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Sample records for 12-year study period

  1. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  2. Levothyroxine requirement in congenital hypothyroidism: a 12-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Maurizio; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Vigone, Maria Cristina; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Popolo, Pietro Pio; Lapolla, Rosa; Mussa, Alessandro; Tronconi, Giulia Maria; D'Acunzo, Ida; Di Mase, Raffaella; Falcone, Rosa Maria; Corrias, Andrea; De Luca, Filippo; Weber, Giovanna; Cavallo, Luciano; Faienza, Maria Felicia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the replacement therapy with levothyroxine in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is to correct hypothyroidism and ensure normal growth and neuropsychological development. Few data are available about the appropriate dose during childhood and early adolescence; therefore, we performed a multicenter observational study in a large population of patients with CH to assess the required levothyroxine dose to obtain euthyroidism. We recruited 216 patients with permanent CH classified into three groups (agenesia, ectopia, and in situ gland) on the basis of the thyroid imaging. The levothyroxine dose was recorded at 6 and 12 months and then yearly until 12 years of age. The daily levothyroxine requirement progressively decreased during the follow-up, irrespective of etiology. It was significantly lower in patients with in situ gland than in patients with athyreosis during the entire study period and with ectopic gland from the age of 1 year. The levothyroxine requirement at 6 months of age was correlated with the requirement at each later time-point. The daily dose was modified less frequently in patients with in situ thyroid (36 %) than in patients with ectopic gland (41.4 %) or with athyreosis (43.6 %). Patients with in situ gland required a lower dose than the other two subgroups. The dose at 6 months seems predictive of the requirement until 12 years of age. Euthyroidism may be achieved in pre-school and in-school patients by 3-4 and 2-3 µg/kg/day (70-90 and 60-80 µg/m(2)/day) of levothyroxine, respectively.

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus activity and climate parameters during a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Sirimi, Natalia; Miligkos, Michael; Koutouzi, Foteini; Petridou, Evi; Siahanidou, Tania; Michos, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    The epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during long periods and the factors that determine seasonality are not well studied. In order to correlate the RSV epidemic activity with climate parameters, we conducted a retrospective study of children (0-14 year) who were hospitalized because of respiratory tract infection and had an RSV test performed in the major tertiary pediatric hospital of Greece during a 12-year period (2002-2013). Daily data regarding temperature and humidity were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. A total of 2030/7516 (27%) children were tested positive for RSV infection. Among RSV positive children 1945/2030 (95.8%) were infants <1 year. A peak of RSV activity was measured in years 2002, 2003, and 2006 (>35% positive). The RSV season in our area spanned from December to April, with higher incidence during January through March. The peak monthly RSV incidence was observed during February with mean temperature 10.34 °C and mean relative humidity 69.16%. Regarding climate conditions, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between monthly RSV activity and mean monthly relative humidity (rho = 0.66, P-value = 0.02), whereas a negative correlation was found with mean monthly temperature (rho = -0.81, P-value = 0.002). However, in the multivariable analysis, only the effect of mean monthly temperature remained statistically significant (IRR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.80). Further understanding of RSV seasonality in different geographic areas would be important in order to timely implement preventing strategies with immunoprophylaxis or future RSV vaccines.

  4. COPD and microalbuminuria: a 12-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Romundstad, Solfrid; Naustdal, Thor; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Sorger, Hanne; Langhammer, Arnulf

    2014-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), low lung function independent of diagnosis and markers of inflammation are all associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Microalbuminuria, reflecting endothelial dysfunction, could be a relevant inflammatory marker of potential systemic effects of COPD. We hypothesised that there was a positive association between microalbuminuria and mortality in individuals with COPD. We conducted a 12-year follow-up study of 3129 participants in the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway. At baseline, albuminuria was analysed in three urine samples and spirometry was performed. Among the participants, 136 had COPD and microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio between 2.5 and 30.0 mg·mmol(-1). The main outcome measures were hazard ratio of all-cause mortality according to microalbuminuria. Compared to those with COPD without microalbuminuria, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality in those with COPD and microalbuminuria was 1.54, 95% CI 1.16-2.04. This result was similar after excluding cardiovascular disease at baseline. Classifying COPD severity by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, there was a positive association trend with increasing severity stages. Microalbuminuria is associated with all-cause mortality in individuals with COPD and could be a relevant tool in identification of patients with poor prognosis.

  5. Enhanced recognition and recall of new words in 7- and 12-year-olds following a period of offline consolidation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M; Gareth Gaskell, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., biscal) and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds were then retested on either the same day or the following day to examine changes in performance after a short delay compared with a longer delay that included sleep. Experiment 2 used two age groups (7- and 12-year-olds), with all participants being retested 24h later. The 12-year-olds accurately recognized the novel nonwords immediately after exposure, as did the 7-year-olds in Experiment 2 (but not in Experiment 1), suggesting generally good initial rates of learning. Experiment 1 revealed improved recognition of the novel nonwords after both short (3- to 4-h) and longer (24-h) delays. In contrast, recall was initially poor but showed improvements only when children were retested 24h later, not after a 3- to 4-h delay. Similar improvements were observed in both age groups despite better overall performance in 12-year-olds. We argue that children, like adults, exhibit offline consolidation effects on the formation of novel phonological representations.

  6. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Due To Three Different Types of Ganglion During a 12-Year Period: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Motohisa; Ishiko, Toshihiro; Sumiya, Masafumi

    A 52-year-old male complained of numbness and radiating pain affecting the plantar region of his left foot. He was found to have recurrent tarsal tunnel syndrome due to posterior tibial nerve compression by 3 different types of ganglion during a 12-year period. To the best of our knowledge, a similar case has not been documented. At the first operation, flexor retinaculum release and simple excision of an epineural ganglion were performed without injuring the nerve fascicles; however, an intrafascicular ganglion developed approximately 2 years later. At the second operation, the ganglion cyst was resected completely to prevent recurrence, despite the risk of nerve fiber injury. The cyst originated from the subtalar joint; thus, the joint was closed, and a free fat graft was placed to prevent adhesion formation. However, an extraneural ganglion occurred about 3 years later. At the third operation, the cyst was resected completely, and a free periosteal graft was used to close the joint more effectively. No recurrence had developed at 6 years after the third operation. The findings of the present case show the need for long-term monitoring of patients with tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by a ganglion owing to the possibility of recurrence related to different ganglion types.

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Youth Conduct Problems: Testing Later Development and Related Outcomes in a 12-Year Period.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Villar, Paula

    2016-10-06

    Developmental heterogeneity of youth conduct problems has been widely assumed, leading to the identification of distinctive groups at particular risk of more serious problems later in development. The present study intends to expand the main results of a prior study focused on identifying developmental trajectories of conduct problems (Stable-low, Stable-high, and Decreasing), by analyzing their developmental course and related outcomes during middle/late adolescence and early adulthood. Two follow-up studies were conducted 10 and 12 years after the initial study with 115 and 122 youths respectively (mean = 17.29 and 19.18). Overall results underline that the Early-onset persistent group showed the highest risk-profile; the Childhood-limited group revealed a moderate level of later maladjustment; and the Adolescence-onset group, currently identified, showed a significant peak of risk particularly in middle/late adolescence. These findings provide a more comprehensive representation of youth conduct problems, and open new means of discussion in terms of preventive intervention.

  8. Follow-up study of functional and morphological malocclusion trait changes from 3 to 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ovsenik, Maja; Farcnik, Franc Marjan; Korpar, Majda; Verdenik, Ivan

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological and functional malocclusion trait changes in 3- to 12-year-old children and to determine whether such functional traits at the 3, 4, and 5 years of age correlated with malocclusion severity score at 12 years of age. Two hundred and sixty-seven children (132 boys, 135 girls) were randomly selected for a follow-up study from a previous cohort of 560 subjects. Functional and morphological traits were clinically assessed. Five functional malocclusion traits: mouth breathing, atypical swallowing, thumb, pacifier sucking, and bottle feeding were assessed and evaluated. Intra-arch assessment involved measurements of incisor crowding, rotation of incisors, and axial inclination of the teeth. For inter-arch measurements, overbite, anterior open bite, overjet, reverse overjet, anterior crossbite, and buccal segment relationships were recorded. The weighted sum of recorded occlusal traits thus represented the total malocclusion severity score. The median morphological malocclusion severity score was almost the same at 3 and 12 years of age, while functional malocclusion decreased. Sucking habits (finger- or dummy-sucking, bottle feeding) until 5 years of age were statistically significantly correlated with an atypical swallowing pattern from 6 to 9 years (Spearman r = 0.178, P = 0.017), which in turn was statistically significantly correlated with the morphological malocclusion severity score (Spearman r = 0.185, P = 0.042) at 12 years of age. At an early age, the morphological severity score is related to the stage of dental development, while at a later period, malocclusion severity score is also the result of incorrect orofacial functions at an early stage of dental development.

  9. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  10. Epidemiological profile of 239 traumatic spinal cord injury cases over a period of 12 years in Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hong-Yong; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Feng, Shi-Qing; Yu, Tie-Qiang; Zhou, Heng-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Study design Hospital-based retrospective review. Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics and trends of traumatic spinal cord injury in Tianjin, China. Setting Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Methods Medical records of 239 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury admitted to a general hospital from 1998 to 2009 were reviewed. Variables included gender, age, marital status, occupation, etiology, time of injury, level, and severity of injury. Epidemiological characteristics of different countries were compared. Results Over this period, the mean age of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury was 45.4 ± 14.1 years, and the male/female ratio was 4.6:1. In all, 86.2% were married. The leading cause was fall (52.3%), followed by motor vehicle collision (36.4%). The most common injury site was the cervical spinal cord, accounting for 82.0%. Incomplete tetraplegia made up for 59.4%, followed by complete tetraplegia (22.6%). Eight patients died after operation, six of whom died from respiratory complications. Conclusion The results of this study are in accordance with that of most other developing countries; falls and motor vehicle collisions were the two leading causes, but the mean age was older. Percentage of the aged with traumatic spinal cord injury was increasing. The low-falls group tended to expand over this period. All these data indicated that the preventive programs should focus on the traffic accidents and falls, and more attention should be paid to the aged for the vulnerability to low fall. PMID:21903012

  11. The Integration of Theory with Practice: A 12-Year Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Gonzalez, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    Over its 12-year history, an arthritis patient education program evolved from a basis not grounded in theory to one tightly linked to it. As cycles of research, intervention, and evaluation produced new results, the self-management program was revised and improved. (SK)

  12. Prediction of manifest Huntington disease with clinical and imaging measures: A 12-year prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Ross, Christopher A.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Erwin, Cheryl J.; Williams, Janet K.; Westervelt, Holly James; Johnson, Hans J.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Zhang, Ying; Bockholt, H. Jeremy; Barker, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although correlation between cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat length and age of Huntington disease (HD) onset is well known, improved prediction of onset would be advantageous for clinical trial design and prognostic counseling. We compared genetic, demographic, motor, cognitive, psychiatric, functional and imaging measures for tracking progression and predicting conversion to manifest HD. METHODS N=1078 research participants with the gene mutation for HD, but without a rating of 4 on the Diagnostic Confidence Level (DCL) following administration of the 15-item motor assessment of the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale. Participants were from 33 world wide sites and followed for up to 12 years (mean=5, SD=3·3) over the period 2001–2013. A subset of 225 participants prospectively converted to manifest HD according to the DCL (“meets the operational definition of the unequivocal presence of an otherwise unexplained extrapyramidal movement disorder in a subject at risk for HD” with ≥99% confidence). Joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data was used to examine the extent to which baseline and change of 40 variables analyzed separately was predictive of CAG-adjusted age at motor diagnosis. FINDINGS Cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical and imaging measures were significant predictors of motor diagnosis beyond CAG repeat length and age. The strongest predictors in the top three phenotypic domains were total motor score (motor), putamen volume (imaging), and Stroop word test (cognitive). A one standard deviation (SD) difference in total motor score increased the risk of a motor diagnosis by 3·1 times (95% CI=[2·3,4·2]), one SD loss in putamen volume increased risk by 3·3 times ([2·4,4·7]) and one SD cognitive decline increased risk by 2·3 ([1·9,2·9]). INTERPRETATION Prediction of HD diagnosis can be considerably improved beyond that obtained by CAG repeat length and age alone. Such knowledge about potential predictors

  13. Characteristics of DUI recidivists: a 12-year follow-up study of first time DUI offenders.

    PubMed

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Strohmetz, David B; Abreo, Sandra D

    2007-04-01

    77 individuals convicted of a drinking and driving (DUI) offense were screened for recidivism approximately 12 years following their first offense. At the time of the initial DUI conviction, participants were administered the MAST and the MMPI-2. Participants' drinking history and driving history and arrest at the time of screening and at a 12-year follow-up were also reviewed. The results indicate that, among DUI recidivists, on average 6 years elapsed between their first and second DUI offenses. Driving history prior to the first DUI offense was predictive of later recidivism. The only significant finding from the MAST and MMPI results was that repeat offenders tended to have higher scores on the L and K validity scales of the MMPI. These results are discussed in the context of Jessor's Problem-Behavior Theory and as well their clinical implications for screening and treatment decisions involving first time DUI offenders.

  14. A 12-year National Study of Suicide by Jumping From Bridges in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sæheim, Aleksandra; Hestetun, Ingebjørg; Mork, Erlend; Nrugham, Latha; Mehlum, Lars

    2016-06-16

    Studies from several countries suggest that erecting fences on bridges more commonly used for suicide by jumping may be an effective way of reducing the risk of suicide by jumping from these bridges. Distribution of suicides by jumping off bridges has not yet been studied on a national level in any country. This study included all suicides by jumping from high places registered in the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry (COD) in the period 1999-2010 (n = 319). Combining data from the COD registry and information from police records, 71 cases of suicide by jumping off a bridge were identified involving 36 bridges. This form of suicide constituted approximately 1% of all suicides in Norway in the period 1999-2010. Almost half of these suicides were registered at only 6 bridges. Three Norwegian bridges were secured during the observation period of this study. Two bridges had barriers installed on the full length of the bridge with 11 suicides registered before barriers were installed, and none after. On the 1 bridge that was only partially secured, no change in numbers of suicides was observed after barriers were installed. One-third of jumps from bridges occurred over land. We found that although suicide by jumping off bridges was a relatively rare event, there is a potential for saving lives by installing physical barriers on bridges that are more commonly used for suicide by jumping.

  15. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  16. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements.

  17. Time trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in urban Guangzhou over a 12-year period (2000-2011): declines in both incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Shen, Ji-Chuan; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an uncommon disease in most countries but occurs with much greater frequency in southern China. This study aimed to examine the secular trends of NPC in urban Guangzhou over the time period of 2000-2011 using data from the Guangzhou Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates of NPC were calculated by the direct method using the WHO World Standard Population (1960) as the reference. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. A total of 7,532 new cases of NPC and 3,449 related deaths were registered. In both genders, the peak incidence occurred in the 50- to 59-year age group, and this age distribution pattern remained similar throughout. The AAPC in NPC incidence rates was -3.26% (95% CI: -5.4%--1.1) for males and -5.74% (95% CI: -8.9%--2.5) for females, resulting in a total decrease of 39.3% (from 22.14 to 13.44 per 100,000 population) for males and 48.6% (from 10.1 to 5.18 per 100,000 population) for females over this 12-year period. The AAPCs in NPC mortality rates were -4.62% (95%CI: -3.5%--5.7) for males and -6.75% (95% CI: -5.2%--8.3) for females, resulting in a total decrease of -46.1% (from 12.1 to 6.54 per 100,000 population) for males and 51.7% (from 4.14 to 2.00 per 100,000 population) for females. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates of NPC declined during 2000-2011 in urban Guangzhou but remained high. Future efforts to improve prevention, early detection and treatment strategies are needed.

  18. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  19. Risk of Rebleeding and Mortality in Cirrhotic Patients with Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: A 12-Year Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Liang, Chih-Ming; Tai, Wei-Chen; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shih, Chih-Wei; Ku, Ming-Kun; Yuan, Lan-Ting; Wang, Jiunn-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Lun; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Nguang, Seng-Howe; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2017-01-01

    Although a few studies have investigated the risks of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) in cirrhotic patients, large population-based studies on in-hospital and long-term reports on recurrent PUB in a cohort of cirrhotic patients are lacking. This 12-year nationwide cohort study aimed to investigate the risks of in-hospital and long-term rebleeding and mortality in cirrhotic patients and to identify possible risk factors. Patient data from 1997 to 2008 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A total of 15,575 patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of PUB were identified after strict exclusions (n = 2889). Among them, patients with cirrhosis (n = 737) and those with chronic hepatitis (n = 1044) were compared to propensity-score matched normal controls at a ratio of 1:1. Accumulated in-hospital and long-term follow-up PUB-free survival rates were analyzed in patients with cirrhosis, patients with chronic hepatitis, and matched controls. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify each independent risk factor. Compared with matched controls, patients with cirrhosis exhibited a 2.62-fold (95% CI: 1.74–3.92) higher risk of developing in-hospital rebleeding, but the risk of long-term rebleeding was comparable between cirrhotic patients and matched controls (hazard ratio: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.8–2.09). On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in in-hospital and long-term rebleeding between chronic hepatitis patients and matched controls. We compared the survival rates of cirrhotic and chronic hepatitis patients to that of matched controls. After propensity score matching, both cirrhotic and chronic hepatitis patients showed significantly lower survival than the matched controls (P < 0.0001 and 0.033, respectively) during the 12-year follow-up period. However, in-hospital and long-term rebleeding rates were not significantly different between chronic hepatitis patients and matched controls (P = 0.251 and 0

  20. The value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for microsurgical removal of conus medullaris lipomas: a 12-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipomas in the lower spinal canal can lead to progressive neurological deficits, so they may have to be surgically removed. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring serves to minimize the morbidity of the surgical procedure. However, so far there are no evidence-based recommendations which type of monitoring procedure or combination of procedures to choose. Methods The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and value of various intraoperative monitoring techniques: motor and sensory evoked potentials (MEP, SEP), free-running and triggered electromyography (EMG). Thirty cases of spinal lipomas of the Conus medullaris (dorsal Type A: 20.0%; caudal Type B: 33.3%; transitional Type C: 46.7%) were retrospectively evaluated over a 12-year period. Results The patients were mostly pediatric and suffered from persistent pain (73.3%), pareses (56.7%), sensory deficits (43.4%), and/or urogenital dysfunctions (60.0%). SEPs were successfully evoked in 66.7% of cases, MEPs in 86.7% of cases, and EMGs in 100%. MEP alterations correlated with direct mechanical maneuvers in the operating site. SEP changes correlated mostly with physiological events, such as rinsing/cooling of the operating site. Spike-, burst- or tonic train-activity was found in the free-running EMG that occurred only with certain manipulation patterns. Irreversible MEP changes and signal loss in the triggered EMG correlated with post-operative deficits. Conclusions The results of this study showed, that intraoperative monitoring could be considered a helpful tool during lipoma tumor surgery near the Conus medullaris. Most reliable results were obtained from transcranial MEPs, free-running EMGs, and triggered EMGs. That’s why the authors favor a routine set-up consisting of at least these three techniques, as this enables mapping at the beginning of the operation, continuous functional testing during surgery, and prognosis of the post-operative symptomology. PMID:25473420

  1. Dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition: a study of Brazilian children from 9 to 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    LOULY, Fabiane; NOUER, Paulo Roberto Aranha; JANSON, Guilherme; PINZAN, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated dental arch dimensional changes of Brazilian children. Material and methods Dental casts were taken from 66 children (29 males; 37 females) with normal occlusion selected among 1,687 students from public and private schools aged 9, 10, 11 and 12 years, according to the following criteria: Class I canine and molar relationships; well-aligned upper and lower dental arches; mixed dentition; good facial symmetry; no previous orthodontic treatment. Dental arch dimensions were taken by one examiner using the Korkhaus’ compass and a digital pachymeter. ANOVA test was applied to compare the arch dimensions at the different ages and the t-test was used to compare the arch dimensions of male and female subjects. Arch forms were compared by means of chi-square tests. Results Only the maxillary anterior segment length showed a statistically significant increase from 10 to 12 years of age. Males had a significantly larger maxillary depth than females at the age range evaluated. The predominant dental arch form found was elliptical. Conclusion In the studied age range, anterior maxillary length increased from 10 to 12 years of age, males had larger maxillary depth than females and the predominant arch form was elliptical. PMID:21552719

  2. Score Reliability: A Retrospective Look Back at 12 Years of Reliability Generalization Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize (a) the features of the thousands of primary reports synthesized in 47 reliability generalization (RG) measurement meta-analysis studies and (b) typical methodological practice within the RG literature to date. With respect to the treatment of score reliability in the literature, in an astounding…

  3. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.

  4. Parenting and Trajectories of Children's Maladaptive Behaviors: A 12-Year Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting,…

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  6. A 12-Year Prospective Study of Patterns of Social Information Processing Problems and Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Crozier, Joseph C.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated how discrete social information processing (SIP) steps may combine with one another to create distinct groups of youth who are characterized by particular patterns of SIP. SIP assessments were conducted on a community sample of 576 children in kindergarten, with follow-up assessments in grades 3, 8, and 11. At each age,…

  7. Evidence from 12-year study links ecosystem changes in the Gulf of Maine with climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Balch, William; Drapeau, David; Bowler, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Investigators at the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (East Boothbay, Maine) and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborated to study ecosystem changes in the Gulf of Maine. As part of the Gulf of Maine North Atlantic Time Series (GNATS), a comprehensive long-term study of hydrographic, biological, optical and chemical properties, multiple cruises have been conducted each year since 2001 by using a portable laboratory aboard different vessels (figure 1) and occasionally a remotely controlled glider (figure 2). Data collected during these cruises, when analyzed within the context of a century of climatological and streamflow data, document changes in temperature, salinity, and coastal ocean productivity that appear to be related to recent increases in precipitation and streamflow. These results are evidence of a link between changing hydrologic conditions on land and changes in coastal ocean productivity.

  8. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients: A 12-Year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-12-01

    Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout.

  9. Contrast Enema and Risk of Sepsis in Premature Babies: A 12-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Arpit; Ogwara, Frederick; Homel, Peter; Filipov, Panayot

    2017-02-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association between contrast enema (CE) and clinical sepsis (CS) in premature babies (PB) and the role of antibiotics (ABs) in its prevention. Study Design A retrospective electronic chart review of preterm babies, who underwent CE during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Group I includes CEs of babies exposed to AB during or within 48 hours of the procedure. Group II represents CEs of babies, not exposed to AB. Variables for both groups were collected and analyzed. Results There were 161 CEs performed in 133 babies. The overall incidence of CS after CE in preterm babies was 21/160 cases (13%). The incidence was significantly lower in Group I (1/79, 1.2%), compared with Group II (20/81, 24.7%) (p < 0.001). Six (30%) of the 20 babies from Group II had positive blood culture and all 20 required AB after the CE. There were no statistical differences in the variables between the two groups. Conclusion There is a possible association between CE and CS in preterm babies. ABs given during or before the procedure prevent this complication.

  10. Parenting and trajectories of children's maladaptive behaviors: a 12-year prospective community study.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A; Hampson, Sarah E; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for interindividual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6-18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved) were differentiated on the basis of levels and rates of change in the constituent parenting dimensions. Multigroup analyses demonstrated that these parenting styles were differentially related to changes in parent- and child-reported measures of children's alcohol and cigarette use, antisocial behavior, and internalizing symptoms, with the authoritative parenting class being related to the most optimal long-term development.

  11. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in a French Hospital: A 12-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Peggy; Dutronc, Hervé; Peuchant, Olivia; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Cazanave, Charles; Neau, Didier; Wirth, Gaëtane; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Morlat, Philippe; Mercié, Patrick; Tunon-de-Lara, José-Manuel; Doutre, Marie-Sylvie; Pélissier, Philippe; Dupon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental organisms associated with a range of infections. Reports of NTM epidemiology are mainly focused on pulmonary infections and isolations, and extrapulmonary infections are less frequently described. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of NTM infections at the Bordeaux University Hospital, France, between January 2002 and December 2013. We used the microbiologic component of the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America's pulmonary NTM disease criteria to define cases of pulmonary NTM, and patients with isolates from a normally sterile site were classified as having extrapulmonary disease. Results In our setting, 170 patients were included. Pulmonary cases predominated (54.1%), followed by skin and soft tissue infections (22.9%), disseminated cases (10.6%), lymphadenitis (7.7%), bone and joint infections (2.9%) and the remaining 1.8% catheter-related infections. Overall, 16 NTM species were isolated. Mycobacterium avium (31.8%) and M. intracellulare (20%) were the most common species identified, followed by M. marinum (13.5%), M. kansasii (10.6%), M. xenopi (9.4%), rapidly growing mycobacteria (9.4%) and other slowly growing mycobacteria (5.3%). In general, NTM isolates were largely prevalent in people older than 50 (62.4%); patients aged 1–10 year-old exclusively yielded M. avium from lymph nodes, almost cases having being diagnosed after 2007. Among the 121 patients with complete follow-up, 78 (64.5%), 24 (19.8%), and 19 (15.7%) were cured, experienced relapse, or died, respectively. Conclusion In our study, extrapulmonary NTM infections represented almost half of cases, consisting mainly in skin and soft tissue infections. The increase lymphadenitis cases in children after 2007 could be linked to the cessation of mandatory BCG vaccination in France. We observed similar cure rates (64%) between pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections. PMID:27959960

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a genome-wide association approach. Method The authors administered 4 Internet-based measures of receptive language (vocabulary, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics) to a sample of 2,329 twelve-year-olds for whom DNA and genome-wide genotyping were available. Nearly 700,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1 million imputed SNPs were included in a genome-wide association analysis of receptive language composite scores. Results No SNP associations met the demanding criterion of genome-wide significance that corrects for multiple testing across the genome (p < 5 × 10–8). The strongest SNP association did not replicate in an additional sample of 2,639 twelve-year-olds. Conclusions These results indicate that individual differences in receptive language ability in the general population do not reflect common genetic variants that account for more than 3% of the phenotypic variance. The search for genetic variants associated with language skill will require larger samples and additional methods to identify and functionally characterize the full spectrum of risk variants. PMID:24687471

  13. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeseem, MT; Kumar, TV Anupam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10-12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle’s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55. PMID:27274156

  14. Erosive tooth wear among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Loureiro, Licet; Fabruccini Fager, Anunzziatta; Alves, Luana Severo; Alvarez Vaz, Ramón; Maltz, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, extent, severity, intraoral distribution and risk indicators for erosive tooth wear (ETW) among 12-year-old schoolchildren from Montevideo, Uruguay. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a representative sample of 1,136 12-year-old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Parents answered questions on socioeconomic status and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary and oral hygiene habits. Two calibrated examiners recorded ETW on permanent teeth according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) score system. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between the predictor variables and the prevalence of ETW (overall and severe ETW). Odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. The prevalence of ETW was 52.9%, being mild erosion (BEWE = 1) in the vast majority of cases (48.5%). Severe erosion (BEWE ≥2) was detected in 4.4% of schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of ETW differed significantly between categories of gender and socioeconomic status, but only between gender in the severe ETW analysis. The overall extent of ETW was significantly different between categories of gender, socioeconomic status, and swish before swallow. The extent of severe ETW differed between categories of swish before swallow and brushing frequency. In the logistic regression analysis, no association was found between the studied variables and the overall prevalence of ETW. Males were more likely to have severe ETW than females (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.50-6.89). ETW may be considered a public health problem among 12-year-old-Uruguayan schoolchildren.

  15. An epidemiological study to know the prevalence of deleterious oral habits among 6 to 12 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Garde, J B; Suryavanshi, Rajendra K; Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Deshmukh, Vikramsingh; Dadhe, Dattaprasad P; Suryavanshi, Maneesha Kshirsagar

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was taken to assess the prevalence of deleterious oral habits among 6-12 year old school going children. Materials & Methods: A sample size of 832 children was finalized with simple random sampling technique including 444 males and 388 females. To get the demographic information and presence of harmful oral habits a closed-ended questionnaire was developed. Clinical evaluation was also done using mirror and water tests. Chi-square test was done to compare the prevalence of oral habits among different age groups and gender at p<0.05. Results: Bruxism (17.3%) was most commonly seen followed by bottle feeding (10.1%), thumb sucking (8.7%), nail biting (5.8%), tongue thrusting (4.9%) and mouth breathing (4.3%). Prevalence of all deleterious habits were more among female children and it also showed significant differences according to age. Conclusion: The data showed high prevalence of these oral habits. This highlighted the need for preventive orthodontic treatment at early age of life so that future occurrence of malocclusion can be avoided. How to cite the article: Garde JB, Suryavanshi RK, Jawale BA, Deshmukh V, Dadhe DP, Suryavanshi MK. An epidemiological study to know the prevalence of deleterious oral habits among 6 to 12 year old children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):39-43. PMID:24653601

  16. Risk factors for late-onset generalized anxiety disorder: results from a 12-year prospective cohort (the ESPRIT study).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Norton, J; Carrière, I; Ritchie, K; Chaudieu, I; Ancelin, M-L

    2015-03-31

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder associated with increased disability and mortality in the elderly. Treatment is difficult with low rate of full remission, thus highlighting the need to identify early predictors for prevention in elderly people. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize incident GAD predictors in elderly people. A total of 1711 individuals aged 65 years and above and free of GAD at baseline were randomly recruited from electoral rolls between 1999 and 2001 (the prospective ESPRIT study). The participants were examined at baseline and five times over 12 years. GAD and psychiatric comorbidity were diagnosed with a standardized psychiatric examination, the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview on the basis of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition) criteria and validated by a clinical panel. During the follow-up, 8.4% (95% confidence interval=7.1-9.7%) of the participants experienced incident GAD, 80% being first episodes; the incident rate being 10 per 1000 person-years. The principal predictors of late-onset incident GAD over 12 years derived from a multivariate Cox model were being female, recent adverse life events, having chronic physical (respiratory disorders, arrhythmia and heart failure, dyslipidemia, cognitive impairment) and mental (depression, phobia and past GAD) health disorders. Poverty, parental loss or separation and low affective support during childhood, as well as history of mental problems in parents were also significantly and independently associated with incident GAD. GAD appears as a multifactorial stress-related affective disorder resulting from both proximal and distal risk factors, some of them being potentially modifiable by health care intervention.

  17. Poverty, social exclusion and dental caries of 12-year-old children: a cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Hobdell, Martin H; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic differences in oral health have been reported in many countries. Poverty and social exclusion are two commonly used indicators of socioeconomic position in Latin America. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries experience in 12-year-old children. Methods Ninety families, with a child aged 12 years, were selected from 11 underserved communities in Lima (Peru), using a two-stage cluster sampling. Head of households were interviewed with regard to indicators of poverty and social exclusion and their children were clinically examined for dental caries. The associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries prevalence were tested in binary logistic regression models. Results Among children in the sample, 84.5% lived in poor households and 30.0% in socially excluded families. Out of all the children, 83.3% had dental caries. Poverty and social exclusion were significantly associated with dental caries in the unadjusted models (p = 0.013 and 0.047 respectively). In the adjusted model, poverty remained significantly related to dental caries (p = 0.008), but the association between social exclusion and dental caries was no longer significant (p = 0.077). Children living in poor households were 2.25 times more likely to have dental caries (95% confidence interval: 1.24; 4.09), compared to those living in non-poor households. Conclusion There was support for an association between poverty and dental caries, but not for an association between social exclusion and dental caries in these children. Some potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:19583867

  18. Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Leah J.; Harrison, Anna J.; Abram, Karen M.; Olson, Nichole D.; Aaby, David A.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of 9 substance-use disorders (SUDs)—alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine, inhalant, sedative, and unspecified drug— in youths during the 12 years after detention. Methods. We used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youths randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, starting in 1995 and reinterviewed up to 9 times in the community or correctional facilities through 2011. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs with Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2.3 (baseline) and Diagnostic Interview Schedule version IV (follow-ups). Results. By median age 28 years, 91.3% of males and 78.5% of females had ever had an SUD. At most follow-ups, males had greater odds of alcohol- and marijuana-use disorders. Drug-use disorders were most prevalent among non-Hispanic Whites, followed by Hispanics, then African Americans (e.g., compared with African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites had 32.1 times the odds of cocaine-use disorder [95% confidence interval = 13.8, 74.7]). Conclusions. After detention, SUDs differed markedly by sex, race/ethnicity, and substance abused, and, contrary to stereotypes, did not disproportionately affect African Americans. Services to treat substance abuse—during incarceration and after release—would reach many people in need, and address health disparities in a highly vulnerable population. PMID:26985602

  19. Radiation-Induced Reductions in Regional Lung Perfusion: 0.1-12 Year Data From a Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Junan; Ma Jinli; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Folz, Rodney J.; Evans, Elizabeth S.; Jaszczak, Ronald J.; Clough, Robert; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the time and regional dependence of radiation therapy (RT)-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion 0.1-12 years post-RT, as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) lung perfusion. Materials/Methods: Between 1991 and 2005, 123 evaluable patients receiving RT for tumors in/around the thorax underwent SPECT lung perfusion scans before and serially post-RT (0.1-12 years). Registration of pre- and post-RT SPECT images with the treatment planning computed tomography, and hence the three-dimensional RT dose distribution, allowed changes in regional SPECT-defined perfusion to be related to regional RT dose. Post-RT follow-up scans were evaluated at multiple time points to determine the time course of RT-induced regional perfusion changes. Population dose response curves (DRC) for all patients at different time points, different regions, and subvolumes (e.g., whole lungs, cranial/caudal, ipsilateral/contralateral) were generated by combining data from multiple patients at similar follow-up times. Each DRC was fit to a linear model, and differences statistically analyzed. Results: In the overall groups, dose-dependent reductions in perfusion were seen at each time post-RT. The slope of the DRC increased over time up to 18 months post-RT, and plateaued thereafter. Regional differences in DRCs were only observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, and appeared due to tumor-associated changes in regional perfusion. Conclusions: Thoracic RT causes dose-dependent reductions in regional lung perfusion that progress up to {approx}18 months post-RT and persists thereafter. Tumor shrinkage appears to confound the observed dose-response relations. There appears to be similar dose response for healthy parts of the lungs at different locations.

  20. Use of and Need for Professional Help for Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Preadolescents: A Prospective Cohort Study of 3- To 12-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihlakoski, Leena; Aromaa, Minna; Sourander, Andre; Rautava, Paivi; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpaa, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of child-, parent- and family-related factors on the use of and need for mental health services by 12 years of age. Method: A prospective population-based questionnaire study of 1,287 first-born children was launched in Finland in 1985. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by 1,086 parents when the…

  1. Increased Hospitalizations for Ischemic Stroke with Comorbid Diabetes and Residential Proximity to Sources of Organic Pollutants: A 12-Year Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Alexander V.; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence is emerging that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases and for diabetes mellitus (DM). We hypothesized that residential proximity to sources of POP will be associated with an increase in hospitalization rates for ischemic stroke (IS) with comorbid DM (IS-DM). Methods We examined IS-DM hospitalization rates in the New York State (exclusive of New York City) during a 12-year period. POP exposure status was assessed based on residency in a zip code containing or abutting environmental sources of POP. Adjusted relative risks (RR) of IS-DM hospitalization were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression. Results A statistically significant 10% increase in IS-DM hospitalization rates was observed in populations environmentally exposed to POP (adjusted RR 1.10, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.01–1.20; p = 0.031). IS-DM hospitalization rates were also higher in males (adjusted RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.30–1.39; p < 0.001), in blacks (adjusted RR 4.54, 95% CI 4.16–4.94; p < 0.001) and in older age groups (p for trend <0.001). Conclusions Residential proximity to sources of POP is associated with an increase in RR of IS-DM hospitalization. Our findings support the hypothesis of POP being a risk factor for IS. Further studies are warranted. PMID:20664210

  2. Incidence of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma in Low-Grade Renal Cell Carcinoma Cases: A 12-Year Retrospective Clinicopathologic Study From a Single Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simpal; Kauffman, Eric C; Kandel, Sirisa; George, Saby; Schwaab, Thomas; Xu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized subtype of renal cell carcinoma entity after 2004 World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. CCPRCC has unique histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. The distinction of CCPRCC from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with clear cell morphology is crucial because the former is considered to have a favorable clinical outcome. CCPRCC may be interpreted in the past as other renal cell carcinomas, particularly low-grade clear cell RCC. In this study, the frequency of CCPRCC in previously diagnosed low-grade RCC and its clinicopathologic features were examined. A total of 126 cases of stage T1a with low nuclear grade RCC were identified from 625 consecutive RCCs removed by radical/partial nephrectomy over 12-year period (2000-2011). Archival tissue sections were retrospectively reviewed along with patient medical charts. Eight cases (1.3% of all RCC, 6.3% of pT1a low grade RCC) with characteristic histologic features of CCPRCC were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Seven cases were previously diagnosed as clear cell RCC and one as multilocular cystic RCC. Radiographically, CCPRCC favored a mid-pole location in the kidneys. At a median follow-up period of 52 months (range 20-114.5 months), there were no cases of local or distant recurrence. In conclusion, CCPRCC is not uncommon among small low-grade RCC tumors. CCPRCC can be correctly recognized by its unique histomorphological features and confirmed by immunohistochemistry studies, which is important due to the excellent clinical outcome following resection.

  3. Dietary fiber and reduced ischemic heart disease mortality rates in men and women: a 12-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T; Barrett-Connor, E

    1987-12-01

    The authors examined the relation between 24-hour dietary fiber intake at baseline survey in 1972-1974 and subsequent 12-year ischemic heart disease mortality in a southern Californian population-based cohort of 859 men and women aged 50-79 years. Relative risks of ischemic heart disease mortality in those with dietary fiber intake of 16 gm/24 hours or more compared with those with intake less than 16 gm/24 hours were 0.33 in men and 0.37 in women. A 6 gm increment in daily fiber intake was associated with a 25% reduction in ischemic heart disease mortality (p less than 0.01). This effect was independent of other dietary variables, including calories, fat, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, alcohol, calcium, and potassium. Some, but not all, of this effect appears to be mediated through the known cardiovascular risk factors: after multivariate adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and cigarette smoking habit, the magnitude of the protective effect of fiber was reduced but still significant in both sexes combined. These findings support the hypothesis that high dietary fiber intake is protective for ischemic heart disease mortality.

  4. Retinal vein occlusion and the risk of acute myocardial infarction development: a 12-year nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Han, John Seungsoo; Oh, Jaewon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kang, Seok-Min; Chung, Eun Jee

    2016-02-29

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of developing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following retinal vein occlusion (RVO). A retrospective cohort study was performed from the National Health Insurance Service and comprised 1,025,340 random subjects who were followed from 2002 to 2013. Patients with RVO in 2002 were excluded. The RVO group was composed of patients who received an initial RVO diagnosis between January 2003 and December 2007 (n = 1677). The comparison group was selected (five patients per RVO patient; n = 8367) using propensity score matching according to sociodemographic factors and the year of enrolment. Each patient was tracked until 2013. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used. AMI developed in 7.6% of the RVO group and 5.3% of the comparison group (p < 0.001) for 7.7 median follow-up periods. RVO increased the risk of AMI development [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.52]. In the subgroup analysis, RVO patients aged <65 years and the males within this age group had an adjusted HR of 1.47 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.98) and an adjusted HR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.38 to 2.91) for AMI development, respectively. RVO was significantly associated with AMI development.

  5. Use of iron supplements in children aged 1-2 years with iron deficiency anemia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sezik, Handan Atsiz; Can, Huseyin; Kurnaz, Mehmet Ali; Tuna, Mine; Ay, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common nutritional problem in the world and is the most common cause of childhood anemia. In this study, our aim was to find out about the state of usage of iron preparation, which is distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Health, for the infants between 4-12 months in our country, as well as detecting the awareness degree of families those who are informed about iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), prophylaxis of the drug and to determine the drug’s effectiveness. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey. The laboratory values from the files of the children aged 1-2 those who visited our hospital’s department of pediatrics, between January 2010 to August 2013, were collected. The survey included families who have children diagnosed with IDA. Questions included about families’ sociodemographic characteristics, the state of the usage of the iron drug, how much information received in terms of the side effects- consumption period and dosage. Results: A total of 139 children were enrolled in our study. While 77.7% of the families who participated stated that (n = 108) iron medicine was prescribed other 43.2% of families stated (n = 60) was prescribed and they were informed about iron pills and IDA. 25.9% of families had received information about drug’s side effects, 74.8% of them had information about period of consumption and 77.7% said they were given information about the drug dose. The average duration of use of iron medicine was 6.98±4.52 (min: 1, max: 24) months. It has been noted that; parent’s education level, mother’s occupation, child’s gender, how the child was born and receiving information about how to use the medicine had no effects on usage of the drug in children. Nevertheless, it has been noticed that, when the families were given proper information the drug use increased and the patients compliance with medications also increased. Conclusion: We believe that, due to frequent diagnosis of

  6. Association between sense of coherence in adolescence and social benefits later in life: a 12-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Würtz, Else Toft; Fonager, Kirsten; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Local government concerns over expenditure on social and healthcare are growing. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between a weak ‘sense of coherence’ (SOC) in teens and their subsequent risk of receiving social and healthcare benefits during young adulthood, and to monitor how SOC developed during this period. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting North Denmark Region. Participants 773 Pupils from seventh and eighth forms who answered a questionnaire in 1998. Outcome measures Different social benefits (from the Danish DREAM database embracing disbursed public social benefits). Change in SOC score from 1998 to 2010. Results 722 had answered seven items of the original SOC-13 questionnaire (denoted by SOC-7). Girls with a weak SOC-7 (the lowest 1st quartile) in 1998 had a significantly increased risk of receiving unemployment benefits (RR 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)), social assistance (RR 1.8 (1.3 to 2.5)) and sickness benefits (RR 1.5 (1.2 to 2.0)) compared with girls with a strong SOC-7. For boys, only minor protective and non-significant differences were found. The SOC answers from 1998 and 2010 were compared (n=394). SOC increased significantly and mostly in girls. Conclusions SOC-7 may serve as a predictor for social life event outcomes and hence facilitate an early identification and a selective approach to support teenage girls with a weak SOC. From adolescence to young adulthood, SOC-7 was of a relatively unstable nature. PMID:25643701

  7. Genetic regulation of growth in height and weight from 3 to 12 years of age: a longitudinal study of Dutch twin children.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Bartels, Meike; Posthuma, Daniëlle; Estourgie-van Burk, G Frederiek; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2007-04-01

    Human growth is a complex and poorly understood process. We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on height and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) based on maternal reports at 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 12 years of age in a large longitudinal cohort of Dutch twins (7755 complete twin pairs at age 3). Several multivariate variance component models for twins were fitted to the data using the Mx statistical package. The first-born twin was taller until age 10 and heavier until age 12 than the second-born co-twin. Heritability estimates were high for height (a(2) = .58-.91) and BMI (a(2) = .31-.82), but common and unshared environmental factors were also important. The phenotypic correlations across the ages for height and BMI were mainly explained by correlated additive genetic factors (r(a) = .77-.96 for height and .43-.92 for BMI), but common (r(c) = .40-.84 and .09-.78, respectively) and specific environmental correlations (r(e) = .50-.81 and .42-.80, respectively) were also significant. Additive genetic factors decreased with increasing age difference for both height and BMI. However, the full Cholesky model, which does not make any assumptions regarding the underlying genetic structure, had the best fit. High genetic correlations across the ages, especially for height, may help further molecular genetic studies of human growth. Environmental factors affecting height and BMI during growth period are also important, and further studies are needed to identify these factors and test whether they interact with genetic factors.

  8. "It All Depends": A Qualitative Study of Parents' Views of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for their Adolescents at Ages 11-12 years.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Caitlin E; Credle, Marisol; Shapiro, Eugene D; Niccolai, Linda M

    2016-03-01

    Routine vaccination with three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls and boys at 11 or 12 years of age; however, vaccine uptake remains suboptimal. To understand the reasons why parents may accept or refuse HPV vaccine for their children at age 11 or 12 years, we conducted a qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents or guardians (n = 45) whose adolescents receive care at an urban, hospital-based primary care practice. Data were analyzed using an iterative thematic approach. We found that many parents expressed high levels of support for HPV vaccine, including a majority who agreed with vaccination at age 11-12 years. Parents recognized that for prevention of consequences of HPV infection, vaccination of their child early in adolescence was desirable conceptually. However, many parents also expressed that in practice, HPV vaccine should be given to adolescents at the onset of sexual activity, a perception that led to preferences to delay administration of HPV vaccine among certain parents. These apparently contradictory views indicate the need for interventions focused on the benefits of vaccination at the recommended ages. Our findings may be useful in providers' discussions with parents about the vaccine, as pediatric and adolescent health care providers have the unique opportunity to educate parents and clarify misconceptions about vaccination.

  9. Mortality over 12 years of follow-up in people admitted to provincial custody in Ontario: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Kiefer, Lori; Wobeser, Wendy; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to define rates and causes of death in custody and after release in people admitted to provincial custody in Ontario, and to compare these data with data for the general population. Methods: We linked data on adults admitted to provincial custody in Ontario in 2000 with data on deaths between 2000 and 2012. We examined rates and causes of death by age, sex, custodial status and period after release, and compared them with data for the general population, using indirect adjustment for age. Results: Between 2000 and 2012, 8.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.3%-8.8%) of those incarcerated died in provincial custody or after release. The crude death rate was 7.1 (95% CI 6.9-7.3) per 1000 person-years. The standardized mortality ratio for those incarcerated in 2000 was 4.0 (95% CI 3.9-4.1) overall and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.4) while in provincial custody. The most common causes of death were injury and poisoning (38.2% of all deaths), including overdose (13.6%) and suicide (8.2%), diseases of the circulatory system (15.8%) and neoplasms (14.5%). In the 2 weeks after release, the standardized mortality ratio was 5.7 overall and 56.0 for overdose. Life expectancy was 72.3 years for women and 73.4 for men who experienced incarceration in 2000. Interpretation: Mortality was high for people who experienced incarceration, and life expectancy was 4.2 years less for men and 10.6 years less for women compared with the general population. Efforts should be made to reduce the gap in mortality between people who experience incarceration and those who do not. Time in custody could serve as an opportunity to intervene to decrease risk. PMID:27398358

  10. A comparative study of loratadine syrup and cyproheptadine HCL solution for treating perennial allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese children aged 2-12 years.

    PubMed

    Wu, K G; Li, T H; Wang, T Y; Hsu, C L; Chen, C J

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of loratadine syrup compared with cyproheptadine HCl solution for treating children aged from 2 to 12 years with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) in Taiwan. Sixty children with mite-induced PAR were enrolled and randomly placed into two treatment groups: loratadine syrup or cyproheptadine HCl solution. Treatment efficacy and symptom changes from baseline to post-treatment were evaluated by total symptom scores and visual analogue scales (VAS) during a 2-week period. There were no differences in age, gender, height, or weight between the two groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, there was a significantly greater reduction in symptom scores in the loratadine group than in the cyproheptadine group (p<0.001). Clinical and subjective VAS showed significant differences in percentage changes from baseline between the loratadine and cyproheptadine groups at all time points (all p<0.001, in favor of loratadine). Clinical VAS change at week 1: 95.1 vs 11.3; subjective VAS change at week 1: 88.6 vs 13.6; clinical VAS change at week 2: 125.5 vs 18.3; subjective VAS change at week 2: 101.4 vs 7.1. Thus, loratadine was superior to cyproheptadine for alleviating both nasal and non-nasal symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese children aged 2-12 years.

  11. Stress increases the risk of type 2 diabetes onset in women: A 12-year longitudinal study using causal modelling

    PubMed Central

    Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis; Luu, Judy; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Modifiable risk factors have been found to contribute up to 60% of type 2 diabetes risk. However, type 2 diabetes continues to rise despite implementation of interventions based on traditional risk factors. There is a clear need to identify additional risk factors for chronic disease prevention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived stress and type 2 diabetes onset, and partition the estimates into direct and indirect effects. Methods and findings Women born in 1946–1951 (n = 12,844) completed surveys for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010. The total causal effect was estimated using logistic regression and marginal structural modelling. Controlled direct effects were estimated through conditioning in the regression model. A graded association was found between perceived stress and all mediators in the multivariate time lag analyses. A significant association was found between hypertension, as well as physical activity and body mass index, and diabetes, but not smoking or diet quality. Moderate/high stress levels were associated with a 2.3-fold increase in the odds of diabetes three years later, for the total estimated effect. Results were only slightly attenuated when the direct and indirect effects of perceived stress on diabetes were partitioned, with the mediators only explaining 10–20% of the excess variation in diabetes. Conclusions Perceived stress is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The majority of the effect estimate of stress on diabetes risk is not mediated by the traditional risk factors of hypertension, physical activity, smoking, diet quality, and body mass index. This gives a new pathway for diabetes prevention trials and clinical practice. PMID:28222165

  12. Fall-related attendance and associated hospitalisation of children and adolescents in Hong Kong: a 12-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James Chun-Yin; Tung, Keith Tsz-Suen; Li, Tim M H; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Ip, Patrick; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to examine the trends and characteristics of fall-related attendance in accident and emergency department (AED) by injury type and the trend in associated average length of stay (LOS) among children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Design A retrospective approach was adopted. Setting AED, involving all local public emergency departments from 2001 to 2012. Participants 63 557 subjects aged 0–19 years with fall injury record were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures Fall-related injury number and rates were calculated and reported. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to study the trends of injury incidence rate at different body regions. Results AED fall-related attendance rate increased significantly with an annual percentage change of 4.45 (95% CI 3.43 to 5.47%, p<0.0001). The attendance number of male subjects was persistently higher than female subjects. The standardised rate of fracture injury increased by 1.31% (95% CI 0.56 to 2.05%, p<0.0001) and that of non-fracture injury increased by 9.23% (95% CI 7.07 to 11.43%, p<0.0001) annually. Upper limb was the most frequently fractured location. It included forearm/elbow, shoulder/upper arm and wrist/hand with descending order of frequency. On the contrary, head was the most frequent non-fracture location, followed by forearm/elbow. Conclusions The rates of fall-related attendance have been increasing and still remain high. There were significant increases in non-fracture injuries. Fractures were most frequently found in the upper extremity of a child while the most common non-fracture location was head. It appears that more efforts should be made and preventive measures should be implemented for children and adolescents in Hong Kong. PMID:28174223

  13. Diagnostic Value of the Urine Mucus Test in Childhood Masturbation among Children below 12 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Doust, Zarin Keihani; Shariat, Mamak; Zabandan, Neda; Tabrizi, Aidin; Tehrani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood masturbation (CM) is considered a variant of normal sexual behavior; however, it is commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy and movement disorders. As the first study from Iran, we analyzed a large population of infants and children with CM in a case-control study and evaluated the value of mucus in urine analysis as an alternative diagnostic tool for CM. Methods: A total of 623 children referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital for an evaluation of seizure or movement disorders were studied between 2008 and 2011. Totally, 359 children were found to have masturbatory behaviors (Group A) and the rest (264) were assigned to Group B. CM was diagnosed by direct observation. Collected data comprised demographic characteristics, clinical and neurodevelopmental examinations, laboratory findings (particularly urine analysis), and electrocardiography. Results: The age of the children with CM was below 12 years old, and the girl-to-boy ratio was 7:1. Mucus in urine was positive in 357 (99.44%) children in Group A and 22 (8.3%) in Group B (P<0.001). A significant correlation was found between the presence of mucus in urine and masturbatory behaviors (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of mucus in urine can be used as an alternative laboratory test in children with CM below 12 years old and even in infants (≤24 months old). Further studies are needed to confirm the results. PMID:27365549

  14. Brain Gym To Increase Academic Performance Of Children Aged 10-12 Years Old ( Experimental Study in Tembalang Elementary School and Pedalangan Elementary School Semarang)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marpaung, M. G.; Sareharto, T. P.; Purwanti, A.; Hermawati, D.

    2017-02-01

    Academic performance becomes an important determinant of individual quality. it is determined by the function of affective, cognitive, psychomotor, and intelligence. Brain gym can improve learning processes and integrate all areas that related to the learning process. To prove the effect of brain gym towards academic performance of children aged 10-12 years. This study was a quasy experiment study with one group pre and post test design. Samples (n=18 male=7 and female=11) were taken from five and six grader and conducted in Tembalang and Pedalangan Elementary School, Semarang. Pretest were administered, followed by brain gym, and post test administered in the end of study. The measurement of Intelligence Quotient pre and post test using Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2. Among the 18 subjects (male=7 and female=11) the average of academic performance and IQ score after brain gym showed improvement. The Improvement of IQ score with Culture Fair Test Scale 2 was analyzed by Dependent T test showed significant results (p=0,000). The improvement of Bahasa score was analyzed by Wilcoxon test showed significant results (p=0,001), an unsignificant result were shown in Mathematics p=0,079 and natural sciences p=0,306. Brain gym can increase academic performance of children aged 10-12 years old.

  15. Food Choices and Coronary Heart Disease: A Population Based Cohort Study of Rural Swedish Men with 12 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Sara; Thelin, Anders; Stiernström, Eva-Lena

    2009-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is associated with diet. Nutritional recommendations are frequently provided, but few long term studies on the effect of food choices on heart disease are available. We followed coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in a cohort of rural men (N = 1,752) participating in a prospective observational study. Dietary choices were assessed at baseline with a 15-item food questionnaire. 138 men were hospitalized or deceased owing to coronary heart disease during the 12 year follow-up. Daily intake of fruit and vegetables was associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease when combined with a high dairy fat consumption (odds ratio 0.39, 95% CI 0.21–0.73), but not when combined with a low dairy fat consumption (odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI 0.97–2.98). Choosing wholemeal bread or eating fish at least twice a week showed no association with the outcome. PMID:20054459

  16. The ecology of primate retroviruses – An assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Taï national park area, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Gogarten, Jan F.; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Weiss, Sabrina; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Koné, Inza; Peeters, Martine; Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2014-01-01

    The existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. For these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. Here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the Taï National Park area, Côte d’Ivoire. We discuss insights gained into the prevalence, within- and cross-species transmission of primate retroviruses (including towards local human populations) and the importance of virus–host interactions in determining cross-species transmission risk. Finally we discuss how retroviruses ecology and evolution may change in a shifting environment and identify avenues for future research. PMID:25010280

  17. The ecology of primate retroviruses - an assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Taï national park area, Côte d׳Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Gogarten, Jan F; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Weiss, Sabrina; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Koné, Inza; Peeters, Martine; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe; Hahn, Beatrice H; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2014-07-01

    The existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. For these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. Here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the Taï National Park area, Côte d'Ivoire. We discuss insights gained into the prevalence, within- and cross-species transmission of primate retroviruses (including towards local human populations) and the importance of virus-host interactions in determining cross-species transmission risk. Finally we discuss how retroviruses ecology and evolution may change in a shifting environment and identify avenues for future research.

  18. A school-based intervention to reduce overweight and inactivity in children aged 6–12 years: study design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein; Zwanenburg, Evelien Joosten-van; Reuvers, Ivo; van Walsem, Ron; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in children are urgently needed especially in inner-city neighbourhoods where prevalence of overweight and inactivity among primary school children is high. A school based intervention was developed aiming at the reduction of overweight and inactivity in these children by addressing both behavioural and environmental determinants. Methods/design The main components of the intervention (Lekker Fit!) are the re-establishment of a professional physical education teacher; three (instead of two) PE classes per week; additional sport and play activities outside school hours; fitness testing; classroom education on healthy nutrition, active living and healthy lifestyle choices; and the involvement of parents. The effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated through a cluster randomized controlled trial in 20 primary schools among grades 3 through 8 (6–12 year olds). Primary outcome measures are BMI, waist circumference and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are assessed in a subgroup of grade 6–8 pupils (9–12 year olds) through classroom questionnaires and constitute of nutrition and physical activity behaviours and behavioural determinants. Multilevel regression analyses are used to study differences in outcomes between children in the intervention schools and in control schools, taking clustering of children within schools into account. Discussion Hypotheses are that the intervention results in a lower prevalence of children being overweight and an improved mean fitness score, in comparison with a control group where the intervention is not implemented. The results of our study will contribute to the discussion on the role of physical education and physical activity in the school curriculum. Trial registration [ISRCTN84383524] PMID:18657280

  19. Food consumption and nutritional and biochemical status of 0·5-12-year-old Indonesian children: the SEANUTS study.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Budiman, Basuki; Harahap, Heryudarini; Ernawati, Fitrah; Soekatri, Moesijanti; Widodo, Yekti; Sumedi, Edith; Rustan, Effendi; Sofia, Gustina; Syarief, Sainstiani N; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    Indonesia is currently facing the double burden of malnutrition. While undernutrition is still a major public health problem, the prevalence of overnutrition is increasing. The objective of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) was to provide up-to-date data on nutritional status, food consumption and biochemical parameters related to nutrition for children aged 0·5-12 years. The SEANUTS study in Indonesia was conducted in a nationwide representative sample of 7·211 children using multistage cluster sampling based on probability proportional to size, stratified for geographical location, in forty-eight out of 440 districts/cities. The results show that the growth (weight for age, height for age, weight for height and BMI for age) of Indonesian pre-school- and school-aged children is below the WHO standards. The older the children, the more the deviation from the WHO standard curves. Underweight was more prevalent in rural areas (28·9 v. 19·2%) and overweight/obesity was observed to be more widespread in urban areas (5·6 v. 3·2%). The prevalence varied with age groups and sexes. The overall prevalence of stunting was 25·2 and 39·2% in urban and rural areas, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was nearly 55% in children aged 0·5-1·9 years and ranged from 10·6 to 15·5% in children aged 2-12 years. Fe deficiency was observed in 4·1-8·8% of the children. The percentage of children with dietary intakes of energy, protein, and vitamins A and C below the Indonesian RDA was high and differed across urban and rural areas and age groups.

  20. Demography and life history of wild red titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) and equatorial sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis) in Amazonian Ecuador: A 12-year study.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    We investigated demographic patterns and life history traits from several groups of red titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) and equatorial sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis) monitored throughout the first 12 years (November 2003 through May 2015) of an ongoing research project in the Yasuní National Park and Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador. The saki groups ranged in size between two and six individuals, comprising either one adult male and one adult female or multiple adult-sized males or females, plus immatures. Deviations from a pair-living structure resulted when two different daughters of the resident female grew up and successfully reproduced in their natal group and when an adult-sized male temporarily immigrated into the group when it already contained an adult male. The titi groups also ranged in size between two and six individuals, but almost exclusively lived in groups with one adult individual of each sex. No titi offspring were observed to breed in their natal groups, and both male and female offspring dispersed when they were between 2.1 and 5.0 years old. In both titi and saki groups, vacant breeding positions resulting from the disappearance of an adult group member were promptly occupied by immigrants of the same sex as the disappeared group member. We recorded nine saki and 28 titi births. Eighty-three percent of the titi births occurred between September and January, suggesting reproductive seasonality. The mean interbirth interval after an infant survived its first 6 months was 21.3 ± SE 1.9 months (N = 3) for sakis and 14.5 ± SE 1.5 months (N = 14) for titis. Saki infant survival was 70%, and juvenile survival 57%. Titi infant survival was 88%, and juvenile survival was 53%. This 12-year study provides important insights into the functioning and maintenance of pair-living and social monogamy in two little-known platyrrhine species.

  1. Effect of Probiotic Containing Ice-cream on Salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) Levels in Children of 6-12 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study with Six-months Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    KE, Vijayaprasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Nara, Asha; Sarpangala, Mythri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the caries risk based on the salivary levels of streptococcus mutans in children of 6-12 years of age group before and after consuming probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. Materials and Methods: A double blind, placebo controlled trial was carried out in 60 children aged between 6 to 12 years with zero decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva sample were collected before the consumption of ice-cream and Streptococcus mutans count was calculated and recorded as baseline data. For the next seven days both the groups were given ice creams marked as A and B. Saliva samples were collected after ice-cream consumption at the end of study period and also after a washout period of 30 days and again after six months. Samples were inoculated and colonies were counted. Results: On statistical evaluation by students paired t-test, probiotic ice-cream brought significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count after seven days of ice-cream ingestion (p<0.001) and also after 30 d of washout period (p<0.001). There was no significant reduction (p=0.076) by normal ice-cream consumption. After six months of the study period in both the groups the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans was similar to the baseline. Conclusion: Probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can cause reduction in caries causative organism. The dosage of the probiotic organisms for the long term or synergetic effect on the oral health are still needed to be explored. PMID:25859515

  2. Do Elite and Amateur Soccer Players Outperform Non-Athletes on Neurocognitive Functioning? A Study Among 8-12 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Van Lange, Paul A. M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Aim Research suggested a positive association between physical fitness and neurocognitive functioning in children. Aim of the present study is to investigate possible dose-response relationships between diverse daily physical activities and a broad range of neurocognitive functions in preadolescent children. Furthermore, the relationship between several sedentary behaviours, including TV-watching, gaming and computer time, and neurocognitive functioning will be investigated in this group of children. Methods A total of 168 preadolescent boys, aged 8 to 12 years, were recruited from various locations, including primary schools, an amateur soccer club, and a professional soccer club, to increase variability in the amount of participation in sports. All children performed neurocognitive tasks measuring inhibition, short term memory, working memory, attention and information processing speed. Regression analyses examined the predictive power of a broad range of physical activities, including sports, active transport to school, physical education (PE), outdoor play, and sedentary behaviour such as TV-watching and gaming, for neurocognitive functioning. Results Time spent in sports significantly accounted for the variance in inhibition, short term memory, working memory and lapses of attention, where more time spent in sports was associated with better performance. Outdoor play was also positively associated with working memory. In contrast, time spent on the computer was negatively associated with inhibition. Conclusions Results of the current study suggest a positive relationship between participation in sports and several important neurocognitive functions. Interventions are recommended to increase sports participation and to reduce sedentary behaviour in preadolescent children. PMID:27906965

  3. Eating problems and overlap with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders in a nationwide twin study of 9- and 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Råstam, Maria; Täljemark, Jakob; Tajnia, Armin; Lundström, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Peik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Kerekes, Nóra

    2013-01-01

    AIM. To establish the prevalence of restrictive eating problems, the overlap and association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to estimate the heritability of eating problems in a general population sample of twins aged 9 and 12. METHODS. Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twin pairs born between 1993 and 1998 (n = 12,366) were interviewed regarding symptoms of ADHD, ASD, and eating problems (EAT-P). Intraclass correlations and structural equation modelling were used for evaluating the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Cross-twin, cross-trait correlations were used to indicate a possible overlap between conditions. RESULTS. The prevalence of eating problems was 0.6% in the study population and was significantly higher in children with ADHD and/or ASD. Among children with eating problems, 40% were screened positive for ADHD and/or ASD. Social interaction problems were strongly associated with EAT-P in girls, and impulsivity and activity problems with EAT-P in boys. The cross-twin, cross-trait correlations suggested low correlations between EAT-P and ADHD or EAT-P and ASD. Genetic effects accounted for 44% of the variation in liability for eating problems. CONCLUSIONS. In the group with eating problems, there was a clear overrepresentation of individuals with ADHD and/or ASD symptoms.

  4. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Bin; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Su, Pen-Hua; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children’s neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2–12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001–2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children’s cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ). Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children’s levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and their IQ scores (β = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; β = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites) after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children’s IQ scores. Children’s but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm

  5. Factors associated with commencing smoking in 12-year-old students in Catalonia (Spain): a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the last decade notable progress has been made in developed countries on monitoring smoking although experimenting with cigarettes and smoking in young people remains a serious public health problem. This paper reports a cross-sectional study at the beginning of the 3-year follow-up community study TA_BES. The aim was to study the prevalence of smoking in addition to determining predictive factors for when smoking commences in a representative population of 12-year-old first year compulsory secondary education students. Methods Twenty-nine secondary schools (N = 29) from an area of Catalonia participated in the study. In these schools 2245 students answered a questionnaire to study the attitudes, behaviors, and tobacco consumption in the subject's surrounding circle and family in relation to smoking; carbon monoxide measurements were taken by means of co-oximetry on 2 different occasions. A smoker was defined as a student who had smoked daily or occasionally in the last 30 days. For non-smokers the criteria of not considering was set up for those who answered that in the future they would not be smokers and considering those who answered that they did not rule out becoming a smoker in the future. Results Among the total 2245 students included in the analysis 157(7%) were classified as smokers. Among non-smokers we differentiated between those not considering smoking 1757 (78.3%) and those considering smoking 288 (12.8%). Age is among the factors related to commencing smoking. The risk of becoming a smoker increases 2.27 times/year. The influence of the group of friends with a very high risk for boys OR 149.5 and lower, albeit high, in girls OR 38.1. Tobacco consumption of parents produces different effects in young people. A smoking father does not produce alterations in the smoking behavior of young people. However having a smoking mother or former smoking is a risk factor for boys and a protective factor for girls. We detected a gradual risk of

  6. Re-examining the surfaces of bone in boys and girls during adolescent growth: a 12-year mixed longitudinal pQCT study

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Leigh; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Brasher, Penelope M.; Moore, Sarah; Ahamed, Yasmin; Macdonald, Heather M.; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    We revisit Stanley Garn’s theory related to sex differences in endocortical and periosteal apposition during adolescence using a 12-year mixed longitudinal study design. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to examine bone parameters in 230 participants (110 boys, 120 girls; 11.0 yrs at baseline). We assessed total (Tt.Ar, mm2), cortical (Ct.Ar, mm2), and medullary canal area (Me.Ar, mm2), Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar, cortical bone mineral density (Ct.BMD, mg/cm3) and polar strength-strain index (SSIp, mm3) at the tibial midshaft (50% site). We used annual measures of height and chronological age to identify age at peak height velocity (APHV) for each participant. We compared annual accrual rates of bone parameters between boys and girls, aligned on APHV using a linear mixed effects model. At APHV, boys demonstrated greater Tt.Ar (Ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: [1.21, 1.32]), Ct.Ar (1.24; [1.18, 1.30]), Me.Ar (1.31; [1.22, 1.40]) and SSIp (1.36; [1.28, 1.45]), and less Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (0.98; [0.96, 1.00]) and Ct.BMD (0.97; [0.96, 0.97]) compared with girls. Boys and girls demonstrated periosteal bone formation and net bone loss at the endocortical surface. Compared with girls, boys demonstrated greater annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Tt.Ar (1.18; [1.02, 1.34]) and Me.Ar (1.34; [1.11, 1.57]), lower annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (0.56; [0.29, 0.83]) and Ct.BMD (−0.07; [−0.17, 0.04]) and similar annual accrual rates pre-APHV for Ct.Ar (1.10; [0.94, 1.26]) and SSIp (1.14; [0.98, 1.30]). Post-APHV, boys demonstrated similar annual accrual rates for Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar (1.01; [0.71, 1.31]) and greater annual accrual rates for all other bone parameters compared with girls (Ratio: 1.23 – 2.63; 95% CI: 1.11 to 3.45). Our findings support those of Garn and others of accelerated periosteal apposition during adolescence, more evident in boys than girls. However, our findings challenge the notion of greater endocortical apposition in girls, suggesting instead that girls

  7. Coparenting conflict, nonacceptance, and depression among divorced adults: results from a 12-year follow-up study of child custody mediation using multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Sbarra, David A; Emery, Robert E

    2005-01-01

    Using statistically imputed data to increase available power, this article reevaluated the long-term effects of divorce mediation on adults' psychological adjustment and investigated the relations among coparenting custody conflict, nonacceptance of marital termination, and depression at 2 occasions over a decade apart following marital dissolution. Group comparisons revealed that fathers and parents who mediated their custody disputes reported significantly more nonacceptance at the 12-year follow-up assessment. Significant interactions were observed by gender in regression models predicting nonacceptance at the follow-up; mothers' nonacceptance was positively associated with concurrent depression, whereas fathers' nonacceptance was positively associated with early nonacceptance and negatively associated with concurrent conflict.

  8. The intranasal ethmoidectomy: a 12-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Eichel, B S

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred thirty-six intranasal ethmoidectomies were performed on 123 patients during a 12-year period. Four complications representing an incidence of 1.7% are reported with no mortality, blindness, or permanent orbital injuries. An overall 83% (38 patients) success rate in controlling nasal polyposis is recorded in dealing with 46 obstructed nasal polyposis-pansinusitis patients. A subgrouping of 26 patients having had prior polypectomy sinus surgical treatment revealed an 81% (21 patients) control of nasal polyposis. With revision ethmoidectomy surgical treatment, a 91% (42 patients) overall success rate is recorded, and a 92% (24 patients) success rate is noted in the subgrouping. There appears to be no difference between these two groups, implying that the intranasal ethmoidectomy procedure may be the important factor in the control of nasal polyposis.

  9. The relative contributions of hostility and depressive symptoms to the income gradient in hospital-based incidence of ischaemic heart disease: 12-Year follow-up findings from the GLOBE study.

    PubMed

    Klabbers, Gonnie; Bosma, Hans; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Kempen, Gertrudis I; Van Eijk, Jacques T; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-10-01

    There is evidence to support the view that both hostility and depressive symptoms are psychological risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), additional to the effects of lifestyle and biomedical risk factors. Both are also more common in lower socioeconomic groups. Studies to find out how socioeconomic status (SES) gets under the skin have not yet determined the relative contributions of hostility and depression to the income gradient in IHD. This has been examined in a Dutch prospective population-based cohort study (GLOBE study), with participants aged 15-74 years (n=2374). Self-reported data at baseline (1991) and in 1997 provided detailed information on income and on psychological, lifestyle and biomedical factors, which were linked to hospital admissions due to incident IHD over a period of 12 years since baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the contributions of hostility and depressive symptoms to the association between income and time to incident IHD. The relative risk of incident IHD was highest in the lowest income group, with a hazard ratio of 2.71. Men on the lowest incomes reported more adverse lifestyles and biomedical factors, which contributed to their higher risk of incident IHD. An unhealthy psychological profile, particularly hostility, contributed to the income differences in incident IHD among women. The low number of IHD incidents in the women however, warrants additional research in larger samples.

  10. Higher Risk of Thyroid Disorders in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A 12-Year Nationwide, Population-Based, Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuang-Yung; Koo, Malcolm; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between type 1 diabetes and thyroid autoimmunity has been studied in various populations, but seldom on Taiwanese children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disorders in Taiwanese children and adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes, based on data from a nationwide, population-based, health claims database. Methods Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 3,652 patients with type 1 diabetes between 2000 and 2012. A comparison cohort was assembled, which consisted of five patients without type 1 diabetes, based on frequency matching for sex and 3-year age interval, for each patient with type 1 diabetes. Both groups were followed until diagnosis of thyroid disorders or the end of the follow-up period. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios for the thyroid disorders between the type 1 diabetes cohort and the comparison cohort. Results Simple and unspecified goiter (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 240), thyrotoxicosis (ICD-9-CM code 242), unspecified hypothyroidism (ICD-9-CM code 244.9), and thyroiditis (ICD-9-CM code 245) showed significantly higher incidences in the type 1 diabetes cohort compared with the control cohort, with incidence rate ratios of 2.74, 6.95, 6.54, 16.07, respectively. Conclusions Findings from this nationwide, population-based cohort study showed that the incidences of autoimmune thyroid disorders were significantly higher in Taiwanese children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared with those without the disease. PMID:27007574

  11. Long-term exposure to high particulate matter pollution and cardiovascular mortality: a 12-year cohort study in four cities in northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-wen; Chen, Xi; Xue, Xiao-dan; Sun, Min; Han, Bin; Li, Chang-ping; Ma, Jing; Yu, Hao; Sun, Zeng-rong; Zhao, Li-jun; Zhao, Bao-xin; Liu, Ya-min; Chen, Jie; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Bai, Zhi-peng; Tang, Nai-jun

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that long-term exposure to relatively low levels of particulate air pollution is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Europe and North America. However, few studies have assessed the association with high level air pollutants. We aimed to assess the cardiovascular effects of long-term exposure to high level concentrations of inhalable particulate and to identify the characteristics of the Chinese population that are susceptible to the health effects. A retrospective cohort, containing 39,054 subjects from four cities in northern China, was followed for mortality of all cause and specific cardiovascular diseases from 1998 to 2009. Information on concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter<10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) was collected from the local Environmental Monitoring Centers. The estimated exposure for the study participants was the mean concentration of PM10 over their surviving years during the cohort period. Relative risk values were obtained using Cox proportional hazards regression models after adjusting for potential confounding factors. For each 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM10, the relative risk ratios (RRs) of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, ischemic heart disease mortality, heart failure disease mortality, and cerebrovascular disease mortality were 1.24 (95% CI, 1.22-1.27), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.19-1.26), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.28-1.47), 1.11(95% CI, 1.05-1.17), and 1.23(95% CI:1.18-1.28), respectively. Results from stratified analyses suggest that the effects of PM10 on cardiovascular mortality were more pronounced in males, smokers and people with a higher socioeconomic status. Long-term exposure to PM10 increases mortality from cardiovascular disease, especially from ischemic heart disease and this association seemed to be modified by other factors. Further research that focuses on exploring dose-response relationship and inter-population comparisons is warranted.

  12. Exactech Opteon Femoral Component Fracture 12 Years after Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shaun P.; Antoci, Valentin; Kadzielski, John J.; Vrahas, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Arthroplasty implant fracture is a rare but critical complication that requires difficult revision surgery, often with poor results, patient disability, and significant cost. Several reports show component fracture either at the stem or at the neck interface after a relatively short postoperative course. We report such failure after 12 years, suggesting no safe period after which femoral implant fracture does not occur. PMID:26955493

  13. The Etiology of Variation in Language Skills Changes with Development: A Longitudinal Twin Study of Language from 2 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The present study is the first long-term longitudinal examination of the etiology of individual differences in language from early childhood through to adolescence. We applied a multivariate latent factor genetic model to longitudinal data from the Twins Early Development Study in order to (a) compare the magnitude of genetic and environmental…

  14. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  15. Promoting Positive Learning in Australian Students Aged 10- to 12-Years-Old Using Attribution Retraining and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodkiewicz, Alicia R; Boyle, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study piloted an intervention using attribution retraining and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to promote positive learning experiences and outcomes for students. This research is an important step to revitalise the dwindling field of attribution retraining research by assessing whether these techniques effectively improve student…

  16. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet.

  17. [Results of self image studies in children and adolescents (11/12-years-old to 16/17-years-old)].

    PubMed

    Göth, N

    1978-02-01

    The author in his present paper reports the results of studies made in an effort to reconstructively validate a method of self-imaging during childhood and adolescence. From the investigative results obtained it is apparent that during adolescence large self-image/ideal-image differences and low self-image values correlate with neuroticism, a situation which is similar to that which is usually observed in adults. Timid and introverted juveniles differ significantly from less timid and extroverted juveniles in both the self-image level and the self-image/ideal-image difference. Aside from the fact that the self-image level has been found to be relatively independent of intelligence, there are correlations between the maternal and child's self-image. It is of interest to note that the self-image level of children whose parents got a divorce is lower than that of children coming from intact families.

  18. The Association between Polypharmacy and Dementia: A Nested Case-Control Study Based on a 12-Year Longitudinal Cohort Database in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Young; Park, Ji-Won; Song, Hong Ji; Sohn, Hyun Soon; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a major concern among growing chronic diseases in the aging society and its association with polypharmacy has not been adequately assessed. The objective of this study was to determine the association between polypharmacy and dementia through multiple statistical approaches. We conducted a nested case-control study for newly diagnosed dementia cases using the South Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort database (2002–2013, n = 1,025,340). Interactions between polypharmacy (an average use of ≥5 prescription drugs daily) and comorbidities or potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) were tested. The odds ratios (ORs) for dementia were analyzed according to the presence of comorbidities, PIM uses, the average number of prescribed daily drugs, and significant interactions with polypharmacy using univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. A higher prevalence of comorbidities, history of PIM use, higher PIM exposure, and higher proportion of polypharmacy were noted among cases than in controls. In the univariate analysis, the OR for dementia increased significantly with the increase in the number of prescribed drugs [1–<5 drugs: 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–1.88; 5–<10 drugs: 2.64, 95% CI: 2.32–3.05; ≥10 drugs: 3.35, 95% CI: 2.38–4.71; <1 drug used as reference]. Polypharmacy was correlated with comorbidities and PIM use, and significant interactions were observed between polypharmacy and anticholinergics; H2-receptor antagonists; and comorbidities such as hypertension, peripheral or cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, hemiplegia, diabetes, depression, all other mental disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic liver disease (p<0.001). In the multiple regression analysis, most cases exhibited increasing ORs for dementia with increasing polypharmacy levels. Moreover, the increase in OR was more evident in the absence of drugs or comorbidities that

  19. Long-term consequences of the early treatment of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening in Nanjing, China: a 12-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing; Chen, Yu-Lin; Yu, Zhang-Bin; Han, Shu-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Yue; Qiu, Yu-Fang; Sha, Li; Guo, Xi-Rong

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in neonates in Nanjing, China and the long-term consequences of early treatment. A total of 442 454 neonates were screened for CH and 183 neonates were confirmed, with a prevalence of 1 in 2418. Of these, 163 neonates completed the follow-up process and 163 healthy children were recruited as the control group. The height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of the children with CH from 0.5 to 6 years were not significantly different from the control group (p > 0.05). The children with CH had a significantly increased risk for being overweight or obese between 0.5 and 6 years (p < 0.05). The children with CH showed a significantly lower developmental quotient (DQ) than the control group in all four areas of the Gesell test (p < 0.05). The results suggest that children with CH that has been identified by newborn screening and early treatment have normal growth and neuromotor development.

  20. Evaluation of the Association Between Retinal Vein Occlusion and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation Development: A 12-Year, Retrospective Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Oh, Jaewon; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Lee, Sung Chul; Kang, Seok-Min; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) development following retinal vein occlusion (RVO). We performed a nationwide propensity score-matched cohort study by retrospectively reviewing a database from the Korean National Health Insurance Service, comprising approximately 1 million random subjects. RVO and AF were diagnosed based on the Korean Classification of Disease codes. The RVO group was composed of patients with an initial diagnosis of RVO made between 2003 and 2007 (n = 1,801), excluding those who were diagnosed in 2002. The comparison group was composed of randomly selected patients (5 for each patient with RVO, n = 8,930) who were matched to the RVO group according to sociodemographic factors and the year of enrollment. Each sampled patient was tracked until 2013. The predictive value of RVO for AF was analyzed using Cox regression analysis with a hazard ratio (HR) and confidence interval (CI). AF developed in 6.5% of patients in the RVO group and 4.0% of those in the comparison group (p < 0.001). RVO was associated with a greater risk of AF development after adjusting for possible confounders (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.09–1.67). An association between RVO and subsequent AF development was found after adjusting for possible confounding factors. PMID:27819343

  1. Evaluation of the Association Between Retinal Vein Occlusion and the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation Development: A 12-Year, Retrospective Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Oh, Jaewon; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Lee, Sung Chul; Kang, Seok-Min; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-11-07

    We aimed to evaluate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) development following retinal vein occlusion (RVO). We performed a nationwide propensity score-matched cohort study by retrospectively reviewing a database from the Korean National Health Insurance Service, comprising approximately 1 million random subjects. RVO and AF were diagnosed based on the Korean Classification of Disease codes. The RVO group was composed of patients with an initial diagnosis of RVO made between 2003 and 2007 (n = 1,801), excluding those who were diagnosed in 2002. The comparison group was composed of randomly selected patients (5 for each patient with RVO, n = 8,930) who were matched to the RVO group according to sociodemographic factors and the year of enrollment. Each sampled patient was tracked until 2013. The predictive value of RVO for AF was analyzed using Cox regression analysis with a hazard ratio (HR) and confidence interval (CI). AF developed in 6.5% of patients in the RVO group and 4.0% of those in the comparison group (p < 0.001). RVO was associated with a greater risk of AF development after adjusting for possible confounders (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.09-1.67). An association between RVO and subsequent AF development was found after adjusting for possible confounding factors.

  2. Language Impairment from 4 to 12 Years: Prediction and Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors of this article examined the etiology of developmental language impairment (LI) at 4 and 12 years of age, as well as the relationship between the 2. Method: Phenotypic and quantitative genetic analyses using longitudinal data from the Twins Early Development Study (Oliver & Plomin, 2007) were conducted. A total of 2,923…

  3. Reading and spelling abilities in children with severe speech impairments and cerebral palsy at 6, 9, and 12 years of age in relation to cognitive development: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika

    2006-08-01

    Development of literacy skills was studied in six children (one male, five females) with severe speech impairments and cerebral palsy (CP). These skills were related to intellectual development, phonological abilities, and short-term memory. Three of the children were diagnosed with dystonia, and three with diplegia. They had no, or severely restricted, independent mobility (Gross Motor Function Classification System Level IV for four children and Level V for two), and severe fine motor problems, including difficulty with pointing. As they had no intelligible speech, the Bliss system was the primary communication mode. Assessments were made at approximately 6, 9, and 12 years of age. The results revealed that the children had difficulties acquiring literacy skills, although intellectual level and phonological ability predicted otherwise. Positive development during the first 3 years was followed by an arrest. A conspicuous decrease in IQ points was also found. Thus, phonological ability does not seem to have the same predictive power for literacy development in children with severe speech impairments and CP as in typically developing children. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of phonological abilities, working memory, and strategies used in literacy acquisition in these children. Such studies might also clarify the importance of articulatory abilities in early literacy acquisition.

  4. Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children.

  5. Evaluation of screen time activities and their relationship with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status in children 10-12 years of age in Sanandaj, Iran: A cross-sectional study in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Nouri, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Screen time (ST), including watching television and playing electronic games are the leading cause of a growing obesity epidemic. This study aimed to evaluate ST and its association with physical activity, overweight and socioeconomic status (SES) in children 10 to 12 years of age in Sanandaj. Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Sanandaj in 2015. ST and physical activity data were collected using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ). Overweight indices are defined based on BMI age- and gender-specific percentiles, as proposed by WHO criteria. Considering household assets data, SES was calculated using principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship between ST and different determinants was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Based on the results obtained in our study, 47.28% (95% CI: 45.33-49.24) of the participants spent more than two hours a day on television and video watching and electronic games playing. People who spend greater time on ST activities, independent of their physical activities, are more susceptible to overweight and obesity (p=0.002). People in higher socioeconomic groups spent more time on watching TV and video and playing electronic games (p=0.001). There was a direct relationship between the residential area and ST (P=0.052). ST in male was found to be greater (p=0.033). In addition, ST was also lower in school-aged children whose mothers had a greater education (p=0.56). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to increase the education level and knowledge of mothers and design interventions consistent with children gender and residential location so that to reduce ST and its associated outcomes in children. PMID:28210613

  6. Urban environment adherence to the Mediterranean diet and prevalence of asthma symptoms among 10- to 12-year-old children: The Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens study.

    PubMed

    Grigoropoulou, Dimitra; Priftis, Kostas N; Yannakoulia, Mary; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Yfanti, Konstantina; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed several associations between asthma symptoms and environmental and dietary factors, but the potential environment- diet interactions on asthma incidence have rarely been investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the interrelationships between urban/rural environment, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, the Mediterranean diet, and childhood asthma. A cross-sectional survey was performed and 1125 (529 boys), 10- to 12-year-old children were selected from 18 schools located in urban Athens area (n = 700) and from 10 schools located in rural areas of Ilia and Viotia (n = 425), Greece. Children and their parents completed standardized questionnaires, which evaluated, among others, environmental factors and dietary habits. Asthma was defined according to Phase II of the International Study on Allergies and Asthma in Childhood criteria. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean and Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents (KIDMED) score. Living in urban areas was associated with higher odds of ever had asthma symptoms by 1.78 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.54) when compared with rural areas. In contrast, 1-unit increase in the KIDMED score was associated with 16% lower likelihood of having asthma symptoms (95% CI, 0.77-0.91), after adjusting for various confounders. When stratifying the analysis by area of living it was observed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower likelihood of asthma in both urban and rural areas (urban, odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.73-0.91; rural, OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00). Urban environment seems to increase the likelihood of childhood asthma, whereas adherence to the healthy Mediterranean dietary pattern could mediate the aforementioned association and confers significant protection.

  7. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Grace Period Study ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The...Collection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Grace Period Study comment'' in the subject line of the message... are not fully understood. Few studies in the past ten years have dealt with the grace period, and...

  8. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  9. The incidence of motocross injuries: a 12-year investigation.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alberto; Tuy, Benjamin; Panuncialman, Ian

    2004-11-01

    Off-road motorcycling is one of the most popular sports activities practiced by millions of people in the world but little has been written on motocross traumatology and its prevention. This paper aims to evaluate motocross injuries in terms of injury ratio, location, causes, and possible prevention in a series of competitions organized by Motorcyclistic Federations over a 12-year period. We retrospectively evaluated 1,500 accidents with 1,870 rider injuries out of a group of 15,870 athletes participating in European off-road competition from 1980 to 1991. Data were collected from race medical reports, insurance declarations and follow-up forms filled up by riders involved in accidents. We then classified the type and location of the injury, modality of the accident, the protective gear used and the recovery of the riders. We compared our data to lesions noted in motorcycle road races using the chi-square test and the z-test. The overall incidence of motocross injuries in our study was 94.5 per thousand, while stadium cross competitions had a 150 per thousand rate and outdoor motocross a rate of 76 per thousand representing a risk of accident of 22.72 per thousand hours of riding. Among the total of 1,870 injuries, 1076 were bruises; 27.9% of these were in the upper extremities, 26.9% on the lower, 21.2% on the trunk, and 16% on the face. There were 450 fractures recorded, 50.9% in the upper extremities, 38% in the lower, and the rest were on the spine, chest, and skull. The 26 spine fractures (5.8%) produced permanent neurologic sequelae in eight patients. Ligamentous lesions accounted for 344 cases with 206 (59.9%) occurring in the lower extremities especially on the knee (42.4%). Head trauma was noted in 86 cases (5.7% of accidents) producing coma in 3%, and loss of consciousness in 14%. Limb involvement for all types of injuries were more frequent on the left side (60%). Motocross is a high-risk sport: our study revealed the most common modalities and types of

  10. Coming of Age in the 1990s: The Eighth-Grade Class of 1988 12 Years Later. Initial Results from the Fourth Follow-Up to the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Curtin, Thomas R.; Kaufman, Phillip; Alt, Martha Naomi; Chen, Xianglei; Owings, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the eighth grade cohort of 1888 in the year 2000. It presents findings from the fourth followup survey of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), from the year in which most cohort members turned 26. The period in which this cohort attended school saw major initiatives in educational reform in the United…

  11. A 12-year comparison of students’ perspectives on diversity at a Jesuit Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Mujawar, Imran; Sabatino, Matt; Mitchell, Stephen Ray; Walker, Benjamin; Weissinger, Peggy; Plankey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have assessed perspectives of medical students toward institutional diversity, but few of them have attempted to map changes in diversity climate over time. Objective This study aims to investigate changes in diversity climate at a Jesuit medical institution over a 12-year period. Methods In 1999, 334 medical students completed an anonymous self-administered online survey, and 12 years later, 406 students completed a comparable survey in 2011. Chi-square tests assessed the differences in percent responses to questions of the two surveys, related to three identities: gender, race, and sexual orientation. Results The 1999 versus 2011 samples were 46% versus 49% female, 61% versus 61% Caucasian, and 41% vs. 39% aged 25 years or older. Findings suggested improvements in medical students’ perceptions surrounding equality ‘in general’ across the three identities (p<0.001); ‘in the practice of medicine’ based on gender (p<0.001), race/ethnicity (p=0.60), and sexual orientation (p=0.43); as well as in the medical school curriculum, including course text content, professor’s delivery and student–faculty interaction (p<0.001) across the three identities. There was a statistically significant decrease in experienced or witnessed events related to gender bias (p<0.001) from 1999 to 2011; however, reported events of bias based on race/ethnicity (p=0.69) and sexual orientation (p=0.58) only showed small decreases. Conclusions It may be postulated that the improvement in students’ self-perceptions of equality and diversity over the past 12 years may have been influenced by a generational acceptance of cultural diversity and, the inclusion of diversity training courses within the medical curriculum. Diversity training related to race and sexual orientation should be expanded, including a follow-up survey to assess the effectiveness of any intervention. PMID:24581334

  12. 12-year survival of composite vs. amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Opdam, N J M; Bronkhorst, E M; Loomans, B A C; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2010-10-01

    Information about the long-term clinical survival of large amalgam and composite restorations is still lacking. This retrospective study compares the longevity of three- and four-/five-surface amalgam and composite restorations relative to patients' caries risk. Patient records from a general practice were used for data collection. We evaluated 1949 large class II restorations (1202 amalgam/747 composite). Dates of placement, replacement, and failure were recorded, and caries risk of patients was assessed. Survival was calculated from Kaplan-Meier statistics. After 12 years, 293 amalgam and 114 composite restorations had failed. Large composite restorations showed a higher survival in the combined population and in the low-risk group. For three-surface restorations in high-risk patients, amalgam showed better survival.

  13. Smoke-free parks: a 12-year-old made it happen.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Carlene E; Newton, Donna R; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2003-04-01

    This case study examines how a 12-year-old in the City of Grand Terrace, California was able to get the city council to adopt a resolution making city parks smoke-free/tobacco-free zones in his community. Over a three-month period of time, this 12-year-old (with tremendous support from his parents and sister) applied for and received a mini-grant from the Tri-County SOUTH Regional Tobacco-Free Project and implemented "The Terrace is GRAND with Smoke-Free Parks" activities. This young man recruited 11 youth and 9 adults, trained them in the basics of tobacco prevention called Tobacco 101, and collected 100 surveys and 809 petition signatures supporting smoke-free parks from residents in Grand Terrace. They also collected trash in their parks and separated it into two groups: tobacco-related trash and all other trash. This 12-year-old met with the mayor of Grand Terrace to ask for support for this issue and scheduled a time to present his group's findings to the city council. On June 22, 2000, the youths presented council members with the tobacco-trash collected, the petition signatures, taped end-to-end, that stretched across the council chambers, and asked the city council to make their parks smoke/tobacco-free. Council members acknowledged the excellent work implemented by these youths, adopted a resolution making all parks (except one senior park) tobacco-free, and agreed to place signage in the parks. On August 24, 2000, the city council presented him with his own "Tobacco-Free Zone" sign as an acknowledgment for his hard work in making parks safe places for youths in Grand Terrace.

  14. Non-Periodic Helix TWT Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS CA ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-PERIODIC HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-PERIODIC HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-Periodic Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-Periodic Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6

  15. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  16. Medical Care and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... Talking to Your Child About Puberty Understanding Puberty Communication and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old Contact ...

  17. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, César Tadeo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Veras-Hernández, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (<1/d vs. at least 1/d), 2) Use of toothpaste (not always vs. always), 3) Flossing (never, does not know vs. at least 1/week), 4) Use of mouthwash (never, does not know vs. at least 1/week). Analyses were performed with nonparametric tests. RESULTS. Mean age was 8.97 ± 1.99 years; 50.1% were male. Prevalence of utilization of oral hygiene devices and associated customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables.

  18. MR LLRF VXI upgrade beam study period

    SciTech Connect

    Mesiner, K.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    AD/RFI/LLRF group personnel performed several studies with the MR LLRF VXI upgrade system during the evening of 7/29/95. The study period lasted about 4 hours. The MR operating conditions were a mixture of $29 and $2B cycles, with beam injected only on the $29. The author believes the $2B cycles were present for reasons unrelated to the study. The basic study period goal was to test the initial VXI version of MR LLRF finite state machine (FSM) execution. This goal represents what has been called MR LLRF VXI Upgrade Implementation Stage No.2 throughout presentations and documentation on the upgrade project. The test includes control of MR LLRF NIM hardware, the MR RF cavities, and beam via XVI TTL FSM outputs. Numerous MR LLRF VXI system objects, or components, must work together correctly for a successful test. Very briefly, the required objects include VXI Front End hardware, the ACNET/Front End interface code, and the VXI/NIM Interface chassis (the chassis solves VXI-CAMAC-NIM RF and FSM output connectivity and development problems). Though this initial FSM does not yet fully support Upgrade Implementation Stage 2 functionality, all code and hardware for the following basic functionality is tested.

  19. Topological study of the periodic system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Mesa, Héber; Llanos, Eugenio J; Villaveces, José L

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a topological study of the Space of Chemical Elements, SCE, based on a clustering analysis of 72 elements, each one defined by a vector of 31 properties. We looked for neighborhoods, boundaries, and other topological properties of the SCE. Among the results one sees the well-known patterns of the Periodic Table and relationships such as the Singularity Principle and the Diagonal Relationship, but there appears also a robustness property of some of the better-known families of elements. Alkaline metals and Noble Gases are sets whose neighborhoods have no other elements besides themselves, whereas the topological boundary of the set of metals is formed by semimetallic elements.

  20. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Neonatal Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A 12-Year Case-Control-Control Study of a Referral Center in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62.3%), E. coli (20.8%) and Enterobacter spp. (16.9%). Most ESBL-GNB strains were genetically unrelated and the SHV-type ESBLs were the most prevalent (67% of isolates). Comparison with both control groups disclosed previous usage of 3rd generation cephalosporin (odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03–10.97; P < 0.001), and underlying renal disease (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.10–15.08; P = 0.035) as independent risk factors for ESBL-GNB. Inadequate empiric antibiotics, a higher illness severity, higher rates of infectious complications and sepsis-attributable mortality were more frequently seen in neonates with ESBL-GNB than those with non-ESBL GNB (20.8% and 15.6% vs. 9.2% and 7.9%, respectively; P = 0.008 and 0.049, respectively). Neonates with underlying secondary hypertension (OR, 7.22; 95% CI, 2.17–24.06) and infectious complications after bacteremia (OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 1.81–19.31) were identified as independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. ESBL-GNB accounted for one-seventh of all neonatal gram-negative bacteremia, especially in neonates exposed to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Neonates with ESBL-GNB bacteremia more frequently received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, which were associated with a higher rate of infectious complications and an adverse outcome. PMID:27505270

  1. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus, with…

  2. [Pervasive refusal syndrome in a 12-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ann-Margrethe Rønholt; Thelle, Thomas

    2011-04-18

    We describe a formerly healthy boy aged 12 years with a two-month history of severe coughing and abdominal pain leading to school absence. During admission he became increasingly immobilised and unable to perform activities of daily life, and finally simply adopted the foetal position and needed gastric tube feeding. Gradual restitution was achieved during a 34-month stay as an inpatient at a child psychiatric department. He fulfilled all proposed criteria of the pervasive refusal syndrome. At a follow-up at the age of 20 years, he was pursuing a normal independent life with his girlfriend and was attending higher education.

  3. Polyurethane-covered mammary implants: a 12-year experience.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M; Gargani, G

    1992-10-01

    Polyurethane-covered mammary implants are the implants of choice in aesthetic and reconstructive mammary surgery. These implants give very good results in regard to breast contour and consistency, and have a very low complication rate. We present our 12-year experience using polyurethane-covered prostheses. We place the implant mostly in the subglandular or subcutaneous site, and their capsular contracture rate is extremely low (3.3%). Based on our experience, we also review the other complications and side effects occurring with polyurethane prostheses and discuss them in detail.

  4. Language Outcomes at 12 Years for Children Exposed Prenatally to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Min, Meeyoung O.; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Singer, Lynn T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on the language development of 12-year-old children using a prospective design, controlling for confounding prenatal drug exposure and environmental factors. Method: Children who were exposed to cocaine in utero (PCE; "n" = 183)…

  5. Happiness and Depression in the Traditionally Bullied and Cyberbullied 12-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the overall happiness, school-related happiness, and depression of traditionally bullied and cyberbullied 12-year-old Finnish students. Among the more than 700 participants, traditional bullying (26%) was more frequent than cyberbullying (18%). Receiving insulting text messages or being the subject of offensive comments on…

  6. Common Aetiology for Diverse Language Skills in 4 1/2-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.

    2006-01-01

    Multivariate genetic analysis was used to examine the genetic and environmental aetiology of the interrelationships of diverse linguistic skills. This study used data from a large sample of 4 1/2-year-old twins who were tested on measures assessing articulation, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and verbal memory. Phenotypic analysis suggested two…

  7. Extradural Spinal Schwannoma in 12 Year Old Child : A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Toh Charng; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; George, Jain; Tharakan KJ, John; Casilda, Sharon; Ghazali, Mazira Mohamad; Jaafar, Hasnan; Salmah, Win Mar

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of a 12 year old girl who presented with cord compression. Imaging studies demonstrated an extradural spinal tumour in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar levels. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma while associated findings suggested the possibility of Neurofibromatosis Type I. PMID:22605960

  8. Rescue missions for totally buried avalanche victims: conclusions from 12 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Hohlrieder, Matthias; Thaler, Stephanie; Wuertl, Walter; Voelckel, Wolfgang; Ulmer, Hanno; Brugger, Hermann; Mair, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The planning and execution of avalanche rescue missions to search for totally buried avalanche victims are mostly based on personal experience and preference, as evidence-based information from literature is almost completely missing. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify major factors determining the survival probability of totally buried victims during avalanche rescue missions carried out by organized rescue teams (Austrian Mountain Rescue Service, Tyrol). During the 12-year period studied, 109 totally buried persons (56 off-piste, 53 backcountry), were rescued or recovered; 18.3% survived to hospital discharge. Median depth of burial was 1.25 m; median duration of burial was 85 min. The majority (61.6%) of the rescue missions were conducted under considerably dangerous avalanche conditions. The probability of survival was highest when located visually and lowest for those located by avalanche transceiver; survival did not significantly differ between those found by rescue dogs and those located with avalanche probes. Multivariate analysis revealed short duration of burial and off-piste terrain to be the two independent predictors of survival. Whenever companion rescue fails, snow burial in an avalanche is associated with extraordinarily high mortality. Searching the avalanche debris with probe lines seems to be equally effective as compared to searching with rescue dogs. The potential hazard for rescuers during avalanche rescue missions comes mainly from self-triggered avalanches, hence thorough mission planning and critical risk-benefit assessment are of utmost importance for risk reduction.

  9. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  10. Partial Left Ventriculectomy: Have Well-Succeeded Cases and Innovations in the Procedure Been Observed in the Last 12 Years?

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, José Sérgio; Vale, Marcos de Paula; Barbosa, Marcos Pinotti

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In 1996, the Brazilian cardiovascular surgeon, Dr. Randas Batista, introduced a surgical technique called partial left ventriculectomy, where he admitted the possibility of reducing the diameter of the left ventricle through the sectioning of one section of its wall. After the publication of this study, thousands of case reports and procedure analysis have been published, and due to several disappointing results, many doctors and institutions failed to execute it. As the main objective of this study, stands out the search for success cases of ventriculectomy in the last 12 years and if during this period it was achieved some significant development in this procedure that allows obtaining lower mortality rate postoperatively. METHODS Systematic review of indexed scientific literature over the past 12 years and the term "Partial Left Ventriculectomy". RESULTS There has been a considerable number of reported successful cases and highly significant findings in regard to determining the most suitable region for the section, proper selection of the patients indicated to the procedure, including the influence of the coronary artery anatomy in the nomination procedure and the need for preservation of ventricular geometry to ensure better quality of ventricular contractions after the sectioning. CONCLUSION This surgical procedure has been successfully performed, mainly in Japan, improvements in its efficiency were found and the need for a mathematical modeling of the slice to be severed is a prominent factor in many studies. PMID:26735606

  11. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain.

  12. Remodeling of tibial fractures in children younger than 12 years.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Amitabh Jitendra; John, Bobby; Krishen, Maharaj; Hora, Rajeev

    2007-05-01

    Forty-eight children with an average age of 7.2 years (range: 3-12 years) were examined clinically and radiographically at an average 4-year follow-up (range: 2-10 years), between 1989 and 2000 to analyze correction of deformities following tibial shaft fractures. An inconsistent alteration in the length of the fractured tibia was observed. Anterior angular deformity realigned maximally (52.7%) followed by varus (40.9%) and valgus (23.9%) deformities. Posterior deformity corrected the least (18.5%). In the sagittal plane, acceptable critical anterior and posterior angular deformities that corrected completely were 12 degrees and 6 degrees respectively. In the coronal plane, acceptable critical angular deformities were 10 degrees varus and 8 degrees valgus.

  13. Multivariate prediction of motor diagnosis in Huntington's disease: 12 years of PREDICT‐HD

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well known in Huntington's disease that cytosine‐adenine‐guanine expansion and age at study entry are predictive of the timing of motor diagnosis. The goal of this study was to assess whether additional motor, imaging, cognitive, functional, psychiatric, and demographic variables measured at study entry increased the ability to predict the risk of motor diagnosis over 12 years. Methods One thousand seventy‐eight Huntington's disease gene–expanded carriers (64% female) from the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington's Disease study were followed up for up to 12 y (mean = 5, standard deviation = 3.3) covering 2002 to 2014. No one had a motor diagnosis at study entry, but 225 (21%) carriers prospectively received a motor diagnosis. Analysis was performed with random survival forests, which is a machine learning method for right‐censored data. Results Adding 34 variables along with cytosine‐adenine‐guanine and age substantially increased predictive accuracy relative to cytosine‐adenine‐guanine and age alone. Adding six of the common motor and cognitive variables (total motor score, diagnostic confidence level, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, three Stroop tests) resulted in lower predictive accuracy than the full set, but still had twice the 5‐y predictive accuracy than when using cytosine‐adenine‐guanine and age alone. Additional analysis suggested interactions and nonlinear effects that were characterized in a post hoc Cox regression model. Conclusions Measurement of clinical variables can substantially increase the accuracy of predicting motor diagnosis over and above cytosine‐adenine‐guanine and age (and their interaction). Estimated probabilities can be used to characterize progression level and aid in future studies' sample selection. © 2015 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:26340420

  14. Stability of Intimate Partner Violence by Men across 12 Years in Young Adulthood: Effects of Relationship Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.; Feingold, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the stability of young men’s intimate partner violence (IPV) over a 12-year period as a function of relationship continuity or discontinuity. Multiwave measures of IPV (physical and psychological aggression) were obtained from 184 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners. The effects of relationship continuity versus transitions on change in IPV were examined using multilevel analyses. In general, men’s IPV decreased over time. Men’s physical aggression in their early 20s predicted levels of physical aggression about 7 years later, and men’s psychological aggression in their early 20s predicted levels of psychological aggression about 10-12 years later. As hypothesized, higher stability in IPV was found for men who stayed with the same partners, whereas men experiencing relationship transitions showed greater change. The IPV of new partners was linked to the changes in men’s IPV that occurred with repartnering. There was less change in men’s IPV over time as men changed partners less frequently. PMID:21311973

  15. Los Azufres geothermal field: Observed response after 12-year exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    Exploitation of the Los Azufres Geothermal field was initiated in August 1982, with the electric power generation of five 5-MW wellhead units. Since then another 70 MW have been installed. A large amount of information has been compiled, including geologic, geochemical, production, and reservoir characteristics. The data were evaluated to detect the extent of observable changes in the main reservoir parameters over the twelve-year production period. Pressure and temperature measurements in Los Azufres wells show that geothermal fluid distribution is strongly influenced by the presence of permeable structures. Wellhead production and chemical analysis of the separated brine show that we are dealing with a highly heterogeneous reservoir, were the drawdown and enthalpy changes depend on the position of the well being studied.

  16. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept.

  17. Geophysical trends from 12+ years of AIRS radiance trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Strow, Larrabee; Tangborn, Andrew; Hepplewhite, Chris; Motteler, Howard; Schou, Paul; Buczkowski, Steve

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder has daily been providing low noise, stable top-of-the atmosphere hyperspectral radiances since 2002. Here we present analysis from 12 year linear radiance trends obtained from two AIRS radiance subsets : (1) clear-sky scenes over ocean and (2) all-sky scenes along the nadir track, which are used to retrieve a geophysical trends using an optimal estimation approach. The retrieved clear sky trends compare favorably with ERA and MERRA re-analysis trends, and in-situ trends for the minor gases. Analysis of all-sky trends show they agree better with ERA than either MERRA or the AIRS Level-2 retrievals. The radiance trends provide highly accurate measurements of atmospheric variability with easily understood error characteristics, unlike typical Level 2 retrievals. These approaches should provide highly accurate measurements of a variety of climate trends (temperature and humidity profiles, land surface temperature, cloud radiative forcing) as the AIRS (or AIRS + JPSS/CrIS + IASI) instrument time-series extends to 15+ years.

  18. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  19. Loss of control eating disorder in children age 12 years and younger: proposed research criteria.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Marcus, Marsha D; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2008-08-01

    Binge eating is common in middle childhood (6-12 years) and often presents in concert with disordered eating attitudes, emotional distress, overweight and adiposity. Binge eating is also predictive of excessive weight gain and is associated with energy intake. However, few children meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for binge eating disorder, thereby making treatment recommendations a challenge. We propose criteria for a new diagnosis, Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children age 12 years and younger, for further study. The criteria put forward are a revision of Marcus and Kalarchian's [Marcus, M.D., & Kalarchian, M.A. (2003). Binge eating in children and adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34 Suppl, S47-S57.] provisional binge eating disorder research criteria for children 14 years and younger, and are based upon the evolving literature in children with binge and loss of control eating episodes. A rationale for the new criteria set is provided, and future research directions are proposed.

  20. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  1. [Nosocomial infections. Trends over a 12 year-period in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Lugo, Irma; Espinosa-Vital, Guadalupe Judith; Rodríguez-Sing, Roberta; Gómez-González, Claudia Josefina; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones nosocomiales constituyen uno de los principales problemas de salud en los hospitales, por ello, los programas de prevención y control deben ser evaluados con el impacto en las tasas de incidencia. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar la tendencia de las infecciones nosocomiales durante un periodo de 12 años en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes hospitalizados que presentaron infecciones nosocomiales. El análisis estadístico de los datos incluyó frecuencias simples, proporciones y densidad de incidencia por año, sitio de infección y letalidad.

  2. Laryngeal Cancer: 12-Year Experience of a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Calkovsky, V; Wallenfels, P; Calkovska, A; Hajtman, A

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is about the twentieth most common cancer in the world and more than 150,000 new cases are diagnosed annually. The aim of the study was to evaluate the history, diagnostics, treatment outcomes, and prognosis in patients with laryngeal cancer in Northern Slovakia. We analyzed retrospectively 227 patients (207 males, 20 females) with laryngeal carcinoma treated in the period 2003-2014 at the Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery of the Jessenius Faculty of Medicine and Martin University Hospital in Martin, Slovakia. The majority of patients were in the sixth (38.0 %) and seventh decade of life (30.8 %). Two hundred and seventeen patients (95.6 %) were smokers or ex-smokers. Sixty-six percent of patients were diagnosed with glottic or transglottic carcinoma, related probably to the anatomical structure of the larynx and exposure to inhalation pollutants. It is alarming that the majority of patients with malignant laryngeal disease were admitted to the hospital in advanced stages. In 151 (66.5 %) of patients, the extent of infiltration was T3 or T4, and 156 (68 %) patients were in disease stage III and IV. The incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer suggest the need to intensify the prevention and to search for an early clinical stage of laryngeal cancer using a targeted screening.

  3. Staged surgical management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a single institution 12 year experience

    PubMed Central

    McGuirk, S P; Griselli, M; Stumper, O F; Rumball, E M; Miller, P; Dhillon, R; de Giovanni, J V; Wright, J G; Barron, D J; Brawn, W J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe a 12 year experience with staged surgical management of the hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and to identify the factors that influenced outcome. Methods Between December 1992 and June 2004, 333 patients with HLHS underwent a Norwood procedure (median age 4 days, range 0–217 days). Subsequently 203 patients underwent a bidirectional Glenn procedure (stage II) and 81 patients underwent a modified Fontan procedure (stage III). Follow up was complete (median interval 3.7 years, range 32 days to 11.3 years). Results Early mortality after the Norwood procedure was 29% (n  =  95); this decreased from 46% (first year) to 16% (last year; p < 0.05). Between stages, 49 patients died, 27 before stage II and 22 between stages II and III. There were one early and three late deaths after stage III. Actuarial survival (SEM) was 58% (3%) at one year and 50% (3%) at five and 10 years. On multivariable analysis, five factors influenced early mortality after the Norwood procedure (p < 0.05). Pulmonary blood flow supplied by a right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV‐PA) conduit, arch reconstruction with pulmonary homograft patch, and increased operative weight improved early mortality. Increased periods of cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest increased early mortality. Similar factors also influenced actuarial survival after the Norwood procedure. Conclusion This study identified an improvement in outcome after staged surgical management of HLHS, which was primarily attributable to changes in surgical technique. The RV‐PA conduit, in particular, was associated with a notable and independent improvement in early and actuarial survival. PMID:15939721

  4. The Conconi test: methodology after 12 years of application.

    PubMed

    Conconi, F; Grazzi, G; Casoni, I; Guglielmini, C; Borsetto, C; Ballarin, E; Mazzoni, G; Patracchini, M; Manfredini, F

    1996-10-01

    The protocol for the determination of the speed/heart rate relationship during incremental exercise previously described (so-called Conconi test) has been refined and in part modified during 12 years of application. The new protocol calls for time-based increments in exercise intensity that are uniform up to submaximal speeds and progressively greater in the final phase. As in the original article (18), the speed/heart rate relationship is linear at low to moderate speed and curvilinear from submaximal to maximal speeds. A method is presented for the mathematical definition of this relationship, with the calculation of the straight-line equation of the linear phase and the identification of the point of transition from the linear to the curvilinear phase (deflection point or heart rate break-point). Analysis of 300 tests selected at random from those in our data base (more than 5,000 tests) has enabled us to show that the speed at which the deflection point occurs is significantly lower (p < 0.001) than that at which the acceleration of the final phase begins. This fact demonstrates that the break-point is not brought on by the final acceleration called for in the test protocol. Analysis of the speed/heart rate relationship allows for the determination of the following additional functional indices: 1) maximal heart rate (in 21 athletes the maximal heart rate attained in the test and that attained while racing were equal); 2) range of heart beats defining the linear part of the speed/heart rate relationship; 3) range of heart beats from the deflection point to maximal heart rate; and 4) maximal aerobic exercise intensity, obtained through extrapolation of the straight-line equation to maximal heart rate. Data are provided on the conditions of the test subject that modify his speed/heart rate relationship, such as incomplete recovery from previous efforts, inadequate warm-up, or inadequate test procedure with too rapid increments in exercise intensity. Finally

  5. ULS Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Arnold; And Others

    Developed in response to issues raised about the circulation of bound periodicals, the cost of photocopies, and the condition of the photocopiers, this report of the Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services at the Virginia Commonwealth University libraries recommends goals for periodicals services for both campuses of the university.…

  6. Free gingival grafting procedure after excisional biopsy, 12-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Keskiner, Ilker; Alkan, B. Arzu; Tasdemir, Zekeriya

    2016-01-01

    The total removal of a lesion via excisional biopsy causes gingival recession, resulting in dentin hypersensitivity and esthetical problems. In this case report, a gingival recession defect resulting from an excisional biopsy was treated with a free gingival grafting procedure performed during the same appointment, and its 12-year follow-up was presented. A 44-year-old female patient was presented to our clinic with a firm, pedunculated, red gingival enlargement located on the labial surface of lower incisors. The exposed root surface, after the excisional biopsy, was covered with a free gingival graft. The lesion was pathologically diagnosed as pyogenic granuloma, and in the early postoperative phase, no recurrence was observed, but partial root coverage was determined. At 6-month follow-up, root coverage resulting from “creeping attachment” was observed, and this situation was maintained throughout the 12-year follow-up period. Repetitious postoperative discomfort and emotional stress for the patient may be avoided with a timesaving single appointment performing excisional biopsy and free gingival graft. Free gingival grafting procedure was used for this purpose not only to cover exposed root surfaces but also to eliminate dentin hypersensitivity and make oral hygiene procedures more effective. PMID:27403067

  7. Soil physiochemical changes following 12 years of annual burning in a humid--subtropical tallgrass prairie: a hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brye, Kristofor R.

    2006-11-01

    Burning is known to stimulate growth of grassland vegetation, promote species diversity, and inhibit natural invasion by woody plants. However, the frequency at which grasslands are burned as part of their management can affect soil nutrient content and, ultimately, productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in soil physical and chemical properties in a native tallgrass prairie after 12 years of annual burning. In 1989, five soil samples from the 0 to 10 cm depth were collected along a transect through a 3 ha parcel of native tallgrass prairie in central Arkansas. Soil sampling was repeated in 2001 to assess changes over time. Results showed that soil bulk density, electrical conductivity, extractable P, Na, Fe, and Mn decreased significantly ( P < 0.05), while soil organic matter, total N and C, and the C/N ratio increased significantly ( P < 0.05) within the 12-year period during which annual burning was the only imposed management practice. Mean extractable K, Ca, Mg, S, and Zn levels were all lower in 2001 than in 1989, but differences were not significant, while soil pH did not change. The results of this study indicate that annual export of several essential plant nutrients during prescribed burning of relatively small, remnant prairie fragments exceeds annual imports from atmospheric deposition and/or organic matter mineralization. Annual prescribed burning may be too frequent to maintain optimal ecosystem functioning and productivity. Decreasing the frequency of prescribed burning for native grassland management may help to retain more soil nutrients to sustain a higher level of productivity.

  8. Decay Rates and Semi-stable Fraction Formation after 12 years of Foliar Litter Decomposition in Canadian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smyth, C.; Moore, T.; Prescott, C.; Titus, B.; Siltanen, M.; Visser, S.; Preston, C. M.; Nault, J.

    2009-12-01

    Litter decay in early and midphases of decomposition have been shown to highly influenced by climate and substrate quality, however factors affecting decay during the late semi-stable phase are less well understood. The Canadian Intersite Decomposition Experiment (CIDET) was established in 1992 with the objective of providing data on the long-term rates of litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization for a range of forested ecoclimatic regions in Canada. Such data were needed to help verify models used for national C accounting, as well as aid in the development of other soil C models. CIDET examined the annual decay, over a 12-year period, of 10 standard foliar litters and 2 wood substrates at 18 forested upland and 3 wetland sites ranging from the cool temperate to subarctic regions, a nearly 20oC span in temperature. On a subset of sites and litter types, changes in litter C chemistry over time were also determined. Over the first 6 years, C/N ratio and iron increased, NMR showed an overall decline in O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) and increase in alkyl, aromatic, phenolic, and carboxyl C. Proximate analysis showed the acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) increases, but true lignin did not accumulate, in contrast to the conceptual ligno-cellulose model of decomposition. Litter decay during first phase was related to initial litter quality (AUR and water soluble extract), winter precipitation, but not temperature, suggesting the importance of leaching during this phase. Decay rate “k” during the mid phase was related to temperature, initial litter quality (AUR and AUR/N), summer precipitation, but not soil N. In most cases decay had approached an asymptote before end of experiment. Although annual temperature was the best single predictor for 12-year asymptotes, summer precipitation and forest floor pH and C/N ratio were the best set of combined predictors. The changes in the decay factors during different phases may explain some of the discrepancies in the

  9. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  10. Dermatophytoses in the Gdańsk area, Poland: a 12-year survey.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, R

    1996-01-01

    A survey of dermatophytes and dermatophytoses was carried out among patients of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Gdańsk, in the years 1984-95. Over the 12-year period, 1195 cases of ringworm were seen: 55% in men and 45% in women. Listing the dermatophytes isolated and their frequencies as a percentage of the total are as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes 42.1%, Microsporum canis 26.0%, Trichophyton rubrum 14.7%, Epidermophyton floccosum 11.0%, Trichophyton tonsurans 4.6%, Trichophyton verrucosum 1.3%, Trichophyton violaceum 0.3%. The most common clinical variant of dermatophytosis in the Gdańsk area was tinea cutis glabrae (32.9%), followed by tinea pedis (24%), onychomycosis (16.5%), tinea capitis (11.9%)), tinea inguinalis (10.3%) and tinea manuum (4.4%). Dermatophytoses were significantly more frequent among adults (> 15 years) (71.3%).

  11. Magnitude of Anemia and Hematological Predictors among Children under 12 Years in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Shuchismita; Bulliyya, Gandham

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anemia is a wide spread public health problem in India which affects children. The present study evaluates the prevalence of anemia and status of various hematological parameters among children of Khurda district, Odisha. Method. A total of 313 children aged 0-12 years were enrolled for the study which included preschool (0-5 years) and school aged (6-12 years) groups. Hematological indicators were measured by standard procedures, which include red blood cell (RBC) indicators, white blood cell (WBC) indicators, and plasma ferritin. Results. Mean hemoglobin (Hb) of the study population was 10.43 ± 3.33 g/dL and prevalence of anemia was 62%. In this population, boys had a lower mean Hb value than that of the girls. All grades of anemia were higher among school age children than preschool children. Mean plasma ferritin was found to be higher in school age boys than their counterpart girls. The mean level of WBC count was found to be higher among preschool age boys than among the school age boys (p = 0.025). Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was higher with concomitant acute infection among study population, which is a matter of concern. Since the hematological parameters are interrelated with each other as well as with the age and gender, relevant intervention strategy and constant monitoring are needed while providing public health nutrition programs to eradicate anemia.

  12. Magnitude of Anemia and Hematological Predictors among Children under 12 Years in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Shuchismita; Bulliyya, Gandham

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anemia is a wide spread public health problem in India which affects children. The present study evaluates the prevalence of anemia and status of various hematological parameters among children of Khurda district, Odisha. Method. A total of 313 children aged 0–12 years were enrolled for the study which included preschool (0–5 years) and school aged (6–12 years) groups. Hematological indicators were measured by standard procedures, which include red blood cell (RBC) indicators, white blood cell (WBC) indicators, and plasma ferritin. Results. Mean hemoglobin (Hb) of the study population was 10.43 ± 3.33 g/dL and prevalence of anemia was 62%. In this population, boys had a lower mean Hb value than that of the girls. All grades of anemia were higher among school age children than preschool children. Mean plasma ferritin was found to be higher in school age boys than their counterpart girls. The mean level of WBC count was found to be higher among preschool age boys than among the school age boys (p = 0.025). Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was higher with concomitant acute infection among study population, which is a matter of concern. Since the hematological parameters are interrelated with each other as well as with the age and gender, relevant intervention strategy and constant monitoring are needed while providing public health nutrition programs to eradicate anemia. PMID:27127647

  13. Looking for Ideas: Observation, Interpretation and Hypothesis-Making by 12-Year-Old Pupils Undertaking Science Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Stephen P.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-01-01

    Studies English comprehensive secondary school students' interpretation and hypothesis-making while 12 year-old students are observing a bottle ecosystem of brine shrimps without any prior instruction and keeping diaries. Studies students through the task of open-ended diary writing and through small group discussions about the scientific…

  14. Landsat-7 ETM+: 12 years on-orbit reflective-band radiometric performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Haque, M.O.; Barsi, J.A.; Micijevic, E.; Helder, D.L.; Thome, K.J.; Aaron, D.; Czapla-Myers, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor has been operating on orbit for more than 12 years, and characterizations of its performance have been ongoing over this period. In general, the radiometric performance of the instrument has been remarkably stable: 1) noise performance has degraded by 2% or less overall, with a few detectors displaying step changes in noise of 2% or less; 2) coherent noise frequencies and magnitudes have generally been stable, though the within-scan amplitude variation of the 20 kHz noise in bands 1 and 8 disappeared with the failure of the scan line corrector and a new similar frequency noise (now about 18 kHz) has appeared in two detectors in band 5 and increased in magnitude with time; 3) bias stability has been better than 0.25 DN out of a normal value of 15 DN in high gain; 4) relative gains, the differences in response between the detectors in the band, have generally changed by 0.1% or less over the mission, with the exception of a few detectors with a step response change of 1% or less; and 5) gain stability averaged across all detectors in a band, which is related to the stability of the absolute calibration, has been more stable than the techniques used to measure it. Due to the inability to confirm changes in the gain (beyond a few detectors that have been corrected back to the band average), ETM+ reflective band data continues to be calibrated with the prelaunch measured gains. In the worst case, some bands may have changed as much as 2% in uncompensated absolute calibration over the 12 years.

  15. [Variations in tooth decay rates among children 5 and 12 years old in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lucas, Simone Dutra; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Mendonça, Lisette Lobato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this ecological study was to analyze to what extent World Health Organization goals were met in relation to dental caries in 2000 in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, identifying factors associated with variation in DMFT and the occurrence of DMFT < or = 3 among 12-year-old children and in the percentage of caries-free 5-year-olds. Secondary data from different sources were used. Linear regression and multiple logistic regression techniques were applied to the analysis of the numerical and dichotomous dependent variables. Socioeconomic and dental services supply/utilization indicators were used as potential explanatory variables. The goals expressed by DMFT < or = 3 at 12 years and a minimum of 50% caries-free 5-year-olds were met by 37% and 9% of the State's municipalities, respectively. In general the dependent variables were associated with socioeconomic level, and no associations were identified with dental care. The results should not be generalized, but they do suggest inequities in oral health and the role played by socioeconomic factors and water fluoridation.

  16. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group.

  17. Paranasal sinuses malignancies: A 12-year review of clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sarafraz, Alireza; Chamani, Mojtaba; Derakhshandeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate epidemiologic investigations of the paranasal sinuses malignancies prompted this retrospective study with special emphasis on a major group of 111 tumors. Material and Methods Clinical records of 111 patients with histologically confirmed malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses were investigated retrospectively from April 2000 to January 2012. Collection of data included demographic information, clinical manifestations, treatment plans, and histopathology of the tumor. Results There were 69 (62.16%) male and 42 (37.83%) female patients (male-to-female ratio of 1.6:1), with a median age of 49±12.2 years (range 21 to 88 years). A high level of occurrence was noticed in the fifth (26.3%) decade of life. The most frequent histological types were squamous cell carcinoma (43.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (19%). Among clinical manifestations, nasal obstruction was the most frequent followed by diplopia, and facial swelling. Fifty three patients (47.74%) were treated with combined approach of surgery and radiation therapy. Conclusions Paranasal sinuses malignancies are rare conditions with nonspecific symptoms which make early diagnosis of the lesions more challenging. The optimal therapeutic protocol for patients suffering from these tumors is still a somewhat controversial entity and requires further studies. Key words:Paranasal sinuses, malignancy, surgery,radiotherapy. PMID:27475693

  18. Use of a hospital-based accident and emergency unit by children (0-12 years) in Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Saima; Ogbeide, Danny O

    2002-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out in order to define the extent and nature of inappropriate use of the accident and emergency (ER) unit in our community. Data were collected for all children aged < or = 12 years who attended the ER from 1 January to 31 March 1999. A total of 3329 children (2010 boys and 1339 girls) attended the ER during the study period. Respiratory tract infection was the most common presenting complaint (33.5%), followed by trauma (15.3%), bronchial asthma (13.7%) and gastro-intestinal problems (6.6%). Using the triage criteria of Alkharj Military Hospital, most of the boys (57%) and 32.6% of the girls were considered to be simple, primary care cases. The rate of referral to specialist clinics was 9.5% and only 4.7% were actually admitted. Attendance at night (53.5% boys, 59.8% girls) was significantly greater (p < 0.00001) than during the morning (0700-1500) and afternoon shifts (1500-2300 hours). This study shows that a large number of children attend the ER with non-urgent complaints.

  19. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement: 12-year single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, Marco; Farneti, Pier Andrea; Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Kallushi, Enkel; Santarelli, Filippo; Glauber, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    Background This study reports the single center experience on minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR), performed through a right anterior minithoracotomy or ministernotomy (MS). Methods Eight hundred and fifty-three patients, who underwent MIAVR from 2002 to 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. Survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox multivariable proportional hazards regression model was developed to identify independent predictors of follow-up mortality. Results Median age was 73.8, and 405 (47.5%) of patients were female. The overall 30-day mortality was 1.9%. Four hundred and forty-three (51.9%) and 368 (43.1%) patients received biological and sutureless prostheses, respectively. Median cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamping time were 108 and 75 minutes, respectively. Nineteen (2.2%) cases required conversion to full median sternotomy. Thirty-seven (4.3%) patients required re-exploration for bleeding. Perioperative stroke occurred in 15 (1.8%) patients, while transient ischemic attack occurred postoperative in 11 (1.3%). New onset atrial fibrillation was reported for 243 (28.5%) patients. After a median follow-up of 29.1 months (2,676.0 patient-years), survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 96%±1% and 80%±3%, respectively. Cox multivariable analysis showed that advanced age, history of cardiac arrhythmia, preoperative chronic renal failure, MS approach, prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital stay as well as wound revision were associated with higher mortality. Conclusions MIAVR via both approaches is safe and feasible with excellent outcomes, and is associated with low conversion rate and low perioperative morbidity. Long term survival is at least comparable to that reported for conventional sternotomy AVR. PMID:25870812

  20. MECAR operation during the 6/95 study period

    SciTech Connect

    Capista, Dave; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The MECAR system was scheduled to be used 36 hours during the study period. In practice the system was used a bit more since there is increasing pressure to switch completely over to MECAR. During this period of MECAR operation there were power supply studies, tune calibration, general tune-up with this system, and identification and some repair of bugs found in both the applications program and the MECAR operating system.

  1. The Effects of Indexical and Phonetic Variation on Vowel Perception in Typically Developing 9- to 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how linguistic knowledge interacts with indexical knowledge in older children's perception under demanding listening conditions created by extensive talker variability. Method: Twenty-five 9- to 12-year-old children, 12 from North Carolina (NC) and 13 from Wisconsin (WI), identified 12 vowels…

  2. Comparing the Magnitude of Two Fractions with Common Components: Which Representations Are Used by 10- and 12-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meert, Gaelle; Gregoire, Jacques; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether 10- and 12-year-olds who can correctly compare the magnitudes of fractions with common components access the magnitudes of the whole fractions rather than only compare the magnitudes of their components. Time for comparing two fractions was predicted by the numerical distance between the whole fractions, suggesting an…

  3. "You've Got To Put Together the Pieces": English 12-Year-Olds Encounter and Learn from Historical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Stuart J.; Yeager, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Employing a sample of 51 12-year-old British secondary pupils, a study analyzed children's written and oral responses to a series of (contradictory) historical questions concerning the Boston Massacre of 1770. Many students were capable of abstract historical reasoning--critiquing sources, detecting bias and ambiguity, and determining flaws in…

  4. Teacher Ratings of Academic Achievement of Children between 6 and 12 Years Old from Intact and Non-Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molepo, Lephodisa S.; Maunganidze, Levison; Mudhovozi, Pilot; Sodi, Tholene

    2010-01-01

    We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of the children had…

  5. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Mandibular Alveolar Mucosa of a 12-Year-Old Child from Ethiopia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kenea, Tewodros Tefera; Kebede, Betel Abebe; Gozjuze, Fekadu Mesele; Kiros, Hagos; Wilde, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are rare malignant mesenchymal tumors which show smooth-muscle differentiation. Most LMSs involving the oral tissues primarily affect the maxillary sinus, the maxillary or mandibular bone. We present a case of LMS of the mandibular alveolar mucosa, arising in a 12-year-old male child from Ethiopia. A malignant spindle cell-like neoplasm was diagnosed on clinical and radiographic findings as well as on incisional biopsy. The tumor was resected with wide margins. The following histopathologic examination with additional immunohistochemical studies secured the diagnosis LMS. Microscopically, the spindle-shaped tumor cells were arranged in an interlacing fascicular pattern and contained oval to elongated, blunt-ended (cigar-shaped) nuclei. The immunohistochemical examination showed immunoreactive tumor cells for vimentin, actin, desmin, and H-caldesmon, which is pathognomonic for LMS. Immunohistochemical studies are mandatory to differentiate the LMS from other similar spindle cell neoplastic lesions. Radical resection with safety margins and a lifelong periodic follow-up has to be recommended.

  6. [Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as < 300 minutes per week of physical activity, was reported by 58.2% (95%CI: 56.7-59.7) of the cohort. In the multivariate analysis, sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.

  7. Bordetella holmesii meningitis in a 12-year-old anorectic girl.

    PubMed

    Van Balen, Tessa; Nieman, An-Emmie; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Schneeberger, Peter M; de Vries, Esther

    2012-04-01

    We describe a 12-year-old anorectic girl with Bordetella holmesii meningitis, the techniques used for its identification, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics for 7 B. Holmesii strains collected in the Netherlands during the past 12 years. B. holmesii meningitis has not been previously reported.

  8. Predictors of dental rehabilitation in children aged 3–12 years

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Awad, Manal A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of completed treatments and to study the factors affecting the full mouth dental rehabilitation in pediatric patients treated by undergraduate students at the College of Dental Medicine Teaching Clinics, University of Sharjah. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 270 children aged less than 12 years (mean age 7.6, SD 2.04). Comprehensive dental rehabilitation reports of child patients that were completed by final year dental undergraduate students from the year 2009 to 2011 were reviewed. Data on complete history, oral examination, dental charting, and treatment plan were collected from pediatric dentistry case sheet. Dental caries was charted using WHO 1997 criteria. Dental treatment needs and completion of dental care delivered to children involved in this study were assessed using DMFT/deft scores. Results: Percentages of treatment provided included completed restorations (94%) and space management (84%) in primary dentition, whereas 98% of restoration and 94% of required sealants were completed in permanent dentition. The percentage of completed dental treatment including sealant placement was 61%. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth present before the start of the treatment significantly correlated with the children in the incomplete treatment category (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Therefore, a worthy dental care was provided in a holistic approach to the children attending College of Dental Medicine training clinics. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth were the factors affecting dental rehabilitation in children aged 3–12 years. PMID:26236683

  9. Changes in growth pattern after adenotonsillectomy in children under 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Hashemian, Farnaz; Farahani, Farhad; Sanatkar, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of adenotonsillectomy on height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in children under 12 years old, with or without airway obstruction and evaluation of the risk of overweight in them. In this case-control study, 120 children with the age of 2-12 years old were studied; 60 children as case group who underwent adenotonsillectomy and 60 healthy children as control group. After collecting the data related to appetite status and sleep breathing disorder of the case group, height, weight and BMI have been measured for all children in two stages; preoperatively and 6 months later. Also in the case group, BMI percentiles, pre and postoperatively have been calculated. Patients with Low appetite in the initiation and at the end of the study in the case group were 80% and 8.3% respectively (P=0.01). Mean of height, weight and BMI variation after 6 months were significantly different between case and control groups (P<0.05). BMI percentiles in the case group preoperatively were: 20% underweight, 67% healthy weight, 10% at risk of over weight, 3% over weight. Postoperatively, after 6 months BMI percentiles in order of above frequency were: 10%, 57%, 22% and 11% (P=0.02). Analysis of the results showed that adenotonsillectomy can lead to increase of height, weight, BMI and appetite not only in the children with low weight due to airway obstruction but also in the normal weight and over weight children. Therefore risk of overweight should be mentioned as a probable undesirable outcome of adenotonsillectomy.

  10. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. Methods The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral health habits. The children were examined for caries status with WHO criteria by 3 calibrated examiners. Detection of dental erosion followed Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) criteria. Results A total of 704 children were recruited and 600 (316 boys, 53%) participated in the survey. There were 124 children (21%) with caries experience (DMFT > 0) and their DMFT was 0.34 ± 0.76. About half of their decay was unfilled (DT = 0.16 ± 0.52) The DMFT of girls and boys were 0.45 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.61, respectively (p = 0.001). Girls also had a higher DT (0.21 ± 0.62 compared with 0.11 ± 0.41, p = 0.013) and FT than boys (0.23 ± 0.63 compared with 0.12 ± 0.44, p = 0.016). Most children (75%) had at least some sign of erosion (BEWE > 0), but no severe erosion (BEWE = 3). Logistic regression showed girls who consumed soft drinks and took vitamin C supplements had higher caries risk. Dental erosion was more severe among the children who had caries experience and consumed fruit juice. Conclusions The 12-year-old Hong Kong children had low caries experience, and almost half of the decay was left untreated. Although severe erosion was not found, many children had early signs of erosion. PMID:24397565

  11. Hospital initiatives in promoting smoking cessation: A 12-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Denny, John T.; Denny, Angela M.; Tse, James T.; Deangelis, Vincent J.; Chyu, Darrick; Pantin, Enrique J.; Yeh, Sloane S.; Cohen, Shaul; Fratzola, Christine H.; Solina, Alann

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the availability of smoking cessation programs (SCP) was surveyed in the same randomly selected USA hospitals in 2000 and 2012. A total of 102 USA hospitals were randomly selected for this survey. Each hospital website was searched for the topic of smoking cessation. In the second phase of the survey, the main switchboard number of each hospital was anonymously telephoned and the ‘stop smoking clinic’ was requested. The phone survey results showed that the percentage of hospital switchboard calls that were connected to a SCP remained identical at 47% in 2000 and 2012. The results for the internet availability of SCP on hospital websites improved from 30% in 2000 to 47% in 2012. There were more hospitals that added additional SCP information (27%) compared with those that removed SCP information (15%) by 2012. Among the 57% of hospitals that showed no change in internet SCP information, 22% remained positive for such information while 35% remained negative. The phone survey of hospitals showed that 47% of USA hospitals were able to connect a caller to a SCP in the years 2000 and 2012. While there was no reduction over the 12 years, there was no increase in the percentage of hospital switchboards that connected to a SCP. Availability of SCP information on hospital web sites improved to a limited extent; increasing from 30% of sites in 2000 to 47% in 2012. Providing SCP on a hospital website is easy and free, for example adding a link to QuitNet or QuitLink. The present study adds to information gathered 12 years earlier, and is unusual in being able to provide follow-up data on the same set of hospitals studied previously. PMID:27588081

  12. The First Report of Fetal Alcohol Effect in a 12 Year-Old Child in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Young Jin; An, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon Ho

    2009-01-01

    We present the first report of fetal alcohol effect in a 12 year-old child in Korea. The mother had consumed 162 g of alcohol per week continuously during pregnancy. His first febrile seizure occurred before he was 1 year old, and became more frequent 2 years later. He started showing signs of right paraplegia when he was 3.5 years old and brain MRI revealed periventricular leucomalacia near the left ventricle. He was microcephalic and his growth was retarded. He was irritable, impatient, impulsive, and inattentive, and showed disinterest in school activities and aggressive and dangerous behavior. After the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder was made, psychopharmacological treatment and family support was initiated. After 10 months, he still had intermittent ideas of reference, although the aggressive behavior, inattentiveness, and impulsivity had improved. Using this case study, we stress the importance of maternal alcohol history in patients with these characteristics. PMID:20046374

  13. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  14. Invasive fungal infection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: single center experiences of 12 years*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ji-min; Pei, Xu-ying; Luo, Yi; Tan, Ya-min; Tie, Ru-xiu; He, Jing-song; Zheng, Wei-yan; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Lin, Mao-fang; Huang, He

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality among patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 408 patients undergoing allo-HSCTs during the period November 1998 to December 2009, analyzed the incidence and risk factors of IFI, and examined the impact of IFI on overall survival. A total of 92 (22.5%) episodes suffered proven or probable IFI (4 patients were proven, 88 patients were probable). Candida was the most common pathogen for early IFI, and mold was the most frequent causative organism for late IFI. A prior history of IFI, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch, long-time neutropenia, and acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) were risk factors for early IFI. A prior history of IFI, corticosteroid therapy, cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, and chronic GVHD were risk factors for late IFI. IFI-related mortality was 53.26%. The 12-year overall survival (OS) rate for IFI was significantly lower than that of patients without IFI (41.9% vs. 63.6%, P<0.01). PMID:26365122

  15. ACLCP Periodical Storage Center: Feasibility Study, September 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicki, Dorothy

    A study of alternative models for establishing a cooperative storage center for little used library materials by the members of the Area College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania (ACLCP) focused on periodicals. Considerations discussed include advantages--lower cost; space for growth and better access to holdings retained in active collections;…

  16. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Deibert, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have used systematic, sustained visual observations from the AAVSO International Database and the AAVSO time-series analysis package VSTAR to study the unexplained "long secondary periods" (LSPs) in 27 pulsating red giants. In our sample, the LSPs range from 479 to 2967 days, and are on average 8.1 +/- 1.3 times the excited pulsation period. There is no evidence for more than one LSP in each star. In stars with both the fundamental and first overtone radial period present, the LSP is more often about 10 times the latter. The visual amplitudes of the LSPs are typically 0.1 magnitude and do not correlate with the LSP. The phase curves tend to be sinusoidal, but at least two are sawtooth. The LSPs are stable, within their errors, over the timespan of our data, which is typically 25,000 days. The amplitudes, however, vary by up to a factor of two or more on a time scale of roughly 20-30 LSPs. There is no obvious difference between the carbon (C) stars and the normal oxygen (M) stars. Previous multicolor observations showed that the LSP color variations are similar to those of the pulsation period, and of the LSPs in the Magellanic Clouds, and not like those of eclipsing stars. We note that the LSPs are similar to the estimated rotation periods of the stars, though the latter have large uncertainties. This suggests that the LSP phenomenon may be a form of modulated rotational variability.

  17. ISS Update: Huntsville Control Center Celebrates 12 Years – 03/07/13

    NASA Video Gallery

    From Mission Control Center, JSC Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly commemorates 12 years of continuous space station science operations at the Payload Operations Center (POC) at Marshall Space Fli...

  18. Kienböck's disease in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Luc

    2003-08-01

    A case of avascular necrosis of the lunate in a 12-year-old girl is described. Conservative treatment resulted in a clinically normal wrist at three years' follow-up, despite obvious radiological changes.

  19. Successful removal of a 12 year long intrabronchial fishbone through fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tong, M; Kang, X; Sakakibara, H; Suetsugu, S

    1997-12-01

    We report a 54 year old male with an intrabronchial fishbone that had been impacted for 12 years and presented as recurrent pneumonia of the right lower lobe. The fishbone was successfully removed by fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

  20. Quality control of Kato slide counts for Schistosoma mansoni: a review of 12 years' experience in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, R. F.; Ouma, J. H.; Kariuki, H. C.; Thiongo, F. W.; Koech, D. K.; Butterworth, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 19 annual or biannual audits were performed over a 12-year period by an independent microscopist on randomized subsamples of Kato slides examined for Schistosoma mansoni eggs by Kenyan microscopists from the Division of Vector-borne Diseases (DVBD). The recounts were invariably lower than the originals owing to some deterioration of the preparations between counts, but the two were strongly correlated: significant regressions of recounts on counts taking up 80-90% of the observed variance. Observer bias differed significantly between microscopists but remained stable over time, whereas repeatability of recounts on counts dropped slightly in periods of maximum work load but did not vary systematically with time. Approximately 7% of the counts and recounts disagreed on the presence or absence of eggs, but less than a third of these were negatives that were found positive on recount. False negatives dropped to 1.3% if duplicate counts were considered. The performance of the Kenyan microscopists was remarkably high and consistent throughout the 12-year period. This form of quality control is suitable for projects where limited funds preclude full-time supervisors using more sophisticated systems. PMID:9447781

  1. Feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation use in children aged 5 to 12 years.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Agnes Carvalho; Magnavita, Guilherme Moreira; Allegro, Juleilda Valéria Brasil Nunes; Neto, Carlos Eduardo Borges Passos; Lucena, Rita de Cássia Saldanha; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been studied for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults, with minimal side effects. The objective of this study is to report the feasibility, tolerability, and the short-term adverse effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in children from 5 to 12 years of age. It is a naturalistic study of 14 children who underwent 10 sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation as an alternative, off-label, and open-label treatment for various languages disorders. Frequency, intensity, adverse effects, and perception of improvement reported by parents were collected. The main side effects detected were tingling (28.6%) and itching (28.6%), acute mood changes (42.9%), and irritability (35.7%). Transcranial direct current stimulation is a feasible and tolerable technique in children, although studies regarding plastic and cognitive changes in children are needed to confirm its safety. In conclusion, this is a naturalistic report in which we considered transcranial direct current stimulation as feasible in children.

  2. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-08-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes

  3. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-01-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes

  4. A 12-year analysis of pacing strategies in 200- and 400-m individual medley in international swimming competitions.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jose M; Escalante, Yolanda; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio; Arellano, Raul; Navarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the pacing strategies employed in 200- and 400-m individual medley events and which style was the most determinant for the final performance as a function of sex and classification in international competitions. Twenty-six international competitions covering a 12-year period (2000-2011) were analyzed retrospectively: Olympic Games, World Championships, European Championships, Commonwealth Games, Pan Pacific Games, U.S. Olympic Team Trials, and Australian Olympic Trials. The data corresponded to a total of 1,643 swimmers' competition histories (821 men, 822 women). A 2-way analysis of variance (sex [2 levels: men, women] × classification [3 levels: 1st to 3rd, 4th to 8th, 9th to 16th]) was performed for each stroke (butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, and freestyle). The Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare means. Pearson's simple correlation coefficient was used to determine correlations between the style (sections time) and the final performance (total time). The men employed a smaller percentage of their event times in the breaststroke than did the women and a greater percentage in the freestyle in both the 200- and 400-m distances, with the fastest style for both sexes being the butterfly. Considering only the medalists, in men (200 and 400 m), the backstroke was the style that most determined their final performance, whereas in women, it was the backstroke (200 m) or freestyle (400 m). It was concluded that in general the men apply a positive pacing strategy in the 200- and 400-m individual medley events, whereas the women apply a negative pacing strategy. The practical application of the study is that it suggests the need for a differentiated approach in training men and women individual medley swimmers.

  5. Orthodontic treatment need in a 12-year-old population in the Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Puertes-Fernández, Neus; Montiel-Company, José María; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Manzanera, David

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish orthodontic treatment need according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Aesthetic Component (AC) and Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine its association with gender among Saharan schoolchildren. The study was carried out in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for oral health surveys at 12 years of age. The sample comprised 248 Sahrawi children (135 girls and 113 boys) living in refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria. None of the children had previously received any orthodontic treatment. A chi-square test was used to analyse the IOTN results by gender, and a Student's t-test was employed for the DAI results. The mean DAI was 23.32 with a standard deviation of 6.05, 4 percent with a very severe and 9.2 per cent with severe malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment need was 16.1 and 2.0 percent, respectively, according to grades 4 and 5 of the IOTN DHC, 13.7 percent according to the IOTN AC, and 28.6 percent according to the modified IOTN (IOTN DHC grades 4-5 and/or IOTN AC grades 8-10). There were no statistically significant differences by gender. The orthodontic treatment need of Western Saharan schoolchildren is similar to that reported by many recent studies in European and in Sub-Saharan countries.

  6. [Prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in 12 year old school children from Jujuy].

    PubMed

    Buys, María C; Guerra, Lidia N; Martín, Beatriz; Miranda, Carmen E; Torrejón, Irma; Garrot, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Iron deficiency is highly frequent among adolescents. Its early detection can prevent the development of a ferropenic anemia, a serious condition. The problem has not been well studied in our country. The purpose of this work was to determine the frequency of iron deficiency and anemia in adolescents. The criteria considered were: hematocrit below 38%, b) saturation transferrin below 16%, c) ferritin below 15 ng/ml. The study was carried out in 2265 schoolchildren, 12 years old, of both sexes, in urban and periurban areas in the city of San Salvador de Jujuy (1250 a.s.l.). The following parameters were measured: hematocrit as well as serum iron and total iron binding capacity, both by colorimetric method. Ferritin was measured by ELISA. Anemia was not found. Iron deficiency as estimated by the iron functional component, was found in 25% of girls and 21% of boys and, through iron stores, in 28% of girls and 18% of boys. Iron deficiency stores in both sexes is the more relevant alteration, indicating that the population sample here studied constitutes a highly vulnerable group. The early detection of iron deficiency will help physical and intellectual development so that adequate sanitary policies are necessary for its prevention.

  7. Psychosocial effects in parents and children 12 years after newborn genetic screening for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kerruish, Nicola J; Healey, Dione M; Gray, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial consequences of testing newborns for genetic susceptibility to multifactorial diseases. This study reports quantitative psychosocial evaluations of parents and children 12 years after screening for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Two parent-child cohorts participated: children at increased genetic risk of T1D and children at low genetic risk. T1D risk status was determined at birth as part of a prospective study investigating potential environmental triggers of autoimmunity. Parent measures included ratings of children's emotional, behavioural and social functioning (Child Behaviour Checklist) and parenting style (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire). Child self-concept was assessed using the self-description questionnaire (SDQ1). Statistical analyses were conducted to test for differences between the groups. Twelve years after testing there was no evidence that knowledge of a child's increased genetic risk of T1D adversely affected parental ratings of their child's emotional, behavioural or social functioning, or impacted upon parenting style. There was no adverse effect upon the child's assessment of their self-concept. This study provides important preliminary data concerning longer-term psychosocial effects of incorporating tests for genetic risk of complex disorders into NBS panels. While it is reassuring that no significant adverse effects have been detected, more data will be required to adequately inform policy.

  8. Evaluation of land surface model simulations of evapotranspiration over a 12-year crop succession: impact of soil hydraulic and vegetation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Martin, E.; Lafont, S.; Moulin, S.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Buis, S.; Desfonds, V.; Bertrand, N.; Renard, D.

    2015-07-01

    Evapotranspiration has been recognized as one of the most uncertain terms in the surface water balance simulated by land surface models. In this study, the SURFEX/ISBA-A-gs (Interaction Sol-Biosphere-Atmosphere) simulations of evapotranspiration are assessed at the field scale over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. The model is evaluated in its standard implementation which relies on the use of the ISBA pedotransfer estimates of the soil properties. The originality of this work consists in explicitly representing the succession of crop cycles and inter-crop bare soil periods in the simulations and assessing its impact on the dynamics of simulated and measured evapotranspiration over a long period of time. The analysis focuses on key parameters which drive the simulation of ET, namely the rooting depth, the soil moisture at saturation, the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at wilting point. A sensitivity analysis is first conducted to quantify the relative contribution of each parameter on ET simulation over 12 years. The impact of the estimation method used to retrieve the soil parameters (pedotransfer function, laboratory and field methods) on ET is then analysed. The benefit of representing the variations in time of the rooting depth and wilting point is evaluated. Finally, the propagation of uncertainties in the soil parameters on ET simulations is quantified through a Monte Carlo analysis and compared with the uncertainties triggered by the mesophyll conductance which is a key above-ground driver of the stomatal conductance. This work shows that evapotranspiration mainly results from the soil evaporation when it is continuously simulated over a Mediterranean crop succession. This results in a high sensitivity of simulated evapotranspiration to uncertainties in the soil moisture at field capacity and the soil moisture at saturation, both of which drive the simulation of soil evaporation. Field capacity was proved to be the most

  9. Comparative evaluation of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash, Xylitol Chewing Gum, and Combination of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash and Xylitol Chewing Gum on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Biofilm Levels in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Meena; Shrivastava, Vandana; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the effect of combining 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash with xylitol (XYL) chewing gum on Streptococcus mutans and biofilm levels among 8- to 12-year-old children. Materials and methods Sixty children aged 8 to 12 years were selected with moderate and high salivary S. mutans levels. They were divided into three groups of 20 children each: (1) XYL group where the subjects chewed XYL twice daily; (2) CHX where rinsing was done twice daily; and (3) combination of XYL and CHX group (XYL+CHX) where both the agents were used once daily. The S. mutans colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted by using the mitis salivarius agar plate at the beginning of the study and at 15 days, 1, 2, and 6 months from the start of the study. Results The XYL+CHX group showed the maximum reduction in both the biofilm and S. mutans scores throughout the study period. Conclusion The XYL+CHX combination reduced both the biofilm and S. mutans score significantly better than either XYL chewing gums or CHX mouthwash used alone. How to cite this article Syed M, Chopra R, Shrivastava V, Sachdev V. Comparative evaluation of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash, Xylitol Chewing Gum, and Combination of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Mouthwash and Xylitol Chewing Gum on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Biofilm Levels in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):313-319. PMID:28127162

  10. Linear Accelerator-Based Radiosurgery Alone for Arteriovenous Malformation: More Than 12 Years of Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Takayuki Kamada, Kensaku; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Izumi

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although radiosurgery is an accepted treatment method for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), its long-term therapeutic effects have not been sufficiently evaluated, and many reports of long-term observations are from gamma-knife facilities. Furthermore, there are few reported results of treatment using only linear accelerator (LINAC)-based radiosurgery (LBRS). Methods and Materials: Over a period of more than 12 years, we followed the long-term results of LBRS treatment performed in 51 AVM patients. Results: The actuarial obliteration rates, after a single radiosurgery session, at 3, 5, 10, and 15 years were 46.9%, 54.0%, 64.4%, and 68.0%, respectively; when subsequent radiosurgeries were included, the rates were 46.9%, 61.3%, 74.2%, and 90.3%, respectively. Obliteration rates were significantly related to target volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}, marginal doses ≥12 Gy, Spetzler-Martin grades (1 vs other), and AVM scores ≥1.5; multivariate analyses revealed a significant difference for target volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}. The postprocedural actuarial symptomatic radiation injury rates, after a single radiation surgery session, at 5, 10, and 15 years were 12.3%, 16.8%, and 19.1%, respectively. Volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3}, location (lobular or other), AVM scores ≥1.5, and the number of radiosurgery were related to radiation injury incidence; multivariate analyses revealed significant differences associated with volumes ≥4 cm{sup 3} and location (lobular or other). Conclusions: Positive results can be obtained with LBRS when performed with a target volume ≤4 cm{sup 3}, an AVM score ≤1.5, and ≥12 Gy radiation. Bleeding and radiation injuries may appear even 10 years after treatment, necessitating long-term observation.

  11. Oral health status of 12-year-old male schoolchildren in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bhayat, A; Ahmad, M S

    2014-12-17

    Studies from Saudi Arabia have reported that the prevalence of dental caries among children is relatively high compared with other developing countries The aim was to determine the oral hygiene status and significant caries (SiC) index of 12-year-old males in Medina . In a cross-sectional, analytical study 360 students participated from 4 boys' schools. Dental caries, plaque, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion were recorded using standard methods and indices. The mean DMFT score was 1.53 (SD 1.88). Caries prevalence was low (57.2%) but the mean SiC index was relatively high [3.63 (SD 1.66)]. The prevalences of plaque and gingivitis were high (82.8% and 70.8% respectively). Lower molars had the highest rate of caries. No children presented with dental fluorosis and 82.5% had a class I jaw relationship. Oral hygiene awareness programmes at schools, together with brushing and flossing programmes, are recommended in order to maintain and improve the oral health of young children in Medina.

  12. Unusual Case of Osseointegrated Dental Implant Migration into Maxillary Sinus Removed 12 Years after Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Laureti, Mauro; Ferrigno, Nicola; Mencio, Francesca; Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Displacement of dental implants into the maxillary sinus is not an uncommon event in implant dentistry and may lead to serious complications, such as sinusitis. To avoid systemic problems, performing the removal of the foreign body as soon as possible is suggested. Despite the fact that early implants dislocation has been reported several times, late migration into maxillary sinus has been described by just a few studies. The purpose of this study was to report a rare case of dental implant migration into maxillary sinus after 12 years of function. A 61-year-old woman came to our attention in June 2015 after being visited by an otolaryngologist and being diagnosed with sinusitis and presence of a foreign body into the right maxillary sinus. A panoramic radiograph and a CT scan showed the migration of dental implant sited in 1.6 positions into the maxillary sinus. The implant was removed following a Caldwell-Luc procedure under local anesthesia. Postoperative course was uncomplicated and the patient reported no symptoms of sinusitis after 12 months of follow-up. PMID:28392949

  13. Individual and contextual determinants of malocclusion in 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, Daniela Nobre; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe malocclusion prevalence and its association with individual and contextual factors among Brazilian 12-year-old schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study included data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Brazil (n = 2,075), and data from the files of the local health authority. The data were collected through oral clinical examinations. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was used to assess occlusion. The presence of malocclusion (DAI > 25) was used as the dependent variable. The individual independent variables consisted of adolescents' sex and race and their mothers' level of schooling. The clinical variables were caries experience and presence of adverse periodontal condition (calculus and/or gingival bleeding). The contextual variables included type of school and the location of schools in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test and multilevel logistic regression were performed. The prevalence of malocclusion was 40.1%. In the final model, significantly higher rates of malocclusion were found among those who attended schools located in less affluent health districts and whose mothers had fewer years of education. Rates were also higher among those presenting calculus and/or gingival bleeding. Malocclusion demonstrated a high prevalence rate and the inequalities in its distribution were determined by individual and contextual factors.

  14. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  15. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  16. Visuoperceptual functioning differs in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana.

    PubMed

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B

    2000-01-01

    Visuoperceptual performance was examined in 146 9- to 12-year old children for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects, participants in an ongoing longitudinal study, were from a low-risk, predominantly middle class sample. The tasks ranged in complexity from those that required basic visuoperceptual skills to those that required considerable integration and cognitive manipulation of such skills. Trend analysis revealed a dose dependent negative association between prenatal cigarette exposure and an overall score reflecting basic visuoperceptual functioning. This association remained after consideration of potential prenatal confounds, pre- and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure, and the nonperceptual demands of the tasks. This poorer performance in the basic visuoperceptual domain underlay a poorer performance in more complex visuoperceptual tasks among the offspring of cigarette smokers. In contrast, prenatal marihuana exposure was not associated with basic visuoperceptual functioning but was negatively associated with performance in visual problem solving situations. The interpretation of the marihuana findings is discussed in relation to a "top-down" integrative ability associated with executive function, the extant prefrontal literature, and earlier observations of this sample.

  17. Global composites of surface wind speeds in tropical cyclones based on a 12 year scatterometer database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, Bradley W.; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-10-01

    A 12 year global database of rain-corrected satellite scatterometer surface winds for tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to produce composites of TC surface wind speed distributions relative to vertical wind shear and storm motion directions in each TC-prone basin and various TC intensity stages. These composites corroborate ideas presented in earlier studies, where maxima are located right of motion in the Earth-relative framework. The entire TC surface wind asymmetry is down motion left for all basins and for lower strength TCs after removing the motion vector. Relative to the shear direction, the motion-removed composites indicate that the surface wind asymmetry is located down shear left for the outer region of all TCs, but for the inner-core region it varies from left of shear to down shear right for different basin and TC intensity groups. Quantification of the surface wind asymmetric structure in further stratifications is a necessary next step for this scatterometer data set.

  18. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender.

  19. Probability learning and Piagetian probability conceptions in children 5 to 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, S; Zigler, E; Kreitler, H

    1989-11-01

    This study focused on the relations between performance on a three-choice probability-learning task and conceptions of probability as outlined by Piaget concerning mixture, normal distribution, random selection, odds estimation, and permutations. The probability-learning task and four Piagetian tasks were administered randomly to 100 male and 100 female, middle SES, average IQ children in three age groups (5 to 6, 8 to 9, and 11 to 12 years old) from different schools. Half the children were from Middle Eastern backgrounds, and half were from European or American backgrounds. As predicted, developmental level of probability thinking was related to performance on the probability-learning task. The more advanced the child's probability thinking, the higher his or her level of maximization and hypothesis formulation and testing and the lower his or her level of systematically patterned responses. The results suggest that the probability-learning and Piagetian tasks assess similar cognitive skills and that performance on the probability-learning task reflects a variety of probability concepts.

  20. The Komplast Experiment: Space Environmental Effects after 12 Years in LEO (and Counting)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaevich, Sergei K.; Aleksandrov, Nicholai G.; Shumov, Andrei E.; Novikov, L. S.; Alred, John A.; Shindo, David J.; Kravchenko, Michael; Golden, Johnny L.

    2014-01-01

    The Komplast materials experiment was designed by the Khrunichev Space Center, together with other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out by Mission Control Moscow since 1998. The purpose is to study the effect of the low earth orbit (LEO) environment on exposed samples of various spacecraft materials. The Komplast experiment began with the launch of the first International Space Station (ISS) module on November 20, 1998. Two of eight experiment panels were retrieved during Russian extravehicular activity in February 2011 after 12 years of LEO exposure, and were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle "Discovery" on the STS-133/ULF-5 mission. The retrieved panels contained an experiment to detect micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts, radiation sensors, a temperature sensor, several pieces of electrical cable, both carbon composite and adhesive-bonded samples, and many samples made from elastomeric and fluoroplastic materials. Our investigation is complete and a summary of the results obtained from this uniquely long-duration exposure experiment will be presented.

  1. Weed seed bank response to 12 years of different fertilization systems.

    PubMed

    De Cauwer, B; Van den Berge, K; Cougnon, M; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2010-01-01

    Fertilizer amendments can impact weed populations in a variety of ways. This study evaluated the effects of 12 year-long applications of different fertilization systems on size and composition of the weed seed bank in a conventionally managed maize monoculture field. Fertilization systems included all factorial combinations of two dairy cattle slurry rates, three vegetable, fruit and garden waste (VFG) compost rates, and three synthetic N fertilizer rates. Soil samples were taken in each subplot in May 2008 after sowing and prior to herbicide application. Residues recovered from soil samples were tested for weed seedling emergence to characterize soil seed banks. Total weed seed bank density was affected by mineral N fertilization but not by compost or animal slurry application. Weed seed bank composition was related to compost amendment and mineral N fertilization. Annual compost amendments reduced seed bank density of some persistent species (e.g., Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum) irrespective of mineral N fertilization. Compost is a promising tool for incorporation into integrated weed control strategies aimed at reducing weed seed bank persistence.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  3. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in children with celiac disease compared to healthy 12-year olds.

    PubMed

    van der Pals, Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norström, Fredrik; Högberg, Lotta; Svensson, Johan; Carlsson, Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screening-detected, were identified. Per case, 4 referents were matched. Blood samples were analyzed for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb). The cut-off value for TPO positivity was set to 100 U/mL. Results. Altogether, 335 celiac disease cases were found. In the entire celiac disease group, 7.2% (24/335) had elevated titers of TPOAb compared to 2.8% (48/1695) of the referents. Among the previously diagnosed celiac disease cases, 7.5% (7/93, OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.4) was TPOAb positive and among screening-detected cases, 7.0% (17/242, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.6) was TPOAb positive. Conclusion. Children with celiac disease showed a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. We could not confirm the hypothesis that untreated celiac disease is associated with increased risk of developing thyroid autoimmunity. Early initiation of celiac disease treatment might not lower the risk for other autoimmune diseases.

  4. Linking fungal communities to wood density loss after 12 years of log decay.

    PubMed

    Kubartová, Ariana; Ottosson, Elisabet; Stenlid, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biodiversity might alter decomposition processes and, consequently, carbon and nutrient cycling. We examined fungal diversity and density loss in experimental Norway spruce logs after 12 years of decay in a hemiboreal forest. Between 28 and 50% of the original wood biomass remained, depending on the fungal community composition in the log, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness had only a minor effect on the log biomass. Although the communities were OTU rich (190-340 OTUs per log), the majority of OTUs were infrequent or rare; wood degradation therefore depended mostly on the most abundant OTUs and their decomposing abilities. The least decayed logs were characterized by continuous dominance of an earlier colonizer and by high within-log community diversity, which was significantly related to sample variables (position in log, density and moisture). In the most decayed logs, the earlier colonizers were generally replaced by white-rot species able to exploit the highly decomposed wood. The communities were relatively spatially uniform within whole logs, independent of the sample variables, whereas among-log diversity was high. Importance of fungal community composition in decomposition processes should be taken into account when studying and modeling carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems.

  5. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  6. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly.

  7. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  8. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis– A Prospective Study of the Underlying Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Surya Narayana; Belle, Jayaprakash; Rau, N.R; Shetty, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare muscular disorder characterised by episodic weakness associated with hypokalaemia. The disease can either be inherited or acquired and misdiagnosis of the disease is quite common. Most of the data available on the disease is from the western world. Studies reporting aetiological, clinical and metabolic profiles of Indian population are sparse. Hence we tried to provide insights of the disease among the Indian population. Aim To study the aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of patients diagnosed with Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP). Materials and Methods This is an observational and analytical study on HPP diagnosed patients, during September 2011 to September 2014 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. A total of 23 patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical evaluation and metabolic workup for secondary causes of HPP were analysed. Results Of the 23 patients, 57% had primary HPP while 43% had secondary HPP. The group of patients with primary HPP comprised of 92% males and 8% females with mean age of 28 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 18 hours. The group with secondary HPP comprised of 70% males and 30% females with mean age of 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 60 hours. The secondary causes of HPP were thyrotoxicosis (50%), infective diarrhea (20%), Crohn’s disease (10%), renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Type I (10%) and Conn’s syndrome (10%). Conclusion In our study primary HPP was found to be more common than secondary HPP. Males were predominantly affected in both groups. HPP should be ruled out before starting therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). PMID:26500936

  9. Changes in number and incidence of hip fractures over 12 years in France.

    PubMed

    Briot, Karine; Maravic, Milka; Roux, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hip fractures decreased in France in both genders, especially in the elderly, from 2002 to 2008, in parallel with availability of bone densitometry and effective anti-osteoporotic treatments. However prescriptions of these treatments are decreasing, since 2008, and recent studies show declining of osteoporosis management after fragility fractures. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of hip fractures in men and women aged 60 years and over, from 2002 to 2013 in France. Data were drawn from the French Hospital National Database which includes all hospitalizations of the country. Hospital data for hip fractures between 2002 and 2013 were numbered and the incidence rates per 1,000,000 adjusted on age (60-74; 74-84, and ≥ 85 years), and gender was calculated using the data of the French population. The number of hip fractures increased in women (+5%; from 49,287 in 2002 to 50,215) and in men (+22%, from 12,716 to 15,482) aged over 60 years. Between 2002 and 2013, the French population increased by 21 and 29% in women and men of this age group; thus, incidence of hip fractures decreased by 14% in women (6929 and 5987 per million in 2002 and 2013, respectively) and a slight decrease of -1% was observed in men (2344 and 2316). The decrease in incidence is also confirmed in the very elderly (≥ 85 years), with a decrease of -29% and -24% in women and men respectively. Over the last 12 years, the incidence of hip fractures decreased in France in women and men aged over 60 years. This decrease is also observed in the subjects (≥ 85 years and older in both genders). Further studies are needed to assess potential changes in risk factors of hip fractures during the last decade.

  10. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  11. An Experiment on Impatiens New Guinea for 11-12 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    The following experiment describes an easy experiment for children 11-12 years old, performed during spring in a compulsory school near Karlstad, Sweden. Four different ripe fruits were placed under flowering plants of Impatiens New Guinea (Impatiens hawkeri) for four days on a table and with plastic bags around both plants and fruits. For one of…

  12. Obstructive urolithiasis, unilateral hydronephrosis, and probable nephrolithiasis in a 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Bryan J

    2008-03-01

    A 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding was presented for colic and dysuria. Obstructive urolithiasis and chronic renal disease were diagnosed via transurethral endoscopy and percutaneous ultrasonography. Nephroliths, hydronephrosis, and peri-ureteral fibrosis were present. Surgical intervention was declined and the gelding was managed medically with antibiotics and dietary modification.

  13. Child of the World: Essential Montessori Age 3-12+ Years. Sixteenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Susan Mayclin

    This book provides information on the basic principles of Montessori education for 3- to 12-year-olds and contains a catalog of equipment, materials, and books for use by adults living or working with children. Information and relevant materials for 3- to 6-year-olds are organized into the following areas: (1) organizing the environment; (2)…

  14. Knowledge of Love: Narratives of Romance Told by 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    This article reports research on young people's conceptualisations of love and romance through a gender perspective. The data are stories written by 12-year-old girls and boys in Norway who were asked to fantasise about their future love life. Their narratives are explored through discourse analysis and semiotics and analysed within a sociological…

  15. Twin delivery following 12 years of human embryo cryopreservation: case report.

    PubMed

    Revel, A; Safran, A; Laufer, N; Lewin, A; Reubinov, B E; Simon, A

    2004-02-01

    It is uncertain how long IVF units can keep frozen embryos. Few data exist on success of embryo transfer for embryos that have been cryopreserved for many years. We report the delivery of healthy twins following the transfer of embryos cryopreserved for 12 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest reported successful human embryo freezing.

  16. Aortic valve replacement with the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure 12 years after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Kazama, S; Kurata, A; Yamashita, Y

    1999-10-01

    An aortic valve replacement was successfully performed employing the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure in a case of aortic valve stenosis with small annulus 12 years after mitral valve replacement. Previous mitral valve replacement does not preclude feasibility of the Nicks procedure.

  17. Octreotide use in post-cardiac surgery chylothorax: a 12-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Aljazairi, Abdulrazaq Sheikh; Bhuiyan, Tauhid Ahmed; Alwadai, Abdullah Hasan; Almehizia, Rayd Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Background Chylothorax following cardiothoracic surgery is a rare condition in pediatric patients with significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological management with octreotide suggests possible efficacy; however, current evidence is inadequate. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of octreotide as a therapeutic option in this clinical setting. Methods This was a 12-year single-center retrospective cohort study of all patients (birth to 18-years old) who received octreotide for management of post-cardiac surgery chylothorax between January 2003 to August 2015. The primary efficacy endpoint was resolution of chylothorax, categorized as complete (<2 mL·kg(-1)·day(-1)), partial (based on physician's judgement), or failed. The primary safety endpoint was any significant adverse drug reaction leading to discontinuation of octreotide therapy. Of the 46 patients identified as receiving octreotide for post-cardiac surgery chylothorax, 29 were included in efficacy and safety analyses. Results Resolution of chylothorax was achieved in 62% (complete in 28%, partial in 34%) of the total sample. The 38% who did not respond to octreotide therapy required thoracic duct ligation. The mean initial dose and duration of octreotide was 4 ± 3 µg·kg(-1)·h(-1) and 10 ± 5 days, respectively. Besides minor side-effects including transient hyperglycemia (45%), abdominal distension (3%), and tachycardia (>150 beats·min(-1); 10%), no patient developed a significant side-effect that required discontinuation of therapy. Conclusions Pharmacological management of post-cardiac surgery induced chylothorax with octreotide shows promising benefits with an acceptable safety profile.

  18. Soil microbial biomass and function are altered by 12 years of crop rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Marshall D.; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-11-01

    Declines in plant diversity will likely reduce soil microbial biomass, alter microbial functions, and threaten the provisioning of soil ecosystem services. We examined whether increasing temporal plant biodiversity in agroecosystems (by rotating crops) can partially reverse these trends and enhance soil microbial biomass and function. We quantified seasonal patterns in soil microbial biomass, respiration rates, extracellular enzyme activity, and catabolic potential three times over one growing season in a 12-year crop rotation study at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station LTER. Rotation treatments varied from one to five crops in a 3-year rotation cycle, but all soils were sampled under a corn year. We hypothesized that crop diversity would increase microbial biomass, activity, and catabolic evenness (a measure of functional diversity). Inorganic N, the stoichiometry of microbial biomass and dissolved organic C and N varied seasonally, likely reflecting fluctuations in soil resources during the growing season. Soils from biodiverse cropping systems increased microbial biomass C by 28-112 % and N by 18-58 % compared to low-diversity systems. Rotations increased potential C mineralization by as much as 53 %, and potential N mineralization by 72 %, and both were related to substantially higher hydrolase and lower oxidase enzyme activities. The catabolic potential of the soil microbial community showed no, or slightly lower, catabolic evenness in more diverse rotations. However, the catabolic potential indicated that soil microbial communities were functionally distinct, and microbes from monoculture corn preferentially used simple substrates like carboxylic acids, relative to more diverse cropping systems. By isolating plant biodiversity from differences in fertilization and tillage, our study illustrates that crop biodiversity has overarching effects on soil microbial biomass and function that last throughout the growing season. In simplified agricultural systems

  19. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  20. "Wild Child": how three principles of healing organized 12 years of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Terr, Lenore C

    2003-12-01

    Methods of conducting psychotherapy in the most severe forms of childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), especially in those traumas discovered very early in life, are rarely reported. This paper presents such a report and in the process emphasizes three elements of treatment: abreaction (full emotional expression of the traumatic experience), context (understanding and gaining perspective on the experience), and correction (finding ways personally or through society to prevent or repair such experiences). With traumatized children, all three elements may be inserted into their therapeutic play, art, and/or talk. An overarching mood of light humor helps the transference stay positive and the child interested. The case of "Cammie," an infant who was bitten, shaken, and sexually abused, and whose 25-day-old sister was discovered at home, murdered, is the subject of this report. This little girl, upon removal at 13 months of age from her home of origin, growled, bit, sniffed sexual organs, rarely spoke, and behaved like the "feral children" described in the classic psychiatric literature. Two respected professionals diagnosed her as mentally retarded. A year in an outstanding foster home did little to improve her. At 29 months of age she was brought to the author, who saw enough imagination and pithy language to believe the child to be intelligent but severely traumatized. The author had begun to conceptualize three principles of PTSD treatment after a study of normal schoolchildren's reactions to the 1986 Challenger disaster. These three principles were used with varying emphases at different phases throughout the "wild child's" 12-year course of once-monthly therapy. Improvement beyond anyone's expectations ensued.

  1. Potential Distractions and Unsafe Driving Behaviors Among Drivers of 1- to 12-year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Michelle L.; Carter, Patrick M.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Driver distraction has been identified as a threat to individual drivers and public health. Motor vehicle collisions remain a leading cause of death for children yet little is known about distractions among drivers of children. This study sought to characterize potential distractions among drivers of children. Methods A two-site, cross-sectional, computerized survey of child passenger safety practices was conducted among adult drivers of 1- to 12-year-old children who presented for emergency care between October 2011-May 2012. Drivers indicated the frequency with which they engaged in ten potential distractions in the past month while driving with their child. Distractions were grouped in four categories: 1) non-driving, 2) cellular phone, 3) child, 4) directions. Information about other unsafe driving behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics was collected. Results Nearly 90% of eligible parents participated. Analysis included 570 (92.2%) drivers. Non-driving and cellular phone-related distractions were disclosed by >75% of participants. Fewer participants disclosed child (71.2%) and directions-related distractions (51.9%). Child age was associated with each distraction category. Cellular phone-related distractions were associated with the child riding daily in the family car, non-Hispanic white and other race/ethnicity, and higher education. Parents admitting to drowsy driving and being pulled over for speeding had over two-times higher odds of disclosing distractions from each category. Conclusions Distracted driving activities are common among drivers of child passengers and associated with other unsafe driving behaviors. Child passenger safety may be improved by preventing crash events through the reduction or elimination of distractions among drivers of child passengers. PMID:24767781

  2. Vitamin D deficiency in children aged 6 to 12 years: single center's experience in Busan

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Young Eun; Kim, Bo Ryung; Choi, Won Bok; Kim, Young Mi; Cho, Min-Jung; Kim, Hye-Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Kwang Hoon; Chun, Peter; Kim, Su Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in children. Methods We analyzed the medical records of 330 patients from the age of 6 to 12, who visited the endocrinology clinic of the Department of Pediatrics at Pusan National University Hospital, from September, 2013 to May, 2014. According to their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, the patients were grouped into either the deficiency group (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL), or the sufficiency group (25(OH)D≥20 ng/mL). The differences between the 2 groups were compared. Results There were 195 patients (59.1%) who had vitamin D deficiency. Their mean serum 25(OH)D level was 14.86±3.20 ng/mL. The differences in sex, age, and pubertal status between the 2 groups were not statistically significant. Weight standard deviation score (SDS), and body mass index SDS, were significantly higher in the vitamin D deficiency group (P=0.002 for each), compared to the sufficiency group. Compared with Autumn, both Spring (odds ratio [OR], 9.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3–22.0), and Winter (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 3.5–10.0), were risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only seasonal differences have been confirmed to have an effect on vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency in children aged 6 to 12 years is very common. Spring and Winter are the most important risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. We suggest that it is necessary to supplement the guideline for the vitamin D intake according to our situation. PMID:27777907

  3. Whole-grain food consumption in Singaporean children aged 6-12 years.

    PubMed

    Neo, Jia En; Binte Mohamed Salleh, Saihah; Toh, Yun Xuan; How, Kesslyn Yan Ling; Tee, Mervin; Mann, Kay; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J; Brownlee, Iain A

    2016-01-01

    Public health bodies in many countries are attempting to increase population-wide habitual consumption of whole grains. Limited data on dietary habits exist in Singaporean children. The present study therefore aimed to assess whole grain consumption patterns in Singaporean children and compare these with dietary intake, physical activity and health parameters. Dietary intake (assessed by duplicate, multipass, 24-h food recalls), physical activity (by questionnaire) and anthropometric measurements were collected from a cross-section of 561 Singaporean children aged 6-12 years. Intake of whole grains was evaluated using estimates of portion size and international food composition data. Only 38·3 % of participants reported consuming whole grains during the dietary data collection days. Median intake of whole grains in consumers was 15·3 (interquartile range 5·4-34·8) g/d. The most commonly consumed whole-grain food groups were rice (29·5 %), wholemeal bread (28·9 %) and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (18·8 %). A significantly lower proportion of Malay children (seven out of fifty-eight; P < 0·0001) consumed whole grains than children of other ethnicities. Only 6 % of all children consumed the amount of whole grains most commonly associated with improved health outcomes (48 g/d). There was no relationship between whole grain consumption patterns and BMI, waist circumference or physical activity but higher whole grain intake was associated with increased fruit, vegetable and dairy product consumption (P < 0·001). These findings demonstrate that consumption of whole grain foods is low at a population level and infrequent in Singaporean children. Future drives to increase whole-grain food consumption in this population are likely to require input from multiple stakeholders.

  4. Risk factors associated with temporomandibular joint sounds in children 6 to 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Keeling, S D; McGorray, S; Wheeler, T T; King, G J

    1994-03-01

    The relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds and a person's dental and skeletal characteristics is poorly understood. In this study, data were obtained from 3428 grade schoolchildren (mean age = 9.0 years, SD = 0.8, range 6 to 12 years), without a history of orthodontic treatment. Each child had been examined independently by one of six orthodontists to assess: TMJ sounds (none, click, crepitus), gender, age, race (white/black), skeletal relationships (convexity, maxillary, and mandibular positions), malocclusion (molar class, overjet, overbite, anterior crowding, posterior crossbite), maximum opening, chin trauma (none, cut, scar), and history of lower facial trauma. Temporomandibular joint sounds were present in 344 children (10.0% of the sample); 276 (8.1%) had an isolated unilateral sound, 254 (7.4%) had unilateral clicking, 50 (1.5%) had bilateral clicking, 22 (0.6%) had unilateral crepitus, and 11 (0.3%) had bilateral crepitus. Univariate analyses compared children with and without sounds for each variable; logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between groups of variables and TMJ sounds. The prevalence of TMJ sounds was associated with examiner (chi 2 = 23.4, df = 5, p < 0.001); increased prevalence of TMJ sounds occurred in children with maxillary anterior crowding (t = 2.8, p < 0.006), mandibular anterior crowding (t = 3.0, p < 0.002), and increased maximum opening (t = 4.7, p < 0.001). In contrast to other reports on children, the prevalence of joint sounds was not associated with age, race, gender, or molar class.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Changes in condylar path inclination during maximum protrusion between the ages of 6 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Baqaien, M A; Al-Salti, F M; Muessig, D

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in sagittal condylar path inclination during mandibular protrusion between the ages of 6 and 12 years. A total of 172 children (82 males and 90 females) ranging in age from 6.5 to 12.9 years were divided according to their chronological age into five subgroups with mean ages of 7.1, 8, 9, 10 and 11.4 years respectively. The control group consisted of 41 adults with a mean age of 28 years. All subjects had a normal temporomandibular joint function and neutral occlusion. Five maximum protrusion-retrusion movements were recorded with six degrees of freedom in each subject using an ultrasound (JMA) jaw-tracking system. Initially, condylar path inclination angle (CPIA) was calculated stepwise for each millimetre distance, for the first 10 mm of protrusive tracing path on both sides. A single mean value was then assigned for the entire protrusive path. One-way analysis of variance proved to be significant among the five subgroups of children. Linear regression analysis showed that condylar path had a tendency to become steeper with age, although it was statistically weak. The data indicated that the mean CPIA is 43 degrees -44 degrees at the age of seven, increases annually by 1.2 degrees -1.3 degrees and reaches an average of 49 degrees -50 degrees by the age of 12 at which time it attains around 83-85% of its adult level. In subgroup V, the female population had significantly steeper condylar path on the left-hand side than the male population. Condylar path inclinations indicated a symmetrical growth pattern of the articular eminence.

  6. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  7. A Period Study of the Close Binary V508 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Berahitdin

    The short-period (0d.34) close binary V508 Oph was observed in 2005 and four new times of minima were derived. All of the available times of minima, including the new ones, covering 69 years were analyzed. It was shown that the period change of the system is very complex. Two possible period oscillations with periods of 24.73 and 9.91 years and amplitudes of about 0.011 and 0.002 day, respectively, were found to superimpose on upward parabolic change, indicating a secular period increase at a rate of dp/dt = 4.24 × 10-9 days yr-1. The mechanisms that could explain the period changes of the system are discussed.

  8. A study of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic antidot lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Vinayak S.

    This thesis reports our study of the effect of domain wall pinning by ferromagnetic (FM) metamaterials [1] in the form of periodic antidot lattices (ADL) on spin wave spectra in the reversible regime. This study was then extended to artificial quasicrystals in the form of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T). Our DC magnetization study of these metamaterials showed reproducible and temperature dependent knee anomalies in the hysteretic regime that are due to the isolated switching of the FM segments. Our dumbbell model analysis [2] of simulated magnetization maps indicates that FM switching in P2T is nonstochastic . We have also acquired the first direct, two-dimensional images of the magnetization of Permalloy films patterned into P2T using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Our SEMPA images demonstrate P2T behave as geometrically frustrated networks of narrow ferromagnetic film segments having near-uniform, bipolar (Ising-like) magnetization, similar to artificial spin ices (ASI). We find the unique aperiodic translational symmetry and diverse vertex coordination of multiply-connected P2T induce a more complex spin-ice behavior driven by exchange interactions in vertex domain walls, which differs markedly from the behavior of disconnected ASI governed only by dipolar interactions. Keywords: Ferromagnetic Antidot Lattices, Metamaterials, Ferromagnetic Resonance, Artificial Quasicrystal, Artificial Spin Ice. [1] VV Kruglyak et al. "Magnonic metamaterials". In: Metamaterial, edited by X.-Y. Jiang (InTech, 2012) (2012). [2] Claudio Castelnovo, Roderich Moessner, and Shivaji L Sondhi. "Magnetic monopoles in spin ice". In: Nature 451.7174 (2008), pp. 42--45.

  9. Risperidone-induced Enuresis in a 12-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Dikshit, Reetika; Karia, Sagar; De Sousa, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    Risperidone has been documented to be effective in the management of behavior problems, aggression, and conduct disorder in children. While metabolic side effects like weight gain and obesity have been attributed to Risperidone use in children, side effects of the drug related to the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of Risperidone-induced enuresis in a 12-year-old boy with conduct disorder that resolved completely after stopping the medication. PMID:28149096

  10. Celecoxib in a 12-year-old boy with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Segura, P; Bodas, A; Sereno, M; Martínez-Amores, B; Olivera, H; Díaz, S; López-Asenjo, J A; Puente, J; Maluenda, C; Díaz-Rubio, E

    2010-03-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by colonic polyps in early adult life. Children with this disease are at risk for colonic cancer, so prophylactic colectomy is the standard treatment to prevent this complication. Chemoprevention experience with NSAIDs in children is exceptional. This case report describes our experience with Celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, in a 12-year-old boy.

  11. Liver abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in a healthy 12-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Da Hye; Jeon, Yeon Jin; Bae, E Young; Jeong, Dae Chul

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is rare in healthy children. We report a case of PLA in an immunocompetent 12-year-old boy. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed for the abscess. In addition, parenteral antibiotics were administered for 3 weeks. Klebsiella pneumoniae was detected in the culture of blood and drained fluid. Here, we present this case and a brief review of the literature on this subject. PMID:24348663

  12. Metaphoric Car Drawings By a 12-Year-Old Congenitally Blind Girl.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsin-Yi; Kennedy, John M

    2015-12-01

    A 12-year-old congenitally-blind girl drew a car moving, stationary, and braking. For stationary, she put the wheels inside the car and, for braking, drew the wheels as rough rectangles. At the age verbal metaphor is understood (Winner, 1988), the girl invented metaphoric drawings. In these, what is shown is not what is meant. In late childhood, metaphor may be understood similarly in pictures and words and by the sighted and blind.

  13. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-07

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials.

  14. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  15. Effect of short burst activities on sprint and agility performance in 11- to 12-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Svein A; Mathisen, Gunnar E

    2012-04-01

    There are limited data on how coordinative sprint drills and maximal short burst activities affects children's sprint and agility performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of short burst activities on sprint and agility performance in 11- to 12-year-old boys. A training group (TG) of 14 boys followed a 6-week, 1-hour·week(-1), training program consisting of different short burst competitive sprinting activities. Eleven boys of similar age served as controls (control group [CG]). Pre- and posttests assessed 10-m sprint, 20-m sprint, and agility performance. Results revealed significant performance improvement in all tests within TG (p < 0.05), but not between TG and CG in the 10-m sprint test. Furthermore, the relationships between the performances in straight-line sprint and agility showed a significant transfer effect (r = 0.68-0.75, p < 0.001). Findings from the present study indicate that competitive short burst activities executed with maximal effort may produce improvement in sprint and agility performance in 11- to 12-year-old boys.

  16. To What Extent Does Participation in Extracurricular Music Affect the Future Aspirations of 11-12-Year-Olds? A Small-Scale Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    I undertook this project as a 12-year-old student while studying research methods at the Children's Research Centre at the Open University. It has already been shown that doing music improves children's Mathematics and English scores. The aim of this study was to find out if it also raises the aspirations of the children taking part. A…

  17. [Study on optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides)].

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Peng; Wu, Ye-Kuan

    2014-08-01

    To ascertain the optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides) the configuration yield and quality of L. macranthiodes bloom verity and bud verity flower at different develop periods were Observed. The quality of L. macranthiodes which harvested at different times of the day was Compared. The configuration was significant difference between different develop period of L. macranthiodes flower. As bud growth, yield increased. Bloom verity of L. macranthoides chlorogenic acid content was significantly lower after opening (silver flower stage, golden flower stage), before opening (young bud stage, green-white stage) have no significant difference of the quality. Bud verity of L. macranthoides macranthoidin B is significant lower at yellow-white stage, young bud stage and green-white stage have no significant difference of the quality. The chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A content is significant difference between L. macranthoides harvested at different time of the day. The optimal harvest period of bloom verity is the white stage, picking time for 10:00 before and after 18:00. The optimal harvest period is the green-white stage, picking time is 8:00 before and after 18:00.

  18. A Fundamental Study of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Periodic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-09

    household radiators or electric heaters, furnaces, combustion chambers, fires, rocket nozzles , power plants, engines etc. The importance of radiation...can be applied to any other problem related to the wave propagation through periodic structures such as acoustic wave and ultrasonic wave propagation

  19. One year test-retest reliability of neurocognitive baseline scores in 10- to 12-year olds.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Grosner, Emily; Kollias, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    How often youth athletes 10-12 years of age should undergo neurocognitive baseline testing remains an unanswered question. We sought to examine the test-retest reliability of annual ImPACT data in a sample of middle school athletes. Participants were 30 youth athletes, ages 10-12 years (Mean = 11.6, SD = 0.6) selected from a larger database of 10-18 year old athletes, who completed two consecutive annual baseline evaluations using the online version of ImPACT. Athlete assent and parental consent were obtained for all participants. Assessments were conducted either individually or in small groups of 2 to 3 athletes, under the supervision of a neuropsychologist or post-doctoral fellow. Test-retest coefficients were as follows: Verbal Memory .71, Visual Memory .35, Visual Motor Speed .69, Reaction Time .34. Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (single/average) were as follows: Verbal Memory .70/.83, Visual Memory .35/.52, Visual Motor Speed .69/.82, Reaction Time .34/.50. Regression-based measures to correct for practice effects revealed that only a small percentage of cases fell outside 90 and 95% confidence intervals, reflecting stability across assessments. Findings indicate that test-retest reliability of Verbal Memory and Visual Motor Speed are generally stable in 10-12 year old athletes. Nevertheless, Visual Memory Index, Reaction Time Index, and Symptom Checklist scores appear to be less reliable over time, especially compared to published data on high school athletes, suggesting the utility of re-testing on an annual basis in this younger age group.

  20. A 1- to 12-year clinical evaluation of 106 endosseous implants supporting fixed and removable prostheses.

    PubMed

    Aykent, Filiz; Inan, Ozgur; Ozyesil, Atilla Gokhan; Alptekin, Nilgun Ozlem

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on the long-term clinical evaluation of patients treated with dental implants. A total of 106 implants were placed in 34 patients and restored with fixed partial dentures and overdentures. The 12-year cumulative implant survival and success rates were 95.2% and 90.2%, respectively. Probing depths around mandibular implants were significantly lower than those around maxillary implants (P < .05). The cumulative implant success rate in nonsmokers was 97.7%, but this dropped to 75.81% in smokers. Also, patients rehabilitated with implant-supported overdentures had more peri-implant tissue inflammation than patients with fixed prostheses.

  1. Management of a bilobed testicle in a 12-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    A bilobed testicle is an extremely rare congenital malformation, with only five cases published to date. We present the case of a 12-year-old boy with a bilobed testicle. With so few cases available, much of what is known about the management of this condition is based on cases of polyorchidism and the complications associated with this, including malignancy and torsion. Whilst surgery may play a role in some patients, uncomplicated cases can be managed conservatively. There is no long-term data on the outcome of conservative management but we propose this patient can be discharged if no further changes are identified after 18 months. PMID:24968442

  2. Lipoid proteinosis in a 12-year-old child: a report from west India.

    PubMed

    Kini, Sangeeta; Jain, Ashok; Shet, Tanuja M; Bansode, Sangeeta; Vora, Ila M; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2006-01-27

    A 12-year-old male child born of non-consanguineous parents presented with multiple skin lesions, hoarseness of voice, and episodes of epilepsy since early childhood. The findings of characteristic beaded eyelid margins, patchy alopecia of the scalp, hoarseness of voice, and epilepsy were consistent with a rare clinical diagnosis, lipoid proteinosis. Skin biopsies obtained from representative skin lesions were subjected to histology and electron microscopy. Light microscopy demonstrated PAS-positive diastase-resistant material in the papillary dermis of skin. Ultrastructure revealed granulo-filamentary aspect of the accumulated material. Although this rare autosomal recessive disorder has been described in the literature, its occurrence is rare in India.

  3. The Development of Co-Speech Gesture and Its Semantic Integration with Speech in 6- to 12-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Wing-Chee; Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; Lui, Ming; Yip, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Previous work leaves open the question of whether children with autism spectrum disorders aged 6-12?years have delay in producing gestures compared to their typically developing peers. This study examined gestural production among school-aged children in a naturalistic context and how their gestures are semantically related to the accompanying…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher Versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 4- to 12-Year-Olds: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Since its development, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used in both research and practice. The SDQ screens for positive and negative psychological attributes. This review aims to provide an overview of the psychometric properties of the SDQ for 4- to 12-year-olds. Results from 48 studies (N = 131,223) on…

  5. The Komplast Experiment: Space Environmental Effects after 12 Years in LEO (and Counting)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaevich, S. K.; Aleksandrov, N. G.; Shumov, A. E.; Novikov, L. S.; Alred, J. A.; Shindo, D. J.; Kravchenko, M.; Golden, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Komplast materials experiment was designed by the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, together with other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out by Mission Control Moscow since 18. Komplast panels fitted with material samples and sensors were located on the International Space Station (ISS) Functional Cargo Block (FGB) module exterior surface. Within the framework of this experiment, the purpose was to study the effect of the low earth orbit (LEO) environment on exposed samples of various materials. The panels were sent into orbit with the FGB when it launched on November 20, 1998. Panels #2 and #10 were retrieved during Russian extravehicular activity in February 2011 and sealed within cases to temporarily protect the samples from exposure to air until they could be studied on the ground. Panel #2 contained an experiment to detect micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts, radiation and UV sensors, several pieces of electrical cable, and samples made from elastomeric and fluoroplastic materials. Panel #10 contained a temperature sensor, and both carbon composite and adhesive-bonded samples. A figure shows the location of panels #2 and #10 on the FGB module aft endcone. The panels were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-133/ULF-5 mission after 12 years of LEO exposure and opened in an argon chamber at the Institute of Nuclear Physics at Moscow State University in July 2011. Based on the results of analyzing the readings from sensors located on Komplast panels and in studying material samples from the panels, the comprehensive effect of spaceflight factors on the FGB (at the locations of Panels #2 and #10) was evaluated. Total solar exposure was determined to be 960 +/- 200 kJ/square cm or 21,000 equivalent solar hours. Because of location of these two panels and the ISS flight attitude, atomic oxygen (AO) fluence was relatively low for such a long duration exposure, approximately 1.5x

  6. Influence of Obesity on Foot Loading Characteristics in Gait for Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Steffen; Carlsohn, Anja; Mueller, Juliane; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are increasing health problems that are not restricted to adults only. Childhood obesity is associated with metabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal comorbidities. However, knowledge about the effect of obesity on the foot function across maturation is lacking. Decreased foot function with disproportional loading characteristics is expected for obese children. The aim of this study was to examine foot loading characteristics during gait of normal-weight, overweight and obese children aged 1–12 years. Methods A total of 10382 children aged one to twelve years were enrolled in the study. Finally, 7575 children (m/f: n = 3630/3945; 7.0±2.9yr; 1.23±0.19m; 26.6±10.6kg; BMI: 17.1±2.4kg/m2) were included for (complete case) data analysis. Children were categorized to normal-weight (≥3rd and <90th percentile; n = 6458), overweight (≥90rd and <97th percentile; n = 746) or obese (>97th percentile; n = 371) according to the German reference system that is based on age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI). Plantar pressure measurements were assessed during gait on an instrumented walkway. Contact area, arch index (AI), peak pressure (PP) and force time integral (FTI) were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by ANOVA/Welch-test (according to homogeneity of variances: yes/no) for group differences according to BMI categorization (normal-weight, overweight, obesity) and for each age group 1 to 12yrs (post-hoc Tukey Kramer/Dunnett’s C; α = 0.05). Results Mean walking velocity was 0.95 ± 0.25 m/s with no differences between normal-weight, overweight or obese children (p = 0.0841). Results show higher foot contact area, arch index, peak pressure and force time integral in overweight and obese children (p<0.001). Obese children showed the 1.48-fold (1 year-old) to 3.49-fold (10 year-old) midfoot loading (FTI) compared to normal-weight. Conclusion Additional

  7. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  8. The OAO heat pipes - 8 1/2 years of flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, W.; Mcintosh, R.

    1981-01-01

    Heat pipe performance data taken during the 8 1/2 years of flight of the OAO-C (Copernicus) spacecraft are presented. Three fixed conductance heat pipes (FCHP), each with different wicking concepts (axial groove, pedestal artery, and self-priming spiral artery), and one variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) are onboard. Aluminum tubes (1/2 in. diameter) rolled into a 48 in. loop containing ultra high purity ammonia as the heat transfer fluid comprise all FCHP, whose purpose is to circumferentially isothermalize the central tube housing the telescope. The VCHP is a hot, non-wicked reservoir concept including a composite artery and methanol heat transfer fluid, and is used to maintain the temperature of the onboard processor. Flight thermal data analysis reveals that no degradation in performance occurred since launch and agrees well with pre-flight data; the onboard processor still shows an offset in control range of 4 F, and the pipes perform the same after 8 1/2 years in orbit.

  9. Periodic trends in bond dissociation energies. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Eckert-Maksić, Mirjana; Maksić, Zvonimir B; Alkorta, Ibón; Elguero, José

    2005-05-19

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of all possible A-X single bonds involving the first- and second-row atoms, from Li to Cl, where the free valences are saturated by hydrogens, have been estimated through the use of the G3-theory and at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) DFT level of theory. BDEs exhibit a periodical behavior. The A-X (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, and Si) BDEs show a steady increase along the first and the second row of the periodic table as a function of the atomic number Z(X). For A-X bonds involving electronegative atoms (A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl) the bond energies achieve a maximum around Z(X) = 5. The same behavior is observed when BDEs are plotted against the electronegativity chi(X) of the atom X. Thus, for A-X bonds (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si), the BDEs for a fixed A increases, grosso modo, as the electronegativity differences between X and A increase, with some exceptions, which reflect the differences in the relaxation energies of the radicals produced upon the bond cleavage. A similar trend, albeit less pronounced, is found for single A-X bonds, where A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl. However, there is an additional feature embodied in the enhancement of the strength of the A-boron bonds due to the ability of boron to act as a strong electron acceptor. The trends in bond lengths and charge densities at the bond critical points are in line with the aforementioned behavior.

  10. [Nutritional condition and serum protein concentration in children (6-12 years old) of Chacopata Sucre State, Venezuela (December--January, 1997)].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Solange; García, Andrés Gerardi; Lugo, Raquel Salazar

    2004-01-01

    A biochemical and anthropometrical study of 175 children (6-12 years old) from Chacopata, Sucre State was done (December--January, 1997). The children were evaluated by combined anthropometrical indicators (OMS), clinical, nutritional and biochemical tests. The results showed 81.71% well-nourished children, 4.57% obese children and 13.72% with some degree of undernutrition: 3.43% acute undernourished and 10.29% chronic undernourished. Total seric proteins including fractions: albumin, alfa-1 alfa-2, beta and gamma globulins as well as total globulins and albumin/globulin indexes were at the normal reference range for children (6-12 years old). A significative increase in alfa-1 globulin (0.18+/-0.08 g/dl; 8-9 years old group) and decrease of alfa-2 globulin (0.71+/-0.11 g/dl; 10-12 year old group) was observed. Biochemical results associated with nutritional condition showed normal values, moreover, this biochemical index decreased in the undernourished group. A significant decrease of the seric beta globulin in the undernourished children (0.72+/-0,12 g/dl) with respect to the well-nourished children (0.79+/-0.15) was found. In children (6-12 years old) from Chacopata, compensated chronic undernourishement is prevalent.

  11. Determinants of inclusive education of 8-12 year-old children with cerebral palsy in 9 European regions.

    PubMed

    Sentenac, Mariane; Ehlinger, Virginie; Michelsen, Susan Ishoy; Marcelli, Marco; Dickinson, Heather Olivia; Arnaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The principle of inclusive education has been increasingly recognised over recent decades and most countries officially support schooling of children with disabilities in mainstream settings. The SPARCLE study offers the opportunity to report on the schooling practices for children with cerebral palsy according to the nature and severity of their impairments and the schooling policy in European regions. The aim of this paper is to describe the type of schooling of children with cerebral palsy in various European regions after controlling for relevant individual factors. Children aged 8-12 years with cerebral palsy from 9 European regions and their families were interviewed. Our findings support the hypothesis that between-region variations in the type of schooling are still significant after adjustment for individual factors; and that motor function and intellectual ability have different effects on inclusion in mainstream school, depending on the region.

  12. The evolution of sunscreen products in the United States--a 12-year cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Steven Q; Tanner, Paul R; Lim, Henry W; Nash, J F

    2013-01-01

    Excessive exposure from ultraviolet (UV) radiation contributes to the development of skin cancers and photoaging. Topical sunscreen products remain one of the most widely used forms of protection for the majority of the public. The objective of this analysis was to examine photoprotection trends (e.g., SPF value) and the degree of UVA I protection from 1997 to 2009 in the United States. Sunscreen products purchased and evaluated in 1997 (N = 59), 2003 (N = 188) and again in 2009 (N = 330), totaling 577, were included in this analysis. Information regarding (1) the SPF value, (2) name and concentration of the active ingredients, (3) type of products (i.e., daily vs. recreational/beach), and (4) claims of UVA protection was recorded and analyzed. In addition, the critical wavelength (CW) of 330 products from 2009 was determined. The results showed an increase in the SPF values of products from 1997 to 2009. The percentage of low SPF products (SPF 4-14) decreased from 27% in 1997 to 6% in 2009. The number of products containing a known UVA-I filter (i.e., avobenzone or zinc oxide) increased from 5% in 1997 to 70% in 2009. Lastly, approximately, 225 (68%) of the products tested in 2009 attained CW > 370 nm. In the past decade, sunscreen products have undergone fundamental improvements, the most significant of which is the breadth of protection against UVA I.

  13. New polyethylenes in total hip replacement: A ten- to 12-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    García-Rey, E; García-Cimbrelo, E; Cruz-Pardos, A

    2013-03-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, 90 patients underwent total hip replacement using the same uncemented acetabular and femoral components with a 28 mm metallic femoral head but with prospective randomisation of the acetabular liner to either Durasul highly cross-linked polyethylene or nitrogen-sterilised Sulene polyethylene. We assessed 83 patients at a minimum follow-up of ten years. Linear penetration of the femoral head was estimated at six weeks, six and 12 months and annually thereafter, using the Dorr method, given the non-spherical shape of the acetabular component. There was no loosening of any component; only one hip in the Sulene group showed proximal femoral osteolysis. The mean penetration of the femoral head at six weeks was 0.08 mm (0.02 to 0.15) for the Durasul group and 0.16 mm (0.05 to 0.28) for the Sulene group (p = 0.001). The mean yearly linear penetration was 64.8% lower for the Durasul group at 0.05 mm/year (sd 0.035) for the Sulene group and 0.02 mm/year (sd 0.016) for the Durasul (p < 0.001). Mean linear femoral head penetration at ten years was 61% less in the Durasul than Sulene group. Highly cross-linked polyethylene gives excellent results at ten years.

  14. Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth--a further case in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kleikamp, Stefanie; Kutzner, Heinz; Frosch, Peter J

    2008-08-01

    Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth was first described by Annessi et al. in 2003. Clinical criteria are persistent erythematous macules and annular lesions with a red-brown edge and a central hypopigmentation usually found on the flanks and groins of children and adolescents. Histologically, the disease is characterized by a lichenoid interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes at the tip of the rete ridges. In our case a 12-year old girl developed annular red-brown macules with papules at the borders in an inframammary location. The histology of the lesion's border showed a lichenoid lymphocytic infiltrate with apoptotic keratinocytes at the tip of rete ridges. The lesions cleared with 0.03% tacrolimus ointment. Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth is probably a new entity in the group of lichenoid dermatoses.

  15. Collagenous gastroduodenitis with recurrent gastric ulcer in 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Koide, Tatsuo; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Kawai, Naoki; Yashiro, Kenta; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Nishigaki, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    This report describes a rare case of collagenous gastroduodenitis found in a 12-year-old Japanese girl who had recurrent hematemesis. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed many lotus leaf-like lesions on the gastric mucosa surrounded by atrophic gastric mucosa in the antrum, with a cobblestone appearance and a scarred duodenal ulcer in the duodenal bulb. A biopsy of the gastric mucosa indicated subepithelial collagen band. The patient was treated with H2-blockers for her symptoms for 4 years following the endoscopic findings. Follow-up endoscopy showed the same appearance as before. The pathology, however, showed a more prominent subepithelial collagen deposition. To make the correct diagnosis, it is critical to know from which part the pathological biopsy specimens were taken because there were numerous collagen bands in the atrophic membrane. It is important to monitor the patient regularly for evaluation of the etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis of this rare disease.

  16. Development of sizing system for girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrzenjak, Renata; Dolezal, Ksenija; Ujević, Darko

    2013-12-01

    Garment size system is an important factor for both the adult population and the population of children and adolescents when choosing a suitable and fitting clothing. To develop the size system anthropometric measurements of selected population should be carried out. For this purpose a sample of girls aged 6 to 12 years in Croatia were measured (4002 respondents distributed proportionately to the total population). As the basis for a new method of garment size system, the system and method defined in the standards EN 13402 (1st-3rd part) were used. Using the method of cluster analysis three body types of girls was obtained. The new size system for girls will contribute to better production planning of fitting patterns and larger selection of garment sizes for more demanding youthful consumers.

  17. Clinical reasoning: a 12-year-old boy with ascending weakness.

    PubMed

    French, Kris F; Candee, Meghan S; Stahl, Jessica L; Giles, Lisa L; Glasgow, Tiffany S; Morita, Denise C

    2013-03-12

    A 12-year-old boy presented with 3 weeks of calf pain, tripping, and progressive inability to walk. The onset was preceded by a sore throat 4 weeks prior, but no recent immunizations and no sick contacts. He began having problems "catching his toes" for 2 weeks. He had no visual complaints and no bowel or bladder incontinence. He had no recent travel and there were no heavy metal or solvent exposures. He had no prior medical history and he was on no prescription medications. Developmentally, he was on track and had just successfully completed fifth grade. However, he was reported to be behaviorally oppositional, especially regarding his diet which was restricted to beef jerky, yogurt from a squeeze tube, and fruit drinks. Family history included diabetic peripheral neuropathy in his mother, idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in his maternal grandfather, and left lower extremity neuropathy from trauma in his father. There was no known family history of recurrent pressure palsies or cardiac problems.

  18. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  19. Soil CO2 efflux from mountainous windthrow areas: dynamics over 12 years post-disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.; Matthews, B.; Schindlbacher, A.; Katzensteiner, K.

    2014-11-01

    Windthrow-driven changes in carbon (C) allocation and soil microclimate can affect soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux (Fsoil) from forest ecosystems. Although Fsoil is the dominant C flux following stand-replacing disturbance, the effects of catastrophic windthrow on Fsoil are still poorly understood. We measured Fsoil at a montane mixed-forest site and at a subalpine spruce forest site from 2009 until 2012. Each site consisted of an undisturbed forest stand and two adjacent partially cleared (stem-fraction-harvested) windthrow areas, which differed with regard to the time since disturbance. The combination of chronosequence and direct time-series approaches enabled us to investigate Fsoil dynamics over 12 years post-disturbance. At both sites Fsoil rates did not differ significantly from those of the undisturbed stands in the initial phase after disturbance (1-6 years). In the later phase after disturbance (9-12 years), Fsoil rates were significantly higher than in the corresponding undisturbed stand. Soil temperature increased significantly following windthrow (by 2.9-4.8 °C), especially in the initial phase post-disturbance when vegetation cover was sparse. A significant part (15-31%) of Fsoil from the windthrow areas was attributed to the increase in soil temperature. According to our estimates, ~500-700 g C m-2 year-1 are released via Fsoil from south-facing forest sites in the Austrian Calcareous Alps in the initial 6 years after windthrow. With a high browsing pressure suppressing tree regeneration, post-disturbance net loss of ecosystem C to the atmosphere is likely to be substantial unless forest management is proactive in regenerating such sites. An increase in the frequency of forest disturbance by windthrow could therefore decrease soil C stocks and feed back positively on rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  20. Dihuang Yinzi, a Classical Chinese Herbal Prescription, for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A 12-Year Follow-up Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hui; Li, Ji-huang; Yin, Su-bing; Ke, Jiang-qiong; Qiu, Chang-lin; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment and death within 2 to 5 years after symptom onset. Here, we reported a case of ALS patient using modified Dihuang Yinzi (DHYZ), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, who has survived 12 years with significant improvement in bulbar paralysis. A 41-year-old Chinese Han nationality woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of weakened bilateral grip, slurred speech, stumbling, and muscle twitching for 3 years. The electromyography showed neurogenic injury in bilateral upper limbs and tongue. She was diagnosed with ALS according to the revised El escorial criteria. The patient was orally administrated with Riluzole 100 mg daily for 10 months and then stopped. Subsequently, she resorted to TCM. Based on the TCM theory, the patient was diagnosed with Yinfei syndrome because of kidney deficiency. DHYZ was chosen because it has the function of replenishing kidney essence to treat Yinfei syndrome. Up to now, she has been using modified DHYZ continuously for 12 years. The patient survived with ALS and did not require permanent continuous ventilator. In addition, the symptoms of choking on liquids are improved, and the utility of 30 mL water swallow test was improved with grade 2. The symptoms of muscle fibrillations of limbs are also reduced. However, muscle strength worsened slowly. The repeated electromyography showed motor conduction amplitude reducing gradually and velocity not changing more when compared with the initial electromyography. Our findings suggested that DHYZ can be potentially used in ALS patients because of its multi-targeted neuroprotection and general safety, although ALS does not have a cure. In addition, we identified the area that is worthy of further study and DHYZ as a promising candidate for further clinical application and ALS trials. Rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed in

  1. Reduced Working Memory Mediates the Link between Early Institutional Rearing and Symptoms of ADHD at 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tibu, Florin; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Children who are raised in institutions show severe delays across multiple domains of development and high levels of psychopathology, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low performance in executive functions (EFs) are also common in institutionally reared children and often do not remediate following improvements in the caregiving environment. ADHD symptomatology also remains elevated even after children are removed from institutional care and placed in families. We investigate whether poor EF is a mechanism explaining elevated rates of ADHD in children reared in institutional settings in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). In the current study, we examine the potentially mediating role of poor EF in the association between institutionalization and symptoms of ADHD at age 12 years. A total of 107 children were assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) on working memory, set-shifting and planning. We also obtained concurrent teacher reports on their levels of ADHD symptoms (inattention and impulsivity separately). Institutionalization strongly predicted elevations in symptoms of inattention and impulsivity at age 12 years (ps < 0.01). Indices of working memory and planning were also associated with ADHD after controlling for potential confounders (ps < 0.03). Mediation analyses revealed that poor working memory performance mediated the link between exposure to early institutionalization and higher scores of both inattention and impulsivity. These results replicate and extend the findings that we reported in the BEIP sample at age 8 years. Together, they suggest that compromised working memory is a key mechanism that continues to explain the strikingly high levels of ADHD in late childhood among children institutionalized in early life. Interventions targeting working memory may help to prevent ADHD among children exposed to institutional care. PMID:27933019

  2. Dihuang Yinzi, a Classical Chinese Herbal Prescription, for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A 12-Year Follow-up Case Report.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hui; Li, Ji-Huang; Yin, Su-Bing; Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Qiu, Chang-Lin; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment and death within 2 to 5 years after symptom onset. Here, we reported a case of ALS patient using modified Dihuang Yinzi (DHYZ), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, who has survived 12 years with significant improvement in bulbar paralysis.A 41-year-old Chinese Han nationality woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of weakened bilateral grip, slurred speech, stumbling, and muscle twitching for 3 years. The electromyography showed neurogenic injury in bilateral upper limbs and tongue. She was diagnosed with ALS according to the revised El escorial criteria. The patient was orally administrated with Riluzole 100 mg daily for 10 months and then stopped. Subsequently, she resorted to TCM. Based on the TCM theory, the patient was diagnosed with Yinfei syndrome because of kidney deficiency. DHYZ was chosen because it has the function of replenishing kidney essence to treat Yinfei syndrome. Up to now, she has been using modified DHYZ continuously for 12 years. The patient survived with ALS and did not require permanent continuous ventilator. In addition, the symptoms of choking on liquids are improved, and the utility of 30 mL water swallow test was improved with grade 2. The symptoms of muscle fibrillations of limbs are also reduced. However, muscle strength worsened slowly. The repeated electromyography showed motor conduction amplitude reducing gradually and velocity not changing more when compared with the initial electromyography.Our findings suggested that DHYZ can be potentially used in ALS patients because of its multi-targeted neuroprotection and general safety, although ALS does not have a cure. In addition, we identified the area that is worthy of further study and DHYZ as a promising candidate for further clinical application and ALS trials. Rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed in the future.

  3. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation of a root-fractured maxillary central incisor: A 12-year follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    Incerti Parenti, Serena; Ciocci, Maurizio; Checchi, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Single-tooth implantation has become a common treatment solution for replacement of a root-fractured maxillary incisor in adults, but the long-term esthetic results can be unfavorable due to progressive marginal bone loss, resulting in gingival recession. In this case report, a maxillary central incisor with a root fracture in its apical one-third was orthodontically extruded and extracted in a 21-year-old female. Implant surgery was performed after a 3-month healing period, and the final crown was placed about 12 months after extraction. After 12 years, favorable osseous and gingival architectures were visible with adequate bone height and thickness at the buccal cortical plate, and no gingival recession was seen around the implant-supported crown. Although modern dentistry has been shifting toward simplified, clinical procedures and shorter treatment times, both general dentists and orthodontists should be aware of the possible long-term esthetic advantages of orthodontic extrusion of hopelessly fractured teeth for highly esthetically demanding areas and should educate and motivate patients regarding the choice of this treatment solution, if necessary. PMID:25133136

  4. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4–12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R.; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4–12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  5. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4-12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4-12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  6. A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick S.; Becker, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily in Japan). Otherwise, limited work has been done, although thundersnow has been documented in the mid-latitudes of North America, Europe and Asia. Statistics on peak amplitude were determined for negative (positive) flashes, yielding mean and standard deviation values of -24 kA +/- 22 kA (+38 kA +/- 34 kA). A subset of winter lightning events (N = 16) were then sought that occurred with banded (single or multiple) snowfall, as banding often denotes greater organization in the atmosphere (e.g., a jet streak aloft to aid in ascent, or a low level jet streak to aid with moisture and thermal transport) and thus the potential for deeper snow totals. Radar reflectivity values were recorded at the location of each lightning flash, as well as the maximum radar reflectivity within the associated snow band. The location of the lightning activity within the snow band was also noted as being either leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), core (C), or not correlated (NC), with respect to the motion of the parent band. The majority of lightning flashes were found downstream of areas of highest radar reflectivity with respect to the motion of the snow bands, and not with the highest reflectivity values. If one uses the highest reflectivity values in a snowband as a proxy for the greatest surface snowfall intensity, then the ground terminus of a cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) flash is often not co-located with the heaviest snowfall rates. However, the work completed here does place the location of the typical CG flash ~15 km downstream of the snowband location, so one could use the occurrence

  7. Temperament and negative semantic priming in children 7 to 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Parra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The present research assessed whether children with high and low scores on temperament traits differed in their ability to inhibit irrelevant task information in a lexical decision task. Children from 7 to 12 years old were classified based on temperament dimensions measured using a version of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire. The participants were instructed to either attend to (and remember) or to ignore a masked prime word followed by a central probe target on which they made a lexical decision. The results revealed several notable outcomes. First of all, recognition memory was better for attended than ignored words, providing further evidence that attention instructions influenced the processing of the primes. Secondly, although no negative priming effect was obtained in the "ignore" condition, 43% of children showed this effect. Thirdly, children scoring high on Inhibitory Control and Impulsivity showed ignored negative priming, whereas children scoring high on Inhibitory Control and low on Impulsivity ignored facilitation. Data are discussed within the framework of negative priming as a complex phenomenon that involves the interaction of different factors such as age, type of task, and certain temperament traits.

  8. Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in 1-2 year old dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Greiner, Ellis C; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-09-10

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia genotypes in 12-24 month old dairy heifers, fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centrifugation, were subjected to PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Prevalence of Giardia infection, ranged from 11% to 75% on 14 farms with an average prevalence of 36% (204 positive cattle out of 571 examined). DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 91% of the 204 Giardia isolates were Assemblage E, and 9% were Assemblage A. The prevalence of these genotypes varied greatly from farm to farm, with four farms having exclusively Assemblage E Giardia. Overall, Assemblage E was present in 33% of all animals tested and Assemblage A was present in 3% of the animals. Thus, while many of the heifers were infected with a genotype that is not known to be infectious for humans, 1-2 year old heifers on 10 of 14 farms did harbor zoonotic Assemblage A Giardia. Therefore, heifers cannot be overlooked as a potential source of human infectious cysts in the environment, with some farms representing a much higher risk than others.

  9. Basic research and 12 years of clinical experience in computer-assisted navigation technology: a review.

    PubMed

    Ewers, R; Schicho, K; Undt, G; Wanschitz, F; Truppe, M; Seemann, R; Wagner, A

    2005-01-01

    Computer-aided surgical navigation technology is commonly used in craniomaxillofacial surgery. It offers substantial improvement regarding esthetic and functional aspects in a range of surgical procedures. Based on augmented reality principles, where the real operative site is merged with computer generated graphic information, computer-aided navigation systems were employed, among other procedures, in dental implantology, arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint, osteotomies, distraction osteogenesis, image guided biopsies and removals of foreign bodies. The decision to perform a procedure with or without computer-aided intraoperative navigation depends on the expected benefit to the procedure as well as on the technical expenditure necessary to achieve that goal. This paper comprises the experience gained in 12 years of research, development and routine clinical application. One hundred and fifty-eight operations with successful application of surgical navigation technology--divided into five groups--are evaluated regarding the criteria "medical benefit" and "technical expenditure" necessary to perform these procedures. Our results indicate that the medical benefit is likely to outweight the expenditure of technology with few exceptions (calvaria transplant, resection of the temporal bone, reconstruction of the orbital floor). Especially in dental implantology, specialized software reduces time and additional costs necessary to plan and perform procedures with computer-aided surgical navigation.

  10. Duodenal Atresia: Open versus MIS Repair—Analysis of Our Experience over the Last 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Valeria; Conighi, Maria Luisa; Zolpi, Elisa; Costa, Lorenzo; Fasoli, Lorella

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Duodenal atresia (DA) routinely has been corrected by laparotomy and duodenoduodenostomy with excellent long-term results. We revisited the patients with DA treated in the last 12 years (2004–2016) comparing the open and the minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approach. Methods. We divided our cohort of patients into two groups. Group 1 included 10 patients with CDO (2004–09) treated with open procedure: 5, DA; 3, duodenal web; 2, extrinsic obstruction. Three presented with Down's syndrome while 3 presented with concomitant malformations. Group 2 included 8 patients (2009–16): 1, web; 5, DA; 2, extrinsic obstruction. Seven were treated by MIS; 1 was treated by Endoscopy. Three presented with Down's syndrome; 3 presented with concomitant malformations. Results. Average operating time was 120 minutes in Group 1 and 190 minutes in Group 2. In MIS Group the visualization was excellent. We recorded no intraoperative complications, conversions, or anastomotic leakage. Feedings started on 3–7 postoperative days. Follow-up showed no evidence of stricture or obstruction. In Group 1 feedings started within 10–22 days and we have 1 postoperative obstruction. Conclusions. Laparoscopic repair of DA is one of the most challenging procedures among pediatric laparoscopic procedures. These patients had a shorter length of hospitalization and more rapid advancement to full feeding compared to patients undergoing the open approach. Laparoscopic repair of DA could be the preferred technique, safe, and efficacious, in the hands of experienced surgeons. PMID:28326320

  11. Landfills as critical infrastructures: analysis of observational datasets after 12 years of non-invasive monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Raco, Brunella; Battaglini, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the results of more than ten years of observations, performed on a regular basis, on a municipal solid waste disposal located in Italy. Observational data are generated by the combination of non-invasive techniques, involving the direct measurement of biogas release to the atmosphere and thermal infrared imaging. In fact, part of the generated biogas tends to escape from the landfill surface even when collecting systems are installed and properly working. Thus, methodologies for estimating the behaviour of a landfill system by means of direct and/or indirect measurement systems have been developed in the last decades. It is nowadays known that these infrastructures produce more than 20% of the total anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere, justifying the need for a systematic and efficient monitoring of such infrastructures. During the last 12 years, observational data regarding a solid waste disposal site located in Tuscany (Italy) have been collected on a regular basis. The collected datasets consist in direct measurements of gas flux with the accumulation chamber method, combined with the detection of thermal anomalies by infrared radiometry. This work discusses the evolution of the estimated performance of the landfill system, its trends, the benefits and the critical aspects of such relatively long-term monitoring activity.

  12. Emotion Suppression and Mortality Risk Over a 12-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Fiscella, Kevin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Duberstein, Paul; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Suppression of emotion has long been suspected to have a role in health, but empirical work has yielded mixed findings. We examined the association between emotion suppression and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality over 12 years of follow-up in a nationally representative US sample. Methods We used the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index (NDI) cohort, which included an emotion suppression scale administered to 729 people in 1996. Prospective mortality follow up between 1996 and 2008 of 111 deaths (37 by cardiovascular disease, 34 by cancer) was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, education, and minority race/ethnicity. Results The 75th vs. 25th percentile on the emotional suppression score was associated with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] = 1.00, 1.82; p = .049) for all-cause mortality. For cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality, the HRs were 1.70 (95% CI = 1.01, 2.88, p = 0.049) and 1.47 (95% CI = .87, 2.47, p = 0.148) respectively. Conclusions Emotion suppression may convey risk for earlier death, including death from cancer. Further work is needed to better understand the biopsychosocial mechanisms for this risk, as well as the nature of associations between suppression and different forms of mortality. PMID:24119947

  13. Making rainfall features fun: scientific activities for teaching children aged 5-12 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, Auguste; Muller, Catherine L.; le Gueut, Marie-Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Research projects now rely on an array of different channels to increase impact, including high-level scientific output, tools, and equipment, but also communication, outreach, and educational activities. This paper focuses on education for children aged 5-12 years and presents activities that aim to help them (and their teachers) grasp some of the complex underlying issues in environmental science. More generally, it helps children to become familiarized with science and scientists, with the aim to enhance scientific culture and promote careers in this field. The activities developed are focused on rainfall: (a) designing and using a disdrometer to observe the variety of drop sizes; (b) careful recording of successive dry and rainy days and reproducing patterns using a simple model based on fractal random multiplicative cascades; and (c) collaboratively writing a children's book about rainfall. These activities are discussed in the context of current state-of-the-art pedagogical practices and goals set by project funders, especially in a European Union framework.

  14. Abdominal actinomycosis masquerading as an omental tumor in a 12-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Yutaka; Iinuma, Yasushi; Hashizume, Naoki; Yoshida, Motomu; Iida, Hisataka; Shibuya, Hiroyuki; Naito, Shinichi; Nitta, Koju

    2013-02-01

    We herein report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 12-year-old girl in whom an omental primary tumor was suspected before surgery. The patient began to experience intermittent lower left abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans were inconclusive at this time, but 6 months later, CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations showed a 7-cm, tumor-like lesion in the left abdominal cavity; malignancy could not be ruled out. The tumor, which originated in the omentum and adhered strongly to the left abdominal wall, was resected along with approximately 90 % of the omentum, the peritoneum in contact with the mass, and the posterior layer of the rectus abdominal sheath, under suspicion of a malignant tumor. However, omental actinomycosis was the final pathological diagnosis. The patient's antibiotic treatment was changed to a penicillin-series oral antibiotic to prevent recurrence of the actinomycosis. The patient was discharged from our hospital 16 days after the first surgery, but she developed three episodes of ileus; the first two required surgery. The patient has had no further recurrences of actinomycosis or postoperative ileus 20 months after discharge.

  15. Atypical presentation of perforated peptic ulcer disease in a 12-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mbarushimana, Simon; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Thomas, George

    2014-06-27

    A 12-year-old boy was referred to the surgical unit with 4 h history of severe lower abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. No other symptoms were reported and there was no significant medical or family history. Examination revealed tenderness in the lower abdomen, in particular the left iliac fossa. His white cell count was elevated at 19.6×10(9)/L, with a predominant neutrophilia of 15.8×10(9)/L and a C reactive protein of <0.3 mg/L. An abdominal X-ray revealed intraperitoneal gas and a chest X-ray identified free air under both hemidiaphragms. Subsequent diagnostic laparoscopy identified a perforated duodenal ulcer that was repaired by means of an omental patch. The case illustrates that although uncommon, alternate diagnoses must be borne in mind in children presenting with lower abdominal pain and diagnostic laparoscopy is a useful tool in children with visceral perforation as it avoids treatment delays and exposure to excess radiation.

  16. Psychophysiology of spider phobia in 8- to 12-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, Verena; Schäfer, Axel; Köchel, Angelika; Scharmüller, Wilfried; Schienle, Anne

    2010-12-01

    The present investigation focused on late event-related potentials (ERPs) and facial electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to symptom provocation in 8- to 12-year-old spider phobic girls and compared results to those in non-fearful controls. Fourteen patients and 14 controls were presented with phobia-relevant, generally fear-inducing, disgust-inducing and affectively neutral pictures in an EEG/EMG session. ERPs were extracted in the time-windows 340-500ms (P300) and 550-770ms (late positive potential, LPP). Relative to controls, phobics showed enhanced amplitudes of P300 and LPP in response to spider pictures. This result is interpreted to reflect motivated attention to emotionally salient stimuli. Moreover, phobics showed enhanced average facial EMG activity of the levator labii and the corrugator supercilii in response to spider pictures, reflecting the negative valence and disgust relevance of spiders. Additionally, spider phobic girls relative to controls showed higher overall disgust proneness and heightened average facial EMG activity in both muscle regions in response to disgust stimuli, possibly revealing a disgust-based origin of spider phobia in children. These aspects should be considered in psychotherapeutic treatment of childhood spider phobia.

  17. History of labour market attachment as a determinant of health status: a 12-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Gustafsson, Per E; Hammarström, Anne; Virtanen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12 years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status. Design Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. Setting and participants All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Luleå in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included. Measures Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires. Results We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: ‘permanent’, ‘high level’, ‘strengthening’ and ‘poor level’ of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model. Conclusions Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health. PMID:24531448

  18. Rationalization of Periodical Holdings: A Case Study at Chalmers University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Describes study of periodical use in medium-sized university of technology which examined use of individual periodicals in relation to language of publication; patterns of use for interlibrary lending and for multiple copy journals; methods and costs for acquiring infrequently used periodicals. Thirty-three references and most frequently used…

  19. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries to Anterior Teeth of 12-Year-Old School Children in Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Ain, Tasneem S.; Lingesha Telgi, Ravishankar; Sultan, Saima; Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar Telgi, Chaitra; Tirth, Amit; Kumar Pal, Sumit; Gowhar, Owais; Tandon, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth are a significant public health problem, not only because their prevalence is relatively high, but also because they have considerable impact on children’s daily lives. Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) cause physical and psychological discomfort, pain and other negative impacts, such as tendency to avoid laughing or smiling, which can affect social relationships. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth among 12-year-old school children in Kashmir, India. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in private and government schools of India among 1600 schoolchildren aged 12 years. In addition to recording of the type of trauma (using Ellis and Davey classification of fractures, 1970), over jet, Angle’s molar relation and lip competence were also recorded. The socioeconomic status and academic performance of the study subjects were registered. The data obtained were compiled systematically and then statistically analyzed. The statistical significance for the association between the traumatic injury and the variables was analyzed using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to identify potential risk predictors of TDIs. Results The overall prevalence of TDI to anterior teeth was found to be 9.3%. The TDI to anterior teeth in male was more than female, but the difference was statistically nonsignificant (P < 0.01). Falls and sports were the most common causes of trauma in the present study. The highest potential risk factor for the occurrence of trauma was over jet. Academic performance was found to be significantly associated to TDI to anterior teeth, when analyzed in a multiple regression model. Conclusions It was concluded that the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 9.3%. Traumatic dental injuries among children exhibit complex interaction between the victims’ oral conditions and their behavior. Therefore

  20. [Prevalence of first permanent molar loss in 6 to 12-year-old students of both sexes in Ribeirão Preto].

    PubMed

    Ferlin, L H; Daruge, A D; Daruge, R J; Rancan, S V

    1989-01-01

    The authors study the prevalence of lost of the first permanent molars in 6 to 12 years old schoolchildren of medium and low social-economic levels, in both sexes, from Ribeirão Preto, SP., on right and left hemiarcs, and both maxilars. The results indicate that teeth los was significantly higher in females, and in both sexes the teeth lost was higher in the lower maxilar. No differences were also observed between hemiarchs.

  1. Seasonal Variations and Trends in Hospitalization for Peptic Ulcer Disease in the United States: A 12-Year Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Moiz; Patel, Nileshkumar; Thakkar, Badal; Solanki, Shantanu; Tareen, Sarah; Fasullo, Matthew J; Kesavan, Mayurathan; Nalluri, Nikhil; Khan, Ahsan; Pau, Dhaval; Deeb, Liliane; Abergel, Jeffrey; Das, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    Background Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a major public health burden significantly impacting the cost of hospitalization in the United States (US). We examined the trends, characteristics, complications, cost, and seasonality of PUD-related hospitalizations from 2000 to 2011. Methods With the use of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 through 2011, we identified PUD-related hospitalizations using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9), 9th Revision, and the Clinical Modification code 531.00 to 534.91 as the principal discharge diagnosis. The total number of hospitalizations for each calendar month of the year were added over a 12-year period, and this number was divided by the number of days in that particular month to obtain the mean hospitalizations per day for each month. Results The study found that 351,921 hospitalizations with the primary discharge diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurred in the US between 2000 and 2011. This number dropped significantly from 49,524 to 17,499 between 2000 and 2011, and the rate of PUD-related mortality decreased from 4.3% to 3.1%. The mean age of the study population was 66.2 ± 17.4 years; 52.3% were males, and 56.8% were white. The number of hospitalizations in the US peaked in the spring season (916/day), and reached a nadir in the fall season (861/day). The mean cost of PUD hospitalization increased significantly from $11,755 in 2001 to $13,803 in 2011 (relative increase of 17%; p <0.001). Conclusion The incidence of PUD and its mortality has decreased significantly in the last decade, but its economic burden on the healthcare system remains high. A seasonal pattern of PUD hospitalization showed a peak in PUD-related admissions in the spring season and a trough in the fall season. PMID:27909642

  2. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Results Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. Conclusion There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula. PMID:23819006

  3. The etiology of science performance: decreasing heritability and increasing importance of the shared environment from 9 to 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, increases in heritability and decreases in shared environmental influences have typically been found for cognitive abilities. A sample of more than 2,500 pairs of twins from the Twins Early Development Study was used to investigate whether a similar pattern would be found for science performance from 9 to 12 years. Science performance was based on teacher-assessed U.K. National Curriculum standards. Science at 9 years showed high heritability (64%) and modest shared environmental (16%) estimates. In contrast to the expected developmental pattern, heritability was significantly lower at 12 years (47%) and shared environmental influences were significantly higher (32%). Understanding what these increasingly important shared environmental influences are could lead to interventions that encourage engagement in science throughout the lifespan.

  4. The development of the illusion of control and sense of agency in 7- to-12-year old children and adults.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Rutjens, Bastiaan T; van der Pligt, Joop

    2015-12-01

    The illusion of control can be defined as the erroneous belief that one's actions cause a specific outcome, whereas sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of authorship over one's actions. In the present study we investigated the development of illusory control and sense of agency. A novel card-guessing game was developed in which 7- to-12-year old children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) were required to select a card, and we manipulated the congruence of the outcome with their initial choice (i.e., congruent or incongruent) and the valence of the outcome that was presented (i.e., positive or negative). We found that illusory control and the self-attribution bias (i.e., the bias to attribute positive outcomes to oneself) in the card guessing game decreased, as children get older. In contrast, for both children and adults sense of agency in the task was similarly affected by outcome congruency, suggesting that the ability to relate predicted to observed action outcomes reflects a basic mechanism that helps people to sustain a sense of agency. Thus, while the illusion of control decreases as we get older, the experience of agency as a function of outcome congruency seems to be more stable across development.

  5. Prevalence of Tics Among 6- to 12-Year-Old Schoolchildren in the Itagui Municipality, Colombia, in 2010.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Blair Ortiz; David, María; Sánchez, Yaneth; Miranda, Johanna; Sierra, Javier Mauricio; Cornejo, José William

    2013-11-01

    Tics are the most frequent movement disorder in children and they are most prevalent during the school-age years. Most tics are transitory; however, certain tics can be chronic, causing negative repercussions at school, within the family, and socially. In some cases, tics are associated with obsessive compulsive disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other conditions that require diagnosis and prompt treatment. In South America, there are no indexed studies determining the prevalence of tics in school-age children. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of tics in schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years. From 16 000 students aged 6 to 12 years who were enrolled in first to fifth grade, a sample of 346 school-aged children was chosen via a multistage sampling process that randomized the educational systems in terms of proportional size and the stratification between public and private schools and adjusted for the design effect. The students were screened and those who were positive for tics underwent clinical evaluations and semistructured interviews by the researchers to determine the prevalence of the disease. The parents and teachers of 323 students returned our surveys (93.3%). One hundred thirty-eight students (42.7%) were considered positive for tics based on parents' and teachers' reports. The clinical evaluation established a 17.97% prevalence of tics (58 students), and 25 students (43.2%) also met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Of the students with tics, 27.6% presented with transitory tics, and 72.4% presented with chronic tics. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was detected in 11 of the children (3.4%). The average age of child with tics was 9 ± 1.5 years, and the majority of the children with tics attended third grade at a basic primary school. Children from public and private schools were equally likely to present with tics. Tics are noteworthy in our field and are associated with other neurobehavioral disorders, such as

  6. Training To Improve Manual Control In 7–8 And 10–12 Year Old Children: Training Eliminates Performance Differences Between Ages

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J.; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7–8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7–8 and 10–12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7–8 year olds was worse than that of the 10–12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7–8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10–12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  7. Erythropoietin as neuroprotective and neuroregenerative treatment strategy: comprehensive overview of 12 years of preclinical and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Sargin, Derya; Friedrichs, Heidi; El-Kordi, Ahmed; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2010-12-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), originally discovered as hematopoietic growth factor, has direct effects on cells of the nervous system that make it a highly attractive candidate drug for neuroprotection/neuroregeneration. Hardly any other compound has led to so much preclinical work in the field of translational neuroscience than EPO. Almost all of the >180 preclinical studies performed by many independent research groups from all over the world in the last 12 years have yielded positive results on EPO as a neuroprotective drug. The fact that EPO was approved for the treatment of anemia >20 years ago and found to be well tolerated and safe, facilitated the first steps of translation from preclinical findings to the clinic. On the other hand, the same fact, naturally associated with loss of patent protection, hindered to develop EPO as a highly promising therapeutic strategy for application in human brain disease. Therefore, only few clinical neuroprotection studies have been concluded, all with essentially positive and stimulating results, but no further development towards the clinic has occurred thus far. This article reviews the preclinical and clinical work on EPO for the indications neuroprotection/neuroregeneration and cognition, and hopefully will stimulate new endeavours promoting development of EPO for the treatment of human brain diseases.

  8. Comparing the magnitude of two fractions with common components: which representations are used by 10- and 12-year-olds?

    PubMed

    Meert, Gaëlle; Grégoire, Jacques; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2010-11-01

    This study tested whether 10- and 12-year-olds who can correctly compare the magnitudes of fractions with common components access the magnitudes of the whole fractions rather than only compare the magnitudes of their components. Time for comparing two fractions was predicted by the numerical distance between the whole fractions, suggesting an access to their magnitude. In addition, we tested whether the relative magnitude of the denominator interferes with the processing of the fraction magnitude and, thus, needs to be inhibited. Response times were slower for fractions with common numerators than for fractions with common denominators, indicating an interference of the magnitude of the denominators with the selection of the larger fraction. A negative priming effect was shown for the comparison of natural numbers primed by fractions with common numerators, suggesting an inhibition of the selection of the larger denominator during the comparison of fractions. In conclusion, children who can correctly compare fractions with common components can access the magnitude of the whole fractions but remain sensitive to the interference of the relative magnitude of the denominators. This study highlights the fact that beyond the interference of natural number knowledge at the conceptual level (called the "whole number bias" by Ni & Zhou, 2005), children need to manage the interference of the magnitude of the denominators (Stroop-like effect).

  9. Prenatal and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and attention and executive function at 9–12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kogut, Katherine; Gaspar, Fraser; Gunier, Robert; Harley, Kim; Parra, Kimberly; Villaseñor, Diana; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Objective California children’s exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) are among the highest measured worldwide. We previously reported associations for prenatal and childhood PBDE exposures with decrements in attention, processing speed, fine motor coordination, and cognition in children at ages 5 and 7 years. Here, we investigate associations of PBDEs with attention and executive function at ages 9 to 12 years in the expanded CHAMACOS cohort. Methods We measured PBDEs in prenatal and child age 9 year serum samples for families enrolled in the study since pregnancy (“CHAM1”, N=321). In a subsequent cohort for which families were enrolled at child age 9 (“CHAM2”, N=301), we measured PBDEs in maternal and child samples collected at child age 9, and used predictive modeling to estimate prenatal exposure levels. We examined associations of measured and estimated PBDE concentrations on children’s attention and executive functioning at ages 9, 10½, and 12 years. Results Geometric means for prenatal and childhood ΣPBDE levels (sum of PBDE−47,−99,−100,−153) for the expanded CHAMACOS cohort were 26.3 and 63.2 ng/g lipid, respectively, and did not differ significantly between CHAM1 and CHAM2 families. We found consistent associations of prenatal exposure to PBDEs with poorer attention and executive function, measured with parent report and direct neuropsychological testing of the child. For example, using GEE models of repeated outcome measures at age 9 and 12, a 10-fold increase in prenatal ΣPBDE was associated with poorer response consistency on the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II (β=2.9; 95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) and poorer working memory on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (β=2.5; 95% CI: 0.5, 4.4). Child age 9 ΣPBDE levels were associated with poorer parent-reported attention and executive function for girls but not boys. Conclusions Our results suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be a

  10. Stability in and correlation between factors influencing genetic quality of seed lots in seed orchard of Pinus tabuliformis Carr. over a 12-year span.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoru; Li, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Coniferous seed orchards require a long period from initial seed harvest to stable seed production. Differential reproductive success and asynchrony are among the main factors for orchard crops year-to-year variation in terms of parental gametic contribution and ultimately the genetic gain. It is fundamental in both making predictions about the genetic composition of the seed crop and decisions about orchard roguing and improved seed orchard establishment. In this paper, a primary Chinese pine seed orchard with 49 clones is investigated for stability, variation and correlation analysis of factors which influence genetic quality of the seed lots from initial seed harvest to the stable seed production over a 12 years span. Results indicated that the reproductive synchrony index of pollen shedding has shown to be higher than that of the strobili receptivity, and both can be drastically influenced by the ambient climate factors. Reproductive synchrony index of the clones has certain relative stability and it could be used as an indication of the seed orchard status during maturity stage; clones in the studied orchard have shown extreme differences in terms of the gametic and genetic contribution to the seed crop at the orchard's early production phase specifically when they severe as either female or male parents. Those differences are closely related to clonal sex tendency at the time of orchard's initial reproduction. Clonal gamete contribution as male and female parent often has a negative correlation. Clone utilization as pollen, seed or both pollen and seed donors should consider the role it would play in the seed crop; due to numerous factors influencing on the mating system in seed orchards, clonal genetic contribution as male parent is uncertain, and it has major influence on the genetic composition in the seed orchard during the initial reproductive and seed production phase.

  11. Wildfires in northern Eurasia affect the budget of black carbon in the Arctic - a 12-year retrospective synopsis (2002-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Hao, W. M.; Petkov, A.; Silverstein, R. P.; Corley, R.; Nordgren, B. L.; Urbanski, S. P.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Tunved, P.; Crepinsek, S.; Jefferson, A.; Sharma, S.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades much attention has been given to the Arctic environment, where climate change is happening rapidly. Black carbon (BC) has been shown to be a major component of Arctic pollution that also affects the radiative balance. In the present study, we focused on how vegetation fires that occurred in northern Eurasia during the period of 2002-2013 influenced the budget of BC in the Arctic. For simulating the transport of fire emissions from northern Eurasia to the Arctic, we adopted BC fire emission estimates developed independently by GFED3 (Global Fire Emissions Database) and FEI-NE (Fire Emission Inventory - northern Eurasia). Both datasets were based on fire locations and burned areas detected by MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Terra and Aqua satellites. Anthropogenic sources of BC were adopted from the MACCity (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment) emission inventory.During the 12-year period, an average area of 250 000 km2 yr-1 was burned in northern Eurasia (FEI-NE) and the global emissions of BC ranged between 8.0 and 9.5 Tg yr-1 (FEI-NE+MACCity). For the BC emitted in the Northern Hemisphere (based on FEI-NE+MACCity), about 70 % originated from anthropogenic sources and the rest from biomass burning (BB). Using the FEI-NE+MACCity inventory, we found that 102 ± 29 kt yr-1 BC was deposited in the Arctic (defined here as the area north of 67° N) during the 12 years simulated, which was twice as much as when using the MACCity inventory (56 ± 8 kt yr-1). The annual mass of BC deposited in the Arctic from all sources (FEI-NE in northern Eurasia, MACCity elsewhere) is significantly higher by about 37 % in 2009 (78 vs. 57 kt yr-1) to 181 % in 2012 (153 vs. 54 kt yr-1), compared to the BC deposited using just the MACCity emission inventory. Deposition of BC in the Arctic from BB sources in the Northern Hemisphere

  12. Differences in physical fitness and gross motor coordination in boys aged 6-12 years specializing in one versus sampling more than one sport.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Job; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Vaeyens, Roel; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M

    2012-01-01

    The Developmental Model of Sports Participation proposes two pathways towards expertise in sports between 6 and 12 years of age: early specialization and early diversification. This study investigated the effect of sampling various sports and of spending many or few hours in sports on fitness and gross motor coordination. Altogether, 735 boys in three age groups (6-8, 8-10, and 10-12 years) were profiled using a fitness test battery. A computerized physical activity questionnaire was used to obtain data on sports participation. In the eldest group, (M)ANCOVA showed a positive effect of sampling various sports on strength, speed, endurance, and gross motor coordination (P < 0.05). A positive effect of many hours per week spent in sports was apparent in every age group. These data suggest an acute positive effect of many hours in sports and a latent positive effect of early sampling on fitness and gross motor coordination. Multiple comparisons revealed that boys aged 10-12 years, who spent many hours in various sports, performed better on standing broad jump (P < 0.05) and gross motor coordination (P < 0.05) than boys specializing in a single sport. Therefore, our results highlight the importance of spending many hours in sports and sampling various sports in the development of fitness and gross motor coordination.

  13. The Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control (VLNDEF): 12 years of episodic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negusini, M.; Capra, A.; Dubbini, M.; Sarti, P.; Vittuari, L.; Zanutta, A.

    2011-12-01

    During the Antarctic Italian expedition carried out in 1999 a geodetic network was materialized on rocky outcrops throughout the Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Antarctica. The project, named VLNDEF (Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control), started with the goal to detect neotectonic phenomena present in the region and to supply metrical information to constrain Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models. The project is part of GIANT (Geodetic Infrastructure in ANTarctica) framework of the SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research), an international program since 1992, with the supervision of Antarctic Neo-TECtonics (a committee of specialists). Objectives of this work are the evaluation of absolute motions of the VLNDEF GPS sites expressed in the ITRF reference frame and the estimation of relative residual intra-plate velocities, in order to investigate the present-day kinematics of NVL region. The network is formed by 28 points that are accessible by means of helicopter, the maximum distance of points from the Italian base Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS) being about 500 km. A permanent GPS station (TNB1) was installed in 1998 at MZS with Domes #66036M001. Three semi permanent remote stations (VL01 Cape Hallett, VL05 Cape Philips, VL18 Starr Nunatak), powered by sets of batteries and solar panels, provide a few months of data acquisition every year. Nine GPS measurement campaigns were conducted during the Antarctic summers 1999/2011, three of which being complete repetitions of the network. The computation of coordinates and velocities of the VLNDEF points has been implemented taking into account the campaign style dataset of 12 years and its framing into a global network, by means of different scientific software packages: Bernese V.5.0 and Gamit-Globk. In order to homogeneously process the data set, the same up-to-date data analysis strategy, ancillary files (IGS orbits and clock model, physical bias models, etc.), datum and constraints have been

  14. Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana.

    PubMed

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    1998-01-01

    Cognitive performance was examined in 131 9-12-year-old children for whom prenatal marihuana and cigarette exposure had been ascertained. The subjects, participants in an ongoing longitudinal study, were from a low-risk, predominantly middle class sample. The tasks included the WISC-III and a series of tests assessing aspects of cognition subsumed under the rubric of executive function. Consistent with results obtained at earlier ages, discriminant function analysis revealed a dose-dependent association, which remained after controlling for potential confounds (including secondhand smoke), between prenatal cigarette exposure and lower global intelligence scores with the verbal subtests of the WISC maximally discriminating among levels of in utero exposure. In contrast, prenatal marihuana exposure was not associated with global intelligence or the verbal subtests. Rather, this drug was negatively associated with the executive function tasks that require impulse control and visual analysis/hypothesis testing and with a number of WISC subtests requiring the same abilities. The interpretation of these results is discussed in terms of executive function and is related to earlier observations of this sample and to the extant prefrontal and general marihuana literature.

  15. Correlations of random binary sequences with pre-stated operator intention: a review of a 12-year program.

    PubMed

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J; Nelson, R G; Dobyns, Y H; Bradish, G J

    2007-01-01

    Strong correlations between output distribution means of a variety of random binary processes and pre-stated intentions of some 100 individual human operators have been established over a 12-year experimental program. More than 1000 experimental series, employing four different categories of random devices and several distinctive protocols, show comparable magnitudes of anomalous mean shifts from chance expectation, with similar distribution structures. Although the absolute effect sizes are quite small, of the order of 10(-4) bits deviation per bit processed, over the huge databases accumulated, the composite effect exceeds 7sigma (p approximately 3.5 x 10(-13)). These data display significant disparities between female and male operator performances, and consistent serial position effects in individual and collective results. Data generated by operators far removed from the machines and exerting their efforts at times other than those of machine operation show similar effect sizes and structural details to those of the local, on-time experiments. Most other secondary parameters tested are found to have little effect on the scale and character of the results, with one important exception: studies performed using fully deterministic pseudorandom sources, either hard-wired or algorithmic, yield null overall mean shifts, and display no other anomalous features.

  16. Functional soil metagenomics: Elucidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential following 12 years of in situ bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Márcia; Nielsen, Agnes; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Bruls, Thomas; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2017-04-12

    A culture-independent function-based screening approach was used to assess the microbial aerobic catabolome for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation of a soil subjected to 12 years of in situ bioremediation. A total of 422,750 fosmid clones were screened for key aromatic ring-cleavage activities using 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as substrate. Most of the genes encoding ring-cleavage enzymes on the 768 retrieved positive fosmids could not be identified using primer-based approaches and, thus, 205 fosmid inserts were sequenced. Nearly two hundred extradiol dioxygenase encoding genes of three different superfamilies could be identified. Additional key genes of aromatic metabolic pathways were identified, including a high abundance of Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases that provided detailed information on enzymes activating aromatic compounds and enzymes involved in activation of the side chain of methylsubstituted aromatics. The gained insights indicated a complex microbial network acting at the site under study, which comprises organisms similar to recently identified Immundisolibacter cernigliae TR3.2 and Rugosibacter aromaticivorans Ca6 and underlined the great potential of an approach that combines an activity-screening, a cost-effective high-throughput sequencing of fosmid clones and a phylogenomic-routed and manually curated database to carefully identify key proteins dedicated to aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral health status of 12-year-old school children in Khartoum state, the Sudan; a school-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Nurelhuda, Nazik Mostafa; Trovik, Tordis Agnete; Ali, Raouf Wahab; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the prevalence of dental caries among school children in the past decades in Sudan rendering it difficult to understand the status and pattern of oral health. Methods A school-based survey was conducted using stratified random cluster sampling in Khartoum state, Sudan. Data was collected through interviews and clinical examination by a single examiner. DMFT was measured according to WHO criteria. Gingival index (GI) of Loe & Silness and Plaque index (PI) of Silness & Loe were used. Results The mean DMFT for 12-year-olds was found to be 0.42 with a significant caries index (SiC) of 1.4. Private school attendees had significantly higher DMFT (0.57) when compared to public school attendees (0.4). The untreated caries prevalence was 30.5%. In multivariate analysis caries experience (DMFT > 0) was found to be significantly and directly associated with socioeconomic status. The mean GI for the six index teeth was found to be 1.05 (CI 1.03 – 1.07) and the mean PI was 1.30 (CI 1.22 – 1.38). Conclusion The prevalence of caries was found to be low. The school children with the higher socioeconomic status formed the high risk group. PMID:19527502

  18. Moderate physical activity correlates with elevated leptin in physically active 10-12-year-old boys with normal BMI.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Antonio; Stefanelli, Claudio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Saar, Meeli; Purge, Priit

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relations between physical activity of differing intensity and duration with body energy-balance hormone leptin in 10-12-year-old boys (N = 94) who participated in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at least four to five times per week. The boys reported their physical activity using a questionnaire. They had normal body mass index (BMI, kg/ m2), and were at Tanner Stage 2 of development. Boys were divided into three subgroups by leptin levels: normal serum leptin (M +/- .5 SD, n = 44, 1.2-3.9 ng/ml), low leptin (< or = M - .5 SD; n = 31, < 1.2 ng/ml), and high leptin (> or = M + .5 SD; n = 19, > 3.9 ng/ml). There were significant differences between subgroups in anthropometric parameters and serum leptin levels, but not in physical activity. A significant correlation was found between leptin and moderate physical activity of at least five times per week for at least 30 minutes each time in the high leptin group (r = .61). In conclusion, the correlations between physical activity and leptin are weak; only moderate physical activity was correlated with leptin levels in the high leptin

  19. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  20. Disparity between dietary iron intake and iron status of children aged 10-12 years.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1999-12-01

    Iron status was assessed in a representative sample of 188 adolescents living in a medium-sized city in Poland. Dietary intakes were evaluated using records of diet over a period of seven consecutive days. Subjects were considered to be iron deficient when two or more of the following parameters were abnormal: serum ferritin, transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Based on this definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency in the investigated sample of children aged from ten to twelve years was 12.7%. Iron deficiency anaemia was defined using the following criteria: haemoglobin values less than 12.0 g. dl (-1) in girls or less than 12.2 g. dl(-1) in boys, combined with an iron deficiency. With such a definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in all subjects was 6.3%. Four boys (3.9%) and six girls (6.8%) were diagnosed as anaemic. The values for Hb in the anaemic boys ranged from 10.9 to 12.2 g. dl (-1) and in anaemic girls from 8.7 to 12.0 g. (-1). It was found that the majority of the individuals studied had a dietary haem-iron intake lower than that recommended. No relationship was found between the level of serum ferritin and total iron and vitamin C dietary intake, but there was positive correlation between serum ferritin and intake of haem iron. A seven-day dietary history questionnaire correctly identified children at risk of iron deficiency anaemia.

  1. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    PubMed

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-10-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology.

  2. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  3. The challenges of cardiothoracic surgery practice in Nigeria: a 12 years institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Sanusi, Michael; Animasahun, Adeola; Mgbajah, Ogadinma; Majekodunmi, Adetinuwe; Nzewi, Onyekwelu; Nwiloh, Jonathan; Oke, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the specialty of cardiothoracic surgery has been practiced in Nigeria for many years, open heart surgery (OHS) has only in the last decade become relatively more frequent, mainly through visiting foreign cardiac surgical teams. At this early phase of development it is faced with multiple challenges, especially financing and local skilled manpower for which solutions have to be identified in order to ensure sustainability and future growth. This study is aimed at highlighting these obstacles to growth of cardiothoracic surgery based on our own institutional experience at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) and the current status of OHS activity in other cardiothoracic centers in Nigeria. Methods Prospectively acquired data from our center from March 2004 to December 2015 was reviewed. A telephone survey was also conducted with all other institutions in Nigeria performing cardiac surgery. Results During the study period 1,520 patients underwent various procedures with a mean age of 37±22.4 years and 813 (53.5%) were males. There were 450 major procedures (29.6%), 889 minor procedures (58.5%) and 181 endoscopic procedures (11.9%). The top ten clinical diagnoses were empyema thoracis (17.5%), malignant pleural effusion (14.7%), chest trauma (12%), hemodialysis access (6.1%), bradyarrhythmia (5.3%), aerodigestive foreign bodies (4.1%), vascular injury (3.9%), pericardial disease (3.8%), lung cancer (3.6%) and congenital heart disease (3.4%). The range of procedures was chest tube insertion (41.6%), endoscopy (11.9%), lung procedures (7%), arterio-venous fistula (6.1%), pacemaker implantation (5.3%), vascular repair (4.4%), OHS (3.4%), esophageal procedures (2.6%), chest wall surgery (2%), video assisted thoracic surgery (2%), closed heart surgery (1.6%), diaphragmatic procedures (1.6%) and thymectomy (1%). Survey of 15 centers in Nigeria with cardiac surgery activity showed a total of 496 OHS cases between 1974 and 2016, with 330 cases

  4. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  5. Estimates of the aerosol indirect effect over the Baltic Sea region derived from 12 years of MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Giulia; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodriguez, Edith; Virtanen, Timo; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2017-02-01

    Retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board the Aqua satellite, 12 years (2003-2014) of aerosol and cloud properties were used to statistically quantify aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) over the Baltic Sea region, including the relatively clean Fennoscandia and the more polluted central-eastern Europe. These areas allowed us to study the effects of different aerosol types and concentrations on macro- and microphysical properties of clouds: cloud effective radius (CER), cloud fraction (CF), cloud optical thickness (COT), cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud-top height (CTH). Aerosol properties used are aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE) and aerosol index (AI). The study was limited to low-level water clouds in the summer. The vertical distributions of the relationships between cloud properties and aerosols show an effect of aerosols on low-level water clouds. CF, COT, LWP and CTH tend to increase with aerosol loading, indicating changes in the cloud structure, while the effective radius of cloud droplets decreases. The ACI is larger at relatively low cloud-top levels, between 900 and 700 hPa. Most of the studied cloud variables were unaffected by the lower-tropospheric stability (LTS), except for the cloud fraction. The spatial distribution of aerosol and cloud parameters and ACI, here defined as the change in CER as a function of aerosol concentration for a fixed LWP, shows positive and statistically significant ACI over the Baltic Sea and Fennoscandia, with the former having the largest values. Small negative ACI values are observed in central-eastern Europe, suggesting that large aerosol concentrations saturate the ACI.

  6. Anthropometrics, body shape over 12 years and risk of cancer events in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Balkau, Beverley; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Magliano, Dianna J

    2013-08-01

    Studies of anthropometry and cancer have focused on body mass index (BMI). Relations between weight, waist (WC) and hip circumferences (HC), birth length and adult height with cancer are less well studied. Women from the French E3N study, born between 1925 and 1950, were followed biennially from 1995 until 2008. Body shape was classed into four groups based on median WC and HC at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Over the 12 years of follow-up, 7,247 of 63,798 women developed cancer. As WC increased, we found a trend for decreasing cancer risk in pre-menopausal women, which reversed to an increasing risk in post-menopausal women. This remained unchanged after further adjustment for HC /or height [HR: 0.72 (0.52-1.00) before menopause and 1.17 (1.04-1.31) in the 5th vs. 1st quintile of HC], and were similar after exclusion of breast cancer. We showed that large body shape decreased cancer risk before menopause and increased it after [HR: 0.87 (0.73-1.02) and 1.11 (1.04-1.17), respectively, in women with large waist and hips compared to small waist and hips]. Adult height was associated with an non-significant increase in cancer in pre-menopause and a significant cancer risk in menopause, independent of other anthropometric characteristics [5th vs. 1st quintile [HR: 1.24 (0.98-1.56) and 1.20 (1.10-1.30)], respectively as was long birth length in post-menopausal women [HR: 1.18 (1.07-1.30) compared to medium birth length]. These results suggest independent roles of height and WC on cancer risk, through different pathways.

  7. Moderate versus severe early life stress: Associations with stress reactivity and regulation in 10–12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Frenn, Kristin; Wewerka, Sandi S.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Early life stress (ELS) is expected to increase reactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis; however, several recent studies have shown diminished cortisol reactivity among adults and children with ELS exposure. The goal of this study was to examine cortisol activity in 10–12-year-old internationally adopted children to determine if moderate and severe ELS have different impacts on the HPA axis. Salivary cortisol and two measures of autonomic activity were collected in response to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Three groups reflecting moderate, severe, and little ELS were studied: early adopted children who came predominantly from foster care overseas (early adopted/foster care (EA/FC), n = 44), later adopted children cared for predominantly in orphanages overseas (late adopted/post-institutionalized (LA/PI), n = 42) and non-adopted (NA) children reared continuously by their middle- to upper-income parents in the United States (n = 38). Diminished cortisol activity was noted for the EA/FC group (moderate ELS), while the LA/PI group (severe ELS) did not differ from the NA group. Overall, few children showed cortisol elevations to the TSST-C in any group. The presence/absence of severe growth delay at adoption proved to be a critical predictive factor in cortisol activity. Regardless of growth delay, however, LA/PI children exhibited higher sympathetic tone than did NA children. These results suggest that moderate ELS is associated with diminished cortisol activity; however, marked individual differences in cortisol activity among the LA/PI children suggest that child factors modify the impact of severe ELS. Lack of effects of severe ELS even for growth delayed children may reflect the restorative effects of adoption or the generally low responsiveness of this age group to the TSST-C. PMID:18835102

  8. Relationship Between Different Types and Forms of Anti-Asthmatic Medications and Dental Caries in Three to 12 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Alireza; Seraj, Bahman; Shahrabi, Mahdi; Maghsoodi, Hamideh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Zarabian, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Asthma is a common chronic disease. Asthma and anti-asthmatic medications have been suggested as risk factors for increased susceptibility to caries. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different types and forms of antihistaminic medications and the duration of drug consumption on the severity of dental caries in asthmatic children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Asthma and Allergy Department of Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-five children between three to 12 years who had been diagnosed with asthma, by means of taking medical history, clinical examination and spirometry were chosen by non-simple random sampling. The participants and their parents were interviewed. Oral examination was performed by a qualified dentist. The data were collected by use of questionnaires and analyzed by the stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, using SPSS version 16. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was a significant correlation between the number of cetirizine and ketotifen tablets taken and decayed/missing/filled (dmf/DMF) teeth score (P=0.006). There were no correlations between the number of consumed sprays and dmf/DMF score (P=0.923), the duration of drug therapy (P=0.907) or the type of medication taken including ß2 agonists, antihistamines, steroids or a combination of them (P=0.907). Conclusions: The present study showed that the tablet form of medications significantly increased the severity of dental caries even in presence of confounders (sex, age, duration of disease, tooth brushing, sugar consumption, fluoride therapy, mouth dryness). PMID:28127315

  9. Reflections on 12 Years of Research into ICT-in-Education and the Learning Sciences in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Huang, Jun Song

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the landscape of ICT-mediated learning research in Singapore schools over the past 12 years. This ICT (information and communications technology) journey is situated in the context of the Singapore education Masterplans and the inception of substantive research funding in this area of work since 2003. The article questions…

  10. Reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorley, Megan; Lannin, Natasha; Cusick, Anne; Novak, Iona; Boyd, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate reliability of the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) scores for children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2-12 years. Method: Thirty-one QUESTs from 24 children with CP were rated once by two raters and twice by one rater. Internal consistency of total scores, inter- and intra-rater reliability findings for total,…

  11. Tropospheric water vapour over Antarctia from 12 years of globally reprocessed GPS data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, I. D.; King, M. A.; Clarke, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapour - a natural greenhouse gas of importance in the climate system - remains poorly monitored for some regions of the Earth. This paper presents an analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) data that results in a new precipitable water (PW) dataset for Antarctica. We have undertaken a global reprocessing of a 60 station GPS network for the 1995-2006 period. In order to obtain optimal and homogeneous estimates of PW, emphasis has been placed on using the latest and most up-to-date GPS observation models in a consistent manner. These models include the VMF1 tropospheric mapping function and absolute antenna phase centre variations. Zenith delays, estimated at two-hourly intervals, were converted to PW for twelve, mainly coastal, Antarctic locations. Comparison with radiosonde derived PW time series shows that the reprocessed GPS measurement technique exhibits good temporal stability. GPS / radiosonde biases are small, at the sub-millimetre level; correlations are of the order of 0.95. Comparison with PW datasets obtained from MODIS, AIRS and AMSR-E satellite instruments shows the AIRS instrument to give the best agreement with the GPS derived time series, again with sub-millimetre biases. The PW time series capture the extremely dry climate of Antarctica. Periodic signals in the PW time series were also observed, including a strong annual signal at all locations, and a semiannual signal at coastal East Antarctic locations. A 12-hourly (S1) periodic variation is observed in summer PW measurements at many sites. There is also a possible increase in summertime PW over the 1995- 2006 period in coastal East Antarctica and at the South Pole. We conclude that globally reprocessed GPS solutions can provide accurate measurements of PW that will become increasingly useful for meteorological and climatological applications, provided that the GPS data are (re)processed consistently and homogeneously.

  12. Traumatic dental injuries among 12-year-old Jordanian schoolchildren: an investigation on obesity and other risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic dental injury (TDI) is an important public dental health problem among schoolchildren. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between TDIs, obesity, and other possible associated factors like gender, overjet, lip coverage, parents’ education level and family income among 12-year old Jordanian schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study examined a total of 1015 schoolchildren attending 34 schools randomly selected from urban and rural areas of Amman-the capital city of Jordan. The epidemiological classification adopted by WHO and modified by Andreasen et al. was used to classify TDIs. Obesity was defined according to the international cut-off points of body mass index for boys and girls between 2 and 20 years old. Results The prevalence of TDIs was 16.3%. Enamel fracture was the most common type of TDIs (65%). Neither parents’ education level nor family income had a significant effect on TDI occurrence (P > 0.05). Results of multiple logistic regression showed that TDIs were significantly more prevalent among males (OR = 1.42, CI; 1.01-2.01, P < 0.05), and children with inadequate lip coverage (OR = 1.95, CI; 1.35-2.81, P < 0.05). The relationship between TDIs and obesity was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions Being a male with inadequate lip coverage was associated with higher probability of having a TDI. Obesity had no significant effect on the occurrence of TDIs. PMID:25099379

  13. No degeneration found in focal cartilage defects evaluated with dGEMRIC at 12-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Engen, Cathrine Nørstad; Løken, Sverre; Årøen, Asbjørn; Ho, Charles; Engebretsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — The natural history of focal cartilage defects (FCDs) is still unresolved, as is the long-term cartilage quality after cartilage surgery. It has been suggested that delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a biomarker of early OA. We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the articular cartilage in knees with FCDs, 12 years after arthroscopic diagnosis. Patients and methods — We included 21 patients from a cohort of patients with knee pain who underwent arthroscopy in 1999. Patients with a full-thickness cartilage defect, stable knees, and at least 50% of both their menisci intact at baseline were eligible. 10 patients had cartilage repair performed at baseline (microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation), whereas 11 patients had either no additional surgery or simple debridement performed. Mean follow-up time was 12 (10–13) years. The morphology and biochemical features were evaluated with dGEMRIC and T2 mapping. Standing radiographs for Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) classification of osteoarthritis (OA) were obtained. Knee function was assessed with VAS, Tegner, Lysholm, and KOOS. Results — The dGEMRIC showed varying results but, overall, no increased degeneration of the injured knees. Degenerative changes (K&L above 0) were, however, evident in 13 of the 21 knees. Interpretation — The natural history of untreated FCDs shows large dGEMRIC variations, as does the knee articular cartilage of surgically treated patients. In this study, radiographic OA changes did not correlate with cartilage quality, as assessed with dGEMRIC. PMID:27882808

  14. The associations between peak O2 consumption and leptin in 10- to 12-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Antonio; Stefanelli, Claudio; Purge, Priit; Lätt, Evelin; Saar, Meeli; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associations of circulating levels of leptin with the peak O(2) consumption (VO(2)peak ) in 10- to 12-year-old boys of different BMI selected by Cole et al. (BMJ, 320,2000,1-6): total group (n = 248), normal (n = 190), overweight (n = 34) and obese (n = 24). We hypothesized that there is a close relationship in overweight and obese subgroups of boys with relative VO(2)peak kg (-1) (ml min(-1) kg(-1)) and leptin. Most of the subjects were Tanner stage 2. Peak O(2) consumption was measured directly using an increasing incremental protocol until volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. The expired gas was sampled continuously breadth-by-breadth mode for the measurement of oxygen consumption (MetaMax, Germany). Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast from an antecubital vein for leptin measurements. Peak O(2) consumption (l min(-1)) was higher or lower (ml min(-1) kg(-1)) in overweight and obese groups, compared with normal BMI group. Leptin was higher in overweight and obese groups, compared with normal BMI group. Peak O(2) consumption (l min(-1)) correlated significantly with leptin only in total group (n = 248, r = 0·196). Contrary, relative VO(2)peak kg (-1) correlated significantly and negatively with leptin. The relationship was highest on the total group (r = -0·674). We can conclude that leptin first of all correlated negatively with relative peak O(2) consumption. Absolute VO(2)peak correlated with leptin only in total group.

  15. Effect of Axial Eye Length on Retinal Vessel Parameters in 6 to 12-Year-Old Malay Girls

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Li, Ling-Jun; Wan-Hazabbah, Wan Hitam; Wong, Tien-Yin; Shatriah, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Retinal vessel analysis is affected by both systemic and ocular factors. Malays are the major ethnicity in South East Asia. Data on the retinal microvasculature in Malays is limited, especially among children. We aim to evaluate the influence of ocular biometry on retinal vessel parameters in young Malay girls. Methods This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study involving 86 Malay girls aged 6 to 12 years old in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from 2015–2016. Ocular examination, refraction, biometry, retinal photography, and anthropometric measurements were performed. The central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE), central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) and overall fractal dimension (Df) were measured using validated computer-based methods (Singapore I vessel analyzer, SIVA version 3.0, Singapore). The associations of ocular biometry and CRAE, CRVE and Df were analyzed using multivariable analysis. Results The mean CRAE, CRVE and Df in Malay girls were 171.40 (14.40) um, 248.02 (16.95) um and 1.42 (0.05) respectively. Each 1 mm increase in axial length was associated with a reduction of 4.25 um in the CRAE (p = 0.03) and a reduction of 0.02 in the Df (p = 0.02), after adjustment for age, blood pressure and body mass index. No association was observed between axial length and CRVE. Anterior chamber depth and corneal curvature had no association with CRAE, CRVE or Df. Conclusion Axial length affects retinal vessel measurements. Narrower retinal arterioles and reduced retinal fractal dimension were observed in Malay girls with longer axial lengths. PMID:28107389

  16. Head impact exposure in youth football: elementary school ages 9-12 years and the effect of practice structure.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Bryan R; Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-12-01

    Head impact exposure in youth football has not been well-documented, despite children under the age of 14 accounting for 70% of all football players in the United States. The objective of this study was to quantify the head impact exposure of youth football players, age 9-12, for all practices and games over the course of single season. A total of 50 players (age = 11.0 ± 1.1 years) on three teams were equipped with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays, which monitored each impact players sustained during practices and games. During the season, 11,978 impacts were recorded for this age group. Players averaged 240 ± 147 impacts for the season with linear and rotational 95th percentile magnitudes of 43 ± 7 g and 2034 ± 361 rad/s(2). Overall, practice and game sessions involved similar impact frequencies and magnitudes. One of the three teams however, had substantially fewer impacts per practice and lower 95th percentile magnitudes in practices due to a concerted effort to limit contact in practices. The same team also participated in fewer practices, further reducing the number of impacts each player experienced in practice. Head impact exposures in games showed no statistical difference. While the acceleration magnitudes among 9-12 year old players tended to be lower than those reported for older players, some recorded high magnitude impacts were similar to those seen at the high school and college level. Head impact exposure in youth football may be appreciably reduced by limiting contact in practices. Further research is required to assess whether such a reduction in head impact exposure will result in a reduction in concussion incidence.

  17. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  18. Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Toffoletto, Simone; Wikström, Johan; Engman, Jonas; Bannbers, Elin; Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging research has begun to unveil the mechanisms behind emotion processing during the postpartum period, which, in turn, may be of relevance for the development of postpartum depression. The present study sought to longitudinally investigate the neural correlates of emotion anticipation during the postpartum period in healthy women. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the brain in response to anticipation of negative emotional stimuli and during processing of images with positive or negative valence. The participating women were scanned twice: the first scan occurred during the first 48 hours after delivery, and the second was performed 4-6 weeks after delivery. The early postpartum period was characterized by higher anterior cingulate cortex reactivity during anticipation of negative emotional stimuli than the late postpartum period. This was accompanied by a negative relationship with insular reactivity during the early postpartum period and a trend towards an increase in insular reactivity in the late postpartum period. Thus, during the first four weeks of the postpartum period, a diminished top-down regulatory feedback on emotion-related areas of the brain was noted. This finding suggests a physiologically important adaptation during the healthy postpartum period.

  19. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Galiani, Sebastian; Ram, Pavani K; Hubbard, Alan E; Briceño, Bertha; Gertler, Paul J; Colford, John M

    2013-02-15

    Many community-based studies of acute child illness rely on cases reported by caregivers. In prior investigations, researchers noted a reporting bias when longer illness recall periods were used. The use of recall periods longer than 2-3 days has been discouraged to minimize this reporting bias. In the present study, we sought to determine the optimal recall period for illness measurement when accounting for both bias and variance. Using data from 12,191 children less than 24 months of age collected in 2008-2009 from Himachal Pradesh in India, Madhya Pradesh in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal, we calculated bias, variance, and mean squared error for estimates of the prevalence ratio between groups defined by anemia, stunting, and underweight status to identify optimal recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever. There was little bias in the prevalence ratio when a 7-day recall period was used (<10% in 35 of 45 scenarios), and the mean squared error was usually minimized with recall periods of 6 or more days. Shortening the recall period from 7 days to 2 days required sample-size increases of 52%-92% for diarrhea, 47%-61% for cough, and 102%-206% for fever. In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period.

  20. Psychiatric hospital treatment of children and adolescents in New South Wales, Australia: 12-year trends

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Titia; Sharpe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background It is preferable that children and adolescents requiring in-patient care for mental health problems are managed in age-appropriate facilities. To achieve this, nine specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in-patient units have been commissioned in New South Wales (NSW) since 2002. Aims To examine trends in child and adolescent in-patient admissions since the opening of these CAMHS units. Method Analysis of separation data for under 18-year-olds to CAMHS, adult mental health and paediatric units for the period 2002 to 2013 in NSW, comparing districts with and without specialist CAMHS units. Results Separations from CAMHS, adult and paediatric units rose with time, but there was no interaction between time and health district type (with/without CAMHS unit). Five of eight health districts experienced increased separations of under 18-year-olds from adult units in the year of opening a CAMHS unit. Separations from related paediatric units increased in three of seven health districts. Conclusions Opening CAMHS units may be followed by a temporary increase in separations of young people from adult units, but it does not influence the flow of patients to non-CAMHS facilities in the longer term. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703746

  1. Atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease: isolated epigastric pain in an immunocompetent, 12-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Kovács, Tamas; Rakotoharinandrasana, Iarolalao; Benosman, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl with hepato splenic cat-scratch disease (CSD). Her sole inaugural complaint was isolated epigastric pain. She fully recovered, with normalized abdominal CT scan following 2 weeks course of Azythromycin®. CSD should be included in differential diagnosis in children with epigastric pain, especially in those with domestic pets. PMID:26273467

  2. Comparative evaluation of hand wrist radiographs with cervical vertebrae for skeletal maturation in 10-12 years old children.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M; Goyal, S

    2006-09-01

    A comparative evaluation of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae was done to know the validity of cervical vertebrae as maturity indicators. A sample of 50 subjects (25 females and 25 males) in the age group of 10-12 years were selected on criteria of normal occlusion and the result showed that cervical vertebrae can be used with the same confidence as hand wrist radiographs to evaluate skeletal maturity, thus avoiding the need for an additional radiograph.

  3. A cautionary tale: anaphylaxis to isosulfan blue dye after 12 years and 3339 cases of lymphatic mapping.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Gabriel; Guth, Amber A; Pachter, H Leon; Roses, Daniel F

    2008-02-01

    Sentinel node biopsy has become the standard method for lymphatic staging in early-stage breast cancer and melanomas. The most commonly used technique uses both a radioactive tracer as well as blue dye, usually isosulfan blue. In this report, we discuss two episodes of anaphylaxis to isosulfan blue during lymphatic mapping, occurring 12 years and 3339 lymphatic mapping cases after adoption of the technique, and discuss management issues raised by these events.

  4. Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners…

  5. [Phyllodes tumor in a 12-year old teenage girl: about a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Issara, Karima; Houjami, Majdouline; Sahraoui, Souha; Bouchbika, Zineb; Benchakroun, Nadia; Jouhadi, Hassan; Tawfiq, Nezha; Benider, Abdellatif

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are very rare and are exceptional in children and adolescents; their treatment is based on surgery and radiotherapy, with a good prognosis. We report the case of a 12-year old teenage girl presenting with a mass in the left breast. The diagnosis of a phyllodes tumor was confirmed on the basis of clinical, imaging and histological examinations. Treatment consisted of a large tumorectomy without adjuvant therapy, with good evolution during a 2-year follow-up.

  6. Fears, worries, and scary dreams in 4- to 12-year-old children: their content, developmental pattern, and origins.

    PubMed

    Muris, P; Merckelbach, H; Gadet, B; Moulaert, V

    2000-03-01

    Investigated anxiety symptoms in normal school children 4 to 12 years of age (N = 190). The percentages of children reporting fears, worries, and scary dreams were 75.8, 67.4, and 80.5%, respectively, indicating that these anxiety symptoms are quite common among children. Inspection of the developmental pattern of these phenomena revealed that fears and scary dreams were common among 4- to 6-year-olds, became even more prominent in 7- to 9-year-olds, and then decreased in frequency in 10- to 12-year-olds. The developmental course of worry deviated from this pattern. This phenomenon was clearly more prevalent in older children (i.e., 7- to 12-year-olds) than in younger children. Furthermore, although the frequency of certain types of fears, worries, and dreams were found to change across age groups (e.g., the prevalence of fears and scary dreams pertaining to imaginary creatures decreased with age, whereas worry about test performance increased with age), the top intense fears, worries, and scary dreams remained relatively unchanged across age levels. An examination of the origins of these common anxiety phenomena showed that for fears and scary dreams, information was the most commonly reported pathway, whereas for worry, conditioning experiences were more prominent.

  7. Long-term Stability of Soft Tissue Esthetic Outcomes Following Conventional Single Implant Treatment in the Anterior Maxilla: 10-12 Year Results

    PubMed Central

    Rokn, A; Bassir, SH; Rasouli Ghahroudi, AA; Kharazifard, MJ; Manesheof, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term stability of esthetic outcomes of soft tissue around maxillary anterior single-tooth implants after 10-to-12 years of loading. Methods: Patients who had been treated for single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla between February 2000 and July 2002 were invited to participate in the study. All implants had been placed according to delayed implant placement and conventional loading protocols without any connective tissue graft or papilla preservation flaps. Pink Esthetic Score (PES) was rated using standardized clinical photographs to assess the esthetic outcomes of the implant treatment at the time of crown placement and at time of follow-up examination which was at least 10 years after the crown placement. Results: A total of 19 patients were included. The mean score of PES was 11.63 (SD 1.61; range 7-14) at baseline. After 10-to-12 years of function, a mean PES score of 11.05 (SD 2.09; range 6–14) was recorded. No significant differences were found in the esthetic outcomes, categorized based on clinically relevant levels, between the baseline and follow-up session (p>0.05). Conclusion: Within limitation of the present study, it can be concluded that the esthetic outcomes of soft tissue around the maxillary anterior single-tooth implants placed using conventional implant placement technique remained stable in the long-term. PMID:27990185

  8. Changes in dental caries prevalence in 12-year-old students in the State of Mexico after 9 years of salt fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, M E; Sánchez-Hinojosa, G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the dental caries experience in 12-year-old students in the State of Mexico and to detect changes after 9 years of salt fluoridation (1988-1997). The 1987 WHO dental caries criteria were used in both surveys. The population studied encompassed 2,275 12-year-old students in 1988, and 1,138 in 1997. The proportion of 'caries-free' children was 10. 3% in the first survey and 27.7% in the second one. The mean DMFT index was 4.39 (SD 2.9) in 1988 and 2.47 (SD 2.4) in 1997, the confidence interval of the differences between DMFT means was [95% CI 1.73, 2.11]; the caries reduction detected was 43.7%. The Unmet Restorative Index was 82.3% in 1988 and 72.8% in 1997. The results of the present study indicate that the oral health status of State of Mexico students has improved during the last decade; however, there is still a need for further caries reduction and an increment in access to dental treatment.

  9. Carbon dioxide stimulation of photosynthesis in Liquidambar styraciflua is not sustained during a 12-year field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Jensen, Anna M.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Norby, Richard J.; Tissue, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) often increases photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) in field studies of temperate tree species. However, there is evidence that A may decline through time due to biochemical and morphological acclimation, and environmental constraints. Indeed, at the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, A was increased in 12-year-old sweetgum trees following 2 years of ∼40 % enhancement of CO2. A was re-assessed a decade later to determine if the initial enhancement of photosynthesis by eCO2 was sustained through time. Measurements were conducted at prevailing CO2 and temperature on detached, re-hydrated branches using a portable gas exchange system. Photosynthetic CO2 response curves (A versus the CO2 concentration in the intercellular air space (Ci); or A–Ci curves) were contrasted with earlier measurements using leaf photosynthesis model equations. Relationships between light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax), chlorophyll content and foliar nitrogen (N) were assessed. In 1999, Asat for eCO2 treatments was 15.4 ± 0.8 μmol m−2 s−1, 22 % higher than aCO2 treatments (P < 0.01). By 2009, Asat declined to <50 % of 1999 values, and there was no longer a significant effect of eCO2 (Asat = 6.9 or 5.7 ± 0.7 μmol m−2 s−1 for eCO2 or aCO2, respectively). In 1999, there was no treatment effect on area-based foliar N; however, by 2008, N content in eCO2 foliage was 17 % less than that in aCO2 foliage. Photosynthetic N-use efficiency (Asat : N) was greater in eCO2 in 1999 resulting in greater Asat despite similar N content, but the enhanced efficiency in eCO2 trees was lost as foliar N declined to sub-optimal levels. There was no treatment difference in the declining linear relationships between Jmax or Vcmax with declining N, or in the ratio of Jmax : Vcmax through time. Results suggest that the initial enhancement of photosynthesis to elevated CO2

  10. Carbon dioxide stimulation of photosynthesis in Liquidambar styraciflua is not sustained during a 12-year field experiment.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Jensen, Anna M; Medlyn, Belinda E; Norby, Richard J; Tissue, David T

    2014-11-17

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) often increases photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) in field studies of temperate tree species. However, there is evidence that A may decline through time due to biochemical and morphological acclimation, and environmental constraints. Indeed, at the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, A was increased in 12-year-old sweetgum trees following 2 years of ∼40 % enhancement of CO2. A was re-assessed a decade later to determine if the initial enhancement of photosynthesis by eCO2 was sustained through time. Measurements were conducted at prevailing CO2 and temperature on detached, re-hydrated branches using a portable gas exchange system. Photosynthetic CO2 response curves (A versus the CO2 concentration in the intercellular air space (Ci); or A-Ci curves) were contrasted with earlier measurements using leaf photosynthesis model equations. Relationships between light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax), chlorophyll content and foliar nitrogen (N) were assessed. In 1999, Asat for eCO2 treatments was 15.4 ± 0.8 μmol m(-2) s(-1), 22 % higher than aCO2 treatments (P < 0.01). By 2009, Asat declined to <50 % of 1999 values, and there was no longer a significant effect of eCO2 (Asat = 6.9 or 5.7 ± 0.7 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for eCO2 or aCO2, respectively). In 1999, there was no treatment effect on area-based foliar N; however, by 2008, N content in eCO2 foliage was 17 % less than that in aCO2 foliage. Photosynthetic N-use efficiency (Asat : N) was greater in eCO2 in 1999 resulting in greater Asat despite similar N content, but the enhanced efficiency in eCO2 trees was lost as foliar N declined to sub-optimal levels. There was no treatment difference in the declining linear relationships between Jmax or Vcmax with declining N, or in the ratio of Jmax : Vcmax through time. Results suggest that the initial enhancement of photosynthesis to elevated CO2

  11. Carbon dioxide stimulation of photosynthesis in Liquidambar styraciflua is not sustained during a 12-year field experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Jensen, Anna M.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; ...

    2014-11-17

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) often increases photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) in field studies of temperate tree species, although there is evidence that the increases may decline through time due to biochemical and morphological acclimation, and environmental constraints. Indeed, at the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, A was increased in 12-year-old sweetgum trees following two years of ~40% enhancement of CO2. A was re-assessed a decade later to determine if initial enhancement of eCO2 was sustained through time. Measurements were conducted at prevailing CO2 and temperature on detached, re-hydrated branches using a portable gas exchange system.more » Photosynthetic CO2 response curves (A versus the CO2 concentration in the intercellular air space (Ci); or A-Ci curves) were contrasted with earlier measurements using consistent leaf photosynthesis model equations. We accessed relationships between light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) chlorophyll content and foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll content. In 1999, light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) for eCO2 treatments was 15.4 ± 0.8 μmol m-2 s-1, 22% higher than aCO2 treatments (P<0.01). By 2009, Asat declined to <50% of 1999 values, and there was no longer a significant effect of eCO2 (Asat = 6.9 or 5.7 ± 0.7 μmol m-2 s-1 for eCO2 or aCO2, respectively). In 1999, there was no treatment effect on area-based foliar N; however, by 2008, N content in eCO2 foliage was 17% less than in aCO2 foliage. Photosynthetic N use efficiency (Asat:N) was greater in eCO2 in 1999 resulting in greater Asat despite similar N content, but the enhanced efficiency in eCO2 trees was lost as foliar N declined to sub-optimal levels. There was no treatment difference in the declining linear relationships between Jmax or Vcmax with declining N, or in the ratio of Jmax:Vcmax through time. Results suggest that initial enhancement

  12. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  13. Incubation period and immune function: a comparative field study among coexisting birds.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species.

  14. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  15. Utility of ten-second uptake periods for kinetic studies of serotonin uptake by intact platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, J.L.; Kirk, K.L.; Stark, H.

    1981-09-01

    When washed human platelets accumulate serotonin (5HT), it is possible with the use of formaldehyde fixative to measure uptake over periods as short as 10 seconds. To evaluate the utility of these short times for kinetic studies of 5HT uptake, we have examined the accuracy with which the 10 second uptake rate reflects changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. The amount of 5HT taken up over a 10 second period appears to be determined by the concentration of 5HT present in the extracellular medium during that time period, and the uptake rate can change rapidly following sudden changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. However, the extent of inhibition of 5HT uptake in the presence of imipramine of extracellular 5HT concentrations greater than 10-5M is somewhat different depending on whether the 5HT is allowed to accumulate for a 10-second or a 5- or 10-minute uptake period. A 10-second uptake period thus appears to be useful for kinetic studies of initial 5HT uptake velocities under normal conditions, but under inhibitory conditions may give results differing from those obtained with minute-long periods.

  16. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan.

  17. Prevalence of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium found in 1-2-year-old dairy cattle in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Greiner, Ellis

    2006-01-30

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 1-2-year-old heifers was determined for 571 animals on 14 dairy farms in seven states on the East Coast of the United States. A fecal specimen collected directly from each heifer was processed to concentrate oocysts that were then examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For every PCR-positive specimen the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium was sequenced. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR from heifers on 13 of 14 farms. On all except four farms groups of heifers were housed in a barn or in large covered pens. Others were pastured. From many of the same farms an earlier study reported that 41% of 393 pre-weaned calves and 26.2% of 447 post-weaned calves were infected. In the present study, 11.9% of 571 heifers were infected with Cryptosporidium, 0.7% with Cryptosporidium parvum, the zoonotic species. Of 68 PCR-positive specimens characterized by gene sequencing 1, 4, 10, 24, and 29 calves were infected with Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype, Cryptosporidium bovis, and Cryptosporidium andersoni, respectively. These findings demonstrate a lower prevalence of infection in 1-2-year-old dairy cattle than in younger cattle as well as a change in the diversity of species present. Consequently, the risk of humans acquiring infection with C. parvum from exposure to feces from yearling and older cattle appears much lower than from exposure to pre-weaned calves.

  18. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits in relation to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Kivelä, Johanna; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Lahti, Satu; Merne-Grafström, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits and their relationship to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-olds and differences between boys and girls. Material and methods The study population consisted of children (n = 588) in 15 randomly selected elementary schools in Turku, Finland. Associations between oral health-related habits, knowledge and attitudes with perceived oral symptoms and gender differences were evaluated with χ(2)-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Oral health promoting habits but not knowledge or attitudes associated significantly with absence of oral symptoms. Girls reported a higher percentage of several health promotional habits than boys. Girls reported more frequently gingival bleeding and less frequently dental calculus than boys did. The most common oral symptom was gingival bleeding. Conclusions The present findings suggest some gender-related differences in oral health habits, attitudes, as well as perceived oral symptoms in 12-year-olds. There seems, however, not to be gender differences in relation to knowledge or the association of health habits with perceived oral symptoms. It is important to maintain health promotion at schools and additional efforts should be aimed at translating knowledge into action.

  19. Living related donor liver transplantation in Iranian children: a 12- year experience

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzade, Jafar; Mohsen Dehghani, Seyed; Bahador, Ali; Ali Malek-Hosseini, Seyed

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe our results and investigate the survival of below-18-year-old patients undergoing LRDLT and the factors affecting this. Background Living Related Donor Liver Transplantation (LRDLT) has become a good option to provide suitable grafts for children with liver diseases. Using this method, children who have no chance for life can live a much longer life. Patients and methods The present study is a historical cohort study carried on 191 patients below-18-year-sold who had undergone LRDLT for the first time in the Namazi hospital liver transplantation center. Survival rate of the patients was assessed using Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of factors related to the recipients, donors, and the transplantation process on the patients’ survival was also investigated. Results 1, 3, 5 and 11-year survival of patients was 71%, 66%, 65%, and 65%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, age, weight at transplantation, PELD/MELD score, existence of post-transplant complications were found to be effective factors on the patients’ survival. In the multivariate analysis, weight at transplantation, PELD/MELD score, and existence of post-transplant complications were the prognostic variables. Conclusion LRDLT is now well established with satisfactory results in our center. Although the survival rate of the patients is lower than the survival rate reported in other studies, but the survival of the patients who had survived 1 month after the transplantation was comparable to other studies. PMID:24834270

  20. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  1. An 8 1/2-Year Record: Mentally Retarded Workers in the Federal Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Recruiting and Examining.

    Summarized in this report are efforts employed to secure for mentally retarded persons increased job opportunities in the Federal Service. Before actuating the project, extensive studies and job training programs were conducted, and the information obtained widely disseminated. Services of state vocational rehabilitation departments were used in…

  2. Trends in Education Excellence Gaps: A 12-Year International Perspective via the Multilevel Model for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study in the USA documented the existence and growth of "excellence gaps" among students. These gaps are similar to the minimum competency achievement gaps that proliferate in policy discussions in many Western countries, but excellence gaps focus on the highest level of achievement rather than minimum competency. We extend this…

  3. Predicting Physical Activity in 10-12 Year Old Children: A Social Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Thomas, Katherine; Weiller, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among predisposing (perceived competence and enjoyment), reinforcing (social environments), enabling factors (motor skills, fitness, physical environments) and physical activity among 288 children, and to identify the age and gender differences among participants. The children completed…

  4. Examining Trends in Parent-Child Communication in Europe over 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Granado Alcon, Maria del Carmen; Orkenyi, Agota; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Aasvee, Katrin; Moreno, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze changes in communication with parents about matters of concern to 11- and 13-year olds. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys conducted in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and…

  5. Electroencephalography Spectral Power Density in First-Episode Mania: A Comparative Study with Subsequent Remission Period

    PubMed Central

    GÜVEN, Sertaç; KESEBİR, Sermin; DEMİRER, R. Murat; BİLİCİ, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim in this study was to investigate spectral power density (PSD) in first-episode mania and subsequent remission period and to evaluate their difference. Methods Sixty-nine consecutive cases referring to our hospital within the previous 1 year, who were evaluated as bipolar disorder manic episode according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) at the first episode and had the informed consent form signed by first degree relatives, were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included having previous depressive episode, using drugs which could influence electroencephalographic activity before electroencephalography (EEG), and having previous neurological disease, particularly epilepsy, head trauma, and/or loss of consciousness. EEG records were obtained using a digital device in 16 channels; 23 surface electrodes were placed according to the International 10–20 system. Spectral power density (dbμV/Hz) of EEG signal provided information on the power carried out by EEG waves in defined frequancy range per unit frequency in the present study. Results A peak power value detected on the right with FP2P4 and on the left with F7T3 electrodes were found to be higher in the manic episode than in the remission period (p=0.018 and 0.025). In the remission period, in cases with psychotic symptoms during the manic period, F4C4 peak power value was found to be lower than that in cases with no psychotic findings during the manic period (p=0.027). There was no relation was found between YMRS scores and peak power scores. Conclusion Electrophysiological corollary of mood episode is present from the onset of the disease, and it differs between the manic and remission periods of bipolar disorder. In the remission period, peak power values of PSD distinguish cases with psychotic findings from cases without psychotic findings when they were manic.

  6. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  7. Split-field FDTD method for oblique incidence study of periodic dispersive metallic structures.

    PubMed

    Baida, F I; Belkhir, A

    2009-08-15

    The study of periodic structures illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is a simple task that can be numerically simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. On the contrary, for off-normal incidence, a widely modified algorithm must be developed in order to bypass the frequency dependence appearing in the periodic boundary conditions. After recently implementing this FDTD algorithm for pure dielectric materials, we here extend it to the study of metallic structures where dispersion can be described by analytical models. The accuracy of our code is demonstrated through comparisons with already-published results in the case of 1D and 3D structures.

  8. Test of the Constancy - Velocity Hypothesis: Navy Unit Functioning and Performance over 12 Years.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-31

    It was found in Bowers & Krauz (1983) and Bowers, Krauz & Denison (�) that Project Upgrade rates for fleet units (the rate of occurrence of...studies documented in Bowers, Krauz & Denison (1983), it was apparent that the typical Upgrade case was a person who, starting out on an even keel in...Project Upgrade rates in Navy units. Technical Report to the Office of Naval Research, May, 1983. Bowers, D.G., and Krauz , L.S. Organizational

  9. Clinical analysis of deep cutaneous mycoses: a 12-year experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Kim, M S; Lee, S M; Sung, H S; Won, C H; Chang, S; Lee, M W; Choi, J-H; Moon, K-C

    2012-11-01

    Deep cutaneous mycoses can cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. There have been few studies focusing on deep cutaneous mycoses and there are no data from Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics, underlying predisposing factors, aetiological organisms and outcomes in patients with deep cutaneous mycoses. A retrospective medical record review of patients with deep cutaneous mycoses treated at a tertiary referral centre in Korea from 1999 to 2010. Forty-one cases of deep cutaneous mycosis were identified (median age: 49). Most patients (32/41) had impaired immunological status, and seven of the remaining nine had a history of physical trauma. Neutropenia and long-term use of antibiotics were detected in 13 and 12 patients respectively. Nodular skin lesions were the most common type (17/41) and the morphology of the lesions varied. Fungal organisms were identified by culture and histopathology of skin specimens. Candida (16/41) was the most common organism, followed by Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium (4/41 each). Systemic antifungal treatment was successful in 28 patients, while nine patients died from the fungal infection. Our study may lead to improved insights into deep cutaneous mycoses as their incidence is increasing and they vary in different clinical settings.

  10. Improved executive functions in 6-12-year-old children following cognitively engaging tennis lessons.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Toru; Sugasawa, Shigemi; Matsuda, Yusuke; Mizuno, Masao

    2016-11-16

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationships between cognitively engaging exercise (i.e., game-based and coordination exercises), executive functions (i.e., inhibitory control and working memory), and physical fitness. Forty junior tennis players (6-12 years old), who regularly participated in tennis lessons (2.55 years, SD = 1.61) prior to the study, were investigated. All participants completed evaluations of executive functions (inhibitory control and working memory) at rest. The duration of each lessons' instructional activities, including coordination training, game-based exercise, rallying, and non-physical activity (explanations and breaks), was recorded. Physical fitness was evaluated using the Tennis Field Test. A longer duration of game-based exercise was positively correlated with inhibitory control and physical fitness. Coordination training was associated with improved working memory. Non-physical activity was inversely correlated with inhibitory control, working memory, and physical fitness. The results suggest that game-based tennis lessons have beneficial effects on inhibitory control and physical fitness levels, and a longer duration of coordination training is associated with better working memory. The present study indicates that shortened non-physical activity time within a sports setting is associated with the development of executive functions and physical fitness.

  11. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development.

  12. Deterioration and recovery of DAP IQ scores in the repeated assessment of the Naglieri draw-a-person (DAP) test in 6- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Küttner, Enno; Chromekova, Marta

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated whether mental age in children, as assessed by the IQ in the Draw-A-Person (DAP) test (Naglieri, 1988), can be improved by practice. In addition, it was tested whether children needed novel content to keep up their performance level during test repetition. The DAP test was given to 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-year-old children (N = 80) 3 times. In addition, they drew a police figure 3 times, with task sequence counterbalanced. Repeated drawings resulted in significant omission of detail and deterioration of scores, but the novel task instruction temporarily recovered the IQ scores. This did not occur in the reverse sequence of the tasks, with the less specified DAP instruction given in the 2nd half of the drawing series. Furthermore, structural regressions in the human figure drawing could be observed in individual cases. However, 12-year-olds did not need the external introduction of novel content to maintain their IQ score. Correlations showed that this age group redefined their drawing plan on each repetition, and often created unique figures on each occasion, even if the instruction had stayed the same.

  13. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwert, Ross E.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8–13Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15–30Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. PMID:26724564

  14. Quantification of IgG subclasses in sera of normal adults and healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    van der Giessen, M; Rossouw, E; van Veen, T A; van Loghem, E; Zegers, B J; Sander, P C

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of the four subclasses of IgG was determined in sera of normal adults and healthy children between 4 and 12 years of age, using the radial immunodiffusion technique. A relation between the concentration of IgG subclasses and Gm type was studied in adults. No influence of Gm type on IgG1 concentration could be shown, except that the group of Gm(fb) individuals had a higher level than the others. The mean concentration of IgG2 was higher in sera positive for Gm(n) than in those lacking this genetic marker. High IgG3 concentrations corresponded to the presence of Gm(b). No clearcut evidence was obtained for a relation between IgG4 concentration and Gm factors, although in general Gm(n) positive individuals had higher and Gm (zag) positive individuals lower concentrations of this subclass in their serum. Quantification of IgG subclasses in sera from healthy children of different ages revealed that the amount of IgG2 rises slowly with age, having not yet reached the adult level at the age of 12 years. This also holds for IgG4, although in a lesser degree. No significant differences from the adult level were found for the concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3. PMID:54236

  15. Effect of fluoridated water on intelligence in 10-12-year-old school children

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, A.; Dhanya, R. S.; Narayan, Ajay; Sam, George; Adarsh, V. J.; Kiran, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of drinking water fluoride levels with children's intelligence quotient (IQ). Materials and Methods: Water was collected from initially identified endemic fluoride regions according to the geological research of Government of India. Fluoride concentration of the water was assessed by utilizing fluoride ion selective electrode, Orion 9609BN, and categorized on the basis of fluoride concentration into low, medium, and high-fluoride regions, i.e., Virajpet (low fluoride level < 1.2 ppm), Banavara (Medium fluoride level 1.2–2 ppm), and Mastihalli (High fluoride levels > 3 ppm). Government school from all three villages were selected randomly and IQ levels were assessed by using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. This test was conducted on each child in the study sample. Results: A significant inverse relationship was found between the fluoride concentration in drinking water and IQ (r value = −0.204; P < 0.000). It was observed that IQ level was negatively correlated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Conclusion: It is concluded that IQ level was negatively correlated with fluoride level in drinking water. Factors that might affect children's IQ need to be considered, and it is necessary to devise solutions for preventing the harmful effects of excessive intake of fluoride ion to the body. PMID:28217543

  16. [Prevalence of dental caries among 12-year old schoolchildren in the Dakar region].

    PubMed

    Benoist, F Leye; Bane, K; Aidara, A W; Ndiaye, D; Chouker, Y; Kane, A W

    2014-06-01

    Oral diseases are considered as major public health problem. Dental caries restricts the school activities and are the dominant cause of dental morbidity. The aims of this survey were to determine prevalence of dental caries among pupils of Dakar and to study their food habits and oral hygiene. A descriptive transversal study was conducted from February 15th to May 07th, 2011 with respect of WHO directives (protocol of 1997) readjusted to Senegalese context. Our results showed a prevalence of 41.8%; a mean DMF index of 0.644; a proportion of teeth decayed of 65%, 32.2% for missing teeth and 2.7% of filled teeth. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that snacking, consumption of sweetened drinks far from meals and brushing teeth before the meals were significantly linked to the presence of dental caries. These results showed that the state of oral health and the prevention level of dental caries among these children were not so good. A new orientation of oral health policy based on messages regarding the main etiologic factors is imperative.

  17. Traumatic grief and traumatic stress in survivors 12 years after the genocide in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Jean; Séjourné, Nathalène; Bui, Eric; Birmes, Philippe; Chabrol, Henri

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between exposure to traumatic events and traumatic grief and the role of mediating and moderating variables [peritraumatic distress, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and symptoms of depression] were studied in survivors of the genocide of Batutsi in Rwanda in 1994. One hundred and two survivors (70 women, mean age 45 ± 7.53 years) participated in this retrospective study. All of them had lost a member of their family. The severity of traumatic exposure (Comprehensive Trauma Inventory), peritraumatic distress (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory), current PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and traumatic grief symptoms (Inventory of Traumatic Grief) was evaluated. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was then conducted to examine the relative contribution of each variable to the symptoms of traumatic grief. The severity of traumatic exposure was related to traumatic grief symptoms (B=0.06, R=0.6, R(2) =0.36 and ß=0.6, t=7.54, p=0.00). The Baron and Kenny procedure (1986) (including three separate regressions), along with the Sobel test, was used to test mediation effects. Peritraumatic distress and PTSD symptoms may be mediating variables between traumatic exposure and traumatic grief. Traumatic grief is a complex but assessable entity, where previous distress and suffering result from both psychological trauma and the loss of a loved one.

  18. Environmental input and cognitive growth: a study using time-period comparisons.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, J; Levine, S; Vevea, J

    1998-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relation of input to cognitive growth in a single population of children. We studied 4 domains: Language, Spatial Operations, Concepts, and Associative Memory. Four groups of children drawn from the same population were tested in October of kindergarten, April of kindergarten, October of first grade, and April of first grade. These time points are 6 months apart, but they span periods that differ in amount of school input children receive. Much greater growth was found over time periods with greater amounts of school input (October to April) than over time periods with less school input (April to October) for Language, Spatial Operations, and Concepts, but not for Associative Memory. These findings suggest that amount of input is causally related to cognitive growth in particular domains.

  19. Obesity, academic performance and reasoning ability in Portuguese students between 6 and 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Barrigas, Carlos; Fragoso, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has been linked to several physiological and psycho-social diseases, decreases in cognitive function, poor levels of scholastic achievement, low socioeconomic status and delayed onset of maturity. This study investigates the association between obesity and both academic performance and reasoning ability in 394 male and 398 females students between the ages of 6 and 12 from Lisbon, Portugal. It also assesses how this relationship may be influenced by chronological age, maturity and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that: 1) reasoning ability is independent of socioeconomic status and level of maturity; 2) no differences in reasoning ability exist between groups of different BMI; 3) academic performance is moderated by chronological age in boys, and by maturity in both genders; 4) obesity is not associated with academic performance. It is concluded that reasoning ability and academic performance are not associated with obesity, and that inter-individual differences in academic performance in boys may be explained by differences in their level of maturity.

  20. Lung function changes in coke oven workers during 12 years of follow up

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Griffiths, D; Kreis, I; Darling, C

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of exposure to coke oven emissions on the lung function of coke oven workers. Methods: The study population, followed from 1978 and 1990, was 580 male workers with at least two sets of lung function measurements (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25–75%). An annual rate of change (time slope) for age and height adjusted lung function index was estimated for each subject. This "time slope" was then treated as the response variable in a weighted multiple regression analysis with selected predictors. Results: For all 580 subjects, each year of working in the "operation" group (the most exposed) was found to increase the FVC decline by around 0.7 ml/year (95% CI 0.1 to 1.3 ml/year). After the exclusion of 111 subjects without detailed work history, the above finding was confirmed and each year of exposure in "operation" was also found to increase the FEV1 decline by around 0.8 ml/year (95% CI 0.1 to 1.4 ml/year). Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the results of previous cross-sectional studies. Work duration in the most exposed position in the coke ovens was associated with increased annual decline for FVC and FEV1. The estimated effect of one year of work exposure in "operation" is equivalent, in terms of the reduction in lung function, to an estimated 2.1 pack-years of smoking for FVC and 1.2 pack-years of smoking for FEV1. PMID:15258275

  1. Carbon sequestration in a surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gudigopuram B; Raczkowski, Charles W; Cyrus, Johnsely S; Szogi, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in a marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbon content and organic matter turnover rate. To better understand system performance and carbon dynamics, we measured plant dry matter, decomposition rates and soil carbon fractions. Plant litter decomposition rate was 0.0052 g day(-1) (±0.00119 g day(-1)) with an estimated half-life of 133 days. The detritus layer accumulated over the soil surface had much more humin than other C fractions. In marsh areas, soil C extracted with NaOH had four to six times higher amounts of humic acid, fulvic acid and humin than soil C extracted by cold and hot water, HCl/HF, and Na pyruvate. In the pond area, humic acid, fulvic acid and humin content were two to four times lower than in the marsh area. More soil C and N was found in the marsh area than in the pond area. These wetlands proved to be large sinks for stable C forms.

  2. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Depressive Symptoms over 12 Years and Offspring Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Susan B.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Cox, Martha J.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and latent class analysis to model patterns of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to the transition to adolescence (age 12), and then examined adolescent adjustment at age 15 as a function of the course and severity of maternal symptoms. We identified five latent classes of symptoms in these 1357 women while also taking into account sociodemographic measures: never depressed; stable subclinical; early-decreasing; moderately elevated; chronic. Women with few symptoms were more likely to be married, better educated, and in better physical health than women with more elevated symptoms. Family size and whether the pregnancy was planned also differentiated among classes. At age 15, adolescents whose mothers were in the chronic, elevated, and stable subclinical latent classes reported more internalizing and externalizing problems and acknowledged engaging in more risky behavior than did children of never-depressed mothers. Latent class differences in self-reported loneliness and dysphoria were also found. Finally, several significant interactions between sex and latent class suggested that girls whose mothers reported elevated symptoms of depression over time experienced more internalizing distress and dysphoric mood relative to their male counterparts. Discussion focuses on adolescent adjustment, especially among offspring whose mothers report stable symptoms of depression across their childhoods. PMID:19685946

  3. Whose information is it anyway? Informing a 12-year-old patient of her terminal prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldie, J; Schwartz, L; Morrison, J

    2005-01-01

    Design: A cohort study of students entering Glasgow University's new medical curriculum in October 1996. Methods: Students' responses obtained before year 1 and at the end of years 1, 3, and 5 to the "childhood leukaemia" vignette of the Ethics in Health Care Survey Instrument (EHCI) were examined quantitatively and qualitatively. Analysis of the students' multichoice answers enabled measurement of the movement towards professional consensus opinion. An analysis of their written justifications for their answers helped to determine whether their reasoning was consistent with professional consensus and enabled measurement of changes in knowledge content and recognition of the values inherent in the vignette. Themes on the students' reasoning behind their decision to tell the patient or not were also identified. Results: Unlike other vignettes of the EHCI in which autonomy was a main theme, few students chose the consensus answer before year 1 and there was no significant movement towards consensus at any point during the course. In defence of their decision to withhold information, the students expressed strong paternalistic opinions. The patient's age was seen as a barrier to respecting her autonomy. Conclusions: It is important to identify students' perceptions on entry to medical school. Transformative learning theory may provide the basis for an approach to foster doctors who consider the rights of young people. Small-group teaching is most conducive to this approach. The importance of positive role modelling is also emphasised. PMID:15994366

  4. Dental status of 12-year-olds treated in private practice and a school dental service.

    PubMed

    Riordan, P J; Dalton-Ecker, L; Edwards, T S

    1993-08-01

    Different ways of service provision frequently lead to different services being provided. In the School Dental Service (SDS) in Western Australia, all 5-15-yr-olds are eligible for care free of charge and most avail themselves of the service. The parents of some children choose to use private dentists (typically copaying about 50% of the cost) and their children do not attend the SDS. This study aimed to compare the dental status of 12-yr-olds who attended private dentists with that of matched children enrolled in the SDS. Non-enrolled 12-yr-olds in Perth (F- 0.8 mg/l) were identified and asked to provide background information and participate in clinical examinations. Each non-enrolled participant was matched with a classmate of the same sex. Of 184 non-enrolled children, 100 actually participated. Data on caries experience (DMFT and DMFS), fissure sealants and gingival health (CPITN) were collected by clinical examination. Analyses used Wilcoxon's signed rank, categorical and t-tests and simple linear regression. Caries prevalence was lower in non-enrolled children (0.31) than in enrolled (0.47). Caries experience was also lower in non-enrolled children (mean DMFT 0.71 vs. 0.95, ns). Enrolled children had more FT than non-enrolled (Wilcoxon, P = 0.059) but the mean number of DT in each group was 0.14. Enrolled children had somewhat fewer fissure sealants than non-enrolled children but in enrolled children there was an apparent (P = 0.056) inverse relationship between number of fissure sealants and DMFT scores; this was not the case in the non-enrolled group, suggesting better targeting of fissure sealants in the SDS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Biomotor status and kinesiological education of girls aged 10 to 12 years--example: volleyball.

    PubMed

    Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome.

  6. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  7. Extended AB period study of the electron pairing transition in t-J ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Koichi; Aoki, Hideo

    1996-11-01

    The extended Aharonov-Bohm period test, recently proposed by the present authors, is used to study the electron pairing transition in the t-J ladders. The critical point is detected as a gap opening in the extended spectral flow. The result suggests a pairing prior to the onset of a phase separation, which is consistent with a recent Tomonaga-Luttinger analysis.

  8. Giant primary vaginal calculus secondary to vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shushang; Ge, Rong; Zhu, Lingfeng; Yang, Shunliang; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Yin; Tan, Jianming

    2011-10-01

    A vesicovaginal fistula with vagina obstruction associated with vaginal calculi is an extremely rare medical condition. We report a giant primary vaginal calculus resulting from vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction secondary to perineum trauma and surgery in a 12-year-old girl. Episiotomy was performed and the adhesive labia minora was split. After the removal of a giant calculus in the vagina, approximately 8 cm in diameter, the fistula tract was completely excised, followed by the repair of the vesicovagina fistula and the vagina. The patient was symptom-free at 6-month follow-up examination.

  9. Brachial artery transection associated with open elbow dislocation in a 12-year-old: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nazli, Yunus; Colak, Necmettin; Uras, Ismail; Komurcu, Mahmut; Cakir, Omer

    2013-02-01

    Although acute elbow dislocations are common orthopedic injuries, concomitant neurovascular injury is rare. Brachial artery transection can result from open elbow dislocation and responds well to vascular repair. Rapid evaluation and a high level of suspicion are essential to facilitate immediate treatment. Delay to identify vascular injury after elbow dislocation or reduction can potentially lead to limb ischemia, and potential loss of limb. We present a case of relatively rare transection of the brachial artery, with an accompanying traumatic open elbow dislocation in a 12-year-old boy.

  10. Benign sacrococcygeal teratoma incidentally found on routine scoliosis radiographs in a 12-year-old female: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kelly M.; Chavhan, Govind B.; Ainsworth, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the imaging characteristics of sacrococcygeal teratomas and to review appropriate diagnostic evaluation and management. Clinical Features: 12-year-old otherwise healthy, asymptomatic female with an incidental pelvic mass found on routine scoliosis radiographs. Intervention and Outcome: The pelvic mass was further evaluated by MRI and CT scan. Management consisted of successful surgical resection with no postoperative complications. Pathology confirmed a mature, benign, sacrococcygeal teratoma. Conclusions: Chiropractors manage patients with scoliosis, which may include radiographic surveillance. Familiarity with the radiographic features of masses such as sacrococcygeal teratomas is important for prompt diagnosis and management. PMID:27069263

  11. Ovarian tumor in a 12-year old female with severe hypothyroidism: A case of Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hunold, Andrea; Alzen, Gerhard; Wudy, Stefan A; Bluetters-Sawatzki, Renate; Landmann, Eva; Reiter, Alfred; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2009-05-01

    We report a 12-year-old female presenting with an abdominal tumor. Diagnostic workup revealed giant bilateral ovarian cysts, severe hypothyroidism as well as an elevation of CA 125. We refrained from ovariectomy, which would be necessary for a malignant tumor, in view of an evident Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome. The patient promptly responded to L-thyroxine with complete regression of all symptoms. Hypothyroidism should be considered in the evaluation of ovarian cysts. Although the Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome is rare, it is crucial to rule it out in order to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery when thyroid replacement is completely sufficient.

  12. Comparison of functional status of 8- to 12-year-old children born prematurely: an integrative review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Prematurity affects one in eight infants in the United States, a rate that reflects an overall increase of 20% between 1990 and 2005 (March of Dimes, 2008). This integrative review presents a synthesis of the current research addressing the functional status of 8- to 12-year-old children born prematurely. Findings from this review support the belief that children born prematurely function differently than their term peers. These children have academic and social delays that may necessitate special service support through middle childhood.

  13. Low molecular weight thyroglobulin leading to a goiter in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Silva, J E; Santelices, R; Kishihara, M; Schneider, A

    1984-03-01

    .5-9.0 X 10(4) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis, in good agreement with the estimates from gel filtration studies. A single band was present on sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis regardless of whether the TG was reduced before the analysis. Thus, it is very unlikely that the low molecular weight was due to partial hydrolysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  14. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  15. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  16. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  17. The Austrian UVB monitoring network: 12 years of observations and 25 years of reconstructed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Weihs, P.; Blumthaler, M.; Simic, S.; Schmalwieser, A. W.; Wagner, J. E.; Schallhart, B.; Schauberger, G.; Fitzka, M.; Holawe, F.; Laube, W.

    2009-04-01

    available for two stations from the Austrian UVB monitoring network (Hoher Sonnblick and Vienna) (Rieder et al., 2008). An overview about the UVB monitoring network as well as studies on short and long-term trends and the influence of total ozone, surface albedo and cloudiness on erythemal UV (Weihs et al., 1999; Rieder et al., 2008; Simic et al., 2008) are presented. Results from a recent field campaign (Weihs et al., 2008) showed that maintenance of ground based measurements is very important as satellites so far do not satisfactorily represent ground UV. References: Blumthaler, M., and Ambach, W.: Solar UVB-albedo of various surfaces, Photochem. Photobiol., 48, 85-88, 1988. Blumthaler, M.: Quality assurance and quality control methodologies within the Austrian UV monitoring network, Rad. Prot. Dos., 111, 359-362, 2004. Farman, J. C., Gardiner, B. G., and Shanklin, J. D.: Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction, Nature, 315, 207-210, 1985. Molina, M. J., and Rowland, F. S.: Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethans: Chlorine atom-catalysed destruction of ozone, Nature, 249, 810-812, 1974. Rieder, H.E., Holawe, F., Simic, S., Blumthaler, M., Krzyscin, J.W., Wagner J.E., Schmalwieser A.W., and Weihs, P.: Reconstruction of erythemal UV-doses for two stations in Austria: A comparison between alpine and urban regions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6309-6323, 2008. Simic, S., Weihs, P., Vacek, A., Kromp-Kolb, H., and Fitzka, M.: Spectral UV measurements in Austria from 1994 to 2006: investigations of short- and long-term changes, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 8, 2403-2428, 2008. Schmalwieser, A.W., and Schauberger, G.: A monitoring network for erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation in Austria: determination of the measuring sites and visualisation of the spatial distribution, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 69, 221-229, 2001. Weihs, P., Simic, S., Laube, W., Mikielewicz, W., Rengarajan, G., Mandl, G.: Albedo influences on surface UV irradiance

  18. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  19. Oral health and the impact of socio-behavioural factors in a cross sectional survey of 12-year old school children in Laos

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent decades low-income countries experienced an increasing trend in dental caries among children, particularly recorded in 12-year olds, which is the principal WHO indicator age group for children. This increases the risks of negative affects on children's life. Some data exist on the oral health status of children in low-income countries of Southeast Asia. However, information on how oral health is associated with socio-behavioural factors is almost not available. The aims of this study were to: assess the level of oral health of Lao 12-year-olds in urban and semi-urban settings; study the impact of poor oral health on quality of life; analyse the association between oral health and socio-behavioural factors; investigate the relation between obesity and oral health. Methods A cross sectional study of 12-year old schoolchildren chosen by multistage random sampling in Vientiane, Lao P.D.R (hereafter Laos). The final study population comprised 621 children. The study consisted of: clinical registration of caries and periodontal status, and scores for dental trauma according to WHO; structured questionnaire; measurement of anthropometric data. Frequency distributions for bi-variate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis were used for assessment of statistical association between variables. Results Mean DMFT was 1.8 (SEM = 0.09) while caries prevalence was 56% (CI95 = 52-60). Prevalence of gingival bleeding was 99% (CI95 = 98-100) with 47% (CI95 = 45-49) of present teeth affected. Trauma was observed in 7% (CI95 = 5-9) of the children. High decay was seen in children with dental visits and frequent consumption of sweet drinks. Missed school classes, tooth ache and several impairments of daily life activities were associated with a high dD-component. No associations were found between Body Mass Index (BMI) and oral health or common risk factors. The multivariate analyses revealed high risk for caries for children with low or moderate

  20. Ionic adsorption on the brucite (0001) surface: A periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkos, Eszter; Kerridge, Andrew; Austin, Jonathan; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the generalised gradient approximation level is employed within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method (PEECM) to model the brucite (0001) surface. Three representative studies are then used to demonstrate the reliability of the PEECM for the description of the interactions of various ionic species with the layered Mg(OH)2 structure, and its performance is compared with periodic DFT, an approach known to be challenging for the adsorption of charged species. The adsorption energies of a series of s block cations, including Sr2+ and Cs+ which are known to coexist with brucite in nuclear waste storage ponds, are well described by the embedded cluster model, provided that basis sets of triple-zeta quality are employed for the adsorbates. The substitution energies of Ca2+ and Sr2+ into brucite obtained with the PEECM are very similar to periodic DFT results, and comparison of the approaches indicates that two brucite layers in the quantum mechanical part of the PEECM are sufficient to describe the substitution. Finally, a detailed comparison of the periodic and PEECM DFT approaches to the energetic and geometric properties of differently coordinated Sr[(OH)2(H2O)4] complexes on brucite shows an excellent agreement in adsorption energies, Sr-O distances, and bond critical point electron densities (obtained via the quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules), demonstrating that the PEECM can be a useful alternative to periodic DFT in these situations.

  1. Multiperiodicity in quasi-periodic pulsations of flare hard X-rays: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Szaforz, Ż.

    We present a case study of the solar flare (SOL2001-10-02T17:31) that showed quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in hard X-rays with two simultaneously excited periods, P_1 = 26-31 s and P_2 = 110 s. Complete evolution of the flare recorded by the Yohkoh telescopes, together with the patrol SOHO/EIT images, allowed us to identify magnetic structures responsible for particular periods and to propose an overall scenario which is consistent with the available observations. Namely, we suggest that emerging magnetic flux initiated the reconnection with legs of a large arcade of coronal loops that had been present in an active region for several days. The reconnection excited MHD oscillations in both magnetic structures simultaneously: period P_1 was generated in the emerging loop and in a loop being a result of the reconnection; period P_2 occurred in the arcade. Both resonators produced photons of different spectra. We anticipate that multiperiodicity in hard X-rays can be a common feature of flare hybrids, i.e. the events, in which magnetic structures of different sizes interact.

  2. Carbon dioxide stimulation of photosynthesis in Liquidambar styraciflua is not sustained during a 12-year field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Jensen, Anna M.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Norby, Richard J.; Tissue, David T.

    2014-11-17

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) often increases photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) in field studies of temperate tree species, although there is evidence that the increases may decline through time due to biochemical and morphological acclimation, and environmental constraints. Indeed, at the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, A was increased in 12-year-old sweetgum trees following two years of ~40% enhancement of CO2. A was re-assessed a decade later to determine if initial enhancement of eCO2 was sustained through time. Measurements were conducted at prevailing CO2 and temperature on detached, re-hydrated branches using a portable gas exchange system. Photosynthetic CO2 response curves (A versus the CO2 concentration in the intercellular air space (Ci); or A-Ci curves) were contrasted with earlier measurements using consistent leaf photosynthesis model equations. We accessed relationships between light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) chlorophyll content and foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll content. In 1999, light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) for eCO2 treatments was 15.4 ± 0.8 μmol m-2 s-1, 22% higher than aCO2 treatments (P<0.01). By 2009, Asat declined to <50% of 1999 values, and there was no longer a significant effect of eCO2 (Asat = 6.9 or 5.7 ± 0.7 μmol m-2 s-1 for eCO2 or aCO2, respectively). In 1999, there was no treatment effect on area-based foliar N; however, by 2008, N content in eCO2 foliage was 17% less than in aCO2 foliage. Photosynthetic N use efficiency (Asat:N) was greater in eCO2 in 1999 resulting in greater A

  3. Longitudinal supportive periodontal therapy for severe chronic periodontitis with furcation involvement: a 12-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Komiya-Ito, Akiyo; Tomita, Sachiyo; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yoshihiro; Tsunoda, Masatake; Saito, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We report a case involving a 12-year follow-up after treatment for chronic periodontitis with furcation involvement. A 54-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of hypersensitivity. Clinical examination at the first visit revealed 15% of sites with a probing depth ≥4 mm and 35% of sites with bleeding on probing. Initial periodontal therapy was implemented based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis. Surgical periodontal therapy was subsequently performed at selected sites. For #44, regenerative periodontal therapy using enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain(®)) was selected. For #16, which exhibited a 2- to 3-wall vertical bony defect and class III (mesio-distal) furcation involvement, bone graft was scheduled. Other sites with residual periodontal pockets were treated by open flap debridement. For #37, with a gutter-shaped root, odontoplasty was performed. After reevaluation, the patient was placed on supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). During 12 years of SPT, the periodontal condition remained uneventful in most of the teeth. However, bone resorption was observed in the distal aspect of #37, making the prognosis poor. This indicates the need to continuously monitor risk factors, including inflammation and traumatic occlusion, during SPT. Although some problems still remain, severe periodontitis with furcation involvement was successfully maintained longitudinally with an adequate level of patient compliance and careful SPT.

  4. Cerebral and subdural abscess with spatio-temporal multiplicity 12 years after initial craniotomy for acute subdural hematoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Daisuke; Nagashima, Goro; Takada, Tatsuro; Ueda, Toshihiro; Itoh, Hidemichi; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Takuo

    2012-01-01

    A 34-year-old man presented with a case of subdural empyema and cerebral abscess that developed 12 years after initial neurosurgical intervention for a traffic accident in 1998. Under a diagnosis of acute subdural hematoma and cerebral contusion, several neurosurgical procedures were performed at another hospital, including hematoma removal by craniotomy, external decompression, duraplasty, and cranioplasty. The patient experienced an epileptic seizure, and was referred to our hospital in March 2010. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cerebral abscess extending to the subdural space just under the previous surgical field. Surgical intervention was refused and antimicrobial treatment was initiated, but proved ineffective. Surgical removal of artificial dura and cranium with subdural empyema, and resection of a cerebral abscess were performed on May 12, 2010. No organism was recovered from the surgical samples. Meropenem and vancomycin were selected as perioperative antimicrobial agents. No recurrence of infection has been observed. Postneurosurgical subdural empyema and cerebral abscess are recently emerging problems. Infections of neurosurgical sites containing implanted materials occur in 6% of cases, usually within several months of the surgery. Subdural empyema and cerebral abscess developing 12 years after neurosurgical interventions are extremely rare. The long-term clinical course suggests less pathogenic organisms as a cause of infection, and further investigations to develop appropriate antimicrobial selection and adequate duration of antimicrobial administration for these cases are needed.

  5. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  6. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child’s socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. Results The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58–2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34–1.01) insignificantly. Conclusions Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking. PMID:26890262

  7. Audit of 149 consecutive carotid endarterectomies performed by a single surgeon in a district general hospital over a 12-year period.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, L. C.; Sutton, G. L.; Taffinder, N. J.; Perry, M.; Fail, T.

    1996-01-01

    Carotid endarterectomy has been established by two large randomised controlled trials (European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) and North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET)) as an important surgical procedure for the prevention of ischaemic strokes in patients presenting with transient cerebral ischaemia or non-disabling strokes attributable to severe ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis. The operation carries significant risk of death and stroke and it has been advocated by some that carotid endarterectomy should only be performed in a small number of designated regional centres in order to achieve good surgical results. It is doubtful that the regional centres alone can cope with the increasing numbers of patients requiring carotid endarterectomy and there is therefore a requirement for the procedure to be carried out by vascular surgeons in district general hospitals. It is important that surgical results are audited to ensure that comparable outcomes are achieved. We present an audit of our experience of carotid endarterectomy since 1981. A total of 149 consecutive carotid endarterectomies were performed by a single surgeon with a special interest in carotid surgery. The results are comparable to ECST with a 30-day mortality of 0% and an overall 30-day stroke rate of 5.7% (major strokes) for patients with severe, ie 70-99%, ipsilateral carotid artery stenoses. We have shown that carotid endarterectomy is an operation that can be performed safely and with good results by suitably trained surgeons in district general hospitals. PMID:8712647

  8. [Protective special shoes for diabetics. Personal experience with a group of high risk diabetics during a 2 and 1/2 year period].

    PubMed

    Záhumenský, E; Adamíková, A

    1993-09-01

    A group of 60 type II diabetics with the risk of development of ulceration of the feet was provided with protective specialized footwear. In the course of 2.5 years in 45 patients who could be evaluated the frequency of relapses of previous ulcerations, the development of first ulcerations and the effect on indicators of immediate high risk of a defect (formation of decubital ulcers, blisters) was investigated, as well as the general biomechanical comfort. In 10 patients with relapsing defects relapses developed twice (20%), no primary ulceration developed. As compared with common footwear, the protective footwear had a favourable effect on the formation of sores and blisters 25 patients (55.5%/ 45/100%) reported improvement of the general comfort when walking. 28 (62.2%) patients make use of the favourable experience with the specialized footwear when selecting shoes or when modifiying standard footwear. A surprising finding was delayed fatigue when walking reported by 35 (77.8%) patients, mitigation of dysaesthesias by 23 (51%), pain in the joints by 14 (31.1%), improved stability by 35 (77.8%) of the patients. With regard of the improvement of some subjective complaints the use of protective footwear can be considered a symptomatic-therapeutic element. According to clinical results specialized footwear has a favourable and protective effect on already damaged feet with a reduced tolerance for combined (mechanical, ischaemic, neurotrophic, infectious) insults. Consistent with data of authors from abroad after a 2-5-year follow-up there was a cca 50% reduction in the number of relapses of ulcerations and amputations as compared with common not modified footwear.

  9. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  10. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  11. Study of the resonances of periodic plane media immersed in water: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Aissam; Maréchal, Pierre; Lenoir, Olivier; Ech-Cherif El-Kettani, Mounsif; Chenouni, Driss

    2013-03-01

    The paper deals with the study of the resonances of 1D periodic media composed of N elementary cells formed with two perfectly bonded layers which exhibit a high acoustic impedance contrast. In the case of a periodic bilayer structure constituted of a fluid layer and an elastic plate, it was shown in previous theoretical works that additional modes appear compared to those of a single plate. These are called structure modes. At low frequency, the so-called vertical modes are found. Approximate expressions of their cut-off frequencies are given and their numerical values match with the exact ones. At high frequency, the Lamb type modes are degenerated and modes in the fluid layers are also observed. Preliminary experimental results have already proved the existence of such phenomena for one and two periods. In our work, an experimental validation has been performed in the case of N periods made with a glass isotropic elastic plate and a water fluid layer, where the number N ranges from two to five. A good agreement is shown compared to theoretical works.

  12. Mössbauer studies on ancient chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhengfang; Zheng, Qi; Zheng, Yufang

    1988-12-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100°C in steps of 100°C for 2h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Mössbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900 1000°C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  13. Distribution of body composition index and the relationship with blood pressure among children aged 7 to 12 years in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2012-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used to assess the prevalence of childhood obesity in populations, and the relationship of BMI with blood pressure has been observed. However, no study has reported on the distribution of body composition index and the relationship with blood pressure. The present study examined the distribution of body composition index and the relationship with blood pressure among children aged 7 to 12 years in Shandong, China. A total of 4326 students (2165 boys and 2161 girls) aged 7 to 12 years participated in this study. Height, weight, skinfold thickness, and blood pressure of all the subjects were measured. Body fat percentage (BF%) was calculated by regression equation, and fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were calculated according to following expressions: FMI = BF% × weight/height(2) and FFMI = (weight - BF% × weight)/height(2). The 50th percentile values of FMI and FFMI increased with age in both sexes. The mean values of FFMI were significantly higher in boys than in girls (P < .01), but no statistically significant differences in mean FMI between the 2 sexes were observed (P > .05). Both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly positively related to FMI and FFMI in both boys and girls (P < .05). FMI and FFMI are potentially useful in evaluating the body composition of individuals with different stature. There is a strong positive relationship between FMI and blood pressure in children; these findings emphasize the importance of the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents.

  14. Study of biological rhythms of small intestinal cryptic epithelial mitosis of different periodicity by fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Zharkova, N A; Antochin, A I; Zakharchenko, A V

    2009-05-01

    Rhythms of cell division with different periods in the mouse small intestinal cryptic epithelium were studied using Fourier analysis. It was found that the proliferative system of the crypt is characterized by an intricate spatial and temporal organization. The amplitude of low-frequency rhythms increases, while the amplitude of high-frequency rhythms decreased in the direction from the crypt bottom to the neck.

  15. Primary erythromelalgia in a 12-year-old boy: positive response to sodium channel blockers despite negative SCN9A mutations.

    PubMed

    Jakob, A; Creutzfeldt, R; Staszewski, O; Winterpacht, A; Berner, R; Hufnagel, M

    2012-09-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent pain attacks, swelling and redness in the distal extremities. The primary forms of the disorder are caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels. Treatment is difficult and controlled therapeutic studies offer little to no guidance. We report on a 12-year-old boy and his first occurrence of primary erythromelalgia. Genetic findings for mutations in the SCN9A gene, which encodes for the α-subunit of sodium channel NaV1.7, were negative. Although initial treatment with sodium nitroprusside was ineffective, subsequent medication with lidocaine and mexiletine, in combination with gabapentin, was successful. Despite negative findings for mutations in the sodium channels, the use of sodium channel blockers should be considered in these patients.

  16. Perceived parental control of food intake is related to external, restrained and emotional eating in 7-12-year-old boys and girls.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Bazelier, Francien G

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eating behaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n = 596). External eating turned out to be the most prevalent disturbed eating behaviour for boys and girls, followed by restrained eating and emotional eating. Sex differences were found in external and restrained eating. For the boys, perceived pressure to eat was positively related to emotional and external eating. For both sexes, perceived restriction to eat was negatively related to emotional and external eating and positively related to restrained eating. This led to the conclusion that perceived pressure to eat has a disruptive effect on a child's self-regulating mechanism of food intake, particularly so for boys, whereas perceived restriction can also have a positive effect.

  17. Reading comprehension among typically developing Swedish-speaking 10-12-year-olds: examining subgroups differentiated in terms of language and decoding skills.

    PubMed

    Asberg, Jakob; Carlsson, Marika; Oderstam, Ann-Marie; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2010-12-01

    Based on data from 156 typically developing 10-12-year-olds from Sweden, reading comprehension skills were studied in three subgroups: those classified with specific poor word decoding skills (n = 10), those with specific poor language comprehension (n = 12), and those with mixed difficulties in word decoding and language comprehension (n = 11). The mixed poor group achieved significantly lower scores than both specific groups in reading comprehension, and was the only group displaying poor reading comprehension test results relative to the performance of the full sample. Results are indicative of the necessity of a combined effect of poor word decoding and language in reading comprehension difficulties for this group. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Synchronously diagnosed eosinophilic granuloma and Hodgkin's disease in a 12-year-old boy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Synchronous composite tumors are uncommon. Simultaneous, rather than metachronous or consecutive, occurrences of eosinophilic granuloma and Hodgkin's lymphoma in children are very rare. This is the first report of this kind in the medical literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-year-old Iranian boy with eosinophilic granuloma localized in his leg around the knee and Hodgkin's lymphoma in a cervical lymph node. The two tumours occurred synchronously before the patient had received any treatment. Conclusion Several cases of an association between eosinophilic granuloma and lymphoproliferative disorder have been reported. Some of these cases involve Hodgkin's lymphoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis occurring in the same patient. Genetic or environmental etiologies have been postulated for eosinophilic granulomas which occur following Hodgkin's lymphomas, but have as yet not been proven. To our knowledge, synchronous occurrence of these two malignant processes in a patient who has not received any prior treatment is rare in children. PMID:19178734

  19. Extreme lateral lumbar disc herniation in a 12-year child: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Jiang, Lei-Sheng; Dai, Li-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Extreme lateral lumbar disc herniations (ELLDHs) occur more frequently among elderly patients, with a peak incidence in the sixth decade, and are rarely found in children. The patient presented is a 12-year-old boy with a 3-month history of right-sided leg pain. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extreme lateral disc herniation on the right at L4-L5 with compression of the L4 nerve root. He subsequently underwent removal of extreme lateral herniated disc through an intertransverse approach under general anesthesia. At 11-month follow-up, the patient maintained resolution of preoperative symptoms and a neurological examination revealed no sensory or motor deficit. Surgical intervention may be indicated for patients with ELLDHs that fail with conservative treatment.

  20. A rare CFTR intronic mutation related to a mild CF disease in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Nadia; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Clement, Annick; Corvol, Harriet

    2012-11-09

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with an allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), intermediate sweat chloride tests and one cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutation, p.Phe508del. After extensive screening of the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene, she finally was found to carry a rare deep intronic mutation (c.872-1110_1113delGAAT), which confirmed the atypical mild CF disease. Although a classical steroid treatment did not allow the healing of the ABPA, an omalizumab therapy led to a long-term recovery. This case emphasises the need to search for rare CFTR gene mutations as far as possible when a CF disease is evocated. Moreover, it also highlights that although omalizumab is not yet recognised as a classical ABPA treatment in CF, it should be considered as an alternative therapy in steroid-resistant patients.

  1. Exsanguinating bleeding following tooth extraction in a 12-year-old girl: a rare case of acquired haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Todo, Kimito; Ohmae, Tadaki; Osamura, Toshio; Kiyosawa, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiko; Shima, Midori; Imamura, Toshihiko; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2015-12-01

    Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is a life-threatening haemorrhagic disorder that occurs with various underlying conditions such as autoimmune disease, drug reactions, lymphoproliferative diseases, solid tumours and pregnancy/postpartum status. However, in half of all reported cases, the underlying disease is unknown. Most AHA cases develop in adults; paediatric/adolescent cases are extremely rare. The main clinical symptom is bleeding into the skin, muscles, soft tissues and/or mucous membranes. Here, we report the case of an otherwise healthy 12-year-old girl who presented with prolonged bleeding postexodontia. After being diagnosed with AHA, she was successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII infusion and oral prednisolone. To avoid such unanticipated bleeding when performing dental extraction, preoperative haemostatic screening tests are recommended.

  2. Psychometric data for the revised token test in normally developing Mexican children ages 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Geisa; Guàrdia, Joan; Villaseñor, Teresita; McNeil, Malcolm R

    2011-04-01

    Language comprehension is vital to social and educational development but few pediatric tests are available for its assessment. To approach this problem, two versions of the Token Test (TT), "TT short form" (DeRenzi & Faglioni, 1978) and "Revised Token Test" (RTT), were first compared. Using a sample of 88 normally developing Spanish-speaking children, the tests were compared on their: (a) established psychometric development and (b) internal consistency. The RTT was judged to be superior and was selected for additional experimentation. The RTT was compared with a developmental measure of lexical knowledge on a cross-sectional sample of 250 4-12-year-old normally developing Spanish-speaking children. A significant positive and high correlation supports its concurrent validity. Significant differences across the age groups, along with a principal component analysis that yielded a three-factor structure, support its construct validity. Preliminary normative data across the nine age groups are provided.

  3. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  4. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiong; Zhang, Hong; Tong, Qin-Ye; Chen, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  6. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  7. Numerical study of deformation-induced fluid flows in periodic osteonal matrix under harmonic axial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah

    2009-05-01

    Living bone is a tissue that is constantly renewed. It has been demonstrated that bone fluid flow and induced shear effects on the bone cells are important players in triggering and signaling bone formation and remodelling. This Note presents a model studying interstitial fluid flow in cortical bone under axial harmonic loads. These living tissues are considered as saturated anisotropic poroelastic material characterized by three-dimensional periodic groups of osteons. Using a frequency-domain analysis, the fluid shear stress variations are studied for various loading conditions and geometrical or physical bone matrix parameters. To cite this article: V.-H. Nguyen et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  8. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  9. Changes in women’s alcoholic, antisocial, and depressive symptomatology over 12 years: A multilevel network of individual, familial, and neighborhood influences

    PubMed Central

    Buu, Anne; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of 273 adult women and their families, we examined the effects of women’s psychopathology history, their social support, their husbands’ and children’s symptomatology, family stress, and neighborhood environment on their alcohol problems, antisocial behavior, and depression over a 12-year period during their ‘30s and early ‘40s. Women’s alcohol problems and antisocial behavior decreased but their depression symptoms increased over time. Women’s disorder history and their partners’ parallel symptomatology were associated with their symptoms. For women’s antisocial behavior, their own history of alcoholism and their partners’ alcohol problems were also significant risk factors. Higher levels of social support were associated with lower levels of depression in women. Children’s externalizing behavior was positively correlated with their mothers’ alcohol problems and antisocial behavior, whereas children’s internalizing behavior was positively correlated with their mothers’ depression. Neighborhood residential instability was associated with higher levels of alcoholic and depressive symptomatology in women. Intervention efforts might target women with young children by improving social support, educational or professional training opportunity, access to family counseling, and neighborhood environment. PMID:21262058

  10. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Annual Progress Report for the 1985 Study Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year study designed to assess the possible environmental effects of a +-500-kV dc transmission line. This first annual report documents site development, initiation of the livestock and crop studies, and the integration and interfacing of the agricultural and BPA's electrical monitoring study. The overall objective is to assess whether operation of a +-500-kV dc transmission line results in any detectable effects (beneficial or adverse) on plants or livestock, under controlled, simulated farming and ranching conditions. These two biological systems were selected because they can be expected to experience long-term exposure to maximum field and ion concentrations on the transmission right-of-way. This study is designed to provide data on end points and parameters of primary interest in commercial farming and ranching operations.

  11. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  12. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  13. A comparative study of stress episode prevalence and duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Temple, Daniel H; McGroarty, Jennifer N; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsumura, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    This study reconstructs linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) prevalence and stress episode duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido, Japan (HKJ). Results are compared to Jomon period samples from coastal Honshu, Japan (HSJ) and Tigara Inupiat from Point Hope, Alaska (PHT) to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the manifestation of stress among circum-Pacific foragers. LEH were identified macro- and microscopically by enamel surface depressions and increased perikymata spacing within defects. Individuals with more than one anterior tooth affected by LEH were labeled as LEH positive. Stress episode durations were estimated by counting the number of perikymata within the occlusal wall of each LEH and multiplying that number by constants reflecting modal periodicities for modern human teeth. LEH prevalence and stress episode duration did not differ significantly between the two Jomon samples. Significantly greater frequencies of LEH were found in HKJ as compared to PHT foragers. However, HKJ foragers had significantly shorter stress episode durations as compared to PHT. This suggests that a greater proportion of HKJ individuals experienced stress episodes than did PHT individuals, but these stress events ended sooner. Similarity in stress experiences between the two Jomon samples and differences between the HKJ and PHT are found. These findings are important for two reasons. First, stress experiences of foraging populations differ markedly and cannot be generalized by subsistence strategy alone. Second, due to significant differences in episode duration, stress experiences cannot be understood using prevalence comparisons alone.

  14. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  15. DMFT Study for Valence Fluctuations in the Extended Periodic Anderson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzaki, Ryu; Nasu, Joji; Koga, Akihisa

    2016-02-01

    We study valence fluctuations at finite temperatures in the extended periodic Anderson model, where the Coulomb interaction between conduction and localized f-electrons is taken into account, using dynamical mean-field theory combined with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC) method. The valence transition with the hysteresis is clearly found, indicating the first-order phase transition between the Kondo and mixed-valence states. We demonstrate that spin correlation rapidly develops when the system approaches the valence transition point. The comparison of the impurity solvers, the CT-QMC, non-crossing approximation, and one-crossing approximation, is also addressed.

  16. Analytical Study of Periodic Solutions on Perturbed Equatorial Two-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelmagd, Elbaz I.; Mortari, Daniele; Selim, Hadia H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents analytical derivations to study periodic solutions for the two-body problem perturbed by the first zonal harmonic parameter. In particular, three different semianalytical approaches to solve this problem have been studied: (1) the classic perturbation theory, (2) the Lindstedt-Poincaré technique, and (3) the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method. In addition, the numerical integration by Runge-Kutta algorithm is established. However, the numerical comparison tests show that by increasing the value of angular momentum the solutions provided by Lindstedt-Poincaré and Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky methods become similar, and they provide almost identical results using a smaller value for the perturbed parameter which quantify the dynamical flattening of the main body, the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky provides more accurate results to design elliptical periodic solutions than Lindstedt-Poincaré technique when the perturbed parameter has a relatively large value, regardless of the value of angular momentum. This study can be applied to equatorial orbits to obtain closed-form analytical solutions.

  17. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  18. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  19. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition.

  20. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  1. Study on the Period of the Use of Datong-li in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young-Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lim, Young-Ryan

    2010-03-01

    It has been generally known that Datong-li (a Chinese calendar in the Ming dynasty)was first introduced into Korea in the nineteenth reign of King Gongmin (1370) of the Goryeo dynasty and lasted to the third reign of King Hyeojong (1652) of the Joseon dynasty. This understanding is based on the records of Goryeo-sa (History of the Goryeo dynasty) and of Seoungwan-ji (Official book of Seoungwan)/ Jeungbomunheon bigo (Explanatory Notes of Library ocument). To verify the period of the use of Datong-li in Korea, we develop a Fortran code to calculate the calendar day by Datong-li and also investigate historical literatures and extant almanacs. As a result, we find the possibility that Datong-li had been in use since 1389 at least. However,we cannot confirm whether Datong-li was first enforced in 1370 or not. On the other hand, we confirm that Datong-li was used until 1653 and reintroduced during the period from 1667 to 1669. Also, we find that previous studies had some errors in the sexagenary cycle of the real first day of a month. We think that this study will contribute to understanding the calendrical history of the Joseon dynasty.

  2. Emergence periodicity of Phlebotomus argentipes annandale and brunetti (Diptera: psychodidae): A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P

    2009-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.

  3. A Study on Effects of Waiting Period in Software Operation on the Operator's Psychophysiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Tatsuhiro; Segawa, Norihisa; Miyazaki, Masatoshi; Yamazaki, Kiyoyuki; Murayama, Yuko

    The authors have been studying psychophysiological workload of human interface (HI) with physiological measurements and analysis. In this study, we investigated a kind of mental workload produced by user's unexpected waiting period from the request input to the termination of data processing during personal computer (PC) operation. As the experimental setting of HI, we used interactive software containing easy questions with unexpected time interval between each question. The effects of progress indicator (PI) indicating during waiting period on psychophysiological status of users were analyzed by using respiration, finger plethysmogram (PTG), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Results showed that the theta wave component of the EEG increased in the non-PI condition, even though autonomic nervous system parameters showed no significant change. Negative correlation between preference score for HI and integrated theta component percentage was observed only in non-PI condition. It is supposed that the PI was controlling theta activity coused by waiting stress in experimental condition. Utilizing physiological indices for HI assessment, this experimental method could be available to waiting stress estimation.

  4. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  5. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job strain among nursing personnel: a study over a three year period.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, M; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus Hjelm, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion. PMID:9423583

  6. Successful treatment of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis with steroid and azathioprine in a 12-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Eun; Park, Se Jin; Oh, Ji Young; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Ji Hong

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in children. We describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented to Severance Hospital with a 1-month history of bilateral conjunctival injection. He was first evaluated by an Ophthalmologist in another hospital and diagnosed with panuveitis. Laboratory tests indicated renal failure, and a renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. An extensive exclusion of all possible causes allowed a diagnosis of TINU syndrome. The patient was treated with a systemic corticosteroid (initially prednisolone, 2 mg/kg and later deflazacort 1 mg/kg) and topical steroid drops for 1 month. Azathioprine was later added to the treatment regimen and the systemic steroid was slowly tapered. The final outcome of renal-ocular disease was favorable in the patient. However, long-term follow-up is necessary to properly manage frequent relapses and incomplete renal recovery. TINU should be considered as a differential diagnosis in children with uveitis or acute renal failure. PMID:28018458

  7. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and sensory auditory processing in children aged 9-12 years presenting with putative antecedents of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bruggemann, Jason M; Stockill, Helen V; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Laurens, Kristin R

    2013-09-01

    Identification of markers of abnormal brain function in children at-risk of schizophrenia may inform early intervention and prevention programs. Individuals with schizophrenia are characterised by attenuation of MMN amplitude, which indexes automatic auditory sensory processing. The current aim was to examine whether children who may be at increased risk of schizophrenia due to their presenting multiple putative antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz) are similarly characterised by MMN amplitude reductions, relative to typically developing (TD) children. EEG was recorded from 22 ASz and 24 TD children aged 9 to 12 years (matched on age, sex, and IQ) during a passive auditory oddball task (15% duration deviant). ASz children were those presenting: (1) speech and/or motor development lags/problems; (2) social, emotional, or behavioural problems in the clinical range; and (3) psychotic-like experiences. TD children presented no antecedents, and had no family history of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. MMN amplitude, but not latency, was significantly greater at frontal sites in the ASz group than in the TD group. Although the MMN exhibited by the children at risk of schizophrenia was unlike that of their typically developing peers, it also differed from the reduced MMN amplitude observed in adults with schizophrenia. This may reflect developmental and disease effects in a pre-prodromal phase of psychosis onset. Longitudinal follow-up is necessary to establish the developmental trajectory of MMN in at-risk children.

  8. Endovascular Management of Acute Embolic Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A 12-Year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, J. Lojik, M. Chovanec, V. Renc, O.; Strýček, M.; Dvořák, P. Hoffmann, P.; Guňka, I. Ferko, A.; Ryška, P.; Omran, N.; Krajina, A. Čabelková, P.; Čermáková, E.; Malý, R.

    2016-02-15

    PurposeRetrospective evaluation of 12-year experience with endovascular management of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) due to embolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).Materials and methodsFrom 2003 to 2014, we analysed the in-hospital mortality of 37 patients with acute mesenteric embolism who underwent primary endovascular therapy with subsequent on-demand laparotomy. Transcatheter embolus aspiration was used in all 37 patients (19 women, 18 men, median age 76 years) with embolic occlusion of the SMA. Adjunctive local thrombolysis (n = 2) and stenting (n = 2) were also utilised.ResultsWe achieved complete recanalization of the SMA stem in 91.9 %. One patient was successfully treated by surgical embolectomy due to a failed endovascular approach. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy was performed in 73.0 % (n = 27), and necrotic bowel resection in 40.5 %. The total in-hospital mortality was 27.0 %.ConclusionPrimary endovascular therapy for acute embolic SMA occlusion with on-demand laparotomy is a recommended algorithm used in our centre to treat SMA occlusion. This combined approach for the treatment of AMI is associated with in-hospital mortality rate of 27.0 %.

  9. Diplopia, Convergent Strabismus, and Eye Abduction Palsy in a 12-Year-Old Boy with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Maria do Carmo; Limbert, Catarina; Lopes, Lurdes

    2016-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is defined by clinical criteria of increased intracranial pressure, elevated intracranial pressure with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition, and exclusion of other causes such tumors, vascular abnormalities, or infections. The association of PTC with levothyroxine (LT4) has been reported. A 12-year-old boy has been followed up for autoimmune thyroiditis under LT4. Family history was irrelevant for endocrine or autoimmune diseases. A TSH level of 4.43 μUI/mL (0.39–3.10) motivated a LT4 adjustment from 75 to 88 μg/day. Five weeks later, he developed horizontal diplopia, convergent strabismus with left eye abduction palsy, and papilledema. Laboratorial evaluation revealed elevated free thyroxine level (1.05 ng/dL [0.65–1.01]) and low TSH, without other alterations. Lumbar puncture was performed and CSF opening pressure was 24 cm H2O with normal composition. Blood and CSF cultures were sterile. Brain MRI was normal. LT4 was temporarily discontinued and progressive improvement was observed, with a normal fundoscopy at day 10 and reversion of diplopia one month later. LT4 was restarted at lower dose and gradually titrated. The boy is currently asymptomatic. This case discloses the potential role of LT4 in inducing PTC. Despite its rarity and unclear association, PTC must be seen as a potential complication of LT4, after excluding all other intracranial hypertension causes. PMID:27379191

  10. The effects of indexical and phonetic variation on vowel perception in typically developing 9- to 12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate how linguistic knowledge interacts with indexical knowledge in older children's perception under demanding listening conditions created by extensive talker variability. Method Twenty five 9- to 12-year-old children, 12 from North Carolina (NC) and 13 from Wisconsin (WI), identified 12 vowels in isolated hVd-words produced by 120 talkers representing the two dialects (NC and WI), both genders and three age groups (generations) of residents from the same geographic locations as the listeners. Results Identification rates were higher for responses to talkers from the same dialect as the listeners and for female speech. Listeners were sensitive to systematic positional variations in vowels and their dynamic structure (formant movement) associated with generational differences in vowel pronunciation resulting from sound change in a speech community. Overall identification rate was 71.7%, which is 8.5% lower than for the adults responding to the same stimuli in Jacewicz and Fox (2012). Conclusions Typically developing older children are successful in dealing with both phonetic and indexical variation related to talker dialect, gender and generation. They are less consistent than the adults most likely due to their less efficient encoding of acoustic-phonetic information in the speech of multiple talkers and relative inexperience with indexical variation. PMID:24686520

  11. A Long-Term Survivor of Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Free of Recurrence 12 Years After Treatment of Oligometastatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Zenta; Chang, Bryan W; Hochster, Howard S; Johung, Kimberly L

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive local therapy for patients with oligometastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has traditionally not been pursued due to high rates of distant progression. We describe a 62-year-old male initially presenting with resectable PDAC who underwent the Whipple procedure but developed multiple liver metastases within two months of starting adjuvant gemcitabine. Oxaliplatin was added to the regimen and complete resolution of the liver lesions resulted. He remained disease-free for five years until re-staging revealed a small lung nodule. This was resected and confirmed to be metastatic PDAC. After additional adjuvant gemcitabine, the patient remained free of recurrence for 12 years after diagnosis of metastatic disease and ultimately passed away from complications of ascending cholangitis associated with stricture at the biliary-enteric anastomosis site. He had no evidence of disease recurrence at the time of death. Next-generation sequencing of the tumor was unrevealing, showing only an activating mutation of KRAS and a deleterious mutation of tumor protein p53 (TP53). Our case suggests that while the prognosis for metastatic PDAC is poor, the population is nonetheless heterogeneous. Prognostic biomarkers are needed for the identification of patients for whom aggressive local treatment of oligometastatic PDAC may be warranted. PMID:28293485

  12. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  13. A comprehensive study for the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with periodic structure.

    PubMed

    Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Chew, Weng Cho

    2010-03-15

    A comprehensive study of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with the periodic strip structure is presented in this paper. The finite-difference frequency-domain method is employed to discretize the inhomogeneous wave function for modeling the solar cell. In particular, the hybrid absorbing boundary condition and the one-sided difference scheme are adopted. The parameter extraction methods for the zeroth-order reflectance and the absorbed power density are also discussed, which is important for testing and optimizing the solar cell design. For the numerical results, the physics of the absorption peaks of the amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell are explained by electromagnetic theory; these peaks correspond to the waveguide mode, Floquet mode, surface plasmon resonance, and the constructively interference between adjacent metal strips. The work is therefore important for the theoretical study and optimized design of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell.

  14. An ab initio periodic study of acidic chabazite as a candidate for dihydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Torres, F J; Civalleri, B; Pisani, C; Ugliengo, P

    2006-06-01

    A theoretical B3LYP study, adopting a polarized double-zeta quality Gaussian basis set, was performed to characterize acidic chabazite by using the periodic CRYSTAL03 program. Different Si/Al loadings (1/1, 3/1, 5/1, and 11/1) were considered, and for each of them the most stable aluminum distribution and location of the acidic proton, needed as charge balancer, were identified. With the optimal structures, the energy of formation and the anharmonic O-H stretching frequency were calculated with the latter being in good agreement with the experimental data. The B3LYP optimal position of H2 physisorbed at the acidic Brönsted sites of chabazite (Si/Al = 11/1 and 5/1) brings about an interaction energy definitely smaller than that derived from infrared spectroscopy, because of the known deficiencies of this functional to cope with dispersive interactions. The latter was included by means of an ONIOM-like procedure that combines periodic B3LYP energy with results at the MP2 level on selected clusters cut out of the chabazite framework. Adsorption of two H2 molecules for Si/Al = 5/1 chabazite showed a complete independence of each Brönsted site, and neither through-space nor intrastructure polarization effects are present. Within the periodic B3LYP approach shifts in both O-H and H-H anharmonic frequencies were also computed and compared with unperturbed values and with the available experimental results.

  15. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  16. Sample size determination for alternate periods of use study designs with binary responses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jorge G; Neerchal, Nagaraj K

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider several study designs that arise in practice, which are variations of standard crossover designs. Often, they may result from modifications made to a standard crossover design due to practical considerations. Characteristic features of the studies we are concerned with are (a) treatments consist of external use of products with little or no possibility of carry over effects, and (b) the periods of use are dictated by the subjects or by some specific event, such as diaper leakage or menstrual flow. We consider a number of such study designs for estimating the difference in the efficacy of two treatments or test products. We provide brief descriptions of studies to motivate the study design, the underlying data structure, and computations of the variances of the usual unbiased estimators of the difference in efficacy, and the sample size formulas. The situations considered here cover a number of popular crossover designs. The objective of our work is to provide guidance to members of a wide audience on how to answer the sample size question for their own nonstandard situations. We conclude the article with a brief report on a simulation study we conducted to investigate the impact of estimation on the sample size determination and consequently on the actual power realized in an effort to promote the "best practice" of checking whether the recommended sample sizes indeed achieve the desired level of power.

  17. Detection of (in)activity periods in human body motion using inertial sensors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  18. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  19. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  20. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET.

    PubMed

    Chugani, H T

    1998-01-01

    Studies with positron emission tomography indicate that the human brain undergoes a period of postnatal maturation that is much more protracted than previously suspected. In the newborn, the highest degree of glucose metabolism (representative of functional activity) is in primary sensory and motor cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellar vermis, and hippocampal region. At 2 to 3 months of age, glucose utilization increases in the parietal, temporal, and primary visual cortex; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. Between 6 and 12 months, glucose utilization increases in frontal cortex. These metabolic changes correspond to the emergence of various behaviors during the first year of life. The measurement of absolute rates of glucose utilization during development indicates that the cerebral cortex undergoes a dynamic course of metabolic maturation that persists until ages 16-18 years. Initially, there is a rise in the rates of glucose utilization from birth until about age 4 years, at which time the child's cerebral cortex uses over twice as much glucose as that of adults. From age 4 to 10 years, these very high rates of glucose consumption are maintained, and only after then is there a gradual decline of glucose metabolic rates to reach adult values by age 16-18 years. Correlations between glucose utilization rates and synaptogenesis are discussed, and the argument is made that these findings have important implications with respect to human brain plasticity following injury as well as to "critical periods" of maximal learning capacity.

  1. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  2. Primary prevention in health care employees: a prospective intervention study with a 3-year training period.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas; Effendy, Isaak

    2006-04-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. Because educational programs have shown convincing success in certain occupations (e.g. in hairdressers), this study investigates the effect of a special training program in health care trainees. 521 trainees from 14 nursing schools in Central Germany were randomly divided in 2 groups, (i) an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and (ii) a control group without any further teaching. Morphological changes of the hands, use of hand care creams and knowledge regarding skin care were evaluated regularly during their 3 years lasting training period (1999-2002). In the intervention group, we found at the end of the 3-year training period a significant better skin condition of the hands than in the control group: a 3-year prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% versus 89.3%. The unteached trainees (control group) had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.8 [95% confidential interval (CI): 2.9-7.8] for developing any skin changes on the hands after 3 years. Besides the effect of the teaching, the history of hand dermatitis before the study start was an independent risk factor for development of further hand dermatitis [OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6). Age and sex showed no influence on the skin condition. Atopic constitution had an influence on the development of skin changes only at the evaluation after 18 month. The observed effect in the intervention group may best be explained by different behaviour of the trainees, e.g. the amount of hand washing was reduced, while procedure of hand disinfection remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, the amount of used skin care cream did not differ between the both groups. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands. Therefore

  3. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  4. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  5. A periodic density functional theory study of cumene formation catalyzed by H-mordenite.

    PubMed

    Rozanska, X; Barbosa, L A M M; van Santen, R A

    2005-02-17

    A periodic density functional theory study of the alkylation of benzene with propene in proton-exchanged mordenite has been achieved. The two different reaction routes that are usually proposed for this reaction, namely the direct and the step-by-step reaction pathways, have been investigated. The explicit consideration of the zeolite catalyst framework allows a better level of description of the interactions between the catalyst framework and the reaction than what is obtained with the cluster approach method. The direct reaction route is found to be the preferred one. It is observed that the cluster approach method, which does not describe the zeolite framework, is unable to qualitatively described the trend in activation energies. This is owing to the greater stabilization of larger transition state by the mordenite zeolite framework compared with smaller ones.

  6. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  7. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  8. Decreasing uptake of predictive testing for Huntington's disease in a German centre: 12 years' experience (1993-2004).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Christiane; Schwan, Anne-Marie; Kraus, Peter; Epplen, Joerg Thomas; Kunstmann, Erdmute

    2009-03-01

    In this retrospective study, we examined changes in decision-making for and against the predictive genetic test for Huntington's disease including 478 persons at risk who had undergone genetic counselling in one centre in Germany between 1993 and 2004. At the outset of the counselling procedure the majority of subjects (71%) wanted to make use of the test, yet the actual demand of the predictive test result declined from 67 to 38% over the years. In addition, the time interval between counselling session and blood withdrawal was reduced, as determined by the counselees: in 2000-2004 the majority of persons at risk made the appointment for blood withdrawal after the shortest possible time span. Demographic factors of the cohort remained comparatively stable in the investigated time period. An association was evident between the ratio of test usage and the counselling person. These and other possible factors influencing the time flow of predictive DNA testing are discussed. Further studies are necessary to investigate whether changes of test demand rates are a general phenomenon.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher Versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 4- to 12-Year-Olds: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Since its development, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been widely used in both research and practice. The SDQ screens for positive and negative psychological attributes. This review aims to provide an overview of the psychometric properties of the SDQ for 4- to 12-year-olds. Results from 48 studies (N = 131,223) on reliability and validity of the parent and teacher SDQ are summarized quantitatively and descriptively. Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and inter-rater agreement are satisfactory for the parent and teacher versions. At subscale level, the reliability of the teacher version seemed stronger compared to that of the parent version. Concerning validity, 15 out of 18 studies confirmed the five-factor structure. Correlations with other measures of psychopathology as well as the screening ability of the SDQ are sufficient. This review shows that the psychometric properties of the SDQ are strong, particularly for the teacher version. For practice, this implies that the use of the SDQ as a screening instrument should be continued. Longitudinal research studies should investigate predictive validity. For both practice and research, we emphasize the use of a multi-informant approach. PMID:20589428

  10. Changes in lung function of granite crushers exposed to moderately high silica concentrations: a 12 year follow up.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, P; Hedenström, H; Sundblad, B M

    1993-08-01

    45 granite crushers and 45 age and smoking matched referents underwent pulmonary function tests in 1976 and 1988. On average, the granite crushers at follow up had worked for 22 years, were 52 (range 36-78) years old, and had inhaled a cumulated amount of 7 mg of silica in the respirable dust fraction. Between 1976 and 1988 the average concentration of respirable quartz in air was 0.16 mg/m3 (threshold limit value (TLV) = 0.10 mg/m3). In 1988 the granite crushers had somewhat lower forced expiratory flows (forced expiratory volume in one second/vital capacity (FEV1/VC) -4.5% and forced midexpiratory flow FEF50 -15%) compared with the referents and a more uneven ventilation distribution (17% higher slope of phase III in the nitrogen single breath curve). Five smoking granite crushers, but none of the referents, had an FEV1 < 80% of the predicted. During the 12 year interval the granite crushers had--compared with the matched referents--a greater decrease in FEV1 (-4.6%), FEV1/VC (-5.4%), maximal expiratory flow, (-8%) and FEF50 (-14%), and a larger increase in phase III and static compliance (p < 0.02 in all variables). The functional changes suggest the presence of airways obstruction and increased compliance of the lungs. Exposure to silica at concentrations of about twice the present TLV was thus associated with airways obstruction and loss of elastic recoil rather than fibrosis and a restrictive function loss as seen in silicosis. The changes were on average small, but in some tobacco smokers more pronounced changes were found.

  11. Online Control of Prehension Predicts Performance on a Standardized Motor Assessment Test in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Caroline C. V.; McGlashan, Hannah L.; French, Blandine; Sperring, Rachel J.; Petrocochino, Bianca; Holmes, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    Goal-directed hand movements are guided by sensory information and may be adjusted ‘online,’ during the movement. If the target of a movement unexpectedly changes position, trajectory corrections can be initiated in as little as 100 ms in adults. This rapid visual online control is impaired in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and potentially in other neurodevelopmental conditions. We investigated the visual control of hand movements in children in a ‘center-out’ double-step reaching and grasping task, and examined how parameters of this visuomotor control co-vary with performance on standardized motor tests often used with typically and atypically developing children. Two groups of children aged 8–12 years were asked to reach and grasp an illuminated central ball on a vertically oriented board. On a proportion of trials, and at movement onset, the illumination switched unpredictably to one of four other balls in a center-out configuration (left, right, up, or down). When the target moved, all but one of the children were able to correct their movements before reaching the initial target, at least on some trials, but the latencies to initiate these corrections were longer than those typically reported in the adult literature, ranging from 211 to 581 ms. These later corrections may be due to less developed motor skills in children, or to the increased cognitive and biomechanical complexity of switching movements in four directions. In the first group (n = 187), reaching and grasping parameters significantly predicted standardized movement scores on the MABC-2, most strongly for the aiming and catching component. In the second group (n = 85), these same parameters did not significantly predict scores on the DCDQ′07 parent questionnaire. Our reaching and grasping task provides a sensitive and continuous measure of movement skill that predicts scores on standardized movement tasks used to screen for DCD. PMID:28360874

  12. The Long Term Trend and Solar Cycle Variation Observed in 12 Years of Hydroxyl Temperatures Over Davis, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.; Burns, G.

    2007-05-01

    Hydroxyl (6-2)-band rotational temperature observations have been accumulated at Davis station, Antarctica (68°S, 78°E) over 12 consecutive years since 1995. Hydroxyl emissions originate in a layer ~8km thick near 87km altitude and the rotational temperatures derived are a proxy for atmospheric temperature near the mesopause. This region is modelled to be sensitive to increases in CO2and is expected to cool over the long term as the increased CO2radiates more absorbed energy to space. Here we examine the seasonal and inter-year variability in hydroxyl temperatures and use a multiple linear regression analysis to extract solar cycle and long term linear trend coefficients. A total of 3413 nightly average temperatures are calculated from over 150,000 individual temperature measurements that pass selection criteria over the 12 year interval. Winter average temperatures, calculated from the nightly averages between day 108 to 258 each year vary between 203 and 210K and show a solar cycle dependence of about 0.05 K/solar flux unit (or 6K per solar cycle). The long term linear trend in these data (-0.11±0.12 K/year) is not statistically different from zero, in contrast to some published trends of up to -0.7 K/year. The winter of 2002 was anomalously warm before the unusual southern hemisphere strat-warm and early ozone hole break-up. Including this year has a considerable effect on the trend coefficients and our estimate of the number of years required to detect a statistically significant trend.

  13. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  14. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  15. Dental caries in 12-year-old schoolchildren: multilevel analysis of individual and school environment factors in Goiânia.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lorena Batista; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimarães Bahia; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental caries index among 12-year-old schoolchildren and individual and contextual factors related to the schools in the city of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 2,075 schoolchildren using the 2010 National Survey of Oral Health methodology. The dependent variable was the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and the independent variables were individual (sex, race, and maternal education) and contextual ones (type of school, health district, and the presence of oral programs). Multilevel analysis and log-linear negative binominal regression were performed, considering the complex sampling design. Mean DMFT index was 1.51. Female students, whose mothers had lower schooling, those attending public schools, located in districts with the worst socioeconomic indicators, and covered by the Family Health Strategy had higher caries levels. The dental caries index was low and associated with the schoolchildren sociodemographic characteristics and factors related to the schools, showing inequalities in distribution.

  16. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Edward C.; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children’s performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults. PMID:26941701

  17. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Spanish children aged 9-12 years.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V; García-Hermoso, A; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Ortega, F B

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to examine (a) the construct validity and reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in children; and (b) the association of both self-reported and measured fitness with cardiometabolic risk. Cross-sectional study in 1145 Spanish children (9-12 years). We measured body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, insulin, and fitness level (reported and measured). A validated cardiometabolic syndrome index was used. An age- and sex-matched sample of 245 children originally not included in the study sample fulfilled IFIS twice for reliability purposes. IFIS was able to correctly classify children according to their measured fitness levels (analysis of covariance, adjusted for sex and age was used). Test-retest reliability of IFIS items was also good, i.e., average weighted Kappa = 0.70. Our data also suggest that both measured and reported cardiorespiratory, and speed and agility fitness were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, such as adiposity and a cardiometabolic syndrome risk score. The associations for muscular fitness (both reported and measured) differed depending on how it was expressed (i.e., absolute vs relative terms). Our findings suggest that self-reported fitness, as assessed by IFIS, is a valid, reliable, and health-related measure, and it can be a good alternative at population level when physical fitness cannot be measured.

  18. The UP4FUN Intervention Effect on Breaking Up Sedentary Time in 10- to 12-Year-Old Belgian Children: The ENERGY-Project.

    PubMed

    Verloigne, Maïté; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ridgers, Nicola D; Cardon, Greet; Chinapaw, Mai; Altenburg, Teatske; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Maes, Lea

    2015-05-01

    There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children's sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (≥ 10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9 ± 0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and posttest. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; β = -3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; β = -4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favor of children from intervention schools (β = -2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; β = -23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (β = +0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children's sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed.

  19. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation

    PubMed Central

    ALEXANDER, MELANNIE; BURCH, JAMES B.; STECK, SUSAN E.; CHEN, CHIN-FU; HURLEY, THOMAS G.; CAVICCHIA, PHILIP; RAY, MEREDITH; SHIVAPPA, NITIN; GUESS, JACLYN; ZHANG, HONGMEI; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.; CREEK, KIM E.; LLOYD, STEPHEN; YANG, XIAOMING; HÉBERT, JAMES R.

    2015-01-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the ‘period’ (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9–4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4–18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7–5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample. PMID:25501848

  20. Associations between home- and family-related factors and fruit juice and soft drink intake among 10- to 12-year old children. The ENERGY project.

    PubMed

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; te Velde, Saskia J; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Jan, Nataša; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of interest were children's self-reported fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake per day (outcome) and family-related factors (based on parents' report) related to these two behaviors (modeling, automaticity, availability, monitoring, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, avoid negative modeling, self-efficacy, rewarding, and family consumption). 7915 Children (52% girls; mean age=11.7 ± 0.8 years) and 6512 parents (83% women; mean age=41.4 ± 5.3 years) completed the questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the aforementioned associations. Three of the 11 family-related factors (modeling, availability, and family consumption) were positively associated with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake. Additionally, three family-related factors (permissiveness, monitoring, and self-efficacy) were solely associated with soft drink intake and one family-related factor (communicating health beliefs) was related to fruit drink/juice intake. Future interventions targeting children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake should focus on the home environment, parents and their practices, especially on parents' fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake and availability of these beverages at home.

  1. The distribution of plaque and gingivitis and the influence of toothbrushing hand in a group of South Wales 11-12 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Griffiths, G; Dummer, P; Kingdom, A; Shaw, W C

    1987-11-01

    Numerous factors may affect the distribution of plaque and gingivitis in any individuals mouth. Of considerable importance must be the oral hygiene habits of each person, which will be influenced by compliance and dexterity with tooth cleaning methods. The pattern of gingivitis seen at a young age may, with time, reflect the eventual distribution of attachment loss. This in part, could explain the considerable variation in chronic periodontal disease seen between individuals and at different sites within the same mouth. This study reports the baseline data for the distribution of plaque and gingivitis in 1105, 11-12-year-old children in South Wales. The children were selected by disproportionate stratified random sampling and examined by a multidisciplinary group with the long-term aim of evaluating the importance of malocclusion to dental health and psychosocial variables. Toothbrushing frequency had a very low but significant correlation with the distribution of plaque and gingivitis, accounting therefore for only a small % of the variance in the group. For the total group and right-handed toothbrushers, buccal plaque and gingivitis was significantly increased on right contralateral teeth. No specific pattern for plaque and gingivitis distribution by side was seen for 100 left-handed toothbrushers. Plaque and gingivitis also showed significant differences dependent upon arch, tooth number, and surface. The population is being followed at 4-year intervals to monitor the pattern of periodontal disease with time and correlate changes with these baseline findings.

  2. [Binge drinking among 12-year-old adolescent schoolchildren and its association with sex, socioeconomic factors and alcohol consumption by best friends and family members].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; Paiva, Haroldo Neves de; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; César, Carlos Augusto Santos; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 101 twelve-year-old adolescents enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Diamantina in the State of Minas Gerais. The scope was to evaluate the prevalence of binge drinking among 12-year-old schoolchildren and its association with gender, socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption by family members and best friends. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire entitled the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) and the consumption of alcoholic beverages by friends and family. Parents/guardians answered the form on sociodemographic questions. Descriptive analyses and association tests were performed (p < 0.05). The prevalence of binge drinking was 24.8%. Alcoholic beverage consumption began at the age of 10 (16.8%), though sex was not associated with binge drinking by adolescents. However, attending a public school (0.005) and alcohol consumption by best friends (p < 000.1) were associated with binge drinking by adolescents in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of binge drinking was high and was associated with low socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption by the best friend. No association between sex and alcohol consumption by the family members of adolescents was detected.

  3. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children 7 to 12 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Song, Lin-Ye; Fenton, Terrence; Meyer, William A.; Read, Jennifer S.; Handelsman, Edward L.; Nowak, Barbara; Sattler, Carlos A.; Saah, Alfred; Radley, David R.; Esser, Mark T.; Weinberg, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Background Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (QHPV) is >95% effective in preventing infection with vaccine-type human papillomavirus. The safety and immunogenicity of QHPV are unknown in HIV-infected children. Methods HIV-infected children (N = 126)—age >7 to <12 years, with a CD4% ≥15—and on stable antiretroviral therapy if CD4% was <25—were blindly assigned to receive a dose of QHPV or placebo (3:1 ratio) at 0, 8, and 24 weeks. Adverse events were evaluated after each dose. Serum antibody against QHPV antigens was measured by a competitive Luminex immunoassay 1 month after the third QHPV dose. Results The safety profile of QHPV was similar in the 2 study arms and to that previously reported for QHPV recipients. QHPV did not alter the CD4% or plasma HIV RNA. Seroconversion to all 4 antigens occurred in >96% of QHPV recipients and in no placebo recipients. Geometric mean titer was >27 to 262 times greater than the seropositivity cutoff value, depending on the antigen, but was 30%–50% lower against types 6 and 18 than those of age-similar historical controls. Conclusions QHPV was safe and immunogenic in this cohort of HIV-infected children. Efficacy trials are warranted. PMID:20574412

  4. The beneficial effects of game-based exercise using age-appropriate tennis lessons on the executive functions of 6-12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Toru; Sugasawa, Shigemi; Matsuda, Yusuke; Mizuno, Masao

    2017-03-06

    This study evaluated the effects of two different types of tennis lessons-those involving a technique-based approach (TBA) and those involving a game-based approach (PLAY+STAY [P+S])-on the executive functions (EFs) of junior tennis players. Eighty-one tennis players (6-12 years old) were recruited and assigned to one of three groups: TBA, P+S, or watching TV (CONT). Subjects completed evaluations of EFs (inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) before and after 50min programs. The overall score for EFs improved significantly for both the P+S and TBA groups but not for the CONT group; indeed the CONT group showed no improvement in overall EFs. Furthermore, the overall EF score improved more for P+S participants than for those in TBA. Looking at components of EFs, the pattern for inhibitory control reflected the pattern for the overall EF index: Improvement in the P+S and TBA groups but not in the CONT group. Only the P+S group improved in working memory. Thus, playing tennis and practicing isolated tennis skills both improved EFs of junior players more than did watching TV, and game-based tennis lessons seem to hold more promise for improving EFs than drills of tennis skills.

  5. Comparison of 12-year-old children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and non-exposed controls on caregiver ratings of executive function.

    PubMed

    Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn T; Min, Meeyoung O; Lang, Adelaide M; Ben-Harush, Aya; Short, Elizabeth; Wu, Miaoping

    2014-01-01

    Differences in caregiver reported executive function in 12-year-old children who were prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) compared to children who were not prenatally exposed to cocaine (NCE) were assessed. One hundred and sixty-nine PCE and 169 NCE, primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status children participated in a prospective longitudinal study. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Parent Form was administered. Two broadband BRIEF scores (Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) and Metacognition Index (MI)) and a summary Global Executive Composite (GEC) were computed. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effects of amount of PCE on executive function, controlling for covariates including caregiver (rater) psychological distress, child's gender and other prenatal drug exposure variables. After adjustment for covariates, amount of PCE was associated with the GEC and two MI subscales, Plan/Organize and Monitor, with heavier exposure associated with more problems of executive function. An amount of PCE by gender interaction revealed amount of PCE effects in other remaining subscales of the MI (Initiate, Working Memory, and Organization of Materials) only among girls. Head circumference did not mediate the effects of cocaine on outcomes. Higher current caregiver psychological distress levels were independently associated with poorer ratings on the executive function scales. Assessment and targeted interventions to improve metacognitive processes are recommended for girls who were prenatally exposed to cocaine.

  6. [Effectiveness of semax in acute period of hemispheric ischemic stroke (a clinical and electrophysiological study)].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Miasoedov, N F; Nezavibat'ko, V N; Zhuravleva, E Iu; Vanichkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Efficiency of Semax (synthetic derivative of ACTH-4-10) was studied in 30 patients in acute period of hemispherical ischemic stroke. Control group consisted of 80 patients with the strokes analogous in severity and location of the damages and which were treated by conventional therapy. Different clinical rating scales were used for both objectivization of the severity of the patients' state and estimation of the degree of neurological defect. The control of Semax influence on the functional state of the brain included monitoring of EEG with mapping, repeated analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials and their mapping. It was established that including of Semax in combined intensive therapy of acute ischemic stroke had some influence on the rate of restoration of the damaged neurological functions in terms of increasing the regress of general cerebral and focal, especially motor disorders. The most effective daily doses were 12 mg for patients with strokes of moderate severity and 18 mg for patients with severe strokes (treatment course--5 and 10 days).

  7. Unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on low coordinated Pd surface: A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption of several unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules on a stepped Pd(4 2 2) surface was studied. Using a periodic method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism, different adsorption geometries for ethylene, three butene isomers ( cis/ trans-2-butene and 1-butene), acetylene and 2-butyne were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for a free defect surface as Pd(1 1 1). The 1-butene is more stable on the free defect surface than on Pd(4 2 2). On the stepped surface, the olefins adsorb tilted towards the step and increases, in almost all the cases, the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Conversely, the 3-fold site is the most stable for the alkynes adsorption on the stepped surface, as it was found on Pd(1 1 1). The analysis of the dipole moment change indicate a charge transfer from the double bond of the olefin to the metallic surface, being higher for the Pd(1 1 1) surface. In case of the alkynes, an important back-donation is produced. Except the alkynes and the 1-butene molecule, the results show the preference of ethylene and cis/ trans-2-butene to be adsorbed on the stepped surface. These observations are related with experimental catalytic results.

  8. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  9. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  10. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  11. An Orbital Period Study of the W UMa-Type Binary RZ Comae Berenicis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Sheng-Bang; He, Jia-Jia

    2005-12-01

    New photoelectric and CCD photometry observations of a short-period W UMa-type binary system, RZ Com, are presented. The light curves of Broglia (1960, Contr. Milano-Merate, 165) were symmetric in V band, while the present light curve shows a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II by 0.015mag. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification. This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component. Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated. A small-amplitude oscillation (A = 0.0058 d), with a period of 44.8yr has been discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase with a rate of dP/dt = +4.12 × 10-8 d yr-1. The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components. The mass ratio of RZ Com is q = 0.43. The secular period variation is in agreement with the conclusions of Qian (2001, MNRAS, 328, 914; 2003, MNRAS, 342, 1260). This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian.

  12. Migraine and periodic limb movement disorders in sleep in children: a preliminary case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between sleep and headaches are complex and manifold. About the variety of phenomena that can disrupt the sleep macrostructure and can impact its restorative function, the periodic limb movements disorder (PLMd) can be considered as the most powerful. No studies are known about the role of PLMd in the pathophysiology of migraine in children. Aim of study is to assess the prevalence of PLMd and migraine and their relationship with disability and pain intensity in a pediatric sample, referred for migraine without aura by pediatricians. Methods After a preliminary sleep habits screening with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children, 34 migraine subjects affected by migraine without aura (20 M, 14 F) (mean age 9.08; SD ± 2.28) and 51 volunteers healthy children (28 M, 23 F) (mean age 9.37; SD ± 1.81) accepted to underwent overnight PSG recordings in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, in order to define the macrostructural sleep characteristics and the prevalence of PLMd. Subsequently, the migraineurs sample was studied in order to define the relationship between disability, pain intensity, therapeutical responsiveness and the presence of PLMd. Results In the migraineurs children group, the individuals with PLM pathological index (PLMI ≥ 5) represent the 26.47% of sample and present higher frequency (p < 0.001), intensity (p < 0.001), duration (p = 0.006) and life impairment as scored in the PedMIDAS (p < 0.001) of headache and lower efficacy of prophylactic (p = 0.001) and acute (p = 0.006) pharmacological treatment than MoA children without PLM pathological index. Conclusions This preliminary study indicates the potential value of the determination of the PLMd signs, and the importance of the PSG evaluation in children affected by migraine, particularly when the clinical and pharmacological management tend to fail in the attacks control. PMID:23815623

  13. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  14. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  15. Orbital period studies of the two contact binaries TZ Bootis and Y Sextantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.; Liu, Q.

    2000-03-01

    The physical properties of the two A-type contact binaries TZ Boo and Y Sex are nearly the same. In the present paper, many of their published times of light minima are collected and the changes in their orbital periods are analyzed. It is indicated that the orbital period of TZ Boo shows several alternating jumps while it undergoes a secular decrease of -11.8x10-8 days/year. Several random jumps superposed on a secular decrease (-5.5x10-8 days/year) are also found in the period of Y Sex. The secular decrease is usually interpreted as mass transfer from the more to the less massive components, or mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the systems. According to the AML theory, on the contact stage, the orbital AML is mainly caused by the mass transfer from the less to the more massive component and the mass ratio decreasing and orbital period gradually increasing are the corresponding results. The extremely low mass ratio and orbital angular momentum of the two systems show that they are evolved via AML and the present secular decrease in the periods may suggest that the magnetic activity in the two systems are very strong. The relation between the changes of the orbital periods and the magnetic activity in the two systems are discussed. We think that the interplay between the variable AML and variable magnetic coupling can explain both the jumps and secular decrease in the orbital periods of the two systems. Table~2 and Table~4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strabg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  16. A study of coronal X-ray emission from short-period Algol binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; White, N. E.

    1995-01-01

    A study of X-ray emission from five short-period Algol-type binaries based on observations with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and ROSAT is presented. We have observed RZ Cas with both satellites, and beta Per, U Cep, delta Lib, and TW Dra with ROSAT. Significant intensity variations are seen in the X-ray emission from RZ Cas, U Cep, TW Dra, and delta Lib. These variations seem unrelated to the eclipsing behavior of these systems and are probably due to either rotational modulation of compact active regions on the surfaces of the chromospherically active secondary components or to flaring activity in the systems. The spectra of all but one of the systems require the presence of at least two discrete plasma components with different temperatures (0.6 - 0.7 keV, and approximately 2 keV) and the abundances of the medium-Z elements 20% - 50% of the solar photospheric values. The high resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the ASCA spectra allow us to individually constrain the coronal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe in RZ Cas. We demonstrate that, if we use the elemental abundances and temperatures obtained from the analysis of their ASCA spectra as (fixed) inputs, to fit the ROSAT PSPC spectra well requires the presence of a third component (kT approximately 0.2 - 0.3 keV) in RZ Cas and beta Per. A continuous emission measure model of the power-law type (EM(T) variesas (T/T(sub max)(sup alpha)) generally gives a poor fit to the ASCA and ROSAT data on most sources. Circumstellar or circumbinary absorbing matter seems to be present in some of these systems, as indicated by the variable total column density needed to fit their X-ray spectra.

  17. Age-related trends of inhibitory control in Stroop-like big-small task in 3 to 12-year-old children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control is the ability to suppress competing, dominant, automatic, or prepotent cognitive processing at perceptual, intermediate, and output stages. Inhibitory control is a key cognitive function of typical and atypical child development. This study examined age-related trends of Stroop-like interference in 3 to 12-year-old children and young adults by administration of a computerized Stroop-like big-small task with reduced working memory demand. This task used a set of pictures displaying a big and small circle in black and included the same condition and the opposite condition. In the same condition, each participant was instructed to say "big" when viewing the big circle and to say "small" when viewing the small circle. In the opposite condition, each participant was instructed to say "small" when viewing the big circle and to say "big" when viewing the small circle. The opposite condition required participants to inhibit the prepotent response of saying the same, a familiar response to a perceptual stimulus. The results of this study showed that Stroop-like interference decreased markedly in children in terms of error rates and correct response time. There was no deterioration of performance occurring between the early trials and the late trials in the sessions of the day-night task. Moreover, pretest failure rate was relatively low in this study. The Stroop-like big-small task is a useful tool to assess the development of inhibitory control in young children in that the task is easy to understand and has small working memory demand.

  18. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  19. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  20. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children 1 1/2 Years of Age--The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva; Landorph, Susanne; Jorgensen, Torben; Olsen, E. M.; Heering, K.; Kaas-Nielsen, S.; Samberg, V.; Lichtenberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population. Methods: A random sample of 211 children from the CCC 2000 was investigated when the children were 1 1/2 years of age. The prevalence and associates of mental health problems and…

  1. Basic Number Processing Deficits in ADHD: A Broad Examination of Elementary and Complex Number Processing Skills in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children with ADHD-C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…

  2. The APPLE Project: An Investigation of the Barriers and Promoters of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in New Zealand Children Aged 5-12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williden, Micalla; Taylor, Rachael W; McAuley, Kirsten A; Simpson, Jean C; Oakley, Maggie; Mann, Jim I

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To use the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to determine the barriers and promoters of healthy eating and physical activity in children aged 5-12 years, as a basis for the development of a pilot community-based programme for preventing obesity in children (APPLE project: A Pilot Programme for Lifestyle…

  3. Tyfu i Fyny/Growing up Interactive Bi-Lingual Resources to Support the Delivery of Sex and Relationships Education for Students Aged 5 to 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of new interactive, bi-lingual Sex and Relationships Education (SRE) resources called Tyfu i Fyny/Growing Up, suitable for students aged between five and 12 years. It also discusses the evidence used to support the development of the resources, the support provided for teachers and…

  4. [Study on ammonia-N degradation monitoring by analyzing long-period fiber grating spectrum character].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-yue; Liang, Da-kai; Zeng, Jie; Cao, Zhi-bin; Zeng, Jian-min

    2010-09-01

    In the present paper, the principle of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring sensor was discussed in detail firstly based on a sensitive characteristic that the resonance spectrum of long-period fiber grating changes with refractive index in external environment. The relationship between the resonance peaking wavelength of long-period fiber grating and the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was also analyzed detailedly. Then, the long-period fiber grating spectrum measurement technology was selected to obtain long-period fiber grating spectrum curves corresponding to seven different kinds of concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, and the resonance wavelengths increased with the increase in the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The variations of the resonance wavelength decreased from 2.707 to 0.068 nm and had a relatively good corresponding relationship with the concentration values of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The responsivity of this correlation is 52.78 pm x mg(-1) x L. The concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was acquired exactly through the way of monitoring the changes of the spectrum attribute, at the same time, the process and the extent of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater degradation were estimated. This method, which can directly monitor the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, is simple and easy to operate. The measurement and transmission section of the system are completely composed of optical fiber, which can avoid the electronic interference. There is no necessary to use chemic reagent to sign the solutions, which are going to be degraded. In conclusion, the late-model long-period fiber grating ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring system could achieve a real time, rapid, accurate and long distance measurement.

  5. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  6. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  7. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  8. Evaluation of essential trace and toxic elements in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups 3-7 and 8-12 years.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Faheem; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Sirajuddin

    2011-10-01

    The most common cause of blindness in developing countries is vitamin A deficiency. The World Health Organization estimates 13.8 million children to have some degree of visual loss related to vitamin A deficiency. The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial, and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological samples composition. Vitamin and mineral deficiency prevents more than two billion people from achieving their full intellectual and physical potential. This study was designed to compare the levels of Zn, Mg, Ca, K, Na, As, Cd, and Pb in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged 3-7 and 8-12 years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment, for the determination of As, Ca, Cd, K, Pb, Mg, Na, and Zn in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The results of this study showed that the mean values of As, Cd, Na, and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of male and female night blindness children than in referents (p < 0.001), whereas the concentrations of Zn, Ca, K, and Mg were lower in the scalp hair and blood but higher in the urine samples of night blindness children. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential mineral elements in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children.

  9. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to... studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. The Postal Service shall provide a list of special studies whose results are used to produce the estimates in...

  10. The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  11. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation With Low-Dose-Rate Interstitial Implant Brachytherapy After Wide Local Excision: 12-Year Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Hattangadi, Jona A.; Powell, Simon N.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Mauceri, Thomas; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Freer, Phoebe; Lawenda, Brian; Alm El-Din, Mohamed A.; Gadd, Michele A.; Smith, Barbara L.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity, cosmesis, and local control of accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision for Stage T1N0 breast cancer (BCa). Materials and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 50 patients with Stage T1N0M0 BCa were treated in a Phase I-II protocol using low-dose-rate accelerated partial breast irradiation with implant brachytherapy after wide local excision and lymph node surgery. The total dose was escalated in three groups: 50 Gy (n = 20), 55 Gy (n = 17), and 60 Gy (n = 13). Patient- and physician-assessed breast cosmesis, patient satisfaction, toxicity, mammographic abnormalities, repeat biopsies, and disease status were prospectively evaluated at each visit. Kendall's tau ({tau}{sub {beta}}) and logistic regression analyses were used to correlate outcomes with dose, implant volume, patient age, and systemic therapy. Results: The median follow-up period was 11.2 years (range, 4-14). The patient satisfaction rate was 67%, 67% reported good-excellent cosmesis, and 54% had moderate-severe fibrosis. Higher dose was correlated with worse cosmetic outcome ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.6, p < .0001), lower patient satisfaction ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.5, p < .001), and worse fibrosis ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.4, p = .0024). Of the 50 patients, 35% had fat necrosis and 34% developed telangiectasias {>=}1 cm{sup 2}. Grade 3-4 late skin and subcutaneous toxicities were seen in 4 patients (9%) and 6 patients (13%), respectively, and both correlated with higher dose ({tau}{sub {beta}} 0.3-0.5, p {<=} .01). One patient had Grade 4 skin ulceration and fat necrosis requiring surgery. Mammographic abnormalities were seen in 32% of the patients, and 30% underwent repeat biopsy, of which 73% were benign. Six patients had ipsilateral breast recurrence: five elsewhere in the breast, and one at the implant site. One patient died of metastatic BCa after recurrence. The 12-year actuarial local control, recurrence-free survival

  12. Orbital Period Variation Study of the Algol Eclipsing Binary DI Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, M. A.; Amin, S. M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss the orbital period changes of the Algol semi-detached eclipsing binary DI Peg by constructing the (O-C) residual diagram via using all the available precise minima times. We conclude that the period variation can be explained by a sine-like variation due to the presence of a third body orbiting the binary, together with a long-term orbital period increase ( dP/dt=0.17 sec/century) that can be interpreted to be due to mass transfer from the evolved secondary component (of rate 1.52×10^{-8} M_{⊙}/ yr) to the primary one. The detected low-mass third body (M_{3 min.}=0.22±0.0006 M_{⊙}) is responsible for a periodic variation of about 55 years light time effect. We have determined the orbital parameters of the third component which show a considerable eccentricity e_{3}= 0.77±0.07 together with a longitude of periastron ω_{3}=300° ± 10°.

  13. Comparative Study of Periodical Literature Indexing: Print versus Electronic Access. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…

  14. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  15. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  16. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  17. Adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel: a review of its use in the treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥ 12 years.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2011-12-01

    Adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (Epiduo™, Tactuo™) is the only fixed-dose combination product available that combines a topical retinoid with benzoyl peroxide; it targets three of the four main pathophysiologic factors in acne. This article reviews the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of topical adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel in the treatment of patients aged ≥ 12 years with acne vulgaris, as well as summarizing its pharmacologic properties. In three 12-week trials in patients aged ≥ 12 years with moderate acne, success rates were significantly higher with adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel than with adapalene 0.1% gel or benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel alone, and combination therapy had an earlier onset of action. In addition, significantly greater reductions in total, inflammatory, and noninflammatory lesion counts were seen in patients receiving adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel than in those receiving adapalene 0.1% gel or benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel alone. Adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel did not significantly differ from clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 5% gel in terms of the reduction in the inflammatory, noninflammatory, or total lesion counts in patients with mild to moderate acne, according to the results of a 12-week trial. Twelve-week studies showed that topical adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel in combination with oral lymecycline was more effective than oral lymecycline alone in patients with moderate to severe acne, and topical adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel in combination with oral doxycycline hyclate was more effective than oral doxycycline hyclate alone in patients with severe acne. In patients with severe acne who responded to 12 weeks' therapy with topical adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel plus oral doxycycline hyclate or oral doxycycline hyclate alone, an additional 6 months' therapy with adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel was more effective than vehicle gel at

  18. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  19. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  20. Factors associated with receiving treatment for dental decay among Medicaid-enrolled children younger than 12 years of age in Iowa, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zilversmit, Leah; Kane, Debra J.; Rochat, Roger; Rodgers, Tracy; Russell, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Iowa Department of Public Health I-Smile program provides dental screening and care coordination to over 23,000 low-income and Medicaid-enrolled children per year. The purposes of this study were to evaluate I-Smile program effectiveness to ensure that Medicaid-enrolled children obtained dental treatment after having been screened and to determine the factors associated with failure to receive dental care after screening through the I-Smile program. Methods Based on I-Smile program priorities, we limited our sample to children younger than 12 years of age who screened positive for decay and who linked to a paid Medicaid claim for dental treatment (n = 1,816). We conducted bivariate analyses to examine associations between children’s characteristics who screened positive for decay and received treatment within 6 months of their initial screening. We also performed multivariate logistic regression to assess the association of sociodemographic characteristics with receipt of treatment among children who screened positive for decay. Results Eleven percent of children screened positive for decay. Nearly 24 percent of children with decay received treatment based on a Medicaid-paid claim. Being 5 years or older [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.48, confidence interval (CI): 1.17, 1.88] and not having a dental home (aOR: 1.90, CI: 1.41, 2.58) were associated with higher odds of not receiving dental treatment. Conclusions Children 5 years and older and without a dental home were less likely to obtain dental treatment. Opportunities exist for the I-Smile program to increase the numbers of at-risk children with dental homes and who obtain dental care after screening. PMID:25131658

  1. A 12-year record of intertidal barnacle recruitment in Atlantic Canada (2005-2016): relationships with sea surface temperature and phytoplankton abundance.

    PubMed

    Scrosati, Ricardo A; Ellrich, Julius A

    2016-01-01

    On the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides occurs in May and June. Every year in June between 2005 and 2016, we recorded recruit density for this barnacle at the same wave-exposed rocky intertidal location on this coast. During these 12 years, mean recruit density was lowest in 2015 (198 recruits dm(-2)) and highest in 2007 (969 recruits dm(-2)). The highest recruit density observed in a single quadrat was 1,457 recruits dm(-2) (in 2011) and the lowest was 34 recruits dm(-2) (in 2015). Most barnacle recruits appear during May, which suggests that most pelagic larvae (which develop over 5-6 weeks before benthic settlement) are in the water column in April. An AICc-based model selection approach identified sea surface temperature (SST) in April and the abundance of phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae, measured as chlorophyll-a concentration -Chl-a-) in April as good explanatory variables. Together, April SST and April Chl-a explained 51% of the observed interannual variation in recruit density, with an overall positive influence. April SST was positively related to March-April air temperature (AT). April Chl-a was negatively related to the April ratio between the number of days with onshore winds (which blow from phytoplankton-limited offshore waters) and the number of days with alongshore winds (phytoplankton is more abundant on coastal waters). Therefore, this study suggests that climatic processes affecting April SST and April Chl-a indirectly influence intertidal barnacle recruitment by influencing larval performance.

  2. A 12-year record of intertidal barnacle recruitment in Atlantic Canada (2005–2016): relationships with sea surface temperature and phytoplankton abundance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    On the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides occurs in May and June. Every year in June between 2005 and 2016, we recorded recruit density for this barnacle at the same wave-exposed rocky intertidal location on this coast. During these 12 years, mean recruit density was lowest in 2015 (198 recruits dm−2) and highest in 2007 (969 recruits dm−2). The highest recruit density observed in a single quadrat was 1,457 recruits dm−2 (in 2011) and the lowest was 34 recruits dm−2 (in 2015). Most barnacle recruits appear during May, which suggests that most pelagic larvae (which develop over 5–6 weeks before benthic settlement) are in the water column in April. An AICc-based model selection approach identified sea surface temperature (SST) in April and the abundance of phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae, measured as chlorophyll-a concentration –Chl-a–) in April as good explanatory variables. Together, April SST and April Chl-a explained 51% of the observed interannual variation in recruit density, with an overall positive influence. April SST was positively related to March–April air temperature (AT). April Chl-a was negatively related to the April ratio between the number of days with onshore winds (which blow from phytoplankton-limited offshore waters) and the number of days with alongshore winds (phytoplankton is more abundant on coastal waters). Therefore, this study suggests that climatic processes affecting April SST and April Chl-a indirectly influence intertidal barnacle recruitment by influencing larval performance. PMID:27812421

  3. Prenatal androgenization affects gender-related behavior but not gender identity in 5-12-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Dolezal, Curtis; Baker, Susan W; Carlson, Ann D; Obeid, Jihad S; New, Maria I

    2004-04-01

    Gender assignment of children with intersexuality and related conditions has recently become highly controversial. On the basis of extensive animal research and a few human case reports, some authors have proposed the putative masculinization of the brain by prenatal hormones-indicated by the degree of genital masculinization-as the decisive criterion of gender assignment and have derived the recommendation that 46,XX newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and full genital masculinization should be assigned to the male gender. The purpose of this study was to test in CAH girls of middle childhood the assumption that prenatal androgens determine the development of gender identity. Fifteen girls with CAH (range of genital Prader stage, 2-4/5), 30 control girls, and 16 control boys (age range, 5-12 years) underwent 2 gender-play observation sessions, and a gender identity interview yielding scales of gender confusion/dysphoria. About half a year earlier, mothers had completed 2 questionnaires concerning their children's gender-related behavior. The results showed that, as expected, CAH girls scored more masculine than control girls on all scales measuring gender-related behavior, with robust effect sizes. By contrast, neither conventionally significant differences nor trends were found on the 3 scales of the gender identity interview. We conclude that prenatal androgenization of 46,XX fetuses leads to marked masculinization of later gender-related behavior, but the absence of any increased gender-identity confusion/dysphoria does not indicate a direct determination of gender identity by prenatal androgens and does not, therefore, support a male gender assignment at birth of the most markedly masculinized girls.

  4. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of o