusion Our study suggests that PA is effective for pain reduction and functional improvement in patients with chronic radicular pain caused by LFSS. Therefore, PA can be considered for patients with previous ineffective responses to conservative treatment. Although PA seems to be more effective than TFEFI according to the results of our study, in order to fully elucidate the difference in effectiveness, a prospective study with a larger sample size is necessary. PMID:26798608

  8. The efficacy and tolerability of glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Nicola; Fioravanti, Antonella; Papakostas, Panagiotis; Montella, Antonio; Giorgi, Giorgio; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is often associated with disability and impaired quality of life. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of glucosamine sulfate (GS) in the treatment of knee OA. Methods: Consecutive outpatients affected by primary monolateral or bilateral knee OA were enrolled in this double-blind, double-dummy, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. One group received GS 1500 mg QD for 12 weeks, and the other group received placebo QD for 12 weeks. The treatment period was followed by a 12-week treatment-free observation phase. Each patient was examined at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. The primary efficacy criteria were pain at rest and during movement, assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) of 0 to 100 mm. The secondary criteria included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index for total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). VAS, W-TPS, W-TSS, and W-TPFS were evaluated at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. Analgesic drug consumption (ie, acetaminophen or NSAIDs) was also assessed. Results: Patient demographics were similar in the GS and placebo groups. Of 60 randomized patients (30 per group), 56 completed the study (28 treated with GS and 28 who received placebo). Statistically significant improvements in symptomatic knee OA were observed, as measured by differences in resting pain at weeks 8, 12, and 16 (all, P < 0.05 vs placebo) and in pain during movement at weeks 12 and 16 (both, P < 0.05). W-TPS was lower with GS than placebo at weeks 8, 12, and 16 (all, P < 0.01), and at week 20 (P < 0.05). W-TSS was also lower with GS than placebo at weeks 8, 12, 16, and 20 (all, P < 0.05). W-TPFS was lower with GS than placebo at weeks 8 (P < 0.05), 12 (P < 0.01), 16 (P < 0.05), and 20 (P < 0.05). Drug consumption was lower in the GS group than the placebo

  9. Influence of exercise order on maximum strength and muscle volume in nonlinear periodized resistance training.

    PubMed

    Spineti, Juliano; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Rhea, Matthew R; Lavigne, Danielle; Matta, Thiago; Miranda, Fabrício; Fernandes, Liliam; Simão, Roberto

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of exercise order on strength and muscle volume (MV) after 12 weeks of nonlinear periodized resistance training. The participants were randomly assigned into 3 groups. One group began performing large muscle group exercises and progressed to small muscle group exercises (LG-SM), whereas another group started with small muscle group exercises and advanced to large muscle group exercises (SM-LG). The exercise order for LG-SM was bench press (BP), machine lat pull-down (LPD), triceps extension (TE), and biceps curl (BC). The order for the SM-LG was BC, TE, LPD, and BP. The third group did not exercise and served as a control group (CG). Training frequency was 2 sessions per week with at least 72 hours of rest between sessions. Muscle volume was assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of training by ultrasound techniques. One repetition maximum strength for all exercises was assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Effect size data demonstrated that differences in strength and MV were exhibited based on exercise order. Both training groups demonstrated greater strength improvements than the CG, but only BP strength increased to a greater magnitude in the LG-SM group as compared with the SM-LG. In all other strength measures (LPD, TE, and BC), the SM-LG group showed significantly greater strength increases. Triceps MV increased in the SM-LG group; however, biceps MV did not differ significantly between the training groups. In conclusion, if an exercise is important for the training goals of a program, then it should be placed at the beginning of the training session, regardless of whether or not it is a large muscle group exercise or a small muscle group exercise.

  10. Dynamics of nitrifying bacterial communities in the Seine river and estuary as affected by changes in the treatment of Paris wastewater : a comparison of 2001-2003 vs 2012-2013 periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa Grouz, Najla; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Mercier, Benjamin; Martinez, Anun

    2014-05-01

    The major branch of the Seine river from the confluence with the Marne river to the entrance of the estuary is deeply affected by the release of wastewater from the huge Paris agglomeration. In the first years of 2000, the largest part of the effluents were still discharged at the Seine-Aval (Achères) treatment plant with only a standard, low residence time, activated sludge treatment, thus releasing a high ammonium load. NH4 concentration as high as 7 mgN/l were frequently observed downstream from Paris agglomeration. Cébron et al. (2003, 2005) and Garnier et al. 2007 described in details how this massive reduced nitrogen concentrations triggered the growth of nitrifying bacteria, already present in the upstream Seine and Marne rivers, but also brought in large amount by the effluents of the wastewater treatment plant themselves. The decrease of ammonium concentration was slow, however, and was only completed 200 km downstream, in the upper estuarine area, where it causes a severe oxygen deficiency. Since 2007, important changes occurred in the treatment of nitrogen in the Parisian wastewater purification plants. In 2007, the Seine-Aval plant treated up to 90% of the ammonium contained in wastewater through nitrification, and 30% of the total supply of nitrates is treated by denitrification. These modifications have of course favorably affected the water quality of the Seine river: ammonium concentrations are reduced by a factor of 5 and the area of oxygen depletion in the upstream estuary is no more observed. However, nitrites, still released in the effluents, are a matter of concern for the water quality of the Seine downstream from Paris. Using measurements of potential microbial activities carried out with the same experimental protocol for the 2000-2003 and 2012-2013 periods, we here examine and model the dynamics of ammonium oxidizing and nitrite oxidizing microbial populations before and after the implementation of nitrification treatment of Paris

  11. Effects of adolescent fluoxetine treatment on fear-, anxiety- or stress-related behaviors in C57BL/6J or BALB/cJ mice

    PubMed Central

    Norcross, Maxine; Poonam, Mathur; Enoch, Abigail J.; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Brigman, Jonathan L.; Cameron, Heather A.; Harvey-White, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Rationale 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) plays a major role in brain ontogeny. Disruption of 5-HT during early postnatal development produces lasting changes in rodent ‘emotion-related’ behaviors. Adverse effects of treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants have been reported in human adolescents. However, the long-term effects of chronic SRI treatment during adolescence in rodents remain unclear. Objectives The objectives of the study are to assess the effects of fluoxetine treatment throughout the adolescent period in measures of fear-, anxiety- and stress-related endpoints in drug-free adults and to examine these effects in two genetic strains of mice differing in baseline stress-and anxiety-related behaviors and sensitivity to SRIs. Materials and methods C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice received one of two fluoxetine doses for 4 weeks during adolescence (3–7 weeks old). A separate group of C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice received fluoxetine for 4 weeks during adulthood (8–12 weeks old). After a 3-week washout period, mice were tested for anxiety-like behaviors (novel open field, elevated plus-maze), fear conditioning and extinction, and stress-related responses to forced swim, as well as serotonin brain levels. Results Adolescent fluoxetine treatment did not increase adult measures of anxiety-, fear- or stress-related behaviors, or brain serotonin levels. The same duration of treatment in adulthood also had no effects on these measures when tested after a 3-week washout period. Conclusions In clear contrast with emotion-related abnormalities caused by preadolescent fluoxetine treatment or genetic inactivation of fluoxetine’s pharmacological target, the 5-HT transporter, fluoxetine treatment throughout mouse adolescence did not produce detectable, lasting abnormalities in either “high” or “low anxiety” inbred mouse strains. PMID:18594797

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antimuscarinics in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder in Spain: A decision-tree model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fesoterodine, a new once daily antimuscarinic, has proven to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). To date, no analysis has evaluated the economic costs and benefits associated with fesoterodine, compared to antimuscarinics in Spain. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the economic value of OAB treatment with fesoterodine relative to extended release tolterodine and solifenacin, from the societal perspective. Methods The economic model was based on data from two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trials comparing fesoterodine and tolterodine extended released (ER). Treatment response rates for solifenacin were extracted from the published literature. Discontinuation and efficacy were based on the results of a 12-week multinational randomized clinical trial extrapolated to 52 weeks. Changes in health related quality of life were assessed with the King's Health Questionnaire, which was transformed into preference-based utility values. Medical costs included (expressed in € 2010) were antimuscarinics, physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads and the costs of OAB-related comorbidities, fractures, skin infections, urinary tract infections, depression, and nursing home admissions associated with incontinence. Time lost from work was also considered. Univariate sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results At week 12, continents accounted for 50.6%, 40.6% and 47.2% of patients in the fesoterodine, tolterodine, and solifenacin groups, respectively. By week 52, the projected proportions of patients remaining on therapy were 33.1%, 26.5% and 30.8%, respectively. The projected quality- adjusted life years (QALY) gain (compared to baseline) over the 52-week simulation period were 0.01014, 0.00846 and 0.00957, respectively. The overall treatment cost was estimated at €1,937, €2,089 and €1,960 for fesoterodine, tolterodine and solifenacin, respectively. Therefore

  13. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  14. Incidence and Determinants of Endophthalmitis within 6 Months of Surgeries over a 2-Year Period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Motowa, Saeed; Alkatan, Hind M.; Karaoui, Mohammed; Ortiz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11). The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04–0.21). Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases) was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47%) eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29%) eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5%) eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively) was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis. PMID:25949078

  15. An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

    2010-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED.

  16. Executive function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during treatment with atomoxetine in a randomized, placebo-controlled, withdrawal study.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard; Tanaka, Yoko; Williams, David; Trzepacz, Paula T; Goto, Taro; Allen, Albert J; Escobar, Rodrigo; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2014-08-01

    We assessed the executive function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during atomoxetine treatment in a randomized withdrawal trial. Responders (Conners' ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version [adult prompts] ≥30% reduction from baseline and Clinical Global Impression Scale-ADHD Severity score ≤3) to open-label atomoxetine (40-100 mg/d, 12 weeks) entered a 37-week double-blind maintenance period. Patients who maintained response (double-blind atomoxetine for 12 weeks) were randomized 1:1 to atomoxetine (80-100 mg/d, n = 266) or placebo (n = 258) for 25 weeks (total duration, 1 year). Patients and investigators were blinded to response criteria and randomization timing. Change in executive function was assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) Self-Report and Informant T scores from the randomization to the last-observation-carried-forward postrandomization week 25 (after week 17). Of the enrolled patients (n = 2017; mean age, 33.2 years; male, 58.7%), 524 responders were randomized. During open-label atomoxetine, subscales and individual items on both BRIEF-A questionnaires showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). After randomization, the following T scores improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with patients in the atomoxetine group versus those in the placebo group: global executive composite, behavioral regulation, and metacognition indices; plan/organize, working memory, inhibit, task monitor and shift (both BRIEF-A questionnaires), emotional control and organization of materials (BRIEF-A Informant), and initiate (BRIEF-A Self-Report). Atomoxetine significantly improved the executive function compared with placebo, which was maintained for 25 weeks or more; the executive function of patients in the placebo group worsened but did not return to baseline levels after randomization.

  17. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) treatment of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) during early life development disrupts expression of genes directly involved in the feedback cycle of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    Fish are more sensitive to introduced disturbances from synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during early life phases compared with mature stages. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), which is the active compound in human oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies, is today ever present in the effluents from sewage treatment plants. EE2 targets and interacts with the endogenous biological systems of exposed vertebrates resulting in to large extents unknown short- and long-term effects. We investigated how EE2 exposure affects expression profiles of a large number of target genes during early life of roach (Rutilus rutilus). We exposed fertilized roach eggs collected from a lake in Southern Sweden to EE2 for 12weeks together with 1+-year-old roach in aquaria. We measured the gene expression of the estrogen receptor (esr)1/2a/2b, androgen receptor (ar), vitellogenin, cytochrome P450 (cyp)19a1a/1b in fertilized eggs; newly hatched larvae; 12-week-old fry; and juvenile wild roach (1+-year-old). Results shows that an EE2 concentration as low as 0.5ng/L significantly affects gene expression during early development. Gene expression responses vary both among life stages and molecular receptors. We also show that the gene profile of the estrogen feedback cycle to a large extent depends on the relationship between the three esr genes and the two cyp19a1 genes, which are all up-regulated with age. Results indicate that a disruption of the natural activity of the dominant esr gene could lead to detrimental biological effects if EE2 exposure occurs during development, even if this exposure occurred for only a short period. PMID:26689641

  18. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis: a retrospective review of a Brazilian referral centre.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosiana Estéfane da; Toledo, Antonio; Senna, Maria Camilo; Rabello, Ana; Cota, Gláucia

    2016-08-01

    Although intralesional meglumine antimoniate (MA) infiltration is considered an option for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) therapy and is widely used in the Old World, there have been few studies supporting this therapeutic approach in the Americas. This study aims to describe outcomes and adverse events associated with intralesional therapy for CL. This retrospective study reviewed the experience of a Brazilian leishmaniasis reference centre using intralesional MA to treat 31 patients over five years (2008 and 2013). The median age was 63 years (22-86) and the median duration time of the lesions up to treatment was 16 weeks. In 22 patients (71%), intralesional therapy was indicated due to the presence of contraindications or previous serious adverse events with systemic MA. Other indications were failure of systemic therapy or ease of administration. Intralesional treatment consisted of one-six infiltrations (median three) for a period of up to 12 weeks. The initial (three months) and definitive (six months) cure rates were 70.9% and 67.7%, respectively. Most patients reported mild discomfort during infiltration and no serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, these results show that the intralesional MA efficacy rate was very similar to that of systemic MA treatment, and reinforce the need for further studies with adequate design to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic approach.

  19. Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Zhang, Xian-Wei; Yu, Hong-Xing; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Jian-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

  20. Intralesional meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis: a retrospective review of a Brazilian referral centre

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rosiana Estéfane; Toledo, Antonio; Senna, Maria Camilo; Rabello, Ana; Cota, Gláucia

    2016-01-01

    Although intralesional meglumine antimoniate (MA) infiltration is considered an option for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) therapy and is widely used in the Old World, there have been few studies supporting this therapeutic approach in the Americas. This study aims to describe outcomes and adverse events associated with intralesional therapy for CL. This retrospective study reviewed the experience of a Brazilian leishmaniasis reference centre using intralesional MA to treat 31 patients over five years (2008 and 2013). The median age was 63 years (22-86) and the median duration time of the lesions up to treatment was 16 weeks. In 22 patients (71%), intralesional therapy was indicated due to the presence of contraindications or previous serious adverse events with systemic MA. Other indications were failure of systemic therapy or ease of administration. Intralesional treatment consisted of one-six infiltrations (median three) for a period of up to 12 weeks. The initial (three months) and definitive (six months) cure rates were 70.9% and 67.7%, respectively. Most patients reported mild discomfort during infiltration and no serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, these results show that the intralesional MA efficacy rate was very similar to that of systemic MA treatment, and reinforce the need for further studies with adequate design to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic approach. PMID:27508321

  1. Ustekinumab treatment for psoriasis in 119 patients maintained on therapy for a minimum of one year: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Elizabeth G; Patel, Mahir; Hebeler, Katherine; Menter, Alan

    2014-08-01

    Ustekinumab is a human IgG1κ monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity and specificity to the p40 protein subunit shared by both the interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 cytokines. This study reviews clinical response and adverse events in 119 psoriasis patients who have received ustekinumab for a minimum of 1 year. The medical records of 119 psoriasis patients treated with ustekinumab at our referral clinic in Dallas between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed for response rates, side effects, and concomitant therapies. Of 119 patients, 117 (98%) had plaque type psoriasis, with 40 (34%) patients having psoriasis affecting either their palms and/or soles. Forty-four (37%) patients had psoriatic arthritis. The median follow-up period was 31 months. Fifty-six (47%) of the 119 patients obtained near complete clearance (response of more than 90% of initial body surface area involvement) upon the final follow-up visit or at the time of ustekinumab treatment discontinuation. Concomitant systemic treatments, primarily methotrexate, were given to 59 (50%) patients. Twenty-three (19%) patients discontinued treatment, primarily for sub-optimal response or loss of response. Fifty (42%) patients required either an increase in the dose of ustekinumab to 90 mg and/or administration more frequently than every 12 weeks to achieve and maintain psoriasis clearance.

  2. Do baseline estrogen and testosterone affect lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) prior to or after pharmacologic treatment with tadalafil?

    PubMed

    Egan, K B; Miner, M M; Suh, M; McVary, K; Ni, X; Roehrborn, C G; Wittert, G; Wong, D G; Rosen, R C

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how total testosterone and estradiol-17β influence lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). We analyzed data from a subset of men aged ≥18 years randomized to tadalafil 5 mg once-daily or placebo who had ≥6 month history of LUTS and an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)≥13 enrolled in one of three randomized, placebo-controlled tadalafil clinical trials (N = 958). Three specific aims were addressed, as follows: (i) To characterize enrolled men by treatment randomization and testosterone level; (ii) to assess cross-sectional associations of estradiol-17β, testosterone, and LUTS prior to treatment with tadalafil; and, (iii) to assess longitudinal associations between baseline estradiol-17β and testosterone and improvements or worsening of LUTS during a 12-week period of tadalafil or placebo administration. LUTS were assessed by total IPSS, IPSS voiding sub-score (IPSS-V) and IPSS storage sub-score (IPSS-S) for cross-sectional analyses, and change in total IPSS (ΔIPSS), ΔIPSS-V, and ΔIPSS-S between baseline and 12-week visit for longitudinal analyses. Correlation analyses and linear regression examined associations. Baseline testosterone was not significantly associated with IPSS. In contrast, estradiol-17β was inversely correlated with IPSS (r = -0.08; p < 0.05) and IPSS-S (r = -0.14; p < 0.05). Tadalafil treatment resulted in greater IPSS improvements in men with lower baseline estradiol-17β versus those with higher baseline estradiol-17β. Lower baseline estradiol-17β was significantly associated with modestly improved ΔIPSS-V (p = 0.04) and Δtotal IPSS (p = 0.05) but not with ΔIPSS-S, following treatment which may substantiate the role of bladder dysfunction because of nerve and smooth muscle changes in the bladder in addition to benign prostatic enlargement in LUTS. Circulating baseline testosterone did not predict ΔIPSS. Men with lower baseline estradiol-17β levels

  3. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  4. Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic measures for specific physical and psychiatric symptoms. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were systematically assessed by self- and clinician reports. Suicidal events were also reanalyzed by the Columbia Group and expert raters using the Columbia-Classification Algorithm for Suicidal Assessment used in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reclassification effort. Results Depressed adolescents reported high rates of physical symptoms at baseline, which improved as depression improved. Sedation, insomnia, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain occurred in at least 2% of those treated with FLX and/or COMB and at twice the rate of placebo. The rate of psychiatric AEs was 11% in FLX, 5.6% in COMB, 4.5% in PBO, and 0.9% in CBT. Suicidal ideation improved overall, with greatest improvement in COMB. Twenty-four suicide-related events occurred during the 12-week period: 5 patients (4.7%) in COMB, 10 (9.2%) in FLX, 5 (4.5%) in CBT, and 3 (2.7%) in placebo. Statistically, only FLX had more suicide-related events than PBO (p = .0402, odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% CI 1.00–13.7). Only five actual attempts occurred (2 COMB, 2 FLX, 1 CBT, 0 PBO). There were no suicide completions. Conclusions Different methods for eliciting AEs produce different results. In general, as depression improves, physical complaints and suicidal ideation decrease in proportion to treatment benefit. In this study, psychiatric AEs and suicide-related events are more common in FLX-treated patients. COMB treatment may offer a more favorable safety profile than medication alone in adolescent depression. PMID:17135989

  5. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Steunebrink, Mirjam; Zwerver, Johannes; Brandsema, Ruben; Groenenboom, Petra; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Weir, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess if continuous topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) treatment improves outcome in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy when compared with eccentric training alone. Methods Randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing a 12-week programme of using a GTN or placebo patch in combination with eccentric squats on a decline board. Measurements were performed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and pain scores during sports. Generalised estimated equation was used to analyse the treatment, time and treatment×time effect. Analyses were performed following the intention-to-treat principle. Results VISA-P scores for both groups improved over the study period to 75.0±16.2 and 80.7±22.1 at 24 weeks. Results showed a significant effect for time (p<0.01) but no effect for treatment×time (p=0.80). Mean Visual Analogue Scores pain scores during sports for both groups increased over the study period to 6.6±3 and 7.8±3.1. Results showed a significant effect for time (p<0.01) but no effect for treatment×time (p=0.38). Patient satisfaction showed no difference between GTN and placebo groups (p=0.25) after 24 weeks, but did show a significant difference over time (p=0.01). Three patients in the GTN group reported some rash. Conclusion It seems that continuous topical GTN treatment in addition to an eccentric exercise programme does not improve clinical outcome compared to placebo patches and an eccentric exercise programme in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy. PMID:22930695

  6. White Matter Hyperintensity Accumulation During Treatment of Late-Life Depression.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Alexander; Edelman, Kathryn; Tudorascu, Dana; Andreescu, Carmen; Reynolds, Charles F; Aizenstein, Howard

    2015-12-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been shown to be associated with the development of late-life depression (LLD) and eventual treatment outcomes. This study sought to investigate longitudinal WMH changes in patients with LLD during a 12-week antidepressant treatment course. Forty-seven depressed elderly patients were included in this analysis. All depressed subjects started pharmacological treatment for depression shortly after a baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. At 12 weeks, patients underwent a follow-up MRI scan, and were categorized as either treatment remitters (n=23) or non-remitters (n=24). Among all patients, there was as a significant increase in WMHs over 12 weeks (t(46)=2.36, P=0.02). When patients were stratified by remission status, non-remitters demonstrated a significant increase in WMHs (t(23)=2.17, P=0.04), but this was not observed in remitters (t(22)=1.09, P=0.29). Other markers of brain integrity were also investigated including whole brain gray matter volume, hippocampal volume, and fractional anisotropy. No significant differences were observed in any of these markers during treatment, including when patients were stratified based on remission status. These results add to existing literature showing the association between WMH accumulation and LLD treatment outcomes. Moreover, this is the first study to demonstrate similar findings over a short interval (ie 12 weeks), which corresponds to the typical length of an antidepressant trial. These findings serve to highlight the acute interplay of cerebrovascular ischemic disease and LLD. PMID:26058663

  7. An open, phase III study of lanreotide (Somatuline PR) in the treatment of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Lin, J D; Lee, S T; Weng, H F

    1999-02-01

    Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive secretion of human growth hormone (GH). Somatostatin and its analogue-prolonged release formulation, lanreotide (Somatuline PR), inhibit the secretion of growth hormone. The aim of this open Phase III study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of lanreotide in the treatment of six acromegalic patients with a mean age of 44 +/- 13 yr including two patients with diabetes mellitus. All the patients previously received transsphenoidal or transcranial hypophysectomy. Lanreotide was given intramuscularly every 2 weeks at a fixed dose of 30 mg for 12 weeks. Serum GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were evaluated before, 2, 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, mean (+/- SEM) GH levels decreased from 24.8 +/- 12.5 to 6.9 +/- 3.3 ng/ml and mean serum IGF-I levels decreased from 689 +/- 282 to 430 +/- 216 ng/ml. Abdominal ultrasonographic examinations showed no gallbladder stone or bile sand formation before or after the treatment. Three of the patients who did not receive octreotide presented with manifestations of mild gastrointestinal adverse effect such as mild abdominal pain and diarrhea. In conclusion, lanreotide is effective in the treatment of active postoperative acromegaly. PMID:10426587

  8. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  9. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  10. Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Rossetto, Simone; Halmenschlager, Graziele; Linden, Rafael; Heckler, Eliane; Fernandez, Maria S Poblador; Alonso, José L Lancho

    2008-09-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main compound of Garcinia cambogia extract, is a competitive blocker of ATP-citrate-lyase, presenting a potential inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Glucomannan fibers, abundant in Amorphophallus konjac, seem to reduce the absorption kinetics of dietary fat. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind randomized study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of standardized extracts of G. cambogia (52.4% HCA) plus A. konjac (94.9% glucomannan) in the treatment of obesity. Fifty-eight obese subjects (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the placebo group (n = 26) or the treatment group (n = 32); no dietary restrictions were applied. Over a 12-week period, subjects were given daily doses of either Garcinia (2.4 g) plus Konjac (1.5 g) or placebo prior to their main meals (3 times/day). Before the start of treatment, and every 4 weeks thereafter, the following were recorded: height, weight, circumferences and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid profile and glucose levels. The treatment had no significant effect on anthropometric parameters, REE, triglycerides or glucose levels. However, a significant reduction was observed in total cholesterol (-32.0 +/- 35.1 mg/dL) and LDL-c levels (-28.7 +/- 32.7 mg/dL) in the treated group, the final levels being significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.020, respectively). The results obtained suggest that the treatment had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect, without influencing the anthropometric or calorimetric parameters tested. PMID:18729243

  11. Safety Profile of Nifurtimox for Treatment of Chagas Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Colin J.; Hernandez, Salvador; Olmedo, Wilman; Abuhamidah, Adieb; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Sanchez, Daniel R.; Soverow, Jonathan; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nifurtimox is 1 of only 2 medications available for treating Chagas disease (CD) and currently the only drug available in the United States, but its safety and tolerance have not been extensively studied. This is the first study to evaluate tolerance of nifurtimox in US patients with CD. Methods. This investigation assessed side effects in a sample of 53 patients with CD, all Latin American immigrants, who underwent treatment with nifurtimox (8–10 mg/kg in 3 daily doses for 12 weeks) from March 2008 to July 2012. The frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) was recorded. Results. A total of 435 AEs were recorded; 93.8% were mild, 3.0% moderate, and 3.2% severe. Patients experienced a mean of 8.2 AEs; the most frequent were anorexia (79.2%), nausea (75.5%), headache (60.4%), amnesia (58.5%), and >5% weight loss (52.8%). Eleven patients (20.8%) were unable to complete treatment. Experiencing a moderate or severe AE (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; P < .05) and Mexican nationality (OR, 2.29; P < .05) were significant predictors of treatment discontinuation, but sex and cardiac progression at baseline were not. Patients who did not complete treatment experienced nearly 3 times more AEs per 30-day period (P = .05). Conclusions. Nifurtimox produces frequent side effects, but the majority are mild and can be managed with dose reduction and/or temporary suspension of medication. The high frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss mirrors results from prior investigations. Special attention should be paid during the early stages of treatment to potentially severe symptoms including depression, rash, and anxiety. PMID:27432838

  12. Usefulness of a Tailored eHealth Service for Informal Caregivers and Professionals in the Dementia Treatment and Care Setting: The eHealthMonitor Dementia Portal

    PubMed Central

    Marinova-Schmidt, Velislava; Setzer, Manuela; Kondylakis, Haridimos; Griebel, Lena; Sedlmayr, Martin; Graessel, Elmar; Maler, Juan Manuel; Kirn, Stefan; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Background The European eHealthMonitor project (eHM) developed a user-sensitive and interactive Web portal for the dementia care setting called the eHM Dementia Portal (eHM-DP). It aims to provide targeted support for informal caregivers of persons with dementia and professionals. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness and impact of the eHM-DP service in the dementia care setting from two user perspectives: informal caregivers and professionals. Methods The evaluation study was conducted from June to September 2014 and followed a before-after, user-participatory, mixed-method design with questionnaires and interviews. The used intervention was the eHM-DP: an interactive Web portal for informal caregivers and professionals that was tested for a 12-week period. Primary outcomes for caregivers included empowerment, quality of life, caregiver burden, decision aid, as well as perceived usefulness and benefits of the eHM-DP. Primary outcomes for professionals involved decision aid, perceived usefulness, and benefits of the eHM-DP. Results A total of 25 informal caregivers and 6 professionals used the eHM-DP over the 12-week study period. Both professionals and informal caregivers indicated perceived benefits and support by the eHM-DP. In total, 65% (16/25) of informal caregivers would use the eHM-DP if they had access to it. Major perceived benefits were individualized information acquisition, improved interaction between informal caregivers and professionals, access to support from home, and empowerment in health-related decisions (PrepDM Score: 67.9). Professionals highlighted the improved treatment and care over the disease course (83%, 5/6) and improved health care access for people living in rural areas (67%, 4/6). However, there was no improvement in caregiver burden (Burden Scale for Family Caregivers) and quality of life (EuroQol-5D-5L) over the study period. Conclusions Our study provides insight into the different user perspectives

  13. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  14. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  15. 40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  16. Treatment of Palatal Fractures by Osteosynthesis with 2.0-mm Locking Plates as External Fixator

    PubMed Central

    Cienfuegos, Ricardo; Sierra, Eduardo; Ortiz, Benjamin; Fernández, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Treatment options for palatal fractures range from orthodontic braces, acrylic bars, and arch bars for maxillomandibular fixation to internal fixation, with plates and screws placed under the palate mucosa and periosteum, together with pyriform aperture or alveolar plating plus buttress reconstruction. Forty-five patients, ages 4 to 56, were treated using medium- or high-profile locking plates placed over the palatal mucosa as an external fixator for palatal fractures, together with treatment for other associated facial fractures. In open fractures, plates were placed after approximating the edges of the mucosal wounds. Plates and screws for palate fixation were removed at 12 weeks, when computed tomography scans provided evidence of fracture healing. All palatal fractures healed by 12 weeks, with no cases of mucosal necrosis, bone exposure, fistulae, or infections. This approach achieves adequate stability, reduces the risk of bone and mucosal necrosis, and promotes healing of mucosal wounds in case of open fractures. PMID:22132261

  17. Bone Loss from High Repetitive High Force Loading is Prevented by Ibuprofen Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nisha X.; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E.; Clark, Brian D.; Kietrys, David M.; Wade, Christine K.; Litvin, Judith; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2014-01-01

    We examined roles of loading and inflammation on forearm bones in a rat model of upper extremity overuse. Trabecular structure in distal radius and ulna was examined in three groups of young adult rats: 1) 5% food-restricted that underwent an initial training period of 10 min/day for 5 weeks to learn the repetitive task (TRHF); 2) rats that underwent the same training before performing a high repetition high force task, 2 hours/day for 12 weeks (HRHF); and 3) food-restricted only (FRC). Subsets were treated with oral ibuprofen (IBU). TRHF rats had increased trabecular bone volume and numbers, osteoblasts, and serum osteocalcin, indicative of bone adaptation. HRHF rats had constant muscle pulling forces, showed limited signs of bone adaptation, but many signs of bone resorption, including decreased trabecular bone volume and bone mineral density, increased osteoclasts and bone inflammatory cytokines, and reduced median nerve conduction velocity (15%). HRHF+IBU rats showed no trabecular resorptive changes, no increased osteoclasts or bone inflammatory cytokines, no nerve inflammation, preserved nerve conduction, and increased muscle voluntary pulling forces. Ibuprofen treatment preserved trabecular bone quality by reducing osteoclasts and bone inflammatory cytokines, and improving muscle pulling forces on bones as a result of reduced nerve inflammation. PMID:24583543

  18. Osteopathic Manual Treatment for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Feasibility Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maggiani, Alberto; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Valentina, Andrea Della; Mapelli, Laurent; Sosio, Silvia; Milano, Valeria; Bianchi, Manuel; Badi, Francesco; Lavazza, Carolina; Grandini, Marco; Corna, Giovanni; Prometti, Paola; Lunetta, Christian; Riva, Nilo; Ferri, Alessandra; Lanfranconi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current interventions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are focused on supporting quality of life (QoL) and easing pain with a multidisciplinary approach. Objective: Primary aim of this pilot work assessed feasibility, safety, tolerability and satisfaction of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) in 14 ALS outpatients. Methods: Patients were randomized according to an initial single-blind design (12 weeks, T0-T1), in order to receive OMT (weekly for 4 weeks, and fortnightly for the following 8 weeks) versus usual-care (n=7 each group), followed by an OMT open period (T1-T2, once a week for 8 weeks, n=10). Secondary aims included blind osteopathic assessment of somatic dysfunctions (SD) for goal attainment scale (GAS) calculation, Brief Pain Inventory-short form and McGill QoL-16 items. Results: OMT was demonstrated feasible and safe and patients displayed high satisfaction (T1-VAS=8.34 ± 0.46; T2-VAS=8.52 ± 0.60). Considering secondary aims no significant differences emerged. Finally, at study entry (T0), a cervico-dorsal SD was found in 78% of ALS patients versus 28% of healthy matched controls (p<0.01). Conclusion: OMT was found feasible, safe and satisfactory in ALS. The lack of secondary aim differences can be due to the limited sample size. OMT could be an interesting option to explore in ALS.

  19. Osteopathic Manual Treatment for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Feasibility Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Maggiani, Alberto; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Valentina, Andrea Della; Mapelli, Laurent; Sosio, Silvia; Milano, Valeria; Bianchi, Manuel; Badi, Francesco; Lavazza, Carolina; Grandini, Marco; Corna, Giovanni; Prometti, Paola; Lunetta, Christian; Riva, Nilo; Ferri, Alessandra; Lanfranconi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current interventions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are focused on supporting quality of life (QoL) and easing pain with a multidisciplinary approach. Objective: Primary aim of this pilot work assessed feasibility, safety, tolerability and satisfaction of osteopathic manual treatment (OMT) in 14 ALS outpatients. Methods: Patients were randomized according to an initial single-blind design (12 weeks, T0-T1), in order to receive OMT (weekly for 4 weeks, and fortnightly for the following 8 weeks) versus usual-care (n=7 each group), followed by an OMT open period (T1-T2, once a week for 8 weeks, n=10). Secondary aims included blind osteopathic assessment of somatic dysfunctions (SD) for goal attainment scale (GAS) calculation, Brief Pain Inventory-short form and McGill QoL-16 items. Results: OMT was demonstrated feasible and safe and patients displayed high satisfaction (T1-VAS=8.34 ± 0.46; T2-VAS=8.52 ± 0.60). Considering secondary aims no significant differences emerged. Finally, at study entry (T0), a cervico-dorsal SD was found in 78% of ALS patients versus 28% of healthy matched controls (p<0.01). Conclusion: OMT was found feasible, safe and satisfactory in ALS. The lack of secondary aim differences can be due to the limited sample size. OMT could be an interesting option to explore in ALS. PMID:27651843

  20. An Open-Label Study of Risperidone in the Improvement of Quality of Life and Treatment of Symptoms of Violent and Self-Injurious Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Stephen G.; Rendall, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    Background: We examined the benefits of risperidone, including quality of life (QoL), in the treatment of violent and self-injurious behaviour in adults with moderate, severe or profound intellectual disability. Methods: Twenty-four participants received open-label, oral, flexible-dose risperidone of 0.5-6 mg/day for 12 weeks. Efficacy was…

  1. Lasting effects of developmental dexamethasone treatment on neural cell number and size, synaptic activity, and cell signaling: critical periods of vulnerability, dose-effect relationships, regional targets, and sex selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Marisa L; Tate, Charlotte A; Cousins, Mandy M; Oliver, Colleen A; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2006-01-01

    Glucocorticoids administered to prevent respiratory distress in preterm infants are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To evaluate the long-term effects on forebrain development, we treated developing rats with dexamethasone (Dex) at 0.05, 0.2, or 0.8 mg/kg, doses below or spanning the range in clinical use, testing the effects of administration during three different stages: gestational days 17-19, postnatal days 1-3, or postnatal days 7-9. In adulthood, we assessed biomarkers of neural cell number and size, cholinergic presynaptic activity, neurotransmitter receptor expression, and synaptic signaling mediated through adenylyl cyclase (AC), in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Even at doses that were devoid of lasting effects on somatic growth, Dex elicited deficits in the number and size of neural cells, with the largest effect in the cerebral cortex. Indices of cholinergic synaptic function (choline acetyltransferase, hemicholinium-3 binding) indicated substantial hyperactivity in males, especially in the hippocampus, effectively eliminating the normal sex differences for these parameters. However, the largest effects were seen for cerebrocortical cell signaling mediated by AC, where Dex treatment markedly elevated overall activity while obtunding the function of G-protein-coupled catecholaminergic or cholinergic receptors that stimulate or inhibit AC; uncoupling was noted despite receptor upregulation. Again, the effects on signaling were larger in males and offset the normal sex differences in AC. These results indicate that, during critical developmental periods, Dex administration evokes lasting alterations in neural cell numbers and synaptic function in forebrain regions, even at doses below those used in preterm infants.

  2. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  3. 42 CFR 441.58 - Periodicity schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) of Individuals Under Age 21 § 441.58 Periodicity... recognized medical and dental organizations involved in child health care; (b) Specifies screening services applicable at each stage of the recipient's life, beginning with a neonatal examination, up to the age...

  4. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination versus latanoprost in treatment-naïve glaucoma patients at high risk of progression: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Diaz, Esperanza; Silva Cotta, Jose; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco J; Gutierrez-Ortiz, Consuelo; Morgan-Warren, Robert J; Maltman, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare a fixed combination of 0.03% bimatoprost and 0.5% timolol (BTFC) with latanoprost monotherapy (LM) in treatment-naïve patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and risk factors for glaucomatous progression. Methods Patients were enrolled at 15 sites in Spain and Portugal, and were randomized 1:1 to BTFC or LM. Patients instilled one drop of medication once per day at 8 pm for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in intraocular pressure (IOP) at 12 weeks. Results Of 81 patients enrolled, 43 were randomized to BTFC and 38 to LM. Mean (SD) change in IOP from baseline to 12 weeks was significantly greater for BTFC than for LM: −13.5 mmHg (4.48) versus −11.4 mmHg (3.19), respectively (P=0.003). Similarly, at 12 weeks, significantly more BTFC patients than LM patients had IOP reductions of ≥40% (74.4% versus 47.4%, P=0.015) or ≥50% (46.5% versus 15.8%, P=0.003). Adverse events were more frequent with BTFC than with LM (33 versus 13 events), but most were mild in severity. The only serious adverse event (colon cancer) was adjudged unrelated to the study medication. Conclusion BTFC was effective and well tolerated in treatment-naïve patients with OAG at high risk of progression. PMID:24748767

  5. Retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection in a rat model of glaucoma following brimonidine, latanoprost or combined treatments.

    PubMed

    Hernández, María; Urcola, J Haritz; Vecino, Elena

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of two antiglaucomatous substances, regardless of their hypotensive effect in the eye. Brimonidine, which does not reduce IOP when administered intraperitoneally, and latanoprost, which has a renowned hypotensive effect topically. We examined rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and size distribution in experimental glaucoma in response to different glaucomatous agents. IOP was elevated by episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) prior to the application of different treatments: (I) PBS application (control group), (II) intraperitoneal administration of brimonidine (a general hypotensive agent), (III) topical application of latanoprost (an ocular hypotensive agent), and (IV) latanoprost combined with brimonidine. After 12 weeks, RGCs were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold and RGC density was analyzed. EVC caused a significant increase (42%) in IOP in each group before drug treatment. After 12weeks of EVC, RGC survival in control vs. EVC rats was 78.9+/-3.2%. No IOP reduction was observed in brimonidine injected rats, but RGC survival at 12 weeks was total (103.7+/-2.7%). In latanoprost treated rats, IOP dropped by around 22% and 94.7+/-3.7% of the RGC population survived. Finally in the latanoprost+brimonidine combined group, IOP was significantly reduced by 25% and 94.4+/-2.2% of RGCs survived. Surprisingly, whereas EVC led to a 6% increase in RGC soma size, brimonidine treatment was associated with a 9% reduction in the soma size of RGCs at 12 weeks. We conclude that brimonidine exerts a neuroprotective effect via a mechanism which is independent of IOP reduction. These findings indicate that cell survival in glaucoma may be enhanced by neuroprotective strategies which are independent of IOP reduction. No synergistic neuroprotective effect was observed when both treatments were applied simultaneously.

  6. Saturn's variable radio period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cecconi, B.

    Temporal modulations in radio emissions are often used to determine the rotation rate of the emitting body. The rotation period (presumably) of Jupiter's interior was established in this way [Burke et al., 1962] and has recently been refined by Higgins et al. [1997]. Rotation periods for the remainder of the outer planet gas giants were determined from Voyager planetary radio astronomy observations. Similar techniques have been applied to astrophysical objects, including pulsars, for which the radio period is assumed to be the rotation period of the neutron star. In 2001, however, this simple relation between the radio period and rotation period became suspect, at least for the case of Saturn. Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] reported that the radio period of Saturn had changed by as much as 1% from that determined by Voyager and, further, exhibited variations on time scales of years. More recently, Cassini observations indicate that the Saturn kilometric radiation is modulated with a period longer than that observed by Voyager and that this period is variable on a time scale of a year or less. The recent Higgins et al. result suggests that Jupiter's period is steady, within measurement accuracy. There are no additional measurements from Uranus or Neptune with which to look for time variations in their radio periods. For conservation of energy and angular momentum reasons, true variations of the rotation period of Saturn's deep interior are not believed to be a viable explanation for the variation in radio period, hence, it would appear that there is some disconnection of the radio period from the rotation period in the case of Saturn. One possible contributing factor may be that since Saturn's magnetic field is very accurately aligned with its rotational axis, there is no first-order beaming effect caused by the wobbling of the magnetic field, contrary to the situation at the other magnetized planets. Another explanation suggested by Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] and

  7. Examining Longitudinal Stimulant Use and Treatment Attendance as Parallel Outcomes in Two Contingency Management Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one 'parallel outcomes' model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β=0.060, p<0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis ((-)UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β=0.069, p<0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and (-)UA submission, but in the first trial a (-)UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r=0.117; r=0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a (-)UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r=0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This 'indirect reinforcement' between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials.

  8. Examining Longitudinal Stimulant Use and Treatment Attendance as Parallel Outcomes in Two Contingency Management Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one 'parallel outcomes' model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β=0.060, p<0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis ((-)UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β=0.069, p<0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and (-)UA submission, but in the first trial a (-)UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r=0.117; r=0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a (-)UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r=0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This 'indirect reinforcement' between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials. PMID:26456717

  9. Sequences close to periodic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnik, Andrei A.; Pritykin, Yurii L.; Semenov, Aleksei L.

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a survey of concepts and results connected with generalizations of the notion of a periodic sequence, both classical and new. The topics discussed relate to almost periodicity in such areas as combinatorics on words, symbolic dynamics, expressibility in logical theories, computability, Kolmogorov complexity, and number theory. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  10. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out. PMID:27126116

  11. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  12. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  13. Potential market size and impact of hepatitis C treatment in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Woode, M E; Abu-Zaineh, M; Perriëns, J; Renaud, F; Wiktor, S; Moatti, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has made hepatitis C infection curable in the vast majority of cases and the elimination of the infection possible. Although initially too costly for large-scale use, recent reductions in DAA prices in some low- and middle-income countries (LaMICs) has improved the prospect of many people having access to these drugs/medications in the future. This article assesses the pricing and financing conditions under which the uptake of DAAs can increase to the point where the elimination of the disease in LaMICs is feasible. A Markov simulation model is used to study the dynamics of the infection with the introduction of treatment over a 10-year period. The impact on HCV-related mortality and HCV incidence is assessed under different financing scenarios assuming that the cost of the drugs is completely paid for out-of-pocket or reduced through either subsidy or drug price decreases. It is also assessed under different diagnostic and service delivery capacity scenarios separately for low-income (LIC), lower-middle-income (LMIC) and upper-middle-income countries (UMIC). Monte Carlo simulations are used for sensitivity analyses. At a price of US$ 1680 per 12-week treatment duration (based on negotiated Egyptian prices for an all oral two-DAA regimen), most of the people infected in LICs and LMICs would have limited access to treatment without subsidy or significant drug price decreases. However, people in UMICs would be able to access it even in the absence of a subsidy. For HCV treatment to have a significant impact on mortality and incidence, a significant scaling-up of diagnostic and service delivery capacity for HCV infection is needed.

  14. Potential market size and impact of hepatitis C treatment in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Woode, M E; Abu-Zaineh, M; Perriëns, J; Renaud, F; Wiktor, S; Moatti, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has made hepatitis C infection curable in the vast majority of cases and the elimination of the infection possible. Although initially too costly for large-scale use, recent reductions in DAA prices in some low- and middle-income countries (LaMICs) has improved the prospect of many people having access to these drugs/medications in the future. This article assesses the pricing and financing conditions under which the uptake of DAAs can increase to the point where the elimination of the disease in LaMICs is feasible. A Markov simulation model is used to study the dynamics of the infection with the introduction of treatment over a 10-year period. The impact on HCV-related mortality and HCV incidence is assessed under different financing scenarios assuming that the cost of the drugs is completely paid for out-of-pocket or reduced through either subsidy or drug price decreases. It is also assessed under different diagnostic and service delivery capacity scenarios separately for low-income (LIC), lower-middle-income (LMIC) and upper-middle-income countries (UMIC). Monte Carlo simulations are used for sensitivity analyses. At a price of US$ 1680 per 12-week treatment duration (based on negotiated Egyptian prices for an all oral two-DAA regimen), most of the people infected in LICs and LMICs would have limited access to treatment without subsidy or significant drug price decreases. However, people in UMICs would be able to access it even in the absence of a subsidy. For HCV treatment to have a significant impact on mortality and incidence, a significant scaling-up of diagnostic and service delivery capacity for HCV infection is needed. PMID:26924428

  15. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in young patients: evaluation and fertility-preserving treatment.

    PubMed

    Benshushan, Abraham

    2004-12-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common female pelvic malignancy in the US. Although it is primarily a disease of the postmenopausal female, 25% of patients are premenopausal, with 3-5% in women 40 years old or younger. The younger group of women with endometrial carcinoma are frequently nulligravid with a history of infertility, and a strong desire to preserve fertility. This may pose a therapeutic dilemma for both patients and treating physicians. Medical treatment for young patients with grade 1 endometrial carcinoma who wish to preserve fertility is a reasonable and appealing option. A comprehensive evaluation prior to counseling the patient should include. A complete history and physical examination. A formal D&C with review of histology with an experienced gyn-onc pathologist. Evaluation of the pelvic and abdomen preferably with contrast-enhanced MRI or transvaginal ultrasound. In patients found to have a clinical stage I grade 1 tumor and who want to preserve fertility, thorough counseling including risks and benefits, and explanation that the data is partial and incomplete due to the lack of appropriate controlled studies is mandatory. In patients considered for medical treatment, a high dose progestin regimen should be started with endometrial sampling every 3 months until complete regression of the tumor is documented. For patients willing to conceive at this stage, treatment options should be discussed. In women who do not want pregnancy at this stage, a maintenance treatment with oral contraceptive agent or Depo-provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg i.m. q 12 weeks) should be recommended, with periodic ultrasound evaluation of the endometrium. When the patient finishes her fertility plans, the option of hysterectomy should be considered. Although most responses are long standing, there is a small risk of progression during or after cessation of progestin therapy.

  16. Thyroxine treatment in patients with symptoms of hypothyroidism but thyroid function tests within the reference range: randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, M Anne; Sturrock, Alison; Marshall, Karen; Davidson, Kate M; Kelly, Christopher J G; McMahon, Alex D; McLaren, E Hamish

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether thyroxine treatment is effective in patients with symptoms of hypothyroidism but with thyroid function tests within the reference range, and to investigate the effect of thyroxine treatment on psychological and physical wellbeing in healthy participants. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial. Setting Outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Participants 25 patients with symptoms of hypothyroidism who had thyroid function tests within the reference range, and 19 controls. Methods Participants were given thyroxine 100 μg or placebo to take once a day for 12 weeks. Washout period was six weeks. They were then given the other to take once a day for 12 weeks. All participants were assessed physiologically and psychologically at baseline and on completion of each phase. Main outcome measures Thyroid function tests, measures of cognitive function and of psychological and physical wellbeing. Results 22 patients and 19 healthy controls completed the study. At baseline, patients' scores on 9 out of 15 psychological measures were impaired when compared with controls. Patients showed a significantly greater response to placebo than controls in 3 out of 15 psychological measures. Healthy participants had significantly lower scores for vitality when taking thyroxine compared to placebo (mean (SD) 60 (17) v 73 (16), P<0.01). However, patients' scores from psychological tests when taking thyroxine were no different from those when taking placebo except for a poorer performance on one visual reproduction test when taking thyroxine. Serum concentrations of free thyroxine increased and those of thyroid stimulating hormone decreased in patients and controls while they were taking thyroxine, confirming compliance with treatment. Although serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine increased in patients and controls taking thyroxine, the difference between the response to placebo and to thyroxine was significant only in the

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  18. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  19. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  20. Sofosbuvir and simeprevir for treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Julio A; Carrion, Andres F; Avalos, Danny; O'Brien, Christopher; Martin, Paul; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram; Peyton, Adam

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection occurs universally in the allograft in the absence of effective antiviral therapy before liver transplantation (LT). Antiviral therapy with sofosbuvir and simeprevir has proven to be highly effective and well tolerated in the nontransplant setting for treatment of HCV genotype 1 infection; therefore, we sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this regimen in LT recipients with recurrent HCV infection. This was a retrospective analysis of a single-center treatment protocol of patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who received a 12-week combination regimen of sofosbuvir and simeprevir. Sixty-one patients (35 with genotype 1a and 26 with genotype 1b) completed treatment with simeprevir and sofosbuvir. Three patients received additional ribavirin. Laboratory data and clinical assessments performed at the baseline, on treatment, at the end of treatment, and 12 weeks after the completion of antiviral therapy [sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12)] were analyzed. The median time after LT was 5.4 years [interquartile range (IQR), 1.9-8.4 years], and tacrolimus was the most commonly used immunosuppressive agent (80.3%). Overall, SVR12 was achieved in 93.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84%-97%] of LT recipients treated with 12 weeks of sofosbuvir and simeprevir. When they were analyzed according to the HCV subtype, LT recipients with genotype 1b had a 100% SVR12 rate (95% CI, 87%-100%), whereas SVR12 was 89% (95% CI, 74%-95%) for those with genotype 1a. Advanced fibrosis (METAVIR F3-F4) was associated with diminished antiviral efficacy in LT recipients with genotype 1a [SVR12, 67% (95% CI, 39%-86%); P = 0.01]. Overall, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) was low, and no severe AEs occurred during treatment. In conclusion, treatment with a 12-week regimen of sofosbuvir and simeprevir was well tolerated and resulted in a high SVR12 rate for LT recipients with recurrent HCV genotype 1 infection. Genotype 1a

  1. Assessment of Safety and Long-Term Outcomes of Initial Treatment With Placebo in TADS

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Silva, Susan G.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Rohde, Paul; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Curry, John F.; Emslie, Graham J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The authors examined whether initial assignment to receive placebo for 12 weeks followed by open active treatment as clinically indicated was associated with different levels of benefit and risk of harm across 36 weeks as compared with initial assignment to receive active treatments. Method Adolescents with major depressive disorder (N=439) were randomly assigned to receive an initial 12 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment with fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with placebo; those assigned to placebo received open active treatment as clinically indicated after 12 weeks of placebo. Assessments were conducted every 6 weeks for 36 weeks. The primary outcome measures were response and remission based on scores on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised and the Clinical Global Impression improvement subscale. Results At week 36, the response rate was 82% in the placebo/open group and 83% in the active treatment groups. The remission rate was 48% in the placebo/open group and 59% in the active treatment groups, a difference that approached statistical significance. Patients who responded to placebo generally retained their response. Those who did not respond to placebo subsequently responded to active treatment at the same rate as those initially assigned to active treatments. There were no differences between groups in rates of suicidal events, study retention, or symptom worsening. Conclusions Remission rates at 9 months were lower in patients treated initially with placebo, but 3 months of placebo treatment was not associated with any harm or diminished response to subsequent treatment. PMID:19147693

  2. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  3. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  4. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  5. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  6. Endurance and neuromuscular changes in world-class level kayakers during a periodized training cycle.

    PubMed

    García-Pallarés, Jesús; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; Carrasco, Luis; Díaz, Arturo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2009-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze changes in selected cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables in a group of elite kayakers across a 12-week periodized cycle of combined strength and endurance training. Eleven world-class level paddlers underwent a battery of tests and were assessed four times during the training cycle (T0, T1, T2, and T3). On each occasion subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion on the kayak-ergometer to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), peak blood lactate, paddling speed at VO(2max) (PS(max)) and at VT2 (PS(VT2)), stroke rate at VO(2max) and at VT2, heart rate at VO(2max) and at VT2. One-repetition maximum (1RM) and mean velocity with 45% 1RM load (V (45%)) were assessed in the bench press (BP) and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises. Anthropometric measurements (skinfold thicknesses and muscle girths) were also obtained. Training volume and exercise intensity were quantified for each of three training phases (P1, P2, and P3). Significant improvements in VO(2max) (9.5%), VO(2) at VT2 (9.4%), PS(max) (6.2%), PS(VT2) (4.4%), 1RM in BP (4.2%) and PBP (5.3%), V (45%) in BP (14.4%) and PBP (10.0%) were observed from T0 to T3. A 12-week periodized strength and endurance program with special emphasis on prioritizing the sequential development of specific physical fitness components in each training phase (i.e. muscle hypertrophy and VT2 in P1, and maximal strength and aerobic power in P2) seems effective for improving both cardiovascular and neuromuscular markers of highly trained top-level athletes.

  7. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  8. Mobile phone technologies improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting: a randomized controlled trial of text message reminders

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Habyarimana, James P.; Zivin, Joshua G.; Goldstein, Markus P.; de Walque, Damien; MacKeen, Leslie; Haberer, Jessica; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Sidle, John; Ngare, Duncan; Bangsberg, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is limited evidence on whether growing mobile phone availability in sub-Saharan Africa can be used to promote high adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study tested the efficacy of short message service (SMS) reminders on adherence to ART among patients attending a rural clinic in Kenya. Design A randomized controlled trial of four SMS reminder interventions with 48 weeks of follow-up. Methods Four hundred and thirty-one adult patients who had initiated ART within 3 months were enrolled and randomly assigned to a control group or one of the four intervention groups. Participants in the intervention groups received SMS reminders that were either short or long and sent at a daily or weekly frequency. Adherence was measured using the medication event monitoring system. The primary outcome was whether adherence exceeded 90% during each 12-week period of analysis and the 48-week study period. The secondary outcome was whether there were treatment interruptions lasting at least 48 h. Results In intention-to-treat analysis, 53% of participants receiving weekly SMS reminders achieved adherence of at least 90% during the 48 weeks of the study, compared with 40% of participants in the control group (P=0.03). Participants in groups receiving weekly reminders were also significantly less likely to experience treatment interruptions exceeding 48 h during the 48-week follow-up period than participants in the control group (81 vs. 90%, P = 0.03). Conclusion These results suggest that SMS reminders may be an important tool to achieve optimal treatment response in resource-limited settings. PMID:21252632

  9. Cohort study on the treatment with dapsone 5% gel of mild to moderate inflammatory acne of the face in women.

    PubMed

    Lynde, Charles W; Andriessen, Anneke

    2014-01-01

    Topical dapsone 5% gel for the treatment of mild to moderate acne has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled studies. A total of 101 adult women with mild to moderate facial inflammatory acne participated in a 12-week cohort study to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of dapsone gel 5% in this specific group who often complain of sensitive skin. The women were instructed to apply dapsone 5% gel twice daily after washing their face with a standard noncomedogenic soap-free cleanser. Treatment outcome was evaluated using physician-scored Global Acne Assessment Scale (GAAS) and patient-reported facial skin condition. Ninety-three women completed the study (6 were lost to follow-up and 2 had mild skin irritation). At 12 weeks, significant physician GAAS scores (t55 = 8.85, P = .001) and patient-reported lesion reductions were shown. Treatment success (GAAS 0 or 1) at 12 weeks was achieved in 69.4% (n = 75) of women (t94 = 4.17, P = .001), improving patient-reported quality-of-life aspects. Topical dapsone gel 5% was shown to be safe, minimally irritating, and effective in the treatment of mild to moderate inflammatory facial acne in adult women with sensitive skin. PMID:24720080

  10. Effects of antidepressant treatment on total antioxidant capacity and free radical levels in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chen; Lee, Chun-Te; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Ju, Po-Chung; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Lai, Te-Jen

    2015-12-15

    In this prospective study, we investigated the effects of antidepressant therapy on total antioxidant capacity and free radical levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We recruited thirty-five first-episode patients who met the criteria of the Fourth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of MDD and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were measured to investigate oxidative status and the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) assay was performed to evaluate antioxidant capacity in healthy controls and in patients before and after receiving a 12-week regimen of sertraline. The severity of depression was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Before treatment, the mean HDRS score in patients with MDD was 26.11±4.93. Of the 35 patients with MDD, 19 (54.29%) completed the 12-week treatment regimen and all achieved remission. Patients with MDD had significantly lower TRAP baseline values than healthy controls. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, education and marital status, we found that HDRS score was negatively correlated with TRAP value and level of superoxide radicals. After treatment, the MDD group demonstrated significantly higher TRAP values and significantly lower levels of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In conclusion, MDD patients are accompanied by lowered antioxidant capacity than healthy individuals. Antidepressant treatment for 12 weeks results in increased antioxidant capacity and a decrease in circulating free radicals.

  11. Use of a Novel Two-layer Bandage in the Treatment of Chronic Venous Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lullove, Eric J.; Newton, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of Unna boot therapies, there has been development in newer technologies for venous compression syndromes and chronic venous hypertension. Chronic lower extremity venous insufficiency results in venous stasis, edema and hypercongestion of the lower extremities. Given the breadth of potential uses, the goal of this study was to retrospectively compile and analyze the clinical application and effectiveness of a 2-layer zinc-impregnated foam Unna boot bandage (Andover Healthcare, Salisbury, MA) in patients with lower extremity swelling with or without wounds treated by a single physician and monitored for 12 weeks post-application in the outpatient setting. In patients with complex comorbidities, the use of this new foam-impregnated multi-layer compression Unna boot shows efficacy in reduction of edema and wound size within 12 weeks. This newer therapy shows extensive promise in the ability to keep patients adherent to treatment regimens with higher rates of success. PMID:26199883

  12. N-acetylaspartate normalization in bipolar depression after lamotrigine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Croarkin, Paul E; Thomas, M Albert; Port, John D; Baruth, Joshua M; Choi, Doo-Sup; Abulseoud, Osama A; Frye, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a general marker of neuronal viability, and total NAA (tNAA), the combined signal of NAA and N-acetylaspartylglutamate, in bipolar depression before and after lamotrigine treatment. Given that NAA is synthesized through direct acetylation of aspartate by acetyl-coenzyme A-L-aspartate-N-acetyltransferase, we hypothesized that treatment with lamotrigine would be associated with an increase in NAA level. Methods Patients with bipolar depression underwent two-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate at baseline (n = 15) and after 12 weeks of lamotrigine treatment (n = 10). A group of age-matched healthy controls (n = 9) underwent scanning at baseline for comparison. Results At baseline, patients with bipolar depression had significantly lower NAA [mean standard deviation (SD) = 1.13 (0.21); p = 0.02] than controls [mean (SD) = 1.37 (0.27)]. Significant increases in NAA [mean (SD) = 1.39 (0.21); p = 0.01] and tNAA [mean (SD) = 1.61 (0.25); p = 0.02] levels were found after 12 weeks of lamotrigine treatment. Conclusions These data suggest an NAA deficit in bipolar depression that is normalized after lamotrigine treatment. Future research is warranted to evaluate whether baseline NAA level is a potential biomarker for identifying lamotrigine response patterns and whether this functional brain change has an associated clinical response. PMID:25495884

  13. Sofosbuvir-Based Therapy for Genotype 4 HCV Recurrence Post-Liver Transplant Treatment-Experienced Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ajlan, A.; Al-Jedai, A.; Elsiesy, H.; Alkortas, D.; Al-Hamoudi, W.; Alarieh, R.; Al-Sebayel, M.; Broering, D.; Aba Alkhail, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. This is an open label prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary care hospital. The primary endpoint is SVR12 in patients treated with sofosbuvir-based therapy in post-liver transplant patients with genotype 4 HCV recurrence. Methodology. Thirty-six treatment-experienced liver transplant patients with HCV recurrence received sofosbuvir and ribavirin ± peginterferon. Results. We report here safety and efficacy data on 36 patients who completed the follow-up period. Mean age was 56 years, and the cohort included 24 males and one patient had cirrhosis. Mean baseline HCV RNA was 6.2 log10 IU/mL. The majority of patients had ≥ stage 2 fibrosis. Twenty-eight patients were treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in addition to sofosbuvir for 12 weeks and the remaining were treated with sofosbuvir plus ribavirin only for 24 weeks. By week 4, only four (11.1%) patients had detectable HCV RNA. Of the 36 patients, 2 (5.5%) relapsed and one died (2.75%). Conclusion. Our results suggest that sofosbuvir + ribavirin ± pegylated interferon can be utilized successfully to treat liver transplant patients with HCV recurrence. PMID:27446833

  14. Aculaser therapy: a comprehensive approach for the treatment of cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Nazir Khan, Malik Muhammed; Nadeem Khan, Malik Mohammad; Munir Qazi, Faiza; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Awan, Abid Hareef

    2006-10-01

    A single, open and non comparative study was conducted at Anwar Shah's First C.P. & Paralysis Clinic and Research Center in collaboration with the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of ACULASER THERAPY in childern suffering from Cerebral Palsy (CP) and associated Neurological Disorders like epilepsy, cortical blindness, spasticity, hemiplegia, paraplegia, quadriplegia, paraplegia, monoplegia, sensory-neural deafness and speech disorders. In all 100 childern were treated and the data was gathered during a period of 18 months from December 2003 till June 2005. This article shows results of the treatment with ACULASER THERAPY in CP childern who were treated for minimum 6 weeks and more or had minimum of 10 treatment sessions and more. This paper also shows that those childern who were given a break in the treatment for 4-12 weeks did not show any reversal of the symptoms. These children were classified according to the associated Neurological Disorders. Analysis of the data showed that out of 81 children with Spasticity and Stiffness 69 showed marked improvement showing 85% improvement rate, out of 54 children with Epileptic fits there was a significant reduction in the intensity, frequency and duration of Epileptic fits in 34 children showing 63% success rate, out of 18 children with Cortical Blindness 13 children showed improvement accounting for 72% efficacy rate, out of 45 children with Hearing Difficulties, 31 showed marked improvement accounting for 69% improvement rate, out of 100 children with Speech Disorders 67 showed improvement reflecting 67 % improvement rate, out of 46 children with Hemiplegia 32 showed improvement in movement, tone and power accounting for 69% improvement rate, out of 36 children with Quadriplegia 25 showed improvement in gross and fine motor functions showing 69% success rate and out of 18 children with Paraplegia of lower limbs 12 showed improvement in weight bearing

  15. Importance of bringing dogs in contact with children during their socialization period for better behavior.

    PubMed

    Arai, Sato; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2011-06-01

    Much attention has been given to the role that dogs play in the social, physical, and psychological development of children. Furthermore, dogs are now playing a new important role in animal-assisted education (AAE). However, some dogs have difficulty getting along with children. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how dogs' contact with children during and after their socialization period influenced their responses toward children. In total, 31 pet dogs were divided into three groups. Group 1 dogs had been in contact with children during the canine socialization period (between 3 and 12 weeks of age); Group 2 dogs had been in contact with children after this socialization period; Group 3 dogs seldom had contact with children. As soon as a child entered the room, the dog was presented three stimuli by the child over the course of several intervals. The dogs' responses were evaluated by analyzing behavior and heart rates. The dogs that had been in contact with children during their socialization period did not show aggressive behavior or excited behavior toward the child in our test. Moreover, their heart rates were significantly decreased even during the last stimulus, which involved the child running around the dog while calling its name. This study suggested that the dogs having contact with children during socialization period might not show inappropriate responses toward children and could be suitable for taking part in AAE.

  16. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  17. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  18. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  19. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  20. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  1. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Neki, N S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  2. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  3. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  4. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Kloos, R T

    1995-09-01

    Spontaneous periodic hypothermia is a rare syndrome of recurrent, centrally mediated hypothermia without an identifiable systemic cause or brain lesion. Most patients defend a temporarily lowered temperature "set point" during episodes of hypothermia, despite manifesting many well-known systemic consequences of core temperature hypothermia. No case of death directly attributable to an episode of spontaneous periodic hypothermia has been reported, although many of the serious systemic effects of hypothermia have been documented in these cases, so it is not unlikely that death may occur. The syndrome's cause, and that of Shapiro syndrome, remains unknown. Pharmacologic trials to date have been only modestly successful. Anticonvulsant agents, clonidine, and cyproheptadine appear the most likely to succeed, with cyproheptadine being a reasonable first choice. Given that the term "spontaneous periodic hypothermia" describes a syndrome, and not a pathophysiologic mechanism, it is likely to encompass a common eventuality, arrived at via several different pathways. One can postulate mechanisms such as structural abnormalities, trauma, infection, irritation, and degeneration involving strategic locations which create a focus for epileptic or other periodic dysfunction whose scope involves the centers for thermoregulation. The existence of 2 distinct, oppositional thermoregulatory centers would allow for speculation of similar mechanisms accounting for cases of both periodic hypo- and hyperthermia (61). Postmortem data regarding the hypothalamic and surrounding areas from future cases of Shapiro syndrome and spontaneous periodic hypothermia would be of great interest. Further, more sensitive in vivo testing methods are clearly needed. The role of PET or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc 99m HMPAO) performed acutely during an episode remains to be characterized (64, 103, 105). The term

  5. Fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate versus betahistine dimesylate in the treatment of Ménière's disease: a randomized, double-blind, parallel group clinical study.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Miroslav; Kostrica, Rom

    2002-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind clinical study, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of cinnarizine, 20 mg, and dimenhydrinate, 40 mg (Arlevert [ARL]) in comparison to betahistine dimesylate (12 mg) in 82 patients suffering from Ménière's disease for at least 3 months and showing the characteristic triad of symptoms (paroxysmal vertigo attacks, cochlear hearing loss, and tinnitus). The treatment (one tablet three times daily) extended to 12 weeks, with control visits at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks after drug intake. The study demonstrated for both the fixed-combination ARL and for betahistine a highly efficient reduction of vertigo symptoms in the course of the 12 weeks of treatment; however, no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups could be established. Similar results were found for tinnitus (approximately 60% reduction) and for the associated vegetative symptoms (almost complete disappearance). Vestibulospinal reactions, recorded by means of craniocorpography, also improved distinctly, with a statistically significant superiority of ARL versus betahistine (p < .042) for the parameter of lateral sway (Unterberger's test). The caloric tests (electronystagmography) showed only minor changes for both treatment groups in the course of the study. A statistically significant improvement of hearing function of the affected ear (p = .042) was found for the combination preparation after 12 weeks of treatment. The tolerability was judged by the vast majority of patients (97.5%) in both groups to be very good. Only one patient (betahistine group) reported a nonserious adverse event, and two betahistine patients did not complete the study. In conclusion, the combination preparation proved to be a highly efficient and safe treatment option for Ménière's disease and may be used both in the management of acute episodes and in long-term treatment. Efficacy and safety were found to be similar to the widely used standard

  6. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... need surgery. In some cases, a mix of treatments works best. What medications are used to treat dysmenorrhea? Certain pain relievers, called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), target prostaglandins. ...

  7. Impacts of 12-dose regimen for latent tuberculosis infection: Treatment completion rate and cost-effectiveness in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Yen-Po; Tsao, Thomas Chang-Yao; Tsao, Shih-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is essential for eradicating tuberculosis (TB). Moreover, the patient adherence is crucial in determining the effectiveness of TB control. Isoniazid given by DOTS daily for 9 months (9H) is the standard treatment for LTBI in Taiwan. However, the completion rate is low due to the long treatment period and its side effects. The combined regimen using a high dose of rifapentine/isoniazid once weekly for 12 weeks (3HP) has been used as an alternative treatment option for LTBI in the United States. This may result in a higher completion rate. In this pilot study, patient adherence and cost of these 2 treatment regimens were investigated. Thus, we aimed to assess the treatment completion rate and costs of 3HP and compare to those with 9H.Data from 691 cases of LTBI treatments including 590 cases using the conventional regimen and 101 cases with rifapentine/Isoniazid were collected. The cost was the sum of the cost of treatment with Isoniazid for 9 months or with rifapentin/Isoniazid for 3 months of all contacts. The effectiveness was the cost of cases of tuberculosis avoided.In this study, the treatment completion rate for patients prescribed with the 3 months rifapentine/isoniazid regimen (97.03%) was higher than those given the conventional 9-month isoniazid regimen (87.29%) (P <0.001). The cost of 3HP and 9H was US$261.24 and US$717.3, respectively. The cost-effectiveness ratio with isoniazid for 9 months was US$ 15392/avoided 1 case of tuberculosis and US$ 5225/avoided 1 case of tuberculosis with 3HP. In addition, when compared with the conventional regimen, there were fewer patients discontinued with rifapentine/isoniazid regimen due to undesirable side effects.This was the first study to compare the 2 treatment regimens in Taiwan, and it showed that a short-term high-dosage rifapentine/isoniazid treatment regimen reduced costs and resulted in higher treatment completion than the standard LTBI isoniazid treatment

  8. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  9. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  10. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  11. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  12. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  13. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  14. A double-blind, randomized, and active-controlled phase III study of Herbiron drink in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in premenopausal females in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Tzu; Jeng, Cherng-Jye; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chen, Shih-Ming; Lee, Chyi-Long; Lin, Willie; Hsu, Chun-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Background About 468 million non-pregnant women are estimated to suffer from iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) worldwide. The highest prevalence of IDA occurs in the Taiwanese population. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Herbiron to increase iron absorption in women with IDA. Design Phase III double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, and parallel comparative study enrolled 124 patients with IDA and consisted of a 2-week run-in period, randomization, 12 weeks of supplementation, and 4 weeks of follow-up. The treatment group received Herbiron drink 50 mL p.o., b.i.d., before meals (daily iron intake: 21 mg/day) plus placebo tablets. The control group received a ferrous sulfate tablet, t.i.d., plus placebo 50-mL drink before meals (daily iron intake: 195 mg/day). Results Both treatments significantly improved hemoglobin and all secondary efficacy endpoints. Most IDA patients treated with Herbiron or ferrous sulfate finished the study in the normal range. Ferrous sulfate treatment induced a rapid rate of hemoglobin synthesis, which plateaued by week 8, whereas Herbiron treatment increased the rate of hemoglobin synthesis more slowly, likely due to its nine-fold lower iron content. Gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and nausea) but not infectious adverse events were significantly more common in the ferrous sulfate group (n=11, 18.3%) than those in the Herbiron group (n=1, 1.6%) (p=0.004). Conclusion Twelve weeks of Herbiron treatment delivering 21mg of iron or ferrous sulfate treatment delivering 195 mg of iron induced normal hemoglobin levels in 62 or 91% of non-pregnant women with IDA in Taiwan, respectively, suggesting dose-dependent and bioavailability effects. PMID:27343206

  15. NEUROTOXICITY OF CARBONYL SULFIDE IN F344 RATS FOLLOWING INHALATION EXPOSURE FOR UP TO 12 WEEKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) was nominated to the National Toxicology Program for testing in 1996 due to emissions levels and a lack of data. Through an inter-agency collaboration, functional and electrophysiological endpoints were included in the studies. This manuscript describes b...

  16. Optimum Timing for Surgery After Pre-operative Radiotherapy 6 vs 12 Weeks

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-22

    Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  17. Characterization of Queso Fresco made with Na/K salt blends and stored for 12 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health-conscious consumers are looking for ways to reduce dietary sodium yet want their cheeses to have the flavor, texture, and shelf-life of full-salt cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different Na-K salt blends and storage on the compositional, sensorial, micro...

  18. Multi-component access to a community-based weight loss program: 12 week results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study examined weight loss between a comprehensive lifestyle modification program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus program) that included three ways to access and a self-help (SH) condition. A total of 293 participants were randomized to either a Weight Watchers condition (WW) (n=148) or a SH...

  19. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  20. Effects of a 12-Week Resistance Exercise Program on Physical Self-Perceptions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Mitchell, Nathanael G.; Bibeau, Wendy S.; Bartholomew, John B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level…

  1. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Goyal, Sapna; Ahmed, Qazi Rais; Gupta, Narendra; Singh, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident melasma were included in the study. 82% Lactic acid peel was applied on the face for 12 weeks in each patient. Patients were evaluated clinically and photographically at various intervals and in follow-up till 24 weeks. Assessment of patient satisfaction and side effects were also noted. All the subjects completed the study. Application of this peel for 12 weeks significantly decreased the melasma area severity index score and also melasma severity scale score. Patient and physician analogue scales also showed the improvement by the treatment. Regarding the adverse effects, burning sensation was the only side effect noted in our study. In conclusion, 82% lactic acid peel is well tolerated and can be used for the treatment of melasma. PMID:27355080

  2. Bone marrow injection: A novel treatment for tennis elbow

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajit; Gangwar, Devendra Singh; Singh, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective study was assessment of efficacy of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) (containing plasma rich in growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells) injection in treatment of tennis elbow. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 adult patients of previously untreated tennis elbow were administered single injection of BMA. This concentrate was made by centrifugation of iliac BMA at 2000 rpm for 20-30 min and only upper layer containing platelet rich plasma and mononuclear cells was injected. Assessment was performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks using Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) score. Results: Baseline pre-injection mean PRTEE score was 72.8 ± 6.97 which decreased to a mean PRTEE score of 40.93 ± 5.94 after 2 weeks of injection which was highly significant (P < 0.0001). The mean PRTEE score at 6 week and 12 week follow-up was 24.46 ± 4.58 and 14.86 ± 3.48 respectively showing a highly significant decrease from baseline scores (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Treatment of tennis elbow patients with single injection of BMA showed a significant improvement in short to medium term follow-up. In future, such growth factors and/or stem cells based injection therapy can be developed as an alternative conservative treatment for patients of tennis elbow, especially who have failed non-operative treatment before surgical intervention is taken. PMID:25097421

  3. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  4. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  5. SU-E-J-17: Intra-Fractional Prostate Movement Correction During Treatment Delivery Period for Prostate Cancer Using the Intra-Fractional Orthogonal KV-MV Image Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Azawi, S; Cho-Lim, J; Wei, R; Williams, R; Frank, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the intra-fractional prostate movement range during the beam delivery and implement new IGRT method to correct the prostate movement during the hypofractionated prostate treatment delivery. Methods: To evaluate the prostate internal motion range during the beam delivery, 11 conventional treatments were utilized. Two-arc RapidArc plans were used for the treatment delivery. Orthogonal KV imaging is performed in the middle of the treatment to correct intra-fractional prostate movement. However, it takes gantry-mounted on-board imaging system relative long time to finish the orthogonal KV imaging because of gantry rotation. To avoid gantry movement and accelerate the IGRT processing time, orthogonal KV-MV image pair is tested using the OBI daily QA Cube phantom. Results: The average prostate movement between two orthogonal KV image pairs was 0.38cm (0.20cm ∼ 0.85cm). And the interval time between them was 6.71 min (4.64min ∼ 9.22 min). 2-arc beam delivery time is within 3 minutes for conventional RapidArc treatment delivery. Hypofractionated treatment or SBRT need 4 partial arc and possible non-coplanar technology, which need much longer beam delivery time. Therefore prostate movement might be larger. New orthogonal KV-MV image pair is a new method to correct the prostate movement in the middle of the beam delivery if real time tracking method is not available. Orthogonal KV-MV image pair doesn’t need gantry rotation. Images were acquired quickly which minimized possible new prostate movement. Therefore orthogonal KV-MV image pair is feasible for IGRT. Conclusion: Hypofractionated prostate treatment with less PTV margin always needs longer beam delivery time. Therefore prostate movement correction during the treatment delivery is critical. Orthogonal KV-MV imaging pair is efficient and accurate to correct the prostate movement during treatment beam delivery. Due to limited fraction number and high dose per fraction, the MV imaging dose is

  6. The pilot study of 3-month course of melatonin treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: effect on plasma levels of liver enzymes, lipids and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Gonciarz, M; Gonciarz, Z; Bielanski, W; Mularczyk, A; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J

    2010-12-01

    The mechanism by which nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown, however, the major process is oxidative stress with increased production of reactive oxygen species and excessive inflammatory cytokine generation. To date, there are no effective treatments for NASH and the published data with treatment using antioxidants are not satisfactory. Melatonin (MT), the potent endogenous antioxidant secreted in circadian rhythm by pinealocytes and in large amounts in the digestive system, was reported to improve oxidative status and to exert beneficial effects in NASH pathology in experimental animals, but no study attempted to determine the possible effectiveness of MT in humans with NASH. In this study, 42 patients (12 placebo controls and 30 MT-treated) with histological evidence (liver biopsy) of NASH and no history of alcohol abuse, were included. The treatment group took melatonin (2x5 mg/daily orally), while controls were treated with placebo. At baseline no significant differences between the groups were found for age, body mass index (BMI) as well as for plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), glucose and MT. During the study period plasma ALT level and cholesterol concentration decreased significantly in both MT-treated and control groups, however AST and GGT levels decreased significantly only in MT-treated groups. Median value of AST level at baseline was 76.5 (64.2-114.2) IU/L and its percentage decrease at 4, 8 and 12 week was 20, 36 and 38%, resp. Baseline GGT median level was 113 (75.7-210.7) IU/L and its mean percentage decrease at week 4, 8 and 12 was 46, 48 and 47%, resp. Plasma ALP levels did not change significantly during MT treatment. Median value of plasma concentrations of MT (pg/mL) in MT-treated group rose from 7.5 (5.0-14.25) at

  7. A pilot study exploring quality of life experienced by patients undergoing negative-pressure wound therapy as part of their wound care treatment compared to patients receiving standard wound care.

    PubMed

    Ousey, Karen J; Milne, Jeanette; Cook, Leanne; Stephenson, John; Gillibrand, Warren

    2014-08-01

    The use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been widely documented as a technique to help heal complex wounds. This article presents the findings of a preliminary study which aimed to explore quality of life (QoL) experienced by patients undergoing NPWT as part of their wound care treatment in comparison to that of patients with a wound using traditional (standard) wound care therapies. A quasi-experimental study was undertaken, with patients treated in wound care/vascular clinics with chronic/acute wounds. QoL impact was measured using the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule and administered post-consent at timed intervals. Our results identified that there were no real differences in QoL scores recorded by patients over the 12-week period. Although there was no overall interaction between the therapies used for wound healing, NPWT did have an effect on social life: during the first 2 weeks of the application of therapy, patients in the NPWT group reported an increase in the social life domain. The authors conclude that true QoL can only be elicited if an accurate baseline is established or if data is collected over a long enough period to allow comparison of scores over time.

  8. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  9. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  10. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  11. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  12. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  13. Combined treatment of mulberry leaf and fruit extract ameliorates obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity.

  14. Striving for more good days: patient perspectives on botulinum toxin for the treatment of cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Poliziani, Michele; Koch, Marco; Liu, Xierong

    2016-01-01

    Background The recommended reinjection interval for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) formulations in the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD) is generally ≥12 weeks, though intervals ≥10 weeks are approved for incobotulinumtoxinA in Europe. However, recurring symptoms can occur before the end of this period. Using qualitative research, we sought a greater understanding of disease burden, unmet patient needs, and barriers to treatment. Methods We conducted online semistructured, focus-group discussions, and online forum follow-up discussions among patients with CD, focusing on disease burden, patient needs, injection cycle preferences, and relationships with health care professionals. A subset of patients was also questioned in telephone interviews about individual experiences of CD and BoNT treatment. All participants were UK residents who had received onabotulinumtoxinA or abobotulinumtoxinA for CD for ≥1 year. Results Thirty-one patients (81% female; mean duration of CD 16.4 [range 4–31] years; mean BoNT injection cycle length 12.8 weeks) participated in the online focus-group and forum follow-up discussions. Of these, seven patients participated in telephone interviews. All had recurring symptoms between treatments, which substantially impacted on their work, family, and social life. Symptom severity fluctuated throughout an injection cycle and differed between patients and across injection cycles. Participants’ relationships with health care professionals and treatment satisfaction varied greatly. Many participants wanted longer-lasting and/or more stable symptom relief with shorter and/or more flexible injection intervals, according to individual needs. Lack of health care resources, long journeys to treatment centers, and immunogenicity/side-effect concerns were perceived as the main barriers to more flexible treatment. Conclusion The high burden of recurring primary and secondary symptoms of CD considerably affects patients’ quality of life. Patient

  15. A Comparative Study of Two Modalities, 4% Hydroquinone Versus 30% Salicylic Acid in Periorbital Hyperpigmentation and Assessment of Quality of Life Before and After Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rashmi; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Tanvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is a common hyperpigmentary problem of the face, which can be psychologically distressing and it can influence an individual's quality of life. However, this condition has received less attention in literature. Aims and Objectives: To study the clinico-etiological features and the effect of two therapeutic modalities on the quality of life in patients of POH before and after treatment. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients attending the outpatient clinic of Dermatology Department, with clinically evident POH were included. All patients were divided randomly into two groups of 25 each and one group was treated with 4% hydroquinone and another group with 30% salicylic acid for 12 weeks. Assessment with visual analog scale (VAS) was done at 4, 6, and 12 weeks, and outcome of the patients was analyzed statistically. Results: Majority of the cases, i.e. 26 (52%) were in the age group of 20–30 years. Females comprised 74% of the study population. On VAS, most of the patients showed mild improvement (10–30%) at 12 weeks of treatment in both the groups. Separately, both the treatments significantly improved the dermatological life quality index of the patients although there was no significant difference found between the two groups. Conclusion: POH is less responsive to standard treatments due to its multifactorial etiology and deposition of melanin in both dermis and epidermis. However, even the mild to moderate improvement in appearance can cause an improvement in the quality of life of the patients. PMID:27512187

  16. [Study on relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on pain treatment].

    PubMed

    Hui, Jianfeng; Li, Tao; Du, Zhi; Song, Jichang

    2011-12-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of Alginate-Polylysine-Alginate (APA) microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on the treatment of pain model rats. Using a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy, the antinociceptive effects of APA microencapsulated bovine cells transplanted into the subarachnoid space was evaluated by cold allodynia test and hot hyperalgesia test. Compared with control group, the withdrawal difference with cell number 50 thousands groups, 100 thousands groups and 200 thousands groups was reduced (P < 0.05), and the difference decreased with the cells increases, indicating a significant analgesic effect. There was no significant difference between 400 thousands groups and 200 thousands groups. This analgesic effect maintained longer than 12 weeks. There was a positive correlation between the analgesic effect and the quantity of APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells which were transplanted to treat pain model rats, and the effective antinociception remained longer than 12 weeks.

  17. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a study of the association with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Bellino, Silvio; Bozzatello, Paola; Rocca, Giuseppe; Bogetto, Filippo

    2014-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have received increasing interest due to their effects in stabilizing plasmatic membranes and regulating cell signaling. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatric disorders, in particular mood disorders, has been studied. There have been two trials on eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The present 12-week controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy of the association of EPA and DHA with valproic acid, compared to single valproic acid, in 43 consecutive BPD outpatients. Participants were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks with: Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S), Hamilton Scales for depression and anxiety (HAM-D, HAM-A), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), borderline personality disorder severity index (BPDSI), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - version 11 (BIS-11), Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), Self-Harm Inventory (SHI) and Dosage Record Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (DOTES). PMID:24196948

  18. 42 CFR 412.426 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transition period. 412.426 Section 412.426 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM... inpatient operating costs and capital costs in accordance with part 413 of this chapter. (c) Treatment...

  19. Nucleofection of DCs to Generate Multivirus-specific T Cells for Prevention or Treatment of Viral Infections in the Immunocompromised Host

    PubMed Central

    Gerdemann, Ulrike; Christin, Anne S; Vera, Juan F; Ramos, Carlos A; Fujita, Yuriko; Liu, Hao; Dilloo, Dagmar; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K; Rooney, Cliona M; Leen, Ann M

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections cause morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. To prevent and treat these, we have produced and infused cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with specificity for Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and adenovirus (Adv), and shown that small numbers of infused cells proliferate in vivo and protect against all three viruses. Despite these encouraging results, broader implementation of this approach is limited by the need for infectious virus material (EBV), expensive production of clinical grade adenoviral vectors, and a prolonged (8–12 weeks) period of manufacture. There is also competition between virus-derived antigens within antigen-presenting cells (APCs), limiting extension to additional agents. We now describe an approach that uses DNA nucleofection of dendritic cells (DCs) with DNA plasmids that encode a range of immunodominant and subdominant viral antigens from CMV, EBV, BK, and Adv. Within 10 days, this methodology provides multivirus-reactive CTLs that lack alloreactivity. We further demonstrate that nucleofected DC stimulation can be combined with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) capture technology to produce even more rapid multivirus-CTL products for treatment of acute infection. These CTL generation procedures should increase the feasibility and applicability of T-cell therapy. PMID:19584818

  20. [Clinical study for the evaluation of the tolerability of O-(beta-hydroxy-ethyl)-rutoside in the treatment of hemorrhoids during the 3d trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Benzi, G; Vanzulli, A; Pozzi, E; Acerboni, S

    1992-11-01

    Hemorrhoidal disease is particularly frequent in the last trimester of pregnancy and immediately after birth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside in patients affected by this pathology. Forty-two women with hemorrhoid varices of varying severity which had appeared during the last trimester of pregnancy or immediately post-partum were treated by administering 3 g/day of the substance in question for 14 consecutive days. At the start and end of treatment a series of clinical and objective parameters were measured and at the end of treatment efficacy and tolerability were assessed. The latter was found to be excellent; in fact, it was not necessary to suspend treatment in any of the subjects treated. Clinical efficacy, assessed by the researcher, was judged to be positive in 95% of cases treated. Clinical improvements in the parameters examined were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results obtained confirm the value of oral therapy using O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside in pregnant or puerperal patients since the preparation was found to be efficacious and easily managed, above all significantly reducing pain, subjectively the most urgent symptom to be treated.

  1. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  2. Patients’ Depression Treatment Preferences and Initiation, Adherence, and Outcome: A Randomized Primary Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Raue, Patrick J.; Schulberg, Herbert C.; Heo, Moonseong; Klimstra, Sibel; Bruce, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examined the association of treatment preferences with treatment initiation, adherence, and clinical outcome among depressed mid-life and elderly primary care patients. Methods 60 primary care participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were randomized to receive treatment congruent or incongruent with their primary stated preference. Participants received either 20 weeks of escitalopram as monitored by a care manager, or 12 weekly sessions of interpersonal psychotherapy followed by 2 monthly booster sessions. Adherence to treatment and depression severity were reassessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 24. Results Participants expressed stronger preferences for psychotherapy than antidepressant medication. Preference strength was a more sensitive measure of outcomes than congruence versus incongruence of preference with the assigned treatment. Across age groups, preference strength was significantly associated with treatment initiation and 12-week adherence rate, but not with depression severity or remission. Conclusions A continuous measure of preference strength may be a more useful measure in clinical practice than preferences per se. Future research should focus on whether and how greater facilitation of the patient-clinician treatment decision-making process influences clinical outcome. PMID:19252046

  3. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  4. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics.

  5. Factors predicting drop out from, and retention in, specialist drug treatment services: A case control study in the North West of England

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, Caryl M; McMinn, Alison M; Marr, Adam JE

    2008-01-01

    Background: In the United Kingdom (UK), the National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse (NTA) considers retention to be the best available measure of drug treatment effectiveness. Accordingly, the NTA has set local treatment systems the annual target of retaining 75% of clients for 12 weeks or more, yet little assessment of this target or factors that improve retention has occurred. This study aims to quantify the proportion of people retained in treatment for 12 weeks in the North West of England and to identify factors associated with premature drop out. Methods: The North West National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) was used to identify treatment durations for everyone beginning a treatment episode between 1st April 2005 and 31st March 2006 (N = 16626). Odds ratios, chi-square and logistic regression analyses compared clients retained for 12 weeks to clients whose discharge record showed they had prematurely dropped out before 12 weeks. Individuals with other outcomes were excluded from analyses. Results: 75% of clients (N = 12230) were retained for 12 weeks and 10% (N = 1649) dropped out prematurely. Multivariate analysis showed drop out was more likely among Asian drug users (adjusted odds ratio 1.52, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.08) than their white equivalents. Drop out was more likely among residents of Cumbria and Lancashire (adjusted odds ratio 1.80, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.15) and Greater Manchester (adjusted odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.74 to 2.29) than Cheshire and Merseyside and less likely among alcohol users (adjusted odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91). A significant interaction between age and deprivation was observed. For those aged 18 to 24 years and 25 to 34 years, drop out was significantly more likely among those living in affluent areas. For those in the older age groups the converse effect was observed. Conclusion: In combination, the drug treatment systems of the North West achieved the Government's retention target in 2005/06. A number of

  6. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  7. [Bibliometry of biomedical periodicals].

    PubMed

    Similowski, T; Derenne, J P

    1995-01-01

    Bibliometry or the science citation index is a quantitative evaluation of periodical literature, biomedical or others. It depends above all on an analysis of citations which allows for a calculation of different indices characterising and classifying journals (number of articles published, frequency of citation, impact, topicality...). The applications of bibliometry are varied from the administration of library collections to the appreciation of the significance of a review in its own speciality area. By extension the bibliometry index are sometimes used to evaluate the importance of a discipline in the literature, the place of a nation within a discipline, the significance of certain opinions or the quality of research. The intrinsic limits of bibliometry are such that this last application should be handled with caution. In effect, various biases can mechanically affect the value of different indices and particularly the fact that an article appearing in a prestigious review should not prejudge its quality such as the relevance of the question posed, the validity of the methodology employed or the accuracy of the results. For this, the study of citations is insufficient and some qualitative or semi-quantitative criteria bearing on the contents of the article should be used (critical reading, gate analysis, etc.) This general review has, as its aim, to expose both the definitions and limits of bibliometry illustrating them with some information calculated from the principal respiratory journals.

  8. A comparative study of 10% KOH solution and 5% imiquimod cream for the treatment of Molluscum contagiosum in the pediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Chathra, Namitha; Sukumar, D.; Bhat, Ramesh M.; Kishore, B. Nanda; Martis, Jacintha; Kamath, Ganesh; Srinath, M. K.; Monteiro, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a self-limiting condition, active therapy could prevent further spread and improve cosmesis. Most of the available treatment modalities traumatize the lesions and have to be undertaken in the hospital, therefore evoking panic in children. In the quest for an alternative therapy, this study comparing 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and 5% imiquimod cream was taken up. Aims and Objectives: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of 10% KOH and 5% imiquimod in the treatment of MC. Materials and Methods: This comparative study was conducted over a period of 18 months from October 2011 to March 2013, 40 patients between the age group of 1-18 years with clinically diagnosed MC were divided into two groups (lottery method), 20 patients were treated with 5% imiquimod cream (Group A) and the other 20 were treated with 10% KOH solution (Group B). Patients were followed up on the 4th, 8th and 12th week of treatment. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, out of 20 patients who received 10% KOH, 17 patients showed complete disappearance, whereas out of 20 patients who received 5% imiquimod, only 10 patients showed total clearance of the lesions. Adverse events were more frequent with 10% KOH, pigmentary disturbances being the most common. Conclusion: With only minor adverse effects, 10% KOH is an inexpensive and efficient modality for the treatment of MC in the pediatric age group. Although 5% imiquimod was effective in clearing the lesions with minimal adverse effects, the longer duration required for its efficacy may deter its wider use. PMID:25821725

  9. Cost-effectiveness of Extended Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment for Opioid-Dependent Youth: Data from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Daniel; Glick, Henry A.; Yang, Jianing; Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The objective is to estimate cost, net social cost, and cost-effectiveness in a clinical trial of extended buprenorphine-naloxone treatment versus brief detoxification treatment in opioid-dependent youth. Methods Economic evaluation of a clinical trial conducted at 6 community outpatient treatment programs from July 2003 to December 2006 including 152 patients aged 15 to 21 years who were randomized to 12 weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP) or a 14-day taper (DETOX). BUP patients were prescribed up to 24 mg per day for 9 weeks and then tapered to zero at the end of week 12. DETOX patients were prescribed up to 14 mg per day and then tapered to zero on day 14. All were offered twice weekly drug counseling. Data were collected prospectively during the 12-week treatment and at follow-up interviews at months 6, 9, and 12. Results The 12-week outpatient study treatment cost was $1514 (p<0.001) higher for BUP relative to DETOX. One-year total direct medical cost was only $83 higher for BUP (p=0.97). The cost-effectiveness ratio of BUP relative to DETOX was $1,376 in terms of 1-year direct medical cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and $25,049 in terms of outpatient treatment program cost per QALY. The acceptability curve suggests that the cost-effectiveness ratio of BUP relative to DETOX has an 86% chance of being accepted as cost-effective for a threshold of $100,000 per QALY. Conclusions Extended buprenorphine-naloxone treatment relative to brief detoxification is cost effective in the U.S. health care system for the outpatient treatment of opioid-dependent youth. PMID:20626379

  10. Cannabis abstinence during treatment and one-year follow-up: relationship to neural activity in men.

    PubMed

    Kober, Hedy; DeVito, Elise E; DeLeone, Cameron M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-09-01

    Cannabis is among the most frequently abused substances in the United States. Cognitive control is a contributory factor in the maintenance of substance-use disorders and may relate to treatment response. Therefore, we assessed whether cognitive-control-related neural activity before treatment differs between treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent and healthy individuals and relates to cannabis-abstinence measures during treatment and 1-year follow-up. Cannabis-dependent males (N=20) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cognitive-control (Stroop) task before a 12-week randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or contingency management. A healthy-comparison group (N=20) also completed the fMRI task. Cannabis use was assessed by urine toxicology and self-report during treatment, and by self-report across a 1-year follow-up period (N=18). The cannabis-dependent group displayed diminished Stroop-related neural activity relative to the healthy-comparison group in multiple regions, including those strongly implicated in cognitive-control and addiction-related processes (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum). The groups did not differ significantly in response times (cannabis-dependent, N=12; healthy-comparison, N=14). Within the cannabis-dependent group, greater Stroop-related activity in regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was associated with less cannabis use during treatment. Greater activity in regions including the ventral striatum was associated with less cannabis use during 1-year posttreatment follow-up. These data suggest that lower cognitive-control-related neural activity in classic 'control' regions (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate) and classic 'salience/reward/learning' regions (eg, ventral striatum) differentiates cannabis-dependent individuals from healthy individuals and relates to less abstinence within-treatment and during long-term follow

  11. Evaluation of stability changes in magnesium-incorporated titanium implants in the early healing period.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Pham Duong; Baek, Dong Heon; Park, Dong Soo; Park, Jong-Tae; Hong, Ki Seok

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the bone response to magnesium (Mg) ion-incorporated titanium (Ti) implants during the early healing period. A total of 114 patients (69 men and 45 women aged between 29 and 71 years) participated in the study. Overall, one hundred thirty-three 10-mm-long fixtures were installed, composed of 65 Mg ion-incorporated fixtures in the test group (55 participants; 30 males and 25 females) and 68 resorbable blast media (RBM) surface fixtures in the control group (59 participants; 39 males and 20 females). The bone responses were evaluated by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) at the following time points after implant insertion (ie, the healing period): 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Each time an RFA measurement was taken, the stability changes relating to both bone quality and implant arch location (maxilla or mandible) were recorded for further analysis. The mean stabilities were lowest at week 4 of healing for both the test and control groups. Significant differences in RFA values between the 2 groups were found at week 12 of healing. The mean percentage change in implant stability quotient (ISQ) from the baseline revealed that the implant stability of the Mg ion-incorporated test group had increased (4.55%) more than the RBM surface group (2.23%) by week 12 of healing. With respect to bone quality, the mean ISQ of Mg-incorporated Ti implants only changed significantly during the 12-week period for type 4 bone. Furthermore, at weeks 4 and 12 of healing, significant differences were found between the 2 groups for type 2 and type 4 bone. A comparison of the stability patterns of mandibular and maxillary implants revealed that the overall stability was higher in the mandible; however, no significant difference was found for Mg-incorporated Ti implants. The Mg-incorporated Ti implants exhibited a slightly better bone response with respect to ISQ than did the RBM surface implants, and the percentage change in mean ISQ from the

  12. Carnosine Treatment for Gulf War Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; El-Amin, Suliman; Corey, Rebecca; Rayhan, Rakib U.; Timbol, Christian R.

    2013-01-01

    About 25% of 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War veterans experience disabling fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive dysfunction termed Gulf War illness (GWI) or Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). A leading theory proposes that wartime exposures initiated prolonged production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and central nervous system injury. The endogenous antioxidant L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a potential treatment since it is a free radical scavenger in nervous tissue. To determine if nutritional supplementation with L-carnosine would significantly improve pain, cognition and fatigue in GWI, a randomized double blind placebo controlled 12 week dose escalation study involving 25 GWI subjects was employed. L-carnosine was given as 500, 1000, and 1500 mg increasing at 4 week intervals. Outcomes included subjective fatigue, pain and psychosocial questionnaires, and instantaneous fatigue and activity levels recorded by ActiWatch Score devices. Cognitive function was evaluated by WAIS-R digit symbol substitution test. Carnosine had 2 potentially beneficial effects: WAIS-R scores increased significantly, and there was a decrease in diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome. No other significant incremental changes were found. Therefore, 12 weeks of carnosine (1500 mg) may have beneficial cognitive effects in GWI. Fatigue, pain, hyperalgesia, activity and other outcomes were resistant to treatment. PMID:23618477

  13. Remission and Recovery in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Acute and Long-term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Silva, Susan G.; Tonev, Simon; Rohde, Paul; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Curry, John F.; Emslie, Graham J.; Reinecke, Mark; March, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examine remission rate probabilities, recovery rates, and residual symptoms across 36 weeks in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method TADS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to 12 weeks of treatment to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo (PBO). The PBO group, treated openly after week 12, was not included in the subsequent analyses. Treatment differences in remission rates and probabilities of remission over time are compared. Recovery rates in remitters at week 12 (acute phase remitters) and week 18 (continuation phase remitters) are summarized. We also examined whether residual symptoms at the end of 12 weeks of acute treatment predicted later remission. Results At Week 36, the estimated remission rates for intention-to-treat cases were: COMB: 60%, FLX: 55%; CBT: 64%; overall: 60%. Paired comparisons reveal that at week 24 all active treatments converge on remission outcomes. The recovery rate at Week 36 was 65% for acute phase remitters and 71% for continuation phase remitters, with no significant between-treatment differences in recovery rates. Residual symptoms at the end of acute treatment predicted failure to achieve remission at weeks 18 and 36. Conclusions The majority of depressed adolescents in all three treatment modalities achieved remission at the end of nine months of treatment. PMID:19127172

  14. Work productivity among treatment-naïve patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection receiving telaprevir combination treatment.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, J; Vera-Llonch, M; Donepudi, M; Suthoff, E; Younossi, Z; Goss, T F

    2015-01-01

    Work productivity is impacted in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and has been linked to treatment. In two Phase 3 trials, ADVANCE and ILLUMINATE, treatment-naïve genotype 1 chronic HCV-infected patients received 12-week telaprevir (T) with 24 (T12PR24)- or 48 (T12PR48)-week peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin. The objective of this analysis was to examine the impact of chronic HCV infection and its treatment with combination therapy on work productivity. The 5-item, self-reported work productivity questionnaire (WPQ) was administered in Phase 3 trials to assess unemployment status, days unable to work due to HCV/treatment, reduced hours worked and impact on productivity in prior 4 weeks. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were employed in analyses of pooled trial data. About 1147 patients were included; 22% (n = 255) were unemployed at baseline, with 8% being unemployed due to health reasons. At week 12, there were no differences by treatment regimen in the number of days unable to work. At week 48, improvements were observed earlier among patients receiving the shorter duration of T combination treatment. Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in days unable to work was -0.48 (-0.85, -0.11) days for T12PR24, 1.43 (0.63, 2.24) days for T12PR48 and 1.24 (0.18, 2.30) days for PR48 with placebo. Predictors of days unable to work were identified and include demographic characteristics, pretreatment and on-treatment levels of fatigue, as well regional variation. In post hoc analyses of the ADVANCE and ILLUMINATE trials, work productivity decreased during the initial 12 weeks regardless of treatment group. PMID:24528927

  15. Effect of Intraoperative Platelet-Rich-Plasma Treatment on Post Operative Donor Site Knee Pain in Patellar Tendon Autograft ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Brian L.; Hobart, Sarah; Porter, David; Hogan, Daniel E.; McHugh, Malachy P.; Bedford, Benjamin B.; Nicholas, Stephen J.; Klein, Devon; Harousseau, Kendall

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Donor site morbidity in the form of anterior knee pain is a frequent complication after bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this Level I study was to examine the effect of the intraoperative administration of platelet-rich plasma on post operative knee pain and patellar defect healing. Methods: Fifty-nine patients (29±12 y/o) undergoing BPTB ACL reconstruction and eligible to enter the study, were randomized to the treatment (PRP; n=31) or non treatment (sham n=28) arms of the study just prior to surgery. In either case, 10 cc of venous blood was drawn prior to the induction of anesthesia and either discarded (sham) or processed (PRP) for preparation of a PRP gel to be later mixed with donor site bone chips and inserted into the patellar defect. At 12 weeks and 6 months after surgery, patients completed IKDC forms and VAS pain scores for ADLs and kneeling (0-10 scale). Healing indices at the donor site were assessed by MRI at 6 months and included the following measurements taken from axial sequences: AP tendon dimensions at the level of the superior tibial cortex, roof of the intercondylar notch and width at the largest patella graft deficit. Mixed model ANOVA was used to assess the