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Sample records for 12-year-old girl presented

  1. A 12-year-old girl presenting with bilateral gigantic Burkitt's lymphoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lingohr, Philipp; Eidt, Sebastian; Rheinwalt, Karl Peter

    2009-05-01

    The female breast rarely constitutes the primary localization for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of primary breast lymphoma (PBL) lies between 0.04 and 1.1% for all breast tumors and 1.7-2.2% for all extranodal NHL. Mostly it occurs during the child-bearing period, during pregnancy or lactation. In general, children between the ages of 8 and 10 years are most frequently affected by Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods for classification, detection and especially treatment of this condition continue being a subject of discussions and research. We present and evaluate the rare case of a 12-year-old girl with bilateral gigantic breast tumors treated during a surgical mission with "Doctors without borders" (MSF, "médecins sans frontiers") in the zone of civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The monstrous bilateral breast hypertrophy, symmetrical, rapidly growing, consequently ulcerating and severely bleeding had to be treated by bilateral mastectomy as a salvage procedure. Examinations through histopathology was not feasible and other facilities like ultrasound, CT, MRI and further laboratory examinations were not available.. The patient died 27 days after the surgical procedure. The histological result received by later examination in Germany showed a bilateral high malignant B cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma) of the breast.

  2. Atrial Fibrillation and Long QT Syndrome Presenting in a 12-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Jonathan W; Orland, Kate M; January, Craig T; Maginot, Kathleen R

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition that AF can be inherited. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), likewise, can be both acquired and inherited with mutations leading to abnormalities in cardiac ion channel function. Mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of LQTS. Although rare, mutations in KCNQ1 also can cause familial AF. This report describes a child with a KCNQ1 missense mutation who uniquely expresses concomitant AF and LQTS. Due to the potential for increased morbidity and mortality, young patients who present with AF and a family history suggestive of inherited arrhythmias should trigger further investigation for LQTS and subsequent familial genetic counseling. PMID:23193492

  3. Atrial Fibrillation and Long QT Syndrome Presenting in a 12-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Knoche, Jonathan W.; Orland, Kate M.; January, Craig T.; Maginot, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition that AF can be inherited. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), likewise, can be both acquired and inherited with mutations leading to abnormalities in cardiac ion channel function. Mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of LQTS. Although rare, mutations in KCNQ1 also can cause familial AF. This report describes a child with a KCNQ1 missense mutation who uniquely expresses concomitant AF and LQTS. Due to the potential for increased morbidity and mortality, young patients who present with AF and a family history suggestive of inherited arrhythmias should trigger further investigation for LQTS and subsequent familial genetic counseling. PMID:23193492

  4. [Juvenile dermatomyositis in 12 years old girl].

    PubMed

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia; Lis, Anna; Krauze, Ewa; Marszał, Elzbieta; Jamroz, Ewa; Klimek, Beata; Kajor, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    We would like to present a selected case of 12-aged girl, with recognition of dermatomyositis (DM). At the age of 11 in the normally developing child, erythematous-oedematous changes have appeared on the face, particularly intensified in the vicinity of the orbital cavities (so called: pseudoglasses), as well as erythema and teleangiectasis on the dorsum of hands and small-sized diarthroidal joints (the Gottron's symptom). Subsequently, lower physical efficiency and distinctly weakness in the child's extremities occurred. In EMG (quadriceps muscle of the thigh) myogenous traits have been proven. Neurological examination revealed as follows: muscular weakness (adynamia), mainly lower limbs (grade 3 in the Lovett's scale, along with decreased loss of muscles tone), lack of the periosteal reflex near lower limbs, positive Gower's symptom and increased anterior spinal curvature. In the biochemical examinations accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and a rise of activity in muscles enzymes were stated. In the child's blood serum, we disclosed antinuclear antibodies ANA (type of granular luminescence, titre 160), to be rather evident to presence of autoimmunological process. During examinations of the musculocutaneus specimen, DM-markers have been detected. Capillaroscopy proved specific presence of numerous vessels, multiple capillary tubes, individual gemmated vessels and completely invisible dermatomyositous border. Patient was treated with per os sterid--Encorton at the initial dose of 2 mg/day, every other day during the lapse of 6 weeks to reach the normal CPK-activity, and consequently clinical picture under "on-line" surveillance, gradually reducing a specific medicine up to maintenance dose through 18 months. At present, the patient is subjected to check-up and monitoring by Neurological Outpatient and Rehabilitain Clinic for Children.

  5. [Fibrous dysplasia of bone in a 12-year old girl].

    PubMed

    Bieniasz, Jolanta; Maj, Anna; Noczyńska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare congenital bone disease, usually coming out before the age of 30. It is 2.5% of all bone tumours and 7.5 % of benign tumours of bones. The authors present a case of a 12-years old girl with fibrous dysplasia of bone admitted to the Department with hyperparathyroidism suspicion. Pathological changes were localized in the orbital cavity and sinuses. The diagnosis was established on the basis of the clinical course, imaging and histopathological examinations. The therapy with pamidronian acid was applied.

  6. [Trigeminalgia caused by neurovascular compression in 12 years old girl].

    PubMed

    Steczkowska, Małgorzata; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Gleń, Agnieszka; Gergont, Aleksandra; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Trigeminalgia is one of the most frequent clinical problems, common in adults but also found in children. In this paper we described a case of 12 years old girl with symptomatic trigeminalgia caused by neurovascular compression, hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Neurology Jagiellonian University in Kraków. It creates a very difficult diagnostic problem. The girl was first unsuccessfully treated with carbamazepine and afterwards the surgery of neurovascular decompression was performed. We emphasis the crucial role of MR and MRA in cases refractory to classic pharmacotherapy.

  7. Indirect cavernous carotid fistula in a 12-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Livi, Francesca; Ndoro, Samuel; Caird, John; Crimmins, Darach

    2016-01-01

    We present a very rare case of indirect cavernous carotid fistula (CCF) in a 12-year-old girl. Indirect CCF is extremely rare in the paediatric population. A 12-year-old girl presented with a 7-month history of frontal headaches and intermittent left-sided proptosis. On examination, she had dilated and engorged scleral veins on the left eye, mild dysdiadochokinesia and past pointing on the left side. A brain computer tomography with contrast, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional radiography (IR) cerebral angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of CCF. The CCF was embolized and a follow-up brain MRI and an IR cerebral angiogram were conducted over the course of 8 months that revealed no evidence of residual CCF. CCF, though rare in the paediatric population, should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis when dilated scleral veins, proptosis and dysdiadokinesis are present in the clinical setting. Prompt treatment has good prognostic results. PMID:27273682

  8. Indirect cavernous carotid fistula in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Livi, Francesca; Ndoro, Samuel; Caird, John; Crimmins, Darach

    2016-06-06

    We present a very rare case of indirect cavernous carotid fistula (CCF) in a 12-year-old girl. Indirect CCF is extremely rare in the paediatric population. A 12-year-old girl presented with a 7-month history of frontal headaches and intermittent left-sided proptosis. On examination, she had dilated and engorged scleral veins on the left eye, mild dysdiadochokinesia and past pointing on the left side. A brain computer tomography with contrast, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional radiography (IR) cerebral angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of CCF. The CCF was embolized and a follow-up brain MRI and an IR cerebral angiogram were conducted over the course of 8 months that revealed no evidence of residual CCF. CCF, though rare in the paediatric population, should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis when dilated scleral veins, proptosis and dysdiadokinesis are present in the clinical setting. Prompt treatment has good prognostic results.

  9. Kienböck's disease in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Luc

    2003-08-01

    A case of avascular necrosis of the lunate in a 12-year-old girl is described. Conservative treatment resulted in a clinically normal wrist at three years' follow-up, despite obvious radiological changes.

  10. Giant pulmonary bulla with mediastinal shift in a 12 1/2 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain; Jafferani, Asif; Ashfaq, Awais

    2012-05-01

    Pulmonary bulla in children represent interesting entities. Mostly congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and acquired cysts like pneumatocoeles have also been described. We present a case of a 12 1/2 years old girl with acute onset respiratory distress symptoms harbouring a huge pulmonary cyst exhibiting mass effects, resulting in mediastinal deviation. Following initial workup, cyst excision was carried out which revealed presence of fungal hyphae that was susceptible to Fluconazole therapy post operatively. The case points out how a pulmonary cyst can present in older children with symptoms of respiratory distress and mass effects.

  11. Transition to Puberty as Experienced by 12-Year-Old Swedish Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rembeck, Gun I.; Hermansson, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe 12-year-old girls' experiences of entering puberty. A qualitative approach was used to gather data from focus group interviews, and content analysis was used to identify common themes from the responses of 18 girls. Findings revealed four main themes: (a) growing up--awareness, bodily changes, longing; (b)…

  12. [Extracranial aneurysm of the carotid artery in a 12-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Pourhassan, S; Grotemeyer, D; Heinen, W; Ramp, U; Heusch, A; Sandmann, W

    2006-02-01

    Extracranial aneurysms of the carotid artery in childhood are rare, and we found just nine cases described in the literature within the last 20 years. We report on the clinical appearance, diagnosis, and therapy of a carotid artery aneurysm in a 12-year-old girl and review the literature.

  13. Bordetella holmesii meningitis in a 12-year-old anorectic girl.

    PubMed

    Van Balen, Tessa; Nieman, An-Emmie; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Schneeberger, Peter M; de Vries, Esther

    2012-04-01

    We describe a 12-year-old anorectic girl with Bordetella holmesii meningitis, the techniques used for its identification, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics for 7 B. Holmesii strains collected in the Netherlands during the past 12 years. B. holmesii meningitis has not been previously reported.

  14. Unilateral papilloedema in a 12 year old girl--a surprising diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fahy, S; Houlihan, M; O'Keefe, M; Nicholson, A J

    1997-10-01

    A previously well 12 year old girl presented with diminished visual acuity and haziness of her left eye. Her examination confirmed visual loss in her left eye and significant disc blurring on fundoscopy. Extensive investigations including computerised tomography of the brain and orbit were normal. Her serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels were elevated and subsequent Kveim test was positive confirming the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. She did respond to a course of systemic steroids and over the following 3 years her eye signs and symptoms did correlate well with the ACE level. To date she has not had any systemic or respiratory symptoms. Thus sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ocular pathology of unexplained aetiology.

  15. Metaphoric Car Drawings By a 12-Year-Old Congenitally Blind Girl.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsin-Yi; Kennedy, John M

    2015-12-01

    A 12-year-old congenitally-blind girl drew a car moving, stationary, and braking. For stationary, she put the wheels inside the car and, for braking, drew the wheels as rough rectangles. At the age verbal metaphor is understood (Winner, 1988), the girl invented metaphoric drawings. In these, what is shown is not what is meant. In late childhood, metaphor may be understood similarly in pictures and words and by the sighted and blind.

  16. Metaphoric Car Drawings By a 12-Year-Old Congenitally Blind Girl.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsin-Yi; Kennedy, John M

    2015-12-01

    A 12-year-old congenitally-blind girl drew a car moving, stationary, and braking. For stationary, she put the wheels inside the car and, for braking, drew the wheels as rough rectangles. At the age verbal metaphor is understood (Winner, 1988), the girl invented metaphoric drawings. In these, what is shown is not what is meant. In late childhood, metaphor may be understood similarly in pictures and words and by the sighted and blind. PMID:26562853

  17. Solitary Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia in a 12-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Kim, Bomi; Yoon, Young Chul; Wi, Jin Hong

    2016-04-01

    Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is a premalignant lesion reflecting a focal proliferation of atypical cells. These lesions are usually observed as incidental findings in lungs that have been resected due to other conditions, such as lung cancer. We report the youngest case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia on record in a 12-year-old girl. In this patient, the lesion was found in association with pneumothorax.

  18. Atypical radiological manifestations of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ko, S-M; Choe, B-K; Kim, H-S; Lee, H-J; Kwon, K-Y

    2008-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare pulmonary disease that typically affects cigarette smokers from 30-40 years of age onwards. It is very rare in children, especially for those under 15 years of age. We report an atypical radiological manifestation of isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 12-year-old girl that showed multifocal consolidation and multiple small nodules on an initial chest radiograph, and gradual fibrotic change with multiple cysts on follow-up chest radiographs and CT scans.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma originating in a renal cyst in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kadekawa, Katsumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Saito, Seiichi; Morozumi, Makoto; Matsuzaki, Akiko; Yoshimi, Naoki; Sugaya, Kimio

    2009-12-01

    We report a 12-year-old girl with renal cell carcinoma originating in a cyst of the left kidney. Ultrasonography revealed 2 small hyperechoic masses in the luminal side of a cyst. Although hypervascularity was not detected in the cyst by computed tomography, the possibility of malignancy could not be ruled out because of the presence of 2 solid masses. Therefore, partial left nephrectomy was performed. On histopathologic examination, the 2 solid masses within the cyst were found to be renal cell carcinoma. This patient remains disease-free at 4 years after partial nephrectomy.

  20. Expectation prior to human papilloma virus vaccination: 11 to 12-Year-old girls' written narratives.

    PubMed

    Forsner, M; Nilsson, S; Finnström, B; Mörelius, E

    2016-09-01

    Expectations prior to needle-related procedures can influence individuals' decision making and compliance with immunization programmes. To protect from human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer, the immunization needs to be given before sexual debut raising interest for this study's aim to investigate how 11 to 12-year-old girls narrate about their expectations prior to HPV vaccination. A total of 27 girls aged 11 to 12 years participated in this qualitative narrative study by writing short narratives describing their expectations. The requirement for inclusion was to have accepted HPV vaccination. Data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Findings showed the following expectations: going to hurt, going to be scared and going to turn out fine. The expectations were based on the girls' previous experiences, knowledge and self-image. The latent content revealed that the girls tried to transform uneasiness to confidence. The conclusion drawn from this study is that most girls of this age seem confident about their ability to cope with possible unpleasantness related to vaccinations. However, nurses need to find strategies to help those children who feel uneasy about needle-related procedures. PMID:26311482

  1. Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Ogando, Alejandro; Fernández López, Tania; Rodríguez Castaño, María José; Mata Fernández, Cristina; Alvarez Bernardi, Julio; Cebollero Presmanes, María

    2010-10-01

    Breast tumors in adolescents are very rare and mostly benign. Fibroadenomas are the most frequent, but within the extensive differential diagnosis, the phyllodes tumor must be mentioned, which accounts for about 1% of breast tumors and the diagnosis of which is very rare in patients younger than 20 years. There are no specific symptoms or radiological images to distinguish phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma; therefore, histological examination is mandatory for diagnosis. Histology also allows the classification of phyllodes tumor into benign, borderline, or malignant types for appropriate surgical treatment: freemargin excision in benign tumors and mastectomy in the other two types. Fortunately, the majority of these tumors are benign, and treatment maximizes breast conservation with free infiltration margins surgery, given that this fact is the most important factor to prevent local recurrence. In this article, we describe a rare case of borderline cystosarcoma phyllodes in a 12-year-old girl.

  2. Collagenous gastroduodenitis with recurrent gastric ulcer in 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Koide, Tatsuo; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Kawai, Naoki; Yashiro, Kenta; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Nishigaki, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    This report describes a rare case of collagenous gastroduodenitis found in a 12-year-old Japanese girl who had recurrent hematemesis. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed many lotus leaf-like lesions on the gastric mucosa surrounded by atrophic gastric mucosa in the antrum, with a cobblestone appearance and a scarred duodenal ulcer in the duodenal bulb. A biopsy of the gastric mucosa indicated subepithelial collagen band. The patient was treated with H2-blockers for her symptoms for 4 years following the endoscopic findings. Follow-up endoscopy showed the same appearance as before. The pathology, however, showed a more prominent subepithelial collagen deposition. To make the correct diagnosis, it is critical to know from which part the pathological biopsy specimens were taken because there were numerous collagen bands in the atrophic membrane. It is important to monitor the patient regularly for evaluation of the etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis of this rare disease.

  3. Collagenous gastroduodenitis with recurrent gastric ulcer in 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Koide, Tatsuo; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Kawai, Naoki; Yashiro, Kenta; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Nishigaki, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    This report describes a rare case of collagenous gastroduodenitis found in a 12-year-old Japanese girl who had recurrent hematemesis. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed many lotus leaf-like lesions on the gastric mucosa surrounded by atrophic gastric mucosa in the antrum, with a cobblestone appearance and a scarred duodenal ulcer in the duodenal bulb. A biopsy of the gastric mucosa indicated subepithelial collagen band. The patient was treated with H2-blockers for her symptoms for 4 years following the endoscopic findings. Follow-up endoscopy showed the same appearance as before. The pathology, however, showed a more prominent subepithelial collagen deposition. To make the correct diagnosis, it is critical to know from which part the pathological biopsy specimens were taken because there were numerous collagen bands in the atrophic membrane. It is important to monitor the patient regularly for evaluation of the etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis of this rare disease. PMID:26011716

  4. Extensive cutaneous necrosis in a 12-year-old girl: an unusual complication of secondary cold agglutinin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kirtisudha; Singla, Shilpy; Batra, Vineeta Vijay; Basu, Srikanta; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-12-01

    Cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS) secondary to infection is rare, usually presenting with anaemia and minor skin changes. A 12-year-old girl with secondary CAS associated with extensive cutaneous necrosis is reported. She presented with fever and multiple necrotic lesions over both cheeks, the tip of nose, ear margins, hands and buttocks, along with pallor, hepatospenomegaly, acrocyanosis and gangrene of the fifth digit of the right hand. She had anaemia, unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and a positive direct antiglobulin test owing to cold agglutinins of the IgM type with anti-i specificity and titres of 1:512 at 4°C. Results of bone marrow examination were normal and cryoglobulins were negative. Cold antibodies released even during a brief, self-limited febrile illness can cause widespread cutaneous gangrene. We believe this is the first report in the paediatric age group. PMID:24091086

  5. Lymphocytic hypophysitis masking a suprasellar germinoma in a 12-year-old girl--a case report.

    PubMed

    Fehn, M; Bettendorf, M; Lüdecke, D K; Sommer, C; Saeger, W

    1999-05-01

    Case history, light and electron microscopic findings of a case of a lymphocytic hypophysitis in coincidence with a suprasellar germinoma in a 12-year-old girl are reported. The girl presented with a long time case history of diabetes insipidus and subsequent panhypopituitarism. Two years after the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a tumorous enlargement of the sellar content and pituitary stalk. A transnasal exploration was initially performed and revealed a lymphocytic hypophysitis. Light microscopy showed a dense infiltration of mature lymphocytes and plasma cells in the interstitium of the anterior pituitary gland. The stalk area could not be exposed to exclude a germinoma. One year later the lesion relapsed despite dexamethason therapy and a second operation by another neurosurgeon had to be performed. Light microscopy showed lymphocytic infiltrates, fibrosis and necrosis. The diagnosis was a lymphocytic hypophysitis again. Though transcranially exposed only pituitary tissue was removed. No infundibular mass became visible at surgery as shown by MRI. The girl developed five months later multiple cerebral lesions, which revealed to be a germinoma. Lymphocytic hypophysitis in children is very rare and a coincidence with a germinoma has not been described from histopathological aspect until now. The origin of the pituitary infiltration is discussed.

  6. A report of a desmoplastic ganglioglioma in a 12-year-old girl with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pommepuy, I; Delage-Corre, M; Moreau, J J; Labrousse, F

    2006-02-01

    Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma is a supratentorial tumor that typically occurs in infants below the age of 24 months. Rare tumors with the same radiological and histological characteristics have been described in older subjects. We report a case of desmoplastic ganglioglioma in a 12-year-old girl with a 13 years follow-up. The patient presented with an inaugural generalized seizure. CT scan demonstrated a large superficial parieto-occipital mass, attached to the dura with solid and cystic components. Surgical resection was macroscopically complete. No adjuvant treatment was given. Thirteen years after surgery, the patient is symptom free. Histological examination revealed a pleomorphic tumor involving the meningeal space and the cortex. Meningeal portion was made of neoplastic astrocytes enmeshed in a dense network of connective tissue. The cortical component showed abnormal neurons, tumoral astrocytes and small foci of poorly differentiated cells with rare mitoses. Our observation and the seven others found in the literature indicate that desmoplastic gangliogliomas can occur in children and even in young adults. Despite some worrisome radiological and histological features, these tumors should not be misdiagnosed as malignant glioma. Like infantile cases, non-infantile desmoplastic gangliogliomas seem to have a favorable prognosis without additional therapy, if a total surgical resection can be performed.

  7. Medial collateral ligament bursitis in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Caroline; Springgay, Gemma; van Beek, Edwin J R; Rolf, Christer G

    2005-06-01

    A 12-year-old female athlete, training for an international career in pentathlon, was referred to our clinic because of 2 years of recurrent localized swelling and activity-related pain in the medial aspect of her right knee, since falling from a horse and hitting her knees on the ground. She had been examined by a number of doctors over this period and treated with physiotherapy without a proper diagnosis and with no improvement. She could run only very limited distances before excruciating pain and swelling, and she had to abandon participation in competitions. During rest, the swelling decreased but never disappeared entirely. Clinical examination revealed minor effusion and localized tenderness on palpation around the medial joint line. Magnetic resonance imaging showed fluid between the medial capsule and medial collateral ligament, but could not identify any connection to the joint. Arthroscopy revealed a cleavage in the posterior medial joint capsule, superior and close to the medial meniscus, that was connected to the medial collateral ligament bursa. The cleavage was simply expanded, which emptied the bursa, followed by compression bandage and ice for 2 weeks. An immediate positive effect was observed and she could run pain free without swelling within 3 weeks of surgery. Six months after surgery, there has been no recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first time this injury has been described in a child.

  8. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Presenting as a Pathologic Fracture in a 12-Year-Old Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Welk, Aaron B.; Norman W., Kettner

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this report is to describe a case of an aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a pathologic fracture in a young athlete. Case report A 12-year-old patient presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic with a 1-week history of posterior neck pain and stiffness following a helmet-to-helmet collision in football practice. Cervical spine radiographs were taken. Lateral view radiograph demonstrated a pathologic fracture through a lytic, expansive lesion in the posterior arch of C7 with mild subluxation of the C7/T1 apophyseal joints and angulation of the C7/T1 disk space. Based upon these findings, additional diagnostic imaging was ordered. Findings on advanced imaging studies included the following: On computed tomography, the C7 lesion showed medullary destruction, cortical thinning and expansion, and a horizontally oriented fracture through the spinous and lamina. Magnetic resonance imaging studies for sagittal T2 and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed fluid/fluid levels in the C7 spinous and peripheral enhancement with contrast. Outcome The patient was referred to a local hospital for treatment. The lesion was treated with resection of the posterior arch, and an aneurysmal bone cyst was confirmed histologically. The patient developed a kyphotic deformity at the site of resection and cervical instability. A subsequent fusion was performed. Conclusion Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare lesions. In this case, the initial traumatic history masked the underlying pathology. Although rare, pathologic fracture should be considered in cases of vertebral fracture in young patients. PMID:24711787

  9. Vulvar carcinoma in a 12-year-old girl with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, C; Del Mistro, A; De Rossi, A; Bertorelle, R; Giacomet, V; Ruga, E; Minucci, D

    2000-10-01

    We report the first case of a girl with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who developed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva at 12 years of age. Lesions resembling bowenoid papulosis covered the perianal area as well. She underwent a nonmutilating surgical excision of the infiltrating lesion. More than 3 years later, her clinical condition is excellent, although dysplastic, noninfiltrating multifocal lesions persist. This case highlights the need to perform careful periodic genital examinations in all HIV-infected children and adolescents born to HIV-positive mothers.

  10. Risk Perceptions, Sexual Attitudes, and Sexual Behavior after HPV Vaccination in 11–12 Year-Old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Tanya L. Kowalczyk; Widdice, Lea E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Among 11–12 year-old girls who received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we explored, over the subsequent 30 months: 1) trajectories of knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines and vaccine-related risk perceptions; 2) whether knowledge and risk perceptions impacted sexual attitudes and sexual experience; and 3) whether mothers, clinicians, and media influenced girls’ risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. Methods Girls and mothers (n=25 dyads) completed separate, semi-structured interviews within 2 days of, and 6, 18, and 30 months after, their first HPV vaccine dose. Knowledge, risk perceptions related to HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and attitudes about sexual behaviors were assessed. Sexual experience was assessed at girls’ 30 month interviews. Clinicians completed interviews at baseline. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using framework analysis. Results Girls’ baseline knowledge was poor but often improved with time. Most girls (n=18) developed accurate risk perceptions about HPV but only half (n=12) developed accurate risk perceptions about other STIs by 30 months. The vast majority of girls thought that safer sex was still important, regardless of knowledge, risk perceptions, or sexual experience. Girls whose HPV knowledge was high at baseline or increased over time tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions; those who were able to articulate accurate risk perceptions tended to report not having initiated sexual activity. Girls whose mothers demonstrated higher knowledge and/or communication about HPV vaccination tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions, whereas clinicians and media exposure did not appear to influence risk perceptions. Conclusions Higher knowledge about HPV vaccines among mothers and girls was linked with more accurate risk perceptions among girls. Clinicians may play an important role in providing education about HPV vaccines to mothers and girls. PMID:26116249

  11. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Edward C; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children's performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults.

  12. Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Edward C.; Yang, Yingying; Roskos, Beverly; Steele, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported sex differences in wayfinding performance among adults. Men are typically better at using Euclidean information and survey strategies while women are better at using landmark information and route strategies. However, relatively few studies have examined sex differences in wayfinding in children. This research investigated relationships between route learning performance and two general abilities: spatial ability and verbal memory in 153 boys and girls between 6- to 12-years-old. Children completed a battery of spatial ability tasks (a two-dimension mental rotation task, a paper folding task, a visuo-spatial working memory task, and a Piagetian water level task) and a verbal memory task. In the route learning task, they had to learn a route through a series of hallways presented via computer. Boys had better overall route learning performance than did girls. In fact, the difference between boys and girls was constant across the age range tested. Structural equation modeling of the children’s performance revealed that spatial abilities and verbal memory were significant contributors to route learning performance. However, there were different patterns of correlates for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities contributed to route learning while verbal memory did not. In contrast, for girls both spatial abilities and verbal memory contributed to their route learning performance. This difference may reflect the precursor of a strategic difference between boys and girls in wayfinding that is commonly observed in adults. PMID:26941701

  13. Appearance Culture in Nine- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Little research has investigated sociocultural factors in the development of body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls. This study examined the combined influence of media and peer factors. The participants were 100 girls aged nine to 12 years. The girls completed questionnaire measures of media exposure (television and magazines), peer…

  14. Sociocultural Influences and Body Image in 9- to 12-Year-Old Girls: The Role of Appearance Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2007-01-01

    This study tested whether an individual's beliefs about the importance of appearance in their life is a mediator of sociocultural influences on body dissatisfaction in young girls. Participants were 265 girls in Grades 4 to 7 (M age = 10.71 years) from 5 private primary schools in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Girls completed…

  15. Incidental detection of a small solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas after a traffic accident in a 12-year-old girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younglim; Moon, Suk-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is a rare tumor of the pancreas that tends to grow silently in patients at a young age, to a large size and mass. We report here a case of a small-sized SPN detected incidentally in a 12-year-old girl following a traffic accident. The tumor was 3.5 cm in maximal diameter and was found to have hemorrhagic necrosis without a solid component. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed which cured the patient. SPN is generally accepted to be a low grade malignant tumor, but its clinical behavior is sometimes unpredictable. Tumor size and the proportion of solid portion of the tumor have both recently been identified as predictors of malignancy. Although the initial presentation in this case was that of the traffic accident, the subsequent detection of a small, totally cystic SPN, and then the complete eradication of the lesion, led to a favorable outcome for the patient. Long-term monitoring should prevent any chance of recurrence. PMID:26527903

  16. Delayed right-ventricular perforation by pacemaker lead; a rare complication in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Hayrettin Hakan; Akın, Alper; Ertuğrul, İlker; Karagöz, Tevfik

    2015-03-01

    Developments in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases have led to an increase in the need for intracardiac pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Various complications related to these interventions can be seen in the short term (pneumothorax, pericardial effusion, cardiac perforation, etc…) and in the long term (infection, subclavian vein thrombosis, sensing and pacing problems, battery erosion and cardiac perforation). In this report, we present a rare case of cardiac perforation occurring 2 years after pacemaker implantation.

  17. [Screening of disordered eating in 12-Year-old girls and boys: psychometric analysis of the German versions of SCOFF and EAT-26].

    PubMed

    Berger, Uwe; Wick, Katharina; Hölling, Heike; Schlack, Robert; Bormann, Bianca; Brix, Christina; Sowa, Melanie; Schwartze, Dominique; Straub, Bernhard

    2011-07-01

    To detect eating disorders and risky eating behaviour at an early stage, screening tests should be economic, i. e. as short as possible but at the same time they should fulfil the psychometric quality criteria. We compared the German version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26D, which comprises 26 items) and the German version of the SCOFF test (which contains only 5 Yes-no questions) in a community sample of 425 12-year-old girls and 382 boys from Thuringia, Germany. Although the EAT-26D reached higher psychometric properties, the SCOFF has been proved as a useful screening tool with a test-retest reliability of r (tt)=0.73 and a maximum accuracy of 82% (area under the ROC curve). With the EAT-26D (20 point cut-off) as a reference the sensitivity of the SCOFF was 79%, specificity 74%, positive predictive value 25%, and the negative predictive value, which is more relevant for screenings, was 97%. The criterion validity reached r=0.53.

  18. [The case of haemangiofibroma after prolonged intubation in 12-years old child].

    PubMed

    Grzegorowski, Michał; Wojnowski, Waldemar; Ryglewicz, Michał

    2002-01-01

    Authors presented a case of haemangiofibroma of larynx after prolonged intubation in 12 years old girl. We pay attention mechanism of larynx injury after prolonged intubation. In our opinion endoscopy is a very valuable method of child larynx examination.

  19. Effects of a 12-Week Physical Activity Protocol Delivered by YMCA After-School Counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on Fitness and Self-Efficacy Changes in 5-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Westcott, Wayne L.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Unruh, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    To address reduced physical education (PE) in elementary schools, a 12-week physical activity protocol was tested on 5-12-year-old, primarily African American, girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 344) at 14 YMCA after-school care sites. The 3 times/week, 45-min session curriculum included cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training, in which…

  20. Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael

    2012-03-01

    An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents.

  1. Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael

    2012-03-01

    An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PMID:22268607

  2. Naegleria fowleri That Induces Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Rapid Diagnosis and Rare Case of Survival in a 12-Year-Old Caucasian Girl.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrew L; Reed, Tameika; Stewart, Charlotte; Levy, Rebecca A

    2016-05-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and almost always fatal disease that is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a freshwater thermophilic amoeba. Our case involves an adolescent female who presented with fever of unknown origin. A lumbar puncture was performed, and the Wright-Giemsa and Gram stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytospin slides showed numerous organisms. Experienced medical technologists in the microbiology and hematology laboratories identified the organisms as morphologically consistent with Naegleria species. The laboratory made a rapid diagnosis and alerted emergency department care providers within 75 minutes. The patient was treated for PAM with amphotericin, rifampin, azithromycin, fluconazole and aggressive supportive therapy including dexamethasone. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was contacted, and miltefosine, an investigational medication, was started. Additional treatment included an intraventricular shunt and controlled hypothermia in order to mitigate potential cerebral edema. Our patient is a rare success story, as she was diagnosed swiftly, successfully treated, and survived PAM. PMID:26984830

  3. Naegleria fowleri That Induces Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Rapid Diagnosis and Rare Case of Survival in a 12-Year-Old Caucasian Girl.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrew L; Reed, Tameika; Stewart, Charlotte; Levy, Rebecca A

    2016-05-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and almost always fatal disease that is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a freshwater thermophilic amoeba. Our case involves an adolescent female who presented with fever of unknown origin. A lumbar puncture was performed, and the Wright-Giemsa and Gram stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytospin slides showed numerous organisms. Experienced medical technologists in the microbiology and hematology laboratories identified the organisms as morphologically consistent with Naegleria species. The laboratory made a rapid diagnosis and alerted emergency department care providers within 75 minutes. The patient was treated for PAM with amphotericin, rifampin, azithromycin, fluconazole and aggressive supportive therapy including dexamethasone. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was contacted, and miltefosine, an investigational medication, was started. Additional treatment included an intraventricular shunt and controlled hypothermia in order to mitigate potential cerebral edema. Our patient is a rare success story, as she was diagnosed swiftly, successfully treated, and survived PAM.

  4. A case of 46,X,der(X)t(X;X)(q22.1;p11) Xq22.1-->Xqter in a 12-year-old girl with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Z O; Roberts, J L; Awonuga, A O

    2007-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure due to Xp duplication and Xq deletion has been reported in four patients, the youngest of whom was 18 years old. The diagnosis has been made with new techniques for genetic analysis, such as comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization. We report the youngest case (a 12-year-old who presented with irregular menses), of premature ovarian failure due to Xp duplication and Xq deletion and the first with 46,X,der(X)t(X;X)(q22.1;p11). The diagnosis was made using C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization with locus-specific probes. This case highlights the need to use advanced genetic strategies to determine karyotypic and phenotypic abnormalities.

  5. Atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease: isolated epigastric pain in an immunocompetent, 12-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Kovács, Tamas; Rakotoharinandrasana, Iarolalao; Benosman, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a 12-year-old immunocompetent girl with hepato splenic cat-scratch disease (CSD). Her sole inaugural complaint was isolated epigastric pain. She fully recovered, with normalized abdominal CT scan following 2 weeks course of Azythromycin®. CSD should be included in differential diagnosis in children with epigastric pain, especially in those with domestic pets. PMID:26273467

  6. A Clinical Assessment Tool for Advanced Theory of Mind Performance in 5 to 12 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Anne E.; Bremner, Lynne; Nash, Marysia; Happe, Francesca; Pettigrew, Luisa M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred forty typically developing 5- to 12-year-old children were assessed with a test of advanced theory of mind employing Happe's strange stories. There was no significant difference in performance between boys and girls. The stories discriminated performance across the different ages with the lowest performance being in the younger…

  7. Knowledge of Love: Narratives of Romance Told by 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    This article reports research on young people's conceptualisations of love and romance through a gender perspective. The data are stories written by 12-year-old girls and boys in Norway who were asked to fantasise about their future love life. Their narratives are explored through discourse analysis and semiotics and analysed within a…

  8. Porcine surfactant (Curosurf) for acute respiratory failure after near-drowning in 12 year old.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, H; Vik, V

    2004-07-01

    This case report describes rapid and persistent improvement after one single dose of porcine surfactant (Curosurf) 0.5 ml/kg(-1) (40 mg/kg) intratracheally for adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with severe oxygenation failure 8 h after freshwater near-drowning in a 12-year-old girl.

  9. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  10. Obstructive urolithiasis, unilateral hydronephrosis, and probable nephrolithiasis in a 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Bryan J

    2008-03-01

    A 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding was presented for colic and dysuria. Obstructive urolithiasis and chronic renal disease were diagnosed via transurethral endoscopy and percutaneous ultrasonography. Nephroliths, hydronephrosis, and peri-ureteral fibrosis were present. Surgical intervention was declined and the gelding was managed medically with antibiotics and dietary modification.

  11. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus,…

  12. Dental and periodontal status of 12-year-old Bulang children in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bulang is an ethnic minority group living in Yunnan in the southwestern part of China. There is little information pertaining to the oral health of Bulang children. This study aims to examine the dental caries and periodontal status of 12-year-old Bulang children in China and the factors affecting their oral-health status. Methods 12-year-old Bulang school children in Yunnan, China, were recruited through a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Following the recommendation of the World Health Organization, caries experiences were recorded using the DMFT index and periodontal status with the CPI index. A self-completed questionnaire was used to collect information on the background and oral health-related behaviours of the children. Results A total of 900 children in primary schools were invited, and 873 (97%) joined the survey. Their caries prevalence was 35%. Their caries experience in mean DMFT (±SD) score was 0.6 ± 1.1, and 94% of the carious teeth had no treatment. Most children (71%) had bleeding gums, and 58% of them had calculus. Girls and those who had visited a dentist in the previous year had higher caries risk. Conclusions Dental caries was common among the 12-year-old Bulang children in China. Most of the carious teeth were left untreated. Caries prevalence was associated with gender and dental attendance. Their periodontal condition was poor, and more than half of them had calculus. PMID:24708768

  13. A rare case of retinocytoma occurring in a 12-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Aylin; Gündüz, Kaan; Saatci, Osman; Koçak, Nilüfer

    2008-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl with a translucent, partially calcified retinal mass in the posterior pole surrounded by a rim of pigment epithelial changes and chorioretinal atrophy was diagnosed as having retinocytoma. The patient received a single treatment of transpupillary thermotherapy at the slit lamp to prevent malignant transformation. The dimensions of the lesion and the visual acuity remained unchanged at 3.5 years of follow-up with no further treatment. Retinocytoma is a benign retinal tumor that carries the same genetic implications as retinoblastoma. Regular follow-up is necessary because the tumor can demonstrate malignant transformation.

  14. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits in relation to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Kivelä, Johanna; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Lahti, Satu; Merne-Grafström, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits and their relationship to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-olds and differences between boys and girls. Material and methods The study population consisted of children (n = 588) in 15 randomly selected elementary schools in Turku, Finland. Associations between oral health-related habits, knowledge and attitudes with perceived oral symptoms and gender differences were evaluated with χ(2)-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Oral health promoting habits but not knowledge or attitudes associated significantly with absence of oral symptoms. Girls reported a higher percentage of several health promotional habits than boys. Girls reported more frequently gingival bleeding and less frequently dental calculus than boys did. The most common oral symptom was gingival bleeding. Conclusions The present findings suggest some gender-related differences in oral health habits, attitudes, as well as perceived oral symptoms in 12-year-olds. There seems, however, not to be gender differences in relation to knowledge or the association of health habits with perceived oral symptoms. It is important to maintain health promotion at schools and additional efforts should be aimed at translating knowledge into action. PMID:26881848

  15. Validity of an Athletic Skills Track among 6- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Hoeboer, Joris; De Vries, Sanne; Krijger-Hombergen, Michiel; Wormhoudt, René; Drent, Annelies; Krabben, Kay; Savelsbergh, Geert

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and validity of an Athletic Skills Track (AST) to assess fundamental movement skills among 6- to 12-year-old children in a physical education setting. Four hundred sixty-three Dutch children (211 girls, 252 boys) completed three tests: the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and two Athletic Skills Tracks (AST-1, AST-2). The validity of AST-1 and AST-2 was examined by correlating the time (s) needed to complete the tracks and the KTK Motor Quotient (MQ). Overall, there was a low correlation between AST-1 and the KTK MQ (r = -0.474 (P < 0.01)) and a moderate correlation between AST-2 and the KTK MQ (r = -0.502 (P < 0.01)). When split up by age group the associations were much higher and ranged between r = -0.469 and r = -0.767), with the exception of the low correlation coefficient of the AST-2 in 7-year-olds. The results indicate that fundamental movement skills of 6- to 12-year-old children can be assessed with a quick, convenient and low-cost motor competence test in a physical education setting, i.e., an Athletic Skills Track. Future studies should further assess the reliability, discriminative ability and validity of age-specific versions of the AST.

  16. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. Methods The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral health habits. The children were examined for caries status with WHO criteria by 3 calibrated examiners. Detection of dental erosion followed Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) criteria. Results A total of 704 children were recruited and 600 (316 boys, 53%) participated in the survey. There were 124 children (21%) with caries experience (DMFT > 0) and their DMFT was 0.34 ± 0.76. About half of their decay was unfilled (DT = 0.16 ± 0.52) The DMFT of girls and boys were 0.45 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.61, respectively (p = 0.001). Girls also had a higher DT (0.21 ± 0.62 compared with 0.11 ± 0.41, p = 0.013) and FT than boys (0.23 ± 0.63 compared with 0.12 ± 0.44, p = 0.016). Most children (75%) had at least some sign of erosion (BEWE > 0), but no severe erosion (BEWE = 3). Logistic regression showed girls who consumed soft drinks and took vitamin C supplements had higher caries risk. Dental erosion was more severe among the children who had caries experience and consumed fruit juice. Conclusions The 12-year-old Hong Kong children had low caries experience, and almost half of the decay was left untreated. Although severe erosion was not found, many children had early signs of erosion. PMID:24397565

  17. Smoke-free parks: a 12-year-old made it happen.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Carlene E; Newton, Donna R; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2003-04-01

    This case study examines how a 12-year-old in the City of Grand Terrace, California was able to get the city council to adopt a resolution making city parks smoke-free/tobacco-free zones in his community. Over a three-month period of time, this 12-year-old (with tremendous support from his parents and sister) applied for and received a mini-grant from the Tri-County SOUTH Regional Tobacco-Free Project and implemented "The Terrace is GRAND with Smoke-Free Parks" activities. This young man recruited 11 youth and 9 adults, trained them in the basics of tobacco prevention called Tobacco 101, and collected 100 surveys and 809 petition signatures supporting smoke-free parks from residents in Grand Terrace. They also collected trash in their parks and separated it into two groups: tobacco-related trash and all other trash. This 12-year-old met with the mayor of Grand Terrace to ask for support for this issue and scheduled a time to present his group's findings to the city council. On June 22, 2000, the youths presented council members with the tobacco-trash collected, the petition signatures, taped end-to-end, that stretched across the council chambers, and asked the city council to make their parks smoke/tobacco-free. Council members acknowledged the excellent work implemented by these youths, adopted a resolution making all parks (except one senior park) tobacco-free, and agreed to place signage in the parks. On August 24, 2000, the city council presented him with his own "Tobacco-Free Zone" sign as an acknowledgment for his hard work in making parks safe places for youths in Grand Terrace.

  18. Prevalence of epileptiform discharges in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Grant, Arthur C; Chau, Larissa; Arya, Kapil; Schneider, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children. Sixth grade students with no history of seizure, or neurologic or psychiatric disease, were enrolled in a longitudinal physical activity intervention study. Per study protocol, each student had two EEG recordings approximately 6months apart. Epileptiform discharges were present in 4 (2.9%) of 140 students: centrotemporal in three and generalized in one. In three children, the discharges were still present six months later. None of the children had developed seizures a minimum of one year after the second EEG. These results are consistent with those of two landmark European studies performed nearly a half century ago, before the modern era of digital EEG. Healthy 11- and 12-year-old children with no history of seizure may have centrotemporal or generalized epileptiform discharges on EEG, which can persist for at least 6months. Based on both our results and those of the two prior European studies, such discharges, if found incidentally in otherwise healthy children in this age group, should not prompt further evaluation or treatment.

  19. Prevalence of epileptiform discharges in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Grant, Arthur C; Chau, Larissa; Arya, Kapil; Schneider, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children. Sixth grade students with no history of seizure, or neurologic or psychiatric disease, were enrolled in a longitudinal physical activity intervention study. Per study protocol, each student had two EEG recordings approximately 6months apart. Epileptiform discharges were present in 4 (2.9%) of 140 students: centrotemporal in three and generalized in one. In three children, the discharges were still present six months later. None of the children had developed seizures a minimum of one year after the second EEG. These results are consistent with those of two landmark European studies performed nearly a half century ago, before the modern era of digital EEG. Healthy 11- and 12-year-old children with no history of seizure may have centrotemporal or generalized epileptiform discharges on EEG, which can persist for at least 6months. Based on both our results and those of the two prior European studies, such discharges, if found incidentally in otherwise healthy children in this age group, should not prompt further evaluation or treatment. PMID:27450305

  20. The effect of climatic conditions on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in 10-12 year old students.

    PubMed

    Marefati, Hamid; Vizvari, Exir; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Exercise-induced asthma is seen following vigorous or prolonged exercise or physical exertion. It has been suggested that climatic conditions have an influence on exercise-induced asthma. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of two climatic conditions on exercise-induced deterioration of pulmonary function tests in 10-12 year old students. Two hundred and fifty six students were randomly chosen from two cities namely Kerman and Gorgan (128 subjects in each who were equally from both cities) including 62 girls and 66 boys of 10-12 years old. A questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information and to identify the prevalence of asthma symptoms. Each subject performed a seven-minute free run exercise with maximum effort and sufficient motivation until they reached 70-75% heart rate. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) including, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50) were measured before, at the beginning, and 7 and 20 min after physical activity. The prevalence of both asthma (28.12%) and exercise-induced asthma (20.31%) in Kerman students was higher than those of Gorgan students (21.09% and 17%, respectively). All PFT values declined 7 and 20 min post-exercise in both groups. Although all baselines PFT in Kerman students were higher than those of Gorgan students, the decline in PFT values in Kerman students was greater than those of Gorgan students. At 20 min post exercise, the decline in FEV1, PEF and MEF50 in Kerman students was significantly higher than those of Gorgan students (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). The results of the present study showed that prevalence of both asthma and exercise-induced asthma in a city with dry and cool climate such as Kerman was higher than in a city with humid climate such as Gorgan. In addition, the results showed that in a humid climate, post-exercise decline in PFT values was

  1. Benign osteoblastoma of the mandible in a 12-year-old female: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mardaleishvili, Konstantine; Kakabadze, Zurab; Machavariani, Avtandil; Grdzelidze, Teimuraz; Kakabadze, Anna; Sukhitashvili, Natia; Kurashvili, Tamar; Shonia, Nestan; Menabde, Giorgi; Abiatari, Ivane

    2014-12-01

    Benign osteoblastoma refers to a benign tumor of the bone. Osteoblastoma most commonly affects the vertebrae and long tubular bones, however, in rare cases is observed in the facial bones. The current study presents the case of a 12-year-old female patient with a tumor in the mandibular body. Radiological imaging revealed a lesion with regular contours. The lesion was radically resected and histological analysis of the specimen demonstrated features that are typical of a benign osteoblastoma. The consequential defects of the jaw were reconstructed using titanium implants and autologous bone transplantation. The patient remains disease free subsequent to a five-month follow-up period. The aim of the present report is to present a rare case of benign osteoblastoma of the mandible. This study demonstrated that correct diagnosis and complete surgical excision are important to reduce the risk of recurrence of a benign osteoblastoma.

  2. Enterococcal Cerebellopontine Angle Abscess in a 12-year-old Female.

    PubMed

    Sonavane, Alka; Baradkar, Vasant; Kumar, Simit

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in imaging and antibiotic treatment, brain abscess is still encountered occasionally. Various aerobic and anaerobic bacteria have been reported as causative agents of brain abscess but only a few cases of enterococcal brain abscesses have been reported. Here we report a case of brain abscess in a 12-year-old female patient, who presented with a history of fever, chills, headache, convulsions since seven days and history of altered sensorium and aphasia since the last two days. The patient had chronic suppurative otitis media of both ears following trauma and presented with ear discharge. The diagnosis of brain abscess was done by computerized tomography scan and the pus was aspirated by left suboccipital burr hole operation. Enterococcus species was cultured from the aspirated pus sample. The patient responded to surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment. PMID:20300422

  3. The First Report of Fetal Alcohol Effect in a 12 Year-Old Child in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Young Jin; An, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon Ho

    2009-01-01

    We present the first report of fetal alcohol effect in a 12 year-old child in Korea. The mother had consumed 162 g of alcohol per week continuously during pregnancy. His first febrile seizure occurred before he was 1 year old, and became more frequent 2 years later. He started showing signs of right paraplegia when he was 3.5 years old and brain MRI revealed periventricular leucomalacia near the left ventricle. He was microcephalic and his growth was retarded. He was irritable, impatient, impulsive, and inattentive, and showed disinterest in school activities and aggressive and dangerous behavior. After the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder was made, psychopharmacological treatment and family support was initiated. After 10 months, he still had intermittent ideas of reference, although the aggressive behavior, inattentiveness, and impulsivity had improved. Using this case study, we stress the importance of maternal alcohol history in patients with these characteristics. PMID:20046374

  4. Molluscum Contagiosum in a 12-Year-Old Child – Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nandhini, G; Rajkumar, K; Kanth, K Sudheer; Nataraj, Priyadharsini; Ananthakrishnan, Pavithra; Arunachalam, M

    2015-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is an infection of the skin and mucous membrane caused by a DNA virus from the poxvirus family. It usually affects any part of the body and presents as pearly, flesh colored dome shaped nodule with a central umbilication. Clinical diagnosis can be supplemented with histopathology for the confirmed diagnosis of MC. This article presents a case of 12-year-old male child afflicted with MC along with a review of the literature on MC. PMID:25709372

  5. Diet quality, social determinants and weight status in 12-year-old Puerto Rican children

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710

  6. Oral health status of 12-year-old male schoolchildren in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bhayat, A; Ahmad, M S

    2014-12-17

    Studies from Saudi Arabia have reported that the prevalence of dental caries among children is relatively high compared with other developing countries The aim was to determine the oral hygiene status and significant caries (SiC) index of 12-year-old males in Medina . In a cross-sectional, analytical study 360 students participated from 4 boys' schools. Dental caries, plaque, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion were recorded using standard methods and indices. The mean DMFT score was 1.53 (SD 1.88). Caries prevalence was low (57.2%) but the mean SiC index was relatively high [3.63 (SD 1.66)]. The prevalences of plaque and gingivitis were high (82.8% and 70.8% respectively). Lower molars had the highest rate of caries. No children presented with dental fluorosis and 82.5% had a class I jaw relationship. Oral hygiene awareness programmes at schools, together with brushing and flossing programmes, are recommended in order to maintain and improve the oral health of young children in Medina.

  7. Individual and contextual determinants of malocclusion in 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, Daniela Nobre; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe malocclusion prevalence and its association with individual and contextual factors among Brazilian 12-year-old schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study included data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Brazil (n = 2,075), and data from the files of the local health authority. The data were collected through oral clinical examinations. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was used to assess occlusion. The presence of malocclusion (DAI > 25) was used as the dependent variable. The individual independent variables consisted of adolescents' sex and race and their mothers' level of schooling. The clinical variables were caries experience and presence of adverse periodontal condition (calculus and/or gingival bleeding). The contextual variables included type of school and the location of schools in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test and multilevel logistic regression were performed. The prevalence of malocclusion was 40.1%. In the final model, significantly higher rates of malocclusion were found among those who attended schools located in less affluent health districts and whose mothers had fewer years of education. Rates were also higher among those presenting calculus and/or gingival bleeding. Malocclusion demonstrated a high prevalence rate and the inequalities in its distribution were determined by individual and contextual factors.

  8. Temperament and negative semantic priming in children 7 to 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Parra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The present research assessed whether children with high and low scores on temperament traits differed in their ability to inhibit irrelevant task information in a lexical decision task. Children from 7 to 12 years old were classified based on temperament dimensions measured using a version of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire. The participants were instructed to either attend to (and remember) or to ignore a masked prime word followed by a central probe target on which they made a lexical decision. The results revealed several notable outcomes. First of all, recognition memory was better for attended than ignored words, providing further evidence that attention instructions influenced the processing of the primes. Secondly, although no negative priming effect was obtained in the "ignore" condition, 43% of children showed this effect. Thirdly, children scoring high on Inhibitory Control and Impulsivity showed ignored negative priming, whereas children scoring high on Inhibitory Control and low on Impulsivity ignored facilitation. Data are discussed within the framework of negative priming as a complex phenomenon that involves the interaction of different factors such as age, type of task, and certain temperament traits.

  9. Individual and contextual determinants of malocclusion in 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, Daniela Nobre; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe malocclusion prevalence and its association with individual and contextual factors among Brazilian 12-year-old schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study included data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Brazil (n = 2,075), and data from the files of the local health authority. The data were collected through oral clinical examinations. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was used to assess occlusion. The presence of malocclusion (DAI > 25) was used as the dependent variable. The individual independent variables consisted of adolescents' sex and race and their mothers' level of schooling. The clinical variables were caries experience and presence of adverse periodontal condition (calculus and/or gingival bleeding). The contextual variables included type of school and the location of schools in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test and multilevel logistic regression were performed. The prevalence of malocclusion was 40.1%. In the final model, significantly higher rates of malocclusion were found among those who attended schools located in less affluent health districts and whose mothers had fewer years of education. Rates were also higher among those presenting calculus and/or gingival bleeding. Malocclusion demonstrated a high prevalence rate and the inequalities in its distribution were determined by individual and contextual factors. PMID:26247517

  10. Effect of screen-based media on energy expenditure and heart rate in 9- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon; Abbott, Rebecca

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular responses and energy costs of new and traditional screen based entertainments, as played by twenty 9- to 12-year-old children. Playing traditional electronic games resulted in little change to heart rate or energy expenditure compared with watching a DVD. In contrast, playing an active-input game resulted in a 59% increase in heart rate (p < .001) and a 224% increase in energy expenditure (p < .001) for boys and girls. The average heart rate of 130 bpm and energy expenditure of 0.13 kcal . min-1 . kg-1 achieved during active-input game use equates with moderate intensity activities such as basketball and jogging. Active-input electronic games might provide children with opportunities to engage with technology and be physically active at the same time.

  11. An Experiment on Impatiens New Guinea for 11-12 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    The following experiment describes an easy experiment for children 11-12 years old, performed during spring in a compulsory school near Karlstad, Sweden. Four different ripe fruits were placed under flowering plants of Impatiens New Guinea (Impatiens hawkeri) for four days on a table and with plastic bags around both plants and fruits. For one of…

  12. A Rare Case of Tamarind Seed Induced Oral Submucous Fibrosis in a 12-Year-Old Indian Boy

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Rudrayya Shivanand; Hallur, Neelkamal Halappa; Kumar, Varsha Vimal; Kamat, Sharad Basavaraj

    2016-01-01

    Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating, potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. It is characterized by restricted mouth opening which results due to abnormal accumulation of collagen in the sub-epithelial layers leading to dense fibrous bands in the mouth. The pathogenesis of the disease is believed to be multifactorial. However, literature reports suggest a strong association of OSMF and arecanut chewing habit. The present paper presents a case of OSMF in a 12-year-old boy without arecanut chewing habit, but with a heavy practice of chewing tamarind seeds. PMID:27504424

  13. A Rare Case of Tamarind Seed Induced Oral Submucous Fibrosis in a 12-Year-Old Indian Boy.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Mamata Sharad; Puranik, Rudrayya Shivanand; Hallur, Neelkamal Halappa; Kumar, Varsha Vimal; Kamat, Sharad Basavaraj

    2016-06-01

    Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating, potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. It is characterized by restricted mouth opening which results due to abnormal accumulation of collagen in the sub-epithelial layers leading to dense fibrous bands in the mouth. The pathogenesis of the disease is believed to be multifactorial. However, literature reports suggest a strong association of OSMF and arecanut chewing habit. The present paper presents a case of OSMF in a 12-year-old boy without arecanut chewing habit, but with a heavy practice of chewing tamarind seeds.

  14. A Rare Case of Tamarind Seed Induced Oral Submucous Fibrosis in a 12-Year-Old Indian Boy.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Mamata Sharad; Puranik, Rudrayya Shivanand; Hallur, Neelkamal Halappa; Kumar, Varsha Vimal; Kamat, Sharad Basavaraj

    2016-06-01

    Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating, potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. It is characterized by restricted mouth opening which results due to abnormal accumulation of collagen in the sub-epithelial layers leading to dense fibrous bands in the mouth. The pathogenesis of the disease is believed to be multifactorial. However, literature reports suggest a strong association of OSMF and arecanut chewing habit. The present paper presents a case of OSMF in a 12-year-old boy without arecanut chewing habit, but with a heavy practice of chewing tamarind seeds. PMID:27504424

  15. Chest pain in a 12-year-old girl with ulcerative colitis after therapy with mesalazine

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Nirajan; Pandya, Nikila; Bhaduri, Bim; Bala, K

    2013-01-01

    This case of chest pain complicating therapy received for ulcerative colitis in a young patient highlights the importance of a thorough history and clinical examination. The complication can be rapidly fatal if not recognised and treated quickly. PMID:23761603

  16. Visual diagnosis: 12-year-old girl with constipation and rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Srinath, Arvind; Wendel, Danielle; Bond, Geoffrey; Lowe, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Rectal duplication cysts are rare, thought to be due to defects in embryologic development, and often associated with other structural abnormalities. Clues to the existence of a rectal cyst are mainly due to bowel compression and presence of ectopic gastric mucosa within the cyst, leading to rectal bleeding. The diagnosis of a rectal duplication cyst requires a high index of suspicion. Confirming the diagnosis can be difficult based on the location of the cyst. Efforts to confirm the diagnosis include digital rectal examination, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and Meckel scan. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, especially because of the cyst’s potential for malignant transformation. Because of the cyst’s proximal location to the nerves innervating the anal canal and sphincters, surgical resection can lead to fecal incontinence. PMID:24488834

  17. Potential Distractions and Unsafe Driving Behaviors Among Drivers of 1- to 12-year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Michelle L.; Carter, Patrick M.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Driver distraction has been identified as a threat to individual drivers and public health. Motor vehicle collisions remain a leading cause of death for children yet little is known about distractions among drivers of children. This study sought to characterize potential distractions among drivers of children. Methods A two-site, cross-sectional, computerized survey of child passenger safety practices was conducted among adult drivers of 1- to 12-year-old children who presented for emergency care between October 2011-May 2012. Drivers indicated the frequency with which they engaged in ten potential distractions in the past month while driving with their child. Distractions were grouped in four categories: 1) non-driving, 2) cellular phone, 3) child, 4) directions. Information about other unsafe driving behaviors and sociodemographic characteristics was collected. Results Nearly 90% of eligible parents participated. Analysis included 570 (92.2%) drivers. Non-driving and cellular phone-related distractions were disclosed by >75% of participants. Fewer participants disclosed child (71.2%) and directions-related distractions (51.9%). Child age was associated with each distraction category. Cellular phone-related distractions were associated with the child riding daily in the family car, non-Hispanic white and other race/ethnicity, and higher education. Parents admitting to drowsy driving and being pulled over for speeding had over two-times higher odds of disclosing distractions from each category. Conclusions Distracted driving activities are common among drivers of child passengers and associated with other unsafe driving behaviors. Child passenger safety may be improved by preventing crash events through the reduction or elimination of distractions among drivers of child passengers. PMID:24767781

  18. Longitudinal development of hormone levels and grey matter density in 9 and 12-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Koenis, M M G; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-05-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of the brain from 190 twins at age 9 [9.2 (0.11) years; 99 females/91 males]. This protocol was repeated at age 12 [12.1 (0.26) years] in 125 of these children (59 females/66 males). Using voxel-based morphometry, we tested whether circulating hormone levels are associated with grey matter density in boys and girls in a longitudinal, genetically informative design. In girls, changes in FSH level between the age of 9 and 12 positively associated with changes in grey matter density in areas covering the left hippocampus, left (pre)frontal areas, right cerebellum, and left anterior cingulate and precuneus. This association was mainly driven by environmental factors unique to the individual (i.e. the non-shared environment). In 12-year-old girls, a higher level of circulating estradiol levels was associated with lower grey matter density in frontal and parietal areas. This association was driven by environmental factors shared among the members of a twin pair. These findings show a pattern of physical and brain development going hand in hand.

  19. A Case of Psoriasis Replaced by Allergic Contact Dermatitis in a 12-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Browning, John C

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a significant clinical problem in children and one that the use of essential oils and natural remedies probably exacerbates. We report a case of chronic plaque psoriasis replaced by allergic contact dermatitis in a 12-year-old boy. We suspect that the immunologic response to a hapten in lavender oil disrupted the pathogenesis of psoriasis, causing the psoriasis to temporarily "disappear." PMID:26646574

  20. Basic Number Processing Deficits in ADHD: A Broad Examination of Elementary and Complex Number Processing Skills in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children with ADHD-C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…

  1. Primary hemorrhagic stroke in a 12-year-old female with sickle cell disease and normal transcranial Doppler.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Cangemi, Carla; Drachtman, Richard; Masterson, Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Stroke is a well-known complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It is estimated to occur in approximately 11% of patients with SCD by the age of 20. The most frequent cause of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is blockage of the intracranial internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries. Hemorrhagic stroke is less common, occurring in approximately 3% of children by age 20. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the standard test for prediction of stroke risk in children with sickle cell anemia. The authors present a case of a 12-year-old female with SCD transferred to their institution after suffering a catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage. Her most recent TCD was normal 6 months prior to her admission.

  2. Attention to Multiple Events Helps 2 1/2-Year-Olds Extend New Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    An important question in verb learning is how children extend new verbs to new situational contexts. In Study 1, 2 1/2-year-old children were shown a complex event followed by new events that preserved only the action from the initial event, only the result, or no new events. Children seeing events that preserved either the action or the result produced appropriate verb extensions at test while children without this information did not. In a follow-up study, children hearing new verbs produced more extensions than did children hearing nonlabeling speech. These studies suggest that attention to related events is helpful to young verb learners, perhaps because they structurally align these events (e.g., Gentner, 1983; 1989) during verb learning. PMID:24324284

  3. Italian deprivation index and dental caries in 12-year-old children: a multilevel Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Matranga, Domenica; Campus, Guglielmo; Castiglia, Paolo; Strohmenger, Laura; Solinas, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from the literature has shown that people with a lower socioeconomic status enjoy less good health than people with a higher socioeconomic status. The Italian deprivation index (DI) was used with the aim to evaluate the association between the DMFT index and risk factors for dental caries, including city population and DI. The study included 4,305 12-year-old children living in 38 cities classified by demographic size as small, midsize and large. Zero-inflated negative binomial multilevel regression models were used to assess risk factors for DMFT and to address excess of zero DMFT and overdispersion through a Bayesian approach. The difference in the average level of DMFT among children living in cities with different DI quintile was not statistically significant (p = 0.578). The DI and ln(population), included as city-level fixed effects in the two-level variance components model, were not statistically significant. Consuming sweet drinks on average increased the mean DMFT of a susceptible child, while having a highly educated mother reduced it. Unobserved heterogeneity among cities was detected for the probability to be non-susceptible to caries (city-level variance = 0.26 with 95% credibility interval 0.09-0.57), while no territorial effect was found for the mean DMFT of the susceptible children. Our results suggest that the DI and city population did not play a role in explaining between-city variability. Interventions against social deprivation can be influential on the perception of oral health in Italian 12-year-old children to the extent that they can also affect individual level factors. PMID:25073937

  4. Prevalence of Thyroid Autoimmunity in Children with Celiac Disease Compared to Healthy 12-Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Anneli; Högberg, Lotta; Svensson, Johan; Carlsson, Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have suggested a correlation between untreated celiac disease and risk for other autoimmune diseases. We investigated the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in 12-year-old children (i) with symptomatic celiac disease diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet, (ii) with screening-detected untreated celiac disease, and (iii) without celiac disease. Methods. Blood samples from 12632 children were collected. All celiac disease cases, previously diagnosed and newly screening-detected, were identified. Per case, 4 referents were matched. Blood samples were analyzed for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb). The cut-off value for TPO positivity was set to 100 U/mL. Results. Altogether, 335 celiac disease cases were found. In the entire celiac disease group, 7.2% (24/335) had elevated titers of TPOAb compared to 2.8% (48/1695) of the referents. Among the previously diagnosed celiac disease cases, 7.5% (7/93, OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6.4) was TPOAb positive and among screening-detected cases, 7.0% (17/242, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5–4.6) was TPOAb positive. Conclusion. Children with celiac disease showed a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. We could not confirm the hypothesis that untreated celiac disease is associated with increased risk of developing thyroid autoimmunity. Early initiation of celiac disease treatment might not lower the risk for other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24592326

  5. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schulze, J; Riegel, H; Brade, V

    1999-01-01

    Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who developed a large effusion of the right knee joint. The titer for antinuclear antibodies was 1:80 and the test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Investigations for antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi demonstrated remarkable elevation of IgG antibody and no specific IgM response. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting reactivity with the bands p83/100, p58, p43, p41, p39, OspA, p30, OspC, p21, and p17. We subsequently learned that the child had suffered a tick bite followed by an EM 5 years earlier and had been treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at that time. The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days. In the absence of clinical improvement 3 weeks later a knee joint aspiration was performed which resulted in a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for B. burgdorferi DNA (OspA) in the synovial fluid. The patient fully recovered 2 months later without further treatment. The case indicates that the latency period between EM and onset of LA may last up to 5 years. In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA.

  6. Training to improve manual control in 7-8 and 10-12 year old children: Training eliminates performance differences between ages.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-10-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7-8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7-8 and 10-12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7-8 year olds was worse than that of the 10-12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7-8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10-12 year olds.

  7. Training To Improve Manual Control In 7–8 And 10–12 Year Old Children: Training Eliminates Performance Differences Between Ages

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J.; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7–8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7–8 and 10–12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7–8 year olds was worse than that of the 10–12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7–8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10–12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  8. Text exposure predicts spoken production of complex sentences in 8- and 12-year-old children and adults.

    PubMed

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-04-01

    There is still much debate about the nature of the experiential and maturational changes that take place during childhood to bring about the sophisticated language abilities of an adult. The present study investigated text exposure as a possible source of linguistic experience that plays a role in the development of adult-like language abilities. Corpus analyses of object and passive relative clauses (Object: The book that the woman carried; Passive: The book that was carried by the woman) established the frequencies of these sentence types in child-directed speech and children's literature. We found that relative clauses of either type were more frequent in the written corpus, and that the ratio of passive to object relatives was much higher in the written corpus as well. This analysis suggests that passive relative clauses are much more frequent in a child's linguistic environment if they have high rates of text exposure. We then elicited object and passive relative clauses using a picture-description production task with 8- and 12-year-old children and adults. Both group and individual differences were consistent with the corpus analyses, such that older individuals and individuals with more text exposure produced more passive relative clauses. These findings suggest that the qualitatively different patterns of text versus speech may be an important source of linguistic experience for the development of adult-like language behavior.

  9. Process and product in writing--a methodological contribution to the assessment of written narratives in 8-12-year-old Swedish children using ScriptLog.

    PubMed

    Asker-Arnason, Lena; Wengelin, Asa; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven children, with typical language development (TLD), 8-10 years old and 10-12 years old, were assessed with keystroke-logging in order to investigate their narrative writing. Measures of the writing process and the written product were used. One purpose was to explore how children produce written narratives in on-line production, and to relate the writing process to the written product. The results showed that those children who produced the final text faster, also wrote stories that comprised of more words. In the group of older children, children with better narrative ability used less pause time than those with worse ability, and the girls were faster writers than the boys. We believe that keystroke-logging gives valuable information for the assessment of young children's writing and that it is a potentially valid assessment tool for children from about 10 years of age.

  10. Looking for Ideas: Observation, Interpretation and Hypothesis-Making by 12-Year-Old Pupils Undertaking Science Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Stephen P.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-01-01

    Studies English comprehensive secondary school students' interpretation and hypothesis-making while 12 year-old students are observing a bottle ecosystem of brine shrimps without any prior instruction and keeping diaries. Studies students through the task of open-ended diary writing and through small group discussions about the scientific…

  11. Resiliency: A Comparison of Construct Definitions Arising from Conversations with 9 Year Old - 12 Year Old Children and Their Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, John; Johnson, Bruce; Howard, Sue; McGuire, Alex

    Much research has focused on the concept of resilience, which is defined as the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging circumstances. To examine resilience in school children, small group interviews were conducted with 9-12 year-old children (N=125) drawn from five primary schools in South Australia. The…

  12. "You've Got To Put Together the Pieces": English 12-Year-Olds Encounter and Learn from Historical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Stuart J.; Yeager, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Employing a sample of 51 12-year-old British secondary pupils, a study analyzed children's written and oral responses to a series of (contradictory) historical questions concerning the Boston Massacre of 1770. Many students were capable of abstract historical reasoning--critiquing sources, detecting bias and ambiguity, and determining flaws in…

  13. Comparing the Magnitude of Two Fractions with Common Components: Which Representations Are Used by 10- and 12-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meert, Gaelle; Gregoire, Jacques; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether 10- and 12-year-olds who can correctly compare the magnitudes of fractions with common components access the magnitudes of the whole fractions rather than only compare the magnitudes of their components. Time for comparing two fractions was predicted by the numerical distance between the whole fractions, suggesting an…

  14. The Effects of Indexical and Phonetic Variation on Vowel Perception in Typically Developing 9- to 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how linguistic knowledge interacts with indexical knowledge in older children's perception under demanding listening conditions created by extensive talker variability. Method: Twenty-five 9- to 12-year-old children, 12 from North Carolina (NC) and 13 from Wisconsin (WI), identified 12…

  15. Teacher Ratings of Academic Achievement of Children between 6 and 12 Years Old from Intact and Non-Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molepo, Lephodisa S.; Maunganidze, Levison; Mudhovozi, Pilot; Sodi, Tholene

    2010-01-01

    We investigated teacher ratings of the impact of parental divorce on academic achievement of children between 6 and 12 years old up to 12 months after their parents divorced. A purposive sample of 120 children attending four different primary schools in a small South African town took part in the study. One third (n = 40) of the children had…

  16. Simultaneous shoulder and hip dislocation in a 12-year-old girl with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ramin; Eraghi, Amir Sobhani; Mardookhpour, Shirin

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature ageing disorder that is characterized by accelerated degenerative changes of the cutaneous, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. Mean age at diagnosis is 2.9 years and generally leading to death at approximately 13 years of age due to myocardial infarction or stroke. Orthopedic manifestations of HGPS are multiple and shoulder dislocation is a rare skeletal trauma in progeria syndrome. Our patient had simultaneous shoulder and hip dislocation associated with a low energy trauma. This subject has not been reported. Treatment accomplished as close reduction under general anesthesia and immobilization.

  17. Gender, Popularity and Notions of In/Authenticity amongst 12-Year-Old to 13-Year-Old School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara; Francis, Becky; Skelton, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a research project investigating gendered identities and interactions of high-achieving students in Year Eight in England (12-13 years old), particularly in relation to students' "popularity" amongst their peers. As part of this study 71 students were interviewed from nine different schools in urban, rural and small…

  18. Stroop-like interference in the real animal size test and the pictorial animal size test in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study examined prepotent response inhibition among 653 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults divided into five age groups: forty-six 5- to 6-year-olds, one hundred fifty-eight 7- to 8-year-olds, one hundred ninety-six 9- to 10-year-olds, one hundred eighty-three 11- to 12-year-olds, and 70 young adults (19- to 22-year-olds). Two paper-and-pencil versions of Stroop-like tasks were administered: the Real Animal Size Test and the Pictorial Animal Size Test. In these tests, participants are presented with pictures of animals (large animals such as an elephant, a giraffe, and a whale vs. small animals such as a frog, a bird, and a squirrel) printed as either big or small images that are mismatched with the animal's real size. Participants are required to decide the size of the animals (big vs. small) based on either the size in real life or the size of the picture. The results indicated the following: (a) The Pictorial Animal Size Test elicited robust interference, whereas the Real Animal Size Test elicited no interference; (b) prepotent response inhibition develops markedly in childhood and between children and young adults; and (c) error correction increased rapidly after age 8. The mechanism of interference and the influence of metacognition on prepotent response inhibition are discussed. PMID:24716870

  19. Comparison of 12-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine and Non-Exposed Controls on Caregiver Ratings of Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn; Min, Meeyoung O.; Lang, Adelaide M.; Ben-Harush, Aya; Short, Elizabeth; Wu, Miaoping

    2013-01-01

    Differences in caregiver reported executive function in 12-year-old children who were prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) compared to children who were not prenatally exposed to cocaine (NCE) were assessed. One hundred and sixty-nine PCE and 169 NCE, primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status children participated in a prospective longitudinal study. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Parent Form was administered. Two broadband BRIEF scores (Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) and Metacognition Index (MI)) and a summary Global Executive Composite (GEC) were computed. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effects of amount of PCE on executive function, controlling for covariates including caregiver (rater) psychological distress, child’s gender and other prenatal drug exposure variables. After adjustment for covariates, amount of PCE was associated with the GEC and two MI subscales, Plan/Organize and Monitor, with heavier exposure associated with more problems of executive function. An amount of PCE by gender interaction revealed amount of PCE effects in other remaining subscales of the MI (Initiate, Working Memory, and Organization of Materials) only among girls. Head circumference did not mediate the effects of cocaine on outcomes. Higher current caregiver psychological distress levels were independently associated with poorer ratings on the executive function scales. Assessment and targeted interventions to improve metacognitive processes are recommended for girls who were prenatally exposed to cocaine. PMID:23423839

  20. Comparison of 12-year-old children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and non-exposed controls on caregiver ratings of executive function.

    PubMed

    Minnes, Sonia; Singer, Lynn T; Min, Meeyoung O; Lang, Adelaide M; Ben-Harush, Aya; Short, Elizabeth; Wu, Miaoping

    2014-01-01

    Differences in caregiver reported executive function in 12-year-old children who were prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) compared to children who were not prenatally exposed to cocaine (NCE) were assessed. One hundred and sixty-nine PCE and 169 NCE, primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status children participated in a prospective longitudinal study. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Parent Form was administered. Two broadband BRIEF scores (Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) and Metacognition Index (MI)) and a summary Global Executive Composite (GEC) were computed. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effects of amount of PCE on executive function, controlling for covariates including caregiver (rater) psychological distress, child's gender and other prenatal drug exposure variables. After adjustment for covariates, amount of PCE was associated with the GEC and two MI subscales, Plan/Organize and Monitor, with heavier exposure associated with more problems of executive function. An amount of PCE by gender interaction revealed amount of PCE effects in other remaining subscales of the MI (Initiate, Working Memory, and Organization of Materials) only among girls. Head circumference did not mediate the effects of cocaine on outcomes. Higher current caregiver psychological distress levels were independently associated with poorer ratings on the executive function scales. Assessment and targeted interventions to improve metacognitive processes are recommended for girls who were prenatally exposed to cocaine.

  1. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries to Anterior Teeth of 12-Year-Old School Children in Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Ain, Tasneem S.; Lingesha Telgi, Ravishankar; Sultan, Saima; Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar Telgi, Chaitra; Tirth, Amit; Kumar Pal, Sumit; Gowhar, Owais; Tandon, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth are a significant public health problem, not only because their prevalence is relatively high, but also because they have considerable impact on children’s daily lives. Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) cause physical and psychological discomfort, pain and other negative impacts, such as tendency to avoid laughing or smiling, which can affect social relationships. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth among 12-year-old school children in Kashmir, India. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in private and government schools of India among 1600 schoolchildren aged 12 years. In addition to recording of the type of trauma (using Ellis and Davey classification of fractures, 1970), over jet, Angle’s molar relation and lip competence were also recorded. The socioeconomic status and academic performance of the study subjects were registered. The data obtained were compiled systematically and then statistically analyzed. The statistical significance for the association between the traumatic injury and the variables was analyzed using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to identify potential risk predictors of TDIs. Results The overall prevalence of TDI to anterior teeth was found to be 9.3%. The TDI to anterior teeth in male was more than female, but the difference was statistically nonsignificant (P < 0.01). Falls and sports were the most common causes of trauma in the present study. The highest potential risk factor for the occurrence of trauma was over jet. Academic performance was found to be significantly associated to TDI to anterior teeth, when analyzed in a multiple regression model. Conclusions It was concluded that the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 9.3%. Traumatic dental injuries among children exhibit complex interaction between the victims’ oral conditions and their behavior. Therefore

  2. Genetic characterization of a novel G3P[14] rotavirus strain causing gastroenteritis in 12 year old Australian child.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Manuelpillai, Nicholas M; Cowley, Daniel; Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Buttery, Jim P; Crawford, Nigel W; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-07-01

    A genotype G3P[14] rotavirus strain was identified in a 12year old child presenting to the Emergency Department of the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, with gastroenteritis. G3P[14] strains have been previously identified in rabbits in Japan, China, the USA and Italy and a single lapine-like strain from a child in Belgium. Full genome sequence analysis of RVA/Human-wt/AUS/RCH272/2012/G3P[14] (RCH272) revealed that the strain contained the novel genome constellation G3-P[14]-I2-R3-C3-M3-A9-N2-T6-E2-H3. The genome was genetically divergent to previously characterized lapine viruses and the genes were distantly related to a range of human bovine-like strains and animal strains of bovine, bat and canine/feline characteristics. The VP4, VP6, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 genes of RCH272 clustered within bovine lineages in the phylogenetic analysis and shared moderate genetic similarity with an Australian bovine-like human strain RVA/Human-tc/AUS/MG6/1993/G6P[14]. Bayesian coalescent analysis suggested these genes of RCH272 and RVA/Human-tc/AUS/MG6/1993/G6P[14] were derived from a population of relatively homogenous bovine-like ancestral strains circulating between 1943 and 1989. The VP7, VP1, VP2 and NSP1 genes shared moderate genetic similarity with the Chinese strain RVA/Bat-tc/CHN/MSLH14/2011/G3P[3] and the VP3 gene clustered within a lineage comprised of canine and feline strains. This strain may represent the direct transmission from an unknown host species or be derived via multiple reassortment events between strains originating from various species. The patient lived in a household containing domesticated cats and dogs and in close proximity to a colony of Gray-headed Flying-foxes. However, without screening numerous animal populations it is not possible to determine the origins of this strain. PMID:24780429

  3. Erosive tooth wear among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Loureiro, Licet; Fabruccini Fager, Anunzziatta; Alves, Luana Severo; Alvarez Vaz, Ramón; Maltz, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, extent, severity, intraoral distribution and risk indicators for erosive tooth wear (ETW) among 12-year-old schoolchildren from Montevideo, Uruguay. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a representative sample of 1,136 12-year-old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Parents answered questions on socioeconomic status and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary and oral hygiene habits. Two calibrated examiners recorded ETW on permanent teeth according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) score system. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between the predictor variables and the prevalence of ETW (overall and severe ETW). Odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. The prevalence of ETW was 52.9%, being mild erosion (BEWE = 1) in the vast majority of cases (48.5%). Severe erosion (BEWE ≥2) was detected in 4.4% of schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of ETW differed significantly between categories of gender and socioeconomic status, but only between gender in the severe ETW analysis. The overall extent of ETW was significantly different between categories of gender, socioeconomic status, and swish before swallow. The extent of severe ETW differed between categories of swish before swallow and brushing frequency. In the logistic regression analysis, no association was found between the studied variables and the overall prevalence of ETW. Males were more likely to have severe ETW than females (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.50-6.89). ETW may be considered a public health problem among 12-year-old-Uruguayan schoolchildren.

  4. Benign sacrococcygeal teratoma incidentally found on routine scoliosis radiographs in a 12-year-old female: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kelly M.; Chavhan, Govind B.; Ainsworth, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the imaging characteristics of sacrococcygeal teratomas and to review appropriate diagnostic evaluation and management. Clinical Features: 12-year-old otherwise healthy, asymptomatic female with an incidental pelvic mass found on routine scoliosis radiographs. Intervention and Outcome: The pelvic mass was further evaluated by MRI and CT scan. Management consisted of successful surgical resection with no postoperative complications. Pathology confirmed a mature, benign, sacrococcygeal teratoma. Conclusions: Chiropractors manage patients with scoliosis, which may include radiographic surveillance. Familiarity with the radiographic features of masses such as sacrococcygeal teratomas is important for prompt diagnosis and management. PMID:27069263

  5. IQ and non-clinical psychotic symptoms in 12-year-olds: results from the ALSPAC birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Jeremy; Salvi, Giovanni; Thomas, Kate; Duffy, Larisa; Gunnell, David; Hollis, Chris; Lewis, Glyn; Menezes, Paulo; Thompson, Andrew; Wolke, Dieter; Zammit, Stanley; Harrison, Glynn

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-clinical psychotic symptoms appear common in children, but it is possible that a proportion of reported symptoms result from misinterpretation. There is a well-established association between pre-morbid low IQ score and schizophrenia. Psychosis-like symptoms in children may also be a risk factor for psychotic disorder but their relationship with IQ is unclear. Aims To investigate the prevalence, nature and frequency of psychosis-like symptoms in 12-year-old children and study their relationship with IQ. Method Longitudinal study using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. A total of 6455 children completed screening questions for 12 psychotic symptoms followed by a semi-structured clinical assessment. IQ was assessed at 8 years of age using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd UK edition). Results The 6-month period prevalence for one or more symptoms was 13.7% (95% CI 12.8–14.5). After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a non-linear association between IQ score and psychosis-like symptoms, such that only those with below average IQ score had an increased risk of reporting such symptoms. Conclusions Non-clinical psychotic symptoms occur in a significant proportion of 12-year-olds. Symptoms are associated with low IQ and also less strongly with a high IQ score. The pattern of association with IQ differs from that observed in schizophrenia. PMID:18757973

  6. Fracture dislocation of the sacro-coccygeal joint in a 12-year-old boy. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hamoud, K; Abbas, J

    2015-11-01

    A case report and literature review. To present a rare case of facture dislocation of the sacro-coccygeal joint in a 12-year-old boy who was treated conservatively. Fracture dislocations of the sacrum or the sacro-coccygeal joint are infrequent injuries and are rarely reported. The treatment for these disorders is usually conservative. Detailed description of the anterior dislocation (Salter-Harris type I) of the sacro-coccygeal joint in this child and its management are presented, with review of the relevant literature. A conservative treatment was performed, with excellent clinical and radiological result at three years after the injury. MR imaging obtained at two years showed very good healing and alignment. Fracture dislocation of the sacro-coccygeal joint in the pediatric population should be treated conservatively, as the potential of healing and remodeling is great. Closed reduction should not be attempted.

  7. Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome with Genitalia Involved in a 12-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zhaowei; Liu, Yanting; Zhang, Huan; Zeng, Weihui

    2016-01-01

    Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is an uncommon granulomatous disease characterized by the triad of relapsing facial paralysis, orofacial swelling, and fissured tongue. Genital swelling in MRS is rarely reported. We presented the first case of complete MRS with genital swelling in a child. Biopsy examinations of both the child's lower lip and penis showed noncaseating granuloma and intralymphatic granuloma infiltration. No symptoms or signs of other systemic disease (Crohn's disease or sarcoidosis) were observed after 2 years of follow-up. Genetic screening for CARD15/NOD2 in this patient showed negative, which further confirmed the diagnosis of MRS. Eleven other cases of suspected complete or incomplete MRS with genitalia involved were reviewed. Our case emphasizes the specific clinical feature of MRS with genitalia involved, which was genetically different from Crohn's disease and could be an independent entity. Lymphatic obstruction is responsible for localized edema in MRS. PMID:27081272

  8. Salvage pneumonectomy for pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in a 12-year-old boy with brain abscess and hemiparesis: A fatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Gauranga; Agarwal, Surendra Kumar; Pande, Shantanu; Chandra, Bipin

    2016-01-01

    Large pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) constitute an uncommon cause of central cyanosis with septic embolism and brain abscess. This large right to left shunt can lead to chronic severe hypoxemia and significant morbidity and mortality if untreated. Conservative parenchyma-sparing lung resection was used widely as treatment of choice. However, with the advent of embolotheraphy, it is considered the preferred mode of treatment with less invasiveness. We here report a 12-year-old boy with large aneurysmal pulmonary arteriovenous fistula presented with brain abscess and hemiparesis. He underwent thoracotomy and pneumonectomy for large PAVMs, and it was complicated with bleeding and massive blood transfusion. The patient developed acute renal failure as a postoperative complication and succumbed to it. We suggest proper look out for systemic collateral and their management by embolitheraphy either alone or in combination should be tried first. We also suggest median sternotomy and intrapericardial approach for pneumonectomy in such difficult situation can be helpful. PMID:27051111

  9. [Toilet training in mental retardation; approach to diurnal enuresis in a 12-year-old boy with hemiparesis].

    PubMed

    de Moor, Jan H M; Frielink, Noud; Roijen, L E G Ruud

    2010-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with hemiparesis, severe mental retardation, reduced mobility and behavioural problems was not yet toilet trained. He was successfully trained using a behavioural treatment. The training program was based on gradual prolongation of urine retention, the introduction of behaviour restrictions, rewards for using the toilet and overcorrection using repeated exercises if diurnal enuresis occurred. A third of 4- to 18-year-olds with a cerebral palsy do not have diurnal bladder control at the age of 6, in contrast to 1-3% in the general population. An important cause of this difference is the believe that bladder control is dependent on the time of development of bladder control muscles and that it cannot be affected by external methods. This case study shows that even in a relatively older and severely and multiply disabled boy diurnal enuresis can be solved.

  10. Genetic analysis of a 12-year-old boy with X-linked ichthyosis in association with sclerosing glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yijin; Chen, Jing; Yi, Zhuwen; Dang, Xiqiang; Cheng, Dehua; Wu, Xiaochuan; Tan, Yueqiu

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we report the case of a 12-year-old male with X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) in association with glomerular sclerosis, and our investigation into the deletion pattern of the STS gene and the flanking regions in DNA samples of family members. We observed no features typical of renal osteodystrophy or rickets, with the exception of short stature, in the three afffected male family members. Audiometry, visual acuity and olfactory sensation were normal. By performing PCR analysis of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene and flanking regions on our patients, we discovered a complete deletion that involved the entire region from DXS1139 to DXF22S1. Further studies are required to determine whether the STS gene or the co-deleted flanking sequences are the cause of renal disease associated with XLI. PMID:23939749

  11. Conditional factors for untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Raquel Marianna; Domingues, Gabrielle Gonsalli; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Araujo, Maria Ercilia de; Frias, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze what sociodemographic and economic variables were associated with the presence of untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo. This cross-sectional study had a complex sample design. It was based on secondary data generated by the Levantamento epidemiológico em saúde bucal (Epidemiological Oral Health Survey) in the city of São Paulo, conducted in 2008, whose sample comprised 4,246 12-year-old children from the public and private schools of all the administrative districts of the city. A questionnaire was applied and an epidemiological exam was performed in accordance with the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations. The variables of interest were categorized into a dependent variable of untreated dental caries (carious component of the DMFT index that corresponds to carious, missing and filled teeth) and independent variables related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the children and their families, and to their access to dental services. The EPI-INFO 06 and STATA 10 programs were used for the analysis; the prevalence ratio and a confidence interval of 95% were applied to the population parameters. The Poisson regression model was used, adjusted for sampling of the complex type. Caries was associated with ethnicity (higher rate in black people, p=0.042), attending public school (p=0.000), lower average family income (p=0.002), overcrowded dwellings (p=0.000) and presence of pain (p=0.000). Caries is a multifactorial disease influenced by social health determinants that intensify its risk. PMID:23903864

  12. Conditional factors for untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Raquel Marianna; Domingues, Gabrielle Gonsalli; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Araujo, Maria Ercilia de; Frias, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze what sociodemographic and economic variables were associated with the presence of untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo. This cross-sectional study had a complex sample design. It was based on secondary data generated by the Levantamento epidemiológico em saúde bucal (Epidemiological Oral Health Survey) in the city of São Paulo, conducted in 2008, whose sample comprised 4,246 12-year-old children from the public and private schools of all the administrative districts of the city. A questionnaire was applied and an epidemiological exam was performed in accordance with the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations. The variables of interest were categorized into a dependent variable of untreated dental caries (carious component of the DMFT index that corresponds to carious, missing and filled teeth) and independent variables related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the children and their families, and to their access to dental services. The EPI-INFO 06 and STATA 10 programs were used for the analysis; the prevalence ratio and a confidence interval of 95% were applied to the population parameters. The Poisson regression model was used, adjusted for sampling of the complex type. Caries was associated with ethnicity (higher rate in black people, p=0.042), attending public school (p=0.000), lower average family income (p=0.002), overcrowded dwellings (p=0.000) and presence of pain (p=0.000). Caries is a multifactorial disease influenced by social health determinants that intensify its risk.

  13. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n = 50 boys and n = 50 girls) who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P = 0.004), whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.

  14. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n = 50 boys and n = 50 girls) who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P = 0.004), whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. PMID:24688550

  15. [Quality of life evaluation scale (AUQEI--Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé). Validity and reliability of a quality of life scale for children 4 to 12 years-old].

    PubMed

    Assumpção, F B; Kuczynski, E; Sprovieri, M H; Aranha, E M

    2000-03-01

    It should take into account the pediatric context and the child's development moment to evaluate the quality of life in childhood from a standardized instrument. We present the questionnaire AUQEI validation by its application in 353 children, between 4 and 12 years-old, obtaining a cut off point of 48, internal consistency with a Crombach's alpha of 0.71 and construct validity (r = 0.497). With these psychometrical qualities, the scale shows its importance as a diagnostic tool.

  16. Forefoot pain in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Veenema, K R

    1999-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl struck her left foot against a wall during a school basketball game but continued to play, despite a minor injury. During the following days, she developed mild forefoot swelling and persistent discomfort in the foot. She presented to her primary care physician, and plain x-rays were unremarkable. She was diagnosed as having a foot sprain and was given no specific treatment.

  17. Factors associated with commencing smoking in 12-year-old students in Catalonia (Spain): a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the last decade notable progress has been made in developed countries on monitoring smoking although experimenting with cigarettes and smoking in young people remains a serious public health problem. This paper reports a cross-sectional study at the beginning of the 3-year follow-up community study TA_BES. The aim was to study the prevalence of smoking in addition to determining predictive factors for when smoking commences in a representative population of 12-year-old first year compulsory secondary education students. Methods Twenty-nine secondary schools (N = 29) from an area of Catalonia participated in the study. In these schools 2245 students answered a questionnaire to study the attitudes, behaviors, and tobacco consumption in the subject's surrounding circle and family in relation to smoking; carbon monoxide measurements were taken by means of co-oximetry on 2 different occasions. A smoker was defined as a student who had smoked daily or occasionally in the last 30 days. For non-smokers the criteria of not considering was set up for those who answered that in the future they would not be smokers and considering those who answered that they did not rule out becoming a smoker in the future. Results Among the total 2245 students included in the analysis 157(7%) were classified as smokers. Among non-smokers we differentiated between those not considering smoking 1757 (78.3%) and those considering smoking 288 (12.8%). Age is among the factors related to commencing smoking. The risk of becoming a smoker increases 2.27 times/year. The influence of the group of friends with a very high risk for boys OR 149.5 and lower, albeit high, in girls OR 38.1. Tobacco consumption of parents produces different effects in young people. A smoking father does not produce alterations in the smoking behavior of young people. However having a smoking mother or former smoking is a risk factor for boys and a protective factor for girls. We detected a gradual risk of

  18. Blunted Cortisol Responses to Stress Signal Social and Behavioral Problems Among Maltreated/Bullied 12-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Odgers, Candice L.; Danese, Andrea; Bowes, Lucy; Shakoor, Sania; Papadopoulos, Andrew S.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that early-life stress such as physical maltreatment has long-lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is associated with blunted HPA axis reactivity in adulthood. Few studies have investigated whether blunted HPA axis reactivity observed in children exposed to early-life stress signals social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 190 12-year-old children (50.5% males) recruited from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994 to 1995 cohort of families with twins. Cortisol responses to psychosocial stress were measured in maltreated/ bullied (n = 64) and comparison children (n = 126). We ascertained maltreatment and bullying victimization using mothers’ reports and assessed children’s social, emotional, and behavioral problems at ages 5 and 12 using mothers’ and teachers’ reports. Results Piecewise multilevel growth curve analyses indicated that maltreated/bullied and comparison children showed distinct cortisol responses to stress. Specifically, maltreated/bullied children had lower cortisol responses than comparison children who exhibited a significant increase. Lower cortisol responses were, in turn, associated with more social and behavioral problems among maltreated/bullied children. Conclusions These findings provide support for the influence of childhood harm on blunted HPAaxis reactivity and its potential impacton children’s functioning. Our findings emphasize the need to integrate stress biomarkers in guiding prevention efforts for young victims. PMID:21839988

  19. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to dental caries in 4-12-year-old Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Hentati, Hajer; Najjari, Fayrouz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of several microbial species in the oral cavity of 4-12-year-old Tunisian children was investigated. Samples were taken from 158 children (81 caries actives and 77 caries free). Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of 17 microbial species using a polymerase chain reaction assay. All samples were positive for at least one of the target microbial strains. Streptococcus mutans was the most prevalent species (76.5%) detected in genomic DNA collected from carious lesions. Other prevalent species were Candida spp (63%), Streptococcus salivarius (59%) and Streptococcus oralis (42%). The frequency of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei-group in caries lesions was 29.5%, 34.5% and 22% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus was found in 28.5% of carious lesion samples compared to 15.5% in the control. Frequency of Porphyromonas endodontali, Actinomyces radicidentis and Treponema denticola recovery did not differ significantly between origins of samples. PCR analysis of genomic DNA detect various oral bacteria that differ between caries actives and caries-free children. In addition, the association of same aciduric bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus) and caries formation was noticed. PMID:24814824

  20. Diplopia, Convergent Strabismus, and Eye Abduction Palsy in a 12-Year-Old Boy with Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Marques, Pedro; Jacinto, Sandra; Pinto, Maria do Carmo; Limbert, Catarina; Lopes, Lurdes

    2016-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is defined by clinical criteria of increased intracranial pressure, elevated intracranial pressure with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition, and exclusion of other causes such tumors, vascular abnormalities, or infections. The association of PTC with levothyroxine (LT4) has been reported. A 12-year-old boy has been followed up for autoimmune thyroiditis under LT4. Family history was irrelevant for endocrine or autoimmune diseases. A TSH level of 4.43 μUI/mL (0.39-3.10) motivated a LT4 adjustment from 75 to 88 μg/day. Five weeks later, he developed horizontal diplopia, convergent strabismus with left eye abduction palsy, and papilledema. Laboratorial evaluation revealed elevated free thyroxine level (1.05 ng/dL [0.65-1.01]) and low TSH, without other alterations. Lumbar puncture was performed and CSF opening pressure was 24 cm H2O with normal composition. Blood and CSF cultures were sterile. Brain MRI was normal. LT4 was temporarily discontinued and progressive improvement was observed, with a normal fundoscopy at day 10 and reversion of diplopia one month later. LT4 was restarted at lower dose and gradually titrated. The boy is currently asymptomatic. This case discloses the potential role of LT4 in inducing PTC. Despite its rarity and unclear association, PTC must be seen as a potential complication of LT4, after excluding all other intracranial hypertension causes.

  1. Mechanical and chemical release in a 12-year-old ponderosa pine plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fiddler, G.O.; McDonald, P.M.

    1997-04-01

    A 12-year-old ponderosa pine plantation on the Tahoe National Forest in northern California was mechanically treated with a Hydro-Ax in an attempt to increase the survival and growth of the planted seedlings. Other release methods were not feasible because the shrubs in the mixed-shrub community (greenleaf manzanita, mountain whitethorn, bittercherry, coffeberry) were too large (3 to 5 feet tall) and well developed. Additional treatments were a chemical treatment, in which 2,4-D was applied to a portion of the study site that had been treated with the Hydro-Ax 1 year previously, and control. Eleven growing seasons after treatment (1993), average pine crown cover was statistically higher in the mechanical treatment (Hydro-Ax alone) than in the control. This was the only significant enhancement of pine growth by the Hydro-Ax alone. Mean pine diameter and height did not differ statistically from the control after 11 years. In contrast, the Hydro-Ax plus herbicide (chemical) treatment statistically increased pine crown cover, height, and diameter over the Hydro-Ax alone and the control. Mean crown cover was 104 percent greater in the treated trees than for pines in the control, height was 45 percent greater, and diameter was 47 percent greater. Relative costs were $225 per acre for the Hydro-Ax alone (mechanical) and $273 per acre for the Hydro-Ax + herbicide (chemical). Altogether, the most cost-effective treatment was Hydro-Ax + herbicide (chemical).

  2. Diplopia, Convergent Strabismus, and Eye Abduction Palsy in a 12-Year-Old Boy with Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Marques, Pedro; Jacinto, Sandra; Pinto, Maria do Carmo; Limbert, Catarina; Lopes, Lurdes

    2016-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is defined by clinical criteria of increased intracranial pressure, elevated intracranial pressure with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition, and exclusion of other causes such tumors, vascular abnormalities, or infections. The association of PTC with levothyroxine (LT4) has been reported. A 12-year-old boy has been followed up for autoimmune thyroiditis under LT4. Family history was irrelevant for endocrine or autoimmune diseases. A TSH level of 4.43 μUI/mL (0.39-3.10) motivated a LT4 adjustment from 75 to 88 μg/day. Five weeks later, he developed horizontal diplopia, convergent strabismus with left eye abduction palsy, and papilledema. Laboratorial evaluation revealed elevated free thyroxine level (1.05 ng/dL [0.65-1.01]) and low TSH, without other alterations. Lumbar puncture was performed and CSF opening pressure was 24 cm H2O with normal composition. Blood and CSF cultures were sterile. Brain MRI was normal. LT4 was temporarily discontinued and progressive improvement was observed, with a normal fundoscopy at day 10 and reversion of diplopia one month later. LT4 was restarted at lower dose and gradually titrated. The boy is currently asymptomatic. This case discloses the potential role of LT4 in inducing PTC. Despite its rarity and unclear association, PTC must be seen as a potential complication of LT4, after excluding all other intracranial hypertension causes. PMID:27379191

  3. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to dental caries in 4-12-year-old Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Hentati, Hajer; Najjari, Fayrouz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of several microbial species in the oral cavity of 4-12-year-old Tunisian children was investigated. Samples were taken from 158 children (81 caries actives and 77 caries free). Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of 17 microbial species using a polymerase chain reaction assay. All samples were positive for at least one of the target microbial strains. Streptococcus mutans was the most prevalent species (76.5%) detected in genomic DNA collected from carious lesions. Other prevalent species were Candida spp (63%), Streptococcus salivarius (59%) and Streptococcus oralis (42%). The frequency of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei-group in caries lesions was 29.5%, 34.5% and 22% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus was found in 28.5% of carious lesion samples compared to 15.5% in the control. Frequency of Porphyromonas endodontali, Actinomyces radicidentis and Treponema denticola recovery did not differ significantly between origins of samples. PCR analysis of genomic DNA detect various oral bacteria that differ between caries actives and caries-free children. In addition, the association of same aciduric bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus) and caries formation was noticed.

  4. Diplopia, Convergent Strabismus, and Eye Abduction Palsy in a 12-Year-Old Boy with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Maria do Carmo; Limbert, Catarina; Lopes, Lurdes

    2016-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is defined by clinical criteria of increased intracranial pressure, elevated intracranial pressure with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition, and exclusion of other causes such tumors, vascular abnormalities, or infections. The association of PTC with levothyroxine (LT4) has been reported. A 12-year-old boy has been followed up for autoimmune thyroiditis under LT4. Family history was irrelevant for endocrine or autoimmune diseases. A TSH level of 4.43 μUI/mL (0.39–3.10) motivated a LT4 adjustment from 75 to 88 μg/day. Five weeks later, he developed horizontal diplopia, convergent strabismus with left eye abduction palsy, and papilledema. Laboratorial evaluation revealed elevated free thyroxine level (1.05 ng/dL [0.65–1.01]) and low TSH, without other alterations. Lumbar puncture was performed and CSF opening pressure was 24 cm H2O with normal composition. Blood and CSF cultures were sterile. Brain MRI was normal. LT4 was temporarily discontinued and progressive improvement was observed, with a normal fundoscopy at day 10 and reversion of diplopia one month later. LT4 was restarted at lower dose and gradually titrated. The boy is currently asymptomatic. This case discloses the potential role of LT4 in inducing PTC. Despite its rarity and unclear association, PTC must be seen as a potential complication of LT4, after excluding all other intracranial hypertension causes. PMID:27379191

  5. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeseem, MT; Kumar, TV Anupam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10-12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle’s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55. PMID:27274156

  6. Parental encouragement is positively associated with outdoor active play outside of school hours among 7–12 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Ferrao, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity is important for children’s physical, mental, and social well-being. Outdoor active play is an important yet unstudied domain of children’s physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if parental encouragement is associated with the frequency that children engage in outdoor active play outside of school hours. Methods. Participants consisted of 514 children aged 7–12 years and one of their parents. Parents completed a survey that included four questions that assessed how frequently they used verbal cues to encourage their child to play outdoors. Points were assigned to each response and averaged across the 4 questions, and based on this average participants were assigned to quintiles. The survey included seven questions that asked parents to assess how frequently their child played outdoors outside of school hours. Points were assigned to each response and summed to create an active outdoor play frequency score. General linear models assessed associations between parental encouragement and outdoor play while controlling for individual, family, and neighborhood covariates. Results. The mean outdoor active play frequency score increased significantly across quintiles of the parental encouragement score as follows: 6.0 (standard error = 0.7) in quintile 1, 9.8 (0.6) in quintile 2, 11.4 (0.6) in quintile 3, 16.2 (0.9) in quintile 4, and 23.3 (1.3) in quintile 5. After adjusting for covariates, the mean outdoor active play frequency score was almost three times higher in the highest parental encouragement quintile than in the lowest quintile (20.4 vs. 7.8). Conclusions. Parents use of verbal cues to encourage their children to play outdoors was independently associated with outdoor active play among 7–12 year olds. PMID:26644990

  7. Parental encouragement is positively associated with outdoor active play outside of school hours among 7-12 year olds.

    PubMed

    Ferrao, Thomas; Janssen, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity is important for children's physical, mental, and social well-being. Outdoor active play is an important yet unstudied domain of children's physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if parental encouragement is associated with the frequency that children engage in outdoor active play outside of school hours. Methods. Participants consisted of 514 children aged 7-12 years and one of their parents. Parents completed a survey that included four questions that assessed how frequently they used verbal cues to encourage their child to play outdoors. Points were assigned to each response and averaged across the 4 questions, and based on this average participants were assigned to quintiles. The survey included seven questions that asked parents to assess how frequently their child played outdoors outside of school hours. Points were assigned to each response and summed to create an active outdoor play frequency score. General linear models assessed associations between parental encouragement and outdoor play while controlling for individual, family, and neighborhood covariates. Results. The mean outdoor active play frequency score increased significantly across quintiles of the parental encouragement score as follows: 6.0 (standard error = 0.7) in quintile 1, 9.8 (0.6) in quintile 2, 11.4 (0.6) in quintile 3, 16.2 (0.9) in quintile 4, and 23.3 (1.3) in quintile 5. After adjusting for covariates, the mean outdoor active play frequency score was almost three times higher in the highest parental encouragement quintile than in the lowest quintile (20.4 vs. 7.8). Conclusions. Parents use of verbal cues to encourage their children to play outdoors was independently associated with outdoor active play among 7-12 year olds. PMID:26644990

  8. Basic number processing deficits in ADHD: a broad examination of elementary and complex number processing skills in 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-C.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-09-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-combined type and matched children without ADHD (of any type) without concomitant dyscalculia and/or dyslexia. Overall, group differences were not significant regarding overlearned and explicitly trained simple and complex calculation skills. More basic number processing skills are - for instance - the ability to compare one-digit numbers according to their magnitude (so-called magnitude comparison), to count or to transcode numbers, i.e. to write down an Arabic number '21' in verbal dictation. Significant differences favouring control children in basic number processing skills were obtained in a number comparison task and in a dot enumeration task. Importantly, our results cannot be explained by group differences regarding specific working memory and executive function components. Thus, number processing skills and in particular the processing of numerical magnitude should be investigated in children diagnosed with ADHD even when no comorbid learning disabilities are reported. PMID:18801124

  9. To What Extent Does Participation in Extracurricular Music Affect the Future Aspirations of 11-12-Year-Olds? A Small-Scale Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    I undertook this project as a 12-year-old student while studying research methods at the Children's Research Centre at the Open University. It has already been shown that doing music improves children's Mathematics and English scores. The aim of this study was to find out if it also raises the aspirations of the children taking part. A…

  10. A silent public health crisis: untreated caries and dental infections among 6- and 12-year-old children in the Philippine National Oral Health Survey 2006.

    PubMed

    Monse, Bella; Benzian, Habib; Araojo, Juan; Holmgren, Christopher; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim; Naliponguit, Ella-Cecilia; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-03-01

    The oral health status of 6- and 12-year-old Filipino children was assessed in a representative national sample of 2030 6-year-old and 2022 12-year-old children, using WHO Basic Methods for Oral Health Surveys (4th edition, 1997) and the PUFA (pulpal involvement [P/p], ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments [U/u], fistula [F/f], and abscess [A/a]) index. A subsample of 242 12-year-old children was included to assess backward comparability between the 1998 Oral Health Survey that used WHO Basic Methods (3rd edition, 1987). The results showed that 97% of 6-year-old children had caries (mean dmft 8.4), 85% showed dental infection (mean pufa 3.4), 20% reported pain when examined. In all, 82% of 12-year-old children had caries (mean DMFT 2.9), 56% prevalence of pulp involvement (mean PUFA 1.0), and 16% reported pain when examined. Differences in methodology between the 1998 and the 2006 surveys are likely to have had an effect on the observed reduction in DMFT, indicating that the real caries prevalence had not changed much and remains very high.

  11. Objective and Self-Rated Sedentary Time and Indicators of Metabolic Health in Dutch and Hungarian 10–12 Year Olds: The ENERGY-Project

    PubMed Central

    Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Yıldırım, Mine; Altenburg, Teatske M.; Singh, Amika S.; Kovács, Éva; Molnár, Dénes; Brug, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between objectively assessed sedentary time and metabolic risk factors in childhood have rarely been studied. Therefore, we examined the independent relationship between objectively assessed and self-rated sedentary time and indicators of metabolic health in Dutch and Hungarian 10–12 year olds. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional survey in primary schools. Participants were Dutch and Hungarian girls (n = 73, aged 12.2±0.6 years, 18% overweight/obese) and boys (n = 69, aged 12.2±0.7 years, 38% overweight/obese). Sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer. TV and PC time were assessed by self-report. Adiposity indicators included body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC). Fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined in capillary blood and summed into a metabolic risk score. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for physical activity, number of sedentary bouts and WC. Children spent on average 7.6 hours of their daily waking time in sedentary behavior and self-reported 116±64 min/day watching TV and 85±57 min/day using the computer. Comparing the 1st and 4th quartile of objectively assessed sedentary time, C-Peptide levels, WC and BMI were significantly higher in the most sedentary quartile, while the difference in metabolic risk score was borderline significant (p = 0.09). Comparing the 1st and 4th quartile of TV time, BMI was significantly higher in the most sedentary quartile, while the difference in WC score was borderline significant (p = 0.06). In the adjusted linear regression analysis we found no significant association of sedentary time with metabolic risk. Conclusions/Significance Although BMI and WC were higher in the most sedentary versus the least sedentary children; we found no further evidence that more sedentary

  12. Evaluation of the UP4FUN Intervention: A Cluster Randomized Trial to Reduce and Break Up Sitting Time in European 10-12-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Vik, Frøydis N.; Lien, Nanna; Berntsen, Sveinung; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Grillenberger, Monika; Manios, Yannis; Kovacs, Eva; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background The UP4FUN intervention is a family-involved school-based intervention aiming at reducing and breaking up sitting time at home (with special emphasis on screen time), and breaking up sitting time in school among 10–12 year olds in Europe. The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate its short term effects. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 3147 pupils from Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary and Norway participated in a school-randomized controlled trial. The intervention included 1–2 school lessons per week for a period of six weeks, along with assignments for the children and their parents. Screen time and breaking up sitting time were registered by self-report and total sedentary time and breaking up sitting time by accelerometry. The effect of the intervention on these behaviors was evaluated by multilevel regression analyses. All analyses were adjusted for baseline values and gender. Significance level was p≤0.01. No significant intervention effects were observed, neither for self-reported TV/DVD or computer/game console time, nor for accelerometer-assessed total sedentary time and number of breaks in sitting time. The intervention group, however, reported more positive attitudes towards (β = 0.25 (95% CI 0.11, 0.38)) and preferences/liking for (β = 0.20 (95% CI 0.08, 0.32)) breaking up sitting time than the control group. Conclusions/Significance No significant intervention effect on self-reported screen time or accelerometer-assessed sedentary time or breaks in sitting time was observed, but positive effects on beliefs regarding breaking up sitting time were found in favor of the intervention group. Overall, these results do not warrant wider dissemination of the present UP4FUN intervention. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry ISRCTN34562078 PMID:25826704

  13. Knowing right from wrong, but just not always feeling it: relations among callous-unemotional traits, psychopathological symptoms, and cognitive and affective morality judgments in 8- to 12-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Feilhauer, Johanna; Cima, Maaike; Benjamins, Caroline; Muris, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The present research expands our understanding of cognitive and affective morality by exploring associations with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and externalizing symptoms. Participants were 46 8- to 12-year-old boys from the community who completed the Affective Morality Index, the Youth Self-Report, and the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits. A pattern of results was found indicating that in particular the combination of high CU traits and high externalizing symptoms was associated with lack of affective morality, and an increased perceived likelihood of recommitting antisocial acts (recidivism). The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. Micro-RNAs Let7e and 126 in Plasma as Markers of Metabolic Dysfunction in 10 to 12 Years Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Bernardo J.; Carrasco-Wong, Ivo; Dominguez, Angélica; Arnaiz, Pilar; Farías, Marcelo; Barja, Salesa; Mardones, Francisco; Casanello, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is already starting in childhood however there is no consensus regarding how to diagnose this condition in pediatric population. Studies in adults show that altered levels of specific micro-RNAs are related with components of the MetS. Objective We determined the plasma levels of four MetS-associated micro-RNAs (miR-126, miR-132, mir-145 and Let-7e) in 10 to 12 years old children with or without MetS traits. Design Pediatric subjects were selected from a cohort of 3325 school-age children, and clustered by the absence (control, n = 30), or the presence of 1 (n = 50), 2 (n = 41) or 3 (n = 35) MetS traits according to Cook´s criteria. Micro-RNAs were isolated from plasma, and levels of miR-126, miR-132, miR-145 and Let-7e were determined by Taqman qPCR. Results Regression analysis of the different MetS traits regarding the different miRNAs analyzed showed that Let-7e presented a negative association with HDL-C levels, but a positive correlation with the number of MetS traits. Levels of miR-126 presented a positive correlation with waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, BMI, and plasma triglycerides and VLDL-C. Levels of miR-132 showed a positive correlation with waist to hip ratio. Plasma levels of Let-7e were increased (~3.4 fold) in subjects with 3 MetS traits, and showed significant AUC (0.681; 95%CI = [0.58, 0.78]; p < 0.001) in the ROC analysis which were improved when miR-126 was included in the analysis (AUC 0.729; p < 0.001). In silico analysis of the interaction of proteins derived from mRNAs targeted by Let7 and miR-126 showed an important effect of both Let-7e and miR-126 regulating the insulin signaling pathway. Conclusions These results suggest that changes in the plasma levels of Let-7e and miR-126 could represent early markers of metabolic dysfunction in children with MetS traits. PMID:26046362

  15. Eminence-based medicine versus evidence-based medicine: it's okay for 12-year-old pitchers to throw curveballs; it's the pitch count that matters.

    PubMed

    Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Pepe, Matthew D; Bernstein, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Working from a prior investigation, we sought to determine the validity of the claim: "It's okay for 12-year-old pitchers to throw curveballs; it's the pitch count that matters." Our previous expert opinion survey demonstrated that this statement was most probably false. The purpose of this report was to investigate the validity of this statement, and to determine if our sports medicine experts "got it right." Using the most current sports medicine literature, this statement was critically examined so that an evidence-based opinion could be given and compared with the results of our prior study.

  16. Anesthesia in a 12 year old boy with somatic overgrowth secondary to pericentric inversion of chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tina B; Rowell, Jonathan C; Waldhausen, John H T; Parisi, Melissa A; Jonmarker, Christer

    2013-03-01

    The management of a splenectomy in a boy with an unusual form of somatic overgrowth is presented. Except for a moderately difficult airway, no unusual reactions to anesthesia and surgery were encountered. Possible anesthetic implications of different somatic overgrowth syndromes in children are presented. PMID:23274076

  17. Anesthesia in a 12 year old boy with somatic overgrowth secondary to pericentric inversion of chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tina B; Rowell, Jonathan C; Waldhausen, John H T; Parisi, Melissa A; Jonmarker, Christer

    2013-03-01

    The management of a splenectomy in a boy with an unusual form of somatic overgrowth is presented. Except for a moderately difficult airway, no unusual reactions to anesthesia and surgery were encountered. Possible anesthetic implications of different somatic overgrowth syndromes in children are presented.

  18. "I Think About It All The Time": A 12-Year-Old Girl's Internal Crisis With Racism and the Effects on her Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masko, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    I conducted an ethnographic study, situated within the conceptual framework of Critical Race Theory, which illustrates one child's experiences with racism. The study was conducted in an urban after-school program, and explores issues of racism in both the school and community settings. Utilizing the storytelling aspect of Critical Race Theory, I…

  19. ["Suddenly I was all alone": traumatic experiences of a 12 year old girl during the "Operation Gomorrha" and its transmission over three generations].

    PubMed

    Möller, Birgit; Lamparter, Ulrich; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Air strikes on Hamburg in 1943 ("Operation Gomorrha") were a historical turning point and had a deep impact on both cityscape and history of Hamburg. Little is known about intraindividual and transgenerational consequences as well as its interaction with societal and historical processes. Aiming at closing this gap interviews with witnesses, their children and grandchildren, as well as the whole family, were conducted in the context of an interdisciplinary research project. Based on the example of an interview with a at the time of the "Operation Gomorrha" eleven years old witness, her daughter, and grandson the biographical localisation of war experiences and transgenerational transmission will be explained and discussed.

  20. Deterioration and recovery of DAP IQ scores in the repeated assessment of the Naglieri draw-a-person (DAP) test in 6- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Küttner, Enno; Chromekova, Marta

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated whether mental age in children, as assessed by the IQ in the Draw-A-Person (DAP) test (Naglieri, 1988), can be improved by practice. In addition, it was tested whether children needed novel content to keep up their performance level during test repetition. The DAP test was given to 6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-year-old children (N = 80) 3 times. In addition, they drew a police figure 3 times, with task sequence counterbalanced. Repeated drawings resulted in significant omission of detail and deterioration of scores, but the novel task instruction temporarily recovered the IQ scores. This did not occur in the reverse sequence of the tasks, with the less specified DAP instruction given in the 2nd half of the drawing series. Furthermore, structural regressions in the human figure drawing could be observed in individual cases. However, 12-year-olds did not need the external introduction of novel content to maintain their IQ score. Correlations showed that this age group redefined their drawing plan on each repetition, and often created unique figures on each occasion, even if the instruction had stayed the same. PMID:24188151

  1. Latent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Due to Accessory Mitral Valve in a 12-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Kyung Won; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Su; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin

    2016-01-01

    Accessory mitral valve (AMV) is a rare congenital anomaly which can cause left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Patients with isolated AMV usually present with exertional dyspnea, chest pain, or syncope during the first ten years of life. In patients with AMV, detection of latent LVOT obstruction can be clinically challenging. We here present a case of AMV causing latent LVOT obstruction in an adolescent, which was diagnosed by echocardiography with dobutamine provocation and finally treated by successful surgical resection. PMID:27471367

  2. Development of a Sex Education Programme for 12-Year-Old to 14-Year-Old Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cok, Figen; Gray, Lizbeth Ann

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has documented a need for the development of a sex education programme in Turkish schools in terms of adolescence readiness and the presence of misconceptions regarding critical aspects of sexual issues. Currently no school-based sex education is available for Turkish adolescents. This paper presents the development of a…

  3. Prevalence of Tics Among 6- to 12-Year-Old Schoolchildren in the Itagui Municipality, Colombia, in 2010.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Blair Ortiz; David, María; Sánchez, Yaneth; Miranda, Johanna; Sierra, Javier Mauricio; Cornejo, José William

    2013-11-01

    Tics are the most frequent movement disorder in children and they are most prevalent during the school-age years. Most tics are transitory; however, certain tics can be chronic, causing negative repercussions at school, within the family, and socially. In some cases, tics are associated with obsessive compulsive disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other conditions that require diagnosis and prompt treatment. In South America, there are no indexed studies determining the prevalence of tics in school-age children. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of tics in schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years. From 16 000 students aged 6 to 12 years who were enrolled in first to fifth grade, a sample of 346 school-aged children was chosen via a multistage sampling process that randomized the educational systems in terms of proportional size and the stratification between public and private schools and adjusted for the design effect. The students were screened and those who were positive for tics underwent clinical evaluations and semistructured interviews by the researchers to determine the prevalence of the disease. The parents and teachers of 323 students returned our surveys (93.3%). One hundred thirty-eight students (42.7%) were considered positive for tics based on parents' and teachers' reports. The clinical evaluation established a 17.97% prevalence of tics (58 students), and 25 students (43.2%) also met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Of the students with tics, 27.6% presented with transitory tics, and 72.4% presented with chronic tics. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was detected in 11 of the children (3.4%). The average age of child with tics was 9 ± 1.5 years, and the majority of the children with tics attended third grade at a basic primary school. Children from public and private schools were equally likely to present with tics. Tics are noteworthy in our field and are associated with other neurobehavioral disorders, such as

  4. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. Conclusion: There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10. PMID:25083044

  5. Primary erythromelalgia in a 12-year-old boy: positive response to sodium channel blockers despite negative SCN9A mutations.

    PubMed

    Jakob, A; Creutzfeldt, R; Staszewski, O; Winterpacht, A; Berner, R; Hufnagel, M

    2012-09-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent pain attacks, swelling and redness in the distal extremities. The primary forms of the disorder are caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels. Treatment is difficult and controlled therapeutic studies offer little to no guidance. We report on a 12-year-old boy and his first occurrence of primary erythromelalgia. Genetic findings for mutations in the SCN9A gene, which encodes for the α-subunit of sodium channel NaV1.7, were negative. Although initial treatment with sodium nitroprusside was ineffective, subsequent medication with lidocaine and mexiletine, in combination with gabapentin, was successful. Despite negative findings for mutations in the sodium channels, the use of sodium channel blockers should be considered in these patients. PMID:22170168

  6. Ungual fibroma in 12-year-old boy with hypomelanotic macules, intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder—possible tuberous sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Glavan, Nedeljka; Ljubičić-Bistrović, Ivana; Grahovac, Blaženka; Traven, Luka; Sasso, Anton; Jonjić, Nives

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of a 12-year-old boy with intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, who came to surgery for an examination due to a minor bulge on the left thumb, which had been growing for the previous month. His mother denied any trauma. Methods: After the removal of the clinically ambiguous bulge and a pathohistological confirmation that it was a periungual fibroma, complete patient analysis was performed due to the presence of hypomelanotic macules and a suspected tuberous sclerosis. Results: Considering the presence of hypomelanotic macules, as one of the main criteria, possible TS diagnosis was set. Conclusion: Early detection of the symptoms of TS enables a timely provision of protocols for further patient monitoring, which affects the patient’s morbidity and mortality.

  7. 12-year old adolescent with super morbid obesity, treated with laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass (LOAGB/BAGUA): A case report after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carbajo Caballero, Miguel Angel; Vázquez-Pelcastre, Raul; Aparicio-Ponce, Rodolfo; Luque de Leon, Enrique; Jimenez, José María; Ortiz-Solorzano, Javier; Castro, María José

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of morbid obesity among adolescents has being on the increased in the recent decades specifically in developed countries around the world. In Europe, Spain has the highest prevalence of obese adolescents with more than 18% of the population of children and adolescents. There is evidence that the only effective and permanent treatment for morbid obesity and the comorbidities is surgical treatment, however there exists many controversies about which treatment is the best for obese adolescents. We report a case of a 12 year old patient with super obesity (58.5 kg/m(2) of BMI) and metabolic syndrome who underwent LOAGB/BAGUA and monitored during the last 5 year. The patient after five years follow-up maintains a 22.4 kg/m(2) of BMI. We consider that LOAGB/ BAGUA could be an effective and safe procedure as a treatment of obesity and comorbidities as well, for adolescent patients.

  8. Ungual fibroma in 12-year-old boy with hypomelanotic macules, intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder—possible tuberous sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Glavan, Nedeljka; Ljubičić-Bistrović, Ivana; Grahovac, Blaženka; Traven, Luka; Sasso, Anton; Jonjić, Nives

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of a 12-year-old boy with intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, who came to surgery for an examination due to a minor bulge on the left thumb, which had been growing for the previous month. His mother denied any trauma. Methods: After the removal of the clinically ambiguous bulge and a pathohistological confirmation that it was a periungual fibroma, complete patient analysis was performed due to the presence of hypomelanotic macules and a suspected tuberous sclerosis. Results: Considering the presence of hypomelanotic macules, as one of the main criteria, possible TS diagnosis was set. Conclusion: Early detection of the symptoms of TS enables a timely provision of protocols for further patient monitoring, which affects the patient’s morbidity and mortality. PMID:27621808

  9. Family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behavioural problems, socio-economic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption among 4-12 year-old Victorians, Australia.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, A M N; Kumanyika, S; Tucker, K L

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this analysis was to assess relationships between family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behaviour difficulties and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among 4-12-year-old children in Victoria, Australia. We used the 2006 Victorian Child's Health and wellbeing data set that included 3370 randomly selected primary caregivers of 4-12-year-old children interviewed between October 2005 and March 2006. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; level of family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device-General Functioning Scale and parental psychological distress was measured using the Kessler-6 scale. The mean number of servings consumed per day was 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1, 2.3) for fruit and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.1) for vegetables. The proportion of children meeting the minimum daily age-specific recommendation was 87.8% (95% CI: 86.4, 89.1%) for fruit and 36.5% (95% CI: 34.5, 38.5) for vegetables. Children with behaviour difficulties, low levels of prosocial behaviours and from poorly functioning households consumed fewer servings of F&V than children who did not experience any environment stressors or behavioural problems. Although parental psychological distress was not associated with fruit intake, daughters of parents who reported higher levels of psychological distress consumed fewer servings of vegetables than daughters of parents who reported lower levels of psychological distress. Child behavioural problems and family functioning and to some extent parental psychological distress were associated with F&V consumption. Programmes aimed at promoting F&V consumption in children should target those families with children experiencing behavioural problems or poorly functioning households.

  10. Preadolescent Girls and the Presentation of Self: A Dramaturgical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lori; MacKinnon, David

    2001-01-01

    Interviews and focus groups with five 9- and 10-year-old girls from rural Nova Scotia (Canada) clearly revealed the power and influence of the media in manipulating young girls' perceptions of themselves and others. Goffman's interactionist perspective of the "theatrical performance" provided a framework for the study. (Contains 47 references.)…

  11. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan.

  12. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan. PMID:26513940

  13. Correlations of skinfold thicknesses and circumferences at exactly defined body sites with leptin in 10-12-year-old boys with different BMIs.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Stefanelli, Claudio; Purge, Priit; Lätt, Evelin; Saar, Meeli

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations of leptin with values of skinfold thicknesses and circumferences in 10-12-year-old boys (N = 248) and these correlations were additionally studied in boys with different BMI subgroups (normal N = 190, overweight N = 34 and obese N = 24). In total, 9 skinfolds and 13 circumferences were measured using the recommendations of ISAK. Fasting leptin concentrations were also determined. No significant differences emerged between the three subgroups in age and Tanner stage. Skinfold thicknesses, circumferences and leptin concentrations were significantly higher in overweight and obese groups. In the total group, the correlation (partial correlation, eliminating age and Tanner stage) between separate skinfold thicknesses and leptin was higher than r = 0.70. The sum of 9 skinfold thicknesses correlated significantly to leptin in all groups (r = 0.558-0.779). In the obese group, triceps, biceps and front thigh skinfold thicknesses did not correlate (p > 0.05) with leptin. In the total group, all measured circumferences correlated significantly to leptin concentration (r = 0.328-0.724). However, in the obese group, the measured circumferences did not correlate to leptin (p > 0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio correlated with leptin only in the total group of boys. It was concluded that as a rule, close correlations emerged between leptin and skinfold thicknesses and circumferences. The strongest correlation with leptin was found with the sum of 9 skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio.

  14. [Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases: long term results of five year long preventive intervention in 12-year old boys (ten year prospective study)].

    PubMed

    Rozanov, V B; Aleksandov, A A; Shugaeva, E N; Perova, N V; Maslennikova, G Ia; Smirnova, S G; Olfer'ev, A M

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal cohort (prevention group, n=213, comparison group, n=163) of 10-year prospective follow-up we addressed efficacy of 5-year-long multifactor preventive intervention, conducted in a sample of population of 12 year old boys. Preventive intervention was carried out both at populational level and among persons with risk factors of development of cardiovascular diseases with the use of group, individual, and partly family approaches, and was directed at rationalization of nutrition, elevation of physical activity and prevention of harmful habits. During first 3 years of prevention we succeeded to achieve stable statistically significant lowering of mean levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and atherogeneity index, as well as to affect fatty component of body mass (skinfold thickness). Long term effect of 5-year long preventive intervention manifested as significantly lower level of systolic blood pressure, lower prevalence of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smaller increment of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and index of atherogeneity in the prevention group. These results evidence that prevention of main factors of risk of development of cardiovascular diseases (obesity, arterial hypertension, disorders of lipid composition of the blood, and low physical activity) in child and adolescent age in the period of active growth and development is feasible, effective, safe and is able to lead to decrease of levels of these factors in adults, but should last uninterruptedly until formation of stable habits of healthy life style.

  15. A Climbing Girl's Reflections about Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    The main research question in this paper is whether a climbing discourse can be a resource for a school-geometry discourse. The text is based on a 12-year old girl's story from an exciting climbing trip during her summer holiday. The girl uncovers some of her knowledge that had been invisible to her; she is guided to see some relations between her…

  16. Age-related trends of inhibitory control in Stroop-like big-small task in 3 to 12-year-old children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control is the ability to suppress competing, dominant, automatic, or prepotent cognitive processing at perceptual, intermediate, and output stages. Inhibitory control is a key cognitive function of typical and atypical child development. This study examined age-related trends of Stroop-like interference in 3 to 12-year-old children and young adults by administration of a computerized Stroop-like big-small task with reduced working memory demand. This task used a set of pictures displaying a big and small circle in black and included the same condition and the opposite condition. In the same condition, each participant was instructed to say "big" when viewing the big circle and to say "small" when viewing the small circle. In the opposite condition, each participant was instructed to say "small" when viewing the big circle and to say "big" when viewing the small circle. The opposite condition required participants to inhibit the prepotent response of saying the same, a familiar response to a perceptual stimulus. The results of this study showed that Stroop-like interference decreased markedly in children in terms of error rates and correct response time. There was no deterioration of performance occurring between the early trials and the late trials in the sessions of the day-night task. Moreover, pretest failure rate was relatively low in this study. The Stroop-like big-small task is a useful tool to assess the development of inhibitory control in young children in that the task is easy to understand and has small working memory demand.

  17. Physical Environment, Diet Quality, and Body Weight in a Group of 12-year-old Children from Four Public Schools in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Serrano, Mónica; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical environment influences diet and has been proposed as a determinant of childhood obesity. This cross-sectional study explored physical environment and its associations with diet quality and weight status in a sample of 114 12-year-old children from 4 public schools in the metropolitan area of San Juan, PR. Methods Physical environment was assessed by asking questions regarding the availability and accessibility of healthy and unhealthy foods and food outlets as well as of recreational and sports facilities and equipment. Food intake was determined using a 24-hour diet-recall questionnaire, with the gathered data being used to assess diet quality and calculate the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. The HEI includes 12 components that are used to determine the compliance of a given diet with federal guidelines. HEI-2010 total score ranges from 0 to100 and is divided into the following classifications: poor (≤50), needs improvement (51–80), and good (>80). Body mass index was computed using measured weight and height and categorized according to the CDC Growth Charts. Results Thirty-six percent of the participating children were overweight or obese. Nearly 57% had poor diet quality. The lowest HEI-2010 component scores were found for total fruits, whole fruits, total vegetables, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, and fatty acids. However, diet quality was not associated with weight status or physical environment factors. Compared to the other children in the study, overweight or obese children reported having a significantly (p<0.05) lower availability of unhealthy foods and the highest access to recreational and sports facilities at home but also lower utilization of recreational and sports facilities at school and reduced participation in the school breakfast program. Conclusion This study showed that some home- and school-environment factors influenced body weight in the children in this sample. However, these same factors did not appear

  18. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4-12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4-12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  19. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4-12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4-12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  20. PLAYgrounds: Effect of a PE playground program in primary schools on PA levels during recess in 6 to 12 year old children. Design of a prospective controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The relative number of children meeting the minimal required dose of daily physical activity remains execrably low. It has been estimated that in 2015 one out of five children will be overweight. Therefore, low levels of physical activity during early childhood may compromise the current and future health and well-being of the population, and promoting physical activity in younger children is a major public health priority. This study is to gain insight into effects of a Physical Education based playground program on the PA levels during recess in primary school children aged 6-12. Methods/design The effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated using a prospective controlled trial design in which schools will be matched, with a follow-up of one school year. The research population will consist of 6-12 year old primary school children. The intervention program will be aimed at improving physical activity levels and will consist of a multi-component alteration of the schools' playground. In addition, playground usage will be increased through altered time management of recess times, as well as a modification of the Physical Education content. Discussion The effects of the intervention on physical activity levels during recess (primary outcome measure), overall daily physical activity and changes in physical fitness (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Results of this study could possibly lead to changes in the current playground system of primary schools and provide structured health promotion for future public health. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2386 PMID:21548998

  1. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4–12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R.; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4–12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  2. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of Common Bile Duct in a Girl.

    PubMed

    D'Cunha, Aureen; Jehangir, Susan; Thomas, Reju

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, low grade malignant lesion which can occur anywhere in the body. In children it is usually found in the visceral soft tissues with a potential for local invasion and recurrence, and rarely distant metastasis. We report the diagnostic dilemma faced in the management of a 12-year old girl who presented with obstructive jaundice with a mass lesion at the distal end of the common bile duct. She underwent a tumor resection with a bilio-enteric bypass followed by a course of oral steroids and celecoxib.

  3. Rare cause of hip pain in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Kailash, Kailash; Malviya, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a rare benign disorder of unknown aetiology resulting in multiple cartilaginous loose bodies that form within a synovial joint. It is predominantly seen in men (2:1) in the third and fifth decade of life and is extremely rare in children. Hip joint is an extremely rare and unusual site of presentation thus leading to delay in diagnosis and associated morbidity. We report a successfully treated case of SC in a 12-year-old girl complaining of hip pain over a year. In addition, this is also the first case of a child with SC of the hip being treated arthroscopically.

  4. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of Common Bile Duct in a Girl

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Susan; Thomas, Reju

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, low grade malignant lesion which can occur anywhere in the body. In children it is usually found in the visceral soft tissues with a potential for local invasion and recurrence, and rarely distant metastasis. We report the diagnostic dilemma faced in the management of a 12-year old girl who presented with obstructive jaundice with a mass lesion at the distal end of the common bile duct. She underwent a tumor resection with a bilio-enteric bypass followed by a course of oral steroids and celecoxib. PMID:27672578

  5. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of Common Bile Duct in a Girl.

    PubMed

    D'Cunha, Aureen; Jehangir, Susan; Thomas, Reju

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, low grade malignant lesion which can occur anywhere in the body. In children it is usually found in the visceral soft tissues with a potential for local invasion and recurrence, and rarely distant metastasis. We report the diagnostic dilemma faced in the management of a 12-year old girl who presented with obstructive jaundice with a mass lesion at the distal end of the common bile duct. She underwent a tumor resection with a bilio-enteric bypass followed by a course of oral steroids and celecoxib. PMID:27672578

  6. Children and Eating: Personality and Gender are Associated with Obesogenic Food Consumption and Overweight in 6- to 12-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Vollrath, Margarete E.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Júlíusson, Pétur B.

    2012-01-01

    The role of children's personality traits in the consumption of potentially obesogenic foods was investigated in a sample of Norwegian children aged 6–12 years (N = 327, 170 boys, 157 girls). Mothers rated their child's personality on the traits of the Five Factor Model (i.e., Extraversion, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Imagination). Mothers also completed a food frequency questionnaire assessing their child's consumption of sweet drinks, sweet foods, and fruit and vegetables, and reported their child's height and weight. Controlling for age and mothers' education, boys and girls who were less benevolent consumed more sweet drinks, and girls who were less conscientious and more neurotic consumed more sweet drinks. Boys and girls who were more benevolent and imaginative consumed more fruits and vegetables, and boys who were more extraverted, more conscientious, and less neurotic consumed more fruits and vegetables. Controlling for maternal education, boys and girls who were less extraverted, and girls who were less benevolent, less conscientious, and more neurotic were more likely to be overweight or obese. These findings suggest that children's personality traits play an important yet understudied role in their diet. Further investigation of mechanisms that relate child traits to obesogenic eating and overweight would be valuable. PMID:22425617

  7. The Education of African American Girls and Women: Past to Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Veronica G.; Jackson, Janine A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the education of African American girls and women. It begins with a look at scholarship on African American girls and women published in "The Journal of Negro Education" from its inception in 1932 to the present. Subsequently, a historical overview of the long, hard-fought struggles of educating this population for…

  8. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet. PMID:26898058

  9. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet.

  10. Coaching Behavior of Girls Youth Softball Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupnow, Allan; Stotlar, David

    A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…

  11. The effect of beverages varying in glycaemic load on postprandial glucose responses, appetite and cognition in 10-12-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Baird, Danielle; Slater, Amy; Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilson, Carlene; Bowen, Jane; Noakes, Manny

    2013-08-28

    Reducing glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) inconsistently improves aspects of cognitive function and appetite in children. Whether altering the GL by lowering carbohydrate relative to protein and fat has a role in these effects is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the differential effects of beverages varying in GL and dairy composition on appetite, energy intake and cognitive function in children. A total of forty children (10–12 years) completed a double-blind, randomised, crossover trial, receiving three isoenergetic drinks (approximately 1100 kJ): a glucose beverage (GI 100, GL 65), a full milk beverage (GI 27, GL 5) and a half milk/glucose beverage (GI 84, GL 35). For 3 h post-consumption, subjective appetite and cognitive performance (speed of processing, memory, attention and perceptual speed) were measured hourly. At completion, each child was provided a buffet-style lunch and energy intake was calculated. Blood glucose was objectively measured using the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. Blood glucose AUC values were significantly different between the drinks (P,0·001), but did not sustain above the baseline for 3 h for any drink. Mixed modelling revealed no effect of beverage on subjective appetite or energy intake. Participant sex and drink GL significantly interacted for short-term memory (P,0·001). When girls consumed either milk-containing beverage, they recalled 0·7–0·8 more words compared with 0·5 less words after the glucose drink (P#0·014). Altering GL of drinks by reducing carbohydrate and increasing protein did not affect appetite or cognition in children. Girls may demonstrate improved short-term memory after consuming beverages with higher protein and lower GL. PMID:23244339

  12. What Is the Social Impact of ADHD in Girls? A Multi-Method Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the social impact of ADHD, with and without opposition-defiant behaviour [ADHD+ODD (n= 22) and ADHD-only (n= 18)], in 9- to 12- year old girls compared to girls without ADHD (n= 40). Girls played a computer game involving simulated players, and mothers and teachers completed rating scales. In general, mothers and teachers saw…

  13. Positive Illusions of Social Competence in Girls with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    We compared social self-competence ratings in 9-12 year old girls with (n = 42) versus without (n = 40) ADHD, relative to ratings of the girls' social competence made by mothers, teachers, and blind raters during a social laboratory task. Relative to scores from mothers, teachers, and the lab-task, girls with ADHD over-estimated their competence…

  14. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  15. Associations between Family-Related Factors, Breakfast Consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-Year-Old European Children: The Cross-Sectional ENERGY-Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Te Velde, Saskia J.; Verloigne, Maïté; Van Stralen, Maartje M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Jan, Nataša; Fernández Alvira, Juan M.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of family-related factors with children’s breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children’s breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children’s BMI-z-score. Subjects Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6±0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4±1.2) and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4±5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5±4.2 kg/m2) were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland). The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children’s nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency). Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country). Results Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children’s BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children’s breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children’s breakfast consumption. Conclusions Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to

  16. Subacute methotrexate neurotoxicity and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a 12-year-old with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism: homocysteine-mediated methotrexate neurotoxicity via direct endothelial injury.

    PubMed

    Mahadeo, Kris M; Dhall, Girish; Panigrahy, Ashok; Lastra, Carlos; Ettinger, Lawrence J

    2010-02-01

    From as early as the 1970s methotrexate has been associated with disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy and other neurotoxic sequelae. Yet, a clear mechanism for methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity has not been established. The authors describe the case of a 12-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation, who developed subacute methotrexate-induced toxicity and cerebral venous thrombosis after receiving intrathecal methotrexate. The role of homocysteine as a possible mediator in methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity via direct endothelial injury is discussed. PMID:20121554

  17. Prolapsing ectopic ureterocele presenting as a vulval mass in a newborn girl.

    PubMed

    Ilica, Ahmet Turan; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Bulakbaşi, Nail; Sürer, Ilhami; Tayfun, Cem

    2008-03-01

    Prolapse of the ureterocele and its presentation as a vulval mass is an extremely rare condition. There are no detailed imaging findings of such cases in the literature. We present voiding cystourethrography and MRI findings of a newborn girl with a ureterocele extending through the urethra. PMID:18306143

  18. A teenage girl with a sternal mass: an unusual presentation of Pott disease.

    PubMed

    Posner, Kari R; Mittal, Manoj K

    2010-11-01

    Bone and joint infection complicating tuberculosis is most likely to involve vertebrae. Pott disease, or tuberculous spondylitis, represents a small proportion of tuberculosis cases, but it can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our case report details Pott disease in a teenage girl, which presented with a sternal mass. We also present a review of the subject.

  19. Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Left Lower Limb in a 12 Year-Old Female Child with Ulcerative Colitis – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Krzesiek, Elżbieta; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Iwańczak, Barbara; Dorobisz, Andrzej T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Inflammatory bowel disease includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Case Report This case report presents a patient with ulcerative colitis, with thrombotic complication of the left common iliac vein that occurred at the age of 11, two years after diagnosis. After a year of anticoagulation and compression therapy, although exacerbations of underlying disease occurred in the first 6 months of treatment, there was no recurrence of deep venous thrombosis, partial recanalization within affected venous system has been achieved and the patient is remission of ulcerative colitis for the last six months. Conclusions In children, thromboembolic complications occur about 7 times less often than in adults, but increases in the case of hospitalized children. In children with IBD this complication can occur independently og disease activity even in patients with any other risk factors. PMID:26966473

  20. Genetic relatedness of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) strains in a 12-year-old daughter and her father in a household setting.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiasheng; Wang, Jiangrong; Abubakar, Yassir F; Zhou, Dapeng; Chen, Jun; Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Zhenyan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2014-06-01

    Modalities of intra-familial transmission of HIV-1 are not always clear. Here we describe an uncommon case of HIV transmission in a family setting, analyzed using clinical, epidemiological and nucleic-acid-based methods, and assess risk factors for intrafamilial transmission of HIV-1 infection. All sequences from the father and the daughter were grouped in the same cluster with a 100 % bootstrap value, which means that the father and his daughter were infected with highly homologous CRF01_AE. The diversity of genetic clones between env and pol genes was insignificant (p > 0.05). Moreover, the results of analysis of drug-resistance-associated mutation positions of the two viral isolates were almost identical, indicating that both were susceptible to the first-line anti-HIV drugs prior to the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and this presented additional evidence of a high similarity between the two family members' HIV-1 quasispecies. In this family, HIV-1 isolates from a father and his daughter had very highly genetic relatedness. By combining their clinical histories, we could draw the conclusion that the daughter was probably infected via contact with her father's blood or other body fluids, but no obvious transmission route was found, suggesting that HIV-1 infection in similar household settings should be taken into consideration whenever the origin of HIV-1 infection cannot be identified. PMID:24385159

  1. Enclothing Identity: A Hmong Girl's Journey into the Politics of Identification in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tracy Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: It may appear a simple question for a 12 year old girl to ask: "what should I wear today for school?" But simplicity is deceptive when the possibilities are many and each carries with it a specific and dangerous weight. In this paper I start with a Hmong girl in Ban Rongrian, Thailand, as she faces forms of identifications…

  2. A Weeping Tumor in a Young Girl: An Unusual Presentation of Nodular Hidradenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Gayen, Tirthankar; Podder, Indrashis; Shome, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a swelling on her left thigh that was associated with dripping of serous fluid from the lesion. Based on histological features of the excised tumor, a diagnosis of nodular hidradenoma was made. Atypical features including large size of the tumor, location on the lower limb, a weeping presentation, and histological finding of a nodular hidradenoma with an unusually large cystic cavity discharging fluid prompted us to report the case.

  3. Reduction of Extreme Deviant Behaviors in a Severely Retarded Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Howard A.; Miller, Joel R.

    1971-01-01

    A behavior modification treatment program, using a combination of reinforcement of positive behaviors and a time out procedure, was effective in reducing deviant and psychotic-like behaviors in a 12-year-old girl with an IQ of 23. (KW)

  4. Differential diagnosis of double site intussusception in childhood: a 15-year-old girl presenting with bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joseph; Wright, Naomi Jane; Kufeji, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain in a teenage girl is common; however, thorough history and examination can often distinguish a more rare or sinister diagnosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl presenting with abdominal pain, who was subsequently diagnosed with double intussusception secondary to her previously unrecognised Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). PMID:26581705

  5. Cutaneous, mediastinal and hepatic hemangiomas in a girl followed during 12 years.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Parrón Pajares, M; Pascual-Pascual, S-I; Jara, P; Velázquez-Fragua, R

    2011-02-01

    We present in this paper the case of a 12-year-old girl who had the clinical features of 2 different disorders: neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and 3 hemangiomas located in the skin, liver and mediastinum. The patient did not receive any specific treatment and showed a normal progressive evolution that lasted 1 / to 2 years and a very slow regression that lasted for a more prolonged time than expected (the 3 hemangiomas have not completely disappeared yet), although all 3 have been asymptomatic. MRI of the brain did not disclose a hemangioblastoma of the cerebellum or any other vascular lesion of the brain. Mental development of this girl was in the borderline range, as is commonly seen in Pascual-Castroviejo II syndrome (P-CIIS)/PHACE syndrome and in NF1, 2 syndromes which have not been reported to be associated in the same patient previously.

  6. [A twelve-years-old girl with multiloculated gynandroblastoma CD99 negative: case report].

    PubMed

    Sierra-Avendaño, Jairo Alonso; García-Pino, Ricardo; Pérez-García, Gabriel Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    The ginandroblastoma is an extremely rare ovarian tumor which shows components of granulosa cells and Sertoli/Leydig cells. We describe a case of a twelve-years-old girl who presented abnormal uterine bleeding and progressively growing intraabdominal mass associated with menorrhagia, CA-125 60.4 UI/mL and extension studies reporting cystic mass in the left ovary. She underwent oophorectomy. Pathological study shows a multilocular tumor filled with serous material. Many Call-Exner bodies were observed in the histopathological analysis, 45% of Sertoli/Leydig cells. Immunohistochemistry was reactive for inhibin, calretinin and pCK while AE1/AE3 and CD99 markers were negative. This is the first case report about a multiloculated gynandroblastoma, negative for CD99 in a 12-years-old girl. Thus, the study of this clinical case represents a systematic approach for tumors of the sex cord cells.

  7. Clinical significance of neuropsychological improvement after supplementation with omega-3 in 8-12 years old malnourished Mexican children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo and treatment clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Portillo-Reyes, Verónica; Pérez-García, Miguel; Loya-Méndez, Yolanda; Puente, Antonio E

    2014-04-01

    It has been shown that supplementation with omega-3 improves cognitive performance, especially in infants and toddlers, but it is unknown whether these results are effective in older malnourished children. The aims of this study, therefore, were to investigate the omega-3 supplementation effects in 8- to 12-year-old children and to know which neuropsychological functions improve after three months of intervention in a sample of Mexican children with mild to moderate malnutrition. This study was a randomized, double-blind, treatment and placebo study of 59 children aged 8-12 years who were individually allocated to 2 groups. The duration of the intervention lasted 3 months. Neuropsychological performance was measured at baseline and at 3 months. Results show that more than 50% of children in the treatment group had greater improvement in 11 of the 18 neuropsychological variables studied. Processing speed, visual-motor coordination, perceptual integration, attention and executive function showed improvement in more than 70% of the omega-3 supplemented children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01199120. PMID:24508294

  8. Direct and indirect associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10–12 year-old European children: testing the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sport participation makes an important contribution to children’s overall physical activity. Understanding influences on sports participation is important and the family environment is considered key, however few studies have explored the mechanisms by which the family environment influences children’s sport participation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether attitude, perceived behavioural control, health belief and enjoyment mediate associations between the family environment and 10–12 year-old children’s sports participation. Methods Children aged 10–12 years ( = 7234) and one of their parents (n = 6002) were recruited from 175 schools in seven European countries in 2010. Children self-reported their weekly duration of sports participation, physical activity equipment items at home and the four potential mediator variables. Parents responded to items on financial, logistic and emotional support, reinforcement, modelling and co-participation in physical activity. Cross-sectional single and multiple mediation analyses were performed for 4952 children with complete data using multi-level regression analyses. Results Availability of equipment (OR = 1.16), financial (OR = 1.53), logistic (OR = 1.47) and emotional (OR = 1.51) support, and parental modelling (OR = 1.07) were positively associated with participation in ≥ 30mins/wk of sport. Attitude, beliefs, perceived behavioural control and enjoyment mediated and explained between 21-34% of these associations. Perceived behavioural control contributed the most to the mediated effect for each aspect of the family environment. Conclusions Both direct (unmediated) and indirect (mediated) associations were found between most family environment variables and children’s sports participation. Thus, family-based physical activity interventions that focus on enhancing the family environment to support children’s sport participation are warranted. PMID

  9. The use of focus groups to examine pubertal concerns in preteen girls: initial findings and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Vandestienne, G

    1996-01-01

    This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood. PMID:8920329

  10. The Legacy of the Linguistic Fence: Linguistic Patterns among Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Abugov, Netta

    2010-01-01

    This study examined linguistic patterns in the Jewish ultra-Orthodox community in Israel, a group that has rarely been studied from a sociolinguistic perspective. Participants were 92 girls, 10-12 years old, who attend a school where Yiddish is the language of instruction and Hebrew, Israel's official language, is studied only in religious…

  11. Perceptions of Social Support in Urban At-Risk Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Laurie A.; Yang, Raymond K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored at-risk boys' and girls' self-perceived social support. Participants were 141 female and 310 male, 8- to 12-year-olds from low-income neighborhoods; 54% of the sample is Latino. Using items from the four subscales of Harter's (1985) Social Support Scale for Children, factor analysis was used to explore differences in the…

  12. Persistent scarring, atrophy, and dyspigmentation in a preteen girl with neonatal lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    High, Whitney A; Costner, Melissa I

    2003-04-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an uncommon autoimmune disease with distinctive cutaneous findings. Descriptions of chronic cutaneous sequelae are rare. We describe a 12-year-old girl with persistent dyspigmentation, scarring, and atrophy as a result of neonatal lupus occurring during infancy. PMID:12664034

  13. Lupus catatonia in a young girl who presented with fever and altered sensorium.

    PubMed

    Ali, Alia; Taj, Azeem; -Uz-Zehra, Misbah

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of 20 Years old girl who presented with catatonia resulting from cerebral lupus. There are few cases of catatonia being described in Systemic Lupus Erythmatoses (SLE). The patient presented to us with fever and altered sensorium. She was initially treated on lines of Acute Bacterial Meningitis/encephalitis but lumbar puncture examination and CT scan showed no evidence of these conditions. Patient's behavior was also not improved after this treatment and she further deteriorated in the sense that she exhibited mutism, negativism and psychosocial withdrawal. Psychiatric analysis was done and she was found to be having catatonia and on further investigation came out to be a case of SLE. Keeping in mind her previous history of joint pains, oral ulcers and alopecia her autoimmune profile such as ANA and dsDNA was done that came out to be positive. Patient responded to treatment with steroids, Hyroxychloroquine and azathioprine in addition to clonazepam and fluoxetine for her catatonic behavior. Thus this case history illustrates the importance of considering organic disease in patients presenting with catatonia.

  14. Orthodontic treatment for a mandibular prognathic girl of short stature under growth hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chin-Yun; Lan, Ting-Hung; Chou, Szu-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chang, Hong-Po

    2013-12-01

    This report presents a case of a 12-year-old girl with maxillary deficiency, mandibular prognathism, and facial asymmetry, undergoing growth hormone (GH) therapy due to idiopathic short stature. Children of short stature with or without GH deficiency have a deviating craniofacial morphology with overall smaller dimensions; facial retrognathism, especially mandibular retrognathism; and increased facial convexity. However, a complete opposite craniofacial pattern was presented in our case of a skeletal Class III girl with idiopathic short stature. The orthodontic treatment goal was to inhibit or change the direction of mandibular growth and stimulate the maxillary growth of the girl during a course of GH therapy. Maxillary protraction and mandibular retraction were achieved using occipitomental anchorage (OMA) orthopedic appliance in the first stage of treatment. In the second stage, the patient was treated with a fixed orthodontic appliance using a modified multiple-loop edgewise archwire technique of asymmetric mechanics and an active retainer of vertical chin-cup. The treatment led to an acceptable facial profile and obvious facial asymmetry improvement. Class I dental occlusion and coincident dental midline were also achieved. A 3½-year follow-up of the girl at age 18 showed a stable result of the orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic treatment. Our case shows that the OMA orthopedic appliance of maxillary protraction combined with mandibular retraction is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with midface deficiency and mandibular prognathism in growing children with idiopathic short stature undergoing GH therapy.

  15. Early Puberty in African-American Girls: Nutrition Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil

    2001-01-01

    Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…

  16. Brainstem arteriovenous malformation presenting with dyspraxic handwriting in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro; D'Amico, Alessandra; Pironti, Erica; Martino, Federica; Santoro, Elena; Di Paolo, Nilde; Isone, Claudia; Catone, Gennaro

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 11-year-old girl who developed an isolated hand-writing disorder with dysgraphia at the beginning of the school year in the sixth grade. A brain magnetic resonance angiography showed a round arteriovenous malformation sited in the left side of the midbrain extending to the ipsilateral medio-basal thalamus. Child neurologists should never neglect a thorough neurological evaluation in case of isolated worsening of handwriting, to rule out possible underlying organic causes.

  17. Mesenteric suture granuloma caused by retained fragments of suture material in a girl who had a laparotomy 12 years previously.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eunyoung; Park, Woo-Hyun; Choi, Soon-Ok

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case of a mesenteric suture granuloma in a 12 year-old-girl who had a small bowel resection for a complicated intussusception at the age of 5 months. At later exploration a whitish round tumor located on the anti-mesenteric side of the intestine was found. Several small intestinal loops also abutted on the tumor. Pathologic examination showed fibrosis and a granuloma containing linear colored braided suture material with multinucleated giant cell. As mesenteric suture granulomas have a complex appearance and mimic a soft tissue tumor during imaging, it is important for a surgeon to know about this condition and to consider the history of previous surgery when evaluating the images of patients presenting with an abdominal or pelvic mass. Suture granulomas separate from previous suture sites have not been described in the literature.

  18. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed.

  19. Facing the Beast Apart Together: Fear in Boys and Girls after Processing Information about Novel Animals Individually or in a Duo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Rijkee, Sanne

    2011-01-01

    In this experimental study, we made an attempt to examine gender-related peer influences on childhood fear. Nine- to 12-year-old boys and girls were provided with ambiguous and positive information about novel animals and then asked to provide a subjective fear rating of the animals under two conditions: fear of one animal was assessed…

  20. Clinical Reasoning: a girl presenting with stiffness episodes during sleep, cafe-au-lait spots, and flecked retina.

    PubMed

    Moavero, Romina; Cusmai, Raffaella; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-29

    A 4-year-old girl who had been born of normal pregnancy and delivery and had an unremarkable family or personal history was referred to a neuropsychiatric department because of the appearance of peculiar nocturnal episodes. Parents described that their child abruptly became stiff during sleep. These episodes usually ranged from 20 to 40 seconds, and after that the child continued to sleep. Initially she presented 1 episode per week, but there was a progressive increase in frequency up to 3 to 4 times per night. The child never presented similar episodes while awake. Her examination revealed some café-au-lait spots, congenital microcephaly (3rd centile) and low stature for the age (10th centile). She did not present any neurologic deficit, but she failed to develop an age-appropriate speech, with a delay in the main language milestones.

  1. Gorham-Stout syndrome presenting in a 5-year-old girl with a successful bisphosphonate therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, MIN-WEN; YANG, MIN; QIU, JIAN-XIN; NAN, XUE-PING; HUANG, LU-YU; ZHANG, WEN-DONG; GONG, LI; HUANG, ZHI-ZHONG

    2012-01-01

    Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS), also known as Gorham-Stout disease, massive osteolysis, disappearing bone disease or phantom bone, is a rare disorder of the musculo-skeletal system. It most commonly involves the skull, shoulder and pelvic girdle. Histological examination reveals a progressive osteolysis always associated with an angiomatosis of blood vessels and sometimes of lymphatics, which seemingly is responsible for the destruction of the bone. It is extremely rare that Gorham-Stout syndrome involves the bones of the entire body. A 5-year-old girl complaining of intermittent and dull back pain for 3 months was admitted to a local hospital. X-ray revealed left pleural effusion, and the patient was diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy. Thus, anti-tuberculosis therapy was performed. However, it was not effective. A soft mass with significant tenderness was found in the upper segment of the right leg 50 days afterwards. X-ray revealed multiple osteolysis of the bilateral clavicle, scapula, rib, vertebral body, ilium, sacrum, femur and tibia. The biopsy from the right tibia disclosed that the lesion was composed of hyperplastic blood vessels and fibrous tissues similar to hemangioma. Based on the above clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, the clinical physician confirmed a diagnosis of Gorham-Stout disease, and prescribed oral anti-osteoclastic medications consisting of bisphosphonates. At present, the girl is alive and healthy, and new lesions have not been noted. PMID:23181116

  2. [Amnestic syndrome in children. Observation of a girl after craniopharyngioma operation].

    PubMed

    Assal, G; Campiche, R; Thuillard, F

    1980-01-01

    We have followed up the very severe memory troubles of a 12 year old girl after a craniopharyngiomectomy. We discuss the interest of this observation referring in particular to age, since the amnesic syndrome of the child is a little documented area. A tumoral etiology for an amnesic syndrome is rare. In most of such cases craniopharyngioma is at the origin of mnesic troubles in the adult. When craniopharyngioma is quite frequent in the child, an amnesic syndrome is rarely observed.

  3. An Adolescent Girl with Giant Fibroadenoma - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ferdousee, Ishrat; Arafat, S M Yasir; Ahmed, Zuhayer

    2016-09-01

    Though fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast and is more common under the age of 30, giant fibroadenoma is rare representing less than 4% of all fibroadenomas. A 12 years old girl presented with rapidly enlarging well-circumscribed firm, non-tender mass in right breast for 2 months which was painless and with no history of trauma, nipple discharge, fever, anorexia, weight loss or axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no family history of neoplasms. Clinically, the lump was about 12 × 12 cm and not fixed to skin or underlying structures with the absence of nipple retraction or discharge. There was no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a benign proliferative breast disease. Total excision of mass was done preserving nipple and areola having weight of 535 gm with histopathological features suggestive of giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma is a benign breast disease that may mimic rare malignant lesion. So, breast and nipple conserving surgery should always be performed irrespective of size of tumor as in this case.

  4. An Adolescent Girl with Giant Fibroadenoma - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ferdousee, Ishrat; Arafat, S M Yasir; Ahmed, Zuhayer

    2016-09-01

    Though fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast and is more common under the age of 30, giant fibroadenoma is rare representing less than 4% of all fibroadenomas. A 12 years old girl presented with rapidly enlarging well-circumscribed firm, non-tender mass in right breast for 2 months which was painless and with no history of trauma, nipple discharge, fever, anorexia, weight loss or axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no family history of neoplasms. Clinically, the lump was about 12 × 12 cm and not fixed to skin or underlying structures with the absence of nipple retraction or discharge. There was no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a benign proliferative breast disease. Total excision of mass was done preserving nipple and areola having weight of 535 gm with histopathological features suggestive of giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma is a benign breast disease that may mimic rare malignant lesion. So, breast and nipple conserving surgery should always be performed irrespective of size of tumor as in this case. PMID:27648624

  5. [Cerebellar infarction due to vertebral artery dissection in a girl].

    PubMed

    Ushida, M; Fukuda, K; Endo, S; Pu, T; Nakagawa, Y; Shiino, S; Otomune, T; Nakano, O

    1998-11-01

    We report here a case of vertebral artery dissection, which is rare in childhood. A 12-year-old, previous healthy girl was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, nausea and vomiting. Although there was neither higher cortical dysfunction, motor weakness, sensory disturbance nor slurred speech. She could not stand up because of severe vertigo. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a subacute cerebellar infarct. A left vertebral artery angiogram on the hospital day 3 demonstrated a sharp narrowing at the C1-C2 level. After an anticoagulant therapy for about 2 weeks, all the symptoms disappeared except for mild tinnitus. Two months later, a left vertebral artery angiogram showed an abrupt occlusion at the C1 level. MRI T1-weighted images demonstrated a thrombus within the false lumen of the dissected vessels. A flow void revealed the patency of the residual true lumen. From these findings, we made a diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection, which was considered to have caused cerebellar infarction. The patient was mostly normal at discharge, and 100 mg/day of aspirin has been given until present.

  6. Uterine sarcoma in a 14 year-old girl presenting with uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Jane; Dülger, Özlem; Küpelioğlu, Latif; Gönenç, Ali İhsan; Erşahin, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    •Uterine sarcomas are rare in adolescents. Adenosarcomas are even more rare. Uterine rupture, as a presentation is a rare entity.•It is hard to diagnose sarcomas preoperatively. It is still hard even postoperatively due to variable morphologic features.•Experience of the gynecopathologists and oncologic surgeons is the hallmark of the treatment option.

  7. Family Characteristics of 6- to 12-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Statistics Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Contains 1972 to 1997 data on family characteristics such as parents' educational attainment and family income. The educational attainment of parents of children aged 6 to 12 increased substantially between 1972 and 1997, as did the employment rate of mothers. (SLD)

  8. Fitness and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... participate in a variety of activities, sports, and games that fit for their personality, ability, age, and ... child up for the softball team, practice and games once or twice a week will not be ...

  9. A Doctor Talks to 9-to-12-Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrigo, Marion O.; Cassidy, Michael A.

    As a part of a series of books written by physicians for their patients, this publication explains heredity, birth, and growth patterns to pre-teen children. The chapters are written in language appropriate for children moving from childhood into their teens and deal with topics like: cells, conception, prenatal development, puberty, and changing…

  10. Medical Care and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... also might talk with your child about the importance of personal care and hygiene; warn against using ...

  11. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Pediatric Athletes Presenting to Sports Medicine Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Stein, Cynthia J.; Zurakowski, David; Meehan, William P.; Myer, Gregory D.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist regarding the effect of the growth process on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in male versus female children. Hypothesis: The proportion of ACL injuries/sports injuries presenting to clinic will vary by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Study Design: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: The study group consisted of a randomly selected 5% probability sample of all children 5 to 17 years of age presenting to a sports medicine clinic from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009; 2133 charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, height and weight, injury mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, previous injury, and organized sports. Results: A total of 206 ACL tears were analyzed (104 girls, 102 boys). Girls were slightly older than boys (15.1 ± 1.7 vs 14.3 ± 2.1 years; P < 0.01). Male-female comparison of ACL injury/total injury by age revealed that girls had a steeper increase by age than boys. Among 5- to 12-year-olds, boys had a higher ACL injury/total injury ratio than girls (all P < 0.01). Children 13 to 17 years of age showed no significant difference for sex in ACL injury/total injury ratio. As age advanced, the proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries increased for both girls (P < 0.01) and boys (P = 0.04). BMI was independently associated with an ACL injury (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The proportion of ACL injuries/total injuries was similar for boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years. Girls showed a significantly steeper increase in ACL injury proportion versus boys through puberty. Clinical Relevance: This study will increase clinician awareness of ACL injury occurrence in young male and female athletes 5 to 12 years of age. Injury prevention efforts should target young girls before the onset of puberty and before injury occurs. PMID:25984258

  12. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting with acute psychosis in a preteenage girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare, newly defined autoimmune clinical entity that presents with atypical clinical manifestations. Most patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis develop a progressive illness from psychosis into a state of unresponsiveness, with catatonic features often associated with abnormal movements and autonomic instability. This is the first report of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a Greek pediatric hospital. Case presentation An 11-year-old Greek girl presented with clinical manifestations of acute psychosis. The differential diagnosis included viral encephalitis. The presence of a tumor usually an ovarian teratoma, a common clinical finding in many patients, was excluded. Early diagnosis and prompt immunotherapy resulted in full recovery up to one year after the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Acute psychosis is a rare psychiatric presentation in children, diagnosed only after possible organic syndromes that mimic acute psychosis are excluded, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptor encephalitis. Pediatricians, neurologists and psychiatrists should consider this rare clinical syndrome, in order to make an early diagnosis and instigate appropriate treatment to maximize neurological recovery. PMID:22846610

  13. [A girl with foetal valproate syndrome and autism spectrum disorder].

    PubMed

    Solignac, I

    2016-01-01

    We study the case of a 12-year-old girl who, following intra-uterine exposure to valproate, was diagnosed with foetal valproate syndrome, characterised at birth by dysmorphic features. The use of valproate during pregnancy (because of epilepsy or bipolar disorder) can cause not only structural defects in the growing foetus, but also problems in cognitive development and in adaptive and emotional/behavioural functioning in later life. We evaluate these domains of development in our discussion and suggest several other drugs, less harmful than valproate, which can be used to treat epilepsy or bipolar disorder during pregnancy. PMID:26979855

  14. Partial trisomy 1p (1p36.22-->pter) and partial monosomy 9p (9p22.2-->pter) associated with achalasia, flexion deformity of the fingers and epilepsy in a girl.

    PubMed

    Chen, C P; Lin, S P; Lee, C C; Town, D D; Wang, W

    2006-01-01

    We report on a 12-year-old girl presenting with mental retardation, trigonocephaly, midface hypoplasia, upward-slanting palpebral fissures, arched eyebrows, bilateral epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, a flattened nasal bridge, a short nose, anteverted nares, a long philtrum, a small mouth, micrognathia, low-set ears, a short neck, long digits, flexion deformity of the fingers of the hands, hypoplasia of the labia majora, hyperplasia of the labia minora, flat feet, dysphagia, frequent regurgitation, prominent esophageal dilation, and achalasia. Seizures were noted since 5 years of age. Cytogenetic analysis of her peripheral blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XX, der(9)t(1;9)(p36.22;p22.2)pat. Achalasia, an uncommon esophageal motor disorder, has not been previously described in association with either a deletion of 9p or a duplication of 1p.

  15. Combined Dup(7)(q22.1q32.2), Inv(7)(q31.31q31.33), and Ins(7;19)(q22.1;p13.2p13.2) in a 12-year-old boy with developmental delay and various dysmorphism.

    PubMed

    Frühmesser, Anne; Erdel, Martin; Duba, Hans-Christoph; Fauth, Christine; Amberger, Albert; Utermann, Gerd; Zschocke, Johannes; Kotzot, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    De novo combined duplications/inversions are very rare chromosomal rearrangements. For chromosome 7 just some dozen cases of duplications of various parts of the long arm have been published. We report on a 12-year-old boy with muscular hypotonia, global developmental delay, short stature, and various facial dysmorphism including frontal bossing, temporal narrowing, slightly down-slanting palpebral fissures, a broad nasal root, a long philtrum, a thin and tented upper lip, a drooping lower lip, micrognathia, prominent ears, a short neck, and a low posterior hairline. Karyotype analysis and molecular investigations revealed a complex de novo chromosomal rearrangement on 7q. FISH analysis with locus specific YACs and BACs and SNP array with the Illumina(®) HumanOmni1-Quad v1.0 BeadChip disclosed a direct duplication in the long arm of chromosome 7 (q22.1→q32.2) and an inversion located at the breakpoint between the two copies of the duplication (q31.31→q31.33). In addition, breakpoint characterization at the molecular level revealed a 386 bp insertion carrying two Alu elements of chromosome 19p13.2 between the two copies of the duplication. By a comparison of the SNP haplotypes of the derivative chromosome of the patient and both parents a two-step formation during spermatogenesis was suggested as the most likely mechanism of formation. PMID:23608969

  16. Diagnostic laparoscopy in a twelve year old girl with right iliac fossa pain: A life changing diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meshkat, Babak; Matcovici, Melania; Buckley, Claire; Salama, Muhammad; Perthiani, Haresh K.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Right iliac fossa (RIF) pain is one of the most common presenting complaints faced by general surgeons in the emergency department. Correct diagnosis and appropriate surgical intervention can often pose a challenge. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 12-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with a four day history of initially central acute abdominal pain, now localised in the RIF. During laparoscopy, the following findings were made: macroscopically dilated appendix, right and left gonads at the internal opening of the inguinal canal, empty pelvis with a rudimentary uterus on the right side. No evidence of fallopian tubes or connection of uterus to the vagina and broad based, non-inflamed Meckel's diverticulum. An incidental diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. DISCUSSION Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a disorder of hormone resistance characterised by a female phenotype in an individual with an XY karyotype and testes producing age-appropriate normal concentrations of androgens. CONCLUSION This case report highlights the advantage of laparoscopy as a diagnostic and treatment tool in a twelve year old girl with multiple intra-abdominal findings. While the ultimate diagnosis responsible for her symptom of RIF pain was acute appendicitis, the additional diagnosis of CAIS and incidental Meckel's would have otherwise likely gone undetected. PMID:24995665

  17. [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension].

    PubMed

    Loeffen, J L C M; Wijnen, M; Schijf, C P T; van Wieringen, P

    2006-03-25

    A 12-year-old girl presented with chronic abdominal pain and distension that had persisted for 6 and 3 months, respectively. The cause was a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour originating in the left ovary. The cyst and ovary were resected. The patient recovered and was asymptomatic 2 years after the operation. Ovarian tumours are rarely seen in children. The sex cordstromal tumours constitute a heterogeneous subgroup. Two of the most frequently observed sex cord-stromal tumours are the juvenile granulosa cell tumour and the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour. Even though these tumours may contain histologically malignant characteristics, their behaviour is usually benign. Clinical characteristics are endocrine symptoms, fatigue, chronic abdominal pain and abdominal distension. In addition, pressure from the tumour mass may result in symptoms in adjacent organ systems. Surgical excision is usually curative. Patients with advanced disease may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Chronic abdominal pain is frequently observed in children and, in some rare cases, may be caused by ovarian tumours.

  18. Asking mom: formative research for an HPV vaccine campaign targeting mothers of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Autumn; Cates, Joan R; Diehl, Sandra J; Hartmann, Miriam

    2011-10-01

    Vaccination against the types of human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause about 70% of cervical cancers is approved for use in girls and women between 9 and 26 years of age and recommended routinely in 11-12-year-old girls. This article reports on the systematic theory-based formative research conducted to develop HPV vaccine messages for a campaign targeting racially diverse mothers of nonvaccinated 11-12-year-old girls in rural Southeastern United States. A consortium of 13 county health departments concerned about high rates of cervical cancer in their region relative to state and national averages initiated the campaign. The research examined behavioral determinants for vaccination decisions as well as mothers' reactions to message frames and emotional appeals. On the basis of focus groups and intercept interviews (n = 79), the authors demonstrated how preproduction message research and production message testing were used to develop messages that would motivate mothers of preteen girls. Core emotional truths that emerged were a mother's instinct to protect her daughter from harm and to embrace aspirations for her daughter's future. Mothers also reacted more positively to text about preventing cervical cancer than about preventing HPV, a sexually transmitted disease. Mothers preferred message concepts with photos of minorities and Caucasian mothers and daughters. PMID:21728780

  19. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  20. [Munchausen syndrome by proxy, an unusual presentation].

    PubMed

    Maida, A M; Molina, M E; Erazo, R

    2001-08-01

    We report a 12 year old girl that first consulted for fever with bilateral knee arthralgias. A neurological workout was started due to a progressive gait disturbance, but all results were incongruent with nerve or nerve root lesions, leading to the diagnosis of a functional paralysis. The patient worsened to the point of prostration. Due to the suspicion that the mother was inducing the symptoms, the patient was admitted to the hospital, where she improved notably. She was discharged walking. The improvement during hospital stay confirmed the diagnosis of a Münchausen by proxy syndrome, mimicking a disabling neurological condition. PMID:11680966

  1. [Munchausen syndrome by proxy, an unusual presentation].

    PubMed

    Maida, A M; Molina, M E; Erazo, R

    2001-08-01

    We report a 12 year old girl that first consulted for fever with bilateral knee arthralgias. A neurological workout was started due to a progressive gait disturbance, but all results were incongruent with nerve or nerve root lesions, leading to the diagnosis of a functional paralysis. The patient worsened to the point of prostration. Due to the suspicion that the mother was inducing the symptoms, the patient was admitted to the hospital, where she improved notably. She was discharged walking. The improvement during hospital stay confirmed the diagnosis of a Münchausen by proxy syndrome, mimicking a disabling neurological condition.

  2. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  3. Temptation in the background: non-consummatory exposure to food temptation enhances self-regulation in boys but not in girls

    PubMed Central

    Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of calorie-dense low-nutrient food in everyday life raises the question as to how children deal with such opportunities. We investigate whether pre-exposure to the object of temptation in a situation that discourages consumption boosts children’s ability to resist similar temptation subsequently. We show that 7–12-year-old boys, but not girls, demonstrate increased resistance to a temptation after pre-exposure to a similar temptation. Future research might explore the role of exposure to temptation in girls. PMID:25101042

  4. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. Methods The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Results Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. Conclusions In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental

  5. Gifted Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the theme of the education of gifted female students. This document consists of the five articles devoted to this subject. The lead article by Carolyn M. Callahan, titled "How Schools Shortchange Girls: Implications for Parents and Educators of Gifted Girls," discusses the development of gender roles, the experiences…

  6. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  7. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF. PMID:27625935

  8. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  9. The importance of recognizing paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction: A case report of a 13-year-old girl presenting with stridor

    PubMed Central

    Seaberg, Raewyn M; Allegro, Jennifer; Friedman, Jeremy N; Campisi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The present report details the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented to the emergency department with stridor. Treatment for presumed reactive airway disease was attempted with antibiotics, nebulized adrenaline masks and high-dose corticosteroids. Over the next month, she presented repeatedly in a similar fashion and was admitted to hospital on three separate occasions. Ultimately, she was referred to the Centre for Paediatric Voice and Laryngeal Function at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario) for a speech-language pathology evaluation and direct laryngoscopy. The patient was diagnosed with paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction. After a brief treatment session with a speech-language pathologist, her stridor completely resolved and paradoxical inspiratory vocal fold adduction was no longer visualized on direct laryngoscopy. The present case highlights the fact that paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction can mimic other entities that present with stridor, and misdiagnosis can result in significant morbidity. Investigation into a patient’s social history and stressors can facilitate the diagnosis, and can avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful medical and surgical interventions. PMID:19436501

  10. Bowel perforation presenting with acute abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema in a 14-year-old girl with an abandoned distal peritoneal shunt catheter: case report.

    PubMed

    Riccardello, Gerald J; Barr, Luke K; Bassani, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    The authors report the case of 14-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele and previously shunt-treated hydrocephalus who presented with right-sided abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema that developed over a 1-week period. A CT scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a retained distal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) catheter with air tracking from the catheter to the upper chest wall. Given the high suspicion of the catheter being intraluminal, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed multiple jejunal perforations. The patient required a partial small-bowel resection and reanastomosis for complete removal of the retained catheter. Six other similar cases of bowel perforation occurring in patients with abandoned VP and subdural-peritoneal shunts have been reported. The authors analyzed these cases with regard to age of presentation, symptomatic presentation, management, morbidity, and mortality. While there was 0% mortality associated with bowel perforation secondary to a retained distal VP catheter, the morbidity was significantly high and included peritonitis and small bowel resection.

  11. A girl with permanent neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutation presented with Mauriac syndrome after improper adjustment in sulfonylurea dosage over 6 years.

    PubMed

    Chai-Udom, Rapeepun; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Supornsilchai, Vichit

    2016-09-01

    Mauriac syndrome is characterized by growth impairment, Cushingoid features, and hepatomegaly in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We report a novel presentation of Mauriac syndrome in a 9-year-old girl who was diagnosed with neonatal diabetes at 3 months of age due to the p.R201C mutation in KCNJ11. She was initially treated successfully with glipizide at a dose of 0.85 mg/kg/day but after being lost to follow-up and having improper adjustment in dose over many years, the recent dose of 0.6 mg/kg/day appears to have been insufficient for glycemic control but enough to maintain a low level of C-peptide and prevent diabetic ketoacidosis. With proper insulin administration, all presenting clinical characteristics were resolved within 1 month. A review of the literature relating to clinical manifestations of Mauriac syndrome in children with diabetes was performed and included in this report for comparison with our patient. While Mauriac syndrome has been traditionally associated with T1DM, the presence of Mauriac syndrome should not be excluded in other types of diabetes mellitus.

  12. Brief Report: Self-Presentation of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Banerjee, Robin; Lunenburg, Patty; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Stegge, Hedy; Rieffe, Carolien

    2008-01-01

    The self-presentational behaviour of 43 6- to 12-year-old children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) and normal intelligence and 43 matched comparisons was investigated. Children were prompted to describe themselves twice, first in a baseline condition and then in a condition where they were asked to convince others to select…

  13. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  14. Imaging Girls: Visual Methodologies and Messages for Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…

  15. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  16. What about the Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Rebecca Priegert

    2012-01-01

    Aggregated test results that identify the literacy problems of boys as the most salient gender issue in schools distort the reality that girls experience significant gender-based challenges as well, though their problems may not present as clearly on standardized tests. This emphasis on boys' difficulties has moved educational resources in that…

  17. Medically Underserved Girls Receive Less Evaluation for Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Feemster, Kristen A.; Pati, Susmita; Ramos, Mark; Grundmeier, Robert; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if gender is associated with diagnostic evaluation by primary care pediatricians caring for children with growth-faltering. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of children who were attending 4 urban pediatric primary care practices affiliated with a tertiary pediatric hospital. Growth-faltering was defined as height at the <5th percentile or a z-score decrease of ≥1.5 SDs before 18 months of age or ≥1 SD thereafter. For each child, height z score, age, gender, race, insurance, diagnostic tests, and subspecialist appointments were examined. RESULTS: Of 33 476 children, 3007 had growth-faltering (mean height: −1.5 ± 1.0 vs 0.3 ± 0.9 SDs in those without growth-faltering). Boys comprised 53% of the growth-faltering group (vs 51% of the nonfaltering group; P < .01). Among children with growth-faltering, 2.8% had endocrinology appointments (vs 0.8% of others; P < .0001) and 6% had gastroenterology appointments (vs 1.5% of others; P < .0001). Subspecialty care was not associated with gender. Pediatricians ordered diagnostic tests for a significantly greater proportion of children with growth-faltering than others. In multivariate analysis of height z score among children with growth-faltering, tests for chromosomes (1.4% of short girls vs 0.4% of short boys; P < .005) and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (0.9% of short girls vs 1.8% of short boys; P < .05) were associated with gender. Thirty-five percent of the girls for whom chromosome testing was performed were 12 years old or older. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns in diagnostic testing of children with growth-faltering by their pediatricians may lead to underdiagnosis of Turner syndrome and growth hormone deficiency among girls. PMID:21422085

  18. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  19. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Silva, Margarida; Gomes, A. Rui; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i) No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii) no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii) most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv) most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v) greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi) child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only. PMID:22606370

  20. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  1. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    PubMed

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  2. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    PubMed Central

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., “spatial ability is for boys”) in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest—instruction—posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  3. Interventions shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4–12 Years Old *

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are ‘executive functions,’ including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children’s executive functions – computerized training, non-computerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. Central to all these is repeated practice and constantly challenging executive functions. Children with worse executive functions initially, benefit most; thus early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  4. Whose information is it anyway? Informing a 12-year-old patient of her terminal prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldie, J; Schwartz, L; Morrison, J

    2005-01-01

    Design: A cohort study of students entering Glasgow University's new medical curriculum in October 1996. Methods: Students' responses obtained before year 1 and at the end of years 1, 3, and 5 to the "childhood leukaemia" vignette of the Ethics in Health Care Survey Instrument (EHCI) were examined quantitatively and qualitatively. Analysis of the students' multichoice answers enabled measurement of the movement towards professional consensus opinion. An analysis of their written justifications for their answers helped to determine whether their reasoning was consistent with professional consensus and enabled measurement of changes in knowledge content and recognition of the values inherent in the vignette. Themes on the students' reasoning behind their decision to tell the patient or not were also identified. Results: Unlike other vignettes of the EHCI in which autonomy was a main theme, few students chose the consensus answer before year 1 and there was no significant movement towards consensus at any point during the course. In defence of their decision to withhold information, the students expressed strong paternalistic opinions. The patient's age was seen as a barrier to respecting her autonomy. Conclusions: It is important to identify students' perceptions on entry to medical school. Transformative learning theory may provide the basis for an approach to foster doctors who consider the rights of young people. Small-group teaching is most conducive to this approach. The importance of positive role modelling is also emphasised. PMID:15994366

  5. Obesity, academic performance and reasoning ability in Portuguese students between 6 and 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Barrigas, Carlos; Fragoso, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has been linked to several physiological and psycho-social diseases, decreases in cognitive function, poor levels of scholastic achievement, low socioeconomic status and delayed onset of maturity. This study investigates the association between obesity and both academic performance and reasoning ability in 394 male and 398 females students between the ages of 6 and 12 from Lisbon, Portugal. It also assesses how this relationship may be influenced by chronological age, maturity and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that: 1) reasoning ability is independent of socioeconomic status and level of maturity; 2) no differences in reasoning ability exist between groups of different BMI; 3) academic performance is moderated by chronological age in boys, and by maturity in both genders; 4) obesity is not associated with academic performance. It is concluded that reasoning ability and academic performance are not associated with obesity, and that inter-individual differences in academic performance in boys may be explained by differences in their level of maturity.

  6. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group. PMID:21989500

  7. Leisure Activity Preferences for 6- To 12-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Chokron, Nathalie; Law, Mary; Shevell, Michael; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Poulin, Chantal; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective was to describe leisure activity preferences of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their relationship to participation. Factors associated with greater interest in leisure activities were identified. Method: Fifty-five school-aged children (36 males, 19 females; mean age 9y 11mo; range 6y 1mo-12y 11mo) with CP (Gross Motor…

  8. Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Myxoma in a 12-Year-Old Male.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, Meghan; O'Brien, James; Hertzenberg, Casey; Wagner, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac myxoma is the most common cardiac tumor in patients of all ages; the majority are encountered as single left atrial tumors. Left ventricular myxomas are exceedingly rare, having been recorded in a small number of case reports involving children worldwide. We report a case of a left ventricular myxoma with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in a previously healthy, asymptomatic adolescent black male. Transthoracic echocardiograms revealed a single, large (2.5 × 5-cm), lobulated, mobile mass within the left ventricular cavity that oscillated into the outflow tract, thereby causing moderate obstruction during systole. Advanced images delineated the location and tissue composition of the mass, characterizing it as a myxoma. Complete surgical excision of the mass was accomplished via aortotomy. Gross examination and histology confirmed the diagnosis of myxoma. PMID:27303249

  9. Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Myxoma in a 12-Year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, James; Hertzenberg, Casey; Wagner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac myxoma is the most common cardiac tumor in patients of all ages; the majority are encountered as single left atrial tumors. Left ventricular myxomas are exceedingly rare, having been recorded in a small number of case reports involving children worldwide. We report a case of a left ventricular myxoma with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in a previously healthy, asymptomatic adolescent black male. Transthoracic echocardiograms revealed a single, large (2.5 × 5-cm), lobulated, mobile mass within the left ventricular cavity that oscillated into the outflow tract, thereby causing moderate obstruction during systole. Advanced images delineated the location and tissue composition of the mass, characterizing it as a myxoma. Complete surgical excision of the mass was accomplished via aortotomy. Gross examination and histology confirmed the diagnosis of myxoma. PMID:27303249

  10. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Adele; Lee, Kathleen

    2011-08-19

    To be successful takes creativity, flexibility, self-control, and discipline. Central to all those are executive functions, including mentally playing with ideas, giving a considered rather than an impulsive response, and staying focused. Diverse activities have been shown to improve children's executive functions: computerized training, noncomputerized games, aerobics, martial arts, yoga, mindfulness, and school curricula. All successful programs involve repeated practice and progressively increase the challenge to executive functions. Children with worse executive functions benefit most from these activities; thus, early executive-function training may avert widening achievement gaps later. To improve executive functions, focusing narrowly on them may not be as effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, and yoga). PMID:21852486

  11. Active Parenting Today: For Parents of 2 to 12 Year Olds. Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, Michael H.

    This book is designed for leaders of parent discussion groups utilizing the Active Parenting Today video-based parent education program. The program is designed to help parents instill self-esteem, courage, responsibility, and cooperation in their children so that they will be less likely to use tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs (TAOD); to raise…

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  13. Cerebral Palsy in 1-12 Year Old Children in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    INALOO, Soroor; KATIBEH, Pegah; GHASEMOF, Masroor

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive CNS disorder due to an insult to the growing brain, usually occurring in the first two years of life. During the recent years, its etiology has been changed; perinatal and postnatal insults are not considered as its main causes in developed countries any more. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes of CP in children in southern Iran. Materials & Methods Overall, 200 children with CP aged 1-12 yr old referring to Pediatric Neurology Clinic affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran between 2012 and 2013 were enrolled. In addition, 200 healthy age and sex-matched children were considered as the control group. Exclusion criteria were isolated movement disorders with no other evidence of CP, progressive neurologic disorders, metabolic disorders, and incomplete or uncertain past history. After collecting the data on pregnancy period, prenatal history and past medical problems, they were analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. Results Maternal age, medical problems during pregnancy period, route of delivery, head circumference at birth, neonatal admission, neonatal jaundice, and prematurity were the main risk factors for CP. Discussion The distribution of risk factors of CP is different from that of developed countries in our region. Pre- and peri-natal etiologies are still among the common causes of CP in Iran. PMID:27057186

  14. DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCE IN 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOLCHILDREN IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hoffmann, Rosana H. S.; de Sousa, Maria da Luz R.; Wada, Ronaldo S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC) indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0), with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62). There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention. PMID:19089262

  15. Individual, Situational and Topic Interest in Geoscience Among 11- And 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trend, Roger

    2005-01-01

    All interest necessarily links the person with the external environment: the object/s of interest. Research into children's interests is examined in the context of a rapidly-expanding literature which has generated several powerful concepts in recent decades, notably "individual interest", "situational interest" and "topic interest". The first is…

  16. The impact of foot arch height on quality of life in 6-12 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Bouza Prego, Mª de los Ángeles; Requeijo Constenla, Ana; Saleta Canosa, Jesús Luis; Bautista Casasnovas, Adolfo; Tajes, Francisco Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether arch height has an effect on the health-related quality of life of schoolchildren. Methods: One hundred and thirteen schoolchildren attended an out-patient centre where self-reported data were recorded, their feet were classified into one of three groups according to their arch index (high, normal or low) and the scores obtained from the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ - Spanish version) were compared. Results: The groups with high, low and normal arch recorded lower scores in Section One for the general foot health and footwear domains and higher scores in foot pain and foot function. In Section Two they obtained lower scores in general health and higher scores in physical activity, social capacity and vigour. Conclusions: Comparison of the scores obtained reveals that arch height has a negative impact on quality of life. Given the limited extent of available evidence in respect of the aetiology and treatment of foot diseases and deformities, these findings reveal the need to implement programmes to promote foot health and carry out further research into this commonly occurring disabling condition. PMID:25767305

  17. Predicting Physical Activity in 10-12 Year Old Children: A Social Ecological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Thomas, Katherine; Weiller, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among predisposing (perceived competence and enjoyment), reinforcing (social environments), enabling factors (motor skills, fitness, physical environments) and physical activity among 288 children, and to identify the age and gender differences among participants. The children completed…

  18. UNDERSTANDING VARIABILITY IN TIME SPENT IN SELECTED LOCATIONS FOR 7-12 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes a series of analyses of clustered, sequential activity/location data collected by Harvard University for 160 children aged 7-12 in Southern California (Geyh et al., 2000). The main purpose of the paper is to understand intra- and inter-variability in the ti...

  19. New Court Ruling Muddles Issues in 12-Year-Old Fight between Coach, NCAA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    A Nevada Supreme Court decision lifted an injunction protecting the University of Nevada at Las Vegas from National Collegiate Athletic Association sanctions but let a lower court decide whether to uphold a 1977 injunction barring suspension of the university's basketball coach. The future course of events is unclear. (MSE)

  20. More Parents Are Teachers, Too. Encouraging Your 6- to 12-Year-old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claudia

    This book emphasizes the importance of parents actively working to ensure that their children receive the best and most effective education, and aims to help parents and children have fun learning together. Chapter 1, "A Healthy Self-Concept," discusses the stages of middle childhood (6-10 years) and preadolescence (11-13 years) and issues of…

  1. A Girl Like You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…

  2. Anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia among young adolescent girls from the peri urban coastal area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Yustina Anie Indriastuti; Muslimatun, Siti; Achadi, Endang L; Sastroamidjojo, Soemilah

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is still a widespread problem. Among adolescent girls, it will bring negative consequences on growth, school performance, morbidity and reproductive performance. This cross sectional study aimed to identify the different nutritional and iron status characteristics of young adolescent girls 10-12 years old with iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia without iron deficiency in the rural coastal area of Indonesia. Anaemic girls (N =133) were recruited out of 1358 girls from 34 elementary schools. Haemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor and zinc protophorphyrin were determined for iron status, whilst weight and height were measured for their nutritional status. General characteristics and dietary intake were assessed through interview. Out of 133 anaemic subjects, 29 (21.8%) suffered from iron deficiency anaemia, which was not significantly related to age and menarche. About 50% were underweight and stunted indicating the presence of acute and chronic malnutrition. The proportion of thinness was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among subjects who suffered from iron deficiency anaemia (51.7% vs. 29.8%). Furthermore, thin subjects had a 5 fold higher risk of suffering from iron deficiency anaemia (P< 0.05) than non-thin subjects (OR: 5.1; 95%CI 1.34-19.00). Further study was recommended to explore other factors associated with anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia, such as the thalassemia trait and vitamin A deficiency. The current iron-folate supplementation program for pregnant women should be expanded to adolescent girls.

  3. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  4. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  5. A girl with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with severe epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and with high-functioning autism and mutism.

    PubMed

    Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:24968009

  6. A girl with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with severe epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and with high-functioning autism and mutism.

    PubMed

    Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  7. Adolescent girls' and parents' views on recruiting and retaining girls into an after-school dance intervention: implications for extra-curricular physical activity provision

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many adolescents are not sufficiently active and girls are less active than boys. Physical activity interventions delivered during curriculum time have reported weak effects. More sustained changes in physical activity may be obtained by facilitating participation in enjoyable activities. Dance is the favourite activity of UK girls but there is a shortage of dance provision. Dance sessions delivered after the school day could prove to be an effective means of engaging adolescent girls in physical activity. There is a lack of information about the factors that would affect girls' recruitment and retention in an after-school dance programme. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 65, Year 7 (11-12 year old) girls from 4 secondary schools in Bristol. In-depth phone interviews were also conducted with 16 (4 per school) of the girls' parents. Interviews and focus groups examined issues that would affect recruitment into the intervention, strategies that could be used to attract girls who have little or no previous experience in dance, any factors that would increase their interest in participating in an after-school dance programme and any factors that would affect retention in the programme. All interviews and focus groups were digitally recorded and thematically analysed. Results Girls reported that a taster session in which they had an opportunity to sample the intervention content and "word of mouth" campaigns by peers, who did not need to be their friends, would encourage them to participate in an after-school dance programme. Sessions that maximised enjoyment and facilitated socialisation opportunities would enhance retention. Parents reported that encouraging groups of friends to join the programme, and stressing the enjoyment of the session would increase participation. Conclusions Recruitment and retention campaigns that focus on enjoyment, socialisation, mastery, goal setting and relating to other girls may be effective strategies for recruiting

  8. Dysosteosclerosis Presents as an “Osteoclast-Poor” Form of Osteopetrosis: Comprehensive Investigation of a 3-Year-Old Girl and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Nenninger, Angie R; Zhang, Xiafang; Huskey, Margaret; Mumm, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring

  9. Young People's Perception of Violence on the Screen: A Joint Project of UNESCO, the World Organization of the Scout Movement, and Utrecht University: Summary Report Presented to the General Conference of UNESCO, Paris, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 5000 12-year olds in 23 countries around the world was conducted to analyze the impact of media violence on children's lives in different cultures. This article presents a summary of findings to be published in full. Highlights media use, individual anxiety and role models, violence in the actual environment, and the relationship…

  10. Girls back off mathematics again: the views and experiences of girls in computer-based mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-12-01

    The views and experiences of girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used were researched. Data were collected by observation and videotaping of lessons, questionnaire, and interviews of students and the teachers. In this paper case studies of six girls are presented. Their `stories' reveal a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. High achieving girls persisted as "outsiders within," other girls "backed off", and exceptional girls challenged gender stereotypes. Implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the super highway are discussed.

  11. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ratio of ... even when their symptoms are the same as boys’, and girls are less likely than boys to receive sufficient ...

  12. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  13. [A girl with a cold foot].

    PubMed

    Rouwet, E V; Ten Raa, S; Verhagen, H J M

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a progressively cold, pale foot. Pedal pulses were absent and there was sensory and motor loss. CT angiography revealed a thromboembolic occlusion of the crural arteries and a popliteal artery entrapment. Following thromboembolectomy with popliteal artery patch angioplasty and release of the gastrocnemius muscle, the girl fully recovered.

  14. Girls Can! Community Coalitions Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Women Educational Foundation, Washington, DC.

    It is possible that the materials presented in this manual were used in implementing community action projects supported by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Educational Foundation. These projects, part of the Girls Can! initiative, were intended to address the disparity between the educational experiences of girls and boys in…

  15. A Novel Frameshift Mutation of the ALDOB Gene in a Korean Girl Presenting with Recurrent Hepatitis Diagnosed as Hereditary Fructose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae-Won; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Oh, Seak Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Ryu, Jeong-Min; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency in fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (Aldolase B). Children can present with hypoglycemia, jaundice, elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly after intake of dietary fructose. Long-term intake of fructose in undiagnosed patients can result in hepatic failure or renal failure. We experienced a case of hereditary fructose intolerance presenting as recurrent hepatitis-like episodes. Detailed evaluation of her dietary habits revealed her avoidance of sweetened foods and fruits. Genetic analysis of ALDOB revealed that she is a homozygote for a novel frameshifting mutation c[758_759insT]+[758_759insT] (p.[val25 3fsX24]+[val253fsX24]). This report is the first of a Korean patient diagnosed with hereditary fructose intolerance using only molecular testing without undergoing intravenous fructose tolerance test or enzyme assay.

  16. A YOUNG GIRL WITH FITS.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imran; Ahmed, Ejaz; Zaidi, Badshah Hussain; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Nisar, Shazia

    2015-01-01

    A young girl presented with fits vomiting and epigastric pain. Investigations including CT-Scan brain, MRI brain, MRV brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination were normal. Her urine was screened for porphobilinogen which was positive. She responded to intravenous dextrose and hypercaloric diet

  17. Girls' Bodies, Drama and Unruliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…

  18. [Congenital H-type tracheoesophageal fistula].

    PubMed

    Raos, M; Koncul, I; Javorović, B

    1996-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl with H-type tracheoesophageal fistula is presented. The fistula was proven by bronchoscopic, oesophageoscopic and radiographic (with contrast medium) studies. As a sucking child the girl was operated, but there is no medical documentation (the girl is a displaced person). The question remains whether it is a primary or recurrent fistula.

  19. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  20. Music Therapy: A Therapeutic Intervention for Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Kathleen A.

    The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…

  1. Girls Incorporated of Alameda County at 50: a voice for girls (1958-2008).

    PubMed

    Terrazas, Cecilia; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Girls Incorporated of Alameda County is nonprofit human service organization that has delivered education, counseling, and advocacy services to girls aged 6 to 18 for 50 years. The organization began as a small, local girls club and has grown into a large multi-faceted service delivery organization attached to a national governing body. The history of Girls Incorporated of Alameda County introduces struggles in relation to external and internal factors that altered the way that the agency financed and managed and exemplifies the important role of nonprofit leadership. The organization's many accomplishments have also presented multiple challenges, particularly related to the changing roles of women in American society. PMID:21416431

  2. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  3. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  4. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  5. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted by the new…

  6. A Ray of Hope for Girls in Trouble: Alternative Education Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a trans-cultural perspective of emotional/behavioral difficulties and a brief overview of the subculture of today's young adolescent girls. Features of successful alternative education services provided at a Singapore girls' home are also presented. This paper concludes with a consideration of implications for teachers and…

  7. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    PubMed

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  8. Is expanding HPV vaccination programs to include school-aged boys likely to be value-for-money: a cost-utility analysis in a country with an existing school-girl program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdictions have already extended HPV vaccination to school-aged boys. Thus, exploration of the cost-utility of adding boys’ vaccination is relevant. We modeled the incremental health gain and costs for extending the current girls-only program to boys, intensifying the current girls-only program to achieve 73% coverage, and extension of the intensive program to boys. Methods A Markov macro-simulation model, which accounted for herd immunity, was developed for an annual cohort of 12-year-olds in 2011 and included the future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I to III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers. In each state, health sector costs, including additional health costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were accumulated. The model included New Zealand data on cancer incidence and survival, and other cause mortality (all by sex, age, ethnicity and deprivation). Results At an assumed local willingness-to-pay threshold of US$29,600, vaccination of 12-year-old boys to achieve the current coverage for girls would not be cost-effective, at US$61,400/QALY gained (95% UI $29,700 to $112,000; OECD purchasing power parities) compared to the current girls-only program, with an assumed vaccine cost of US$59 (NZ$113). This was dominated though by the intensified girls-only program; US$17,400/QALY gained (95% UI: dominant to $46,100). Adding boys to this intensified program was also not cost-effective; US$128,000/QALY gained, 95% UI: $61,900 to $247,000). Vaccination of boys was not found to be cost-effective, even for additional scenarios with very low vaccine or program administration costs – only when combined vaccine and administration costs were NZ$125 or lower per dose was vaccination of boys cost

  9. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  10. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  11. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  12. The Search for Sustainable Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabst, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The girls of girls' schools, the author believes, are a kind of Platonic Form of American girl, an ideal to which most of the rest of society, of the country's meritocratic system, aspires for their daughters, a reflection of one's deepest values. She believes girls all over the country, in all high schools, want The Dream. They want to achieve…

  13. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  14. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  15. Fighting like a girl fighting like a guy: gender identity, ideology, and girls at early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that both perpetuates and challenges the usual notions of masculinity and femininity and the differential power associated with these discourses. We present a sociocultural approach to identity that we believe not only holds promise for helping us to understand girl-fighting behavior but also highlights the clear interrelationship between social identity and personal identity. We conclude by highlighting several implications of this analysis for those who work with girls (and boys) in educational and clinical settings.

  16. Attention styles of hyperactive and normal girls.

    PubMed

    deHaas, P A; Young, R D

    1984-12-01

    Behavioral characteristics and cognitive skills of teacher-identified hyperactive (n = 24) and normally active (n = 24) first- and second-grade girls were investigated. Teachers rated subjects on the Conners Teacher Rating Scale (TRS). Subjects were given several tasks measuring attentional styles and motor skills. Results suggested that hyperactive girls, like hyperactive boys, have short attention spans and poor concentration when compared with normals. Unlike hyperactive boys, hyperactive girls did not show an impulsive response style, and presented few conduct problems to their teachers. TRS profile patterns of the hyperactive girls were similar to those of hyperactive boys, but cutoff scores currently used for males may not be applicable to females. A direct comparison of hyperactive females and males is advocated.

  17. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  18. Connecting with Girls, Connects Them to You: Toward a "by Girls, for Girls" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Today there are 14 million girls ages 11-17 in the United States. The growing population of girls clearly represents a new opportunity for youth development organizations to reach out and engage them. In its continuing commitment to develop program options to meet the needs of girls today, in 2001 the Girl Scout Research Institute conducted one of…

  19. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Afifi, Hanan H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS) method. RESULTS: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM) from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. CONCLUSION: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy. PMID:24019614

  20. Prenatal maternal stress predicts childhood asthma in girls: project ice storm.

    PubMed

    Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Lim, Robert; Laplante, David P; Kobzik, Lester; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences risks of asthma in humans. In this small study, we sought to determine whether disaster-related PNMS would predict asthma risk in children. In June 1998, we assessed severity of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Lifetime asthma symptoms, diagnoses, and corticosteroid utilization were assessed when the children were 12 years old (N = 68). No effects of objective hardship or timing of the exposure were found. However, we found that, in girls only, higher levels of prenatal maternal subjective distress predicted greater lifetime risk of wheezing (OR = 1.11; 90% CI = 1.01-1.23), doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR = 1.09; 90% CI = 1.00-1.19), and lifetime utilization of corticosteroids (OR = 1.12; 90% CI = 1.01-1.25). Other perinatal and current maternal life events were also associated with asthma outcomes. Findings suggest that stress during pregnancy opens a window for fetal programming of immune functioning. A sex-based approach may be useful to examine how prenatal and postnatal environments combine to program the immune system. This small study needs to be replicated with a larger, more representative sample.

  1. [The Barbie-Matrix: effectiveness of a school-based German program for the primary prevention of anorexia nervosa developed for girls up to the age of 12].

    PubMed

    Berger, Uwe; Joseph, Andrea; Sowa, Melanie; Strauss, Bernhard

    2007-06-01

    More than 25 % of the 12-year-old girls in Thuringia (Germany) show problematic eating behaviour as measured with the Eating-Attitudes-Test (EAT-26D), which corresponds to an increased risk for the development of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. This was the starting position of a controlled study using a pre-post-design to check the effectiveness of a newly developed German program for the prevention of anorexia nervosa in girls ("PriMa"). 42 Thuringian schools (20 as treatment group) with 1006 girls participated in the pilot study, which lasted from September 2004 to July 2005. Program effectiveness was analysed with mostly standardized questionnaires at three times of measurement (before, after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up) referring to body related self esteem (FBeK), satisfaction with body shape (KEDS), eating behaviour (EAT-26D) and body related attitudes. The program was established in 9 x 90-minute lessons including interactive exercises and discussing especially developed posters that show scenes of a Barbie-doll's life including the reports of a patient suffering from anorexia. Significant improvements on all variables could be reached for the higher risk group (EAT-26D >/= 10 points; = 26,7 %). Mean values in the EAT-26D decreased 5 points at the average which is equivalent with 6.6 % of the EAT-26D range, reflecting a practically significant change effect. PMID:17357902

  2. Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina

    2014-01-01

    A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations. PMID:23568422

  3. Earth Science Education and the Girl Scouts USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, A. S.

    2001-12-01

    Women are an under-represented population in the physical sciences and engineering, including the Earth sciences. In order to enhance interest and understanding of the Earth sciences in young girls, the Atmospheric Sciences Program at the NASA Langley Research Center, in partnership and cooperation with the Girl Scouts USA and individual Girl Scout Councils, have developed a series of Earth science workshops for Girl Scout trainers and leaders. The workshops cover the Earth system, including the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, and the biosphere and the interactions betwen the various components of the system. The workshop lectures are presented by NASA and university scientists. Each workshop includes hands-on demonstrations and experiments that can be performed by the Girl Scouts. The workshops are presented both at the NASA Langley Research Center and at the Girl Scout USA Conference Center in Briarcliff, New York. The workshop format, content and demonstrations will be discussed.

  4. Can Grade-6 Students Understand Quarks? Probing Acceptance of the Subatomic Structure of Matter with 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Gerfried J.; Schmeling, Sascha M.; Hopf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a teaching concept based on the Standard Model of particle physics. It comprises two consecutive chapters--elementary particles and fundamental interactions. The rationale of this concept is that the fundamental principles of particle physics can run as the golden thread through the whole physics curriculum. The design…

  5. Participation in life situations of 8-12 year old children with cerebral palsy: cross sectional European study

    PubMed Central

    Fauconnier, Jérôme; Dickinson, Heather O; Beckung, Eva; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how involvement in life situations (participation) in children with cerebral palsy varies with type and severity of impairment and to investigate geographical variation in participation. Design Cross sectional study. Trained interviewers visited parents of children with cerebral palsy; multilevel multivariable regression related participation to impairments, pain, and sociodemographic characteristics. Setting Eight European regions with population registers of children with cerebral palsy; one further region recruited children from multiple sources. Participants 1174 children aged 8-12 with cerebral palsy randomly selected from the population registers, 743 (63%) joined in the study; the further region recruited 75 children. Main outcome measure Children’s participation assessed by the Life-H questionnaire covering 10 main areas of daily life. Scoring ignored adaptations or assistance required for participation. Results Children with pain and those with more severely impaired walking, fine motor skills, communication, and intellectual abilities had lower participation across most domains. Type of cerebral palsy and problems with feeding and vision were associated with lower participation for specific domains, but the sociodemographic factors examined were not. Impairment and pain accounted for up to a sixth of the variation in participation. Participation on all domains varied substantially between regions: children in east Denmark had consistently higher participation than children in other regions. For most participation domains, about a third of the unexplained variation could be ascribed to variation between regions and about two thirds to variation between individuals. Conclusions Participation in children with cerebral palsy should be assessed in clinical practice to guide intervention and assess its effect. Pain should be carefully assessed. Some European countries facilitate participation better than others, implying some countries could make better provision. Legislation and regulation should be directed to ensuring this happens. PMID:19395424

  6. Protein Intake as a Risk Factor of Overweight/Obesity in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Tur, Josep A; Morandi, Anita; Tommasi, Mara; Tomasselli, Francesca; Maffeis, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and/or body fat (BF) with macronutrient composition of the diet have suggested that dietary composition may play an important role to overweight/obesity in childhood, but its relation remains inconclusive. The aim was to assess the association between energy intake (EI) and macronutrient diet composition with overweight/obesity among children.Nonrandomized cohort study including 396 Italian children and preadolescents (9-13 years old), 200 overweight/obese and 196 normal-weight. The children's weight, height, WC, and food intake were measured.Reported EI was higher in overweight/obese than in nonoverweight children; however, after body weight was considered, the overweight/obese children had less EI than their leaner counterparts. Percentages of EI from proteins, SFA, MUFA and PUFA (in males), and dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) were higher in the overweight/obese children than in the leaner ones. EI from carbohydrates and fats was lower in overweight/obese males and females, respectively. Positive correlations between BMI and waist-to-height ratio with EI from proteins were found in males (r = 0.296, P < 0.01 and r = 0.326, P < 0.01; respectively) and females (r = 0.374, P < 0.01 and r = 0.405, P < 0.01; respectively), but negative correlations with fats were found in females (r = -0.240, P < 0.01 and r = -0.188, P < 0.05; respectively). Using binary logistic regression, the highest EI from proteins were associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity, while the lowest EI from carbohydrates was associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity in males.Reported EI of overweight/obese children was higher than nonoverweight peers. Overweight/obese children had higher intakes of proteins compared with nonoverweight ones. Overweight/obese males and females showed lower EI from carbohydrates and fats, respectively, than their leaner counterparts. PMID:26717398

  7. Raising a Thinking Preteen: The "I Can Problem Solve" Program for 8- to 12-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shure, Myrna B.

    Aimed at parents of early adolescents, this book helps parents provide the skills teens need to cope with life's everyday frustrations and to make informed decisions about problems such as the stresses of homework, friendship, contending with peer pressure, and dealing with bullies. The foundation of the book is the "I Can Problem Solve" (ICPS)…

  8. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  9. Brief Report: Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 12-Year-Old with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Storch, Eric A.; Bodfish, James W.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves exaggerated or excessive worry about threatening and non-threatening stimuli coupled with impairing rituals believed to reduce anxiety. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social and communicative activities as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. Approximately 2%…

  10. Visual Thinking in Teaching History: Reading the Visual Thinking Skills of 12 Year-Old Pupils in Istanbul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilek, Gulcin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the visual thinking skills of some sixth grade (12-13 year-old) primary pupils who created visual interpretations during history courses. Pupils drew pictures describing historical scenes or events based on visual sources. They constructed these illustrations by using visual and written primary and secondary sources in…

  11. Protein Intake as a Risk Factor of Overweight/Obesity in 8- to 12-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Tur, Josep A; Morandi, Anita; Tommasi, Mara; Tomasselli, Francesca; Maffeis, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and/or body fat (BF) with macronutrient composition of the diet have suggested that dietary composition may play an important role to overweight/obesity in childhood, but its relation remains inconclusive. The aim was to assess the association between energy intake (EI) and macronutrient diet composition with overweight/obesity among children.Nonrandomized cohort study including 396 Italian children and preadolescents (9-13 years old), 200 overweight/obese and 196 normal-weight. The children's weight, height, WC, and food intake were measured.Reported EI was higher in overweight/obese than in nonoverweight children; however, after body weight was considered, the overweight/obese children had less EI than their leaner counterparts. Percentages of EI from proteins, SFA, MUFA and PUFA (in males), and dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) were higher in the overweight/obese children than in the leaner ones. EI from carbohydrates and fats was lower in overweight/obese males and females, respectively. Positive correlations between BMI and waist-to-height ratio with EI from proteins were found in males (r = 0.296, P < 0.01 and r = 0.326, P < 0.01; respectively) and females (r = 0.374, P < 0.01 and r = 0.405, P < 0.01; respectively), but negative correlations with fats were found in females (r = -0.240, P < 0.01 and r = -0.188, P < 0.05; respectively). Using binary logistic regression, the highest EI from proteins were associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity, while the lowest EI from carbohydrates was associated with higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity in males.Reported EI of overweight/obese children was higher than nonoverweight peers. Overweight/obese children had higher intakes of proteins compared with nonoverweight ones. Overweight/obese males and females showed lower EI from carbohydrates and fats, respectively, than their leaner counterparts.

  12. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  13. 2 1/2-Year-Old Children Use Animacy and Syntax to Learn a New Noun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Echols, Catharine H.

    2004-01-01

    We examine how attention to animacy information may contribute to children's developing knowledge of language. This research extends beyond prior research in that children were shown dynamic events with novel entities, and were asked not only to comprehend sentences but to use sentence structure to infer the meaning of a new word. In a 4 x 3…

  14. The Development of Cognitive Schemata in Children (Birth to 12 Years Old) of Depressed Parents: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Dean John

    One of the ways in which children of depressed parents are affected is in the area of cognitive schemata. In cognitive behavioral theory, schemata drive emotions and therefore influence behavior. Subsequently, a better understanding of the cognitive schemata of children of depressed parents is attempted in this paper. It offers a review of the…

  15. [Cerebral hemodynamics in children of 8-12 years old with alterations of the motor activity of central origin].

    PubMed

    Holovchenko, I V; Haĭdaĭ, M I

    2013-01-01

    In children with altered physical activity there is a lack of brain blood supply, which is the most pronounced in the system of the vertebral arteries right hemisphere, and a low volume speed of blood flow in the internal carotid artery and in the system of the vertebral arteries. Children of the main group have a decreased venous outflow from the cavity of the skull, which is accompanied by altered venous circulation in the sinuses of the brain. It is established that in the system of the vertebral arteries a hemispheric asymmetry of growth in the right hemisphere is observed, in contrast to the left hemisphere, indicators of vascular tone of arterial and venous type of small caliber. Children with altered physical activity have higher values of indicators of venous outflow, than the children of the control group, and they have better venous outflow from the carotid system and a slightly worse with vertebro-basilar.

  16. Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

  17. Determinants of Inclusive Education of 8-12 Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy in 9 European Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentenac, Mariane; Ehlinger, Virginie; Michelsen, Susan Ishoy; Marcelli, Marco; Dickinson, Heather Olivia; Arnaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The principle of inclusive education has been increasingly recognised over recent decades and most countries officially support schooling of children with disabilities in mainstream settings. The SPARCLE study offers the opportunity to report on the schooling practices for children with cerebral palsy according to the nature and severity of their…

  18. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  19. Project Ice Storm: Prenatal Maternal Stress Affects Cognitive and Linguistic Functioning in 5 1/2-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, David P.; Brunet, Alain; Schmitz, Norbert; Ciampi, Antonio; King, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The study used data from Project Ice Storm to determine the extent to which exposure to prenatal maternal stress due to a natural disaster can explain variance in the intellectual and language performance of offspring at age 5 1/2.

  20. School Subject Preferences: Age and Gender Differences Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Ann; Comber, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study that focused on the school subject preferences of 11-12 year old girls (n=144) and boys (n=218) and 15-16 year old girls (n=269) and boys (n=300). Reports that there are gender differences in subject preference, while more traditional subjects were favored. (CMK)

  1. Putting menarche and girls into the global population health agenda.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Sutherland, Carla; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-03-26

    Menarche, the onset of menstruation is a fundamental part of a girl's transition from childhood to adolescence. Studies show that girls in many countries experience menarche with insufficient information and support. Girls from around the world report feeling ashamed and afraid. The potential health effects of such experiences include a weakening of girls' sense of self-confidence and competence, which in turn may comprise girls' abilities to assert themselves in different situations, including in relation to their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health. There is an important need for the public health community to assure that girls receive the education and support they need about menstruation, so they are able to feel more confident about their bodies, and navigate preventable health problems - now and in the future. For too long, the global health community has overlooked the window of opportunity presented by menarche. Family planning programs have generally focused their efforts on married couples and HIV programs have focused safer sex promotion on older adolescent girls and boys. Starting the conversation at menarche with girls in early adolescence would fully use this window of opportunity. It would engage young adolescent girls and be a natural first step for later, more comprehensive conversations about sexuality, reproduction and reproductive health. There are a number of initiatives beginning to tackle the provision of puberty information to girls and boys, but the global health community is overdue to set a global standard for the provision of such guidance.

  2. The Girl Game Company: Engaging Latina Girls in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…

  3. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  4. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  5. Stage Costumes for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhowe, Jean

    This book contains full instructions for making 14 costumes for girls to fit any sizes up to about 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches) in height. All the garments can be made to fit any child's individual measurements without the need of complicated pattern pieces. Simple basic shapes such as rectangles and circles are used for the patterns and the only…

  6. Girls + Technology = Turnoff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    1997-01-01

    Examines gender differences in computer use, citing male- oriented software as a possible reason girls are turned off, and highlights traditionally feminine and gender-neutral games. Describes ways of encouraging females: all-female computer and math classes, pairing students, mentoring, integrating technology into content areas, early…

  7. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  8. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  9. Academe's New Girl Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1978-01-01

    A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

  10. The Goose Girl Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janice H.

    1989-01-01

    Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)

  11. Girl scouts face complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    A claim filed by the Legal Action Center alleges that the Girl Scouts USA and the Adirondack Girl Scout Council discriminated against 8-year-old [name removed] [name removed] by refusing to admit her because she has HIV. One complaint, filed in the New York State's Division of Human Rights, alleged that the Adirondack Council denied the girl equal access based on New York's human rights law. A second complaint alleged that the Girl Scouts USA aided and abetted in the discrimination by not requiring the Adirondack unit to comply with national organization policy barring discrimination based on disability. The girl has been successfully placed in another troop.

  12. Girl scouts face complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    A claim filed by the Legal Action Center alleges that the Girl Scouts USA and the Adirondack Girl Scout Council discriminated against 8-year-old [name removed] [name removed] by refusing to admit her because she has HIV. One complaint, filed in the New York State's Division of Human Rights, alleged that the Adirondack Council denied the girl equal access based on New York's human rights law. A second complaint alleged that the Girl Scouts USA aided and abetted in the discrimination by not requiring the Adirondack unit to comply with national organization policy barring discrimination based on disability. The girl has been successfully placed in another troop. PMID:11366636

  13. Acrocallosal syndrome: report of a Brazilian girl.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, M L; Richieri-Costa, A

    1992-08-01

    We report on a Brazilian girl born to nonconsanguineous parents and presenting with frontonasal dysostosis, callosal agenesis, abnormal upper lids, cleft lip/palate, redundant skin in the neck, grooved chin, and bifid thumbs. Major diagnostic criteria present in this patient are related to the acrocallosal syndrome. The clinical and major nosologic aspects of this condition are discussed.

  14. Pubertal Timing and Its Link to Behavioral and Emotional Problems among "At-Risk" African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…

  15. Puberty and Girls' Sexuality: Why Hormones Are Not the Complete Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Sontag, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. High Achieving Girls in Mathematics: What's Wrong with Working Hard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Ann C.; Berenson, Sarah B.

    2003-01-01

    The participation of women in graduate studies and mathematics-related careers remains a social and economic problem in the United States. Part of a larger study to understand this lack of participation, here we present preliminary findings of girls who are high achievers in middle grades mathematics. This interpretive study documents girls'…

  17. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  18. Raising Their Voices: The Politics of Girls' Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel

    Challenging conventional characterization of teenage girlhood as a wasteland of depression, low self-esteem, and passive victimhood, this book presents accounts of young girls showing how their voices are shaped and constrained by socioeconomic class. Based on a year-long study involving conversations with white adolescent girls from the working…

  19. The All-American Girls' Baseball League, 1943-1954.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Merrie A.

    This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…

  20. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  1. Breast carcinoma in a prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Singh, Sudipto Kumar; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Manju

    2014-04-15

    Breast carcinoma is a very rare disease in children. We present a rare case of breast cancer in an 11-year-old prepubertal girl. Clinically, it was a case of locally advanced breast cancer (T4bN1M0). The core biopsy report showed adenocarcinoma of the not otherwise specified (NOS) variety (oestrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative). Diagnosis was late in this case due to lack of suspicion. A modified radical mastectomy was considered to be adequate treatment. Histologically, it was adenocarcinoma NOS, which is rare in young girls (the secretory type being more common). Incidence, differential diagnoses, investigation and management of breast carcinoma in young girls are discussed. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight that prevention and early detection of breast carcinoma in children is very important.

  2. [A girl with a painful red skin].

    PubMed

    Bakker, M E C Mariëlle; Oberndorff, Karin M E J

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with increasing erythroderma since one day in combination with impetigo vulgaris. As exfoliative lesions and bullae developed within hours, the patient was diagnosed with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. She was successfully treated with flucloxacillin. PMID:23369814

  3. Book Series Helps Girls Fight Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…

  4. Facilitating Career Development for Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Vocational Guidance Association, Washington, DC.

    Selections from papers given at a 1973 workshop held at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, are presented. Seventy-nine participants gathered to search out new insights into the changing world of girls and women. A forword by Carl McDaniels and an introduction by Thelma Lennon precede the 12 papers, which include: (1) Historical…

  5. Learning to Negotiate Sexual Relationships: A Girls' School in Tanzania as a Restrictive and Agentic Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…

  6. Some Problems of Sexual Growth in Adolescent Underprivileged Unwed Black Girls

    PubMed Central

    James, W. F. Bernell; James, Pauline M.; Walker, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    The adolescent female experiences many problems associated with sexual growth. These are greatly compounded in underprivileged black girls, particularly the unwed. Meharry Medical College has established comprehensive programs for the management of special health problems involving adolescent girls. This study presents an overview and statistical study of the psychological and psychosocial forces that confront these underprivileged girls. PMID:904015

  7. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  8. Baseline and Modulated Acoustic Startle Responses in Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…

  9. No Boys Allowed! All-Girl Class Gets Students Hooked on TE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the number of girls who enroll in their elective courses is a perennial challenge for many technology educators. Yet one educator has found a very successful approach to drawing in female students: a girls-only class called Woodworking for Girls. This paper presents a brief description of the course. It also offers suggestions for…

  10. The girl child: a girls' empowerment initiative in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, B; Sheikh, M

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Girl Child Project became a reality in Pakistan. This pilot project aimed to 1) set a base line for activities for a sample of 1000 girls and their families, 2) organize orientation meetings and workshops to raise the awareness of 500 young girls and women, 3) develop a core of young girls to create local awareness of the problems of girls through various activities, and 4) develop motivational messages and advocacy/training materials. The first phase of the project included a national workshop for leaders in June 1992; 10 evaluation workshops on the topics of status, literacy, nutrition, health, and the environment as they relate to the girl child; the formation of 105 groups of five to eight girls each who were directly influenced by the project; and the indirect influence of 2.7 million people. The second phase, begun in 1994, expands on the first phase and sponsors project activities in 200 locations. Girls who participated in the project have learned to increase their confidence and to voice their opinions in their homes as they have become aware of their rights. Thus mothers who feed sons better than daughters, for example, are being challenged and are changing their practices. Some girls are also providing education to other children. The girls face a great deal of resistance when they try to change their traditional roles, and they must convince their families that their increased knowledge and skills will ultimately benefit their family and community. The girls who have participated in the workshops have become aware of new worlds and ways of life which they did not know existed, and they have developed the confidence to gain the education they need to improve their society.

  11. Weight, height and puberty in a cohort of Macedonian girls.

    PubMed

    Krstevska-Konstantinova, Marina; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Kicova, M; Gucev, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a growing problem in developed and developing countries. Many studies report an increasing incidence of obesity in the last decade. The aim of our transversal epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight children, auxological characteristics and pubertal stage in healthy girls from first (200 girls), third (209), fifth (290) and seventh (223) grade of school. In this study 928 girls were evaluated through systematic school examinations in the ambulance of municipality of Karposh, Skopje. The Rome and Turkish nationality, as well as Serbian were present in a small percentage, while detailed analysis was performed in the Macedonian and Albanian population of girls. The initiation of puberty (stage M2 or P2 by Tanner) was present in Macedonian girls: 4.3% of children in first grade, 23% in third grade, and 51.7% in fifth grade. In Albanians, in first grade M2 is present in 2.7%, in third grade 5.2%, and in fifth grade 46.9%. Body mass index (BMI SDS) was +3.5 +/- 1.5 in 35% of Macedonian girls and only 5% of Albanian girls. The Macedonian girls were also significantly higher (p < 0.01) and more obese than the Albanian girls. The pubertal stage was also more advanced in Macedonian girls. Most of the obese children who were included in the study reported increased consumption of fast food. Although in the past years obesity was not a problem in our country, it is becoming more severe with every year. PMID:19537661

  12. Handicapped Girls and Girl Scouting: A Guide for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Marian Weller

    Designed as a handbook for girl scount leaders involved with the handicapped girl scout, the manual first makes general statements about handicaps, leader qualifications, and troop placement and organization. Information and guidelines for leaders are provided for the following exceptionalities: visual impairment, hearing impairment, orthopedic…

  13. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants.

  14. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants. PMID:11366649

  15. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  16. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  17. [Repeated torsion of the normal adnexa in a premenarchal girl].

    PubMed

    Pankrac, Zofia; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Korzon, Michał

    2004-12-01

    Recurrent normal adnexal torsion is rare. The clinical presentation is poor and nonspecific. Authors present 11-years old girl with repeated torsion of the normal adnexa. At the first laparotomy salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Next two incidences were treated conservatively by ovary detorsion in laparoscopy. After second laparoscopy the girl was referred to the Adolescent Gynecology Outpatient Clinic. Preventive oophoroplexy was performed. After half of a year observation the girl reported no complaints and no abnormalities in physical examinations were found. Oophoroplexy in the cases of repeated normal adnexal torsion is a very useful method of prevention of recurrence.

  18. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  19. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  20. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  1. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  2. Serum leptin levels in girls with precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, A; Basciani, F; Trotta, D; De Simone, M; Morgese, G; Chiarelli, F

    2003-04-01

    Few data are available regarding leptin levels in children with different pubertal stages or with precocious puberty (PP). The aim of this study was to assess the changes in serum leptin levels in patients with PP. We studied 20 girls with PP, with Tanner stage II-III; the age at the beginning of pubertal signs ranged from 4.2 to 7.1 yr; all the girls had an advantaged bone age. Controls were subdivided in two groups: group 1: 20 pre-pubertal girls with the same chronological age of the patients, without any signs of pubertal development (Tanner stage I); group 2: 20 additional girls with the same bone age, pubertal stage and body mass index (BMI) of the girls with PP. Serum leptin levels in females with PP are similar to those found in subjects with normal puberty (9.0 +/- 0.8 vs 9.1 +/- 0.9 ng/ml; ns) and different from subjects with the same chronological age without activation of puberty (5.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In all groups leptin levels correlated significantly with BMI (girls with PP: r = 0.5 1, p < 0.02; control group 1 girls: r = 0.71; p < 0.0001; control group 2 girls: r = 0.49; p < 0.02), there was no significant relationship between leptin and activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our results indicate that the serum leptin levels in the girls with PP are not significantly different from levels in healthy girls at a similar stage of pubertal development, suggesting that the relationship between serum leptin levels and BMI is also present in this pathological situation.

  3. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  4. A message to school girls.

    PubMed

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  5. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  6. Korean Physical Society's Physics Camp for High School Girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2005-10-01

    The Women's Committee of the Korean Physical Society organized physics camps during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 for high school girls. The camps give the girls an opportunity to meet and interact with working physicists and enhance smart-girl networking. About 40 students in 10 teams visited excellent laboratories in universities and research institutes located in diverse areas of the country. The girls explored the work going on in each laboratory for a few days and participated in some basic experiments when possible. Afterward they gathered at the on-site camp for oral and poster presentations about what they learned and what they did in the laboratories they visited. Their presentations were evaluated and prizes awarded for outstanding teams. These camps were successful in terms of attracting many enthusiastic girl students and enhancing their interest in physics. The camps also showed the Korean physics community the importance of this kind of activity. To attract many girl students from various regions of the country, the Korean Physical Society co-organized the physics camp with the WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Center, which has a network system for girl students interested in science and mathematics. The 2004 KPS-ASML-WISE Physics camp was supported by the ASML Foundation in the Netherlands.

  7. Bridging Differences -- how Social Relationships and Racial Diversity Matter in a Girls' Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekelis, Linda S.; Ancheta, Rebecca Wepsic; Heber, Etta; Countryman, Jeri

    In this article, we explore an understudied dimension of girls' single-sex education - how social relationships and racial diversity impact the educational environment for girls, and how teachers may best address these concerns. Findings are presented from a 3-year qualitative study of girls' experiences in a single-sex technology program. Girls valued the all-girls aspect of the programs, and friendships formed the foundation of their social experiences. Girls' friendship groups influenced their experiences and eventually their success in the after school technology programs. When friendship groups were observed to be racially homogeneous, they created challenges for including and supporting a racially diverse student membership. Our responses to the challenges that cultural differences and tensions present are outlined, along with recommendations for helping girls bridge these differences.

  8. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  9. Pseudotumour of the Mandible Associated with von Willebrand's Disease.

    PubMed

    Daniel Sathiya, S S; Pari Selvakumar, P; Singh, Mandeep; Abraham, Aby; Koshy, Santosh

    2015-03-01

    Patients with bleeding disorders may occasionally present with pseudotumours. Most commonly these occur in the soft tissues and long bones, and are very rare in the maxillofacial region. We present the clinical details and management of a pseudotumour of the mandible in a 12-year-old girl with von Willebrand's disease.

  10. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life. PMID:12158010

  11. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life.

  12. Girls Back Off Mathematics Again: The Views and Experiences of Girls in Computer-Based Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the views and experiences of six girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used. Indicates a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. Discusses implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the information super highway. (Author/KHR)

  13. Nobody's perfect: a qualitative examination of African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' perceptions of body image.

    PubMed

    Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-06-01

    Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.

  14. Understanding Girls' Circle as an Intervention on Perceived Social Support, Body Image, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving…

  15. Girls Online Feeling Out of Bounds: Girl Scout Research Institute Study on Teenage Girls and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…

  16. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  17. Metastatic Crohn's disease in a Chinese girl.

    PubMed

    Yu, J T H T; Chong, L Y; Lee, K C

    2006-12-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease, in which non-caseating granulomatous infiltration of the skin occurs at sites separated from the gastro-intestinal tract by normal tissue, is the least common dermatologic manifestation of Crohn's disease. We report a 15-year-old girl with metastatic Crohn's disease presenting as granulomatous vulvar papules and nodules with typical histopathologic features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic Crohn's disease in Chinese children reported in the English medical literature.

  18. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  19. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls. PMID:18551822

  20. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls.

  1. Writing Like a Good Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    2008-01-01

    In a montage of genres, Helen Collins Sitler illuminates the subtle yet powerful, often detrimental messages we send to girls that silence their public and private voices and diminish their opportunities to question and learn.

  2. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome.

  3. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676

  4. Does worry moderate the relation between aggression and depression in adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive girls, more so than aggressive boys, are at an increased risk for depression. Despite disconcerting outcomes, few researchers have examined factors that may attenuate or exacerbate the relation between aggression and depression. Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of worry in the relation between aggressive behaviour and depressive symptoms, commonly co-occurring problems in girls, have been proposed. In the present study, we examined worry as a possible moderator in the relation between girls nominated as aggressive by their peers and self-reported depressive symptoms in a sample of 226 girls aged 13 (M = 12.92, SD = 1.28) at Time 1. We found that worry exacerbated the risk of depressive symptoms concurrently and one year later for physically aggressive girls, but not relationally aggressive girls. These results suggest that worry plays an important role in the prediction of depression for aggressive girls, which varies by the form aggression takes.

  5. Body Talk for Girls Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to girls, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for girls on…

  6. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  7. Listening to girls and boys talk about girls' physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vu, Maihan B; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B

    2006-02-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus groups (N = 77), and 80 semistructured interviews with girls are examined to identify perceptions of girls' physical activity behaviors to help develop TAAG interventions. Both girls and boys talk about physically active girls as being "tomboys" or "too aggressive." Girls are more likely to characterize active girls as "in shape," whereas boys say they are "too athletic." Girls report boys to be influential barriers and motivators in shaping their beliefs about physical activity. Given the strong influence of peers, developing successful interventions for girls should include verbal persuasion, modeling, and social support from both girls and boys.

  8. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry. PMID:12158001

  9. Premature thelarche in Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ting; Tung, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to understand the clinical features and natural course of Taiwanese girls with premature thelarche (PT). The medical records of 91 Taiwanese girls with PT who were diagnosed younger than six and have been regularly followed up for more than two years were reviewed. For comparison, GnRH test was also done in 25 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 10 normal prepubertal girls. The age of onset of these patients was 1.5 +/- 1.6 years and 79% of them developed PT before the age of two. Girls with PT had intermediate degree of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian activity between prepuberty and CPP with FSH-predominant response to GnRH stimulation. 87% of patients have complete regression of breast development during 3.8 +/- 2.5 years' follow-up but 19% of them have progressed to CPP during follow-up. We conclude that Taiwanese girls with PT more often developed within the first two years of life. Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with predominant FSH activity during infancy may contribute to its development. In addition, PT is not always a benign self-limited condition, and clinicians should be cautious about pubertal development of these patients.

  10. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  11. Information Processing Profiles of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnekreef, J. Agnes; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Althaus, Monika; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the relationships between several information processing capacities and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a general population sample of 10- to 12-year olds (N = 2,037 51% girls). Methods: Parent-reported behavior problems as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist were used to form four…

  12. Young Children's Emotion Comprehension and Theory of Mind Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Amy A.; Sallquist, Julie; Bolnick, Rebecca R.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the relation between theory of mind (ToM) and emotion understanding among 78 children 4 1/2; to 6 1/2; years old (35 boys, 43 girls). ToM understanding was assessed using ignorance and false belief questions within an emotion-understanding task that evaluated children's abilities to recognize…

  13. T.A. Barron: Glowing Like a Crystal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with T.A. Barron, an author of a trilogy of novels about a 12-year-old girl. Topics include character development, adult/child relationships, themes, writing processes, the influence of children on the writing, adult science fiction and young-adult classification of the books, and research and rewrites. (AEF)

  14. Successful endoscopic ablation of a pyriform sinus fistula in a child: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Paulette I; Roehm, Corrie E; Friedman, Ellen M; Athanassaki, Ioanna; Kim, Eugene S; Brandt, Mary L; Wesson, David E; Lopez, Monica E

    2016-06-01

    Recurrent thyroid infections are rare in children. When present, patients should be evaluated for anatomic anomalies such as pyriform sinus fistulae. We describe a 12-year-old girl with history of recurrent thyroid abscesses secondary to a pyriform sinus fistula and managed with concurrent endoscopic ablation and incision and drainage. PMID:26820515

  15. Pharmacological Management of Bipolar Disorder in a Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Correll, Christoph U.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Carlson, Harold E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, four clinicians respond to the following case vignette: A 12-year-old girl with insulin-dependent diabetes presents for treatment of her newly diagnosed bipolar disorder. How would you address the bipolar disorder pharmacologically, and how would the presence of diabetes affect your selection of medication and clinical management?

  16. Tall girls: the social shaping of a medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Howell, Joel D

    2006-10-01

    During the latter half of the 20th century, estrogen therapy was administered to prevent otherwise healthy girls with tall stature from becoming tall adults by inhibiting further linear growth. We explore how decisions to treat tall girls with estrogen were influenced by both scientific knowledge and sociologic norms. Estrogen therapy represented the logical application of scientific knowledge regarding the role of estrogen for closure of the growth plates, but it also reflected prevailing societal and political beliefs about what it meant to be a tall girl. We discuss the rise and fall in popularity of this therapy and suggest that insight into the present-day treatment of short stature can be gained by comparing the use of estrogen therapy for tall girls with the use of growth hormone therapy for short boys. We suggest that this case study illustrates how scientific knowledge is always created and applied within a particular social context. PMID:17018462

  17. Does Barbie Make Girls Want to be Thin? The Effect of Experimental Exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-Year-Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported…

  18. Girl child and gender bias.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.

  19. Partial trisomy of distal 19q detected by quantitative real-time PCR and FISH in a girl with mild facial dysmorphism, hypotonia and developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Sauter, S M; Böhm, Detlef; Bartels, Iris; Burfeind, Peter; Laccone, Franco A; Neesen, Jürgen; Wilken, Bernd; Liehr, Thomas; Zoll, Barbara

    2007-05-15

    We report on a 2 7/12-year-old girl who was referred to us because of psychomotor developmental delay. She is the second child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents. Pregnancy and birth were uneventful. Milestones of motor development were delayed: grasping at 6 months, sitting without support at 16 months, crawling at 16 months and walking at 2 4/12 years of age. She spoke about five words and followed simple instructions. Banding cytogenetics revealed a numerically and structurally normal female karyotype of 46,XX. By quantitative real-time PCR analysis of all subtelomeric regions, a partial trisomy of the subtelomeric region of 19q could be detected. This result was confirmed by FISH-analysis with a subtelomeric probe for 19q. The additional material of chromosome 19q was localized on chromosome 6q. However, a deletion of the subtelomeric region of 6q could not be detected with a subtelomeric FISH probe for 6q. Conventional cytogenetic analysis as well as FISH with subtelomeric probes for 19q and 6q showed normal results in the parents. The detected chromosomal aberration probably occurred de novo. The clinical features are very likely to be caused solely by the partial trisomy 19q.

  20. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls Into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among middle school—aged girls. TAAG provided a unique opportunity to recruit large cohorts of randomly sampled girls within 36 diverse middle schools across the United States. METHODS Key elements of the formative planning, coordination, and design of TAAG’s recruitment efforts included flexibility, tailoring, and the use of incentives. Various barriers, including a natural disaster, political tension, and district regulations, were encountered throughout the recruitment process, but coordinated strategies and frequent communication between the 6 TAAG sites were helpful in tailoring the recruitment process at the 36 intervention and control schools. RESULTS Progressively refined recruitment strategies and specific attention to the target audience of middle school girls resulted in overall study recruitment rates of 80%, 85%, and 89%, for the baseline, posttest, and follow-up period, respectively. DISCUSSION The steady increase in recruitment rates over time is attributed to an emphasis on successful strategies and a willingness to modify less successful methods. Open and consistent communication, an increasingly coordinated recruitment strategy, interactive recruitment presentations, and participant incentives resulted in an effective recruitment campaign. PMID:18808471

  1. Severely obese adolescent girls rely earlier on carbohydrates during walking than normal-weight matched girls.

    PubMed

    Gavarry, Olivier; Aguer, Celine; Delextrat, Anne; Lentin, Gregory; Ayme, Karine; Boussuges, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the substrate oxidation rate and the exercise intensity at which maximal lipid oxidation and ventilatory threshold (VT) occur in obese (BMI: 36.6 ± 6.3 kg · m(-2)) and normal-weight adolescent girls (BMI: 18.7 ± 1.6 kg · m(-2)) aged 14-18 years. Substrate oxidation rate was determined by gas exchange using an incremental field test involving walking. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Carbohydrate oxidation rates were significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight girls at speeds ranging from 4 to 6 km · h(-1) (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were observed between groups regarding lipid oxidation rates. The crossover point of substrate utilisation and the VT were significantly lower in obese than in normal-weight adolescents (P < 0.05). Maximal lipid oxidation rate was observed at 46 ± 15 and 53 ± 15 %EVO2max in obese and normal-weight adolescents, respectively. At these intensities, the Lipox(max) was significantly lower in obese than in normal-weight girls (6.7 ± 2.3 versus 8.9 ± 3.5 mg · min(-1) · kg(-1) FFM, P < 0.05, 95% CI: -3.7 to -0.7, d = -0.74). The present results have implications in designing interventions to promote lipid oxidation and energy expenditure during walking in severely obese adolescent girls.

  2. Gender Context of the School and Study Culture, or How the Presence of Girls Affects the Achievement of Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtte, Mieke Van

    2004-01-01

    This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys'…

  3. Girls, pecking order and smoking.

    PubMed

    Michell, L; Amos, A

    1997-06-01

    Against a background of growing concern about the failure to reduce cigarette smoking amongst young people, particularly girls, this paper attempts to unravel the complex interrelationships between smoking, peer group structure and gender. We were particularly intrigued to explore a recent hypothesis in the literature that suggests that girls who smoke, far from lacking self-esteem, are more self-confident and socially skilled than their non-smoking peers. Sociometric and qualitative analyses revealed that smoking behaviour was indeed shaped by gender, and that the psychosocial processes involved in smoking uptake may be different for boys and than for girls. Peer group structure, consistently described by young people as hierarchical, was closely related to smoking behaviour. Girls at the top of the social pecking order who projected an image of high self-esteem were identified as most likely to smoke, while only a small minority of girls fitted the stereotype of the young female smoker who has poor social skills and low self-esteem. Boys of high social status were less vulnerable, since sport and a desire to be fit to some extent protected them. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the meaning of self-esteem in relation to smoking uptake, arguing instead for an exploration of the term "self-worth". They suggest the need for health education programmes which are sensitive both to gender and to peer group structures.

  4. Girl child and family in Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Pandey, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of the girl child at the family level in India. Analysis is based on a field study in Maharashtra state and other studies included in a government report on the "Girl Child and the Family." The family context strongly impacts child growth and development. Evidence indicates that a girl child faces discrimination and inequality. Every sixth female death is attributed to gender discrimination. Household tasks prevent girls' school enrollment. Children learn role expectations at home. Daughters are taught their duties and obligations as if they were a piece of property. 25% of the parents in the sample considered a girl's birth with indifference and unhappiness. In 11% of cases, girls were not immunized at all. Breast feeding was short. 31.8% of mothers and 25% of in-laws expected the girl's birth to be a boy. 98.2% of mothers did not rely on sex determination of the fetus. Almost 60% of households did not restrict smiling or crying among boys or girls. 70% restricted laughing loudly. 42.4% restricted only girls' laughing out loud. 17% restricted girls' smiling or crying. 46.5% restricted girls' movement to the house. 42% did not allow daughters to speak to the opposite sex. 17% restricted access to the market for daughters. Girls were encouraged to cook, stitch, and dance. 60% of girls preferred to spend time with girl friends. Boys had better access to movies. 57% of girls spent time on housework. 47% became gender aware from mass media. Most felt frightened at menstruation. 88% of girls thought that all should equally attain the same level of education. Girls received an equal share of food and health care. 87% of girls did not work for wages. Those who worked did not control their income.

  5. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl

    PubMed Central

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa. PMID:24706700

  6. Where the girls aren't: High school girls and advanced placement physics enrollment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Susan O'brien

    During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.

  7. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  8. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  9. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Silicon Valley youth awarded $145,000 in college scholarships, organization’s highest honor representing four million kids and teens MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the University of Wisconsin-Madison to Provide Full Tuition Scholarships for Multicultural Arts Program Two full-tuition ...

  10. Making Science Appeal to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…

  11. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  12. Urogenital complications among girls with genital mutilation: a hospital-based study in Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Almroth, Lars; Bedri, Hibba; El Musharaf, Susan; Satti, Alia; Idris, Tayseer; Hashim, M Sir K; Suliman, Gaafar I; Bergström, Staffan

    2005-08-01

    To explore paediatric complications of female genital mutilation (FGM), 255 consecutive girls aged 4-9 years presenting to an emergency ward in Sudan were included in this clinical study. Full examination, including inspection of genitalia, was performed. Dipsticks for nitrite and leucocytes were used to diagnose suspected urinary tract infection (UTI). Girls with a form of FGM narrowing vulva had significantly more UTI than others, and among girls below the age of seven there was a significant association between FGM and UTI. Only 8% of girls diagnosed as having UTI reported urogenital symptoms. In spite of the fact that 73% of the girls subjected to FGM were reported to have been bedridden for one week or more after the operation, only 10% stated immediate complications. We conclude that FGM contributes significantly to morbidity among girls, a large share of which does not come to medical attention.

  13. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.

  14. Color naming by boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Machen, V

    2002-02-01

    The present study describes a field experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that color naming varies for 56 adolescent boys and 39 girls. No standard color chart such as Munsell, Pantone, or Crayola was used. Instead, subjects identified 15 computer-generated color samples assigned a score based on thescale devised by Rich in 1977 of four color descriptor categories. Findings differed from those of most previous studies, in which women aged over 16 years showed a more elaborate color vocabulary than men. Among the 14- to 16-yr.-old subjects, there was no significant difference in color naming. PMID:11883586

  15. Fasciolopsiasis in a five year old girl.

    PubMed

    Naher, B S; Shahid, A T; Khan, K A; Nargis, S; Hoque, M M

    2013-04-01

    A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.

  16. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  17. Listening to Girls and Boys Talk about Girls' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…

  18. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  19. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  20. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  1. Gifted Girls: What Challenges Do They Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Vickie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses challenges facing gifted girls at all levels of education, including social pressures not to appear gifted. Identifies school factors that negatively impact their education, and provides school strategies for helping gifted girls succeed, including support groups, counseling, and calling on girls in class. (CR)

  2. Working with Challenging Groups of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditter, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Discusses conflicts among girls in a camp setting and how camp counselors can promote positive changes. Examines conflicting female roles in today's society and girls' reactions. Suggests addressing social dysphoria among girls through outdoor-challenge activities led by credible adult female role models. Includes counseling tips. (SV)

  3. The Young Gifted Girl: A Contemporary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)

  4. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  5. Improving Girls' Education in Guatemala. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC. Center for Development Information and Evaluation.

    In Guatemala, many girls attend no school. A project by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Basic Education Strengthening (BEST), demonstrated that improving educational quality is the best approach to enhancing girls' participation. BEST included a Girls Education Program (GEP) activity. Under the BEST/GEP umbrella,…

  6. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide for Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Mentoring is about building trust over a long period of time. If a mentor cares about the girls and follows through with the promises that he or she makes to them, a mentor will be successful in helping them to improve their lives. This "Guide" serves as…

  7. Exploring Work: Fun Activities for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…

  8. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  9. [Incidentaloma in a 16 years old girl -- 2 year observation].

    PubMed

    Basiak, Aleksander; Bolanowski, Marek; Wasikowa, Renata; Noczyńska, Anna; Bednorz, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Adenomas of the hypophysis are tumors of the CNS which are on the third place in the frequency of appearance, which cause disturbances of hypophyseal function. In children incidentaloma is seldom observed. The authors present a 16-year-old girl who was admitted to the clinic because of amenorrhoea and an increased growth velocity during the last year. The MRI examination of the hypophysis proved a hypophyseal adenoma. Hormonal laboratory examinations do not show any hormonal activity of the observation. The girl's case is presented because the diagnosis of an incidentaloma is exceptionally rare in this age group.

  10. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  11. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating. PMID:27551992

  12. Interlabial masses in little girls: review and imaging recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, A.R.; Lebowitz, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    When an interlabial mass is seen on physical examination in a little girl, there is often confusion about its etiology, its implications, and what should be done next. Five common interlabial masses, which superficially are strikingly similar, include a prolapsed ectopic ureterocele, a prolapsed urethra, a paraurethral cyst, hydro(metro)colpos, and rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina (botryoid sarcoma). A prolapsed ectopic ureterocele occurs in white girls as a smooth mass which protrudes from the urethral meatus so that urine exits circumferentially. A prolapsed urethra occurs in black girls and resembles a donut with the urethral meatus in the center. A paraurethral cyst is smaller and displaces the meatus, so that the urinary stream is eccentric. Hydro(metro)colpos from hymenal imperforation presents as a smooth mass that fills the vaginal introitus, as opposed to the introital grapelike cluster of masses of botryoid sarcoma. Recommendations for efficient imaging are presented.

  13. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating.

  14. Middle school girls' envisioned future in computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open to computing career were compared to the two thirds were not. Girls open to a computing career had higher interest and confidence in computing, had more social support for computing, and saw themselves as more like a computer scientist than girls who did not want a computing career.

  15. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  16. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial

  17. Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-03-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported lower body esteem and greater desire for a thinner body shape than girls in the other exposure conditions. However, this immediate negative impact of Barbie doll was no longer evident in the oldest girls. These findings imply that, even if dolls cease to function as aspirational role models for older girls, early exposure to dolls epitomizing an unrealistically thin body ideal may damage girls' body image, which would contribute to an increased risk of disordered eating and weight cycling. PMID:16569167

  18. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  19. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  20. A Perceptual Study of Girls Education, Its Factors and Challenges in South Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2015-01-01

    Education is accepted as an important tool for human development in all dimensions of life, it is at same level of significance for boys and girls. Despite this recognition, girls are one of the most vulnerable groups, deprived of education by various socio-cultural, economical and political reasons. The present study is a perceptual study, which…

  1. Grades Four and Eight Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Girls' and Boys' Writing Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Presents teacher and student responses that show a privileging of girls' writing over boys' writing. Finds that girls' writing was viewed as more detailed, descriptive, and showing greater conformity to writing conventions. Indicates a need for conversations that question an emphasis on conformity in writing and that explore ways to nurture…

  2. Pubertal Effects on Adjustment in Girls: Moving from Demonstrating Effects to Identifying Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation examines mediated pathways from pubertal development to changes in depressive affect and aggression. Participants were 100 white girls who were between the ages of 10 and 14 (M=12.13, SD=0.80); girls were from well-educated, middle-to upper-middle class families, and attended private schools in a major northeastern urban…

  3. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  4. "Little Intellectuals". Girls' Academic Secondary Education under Francoism: Projects, Realities and Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Antonio Fco.

    2012-01-01

    The present article examines the situation of girls in Spanish academic secondary education during the first Francoism. It outlines the measures introduced by the Franco Regime that maintained the traditional access for girls to the same academic curriculum followed by boys, although in separate schools. Later, it examines the various projects put…

  5. "What You Wear Tells a Lot about You:" Girls Dress Up Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Rebekah

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study in which 26 girls aged 12- to 13-years-old took part in workshops at a specialist ICT center connected to a school in inner-city London. The girls explored and discussed fashion as presented online, and they produced their own interactive fashion design webpages, making decisions about body shapes, types…

  6. Between Returns and Respectability: Parental Attitudes towards Girls' Education in Rural Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purewal, Navtej; Hashmi, Naimatullah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses upon perceptions of girls' education in the family context within which decisions around children's education and opportunities are made. The article presents a framework showing how parental attitudes to girls' education are shaped by an objective logic framed by the notion of returns, relating to potential benefits of…

  7. Where the Girls Are: The Facts about Gender Equity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine; St. Rose, Andresse

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive look at girls' educational achievement during the past 35 years, paying special attention to the relationship between girls' and boys' progress. Analyses of results from national standardized tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the SAT and ACT college entrance examinations,…

  8. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia

    This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…

  9. Girls, Subjectivity and Language: From Four to Twelve in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette

    This dissertation presents the construction and development of a thesis that investigates links between discourses of gender and the production of writing by girls at primary school. The research took place over three years in a one-teacher rural school in country Victoria (Australia). The girls were aged from four to twelve. The research…

  10. The Experience of the Hidden Curriculum for Autistic Girls at Mainstream Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyse, R.; Porter, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of ethnographic case studies of three girls on the autistic spectrum attending mainstream primary schools and illustrates the difficulties they experience and the ways in which these are often unrecognised. The observations of the girls and subsequent individual interviews with their mothers, class teachers,…

  11. Boys' and Girls' Motivations for Refraining from Prompting Friends to Talk about Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…

  12. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  13. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome of the hypertrophic clitoris in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Karakaya, Ali Erdal

    2015-05-01

    Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome is defined as the ischemic strangulation of hair resulting in edema and severe pain and may cause amputation of organs. Strangulation of the external genitalia (clitoris, labia minora) has rarely been described in girls. Here, we present a case of hypertrophic clitoris injury secondary to hair strangulation in a 6-year-old girl.

  14. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  15. Colloquium on HIV/AIDS and Girls' Education. Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 25-26, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a summary of a colloquium that focused on the threat the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses to education systems and to girls' access to and completion of education. The colloquium examined how girls' education might be used to mitigate this impact. The meeting involved nearly 200 people from academic institutions, nongovernmental…

  16. When Little Girls Become Junior Connoisseurs: A Cautionary Tale of Art Museum Education in the Hyperreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Melinda M.

    2006-01-01

    Introducing the tale--A young girl about eleven years old appeared on the TV screen. She stood in an art museum expounding upon the painting hanging behind her. She talked about the artist and what the image portrayed. With an air of elitist prissiness that suited the museum environment, the girl delivered her presentation to a group of…

  17. Reversing the Effects of Sexism in Elementary School Girls Through the Use of Classical Conditioning Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; Bryant, William T.

    Probably as a result of America's "socialization" process, girls and women have tended to develop rather negativistic views of females. That this negativism may be part of a developmental indoctrination process is further advanced by the present experiment's finding that older girls in this experiment demonstrated significantly less favorable…

  18. Preschool Girls and the Media: How Magazines Describe and Depict Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the presentation and content of magazines targeted at preschool-aged girls in Japan to analyse what gender patterns or gendered behaviours were encouraged and how the readers reacted to the media discourse. There were 13 magazines published in 2013 in Japan. Seven of them catered to girls, three to boys and three to both…

  19. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  20. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  1. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  2. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  3. Latent vitellointestinal duct sinus presenting with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik V; Evans, Kathryn; Sau, Indranil; Huddart, Simon

    2014-09-16

    A 12-year-old boy with a history, at birth, of a weeping pink fleshy lesion after his umbilical cord detached, requiring repeated chemical cauterisation, presented with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding and required resuscitation and blood transfusion. Augmented Tc99m nuclear medicine scan confirmed ectopic gastric mucosa. The lateral view suggested its attachment behind the umbilicus. At exploration, a latent vitellointestinal duct sinus with ectopic gastric mucosal mass was found. Segmental resection of the sinus and mass excision with primary anastomosis and incidental appendicectomy was curative. Pink fleshy mass discharging coloured fluid at the umbilicus following detachment of umbilical cord should be considered a remnant of vitellointestinal duct unless proved otherwise. A pink lesion with yellowish discharge resistant to chemical cauterisation should raise the suspicion of embryonic structures. Latent vitellointestinal sinus is a new lesion in the spectrum of umbilical anomalies. Lateral view of the nuclear medicine scan is helpful in locating the site.

  4. Latent vitellointestinal duct sinus presenting with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding in an adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Evans, Kathryn; Sau, Indranil; Huddart, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with a history, at birth, of a weeping pink fleshy lesion after his umbilical cord detached, requiring repeated chemical cauterisation, presented with massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding and required resuscitation and blood transfusion. Augmented Tc99m nuclear medicine scan confirmed ectopic gastric mucosa. The lateral view suggested its attachment behind the umbilicus. At exploration, a latent vitellointestinal duct sinus with ectopic gastric mucosal mass was found. Segmental resection of the sinus and mass excision with primary anastomosis and incidental appendicectomy was curative. Pink fleshy mass discharging coloured fluid at the umbilicus following detachment of umbilical cord should be considered a remnant of vitellointestinal duct unless proved otherwise. A pink lesion with yellowish discharge resistant to chemical cauterisation should raise the suspicion of embryonic structures. Latent vitellointestinal sinus is a new lesion in the spectrum of umbilical anomalies. Lateral view of the nuclear medicine scan is helpful in locating the site. PMID:25228678

  5. Coexistence of gilbert syndrome and hereditary spherocytosis in a child presenting with extreme jaundice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hee; Moon, Kyung Rye

    2014-12-01

    Gilbert syndrome is the most common inherited disorder of bilirubin glucuronidation. It is characterized by intermittent episodes of jaundice in the absence of hepatocellular disease or hemolysis. Hereditary spherocytosis is the most common inherited hemolytic anemia and is characterized by spherical, osmotically fragile erythrocytes that are selectively trapped by the spleen. The patients have variable degrees of anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. Hereditary spherocytosis usually leads to mild-to-moderate elevation of serum bilirubin levels. Severe hyperbilirubinemia compared with the degree of hemolysis should be lead to suspicion of additional clinical conditions such as Gilbert syndrome or thalassemia. We present the case of a 12-year-old boy with extreme jaundice and nausea. The diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis was confirmed by osmotic fragility test results and that of Gilbert syndrome by genetic analysis findings. PMID:25587528

  6. Amenorrhea, ptosis and high insulin requirement in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Hari Kumar, K V S; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Lipodystrophy is an uncommon condition leading to excessive insulin requirement and menstrual abnormalities in young girls with diabetes. Neurological symptoms are uncommon in patients of generalized or partial lipodystrophy. We recently encountered a young girl, who presented with high insulin requirement, amenorrhea and neurological symptoms. Detailed evaluation led to the diagnosis of congenital lipodystrophy and we describe the same in this report. We also highlight the atypical features of the congenital lipodystrophy and the reasons for the excessive insulin requirement in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Spreading the use of solar cooking by Girl Scouts

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, B.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the advantages of using organizations such as the World Organization of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts to include solar cooking technology in their programs. The national organizations involved have researched the needs and resources of their countries and have developed plans to meet their unique needs. The need is great for contributions to purchase materials. This need would be best met with large grants to the World Organization of the Scouting movement where staff could provide oversight and evaluation of projects. Projects from several countries are presented as illustration.

  8. Phallometric comparison of pedophilic interest in nonadmitting sexual offenders against stepdaughters, biological daughters, other biologically related girls, and unrelated girls.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the mean levels of sexual response to children produced by four groups of men with sexual offences against prepubescent girls and two comparison groups with other offences or no offences. All groups (N = 291) consisted of patients referred for clinical assessment of their sexual behavior or interests. Group assignment was determined by the victim's age and her relation to the patient: biological daughter; stepdaughter; other biologically related girl (e.g., sister, niece, granddaughter); unrelated girl; adult woman; and no known victim. The men with sexual offences had precisely one known victim each. The patients with offences may or may not have denied the act of which they were accused, but all patients denied an erotic preference for children. Sexual response to children was assessed by means of phallometric testing, a psychophysiological technique in which the individual's penile blood volume is monitored while he is presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children and adults. The results indicated that the mean level of pedophilic response in men with offences against daughters or stepdaughters is intermediate between that in men with offences against otherwise-related or unrelated girls and that in men with no offences against girls at all. PMID:16598663

  9. Cognitive distortions about sex and sexual offending: a comparison of sex offending girls, delinquent girls, and girls from the community.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Elizabeth K; Hecker, Jeffrey E

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual of non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes varied with respect to the sexual contact portrayed and the victim's response. Girls who had sexually offended were more likely to endorse statements reflecting the belief that the offender in a sexually aggressive vignette was not responsible for initiating the sexual contact. In addition, when the victim's response to the sexual contact was clearly negative, and the degree of contact was more serious, girls who had sexually offended demonstrated more distorted beliefs about the victim than the other two groups. Similarities and differences between the current findings and studies of distorted thinking in male sexual offenders are discussed.

  10. [The sleeping girl from Oknö].

    PubMed

    Holmstedt, B; Ljungberg, L; Moëll, H; Sjöberg, S G

    1995-01-01

    The peninsula of Oknö is located on the Baltic in Southern Sweden. It was here a 14 year-old girl "fell asleep" around Christmas time in the year 1875 - she woke up on April 3rd, 1908. She was then 46 years of age and had slept for 32 years. Except for numerous newspaper articles this unusual case has been described by the Swedish psychiatrist Harald Fröderström in 1912. The present article is based on his review and the investigation of the medical records at the hospital of the city of Oskarshamn where the woman in question was hospitalized for one month in 1892. At the city hospital she was given the diagnosis dementia paralytica - a diagnosis which was obviously wrong. When the woman woke up in 1908 she assumed a normal life and remained healthy until she died in 1950 through a brain hemorrhage. Fröderström, who except for an article written in French, wrote several extensive articles for Swedish newspapers about the sleeping girl. These articles are here reviewed from a modern psychiatric point of view.

  11. Effects of Peer-Assessed Feedback, Goal Setting and a Group Contingency on Performance and Learning by 10-12-Year-Old Academy Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Josh E.; Kinchin, Gary; Clarke, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coaches developing young talent in team sports must maximise practice and learning of essential game skills and accurately and continuously assess the performance and potential of each player. Relative age effects highlight an erroneous process of initial and on-going player assessment, based largely on subjective opinions of game…

  12. Factors Influencing Perceptions of Need for and Decisions to Solicit Child Mental Health Services by Parents of 9-12 Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Chung; Cho, Hyun; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2007-01-01

    As children with emotional or behavioral problems often fail to receive the treatment available to them, this study examined (1) the degree of perceived need (PN) among Korean parents regarding mental health services for their children, (2) the factors associated with such perceptions, (3) the degree to which Korean parents actually engage mental…

  13. Gene-Environment Interaction in Teacher-Rated Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behavior in 7- to 12-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior at school can have major consequences for a child and is predictive for disorders later in life. Teacher ratings are important to assess internalizing and externalizing problems at school. Genetic epidemiological studies on teacher-rated problem behavior are relatively scarce and the…

  14. The Development of Co-Speech Gesture and Its Semantic Integration with Speech in 6- to 12-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Wing-Chee; Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; Lui, Ming; Yip, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Previous work leaves open the question of whether children with autism spectrum disorders aged 6-12?years have delay in producing gestures compared to their typically developing peers. This study examined gestural production among school-aged children in a naturalistic context and how their gestures are semantically related to the accompanying…

  15. Predicting Aggressive and Disruptive Behavior in Referred 6- to 12-Year-Old Boys. Prospective Validation of the EARL-20B Risk/Needs Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enebrink, Pia; Langstrom, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara H.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the predictive and incremental validity of the Early Assessment Risk List for boys (EARL-20B; Augimeri, Koegl, Webster, & Levene, 2001), a structured clinical checklist designed for the professional judgment of risk for aggressive and disruptive behaviors and risk/needs factor-based management of this risk. Seventy-six…

  16. Development of a School-Based Intervention to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Exploring Perceptions among 4-to-12-Year Old Children and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinaerts, Evelien; de Nooijer, Jascha; van de Kar, Angelique; de Vries, Nanne

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore individual and social factors that are associated with children's F&V (fruit and vegetable) intake in order to develop a school-based intervention to increase their F&V consumption. Design/methodology/approach: Group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch children (n=104), aged 4-12…

  17. Increasing Self-Esteem in Children, 8-12 Years Old from Dysfunctional Families: A Twofold Solution to a Twofold Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, George M.

    This practicum was designed to increase the self-esteem of children between the ages of 8 and 12 from dysfunctional families. The strategies implemented involved working with the parents of these children to help increase positive communication and relationships between parents and their children. Based on the idea that self-esteem is a reciprocal…

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Lithuanian Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale (LAPACBS) in Parents of 6- to 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Roy M.; Jonyniene, Jolita

    2012-01-01

    The structure-related validity and internal consistency reliability of the translated version of the Adlerian Parental Assessment of the Child Behavior Scale (APACBS) which would be referred to as the Lithuanian APACBS (LAPACBS) was the focus of the research study. A factor analysis was performed using a sample of 246 Lithuanian parents. It…

  19. The development of co-speech gesture and its semantic integration with speech in 6- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    So, Wing-Chee; Wong, Miranda Kit-Yi; Lui, Ming; Yip, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    Previous work leaves open the question of whether children with autism spectrum disorders aged 6-12 years have delay in producing gestures compared to their typically developing peers. This study examined gestural production among school-aged children in a naturalistic context and how their gestures are semantically related to the accompanying speech. Delay in gestural production was found in children with autism spectrum disorders through their middle to late childhood. Compared to their typically developing counterparts, children with autism spectrum disorders gestured less often and used fewer types of gestures, in particular markers, which carry culture-specific meaning. Typically developing children's gestural production was related to language and cognitive skills, but among children with autism spectrum disorders, gestural production was more strongly related to the severity of socio-communicative impairment. Gesture impairment also included the failure to integrate speech with gesture: in particular, supplementary gestures are absent in children with autism spectrum disorders. The findings extend our understanding of gestural production in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders during spontaneous interaction. The results can help guide new therapies for gestural production for children with autism spectrum disorders in middle and late childhood.

  20. Promoting Positive Learning in Australian Students Aged 10- to 12-Years-Old Using Attribution Retraining and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodkiewicz, Alicia R; Boyle, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study piloted an intervention using attribution retraining and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to promote positive learning experiences and outcomes for students. This research is an important step to revitalise the dwindling field of attribution retraining research by assessing whether these techniques effectively improve student…

  1. The Diagnostic Accuracy of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision for 9- to 12-Year-Old Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerry, David C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two groups (learning disabled and normal) of 15 children were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Considering abnormal or borderline profiles as indicative of learning disability was 93.3 percent accurate in discriminating between groups.…

  2. Food consumption and nutritional and biochemical status of 0·5-12-year-old Indonesian children: the SEANUTS study.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Budiman, Basuki; Harahap, Heryudarini; Ernawati, Fitrah; Soekatri, Moesijanti; Widodo, Yekti; Sumedi, Edith; Rustan, Effendi; Sofia, Gustina; Syarief, Sainstiani N; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    Indonesia is currently facing the double burden of malnutrition. While undernutrition is still a major public health problem, the prevalence of overnutrition is increasing. The objective of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) was to provide up-to-date data on nutritional status, food consumption and biochemical parameters related to nutrition for children aged 0·5-12 years. The SEANUTS study in Indonesia was conducted in a nationwide representative sample of 7·211 children using multistage cluster sampling based on probability proportional to size, stratified for geographical location, in forty-eight out of 440 districts/cities. The results show that the growth (weight for age, height for age, weight for height and BMI for age) of Indonesian pre-school- and school-aged children is below the WHO standards. The older the children, the more the deviation from the WHO standard curves. Underweight was more prevalent in rural areas (28·9 v. 19·2%) and overweight/obesity was observed to be more widespread in urban areas (5·6 v. 3·2%). The prevalence varied with age groups and sexes. The overall prevalence of stunting was 25·2 and 39·2% in urban and rural areas, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was nearly 55% in children aged 0·5-1·9 years and ranged from 10·6 to 15·5% in children aged 2-12 years. Fe deficiency was observed in 4·1-8·8% of the children. The percentage of children with dietary intakes of energy, protein, and vitamins A and C below the Indonesian RDA was high and differed across urban and rural areas and age groups.

  3. The effect of socio-demographic variables and dairy use on the intake of essential macro- and micronutrients in 0.5-12-year-old Indonesian children.

    PubMed

    Widodo, Yekti; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Sumedi, Edith; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    背景与目的:研究营养素摄入、奶制品摄入和社会经济因素之间的关系。方法 与研究设计:采用24 小时膳食回顾法收集3600 名年龄为0.5-12 岁儿童的膳食 摄入量,并收集其乳制品的使用频率、人体测量指标和社会人口学指标。结 果:总的年龄别身高Z 分数和年龄别体质指数Z 分数(均数±标准误)分别为- 1.40±0.03 和-0.48±0.03,其与人群中发育迟缓和消瘦的高发生率相关。不使用 任何乳制品的儿童占总人数的71%,并且这一比例随着年龄的增长而稳步增 长。乳制品来源的总能量摄入平均为99±3 千卡/人/天,乳制品使用者来自总乳 制品的能量为291±7 千卡/人/天。乳制品的使用没有性别差异,但城市地区高 于农村地区。另外,如果母亲受教育程度越高、母亲有一份稳定的工作、或者 家庭的收入状况处于偏上水平的儿童,其奶制品的使用频率也较高。3 岁之 后,除了蛋白质,能量和所有营养素的摄入是不足的。校正乳制品来源的更高 能量摄入和社会人口因素之后,与非乳制品使用者相比,乳制品使用者所有营 养素达到推荐膳食摄入量的比例更高,随着乳制品使用频率的增加贡献也增 加。结论:摄入充足的乳制品将大大促进印度尼西亚儿童达到推荐膳食摄入 量。.

  4. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  5. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  6. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  7. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  8. Deaf Lives: Nineteenth-Century Spanish Deaf Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plann, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article is about the lives of nineteenth-century Spanish deaf girls and women. The research presented is contained in a larger work, a book titled "Portraits from the Spanish National Deaf-Mute School," to be published by Gallaudet University Press. These "portraits" are in fact biographical essays on nineteenth-century deaf people and their…

  9. Growing Up Girl: Preparing for Change through Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nancy; Jones, Cathy P.

    2007-01-01

    The early years of school provide opportunities for active learning, including developing habits of resiliency and perceptions of self-worth. Girls in particular may be at risk for developing negative self-perceptions. This article presents a pilot group (psychoeducational and counseling) designed to educate members about pre-adolescent…

  10. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  11. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was to form…

  12. Defining Deviance: Sex, Science, and Delinquent Girls, 1890-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review on "Defining deviance: sex, science, and delinquent girls, 1890-1960," by Michael A. Rembis. This is the first book by Michael A. Rembis, an Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Buffalo. Drawing on thousands of case files from the Illinois State Training School in…

  13. Self-Care Strategies among Chinese Adolescent Girls with Dysmenorrhea: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Lam, Lai Wah

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how Chinese adolescent girls manage dysmenorrhea. This study aims to explore self-care strategies among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. The study uses a mixed methods design with two phases: a cross-sectional survey in phase I and semistructured interviews in phase II. This paper reports phase II. In line with the phase I findings, 28 adolescent girls with different characteristics (high or low levels of self-care behavior and pain intensity, who did or did not self-medicate, and who had or had not received menstrual education) were recruited for interviews. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged from the data: lifestyle changes, symptom management, communicating dysmenorrhea with others, and seeking medical advice. Girls selected their diets carefully and reduced physical activity during menstruation to avoid aggravating symptoms. Heat therapy commonly was employed for symptom management. A few girls self-medicated to obtain immediate relief from pain, but the majority expressed reservations about using medication because they worried about dependence and side effects. Some girls communicated dysmenorrhea with their family and friends, but the majority did not seek medical advice. The present study showed that girls employed various self-care strategies for dysmenorrhea, including some strategies stemming from traditional Chinese medicine. The findings revealed menstrual etiquette among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea, and demonstrated that self-medication was not part of most girls' self-care. Understanding the self-care strategies of these girls is important, as it can help nurses develop a culturally-specific intervention to promote self-care among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea.

  14. Self-Care Strategies among Chinese Adolescent Girls with Dysmenorrhea: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Lam, Lai Wah

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how Chinese adolescent girls manage dysmenorrhea. This study aims to explore self-care strategies among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. The study uses a mixed methods design with two phases: a cross-sectional survey in phase I and semistructured interviews in phase II. This paper reports phase II. In line with the phase I findings, 28 adolescent girls with different characteristics (high or low levels of self-care behavior and pain intensity, who did or did not self-medicate, and who had or had not received menstrual education) were recruited for interviews. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged from the data: lifestyle changes, symptom management, communicating dysmenorrhea with others, and seeking medical advice. Girls selected their diets carefully and reduced physical activity during menstruation to avoid aggravating symptoms. Heat therapy commonly was employed for symptom management. A few girls self-medicated to obtain immediate relief from pain, but the majority expressed reservations about using medication because they worried about dependence and side effects. Some girls communicated dysmenorrhea with their family and friends, but the majority did not seek medical advice. The present study showed that girls employed various self-care strategies for dysmenorrhea, including some strategies stemming from traditional Chinese medicine. The findings revealed menstrual etiquette among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea, and demonstrated that self-medication was not part of most girls' self-care. Understanding the self-care strategies of these girls is important, as it can help nurses develop a culturally-specific intervention to promote self-care among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. PMID:27292081

  15. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  16. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  17. Altered Breast Development in Young Girls from an Agricultural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Elizabeth A.; Conard, Craig; Lares, Fernando; Aguilar, Maria Guadalupe; McLachlan, John; Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    In several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported to have declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reported decline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patterns reflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factors influence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition, and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmental beginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a group of peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls from valley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than those of girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index (BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly defined relationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaqui foothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breast size and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based exam involving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. In fact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, was absent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissue was present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growth and fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influences on these

  18. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  19. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes.

  20. Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies.