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Sample records for 120-kg dry mass

  1. Drying temperature effects on fish dry mass measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of tissue composition in fish often requires dry samples. Time needed to dry fish decreases as temperature is increased, but additional volatile material may be lost. Effects of 10??C temperature increases on percentage dry mass (%DM) were tested against 60??C controls for groups of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Lake trout %DMs were lower at greater temperatures, but not significantly different from 60??C controls. Rainbow smelt and slimy sculpin %DMs were lower at greater temperatures and differences were significant when test temperatures reached 90??C. Significant differences were not found in tests using alewives because variability in %DM was high between fish. To avoid inter-fish variability, 30 alewives were each dried successively at 60, 70, 80, and then 90??C and for all fish %DM declined at each higher temperature. In general, %DMs were lower at greater temperatures and after reaching a stable dry weight, fish did not lose additional mass if temperature remained constant. Results indicate that caution should be used when comparing dry mass related indices from fish dried at different temperatures because %DM was negatively related to temperature. The differences in %DM observed with rising temperature could account for substantial portions of the variability in reported energy values for the species tested. Differences in %DM means for the 60 vs. 80??C and 60 vs. 90??C tests for rainbow smelt and alewife could represent of from 8 to 38% of observed annual energy cycles for Lakes Ontario and Michigan.

  2. Simultaneous convective heat and mass transfer in impingement ink drying

    SciTech Connect

    Can, M.

    1998-08-01

    Effective and economical drying of thin ink films is essential in the printing, packaging and coating industries. In evaporative drying, high heat and mass transfer rates are commonly achieved by means of high velocity impinging air jets. To provide data for dryer design a program of research has been implemented to study the heat and mass transfer processes which underlie the drying of thin ink films. The heat transfer situation under impinging air jets is outlined and some experimental results are presented. Optimization of nozzle arrays for impinging air jets is analyzed for practical applications. A non-contact infra-red technique for continuously monitoring the ink drying process is described and drying curves for an ink based on a single solvent (4-Methyl-2-pentanol-MIBC) are presented. Heat and mass transfer theory has been used to predict drying times in the constant rate drying period. These predictions have been compared with experimentally determined drying times. This research has served to confirm the fundamental importance of the drying curve as a basis for dryer design.

  3. Mass transfer parameters of celeriac during vacuum drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2016-09-01

    An accurate prediction of moisture transfer parameters is very important for efficient mass transfer analysis, accurate modelling of drying process, and better designing of new dryers and optimization of existing drying process. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of temperature (e.g., 55, 65 and 75 °C) and chamber pressure (e.g., 0.1, 3, 7, 10, 13 and 17 kPa) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of celeriac slices during vacuum drying. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the celeriac slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity obtained to be in the ranges of 7.5231 × 10-10-3.8015 × 10-9 m2 s-1. The results showed that the diffusivity increased with increasing temperature and decreasing pressure. The mass transfer coefficient values varied from 4.6789 × 10-7 to 1.0059 × 10-6 m s-1, and any increment in drying temperature and pressure caused an increment in the coefficient.

  4. The use of mass spectrometry to analyze dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michel; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) typically consist in the deposition of small volumes of capillary blood onto dedicated paper cards. Comparatively to whole blood or plasma samples, their benefits rely in the fact that sample collection is easier and that logistic aspects related to sample storage and shipment can be relatively limited, respectively, without the need of a refrigerator or dry ice. Originally, this approach has been developed in the sixties to support the analysis of phenylalanine for the detection of phenylketonuria in newborns using bacterial inhibition test. In the nineties tandem mass spectrometry was established as the detection technique for phenylalanine and tyrosine. DBS became rapidly recognized for their clinical value: they were widely implemented in pediatric settings with mass spectrometric detection, and were closely associated to the debut of newborn screening (NBS) programs, as a part of public health policies. Since then, sample collection on paper cards has been explored with various analytical techniques in other areas more or less successfully regarding large-scale applications. Moreover, in the last 5 years a regain of interest for DBS was observed and originated from the bioanalytical community to support drug development (e.g., PK studies) or therapeutic drug monitoring mainly. Those recent applications were essentially driven by improved sensitivity of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. This review presents an overall view of all instrumental and methodological developments for DBS analysis with mass spectrometric detection, with and without separation techniques. A general introduction to DBS will describe their advantages and historical aspects of their emergence. A second section will focus on blood collection, with a strong emphasis on specific parameters that can impact quantitative analysis, including chromatographic effects, hematocrit effects, blood effects, and analyte stability. A third part of the review is dedicated to

  5. Intracellular water exchange for measuring the dry mass, water mass and changes in chemical composition of living cells.

    PubMed

    Feijó Delgado, Francisco; Cermak, Nathan; Hecht, Vivian C; Son, Sungmin; Li, Yingzhong; Knudsen, Scott M; Olcum, Selim; Higgins, John M; Chen, Jianzhu; Grover, William H; Manalis, Scott R

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell's buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell's water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell's dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density - the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein), we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell.

  6. Estimation of cauliflower mass transfer parameters during convective drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Medine; Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments such as citric acid and hot water blanching and air temperature on drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices. Experiments were carried out at four different drying air temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C with the air velocity of 2.0 m/s. It was observed that drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices were greatly influenced by air temperature and pre-treatment. Six commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying kinetics of cauliflower slices. The Midilli et al. model described the drying behaviour of cauliflower slices at all temperatures better than other models. The values of effective moisture diffusivities (D eff ) were determined using Fick's law of diffusion and were between 4.09 × 10-9 and 1.88 × 10-8 m2/s. Activation energy was estimated by an Arrhenius type equation and was 23.40, 29.09 and 26.39 kJ/mol for citric acid, blanch and control samples, respectively.

  7. Combining micro dry column chromatography and mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Dry column chromatography principles applied in microscale produce technique to minimize time in preparing and analyzing colorless constituents of soluble mixtures. Glass pipette microcolumns filled with finely sieved adsorbents permit capillary attraction and separation in 3 to 15 minutes. Technique is adaptable to gas chromatography.

  8. Processes of heat and mass transfer in straw bales using flue gasses as a drying medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Wojciech; Szubel, Mateusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Moisture content is a main problem of using straw in form of bales for energy production. The paper presents possibility of straw drying in dedicated, innovative and patented in Poland straw dryers which using flue gasses as a drying medium. Paper presents an improved way of drying which proved to be very sufficient. Temperature and humidity of straw during the process of drying were measured. The measurements helped understand and perform numerical model of heat and mass transfer inside the straw bale. By using CFD codes it was possible to perform analysis of phenomenon occurring inside the dried straw bale. Based on the CFD model, proposals of the optimization and improvement process of drying have been discussed. Experimental and computational data have been compared in terms of convergence. A satisfying degree of agreement has been achieved. Applying improved drying method, homogenous field of moisture content and temperature in the straw bale is achieved in a very cost effective way.

  9. Convective drying analysis of three-dimensional porous solid by mass lumping finite element technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, K.; Lo, D. C.; Young, D. L.; Chen, C. W.; Fan, C. M.

    2008-02-01

    A numerical analysis of convective drying of a 3D porous solid of brick material is carried out using the finite element method and mass lumping technique. The energy equation and moisture transport equations for the porous solid are derived based on continuum approach following Whitaker’s theory of drying. The governing equations are solved using the Galerkin’s weighted residual method, which convert the governing equations into discretized form of matrix equations. The resulting capacitance matrices are made diagonal matrices by following the classical row-sum mass lumping technique. Hence with the use of the Eulerian time marching scheme, the final equations are reduced to simple algebraic equations, which can be solved directly without using an equation solver. The proposed numerical scheme is initially validated with experimental results for 1D drying problem and then tested by application to convective drying of 3D porous solid of brick material for four different aspect ratios obtained by varying the cross section of the solid. The mass lumping technique could correctly predict the wet bulb temperature of the solid under evaporative drying conditions. A parametric study carried out for three different values of convective heat transfer coefficients, 15, 30 and 45 W/m2 K shows an increased drying rate with increase in area of cross section and convective heat transfer coefficient. The proposed numerical scheme could correctly predict the drying behavior shown in the form of temperature and moisture evolutions.

  10. Native Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Noncovalent Protein Complexes Directly from Dried Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Griffiths, Rian L.; Edwards, Rebecca L.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry is a promising tool for the analysis of intact proteins from biological substrates. Here, we demonstrate native LESA mass spectrometry of noncovalent protein complexes of myoglobin and hemoglobin from a range of surfaces. Holomyoglobin, in which apomyoglobin is noncovalently bound to the prosthetic heme group, was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of myoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride surfaces. Tetrameric hemoglobin [(αβ)2 4H] was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of hemoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surfaces, and from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Heme-bound dimers and monomers were also observed. The `contact' LESA approach was particularly suitable for the analysis of hemoglobin tetramers from DBS.

  11. Measurement of Single Cell Refractive Index, Dry Mass, Volume, and Density Using a Transillumination Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Jacques, Steven L.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2012-09-01

    Phase contrast microscopy has become ubiquitous in the field of biology, particularly in qualitative investigations of cellular morphology. However, the use of quantitative phase retrieval methods and their connection to cellular refractive index and dry mass density remain under utilized. This is due in part to the restriction of phase and cellular mass determination to custom built instruments, involved mathematical analysis, and prohibitive sample perturbations. We introduce tomographic bright field imaging, an accessible optical imaging technique enabling the three dimensional measurement of cellular refractive index and dry mass density using a standard transillumination optical microscope. The validity of the technique is demonstrated on polystyrene spheres. The technique is then applied to the measurement of the refractive index, dry mass, volume, and density of red blood cells. This optical technique enables a simple and robust means to perform quantitative investigations of engineered and biological specimens in three dimensions using standard optical microscopes.

  12. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  13. Multi-layer onion drying: Study of mass and heat transfer mechanism and quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiah, N.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Drying is one of methods to prolong storage life of onion. The outer layer of onion has kept dry around 12% of moisture content or below to retain the freshness of its inside part. The model of multi layers onion drying is very important to predict the water and temperature transport during dying process. In this case, one dimensional partial equation was used for predicting moisture distribution in the onion layer. To support the study, the onion drying was performed at various temperatures ranging of 40-50 °C. Then the attribute quality (quercetin content) of dried onion was analysed. The experimental data was to validate the value of water diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient used in the model. Results showed that the model can predict moisture distribution in each layer of onion. Moreover, based on the average moisture content during the drying, the model result closed to experiment data with accuracy of R2 0.970-0.999. The model was useful to estimate the drying time of outer layer to the desired level. Besides that, the quality evaluation showed that after 2 hours drying process, quercetin content can be retained.

  14. 24. The DryingRoom in the coating mill at Lawrence, Mass. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. The Drying-Room in the coating mill at Lawrence, Mass. After the paper has received its coating from the coating-machine shown in the previous picture, it passes in a continuous web to the drying-room. Blasts of hot air coming out of galvanized ducts beneath support it for a distance of 100 feet, until it reaches the drying-chamber in the rear of the room. Here it hangs in festoons much like those of cotton cloth shown on page 219. In the picture the paper is passing from right to left. After leaving the drying-room it is wound on rolls, as shown in the next picture. (p.238.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  15. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  16. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  17. Numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Ku, A C; Furry, R B; Jordan, W K; Dropkin, D

    1976-10-01

    The transient-state external heat and mass-transfer during freeze-drying was investigated. The spaces between the heaters and porous product-surfaces were simulated as semi porous channels, with mass-injection into the channels from the sublimation of ice. The energy, vorticity, concentration, and stream function/vorticity equations were the governing equations used as the mathematical model. These partial differential-equations were solved by finite-difference, numberical methods. The Fromm, Alternating Direction Implicity, and Upwind Difference methods were used in solving the parabolic equations; and the Successive Over Relaxation method was adopted to solve the elliptic equation. Numerical solutions obtained from the digital computer for the external heat and mass-transfer during freeze-drying were computed for Reynolds numbers equal t0 0.1, 1.0, and 4.0 and Grashof numbers equal to 0, +/- 100, and +/- 1000. The Prandtl number selected for water vapor was 1.0. One set of these solutions were compared to a known, analytical solution, and good agreement was obtained. The external heat and mass-transfer mechanism was then combined with the internal-heat-transfer mechanism developed by Dyer and Sunderland (1968), and the equations describing the relation of heater temperatures and product surface-temperatures developed by Massey and Sunderland (1972). A thorough computer-simulation was carried out for the combined heat and mass-transfer mechanism during freeze-drying of food products.

  18. Homogeneous Matrix Deposition on Dried Agar for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Microbial Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-11-01

    Matrix deposition on agar-based microbial colonies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is often complicated by the complex media on which microbes are grown. This Application Note demonstrates how consecutive short spray pulses of a matrix solution can form an evenly closed matrix layer on dried agar. Compared with sieving dry matrix onto wet agar, this method supports analyte cocrystallization, which results in significantly more signals, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and improved ionization efficiency. The even matrix layer improves spot-to-spot precision of measured m/z values when using TOF mass spectrometers. With this technique, we established reproducible imaging mass spectrometry of myxobacterial cultures on nutrient-rich cultivation media, which was not possible with the sieving technique.

  19. Enhancement of mass transfer by ultrasound: Application to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The physical mechanisms of heat and mass transfer enhancement by ultrasound have been identified by people. Basically, the effect of 'cavitation' induced by ultrasound is the main reason for the enhancement of heat and mass transfer in a liquid environment, and the acoustic streaming and vibration are the main reasons for that in a gaseous environment. The adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration are typical heat and mass transfer process, and the intensification of the two processes by ultrasound is of complete feasibility. This paper makes an overview on recent studies regarding applications of power ultrasound to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. The concerned adsorbents include desiccant materials (typically like silica gel) for air dehumidification and other ones (typically active carbon and polymeric resin) for water treatment. The applications of ultrasound in the regeneration of these adsorbents have been proved to be energy saving. The concerned foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. Although the ultrasonic treatment may cause food degradation or nutrient loss, it can greatly reduce the food processing time and decrease drying temperature. From the literature, it can be seen that the ultrasonic conditions (i.e., acoustic frequency and power levels) are always focused on during the study of ultrasonic applications. The increasing number of relevant studies argues that ultrasound is a very promising technology applied to the adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

  20. Enhancement of mass transfer by ultrasound: Application to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The physical mechanisms of heat and mass transfer enhancement by ultrasound have been identified by people. Basically, the effect of 'cavitation' induced by ultrasound is the main reason for the enhancement of heat and mass transfer in a liquid environment, and the acoustic streaming and vibration are the main reasons for that in a gaseous environment. The adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration are typical heat and mass transfer process, and the intensification of the two processes by ultrasound is of complete feasibility. This paper makes an overview on recent studies regarding applications of power ultrasound to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. The concerned adsorbents include desiccant materials (typically like silica gel) for air dehumidification and other ones (typically active carbon and polymeric resin) for water treatment. The applications of ultrasound in the regeneration of these adsorbents have been proved to be energy saving. The concerned foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. Although the ultrasonic treatment may cause food degradation or nutrient loss, it can greatly reduce the food processing time and decrease drying temperature. From the literature, it can be seen that the ultrasonic conditions (i.e., acoustic frequency and power levels) are always focused on during the study of ultrasonic applications. The increasing number of relevant studies argues that ultrasound is a very promising technology applied to the adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. PMID:26964979

  1. Heat and mass transfer analysis of convective drying of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the modelling and simulation of the dehydration of chickpea in a complex drying system process, using COMSOL Multiphysics Program. A model, based on mass and energy balances, was developed for the simulation of unsteady convective drying with air (3.0 m/s and 60 °C). The program predicted an 8 hours-dehydration time, with an effective moisture diffusivity of 3.1 *10- 10 which was experimentally obtained. The empirical model that best represented the process was the exponential one.

  2. Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganhou, J.

    This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model.

  3. e-MALDI: An Electrowetting-Enhanced Drop Drying Method for MALDI Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kudina, Olena; Eral, Burak; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-05-01

    The performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is frequently compromised by the heterogeneous distribution of matrix and analyte deposits on the target plate arising during the conventional drop-drying sample preparation procedure. It was recently shown that this so-called coffee stain effect can be suppressed by exciting evaporating complex fluids throughout the drying process using AC-electrowetting. Here, we demonstrate that electrowetting-assisted drying of solutions of common MALDI matrix materials and a variety of common low molecular weight pharmaceutical molecules indeed leads to substantially smaller and more homogeneous sample spots on special electrowetting-functionalized e-MALDI target plates. The improved spot quality enables 2-30× enhanced MALDI-MS signals along with substantial reductions of the typical lateral variations of the MALDI-MS. The latter largely eliminates the time-consuming need to search for "sweet spots". PMID:27026060

  4. Estimation of whole lemon mass transfer parameters during hot air drying using different modelling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    To design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments, accurate values of mass transfer parameters is of great importance. In this study, an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying whole lemons was carried out. The whole lemons were dried in a convective hot air dryer at different air temperatures (50, 60 and 75 °C) and a constant air velocity (1 m s-1). In theoretical consideration, three moisture transfer models including Dincer and Dost model, Bi- G correlation approach and conventional solution of Fick's second law of diffusion were used to determine moisture transfer parameters and predict dimensionless moisture content curves. The predicted results were then compared with the experimental data and the higher degree of prediction accuracy was achieved by the Dincer and Dost model.

  5. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Convective Drying of Building Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Ashwani; Chandramohan, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer is developed for convective drying of building material. A rectangular brick is considered for sample object. Finite-difference method with semi-implicit scheme is used for solving the transient governing heat and mass transfer equation. Convective boundary condition is used, as the product is exposed in hot air. The heat and mass transfer equations are coupled through diffusion coefficient which is assumed as the function of temperature of the product. Set of algebraic equations are generated through space and time discretization. The discretized algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Siedel method via iteration. Grid and time independent studies are performed for finding the optimum number of nodal points and time steps respectively. A MATLAB computer code is developed to solve the heat and mass transfer equations simultaneously. Transient heat and mass transfer simulations are performed to find the temperature and moisture distribution inside the brick.

  6. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  7. Emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies improving dried blood spot analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ramisetti Nageswara

    2014-08-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS), a micro blood sampling technique, has recently gained interest in drug discovery and development due to its inherent advantages over the conventional whole blood, plasma or serum sample collection. Since the regulatory authorities have agreed to the use of blood as an acceptable biological matrix for drug exposure measurements, its applications have been extended not only to therapeutic drug monitoring but also to toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies. The pharmaceutical industry is keen to promote DBS as a prominent tool in bioanalytical applications due to the financial, ethical and organizational issues involved in clinical trials. This could be accomplished due to the latest advances in modern analytical technology, particularly liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present review discusses some of the emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies in improving DBS analysis for its innovative applications in the development of new drugs.

  8. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  9. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  10. Effects of nebulizing and drying gas flow on capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huikko, Katri; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2002-01-01

    This study was focused on examining the influence of gas flow parameters on capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (CE /MS) performance using sheath-liquid CE /MS interfaces. The effects of nebulizing and drying gas velocity and drying gas temperature on CE separation and MS detection sensitivity were systematically determined. Nebulizing gas velocity was observed to be a critical parameter in the optimization of CE /MS method, since it affected both MS detection sensitivity, and also CE separation efficiency for one interface design tested. Better detection sensitivity was obtained when the nebulizing gas velocity was increased. However, high velocity of the nebulizing gas flow can cause a hydrodynamic bulk flow inside the CE capillary, thus clearly increasing the apparent mobility and decreasing the resolution obtained for the compounds studied. Increasing the drying gas velocity or temperature did not affect the apparent mobility or the separation efficiency and the temperature could be increased to achieve the optimal detection sensitivity in the CE /MS analysis. For comparison, the effects of nebulizing gas flow were studied using a different design of the coaxial sheath-liquid CE /MS interface, and in this case better detection sensitivity but no effect on CE separation efficiency was observed with increased nebulizing gas velocity. These different effects of nebulizing gas flow on the CE bulk flow were concluded to result from pressure differences at the tip of the CE capillaries for the different CE /MS interface arrangements. It is therefore recommended that the cross-sectional dimensions of the fused-silica and steel capillaries, and the gas streamlines, should be optimized when CE /MS interfaces are built. Moreover, the effect of gas flow on CE separation should be studied when optimizing the CE /MS operation parameters.

  11. Effect of biological treatment of the ceramic mass on the drying and firing of facing tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, V.V.; Sidorova, V.A.; Skripnik, V.P.; Solnyshkina, T.N.; Vainberg, S.N.; Vlasov, A.S.; Yashchenko, O.I.

    1985-12-01

    The authors studied the ceramic masses of the Minsk Building Materials Production complex (MZSM) and the Kishinev FinishingMaterials Plant (KZOM) having the following compositions: MZSM--48% Vesejovsk VGP clay, 22% nepheline concentrate, 17% quartz sand, 8% dolomite, 5% title scrap, and above 100% 3% bentonite, 0.1% soda ash, and 0.28% liquid glass; KZOM-48% Veselovsk VGP clay, 28% nepheline-syenite, 8% limestone filings (scrap), 16% title scrap, and, above 100%, 1% bentonite and 3% sodium tripolyphosphate. Improving the quality of ceramic tiles and reducing the mineral and fuel-energy consumption in their production are among the practical industrial problems. This paper discusses a method of solving them by improving the drying and firing processes of the products.

  12. Two-dimensional CFD modeling of the heat and mass transfer process during sewage sludge drying in a solar dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Piotr; Badyda, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents key assumptions of the mathematical model which describes heat and mass transfer phenomena in a solar sewage drying process, as well as techniques used for solving this model with the Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Special attention was paid to implementation of boundary conditions on the sludge surface, which is a physical boundary between the gaseous phase - air, and solid phase - dried matter. Those conditions allow to model heat and mass transfer between the media during first and second drying stages. Selection of the computational geometry is also discussed - it is a fragment of the entire drying facility. Selected modelling results are presented in the final part of the paper.

  13. Dietary dried plum increases bone mass, suppresses proinflammatory cytokines and promotes attainment of peak bone mass in male mice.

    PubMed

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Wronski, Thomas J; Li, Min; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Nissenson, Robert A; Halloran, Bernard P

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health and attainment of peak bone mass. Diets containing dried plum (DP) have been shown to increase bone volume and strength. These effects may be linked to the immune system and DP-specific polyphenols. To better understand these relationships, we studied DP in skeletally mature (6-month-old) and growing (1- and 2-month-old) C57Bl/6 male mice. In adult mice, DP rapidly (<2 weeks) increased bone volume (+32%) and trabecular thickness (+24%). These changes were associated with decreased osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS) and decreased serum CTX, a marker of bone resorption. The reduction in Oc.S/BS was associated with a reduction in the osteoclast precursor pool. Osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) and bone formation rate were also decreased suggesting that the gain in bone in adult mice is a consequence of diminished bone resorption and formation, but resorption is reduced more than formation. The effects of DP on bone were accompanied by a decline in interleukins, TNF and MCP-1, suggesting that DP is acting in part through the immune system to suppress inflammatory activity and reduce the size of the osteoclast precursor pool. Feeding DP was accompanied by an increase in plasma phenolics, some of which have been shown to stimulate bone accrual. In growing and young adult mice DP at levels as low as 5% of diet (w/w) increased bone volume. At higher levels (DP 25%), bone volume was increased by as much as 94%. These data demonstrate that DP feeding dramatically increases peak bone mass during growth. PMID:27239754

  14. Influence of power ultrasound application on mass transport and microstructure of orange peel during hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, Carmen; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Puig, Ana; Riera, Enrique; Garcia-Perez, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    Power ultrasound application on convective drying of foodstuffs may be considered an emergent technology. This work deals with the influence of power ultrasound on drying of natural materials addressing the kinetic as well as the product's microstructure. Convective drying kinetics of orange peel slabs (thickness 5.95±0.41 mm) were carried out at 40 ∘C and 1 m/s with (US) and without (AIR) power ultrasound application. A diffusion model considering external resistance to mass transfer was considered to describe drying kinetics. Fresh, US and AIR dried samples were analyzed using Cryo-SEM. Results showed that drying kinetics of orange peel were significantly improved by the application of power ultrasound. From modeling, it was observed a significant (p¡0.05) increase in both mass transfer coefficient and effective moisture diffusivity. The effects on mass transfer properties were confirmed from microestructural observations. In the cuticle surface, the pores were obstructed by wax components scattering, which evidence the ultrasonic effects on the interfaces. The cells of the flavedo were compressed and large intercellular air spaces were generated in the albedo facilitating water transfer through it.

  15. Sulfatide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy in Dried Blood and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Spacil, Zdenek; Kumar, Arun Babu; Liao, Hsuan-Chieh; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Stark, Samantha; Suhr, Teryn R.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study. PMID:26585924

  16. Dried blood spot proteomics: surface extraction of endogenous proteins coupled with automated sample preparation and mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicholas J; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spots offer many advantages as a sample format including ease and safety of transport and handling. To date, the majority of mass spectrometry analyses of dried blood spots have focused on small molecules or hemoglobin. However, dried blood spots are a potentially rich source of protein biomarkers, an area that has been overlooked. To address this issue, we have applied an untargeted bottom-up proteomics approach to the analysis of dried blood spots. We present an automated and integrated method for extraction of endogenous proteins from the surface of dried blood spots and sample preparation via trypsin digestion by use of the Advion Biosciences Triversa Nanomate robotic platform. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the resulting digests enabled identification of 120 proteins from a single dried blood spot. The proteins identified cross a concentration range of four orders of magnitude. The method is evaluated and the results discussed in terms of the proteins identified and their potential use as biomarkers in screening programs.

  17. Dried Blood Spot Proteomics: Surface Extraction of Endogenous Proteins Coupled with Automated Sample Preparation and Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spots offer many advantages as a sample format including ease and safety of transport and handling. To date, the majority of mass spectrometry analyses of dried blood spots have focused on small molecules or hemoglobin. However, dried blood spots are a potentially rich source of protein biomarkers, an area that has been overlooked. To address this issue, we have applied an untargeted bottom-up proteomics approach to the analysis of dried blood spots. We present an automated and integrated method for extraction of endogenous proteins from the surface of dried blood spots and sample preparation via trypsin digestion by use of the Advion Biosciences Triversa Nanomate robotic platform. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the resulting digests enabled identification of 120 proteins from a single dried blood spot. The proteins identified cross a concentration range of four orders of magnitude. The method is evaluated and the results discussed in terms of the proteins identified and their potential use as biomarkers in screening programs.

  18. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Rough Rice Under Convective and Infrared Drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared drying of rice can reduce drying time, perform disinfestations and reduce rice fissuring compared to traditional hot air drying method. Fissures in the rice kernels are caused by high moisture content gradients within the kernels. To understand the moisture distributions within a rice ker...

  19. Controlled nucleation in freeze-drying: effects on pore size in the dried product layer, mass transfer resistance, and primary drying rate.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Alex K; Kuu, Wei; Otten, Lori; Nail, Steven L; Sever, Robert R

    2011-08-01

    A novel and scalable method has been developed to enable control of the ice nucleation step for the freezing process during lyophilization. This method manipulates the chamber pressure of the freeze dryer to simultaneously induce nucleation in all product vials at a desired temperature. The effects of controlled nucleation on the drying rate of various formulations including 5% (w/w) mannitol, 5% (w/w) sucrose, and a mixture of 3% (w/w) mannitol and 2% (w/w) sucrose were studied. For a 5% (w/w) mannitol, uncontrolled ice nucleation occurred randomly at product temperatures between -8.0°C and -15.9°C as the vials were cooled to -40°C. Controlled ice nucleation was achieved at product temperatures between -2.3°C and -3.7°C. The effect of nucleation control on the effective pore radius (r(e) ) of the cake was determined from the product temperature profiles using a pore diffusion model in combination with a nonlinear parameter estimation approach reported earlier. Results show that the value of r(e) for 5% (w/w) mannitol was enlarged from 13 to 27 μm by uniformly inducing nucleation at higher temperatures. Applying the resistance parameters obtained from the pore diffusion model for 5% (w/w) mannitol, optimized cycles were theoretically generated and experimentally tested, resulting in a 41% reduction in primary drying time.

  20. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  1. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency. PMID:26609436

  2. A dried blood spot mass spectrometry metabolomic approach for rapid breast cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingjun; Sun, Tao; Cao, Yunfeng; Gao, Peng; Dong, Jun; Fang, Yanhua; Fang, Zhongze; Sun, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Zhitu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer (BC) is still a lethal threat to women worldwide. An accurate screening and diagnosis strategy performed in an easy-to-operate manner is highly warranted in clinical perspective. Besides the routinely focused protein markers, blood is full of small molecular metabolites with diverse structures and properties. This study aimed to screen metabolite markers with BC diagnosis potentials. Methods A dried blood spot-based direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic analysis was conducted for BC and non-BC differentiation. The targeted analytes included 23 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines. Results Multivariate analysis screened out 21 BC-related metabolites in the blood. Regression analysis generated a diagnosis model consisting of parameters Pip, Asn, Pro, C14:1/C16, Phe/Tyr, and Gly/Ala. Tested with another set of BC and non-BC samples, this model showed a sensitivity of 92.2% and a specificity of 84.4%. Compared to the routinely used protein markers, this model exhibited distinct advantage with its higher sensitivity. Conclusion Blood metabolites screening is a more plausible approach for BC detection. Furthermore, this direct MS analysis could be finished within few minutes, which means that its throughput is higher than the currently used imaging techniques. PMID:27042107

  3. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency. PMID:26609436

  4. Direct Tandem Mass Spectrometric Profiling of Sulfatides in Dry Urinary Samples for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kuchař, Ladislav; Asfaw, Befekadu; Poupětová, Helena; Honzíková, Jitka; Tureček, František; Ledvinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Background Prediagnostic steps in suspected metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) rely onclinical chemical methods other than enzyme assays. We report a new diagnostic method which evaluates changes in the spectrum of molecular types of sulfatides (3-O-sulfogalactosyl ceramides) in MLD urine. Methods The procedure allows isolation of urinary sulfatides by solid-phase extraction on DEAE-cellulose membranes, transportation of a dry membrane followed by elution and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis in the clinical laboratory. Major sulfatide isoforms are normalized to the least variable component of the spectrum, which is the indigenous C18:0 isoform. This procedure does not require the use of specific internal standards and minimizes errors caused by sample preparation and measurement. Results Urinary sulfatides were analyzed in a set of 21 samples from patients affected by sulfatidosis. The combined abundance of the five most elevated isoforms, C22:0, C22:0-OH, C24:0, C24:1-OH, and C24:0-OH sulfatides, was found to give the greatest distinction between MLD-affected patients and a control group. Conclusions The method avoids transportation of liquid urine samples and generates stable membrane-bound sulfatide samples that can be stored at ambient temperature. MS/MS sulfatide profiling targeted on the most MLD-representative isoforms is simple with robust results and is suitable for screening. PMID:23838369

  5. Dried blood spot assay for the quantification of phenytoin using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Villanelli, Fabio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Rosati, Anna; Forni, Giulia; Funghini, Silvia; Shokry, Engy; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-02-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsant drugs for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorders. The large amount of plasma required by conventional methods for drug quantification makes mass spectrometry combined with dried blood spot (DBS) sampling crucial for pediatric patients where therapeutic drug monitoring or pharmacokinetic studies may be difficult to realize. DBS represents a new convenient sampling support requiring minimally invasive blood drawing and providing long-term stability of samples and less expensive shipment and storage. The aim of this study was to develop a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of PHT on DBS. This analytical method was validated and gave good linearity (r(2)=0.999) in the range of 0-100mg/l. LOQ and LOD were 1.0mg/l and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The drug extraction from paper was performed in a few minutes using a mixture composed of organic solvent for 80%. The recovery ranged from 85 to 90%; PHT in DBS showed to be stable at different storage temperatures for one month. A good correlation was also obtained between PHT plasma and DBS concentrations. This method is both precise and accurate and appears to be particularly suitable to monitor treatment with a simple and convenient sample collection procedure.

  6. Heat and mass transfer models to understand the drying mechanisms of a porous substrate.

    PubMed

    Songok, Joel; Bousfield, Douglas W; Gane, Patrick A C; Toivakka, Martti

    2016-02-01

    While drying of paper and paper coatings is expensive, with significant energy requirements, the rate controlling mechanisms are not currently fully understood. Two two-dimensional models are used as a first approximation to predict the heat transfer during hot air drying and to evaluate the role of various parameters on the drying rates of porous coatings. The models help determine the structural limiting factors during the drying process, while applying for the first time the recently known values of coating thermal diffusivity. The results indicate that the thermal conductivity of the coating structure is not the controlling factor, but the drying rate is rather determined by the thermal transfer process at the structure surface. This underlines the need for ensuring an efficient thermal transfer from hot air to coating surface during drying, before considering further measures to increase the thermal conductivity of porous coatings. PMID:26920528

  7. [The analysis of the causes of variability of the relationship between leaf dry mass and area in plants].

    PubMed

    Vasfilov, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lamina dry mass: area ratio (LMA - Leaf Mass per Area) is a quite variable trait. Leaf dry mass consists of symplast mass (a set of all leaf protoplasts) and apoplast mass (a set of all cell walls in a leaf). The ratio between symplast and apoplast masses is positively related to any functional trait of leaf calculated per unit of dry mass. The value of this ratio is defined by cells size and their number per unit of leaf area, number of mesophyll cells layers and their differentiation between palisade and spongy ones, and also by density of cells packing. The LMA value is defined by leaf thickness and density. The extent and direction of variability in both leaf traits define the extent and direction of variability in LMA. Negative correlation between leaf thickness and density reduces the level of LMA variability. As a consequence of this correlation the following pattern emerges: the thinner a leaf, the denser it is. Changes in the traits that define the LMA value take place both within a species under the influence of environmental factors and between species that differ in leaf structure and functions. Light is the most powerful environmental factor that influences the LMA, increase in illumination leading to increase in LMA. This effect occurs during leaf growth at the expense of structural changes associated with the reduction of symplast/apoplast mass ratio. Under conditions of intense illumination, LMA may increase due to accumulation of starch. With regard to the majority of leaf functions, the mass of starch may be ascribed to apoplast. Starch accumulation in leaves is observed also under conditions of elevated CO2 concentration in the air. Under high illumination, however, LMA increases also due to increased apoplast contribution to leaf dry mass. Scarce mineral nutrition leads to LMA increase due to lowering of growth zones demands for phothosyntates and, therefore, to increase in starch content of leaves. High level of mineral nutrition during

  8. Mass-particle size distributions of atmospheric dust and the dry deposition of dust to the remote ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, R.; Ray, B. J.; Lewis, N. F.; Tomza, U.; Duce, R. A.

    1997-07-01

    Size-separated mineral aerosol samples were collected and analyzed to investigate the relationships between the mass-particle size distributions (MSDs) of dust particles and the dust loadings in the atmosphere. The data also were used to assess the changes in the MSDs of dust in relation to transport processes and especially the associated effects on dry deposition. Atmospheric dust concentrations, as indicated by aluminum or scandium, in samples collected from three sites in the remote North Atlantic were higher than those in samples collected during a cruise in the North Pacific on board the R/V Moana Wave. However, the mass median diameters (MMDs) for the North Pacific samples were both larger on average (˜3 μm versus ˜2 μm aerodynamic equivalent diameter) and more variable than those from the North Atlantic; this difference was attributed to wet conditions and particle aggregation over the North Pacific. In addition, for the ensemble of all samples the geometric standard deviations of the mass-particle size distributions, which are analogous to the sorting values used to characterize sedimentary materials, tended to vary inversely and nonlinearly with the mass median diameters. Model-derived dry deposition velocities for the samples were at most weakly related to either the dust concentrations or the MMDs. However, the dry deposition velocities for two subsets of samples were correlated with the geometric standard deviations of the distributions; this is further evidence that the mass flux of dust via dry deposition can be controlled by a relatively small fraction of aerodynamically large particles.

  9. Grain Sterility in relation to Dry Mass Production and Distribution in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Puteh, Adam B.; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd. Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation. PMID:24895563

  10. Development Strategies for Herbal Products Reducing the Influence of Natural Variance in Dry Mass on Tableting Properties and Tablet Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    One “Quality by Design” approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

  11. Analysis on the go: quantitation of drugs of abuse in dried urine with digital microfluidics and miniature mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Andrea E; Lafrenière, Nelson M; Seale, Brendon; Hendricks, Paul I; Cooks, R Graham; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2014-06-17

    We report the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets of solvent to dried urine samples and then transport extracted analytes to an array of nanoelectrospray emitters for analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection was performed using a fully autonomous 25 kg instrument. Using the new method, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and codeine can be quantified from four samples in less than 15 min from (dried) sample to analysis. The figures of merit for the new method suggest that it is suitable for on-site screening; for example, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for cocaine is 40 ng/mL, which is compatible with the performance criteria for laboratory analyses established by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. More importantly, the LOQ of the new method is superior to the 300 ng/mL cutoff values used by the only other portable analysis systems we are aware of (relying on immunoassays). This work serves as a proof-of-concept for integration of microfluidics with miniature mass spectrometry. The system is attractive for the quantitation of drugs of abuse from urine and, more generally, may be useful for a wide range of applications that would benefit from portable, quantitative, on-site analysis.

  12. A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based method for measuring propranolol on dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Villanelli, Fabio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Bagnoli, Paola; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2013-05-01

    Propranolol, a non-selective beta blocker drug, is used in young infants and newborns for treating several heart diseases; its pharmacokinetics has been extensively evaluated in adult patients using extrapolation to treat pediatric population. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a method to measure propranolol levels in dried blood spots. The analysis was performed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 2.5-200 μg/L with correlation coefficient r=0.9996. Intra-day and inter-day precisions and biases were less than 8.0% (n=10) and 11.5% (n=10) respectively. The recoveries ranged from 94 to 100% and the matrix effect did not result in a severe signal suppression. Propranolol on dried blood spot showed a good stability at three different temperatures for one month. This paper describes a micromethod for measuring propranolol levels on dried blood spot, which determines a great advantage in neonates or young infants during pharmacokinetic studies because of less invasive sampling and small blood volume required.

  13. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Tang, Camilla; Eriksson, Eva; Jönsson, Karin; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening.

  14. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Tang, Camilla; Eriksson, Eva; Jönsson, Karin; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening. PMID:24830785

  15. Optical emission spectroscopy studies of the influence of laserablated mass on dry inductively coupled plasma conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocan, A.C.; Mao, X.L.; Borisov, Oleg V.; Russo, R.E.

    1997-07-01

    The amount of ablated mass can influence the temperature andexcitation characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) andmust be taken into account to ensure accurate chemical analysis. The ICPelectron number density was investigated by using measurements of the Mgionic to atomic resonant-line ratios during laser ablation of an aluminummatrix. The ICP excitation temperature was measured by using selected Felines during laser ablation of an iron matrix. A Nd:YAG laser (3 ns pulseduration) at 266 nm was used for these ablation-sampling studies. Laserenergy, power density, and repetition rate were varied in order to changethe quantity of ablated mass into the ICP. Over the range of laseroperating conditions studied herein, the ICP was not significantlyinfluenced by the quantity of solid sample. Therefore, analyticalmeasurements can be performed accurately and fundamental studies of laserablation processes (such as ablation mass roll-off, fractionalvaporization) can be investigated using inductively coupled plasma-atomicemission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  16. Mass density and water content of saturated never-dried calcium silicate hydrates.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Julio C; Trtik, Pavel; Diaz, Ana; Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Raabe, Jörg; Bunk, Oliver; Menzel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) are the most abundant hydration products in ordinary Portland cement paste. Yet, despite the critical role they play in determining mechanical and transport properties, there is still a debate about their density and exact composition. Here, the site-specific mass density and composition of C-S-H in hydrated cement paste are determined with nanoscale resolution in a nondestructive approach. We used ptychographic X-ray computed tomography in order to determine spatially resolved mass density and water content of the C-S-H within the microstructure of the cement paste. Our findings indicate that the C-S-H at the border of hydrated alite particles possibly have a higher density than the apparent inner-product C-S-H, which is contrary to the common expectations from previous works on hydrated cement paste.

  17. Application and limitations of a mass transfer VOC emission model for a dry building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, S.; Lungu, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from building materials into air has been quantified, characterized and modeled. Internal diffusion of VOC through a material based on Fick's law of diffusion is the basis for mass transfer modeling of diffusive emission used to estimate VOC concentrations in air over time. Current mass transfer models have been shown to appropriately estimate air VOC concentrations at approximate room temperature, while other research has shown that temperature has a profound effect on the diffusion coefficient, D, of VOC in a material. Here, a mass transfer model is operated at 23 °C and 40 °C using input parameters applicable for each temperature. The model estimates are validated against environmental test chamber data for styrene emission from a vinyl ester resin thermoset composite material. The model correlates well with the 23 °C chamber data, but underestimates chamber data by as much as 10-4 at 264 h for the 40 °C modeling. This suggests that the model requires adjustment for predicting VOC air concentrations at temperatures other than 23 °C.

  18. A macroscale mixture theory analysis of deposition and sublimation rates during heat and mass transfer in dry snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. C.; Foslien, W. E.

    2015-09-01

    The microstructure of a dry alpine snowpack is a dynamic environment where microstructural evolution is driven by seasonal density profiles and weather conditions. Notably, temperature gradients on the order of 10-20 K m-1, or larger, are known to produce a faceted snow microstructure exhibiting little strength. However, while strong temperature gradients are widely accepted as the primary driver for kinetic growth, they do not fully account for the range of experimental observations. An additional factor influencing snow metamorphism is believed to be the rate of mass transfer at the macroscale. We develop a mixture theory capable of predicting macroscale deposition and/or sublimation in a snow cover under temperature gradient conditions. Temperature gradients and mass exchange are tracked over periods ranging from 1 to 10 days. Interesting heat and mass transfer behavior is observed near the ground, near the surface, as well as immediately above and below dense ice crusts. Information about deposition (condensation) and sublimation rates may help explain snow metamorphism phenomena that cannot be accounted for by temperature gradients alone. The macroscale heat and mass transfer analysis requires accurate representations of the effective thermal conductivity and the effective mass diffusion coefficient for snow. We develop analytical models for these parameters based on first principles at the microscale. The expressions derived contain no empirical adjustments, and further, provide self consistent values for effective thermal conductivity and the effective diffusion coefficient for the limiting cases of air and solid ice. The predicted values for these macroscale material parameters are also in excellent agreement with numerical results based on microscale finite element analyses of representative volume elements generated from X-ray tomography.

  19. Multiple artificial geothermal cracks in a hot dry rock mass for extraction of heat

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, Y.; Abe, H.; Sekine, H.; Takahashi, Y.

    1985-06-01

    Theoretical analysis is made for multiple geothermal cracks. A periodic array of two-dimensional cracks is considered as a model of the multiple geothermal cracks, and is analyzed on the basis of the two-dimensional theory of quasi-static thermoelasticity. The singular integral equations are derived from the boundary conditions, and they are solved by applying the combination of inversion formula and collocation method. Numerical results for the fluid temperature at an outlet, the rock mass temperature, the shape of the geothermal cracks and the stress distribution around the geothermal cracks are shown in graphs.

  20. Evaluation of dried blood spots as sample matrix for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sing Teang; Lin, Hai-Shu; Ching, Jianhong; Ho, Paul C

    2011-06-01

    We propose using dried blood spots (DBS) as sample matrix for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) based metabolomic profiling for the benefits of higher sample stability, more convenient sample acquisition with DBS, higher analyte separation power, and more readily biomarker identification with GC/MS. To establish this proposition, the metabolomic profiles generated from DBS were compared with that obtained from the conventional whole blood and plasma matrixes and also with dried plasma spots (DPS) as another covariate control. Our findings indicated that whole blood produced the most number of detectable markers (866), whereas DPS yielded the least number (614). DBS and plasma matrix, on the other hand, produced the most similar numbers of detectable (695 vs 749) and identifiable markers (137 vs 147, matching with Fiehn library). From the analysis of the DBS and plasma metabolomic profiles, it was concluded that when l-lysine 2, iminodiacetic acid 2, dl-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid, citric acid, or adenosine-5-monophosphate 2 are not involved as markers, DBS could be a suitable substitute for plasma for metabolomic profiling.

  1. [Determination of butene-fipronil residue in dry samples by multiple adsorption synchronous purification-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ding, Liping; Guo, Jing; Zheng, Ling; Chen, Chuntian; Chen, Zhitao

    2013-08-01

    A method was developed for the determination of butene-fipronil residue in dry samples by multiple adsorption synchronous purification (MASP) -gas chromatography (GC) -mass spectrometry (MS). After extracted with 1% acetic acid-acetonitrile, the samples were pretreated with MASP method including extraction, salting-out and purification procedures, and analyzed with GC-MS under the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, and then quantified by matrix-match standard solution with external standard method. The results showed good linearity in the range of 2 - 100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) not less than 0.999. The average fortified recovery of butene-fipronil in samples was found in the range of 92.2% - 97.5% at three fortified levels from 2 to 10 microg/kg, with the relative standard deviations of 2.69% - 5.21% (n = 6). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) for butane-fipronil was 2 microg/kg and the limit of quantification (S/N = 10) was 6 microg/kg. The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and could be used for the routine analysis of butane-fipronil in dry samples. Meanwhile, the pyrolysis mechanism of butane-fipronil, as a new substance, is discussed. PMID:24369607

  2. Analysing drying unit performance in a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing line by means of mass--energy balances.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2014-04-01

    The current trend in the pharmaceutical industry to move from batch-wise to continuous production processes strengthens the need for monitoring and controlling the process in-line. The ConsiGma™ continuous tableting line collects data of the different subunits in real-time, but these are not really used. In this paper the data of the six-segmented fluidized bed dryer in the line are used for the development and evaluation of a mass and energy balance. The objectives are multiple: (1) prediction of the moisture content of the granules leaving the dryer solely based on the currently logged data and (2) prediction of the gas outlet temperature to check the mass balances. Once a validated system is established the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the drying unit can be predicted. Calculations are also used to identify errors in the system and to propose alternative sensor locations. A calibration is performed in order to predict the evaporation rate. The balances were able to predict both the moisture content of the granules at the end of the drying process and the gas outlet temperature quite accurately. Combining the gathered information with the height of the bed in the fluidized bed can be used to predict the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the dryer. An extra sensor measuring the gas temperature and the humidity at the wet transfer line would increase the accuracy of the calculations. An extra gas velocity sensor at the outlet would be useful to incorporate an extra supervision of the calculations.

  3. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats. PMID:17354417

  4. Study of elemental mass size distributions at Skukuza, South Africa, during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cafmeyer, Jan; Annegarn, Harold J.

    2002-04-01

    As part of the final dry season campaign of SAFARI 2000, a 12-stage small deposit area low pressure impactor (SDI) was operated at Skukuza, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, from 17 August until 19 September 2000. Separate day and night samples were collected (64 in total), starting at about 7:00 and at about 18:00 local time, respectively. The samples were analysed for 28 elements by PIXE. The total concentrations (summed over all 12 stages) varied quite substantially during the campaign (up to a factor of 50), but no systematic day/night difference pattern was observed. Also the size distributions were rather similar during day and night. S, K, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Pb had most of their mass in the submicrometre size range, with maximum typically at about 0.3 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter. Several of those elements are good indicators for biomass burning. Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) were calculated for the various elements and compared with those obtained during SAFARI-92. During this earlier campaign, which also took place in the dry season, 41 daily samples were taken at Skukuza with a PIXE International cascade impactor (PCI). For the crustal and sea-salt elements, fairly similar MMADs were obtained in the two campaigns. For the fine-mode elements, however, the MMADs were substantially lower during SAFARI 2000 than during SAFARI-92. During this earlier campaign, the MMADs were most likely overestimated. Compared to the SDI, the PCI is much less appropriate for studying the size distribution in the submicrometre size range.

  5. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, E A; Tiffany, J M; Yokoi, N; Bron, A J

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  6. Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, J.

    1999-02-12

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

  7. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a twin quadrupole instrument using laser ablation sample introduction and monodisperse dried microparticulate injection

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of a twin quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the simultaneous detection of two m/z values. The twin quadrupole ICP-MS is used with laser ablation sample introduction in both the steady state (10 Hz) and single pulse modes. Steady state signals are highly correlated and the majority of flicker noise cancels when the ratio is calculated. Using a copper sample, the isotope ratio {sup 63}Cu{sup +}/{sup 65}Cu{sup +} is measured with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.26%. Transient signals for single laser pulses are also obtained. Copper isotope ratio measurements for several laser pulses are measured with an RSD of 0.85%. Laser ablation (LA) is used with steel samples to assess the ability of the twin quadrupole ICP-MS to eliminate flicker noise of minor components of steel samples. Isotopic and internal standard ratios are measured in the first part of this work. The isotope ratio {sup 52}Cr{sup +}/{sup 53}Cr{sup +} (Cr present at 1.31 %) can be measured with an RSD of 0.06 % to 0.1 %. For internal standard elements, RSDs improve from 1.9 % in the Cr{sup +} signal to 0.12% for the ratio of {sup 51}V{sup +} to {sup 52}Cr{sup +}. In the second part of this work, one mass spectrometer is scanned while the second channel measures an individual m/z value. When the ratio of these two signals is calculated, the peak shapes in the mass spectrum are improved significantly. Pulses of analyte and matrix ions from individual drops are measured simultaneously using the twin quadrupole ICP-MS with monodisperse dried microparticulate injection (MDMI). At modest Pb concentrations (500 ppm), a shoulder on the leading edge of the Li{sup +} signal becomes apparent. Space charge effects are consistent with the disturbances seen.

  8. On-line liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry simultaneous determination of opiates, cocainics and amphetamines in dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Saussereau, E; Lacroix, C; Gaulier, J M; Goulle, J P

    2012-02-15

    A novel approach has been developed for the illicit drugs quantitative determination using dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. The illicit drugs tested were opiates (morphine and its 3- and 6-glucuronide metabolites, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine), cocainics (ecgonine methylester, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cocaethylene) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA). The described method, requiring a small blood volume, is based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using on-line extraction. A Whatman card 903 was spotted with 30μL of whole blood and left overnight to dry at room temperature. A 3-mm diameter disk was removed using a manual punch, suspended in 150μL of water for 10min with ultrasonication, and then 100μL was injected in the on-line LC-MS/MS system. An Oasis HLB was used as an extraction column and a C18 Atlantis as an analytical column. The chromatographic cycle was performed with 20mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 2.8) (solvent A) and acetonitrile/solvent A (90:10, v/v) gradient in 16min. Detection was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI+) with a Quattro Micro (Waters). Recoveries of all analytes were up to 80%. DBS were stored in duplicate at 4°C and -20°C for up to 6 months. Illicit drugs seemed to be much more stabled at -20°C. Furthermore, it was tested whether analysis of DBS may be as reliable as that of whole blood investigating authentic samples; significant correlations were obtained. This DBS assay has potential as rapid, sensitive and inexpensive option for the illicit drugs determination in small blood volumes, which seems of great interest in suspected cases of driving under the influence of drugs. PMID:22281234

  9. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, III: control and characterization of dryer differences via operational qualification tests.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, S; Tchessalov, S; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate differences in heat and mass transfer between freeze dryers due to inherent design characteristics using data obtained from sublimation tests. This study also aimed to provide guidelines for convenient scale-up of the freeze-drying process. Data obtained from sublimation tests performed on laboratory-scale, pilot, and production freeze dryers were used to evaluate various heat and mass transfer parameters: nonuniformity in shelf surface temperatures, resistance of pipe, refrigeration system, and condenser. Emissivity measurements of relevant surfaces such as the chamber wall and the freeze dryer door were taken to evaluate the impact of atypical radiation heat transfer during scale-up. "Hot" and "cold" spots were identified on the shelf surface of different freeze dryers, and the impact of variation in shelf surface temperatures on the primary drying time and the product temperature during primary drying was studied. Calculations performed using emissivity measurements on different freeze dryers suggest that a front vial in the laboratory lyophilizer received 1.8 times more heat than a front vial in a manufacturing freeze dryer operating at a shelf temperature of -25 degrees C and a chamber pressure of 150 mTorr during primary drying. Therefore, front vials in the laboratory are much more atypical than front vials in manufacturing. Steady-state heat and mass transfer equations were used to study a combination of different scale-up issues pertinent during lyophilization cycles commonly used for the freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals. PMID:16796357

  10. An improved high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in freeze-dried and hot-air-dried Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Chen, Bing Huei

    2011-10-30

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antioxidant and anti-cancer activities, has been reported to contain functional components like carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and amount of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in hot-air-dried and freeze-dried R. nasutus. An Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column and a gradient mobile phase composed of methanol/N,N-dimethylformamide (97:3, v/v), acetonitrile and acetone were employed to separate internal standard zinc-phthalocyanine plus 12 cholorophylls and their derivatives within 21 min, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', hydroxychlorophyll a, 15-OH-lactone chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', hydroxychlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin a', hydroxypheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a' and pheophytin b in hot-air-dried R. nasutus with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. But, in freeze-dried R. nasutus, only 4 chlorophylls and their derivatives, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b and pheophytin a were detected. Zinc-phthalocyanine was found to be an appropriate internal standard to quantify all the chlorophyll compounds. After quantification by HPLC-DAD, both chlorophyll a and pheophytin a were the most abundant in hot-air-dried R. nasutus, while in freeze-dried R. nasutus, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b dominated. PMID:22063550

  11. Quantification of Rifapentine, a Potent Antituberculosis Drug, from Dried Blood Spot Samples Using Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Teresa L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  12. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  13. High temperature and vapor pressure deficit aggravate architectural effects but ameliorate non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production of tomato

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi M. N.; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop and often cultivated in regions exposed to salinity and high temperatures (HT) which change plant architecture, decrease canopy light interception and disturb physiological functions. However, the long-term effects of salinity and HT combination (S+HT) on plant growth are still unclear. A dynamic functional-structural plant model (FSPM) of tomato was parameterized and evaluated for different levels of S+HT combinations. The evaluated model was used to quantify the contributions of morphological changes (architectural effects) and physiological disturbances (non-architectural effects) on the reduction of shoot dry mass under S+HT. The model predicted architectural variables with high accuracy (>85%), which ensured the reliability of the model analyses. HT enhanced architectural effects but reduced non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production. The stronger architectural effects of salinity under HT could not be counterbalanced by the smaller non-architectural effects. Therefore, long-term influences of HT on shoot dry mass under salinity were negative at the whole plant level. Our model analysis highlights the importance of plant architecture at canopy level in studying the plant responses to the environments and shows the merits of dynamic FSPMs as heuristic tools. PMID:26539203

  14. High temperature and vapor pressure deficit aggravate architectural effects but ameliorate non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production of tomato.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi M N; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop and often cultivated in regions exposed to salinity and high temperatures (HT) which change plant architecture, decrease canopy light interception and disturb physiological functions. However, the long-term effects of salinity and HT combination (S+HT) on plant growth are still unclear. A dynamic functional-structural plant model (FSPM) of tomato was parameterized and evaluated for different levels of S+HT combinations. The evaluated model was used to quantify the contributions of morphological changes (architectural effects) and physiological disturbances (non-architectural effects) on the reduction of shoot dry mass under S+HT. The model predicted architectural variables with high accuracy (>85%), which ensured the reliability of the model analyses. HT enhanced architectural effects but reduced non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production. The stronger architectural effects of salinity under HT could not be counterbalanced by the smaller non-architectural effects. Therefore, long-term influences of HT on shoot dry mass under salinity were negative at the whole plant level. Our model analysis highlights the importance of plant architecture at canopy level in studying the plant responses to the environments and shows the merits of dynamic FSPMs as heuristic tools. PMID:26539203

  15. The use of label-free mass spectrometry for relative quantification of sarcoplasmic proteins during the processing of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Concepción Aristoy, M; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify changes in the abundance of the major sarcoplasmic proteins throughout the ham dry-curing process by using a label-free mass spectrometry methodology based on the measurement of mass spectral peak intensities obtained from the extracted ion chromatogram. For this purpose, extraction of sarcoplasmic proteins was followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (Q/TOF) for the identification and relative quantification of sarcoplasmic proteins through individual quantification of trypsinised peptides. In total, 20 proteins, including 12 glycolytic enzymes, were identified and quantified. The accuracy of the protocol was based on MS/MS replicates, and beta-lactoglobulin protein was used to normalise data and correct possible variations during sample preparation or LC-MS/MS analysis. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides precise identification and quantification of proteins in comparison with traditional methodologies based on gel electrophoresis, especially in the case of overlapping proteins. Moreover, the label-free approach used in this study proved to be a simple, fast, reliable method for evaluating proteolytic degradation of sarcoplasmic proteins during the processing of dry-cured ham.

  16. [Determination of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd by modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Ma, Junmei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis was developed for the determination of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd. Yuba and dried beancurd samples were soaked by deionized water, then acetonitrile was added to extract the analytes. Sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate were added for liquid-liquid separation. The extracts were cleaned-up by dispersive solid-phase using N-propyl diethylamine. The analytes were separated by liquid chromatography and determined by mass spectrometry. External standard method was used for quantification. The recoveries of dimethyl yellow were in the range of 73.5%-84.5% at spiked levels of 0.3, 1 and 10 kg/kg and the recoveries of diethyl yellow were in range of 70.5%-81.2% at spiked levels of 0.1,1 and 10 µg/kg; relative standard deviations of the method were lower than 11%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of dimethyl yellow were 0.1 µg/kg and 0.3 µg/kg, respectively; the limit of detection and the limit of quantification of diethyl yellow were 0.05 µg/kg and 0.1 µg/kg, respectively. This method can be used in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd. PMID:26536771

  17. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Apple Slice under Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a new simultaneous infrared dry blanching and dehydration process for producing high-quality blanched and partially dehydrated products, apple slices with three different thicknesses, 5, 9, and 13 mm, were heated using infrared for up to 10 min at 4000W/m2 IR intensity. The surface and ce...

  18. Circadian rhythm of dry mass and weight-class-pattern of the rat hepatocytes--effects of light-dark and feeding regimens.

    PubMed

    Tongiani, R; Chieli, E; Malvaldi, G

    1982-01-01

    1. Dry weight has been determined of individual hepatocytes isolated from rats kept at natural or at reversed daily light-dark cycle, and from rats under time-restricted feeding. Behaviours of liver weight, mitotic activity and binuclearity frequency of the hepatocytes and serum corticosterone have been also investigated. 2. At natural light-dark cycle, liver weight, hepatocyte mitotic activity, and serum corticosterone were higher during the day than during the night. In accordance, dry weight and class number of the hepatocytes were both higher by day than by night. 3. By reversal of the light-dark cycle, circadian rhythms of liver weight, hepatocyte mitotic activity and serum corticosterone underwent a reversal. In accordance, circadian rhythm also reversed of both dry mass of the hepatocytes, which became heavier by night than by day, and pattern of the hepatocyte weight-classes, which became sharper, more discrete and more numerous by night, less defined and lower in number by day. 4. Feeding restriction to early morning or to late afternoon did not affect substantially the circadian rhythms of the parameters examined. 5. Binuclear cell frequency did never differ significantly at midnight with respect to midday, irrespectively to the experimental condition. 6. Regulation of the circadian rhythm of both weight-class pattern and dry mass of the hepatocytes appears to be mainly acted by the light-dark regimen likely via modulation of the plasma glucocorticoids (corticosterone) concentration, and increase/decrease of which causes a decrease/increase of the total solid content of hepatocytes, with redistribution of cells in the weight-classes. 7. Feeding rhythm and time elapsed from food intake mainly influence definition of the individual weight-classes and weight range of the hepatocytes.

  19. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta(13)C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis x camaldulensis and E. grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, D; Stock, W D; Bond, W J; Maphanga, D

    1996-05-01

    Clonal variation in water use efficiency (WUE), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of crude leaf fiber extracts was determined in six clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. grown for 16 months in field lysimeters in two soil water regimes. The relationships between delta(13)C and WUE calculated on the basis of leaf, harvestable stem, shoot and whole-plant dry mass accumulation were investigated. There was no clonal variation in dry mass accumulation but clonal allocation to roots, harvestable stems, branches and leaves varied. Water use efficiencies (mass of plant or plant part/water used over 16 months) differed significantly between clones. The clonal ranking of WUE varied depending on the units of dry mass accumulation used. Significant relationships between delta(13)C values and instantaneous water use efficiencies and ratios of internal leaf to ambient CO(2) concentrations were found only in the high soil water treatment. There were no relationships between delta(13)C values and whole-plant, shoot and harvestable stem water use efficiencies and soil water availability. Values of delta(13)C were negatively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the low soil water treatment. At the whole-plant level, WUE was positively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the high soil water treatment. We found significant differences in delta(13)C values between clones and the clonal rankings in delta(13)C and WUE were maintained in both soil water treatments. PMID:14871719

  20. Quantification of the effects of architectural traits on dry mass production and light interception of tomato canopy under different temperature regimes using a dynamic functional-structural plant model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi My Nguyet; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in evaluating the environmental effects on crop architectural traits and yield improvement. However, crop models describing the dynamic changes in canopy structure with environmental conditions and the complex interactions between canopy structure, light interception, and dry mass production are only gradually emerging. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as a model crop, a dynamic functional-structural plant model (FSPM) was constructed, parameterized, and evaluated to analyse the effects of temperature on architectural traits, which strongly influence canopy light interception and shoot dry mass. The FSPM predicted the organ growth, organ size, and shoot dry mass over time with high accuracy (>85%). Analyses of this FSPM showed that, in comparison with the reference canopy, shoot dry mass may be affected by leaf angle by as much as 20%, leaf curvature by up to 7%, the leaf length:width ratio by up to 5%, internode length by up to 9%, and curvature ratios and leaf arrangement by up to 6%. Tomato canopies at low temperature had higher canopy density and were more clumped due to higher leaf area and shorter internodes. Interestingly, dry mass production and light interception of the clumped canopy were more sensitive to changes in architectural traits. The complex interactions between architectural traits, canopy light interception, dry mass production, and environmental conditions can be studied by the dynamic FSPM, which may serve as a tool for designing a canopy structure which is 'ideal' in a given environment.

  1. Parallel ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the quantification of HIV protease inhibitors using dried spot sample collection format.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyoko; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2014-08-15

    An assay was developed and validated for the quantification of eight protease inhibitors (indinavir (IDV), ritonavir (RTV), lopinavir (LPV), saquinavir (SQV), amprenavir (APV), nelfinavir (NFV), atazanavir (AZV) and darunavir (DRV)) in dried plasma spots using parallel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. For each analyte an isotopically labeled internal standard was used and the assay based on liquid-solid extraction the area response ratio (analyte/IS) was found to be linear; from 0.025 μg/ml to 20 μg/ml for IDV, SQV, DRV, AZV, LPV, from 0.025 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml for NFV, APV and from 0.025 μg/ml to 5 μg/ml for RTV using 15 μl of plasma spotted on filter paper placed in a sample tube. The total analysis time was of 4 min and inter-assay accuracies and precisions were in the range of 87.7-109% and 2.5-11.8%, respectively. On dried plasma spots all analytes were found to be stable for at least 7 days. Practicability of the assay to blood was also demonstrated. The sample drying process could be reduced to 5 min using a commercial microwave system without any analyte degradation. Together with quantification, confirmatory analysis was performed on representative clinical samples.

  2. A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in fresh fish and dried seafoods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenshuo; Han, Zheng; Aerts, Johan; Nie, Dongxia; Jin, Mengtong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhiyong; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhao, Yong; Wu, Aibo

    2015-03-27

    A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine mycotoxins, i.e., aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin, HT2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON), in fresh fish (muscle and entrails) as well as dried seafoods. Special focus was given to sample pretreatment which is crucial for an accurate and reliable analytical method. With regards to the high complexity of the matrices, extraction solvent, time, and temperature as well as clean-up cartridges were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce matrix effects. The optimum procedure included ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v) at 40 °C for 30 min, defatting with n-hexane and purification by Oasis HLB cartridges. The method was further validated by determining the linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9989), sensitivity (limit of detection ≤ 2 μg/kg, limit of quantitation ≤ 3 μg/kg), recovery (72.2-119.9%) and precision (≤ 18.3%) in muscle and entrails of fresh crucian carp (Carassius carassius) as well as dried fish products. The method was proven to be suitable for its intended purposes. Mycotoxins of OTA, ZEN and AFB2 have been found in fresh fish and dried seafoods for the first time.

  3. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 1, Dry sorbent injection: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    This report presents the results of fundamental mass transfer testing for in-duct removal of SO{sub 2}. Following this initial part of an experimental program, it became clear that the amount of initial moisture on the sorbent strongly affected the extent of Ca(OH){sub 2} conversion. Novel techniques aimed at increasing sorbent utilization were investigated and are described. Major novel technique investigated and reported on here was the reaction with SO{sub 2} of sorbents with initial free moisture (damp sorbents). The duct injection process using damp solids has the following steps: preparation of sorbent as a slurry, blending of the slurry with dry recycle materials to create damp solids, injection of the solids into the duct, reaction and drying of the solids with flue gas in the duct, collection in particulate control equipment, and finally recycle of dry solids with some bleed to disposal. The moisture content of the solids at each step affects system performance. Various factors favor high moisture whereas others favor low moisture. (VC)

  4. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile.

  5. [Determination of trace metals in atmospheric dry deposition with a heavy matrix of PUF by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy after microwave digestion].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue-peng; Wang, Yue-si; Yang, Yong-jie; Wu, Dan; Xin, Jin-yuan; Fan, Wen-yan

    2010-03-01

    Interest in atmospheric dry deposition results mostly from concerns about the effects of the deposited trace elements entering waterbody, soil and vegetation as well as their subsequent health effects. A microwave assisted digestion method followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (MAD-ICP/MS) analysis was developed to determine the concentrations of a large number of trace metals in atmospheric dry deposition samples with a heavy matrix of polyurethane foam (PUF). A combination of HNO3-H2O2-HF was used for digestion. The experimental protocol for the microwave assisted digestion was established using two different SRMs (GBW 07401, Soil and GBW 08401, Coal fly ash). Subsequently, blanks and limits of detection for total trace metal concentrations were determined for PUF filter which was used for dry deposition sampling. Finally, the optimized digestion method was applied to real world atmospheric dry deposition samples collected at 10 sites in Jingjinji area in winter from Dec. 2007 to Feb. 2008. The results showed that the area-averaged total mass fluxes ranged between 85 and 912 mg x (m2 x d)(-1), and fluxes of most elements were highest at Baoding and lowest at Xinglong. In addition, the elemental fluxes in urban areas of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan were measured to be higher than that in suburb and rural sites. The average fluxes of crust elements (A1, Fe, Mn, K, Na, Ca and Mg) were one to three orders of magnitude higher than anthropogenic elements (Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, V, Zn and Ba), varying from 151 to 16034 microg x (m2 x d)(-1) versus 14 to 243 microg x (m2 x d)(-1). Zinc was the most abundant heavy metal and calcium the highest of the crust elements while the elements Mo, Co, Cd, As and Be deposited less or even could not be detected. The anthropogenic and crustal contributions were estimated by employing enrichment factors (EF) calculated relative to the average crustal composition. The EF values of all elements except Pb and Zn were below

  6. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  7. Effect of drying methods on the free and conjugated bufadienolide content in toad venom determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled with a pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Gong, Yan; Ma, Hongyue; Wang, Honglan; Qian, Dawei; Wen, Hongmei; Liu, Rui; Duan, Jinao; Wu, Qinan

    2015-10-10

    Drying is a useful technique for extending the shelf-life of biological products and enabling long-term storage; however, improper drying can reduce the chemical quality of the products. In this study, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the effects of four drying methods (V: vacuum-drying at 60°C, F: freeze-drying, H: air-drying at 60°C and R: air-drying at room temperature) on the levels of 36 bufadienolides in toad venom. Vacuum-drying at 60°C produced the highest quality dried toad venom in terms of total bufadienolide content, whereas traditional air-drying at room temperature (RT) to dehydrate the toad venom led to a dramatic loss in free and conjugated bufadienolides, reaching up to 60% and 70%, respectively. Assaying for free bufadienolides ranked the drying methods as V≈F>H>R, whereas assaying for conjugated bufadienolides slightly changed the order to V>F≈H>R. Furthermore, we identified 21 bufadienolides as biomarkers responsible for the decline in the quality of dried toad venom, whose loss varied from 1.5-fold to 100-fold. Of these biomarkers, group I bufadienolides that contain 16-OAc (e.g., cinobufagin and its hydroxyl or arginine ester derivatives) were characteristic components and were reduced to trace levels (loss of more than 10-fold) following traditional air-drying at RT. This might be attributed to the fact that most enzyme-sensitive bufadienolides were biotransformed or degraded at room temperature but were retained using other drying methods.

  8. Determination of moulds and mycotoxins in dry dog and cat food using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Błajet-Kosicka, A; Kosicki, R; Twarużek, M; Grajewski, J

    2014-01-01

    In this study moulds and 12 mycotoxins in dry pet food samples (25 for dogs and 24 for cats) were determined. Primary moulds identified were Aspergillus, Mucor and Penicillium, found in 55% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone (ZEN) were detected in all samples with mean respective concentrations being 97.3 and 38.3 µg kg(-1) in cat food and 114 and 20.1 µg kg(-1) in dog food. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were present in 88% and 84% of the samples, respectively. Two samples contained fumonisins, with a maximum concentration of 108 µg kg(-1). Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 8% and 45% of the samples, respectively. The measured mould and mycotoxin levels were consistent with results obtained by other studies. However, potential exposure to relatively high concentrations of an oestrogen mycotoxin as is ZEN, especially when in combination with other mycotoxins, needs attention.

  9. Mass transfer during drying of colloidal film beneath a patterned mask that contains a hexagonal array of holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasevich, Yu Yu; Vodolazskaya, I. V.

    2016-02-01

    We simulated an experiment in which a thin colloidal sessile droplet is allowed to dry out on a horizontal hydrophilic surface when a mask just above the droplet predominantly allows evaporation from the droplet free surface directly beneath the holes in the mask [Harris D J, Hu H, Conrad J C and Lewis J A 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 148301]. We considered one particular case when centre-to-centre spacing between the holes is much less than the drop diameter. In our model, advection, diffusion, and sedimentation were taken into account. FlexPDE was utilized to solve an advection-diffusion equation using the finite element method. The simulation demonstrated that the colloidal particles accumulate below the holes as the solvent evaporates. Diffusion can reduce this accumulation.

  10. Dried Blood Spot Methodology in Combination With Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Facilitates the Monitoring of Teriflunomide

    PubMed Central

    Lunven, Catherine; Turpault, Sandrine; Beyer, Yann-Joel; O'Brien, Amy; Delfolie, Astrid; Boyanova, Neli; Sanderink, Ger-Jan; Baldinetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teriflunomide, a once-daily oral immunomodulator approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is eliminated slowly from plasma. If necessary to rapidly lower plasma concentrations of teriflunomide, an accelerated elimination procedure using cholestyramine or activated charcoal may be used. The current bioanalytical assay for determination of plasma teriflunomide concentration requires laboratory facilities for blood centrifugation and plasma storage. An alternative method, with potential for greater convenience, is dried blood spot (DBS) methodology. Analytical and clinical validations are required to switch from plasma to DBS (finger-prick sampling) methodology. Methods: Using blood samples from healthy subjects, an LC-MS/MS assay method for quantification of teriflunomide in DBS over a range of 0.01–10 mcg/mL was developed and validated for specificity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and stability. Results were compared with those from the current plasma assay for determination of plasma teriflunomide concentration. Results: Method was specific and selective relative to endogenous compounds, with process efficiency ∼88%, and no matrix effect. Inaccuracy and imprecision for intraday and interday analyses were <15% at all concentrations tested. Quantification of teriflunomide in DBS assay was not affected by blood deposit volume and punch position within spot, and hematocrit level had a limited but acceptable effect on measurement accuracy. Teriflunomide was stable for at least 4 months at room temperature, and for at least 24 hours at 37°C with and without 95% relative humidity, to cover sampling, drying, and shipment conditions in the field. The correlation between DBS and plasma concentrations (R2 = 0.97), with an average blood to plasma ratio of 0.59, was concentration independent and constant over time. Conclusions: DBS sampling is a simple and practical method for monitoring teriflunomide

  11. Effect of pregrazing herbage mass on methane production, dry matter intake, and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season period.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2010-10-01

    Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4

  12. Optical emission spectroscopy studies of the influence of laser ablated mass on dry inductively coupled plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocan, A. C.; Mao, X. L.; Borisov, Oleg V.; Russo, R. E.

    1998-03-01

    The amount of ablated mass can influence the temperature and excitation characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and must be taken into account to ensure accurate chemical analysis. The ICP electron number density was investigated by using measurements of the Mg ionic to atomic resonant-line ratios during laser ablation of an aluminum matrix. The ICP excitation temperature was measured by using selected Fe lines during laser ablation of an iron matrix. A Nd:YAG laser (3 ns pulse duration) at 266 nm was used for these ablation-sampling studies. Laser energy, power density, and repetition rate were varied in order to change the quantity of ablated mass into the ICP. Over the range of laser operating conditions studied herein, the ICP was not significantly influenced by the quantity of solid sample. Therefore, analytical measurements can be performed accurately and fundamental studies of laser ablation processes (such as ablation mass roll-off, fractional vaporization) can be investigated using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  13. Orotic acid quantification in dried blood spots and biological fluids by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Oceania; Garofalo, Daniela; Paglia, Giuseppe; Zuppaldi, Alfredo; Corso, Gaetano

    2010-03-01

    Orotic acid (ORA) is an intermediate metabolite in the pathway of pyrimidine nucleotides; its urinary excretion is useful to diagnose the hereditary orotic aciduria and some hyperammonemic inherited defects of urea cycle enzymes and amino acid transporters. ORA analysis is based on stable isotope dilution by GC-MS or LC-MS/MS methods. We developed a fast assay that measures the ORA in dried blood spots (DBS), plasma and urine using hydrophilic interaction LC-MS/MS. Within- and between-day analytical imprecision (CV%) of three quality control levels, in plasma, DBS and urine, ranged from 0.8 to 14.1%, while the inaccuracy ranged from -13.5 to 9.4%. In healthy children (n=20), ORA concentrations were less than 0.69 microM in plasma, less than 0.82 microM in DBS and from 0.2 to 1.4 mmol/mol of creatinine in urine. A patient with citrullinemia showed ORA levels of 133 microM in plasma and 39 microM in DBS. A patient with hyperammonemia-hyperornithinemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome presented a urinary ORA level of 9.1 mmol/mol of creatinine. The method is potentially able to discriminate affected patients from reference subjects; the clinical validation should be expanded on a higher number of patients. PMID:20209505

  14. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  15. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 2, Duct spray drying: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}] slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  16. Photosynthesis at an extreme end of the leaf trait spectrum: how does it relate to high leaf dry mass per area and associated structural parameters?

    PubMed Central

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Renton, Michael; Ludwig, Martha; Evans, John R.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

    2010-01-01

    Leaf dry mass per area (LMA) is a composite parameter relating to a suite of structural traits that have the potential to influence photosynthesis. However, the extent to which each of these traits contributes to variation in LMA and photosynthetic rates is not well understood, especially at the high end of the LMA spectrum. In this study, the genus Banksia (Proteaceae) was chosen as a model group, and key structural traits such as LMA, leaf thickness, and density were measured in 49 species. Based on the leaf trait variation obtained, a subset of 18 species displaying a wide range in LMA of 134–507 g m−2 was selected for analyses of relationships between leaf structural and photosynthetic characteristics. High LMA was associated with more structural tissue, lower mass-based chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations, and therefore lower mass-based photosynthesis. In contrast, area-based photosynthesis did not correlate with LMA, despite mesophyll volume per area increasing with increases in LMA. Photosynthetic rate per unit mesophyll volume declined with increasing LMA, which is possibly associated with structural limitations and, to a lesser extent, with lower nitrogen allocation. Mesophyll cell wall thickness significantly increased with LMA, which would contribute to lower mesophyll conductance at high LMA. Photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and the nitrogen allocation to Rubisco and thylakoids tended to decrease at high LMA. The interplay between anatomy and physiology renders area-based photosynthesis independent of LMA in Banksia species. PMID:20484320

  17. Determination of rare earth elements in human hair and wheat flour reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with dry ashing and microwave digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yin; Bing, Li

    1998-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of all rare earth elements (REEs) at sub ng g -1 levels in human hair (GBW 09101, SRM, Republic of China) and wheat flour (GBW 08503, SRM, Republic of China) by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The values obtained by dry ashing and microwave oven digestion procedures were compared with those obtained by traditional open vessel acid digestion method. The validity of the analytical procedure was examined by analyzing spiked samples and two vegetables (GBW 07603 and GBW 07605, SRMs, Republic of China). The results are satisfactory. The detection limits for 14 REEs ranged from 0.0039 to 0.0003 ng cm -3 in solution and the quantification limits ranged from 0.16 to 0.01 ng g -1 in solid sample. The precision for most REEs were less than 10% RSD.

  18. Tray Drying of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afacan, Artin; Masliyah, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    Describes a drying experiment useful in presenting the concept of simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Background information, equipment requirements, experimental procedures, and results are provided. The reasonably good agreement in the calculated rate of drying and that observed experimentally makes students feel confident in applying…

  19. Effects of pregrazing herbage mass in late spring on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Letelier, P A; Ungerfeld, E M; Morales, J M; Hube, S; Pérez-Prieto, L A

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of fresh forage quality on enteric methane (CH4) emissions of dairy cows under grazing conditions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of 2 contrasting forage qualities induced by different pregrazing herbage masses in late spring on enteric CH4 emissions and milk production of grazing dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 24 lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cows randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in 2 experimental periods. Each period had a duration of 3wk (2wk for diet adaptation and 1wk for measurements), and the interval between them was 2wk. Treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing herbage masses [2,200 and 5,000kg of dry matter (DM)/ha above 3cm], generated by different regrowth periods, corresponding to low (LHM) and high (HHM) herbage mass treatments, respectively. Daily herbage allowance (Lolium perenne) for both treatments was 20kg of DM per cow measured above 3cm. Enteric CH4 emissions were individually determined during the last week of each period using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique. Daily herbage intakes by individual cows during the CH4 measurement weeks were estimated using the n-alkanes technique. During the CH4 measurement weeks, milk yield and body mass were determined twice daily, whereas milk composition was determined once in the week. The LHM pasture had a higher crude protein concentration, lower neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations, and higher in vitro digestibility, with a lower proportion of ryegrass pseudostems, than the HHM pasture. Cows offered the LHM pasture had greater herbage (+13%) and total DM (+12%) intakes, increased milk (+13%) and energy-corrected milk (+11%) yields, and tendencies toward higher milk protein (+4.5%) and higher milk urea nitrogen (+15%) concentrations than their counterparts offered the HHM pasture. No differences were found between treatments in total daily CH4 production

  20. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2016-03-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  1. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  2. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, I: atypical radiation and the edge vial effect.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, Shailaja; Pikal, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether radiation heat transfer is responsible for the position dependence of heat transfer known as the edge vial effect. Freeze drying was performed on a laboratory-scale freeze dryer using pure water with vials that were fully stoppered but had precision cut metal tubes inserted in them to ensure uniformity in resistance to vapor flow. Sublimation rates were determined gravimetrically. Vials were sputter-coated with gold and placed at selected positions on the shelf. Average sublimation rates were determined for vials located at the front, side, and center of an array of vials. Sublimation rates were also determined with and without the use of aluminum foil as a radiation shield. The effect of the guardrail material and its contribution to the edge vial effect by conduction heat transfer was studied by replacing the stainless steel band with a low-thermal conductivity material (styrofoam). The emissivities (epsilon) of relevant surfaces were measured using an infrared thermometer. Sublimation rate experiments were also conducted with vials suspended off the shelf to study the role of convection heat transfer. It was found that sublimation rates were significantly higher for vials located in the front compared to vials in the center. Additional radiation shields in the form of aluminum foil on the inside door resulted in a decrease in sublimation rates for the front vials and to a lesser extent, the center vials. There was a significant decrease in sublimation rate for gold-coated vials (epsilon approximately 0.4) placed at the front of an array when compared to that of clear vials (epsilon approximately 0.9). In the case of experiments with vials suspended off the shelf, the heat transfer coefficient was found to be independent of chamber pressure, indicating that pure convection plays no significant role in heat transfer. Higher sublimation rates were observed when the steel band was used instead of Styrofoam while the

  3. Spatial location of the space charge effect in individual ion clouds using monodisperse dried microparticulate injection with a twin quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Allen, L A; Leach, J J; Houk, R S

    1997-07-01

    Pulses of analyte and matrix ions from individual drops are measured simultaneously using a twin quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The sample solution is introduced by monodisperse dried microparticulate injection (MDMI). At modest Pb concentrations (500 ppm), a shoulder on the leading edge of the Li(+) signal appears. At higher matrix concentrations (1000 to at least 1500 ppm), a dip in the leading edge of the Li(+) signal develops. These changes in the shapes of the Li(+) pulses are attributed to space charge effects in the extraction system and ion optics of the mass spectrometer. A qualitative depiction for this behavior is proposed, in which the Li(+) ions are deflected out of the preferred ion path and then refocused by the ion optics. Part of the Li(+) ion cloud is driven ahead of the Pb(+) cloud, and part is trapped behind the Pb(+) cloud. The result is a shoulder on the leading edge of the Li(+) signal. With the Pb matrix present, the shapes of the analyte ion pulses are sensitive to the voltages applied to the first two ion lenses, especially the extractor lens. This observation shows that the part of the matrix effect that occurs in the ion optics takes place mainly in the first two lenses.

  4. Identification and quantification of psychoactive drugs in whole blood using dried blood spot (DBS) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marchei, Emilia; Scaravelli, Giulia; García-Algar, Oscar; Supervía, August; Graziano, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of twenty three psychoactive drugs and metabolites in whole blood using dried blood spot (DBS). Chromatographic separation was achieved at ambient temperature using a reverse-phase column and a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 5mM ammonium formate at pH 3. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode, using multiple reaction monitoring via positive electro-spray ionization. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (5ng/ml for all the analytes apart from 15ng/ml for Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and metabolites) to 500ng/ml, and showed good correlation coefficients (r(2)=0.990) for all substances. Analytical recovery of analytes under investigation was always higher than 75% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy always better than 15%. Using the validated method, ten DBS samples, collected at the hospital emergency department in cases of acute drug intoxication, were found positive to one or more psychoactive drugs. Our data support the potential of DBS sampling for non invasive monitoring of exposure/intoxication to psychoactive drugs. PMID:27232151

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and relative metabolites in Aspergillus species and dried vine fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jingming; Cheng, Zhan; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycotoxin is quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were 74.5-108.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-8.4% for fungal culture. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.03-0.87 μg l(-)(1), and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.07 to 2.90 μg l(-)(1). In addition, the extraction solutions and clean-up columns were optimised specifically for dried vine fruit samples to improve the performance of the method. Methanol-1% sodium bicarbonate extraction solution (6:4, v/v) was determined to be the most efficient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed as a clean-up step prior to HPLC-MS/MS analysis to reduce matrix effects. Recoveries ranged from 80.1% to 110.8%. RSDs ranged from 0.1% to 3.6%. LODs and LOQs ranged from 0.06 to 0.40 μg kg(-)(1) and from 0.19 to 1.20 μg kg(-)(1), respectively. The analytical method was established and used to identify and quantify OTA and related compounds from Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in cultures and dried vine fruits. The results showed that A. carbonarius produced OTα, OTB and OTA, whereas A. ochraceus produced OTB, OTA and mellein after 7 days of cultivation. Of 30 commercial samples analysed, 10 were contaminated with ochratoxins; OTB, OTα and mellein were also detected in different samples. PMID:27442910

  6. Experiment and numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer during a spray freeze-drying process of ovalbumin in a tray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chi-Sung; Yeom, Geum-Su

    2009-11-01

    Spray freeze-drying is a promising technology for producing high-quality porous particles primarily for pharmaceutical uses. The advantages of freeze-drying in the production of pharmaceuticals and biomedical products, such as minimization of thermal and chemical degradation, retention of volatile components, preservation of high porosity, and a very low content of residual water after drying, are mostly retained in spray freeze-drying. In this study, we performed spray freeze-drying of a 3% (w/w) chicken egg ovalbumin solution in a tray with a batch-type spray freeze-dryer that we developed. The physical characteristics of the spray freeze-dried particles were qualitatively evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy. The freeze-drying behavior of spray-frozen particles was experimentally investigated by measuring the histories of product temperatures and numerically studied by developing an analysis model based on the finite volume method in a fixed grid system.

  7. Analysis of carbohydrates in Fusarium verticillioides using size-exclusion HPLC – DRI and direct analysis in real time ionization – time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time ionization – time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (DART-MS) and size-exclusion HPLC – DRI are used, respectively, to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the carbohydrates extracted from the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides. In situ permethylation in the DART...

  8. Mass spectrometric studies on the in vivo metabolism and excretion of SIRT1 activating drugs in rat urine, dried blood spots, and plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Höppner, Sebastian; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The NAD(+) depending enzyme SIRT1 regulates the mitochondrial biogenesis, fat and glucose metabolism through catalyzing the deacetylation of several metabolism-related protein-substrates. Recently, synthetic activators of SIRT1 referred to as STACs (Sirtuin activating compounds, e.g. SRT2104) were identified and tested in clinical studies for the treatment of aging-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and obesity. Although the mechanism of SIRT1 activation by small molecules has caused considerable controversy, STACs demonstrated a significant performance enhancement in mice experiments including an improvement of endurance, muscle strength, and locomotor behavior. Due to their potential to increase exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, SIRT1 activators are currently being monitored by anti-doping authorities. In the present study, the in vivo metabolic clearance of three SIRT1 activators was investigated in rats by the collection of urine, DBS (dried blood spots) and plasma samples following a single oral administration. The resulting metabolic products were studied by positive electrospray ionization - (tandem) mass spectrometry and confirmed by the comparison with in vitro generated metabolites using human and rat liver microsomal preparations. Subsequently, a screening procedure for five SIRT1 activators and the metabolite M1-SRT1720 in DBS specimens was developed. Liquid-liquid-extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was employed based on diagnostic ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode and two deuterated internal standards namely d8-SRT1720 and d8-M1-SRT1720 were utilized. The doping control assay was characterized with regard to specificity, limit of detection (10-50ng/ml), recovery (65-83%) and imprecision (7-20%) and ion suppression/enhancement effects (<10%), demonstrating its fitness-for-purpose for sports drug testing applications.

  9. Ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric HIV-1 infection applying dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Reedijk, Mariska L.; Scheuer, Rachel D.; Dekker, Lennard J. M.; Burger, David M.; Hartwig, Nico G.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Luider, Theo M.; Gruters, Rob A.

    2010-01-01

    Kaletra® (Abott Laboratories) is a co-formulated medication used in the treatment of HIV-1-infected children, and it contains the two antiretroviral protease inhibitor drugs lopinavir and ritonavir. We validated two new ultrafast and high-throughput mass spectrometric assays to be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations in whole blood and in plasma from HIV-1-infected children. Whole blood was blotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) collecting cards, and plasma was collected simultaneously. DBS collecting cards were extracted by an acetonitrile/water mixture while plasma samples were deproteinized with acetone. Drug concentrations were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS). The application of DBS made it possible to measure lopinavir and ritonavir in whole blood in therapeutically relevant concentrations. The MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS plasma assay was successfully cross-validated with a commonly used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–ultraviolet (UV) assay for the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of HIV-1-infected patients, and it showed comparable performance characteristics. Observed DBS concentrations showed as well, a good correlation between plasma concentrations obtained by MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS and those obtained by the HPLC-UV assay. Application of DBS for TDM proved to be a good alternative to the normally used plasma screening. Moreover, collection of DBS requires small amounts of whole blood which can be easily performed especially in (very) young children where collection of large whole blood amounts is often not possible. DBS is perfectly suited for TDM of HIV-1-infected children; but nevertheless, DBS can also easily be applied for TDM of patients in areas with limited or no laboratory facilities. PMID:20632164

  10. Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Method for the Determination of Pesticides in Dry Samples (Rice and Wheat Flour) Using Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grande-Martínez, Ángel; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Moreno, Laura Díaz; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive multiresidue method was developed and validated for the determination of around 100 pesticides in dry samples (rice and wheat flour) by ultra-performance LC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass analyzer working in tandem mode (UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS). The sample preparation step was optimized for both matrixes. Pesticides were extracted from rice samples using aqueous ethyl acetate, while aqueous acetonitrile extraction [modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method] was used for wheat flour matrixes. In both cases the extracts were then cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with MgSO4 and primary secondary amine+C18 sorbents. A further cleanup step with Florisil was necessary to remove fat in wheat flour. The method was validated at two concentration levels (3.6 and 40 μg/kg for most compounds), obtaining recoveries ranging from 70 to 120%, intraday and interday precision values≤20% expressed as RSDs, and expanded uncertainty values≤50%. The LOQ values ranged between 3.6 and 20 μg/kg, although it was set at 3.6 μg/kg for the majority of the pesticides. The method was applied to the analysis of 20 real samples, and no pesticides were detected. PMID:26525236

  11. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (P<0.01) on the L treatment and cows grazing the L pastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (P<0.05). Treatment did not affect daily milk production or pasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (P<0.01) and increase grazing time (P<0.05) to compensate for a lower pre-grazing HM (P<0.01). The results indicate that, while pre-grazing HM did not influence daily milk yield per cow, adapting the practise of grazing low HM (1150 kg DM/ha) pasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  12. Rapid recognition of irradiated dry-cured ham by on-line coupling of reversed-phase liquid chromatography with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez, R M; Barba, C; Calvo, M M; Santa-María, G; Herraiz, M

    2011-06-01

    The use of on-line coupling of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and gas chromatography (RPLC-GC) with the through oven transfer adsorption desorption (TOTAD) interface and mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed for testing different types of commercial Spanish dry-cured ham for irradiation treatment at various doses (0, 1.5, 2, and 4 kGy). The qualitative analysis of radiation-specific compounds (e.g., n-pentadecane, 1-hexadecene, 1,7-hexadecadiene, n-heptadecane, 8-heptadecene, and 2-dodecylcyclobutanone) can be simultaneously established in a single run with samples that have or have not been irradiated. The overall analysis, which takes less than 100 min, includes a rapid extraction step using a small amount of dichloromethane-methanol (1:1, vol/vol) and anhydrous sodium sulfate, the subsequent fractionation of the sample in the first dimension of the system (RPLC), the transfer of the target fraction to the second dimension, the GC separation, and the MS detection. The calculated limits of detection in ham were lower than 22 ng/g. Repeatability studies provided relative standard deviation values of 0.8 to 13.5%.

  13. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  14. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  15. Application of a Liquid Extraction Based Sealing Surface Sampling Probe for Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Dried Blood Spots and Mouse Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2009-01-01

    The utility of a liquid extraction based sealing surface sampling probe (SSSP) for the direct mass spectrometric analysis of targeted drugs and metabolites in dried blood spots (DBSs) and whole mouse thin tissue sections was demonstrated. The accuracy and precision for the quantitative analysis of a minimum of 50 ng/mL sitamaquine or acetaminophen in DBSs on paper were well within the required 15% dictated by internationally recognized acceptance criteria for assay validations. Analysis of whole-body mouse thin tissue sections from animals dosed with propranolol, adhered to an adhesive tape substrate, provided semi-quantitative information for propranolol and its hydroxyproranolol glucuronide metabolite within specific organs of the tissue. The relative abundances recorded for the two compounds in the brain, lung, kidney and liver were in nominal agreement with previously reported amounts based on analysis using a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP), and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) and HPLC-MS analysis. The ability to sample and analyze from tape-adhered tissue samples, which are generally employed in WBA analysis, presents the possibility of consecutive WBA and SSSP-MS analysis of the same tissue section. This would facilitate assignment, and possibly quantitation, of the different molecular forms of total drug related material detected in the WBA analysis. The flexibility to sample larger or smaller spot sizes, alternative probe sealing mechanisms, and a reduction in internal volumes and associated sample carryover issues will be among the first simple improvements necessary to make the SSSP-MS method a practical DBS and/or thin tissue section analysis tool or to expand its use to other surface sampling applications.

  16. The use of dried blood spots for quantification of 15 antipsychotics and 7 metabolites with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Patteet, Lisbeth; Maudens, Kristof E; Stove, Christophe P; Lambert, Willy E; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard; Neels, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring of antipsychotics is important in optimizing individual therapy. In psychiatric populations, classical venous blood sampling is experienced as frightening. Interest in alternative techniques, like dried blood spots (DBS), has consequently increased. A fast and easy to perform DBS method for quantification of 16 antipsychotics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, bromperidol, clozapine, haloperidol, iloperidone, levosulpiride, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, pipamperone, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole and zuclopenthixol) and 8 metabolites was developed. DBS were prepared using 25 μL of whole blood and extraction of complete spots was performed using methanol: methyl-t-butyl-ether (4:1). After evaporation, the extract was reconstituted in the mobile phase and 10 μL were injected on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Separation using a C18 column and gradient elution with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min resulted in a 6-min run-time. Ionization was performed in positive mode and a dynamic MRM method was applied. Median recovery was 66.4 % (range 28.7-84.5%). Accuracy was within the acceptance criteria, except for pipamperone (LLOQ and low concentration) and lurasidone (low concentration). Imprecision was only aberrant for lurasidone at low and medium concentration. All compounds were stable during 1 month at room temperature, 4 °C and -18 °C. Lurasidone was unstable when the extract was stored for 12 h on the autosampler. Absolute matrix effects (ME) (median 66.1%) were compensated by the use of deuterated IS (median 98.8%). The DBS method was successfully applied on 25-μL capillary DBS from patients and proved to be a reliable alternative for quantification of all antipsychotics except for olanzapine and N-desmethylolanzapine.

  17. Microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based determination of polar low molecular weight compounds in dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Sadones, Nele; Van Bever, Elien; Archer, John R H; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I; Van Bortel, Luc; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-09-23

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i.e. "microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization", to minimize sample preparation of DBS. In this approach the derivatization reagents are directly applied onto the DBS and derivatization takes place in a microwave instead of via conventional heating. In this manuscript we evaluated the applicability of this new concept of derivatization for the determination of two polar low molecular weight molecules, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gabapentin, in DBS using a standard GC-MS configuration. The method was successfully validated for both compounds, with imprecision and bias values within acceptance criteria (<20% at LLOQ, <15% at 3 other QC levels). Calibration lines were linear over the 10-100μg/mL and 1-30μg/mL range for GHB and gabapentin, respectively. Stability studies revealed no significant decrease of gabapentin and GHB in DBS upon storage at room temperature for at least 84 days. Furthermore, DBS-specific parameters, including hematocrit and volume spotted, were evaluated. As demonstrated by the analysis of GHB and gabapentin positive samples, "microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization" proved to be reliable, fast and applicable in routine toxicology. Moreover, other polar low molecular weight compounds of interest in clinical and/or forensic toxicology, including vigabatrin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,2-butanediol, can also be

  18. Multiplex Assay of Second-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Dried Blood Spots Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Jun, Sun-Hee; Han, Minje; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyoung Un

    2016-01-01

    As dried blood spots (DBSs) have various advantages over conventional venous blood sampling, some assays for detection of one or two anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in DBSs have been developed. However, there are no assays currently available for the simultaneous measurement of three or more anti-TB drugs in DBSs. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiplex method for detecting nine anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, cycloserine, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, prothionamide, and linezolid in DBSs by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Seventy-nine patient samples of DBS were analyzed on the UPLC-MS/MS system. All drug concentrations were determined within 4 min, and assay performance was evaluated. All drugs were clearly separated without ion suppression. Within-run and between-run precisions were 1.7-13.0% and 5.7-17.0%, respectively, at concentrations representing low and high levels for the nine drugs. Lower limits of detection and quantification were 0.06-0.6 and 0.5-5.0 µg/mL, respectively. Linearity was acceptable at five level concentrations for each drug. Correlations between drug concentrations in plasma and DBSs by using Passing-Bablock regression and Pearson's rho (ρ, 0.798-0.989) were acceptable. In conclusion, we developed a multiplex assay to measure nine second-line anti-TB drugs in DBSs successfully. This assay provided convenient and rapid drug quantification and could have applications in drug monitoring during treatment. PMID:27374716

  19. Microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based determination of polar low molecular weight compounds in dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Sadones, Nele; Van Bever, Elien; Archer, John R H; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I; Van Bortel, Luc; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-09-23

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i.e. "microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization", to minimize sample preparation of DBS. In this approach the derivatization reagents are directly applied onto the DBS and derivatization takes place in a microwave instead of via conventional heating. In this manuscript we evaluated the applicability of this new concept of derivatization for the determination of two polar low molecular weight molecules, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gabapentin, in DBS using a standard GC-MS configuration. The method was successfully validated for both compounds, with imprecision and bias values within acceptance criteria (<20% at LLOQ, <15% at 3 other QC levels). Calibration lines were linear over the 10-100μg/mL and 1-30μg/mL range for GHB and gabapentin, respectively. Stability studies revealed no significant decrease of gabapentin and GHB in DBS upon storage at room temperature for at least 84 days. Furthermore, DBS-specific parameters, including hematocrit and volume spotted, were evaluated. As demonstrated by the analysis of GHB and gabapentin positive samples, "microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization" proved to be reliable, fast and applicable in routine toxicology. Moreover, other polar low molecular weight compounds of interest in clinical and/or forensic toxicology, including vigabatrin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,2-butanediol, can also be

  20. Personalized monitoring of therapeutic salicylic acid in dried blood spots using a three-layer setup and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siebenhaar, Markus; Küllmer, Kai; Fernandes, Nuno Miguel de Barros; Hüllen, Volker; Hopf, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is an emerging technology for direct therapeutic drug monitoring in dried blood spots (DBS). Current DBS methods require manual application of small molecules as internal standards for absolute drug quantification. With industrial standardization in mind, we superseded the manual addition of standard and built a three-layer setup for robust quantification of salicylic acid directly from DBS. We combined a dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate weave facilitating sample spreading with a cellulose layer for addition of isotope-labeled salicylic acid as internal standard and a filter paper for analysis of the standard-containing sample by DESI-MS. Using this setup, we developed a quantification method for salicylic acid from whole blood with a validated linear curve range from 10 to 2000 mg/L, a relative standard deviation (RSD%) ≤14%, and determination coefficients of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) was 8 mg/L and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 mg/L. Recovery rates in method verification by LC-MS/MS were 97 to 101% for blinded samples. Most importantly, a study in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of Aspirin provides evidence to suggest that the three-layer setup may enable individual pharmacokinetic and endpoint testing following blood collection by finger pricking by patients at home. Taken together, our data suggests that DBS-based quantification of drugs by DESI-MS on pre-manufactured three-layer cartridges may be a promising approach for future near-patient therapeutic drug monitoring.

  1. Therapeutic drug monitoring of carbamazepine and its metabolite in children from dried blood spots using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Engy; Villanelli, Fabio; Malvagia, Sabrina; Rosati, Anna; Forni, Giulia; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-05-10

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line drug for the treatment of different forms of epilepsy and the first choice drug for trigeminal neuralgia. CBZ is metabolized in the liver by oxidation into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZE), its major metabolite which is equipotent and known to contribute to the pharmacological activity of CBZ. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a reliable, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of CBZ and its active metabolite in dried blood spots (DBS). The extraction process was carried out from DBS using methanol-water-formic acid (80:20:0.1, v/v/v). Chromatographic elution was achieved by using a linear gradient with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water-0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.50mL/min. The method was linear over the range 1-40mg/L and 0.25-20mg/L for CBZ and CBZE, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.75mg/L and 0.25mg/L for CBZ and CBZE. Intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were found to be lower than 5.13%, 6.46% and 11.76%, 4.72% with mean percentage accuracies of 102.1%, 97.5% and 99.2%, 97.8% for CBZ and CBZE. We successfully applied the method for determining DBS finger-prick samples in paediatric patients and confirmed the results with concentrations measured in matched plasma samples. This novel approach allows quantification of CBZ and its metabolite from only one 3.2mm DBS disc by LC-MS/MS thus combining advantages of DBS technique and LC-MS/MS in clinical practice.

  2. Advances in drying: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include recent thoughts in modeling of drying phenomena, use of computers in rational design of drying particulates, recent advances in drying of wood, and heat/mass transfer phenomena in drying of solids. As the readers will no doubt notice, special effort is made to ensure the truly international nature of the contents of this serial publication. As existing knowledge on drying and dryers becomes more widely and readily accessible, it is expected that more and more dryers will be designed rationally rather than built solely with the benefit of empiricism.

  3. Contribution of Soil Fauna to Foliar Litter-Mass Loss in Winter in an Ecotone between Dry Valley and Montane Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Yang, Wanqin; Li, Jun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Chuan; Yue, Kai; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition during winter can provide essential nutrients for plant growth in the subsequent growing season, which plays important role in preventing the expansion of dry areas and maintaining the stability of ecotone ecosystems. However, limited information is currently available on the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition during winter in such ecosystems. Therefore, a field experiment that included litterbags with two different mesh sizes (0.04 mm and 3 mm) was conducted to investigate the contribution of soil fauna to the loss of foliar litter mass in winter from November 2013 to April 2014 along the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Two litter types of the dominant species were selected in each ecosystem: cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and oak (Quercus baronii) in ecotone; cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and clovershrub (Campylotropis macrocarpa) in dry valley; and fir (Abies faxoniana) and birch (Betula albosinensis) in montane forest. Over one winter incubation, foliar litter lost 6.0%-16.1%, 11.4%-26.0%, and 6.4%-8.5% of initial mass in the ecotone, dry valley and montane forest, respectively. Soil fauna showed obvious contributions to the loss of foliar litter mass in all of the ecosystems. The highest contribution (48.5%-56.8%) was observed in the ecotone, and the lowest contribution (0.4%-25.8%) was observed in the montane forest. Compared with other winter periods, thawing period exhibited higher soil fauna contributions to litter mass loss in ecotone and dry valley, but both thawing period and freezing period displayed higher soil fauna contributions in montane forest. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of soil fauna was significantly correlated with temperature and soil moisture during the winter-long incubation. These results suggest that temperature might be the primary control factor in foliar litter decomposition, but more active soil fauna in the ecotone could contribute more in litter decomposition and

  4. Exploring Potential Chemical Transformation by Chemical Profiling Approach for Rapidly Evaluating Chemical Consistency between Sun-Dried and Sulfur-Fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) based on a chemical profiling method was applied to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba. By virtue of the high resolution, high speed of UPLC, and the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS coupled with reliable MarkerLynx software, five newly assigned monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were found and identified in sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba samples. This method could be applied for rapid quality evaluation of different kinds of sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba among commercial samples. PMID:24381637

  5. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results.

  6. Global detection and analysis of volatile components from sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated herbal medicine by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Cong, Xiaodong; Liu, Xiao; Ma, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2012-08-21

    The sulfur-fumigation process can induce changes in the contents of volatile compounds and the chemical transformation of herbal medicines. Although literature has reported many methods for analyzing volatile target compounds from herbal medicine, all of them are largely limited to target compounds and sun-dried samples. This study provides a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF/MS) method based on a chemical profiling approach to identify non-target and target volatile compounds from sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated herbal medicine. Using Chrysanthemum morifolium as a model herbal medicine, the combined power of this approach is illustrated by the identification of 209 and 111 volatile compounds with match quality >80% from sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Chrysanthemum morifolium, respectively. The study has also shown that sulfur-fumigated samples showed a significant loss of the main active compounds and a more destructive fingerprint profile compared to the sun-dried ones. 50 volatile compounds were lost in the sulfur-fumigated Chrysanthemum morifolium sample. The approach and methodology reported in this paper would be useful for identifying complicated target and non-target components from various complex mixtures such as herbal medicine and its preparations, biological and environmental samples. Furthermore, it can be applied for the intrinsic quality control of herbal medicine and its preparations.

  7. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results. PMID:25694147

  8. Rapid freeze-drying cycle optimization using computer programs developed based on heat and mass transfer models and facilitated by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS).

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    Computer programs in FORTRAN were developed to rapidly determine the optimal shelf temperature, T(f), and chamber pressure, P(c), to achieve the shortest primary drying time. The constraint for the optimization is to ensure that the product temperature profile, T(b), is below the target temperature, T(target). Five percent mannitol was chosen as the model formulation. After obtaining the optimal sets of T(f) and P(c), each cycle was assigned with a cycle rank number in terms of the length of drying time. Further optimization was achieved by dividing the drying time into a series of ramping steps for T(f), in a cascading manner (termed the cascading T(f) cycle), to further shorten the cycle time. For the purpose of demonstrating the validity of the optimized T(f) and P(c), four cycles with different predicted lengths of drying time, along with the cascading T(f) cycle, were chosen for experimental cycle runs. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to continuously measure the sublimation rate. As predicted, maximum product temperatures were controlled slightly below the target temperature of -25 degrees C, and the cascading T(f)-ramping cycle is the most efficient cycle design. In addition, the experimental cycle rank order closely matches with that determined by modeling. PMID:19504575

  9. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  10. Development of a new QuEChERS method based on dry ice for the determination of 168 pesticides in paprika using tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Woo; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Cho, Soon-Kil; Yu, Hyun-A; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han

    2011-07-15

    This study describes a new QuEChERS method referred to as the dry ice-partitioning QuEChERS method. This current method can be differentiated from the other QuEChERS methods in the sense that it uses dry ice rather than salts or buffers to extract and partition pesticides in the first extraction step. The dry ice-partitioning QuEChERS method consists of extraction method A (for detection of the acetonitrile layer) and extraction method B (for detection of both acetonitrile and aqueous layers). The extraction efficiency was then compared with the citrate-buffering QuEChERS method by means of recovery. Recovery values of the tested 168 pesticides were above 76%, with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Certain problematic pesticides, including benfuracarb, carbosulfan, dichlofluanid, probenazole, pymetrozine, tolylfluanid, TFNA, and TFNG evidenced acceptable recoveries via the dry ice-partitioning QuEChERS method compared to the less than 70% recoveries of the citrate-buffering QuEChERS method examined herein. The matrix effect of paprika on the method developed herein was not significant, and matrix-matched calibration was performed well, with an r(2)≥0.99. The dry ice-partitioning QuEChERS method is capable of detecting the aqueous layer as well as the acetonitrile layer; this interesting feature makes it worth in application as an alternative QuEChERS method for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides within a broad polarity range in various matrices.

  11. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  12. Steam drying -- Modeling and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmerstedt, R.; Hager, J.

    1996-08-01

    The concept of steam drying originates from the mid of the last century. However, a broad industrial acceptance of the technique has so far not taken place. The paper deals with modelling the steam drying process and applications of steam drying within certain industrial sectors where the technique has been deemed to have special opportunities. In the modelling section the mass and heat transfer processes are described along with equilibrium, capillarity and sorption phenomena occurring in porous materials during the steam drying process. In addition existing models in the literature are presented. The applications discussed involve drying of fuels with high moisture contents, cattle feed exemplified by sugar beet pulp, lumber, paper pulp, paper and sludges. Steam drying is compared to flue gas drying of biofuels prior to combustion in a boiler. With reference to a current installation in Sweden, the exergy losses, as manifested by loss of co-generation capacity, are discussed. The energy saving potential when using steam drying of sugar beet pulp as compared to other possible plant configurations is demonstrated. Mechanical vapor recompression applied to steam drying is analyzed with reference to reported data from industrial plants. Finally, environmental advantages when using steam drying are presented.

  13. The bronchodilator response from inhaled terbutaline is influenced by the mass of small particles: a study on a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler).

    PubMed

    Persson, G; Wirén, J E

    1989-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate if particles approximately less than 5 microns are optimal when delivered from a dry powder inhaler. It was performed as a cumulative dose response study of twelve asthmatic adults. Three different versions of a dry powder inhaler, Bricanyl Turbuhaler, were studied. Each inhaler delivered 0.5 mg of pure terbutaline sulphate with each dose. Out of this 0.5 mg, they delivered 90 micrograms, 40 micrograms and 5 micrograms, respectively, of particles approximately less than 5 microns with each dose at an inspiratory flow rate of 28 l.min-1. Terbutaline 0.5 mg, 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg was inhaled with a 30 min interval between the doses. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured 5 and 20 min after each dose. The bronchodilator response was greater with the inhaler delivering 90 micrograms of small particles with each dose than with the inhaler delivering 5 micrograms, thus confirming the importance of small (approximately less than 5 microns) particles. PMID:2731603

  14. Evolution of testes characteristics in entire and immunocastrated male pigs from 30 to 120 kg live weight as assessed by computed tomography with perspective on boar taint.

    PubMed

    Font-i-Furnols, Maria; Carabús, Anna; Muñoz, Israel; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Gispert, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The present study addressed (1) the levels of boar taint compounds in entire (EM) and immunocastrated (IM) male pigs during their growth, (2) the evolution of testes volume and density and (3) the relationship between physical characteristics of the testes and boar taint compounds. For that purpose 24 EM and 20 IM pigs were CT scanned at several body weights (TBW). After each scanning a subsample of pigs was slaughtered, and subcutaneous fat was collected to determine androstenone and skatole concentration. Additional subsample (n=4/sex) was CT scanned 13 days after the second vaccination (V2). Testes density changes with growth, is different in EM and IM, but is not a reliable marker of the level of boar taint compounds. On the other hand, testes to body volume ratio is a better predictor for androstenone and could provide a good tool at slaughter plants to detect immunocastrated pigs with high boar taint compounds. PMID:26835834

  15. Influence of net energy content of the diets on productive performance and carcass merit of gilts, boars and immunocastrated males slaughtered at 120kg BW.

    PubMed

    Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Sánchez, J L; López-Bote, C J; Mateos, G G

    2014-12-01

    In total, 540 crossbred pigs with an initial body weight of 28.5kg were used to investigate the effects of the net energy (NE) content (2.29, 2.33, 2.37, 2.41 and 2.45 Mcal/kg) of the diet on growth performance and carcass and meat quality traits of gilts, boars and immunocastrated males (IMC). An increase in dietary NE increased NE intake and decreased feed conversion ratio linearly. The IMC pigs showed greater feed intake and average daily gain than gilts and boars. Backfat depth increased and chilled and trimmed ham yield decreased, as the dietary NE increased. Backfat depth was greater for gilts and IMC than for boars. Also, gilts had greater carcass and loin yields than boars and IMC. Diets with the greater NE content were more appropriate for the production of heavy pigs. However, the economic interest of this practice needs further assessment. PMID:25134013

  16. Comparison of Mercury Mass Loading in Streams to Wet and Dry Atmospheric Deposition in Watersheds of the Western US: Evidence for Non-Atmospheric Mercury Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, J. L.; Majewski, M. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Eckley, C.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams in the western United States (US) are listed as impaired by mercury (Hg), and it is important to understand the magnitudes of the various sources in order to implement management strategies. Atmospheric deposition of Hg and can be a major source of aquatic contamination, along with mine wastes, and other sources. Prior studies in the eastern US have shown that streams deliver less than 50% of the atmospherically deposited Hg on an annual basis. In this study, we compared annual stream Hg loads for 20 watersheds in the western US to measured wet and modeled dry deposition. Land use varies from undisturbed to mixed (agricultural, urban, forested, mining). Data from the Mercury Deposition Network was used to estimate Hg input from precipitation. Dry deposition was not directly measured, but can be modeled using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. At an undeveloped watershed in the Rocky Mountains, the ratio of stream Hg load to atmospheric deposition was 0.2 during a year of average precipitation. In contrast, at the Carson River in Nevada, with known Hg contamination from historical silver mining with Hg amalgamation, stream export exceeded atmospheric deposition by a factor of 60, and at a small Sierran watershed with gold mining, the ratio was 70. Larger watersheds with mixed land uses, tend to have lower ratios of stream export relative to atmospheric deposition suggesting storage of Hg. The Sacramento River was the largest watershed for which Hg riverine loads were available with an average ratio of stream Hg export to atmospheric deposition of 0.10. Although Hg was used in upstream historical mining operations, the downstream river Hg load is partially mitigated by reservoirs, which trap sediment. This study represents the first compilation of riverine Hg loads in comparison to atmospheric deposition on a regional scale; the approach may be useful in assessing the relative importance of atmospheric and non-atmospheric Hg sources.

  17. Drying in cyclones -- A review

    SciTech Connect

    Nebra, S.A.; Silva, M.A.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of vortex (or cyclone) dryers. The focus is on the potential of the cyclone configuration for drying of particulates. A selective review is made of the literature pertains to single phase and gas-particle flow in cyclone geometries. Recent data on drying of particulates in cyclone dryers are summarized. 56 refs.

  18. Drying Thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    In searching for an improved method of removing water from polyester type resins without damaging the materials, Conair Inc. turned to the NASA Center at the University of Pittsburgh for assistance. Taking an organized, thorough look at existing technology before beginning research has helped many companies save significant time and money. They searched the NASA and other computerized files for microwave drying of thermoplastics. About 300 relevant citations were retrieved - eight of which were identified as directly applicable to the problem. Company estimates it saved a minimum of a full year in compiling research results assembled by the information center.

  19. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of polyphenols and secoiridoids in california-style black ripe olives and dry salt-cured olives.

    PubMed

    Melliou, Eleni; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-03-11

    The chemical composition of finished table olive products is influenced by the olive variety and the processing method used to debitter or cure table olives. Herein, a rapid ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring, was developed for the quantitation of 12 predominant phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in olive fruit, including hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol-4-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, verbascoside, oleoside-11-methyl ester, 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and o-coumaric acids), oleuropein aglycone, and ligstroside aglycone. Levels of these compounds were measured in fresh and California-style black ripe processed Manzanilla olives and two dry salt-cured olive varieties (Mission from California and Throuba Thassos from Greece). Results indicate that the variety and debittering processing method have strong impact on the profile of phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in table olives. The dry salt-cured olives contained higher amounts of most compounds studied, especially oleuropein (1459.5 ± 100.1 μg/g), whereas California-style black ripe olives had a significant reduction or loss of these bioactive compounds (e.g., oleuropein level at 36.7 ± 3.1 μg/g). PMID:25668132

  20. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of polyphenols and secoiridoids in california-style black ripe olives and dry salt-cured olives.

    PubMed

    Melliou, Eleni; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-03-11

    The chemical composition of finished table olive products is influenced by the olive variety and the processing method used to debitter or cure table olives. Herein, a rapid ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring, was developed for the quantitation of 12 predominant phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in olive fruit, including hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol-4-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, verbascoside, oleoside-11-methyl ester, 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and o-coumaric acids), oleuropein aglycone, and ligstroside aglycone. Levels of these compounds were measured in fresh and California-style black ripe processed Manzanilla olives and two dry salt-cured olive varieties (Mission from California and Throuba Thassos from Greece). Results indicate that the variety and debittering processing method have strong impact on the profile of phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in table olives. The dry salt-cured olives contained higher amounts of most compounds studied, especially oleuropein (1459.5 ± 100.1 μg/g), whereas California-style black ripe olives had a significant reduction or loss of these bioactive compounds (e.g., oleuropein level at 36.7 ± 3.1 μg/g).

  1. Monitoring of volatile compound emissions during dry anaerobic digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste by Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Papurello, Davide; Soukoulis, Christos; Schuhfried, Erna; Cappellin, Luca; Gasperi, Flavia; Silvestri, Silvia; Santarelli, Massimo; Biasioli, Franco

    2012-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) formed during anaerobic digestion of aerobically pre-treated Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW), have been monitored over a 30 day period by a direct injection mass spectrometric technique: Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Most of the tentatively identified compounds exhibited a double-peaked emission pattern which is probably the combined result from the volatilization or oxidation of the biomass-inherited organic compounds and the microbial degradation of organic substrates. Of the sulfur compounds, hydrogen sulfide had the highest accumulative production. Alkylthiols were the predominant sulfur organic compounds, reaching their maximum levels during the last stage of the process. H(2)S formation seems to be influenced by the metabolic reactions that the sulfur organic compounds undergo, such as a methanogenesis induced mechanism i.e. an amino acid degradation/sulfate reduction. Comparison of different batches indicates that PTR-ToF-MS is a suitable tool providing information for rapid in situ bioprocess monitoring. PMID:23079412

  2. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Xerostomia Request Permissions Print to PDF Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  3. Comparison of the quantification of acetaminophen in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rachel R.; Hoffman, Keith L.; Schniedewind, Björn; Clavijo, Claudia; Galinkin, Jeffrey L.; Christians, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for the management of pain in children. Quantification of acetaminophen in pre-term and term neonates and small children requires the availability of highly sensitive assays in small volume blood samples. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of acetaminophen in human plasma, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and dried blood spots (DBS). Reconstitution in water (DBS only) and addition of a protein precipitation solution containing the deuterated internal standard were the only manual steps. Extracted samples were analyzed on a Kinetex 2.6 μm PFP column using an acetonitrile/formic acid gradient. The analytes were detected in the positive multiple reaction mode. Alternatively, DBS were automatically processed using direct desorption in a sample card and preparation (SCAP) robotic autosampler in combination with online extraction. The range of reliable response in plasma and CSF was 3.05-20,000 ng/ml (r2 > 0.99) and 27.4-20,000 ng/ml (r2 > 0.99) for DBS (manual extraction and automated direct desorption). Inter-day accuracy was always within 85-115% and inter-day precision for plasma, CSF and manually extracted DBS were less than 15%. Deming regression analysis comparing 167 matching pairs of plasma and DBS samples showed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. Bland Altman analysis indicated a 26.6% positive bias in DBS, most likely reflecting the blood: plasma distribution ratio of acetaminophen. DBS are a valid matrix for acetaminophen pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23670126

  4. Screening of degradation products, impurities and precursors of chemical warfare agents in water and wet or dry organic liquid samples by in-sorbent tube silylation followed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terzic, Oliver

    2010-07-23

    A standard method used by inspection teams of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for preparation of aqueous samples requires several extraction and derivatization steps. This results in tedious and time consuming on-site analysis. A simple thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to analyse for a broad range of degradation products, impurities and precursors of chemical warfare agents (CWA) in water solutions and wet or dry organic liquid samples. The method is fast, sensitive, requires only microliter volumes of sample and enables the simultaneous determination of a wide range of compounds with widely differing polarity, volatility and reactivity. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by successful analysis of five OPCW Official Proficiency Test samples.

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of dried purple carrot on body mass, lipids, blood pressure, body composition, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese adults: the QUENCH trial.

    PubMed

    Wright, Olivia R L; Netzel, Gabriele A; Sakzewski, Amy R

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a significant health issue worldwide and is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation predisposing the individual to cardiovascular disease and impaired blood glucose homeostasis. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from purple carrots are effective at reversing inflammation and metabolic alterations in animal models, potentially through inhibition of inflammatory pathways. The effects of dried purple carrot on body mass, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, inflammatory markers, liver function tests, and appetite were investigated in 16 males (aged 53.1 ± 7.6 years and with a mean BMI of 32.8 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) with normal lipid and inflammatory markers. There was no evidence that 118.5 mg/day of anthocyanins and 259.2 mg/day of phenolic acids for 4 weeks resulted in statistically significant changes in body mass, body composition, appetite, dietary intake, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, blood pressure, or C-reactive protein in these obese participants at the dose and length of intervention used in this trial. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower in the intervention group (p < 0.05). Aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase did not change, indicating that the intervention was safe. More studies are required to establish the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic effects of purple carrot anthocyanins and phenolic acids prior to further trials of efficacy with respect to treating inflammation and metabolic alterations.

  6. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  7. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  8. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  9. Development of a compact freeze vacuum drying for jelly fish (Schypomedusae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamid, M. Idrus; Yulianto, M.; Nasruddin

    2012-06-01

    A new design of a freeze vacuum drying with internal cooling and heater from condenser's heat loss was built and tested. The dryer was used to dry jelly fish (schypomedusae), to study the effect of drying parameters such as the temperature within the drying chamber on mass losses (evaporation) during the freezing stage and the moisture ratio at the end of the drying process. The midili thin layer mathematical drying model was used to estimate and predict the moisture ratio curve based on different drying chamber temperatures. This experiment shows that decreasing the drying chamber temperature with constant pressure results in less mass loss during the freezing stage Drying time was reduced with an increase in drying temperature. Decreasing the drying chamber temperature results in lower pressure saturation of the material has no effect of drying chamber pressure on mass transfer.

  10. Novel application of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the characterization of drying oils in art: Elucidation on the composition of original paint materials used by Edvard Munch (1863-1944).

    PubMed

    La Nasa, Jacopo; Zanaboni, Marco; Uldanck, Daniele; Degano, Ilaria; Modugno, Francesca; Kutzke, Hartmut; Tveit, Eva Storevik; Topalova-Casadiego, Biljana; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-01

    Modern oil paints, introduced at the beginning of the 20th century, differ from those classically used in antiquity in their chemical and compositional features. The main ingredients were still traditional drying oils, often used in mixtures with less expensive oils and added with several classes of additives. Consequently, detailed lipid profiling, together with the study of lipid degradation processes, is essential for the knowledge and the conservation of paint materials used in modern and contemporary art. A multi-analytical approach based on mass spectrometry was used for the study of original paint materials from Munch's atelier, owned by the Munch Museum in Oslo. The results obtained in the analysis of paint tubes were compared with those obtained by characterizing a paint sample collected from one of the artist's sketches for the decoration of the Festival Hall of the University of Oslo (1909-1916). Py-GC/MS was used as screening method to evaluate the presence of lipid, proteic or polysaccaridic materials. GC/MS after hydrolysis and derivatization allowed us to determine the fatty acid profile of the paint tubes, and to evaluate the molecular changes associated to curing and ageing. The determination of the fatty acid profile is not conclusive for the characterization of complex mixtures of lipid materials, thus the characterization of the triglyceride profiles was performed using an analytical procedure based on HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF. This paper describes the first application of HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF for the acquisition of the triglyceride profile in a modern paint sample, showing the potentialities of liquid chromatography in the field of lipid characterization in modern paint materials. Moreover, our results highlighted that the application of this approach can contribute to address dating, authenticity and conservation issues relative to modern and contemporary artworks.

  11. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  12. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    components include: a dry ice pellet supply, a non-reactive propellant gas source, a pellet and propellant metering device, and a media transport and acceleration hose and nozzle arrangement. Dry ice cleaning system operating parameters include: choice of propellant gas, its pressure and temperature, dry ice mass flow rate, dry ice pellet size and shape, and acceleration nozzle configuration. These parameters may be modified to fit different applications. The growth of the dry ice cleaning industry will depend upon timely data acquisition of the effects that independent changes in these parameters have on cleaning rates, with respect to different surface coating and substrate combinations. With this data, optimization of cleaning rates for particular applications will be possible. The analysis of the applicable range of modulation of these parameters, within system component mechanical constraints, has just begun.

  13. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    components include: a dry ice pellet supply, a non-reactive propellant gas source, a pellet and propellant metering device, and a media transport and acceleration hose and nozzle arrangement. Dry ice cleaning system operating parameters include: choice of propellant gas, its pressure and temperature, dry ice mass flow rate, dry ice pellet size and shape, and acceleration nozzle configuration. These parameters may be modified to fit different applications. dry ice cleaning industry will depend upon timely data acquisition of the effects that independent changes in these parameters have on cleaning rates, with respect to different surface coating and substrate combinations. &With this data, optimization of cleaning rates for particular applications will be possible. The analysis of the applicable range of modulation of these parameters, within system component mechanical constraints, has just begun.

  14. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic ... mouth trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking a burning feeling in the mouth a dry feeling in the throat cracked lips ...

  15. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  16. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  17. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  18. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  19. On the drying of food products in a tunnel dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.; Hawlader, M.N.A.; Chua, K.J.

    1997-03-01

    The authors present a dryer model for simulating the drying of hygroscopic-porous food products in a tunnel dryer. The model employs an improved receding-front formulation by taking into consideration the material volumetric shrinkage and the variation of the heat and mass transfer coefficient during drying. Predicted results show close agreement when compared with experimental data. The authors report a parametric analysis using the dryer model to study the drying transient and the need to cascade the drying process so as to maximize the drying potential of the air stream.

  20. To Dry Or Not To Dry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, Audrey E.

    1977-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most frustrating problems which confront many teachers is lack of adequate drying space or facilities for prints, paintings and three-dimensional art activities. Suggests requirements necessary for an adequate storage unit and how to construct one. (Author/RK)

  1. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  2. Mechanisms of Drying of Skin Forming Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Haydar Mahmood

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The literature relating to evaporation from single droplets of pure liquids, and to the drying of droplets containing solids and of droplet sprays has been reviewed. The heat and mass transfer rates for a single droplet suspended from a nozzle were studied within a 42mm I.D. horizontal wind tunnel designed to supply hot dry air, to simulate conditions encountered in practical spray dryer. A novel rotating glass nozzle was developed to facilitate direct measurements of droplet weight and core temperature. This design minimised heat conduction through the nozzle. Revised correlations were obtained for heat and mass transfer coefficients, for evaporation from pure water droplets suspended from a rotating nozzle. (UNFORMATTED TABLE OR EQUATION FOLLOWS)eqalign {rm Nu&= rm 2.0 + 0.27 ({1over B})^{0.18}Re^{0.5}Pr ^{0.33}crrm Sh&= rm 2.0 + 0.575({Ta-Ts over Tamb})^{ -0.04}Re^{0.5}Sc^{0.33 }cr}(TABLE/EQUATION ENDS)Experimental drying studies were carried out on single droplets of different types of skin-forming materials, namely, custard, starch, gelatin, skim milk and fructose at air temperatures ranging from 19^circC to 198 ^circC. Dried crusts were recovered and examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Skin-forming materials were classified into three types according to the mechanisms of skin formation. In the first type (typified by droplets of custard and starch) skin formed due to gelatinisation at high temperatures. Increasing the drying temperature resulted in increased crust resistance to mass transfer due to increased granule swelling and the crust resistance was completely transferred to a skin resistance at drying temperatures >150 ^circC. In the second type e.g. gelatin droplets the skin formed immediately drying had taken place at any drying temperature. At drying temperature >60^circC a more resistant skin was formed. In the third type (typified by droplets of skim milk and fructose) the skin

  3. Packaged kiln dried firewood

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrara, A.

    1986-07-01

    A process is described for kiln drying firewood consisting of essentially uniform lengths of split firewood pieces, the process comprising splitting essentially uniform lengths of green tree logs to form firewood pieces, placing the firewood pieces in open mesh bags to provide a plurality of bags of firewood, placing the plurality of bags of green firewood pieces in a kiln drying oven, kiln drying the pieces at temperatures in excess of 150/sup 0/F. by moving heated air over the pieces until the pieces have an overall moisture content ranging from 15% up to 30% by weight, operating the kiln at a temperature below a level which would render the structural characteristics of the bag useless and removing the kiln dried firewood pieces in the plurality of bags from the kiln drying oven.

  4. Dry imaging cameras

    PubMed Central

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, Aftab; Sahni, Hirdesh; Bhatia, Mukul; Sahu, Samaresh

    2011-01-01

    Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow. PMID:21799589

  5. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  6. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Jorjong, S; Fievez, V; Kemp, B

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d) and early lactation ration (glucogenic or lipogenic), resulting in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Rations were isocaloric and equal in intestinal digestible protein. The experimental period lasted from 8 wk prepartum to 14 wk postpartum and cows were monitored for milk yield, milk composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and milk fat composition. Prepartum average milk yield for 60 d precalving was 13.8 and 7.7 ± 0.5 kg/d for cows with a 0- and 30-d dry period, respectively. Prepartum DMI and energy intake were greater for cows without a dry period and 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Prepartum EB was greater for cows with a 60-d dry period. Postpartum average milk yield until wk 14 was lower for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period (32.7, 38.7, and 43.3 ± 0.7 kg/d for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively). Postpartum DMI did not differ among treatments. Postpartum EB was greater for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Young cows (parity 2) showed a stronger effect of omission of the dry period, compared with a 60-d dry period, on additional milk precalving (young cows: 15.1 kg/d; older cows: 12.0 kg/d), reduction in milk yield postcalving (young cows: 28.6 vs. 34.8 kg/d; older cows: 41.8 vs. 44.1 kg/d), and improvement of the EB postcalving (young cows: 120 vs. -93 kJ/kg(0.75)·d; older cows: -2 vs. -150 kJ/kg(0.75)·d. Ration did not affect milk yield and DMI, but a glucogenic ration tended to reduce milk fat content and increased EB, compared with a more lipogenic ration. Reduced dry period

  7. Ultrasonic Drying Processing Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, V.; Bon, J.; Riera, E.; Pinto, A.

    The design of a high intensity ultrasonic chamber for drying process was investigated. The acoustic pressure distribution in the ultrasonic drying chamber was simulated solving linear elastic models with attenuation for the acoustic-structure interaction. Together with the government equations, the selection of appropriate boundary conditions, mesh refinement, and configuration parameters of the calculation methods, which is of great importance to simulate adequately the process, were considered. Numerical solution, applying the finite element method (FEM), of acoustic-structure interactions involves to couple structural and fluid elements (with different degrees of freedom), whose solution implies several problems of hardware requirements and software configuration, which were solved. To design the drying chamber, the influence of the directivity of the drying open camera and the staggered reflectors over the acoustic pressure distribution was analyzed. Furthermore, to optimize the influence of the acoustic energy on the drying process, the average value of the acoustic energy distribution in the drying chamber was studied. This would determine the adequate position of the food samples to be dried. For this purpose, the acoustic power absorbed by the samples will be analyzed in later studies.

  8. LASIK and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most common complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of ocular surface, decreased tear film breakup time and Schirmer test, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs last at least 1 month after LASIK. Although the mechanisms for developing post-LASIK dry eye are not completely understood, loss of corneal innervation by flap-making may affect the reflex loops of the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland, and blinking-meibomian gland, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting induces less dry eye symptoms and signs than first surgery, it is suggested that other factors rather than loss of neurotrophic effect may be involved in the mechanisms of post-LASIK dry eye. The treatments of dry eye include artificial tears, topical cyclosporine, hot compress, punctal plugs, and autologous serum eye drops. For patients with severe preoperative dry eye, a combination of punctal plugs and serum eye drops is required to be used before surgery.

  9. Exergetic simulation of a combined infrared-convective drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza

    2016-04-01

    Optimal design and performance of a combined infrared-convective drying system with respect to the energy issue is extremely put through the application of advanced engineering analyses. This article proposes a theoretical approach for exergy analysis of the combined infrared-convective drying process using a simple heat and mass transfer model. The applicability of the developed model to actual drying processes was proved using an illustrative example for a typical food.

  10. Stripping with dry ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Mechanical-type stripping using dry ice (solid CO2) consists in blasting particles of dry ice onto the painted surface. This surface can be used alone or in duplex according to type of substrate to be treated. According to operating conditions, three physical mechanisms may be involved when blasting dry ice particles onto a paint system: thermal shock, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical shock. The blast nozzle, nozzle travel speed, blast angle, stripping distance, and compressed air pressure and media flow rate influence the stripping quality and the uniformity and efficiency obtained.

  11. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  12. Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment for freeze-drying fruits and vegetables which aims to expose college students to the principles of drying and simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The experimental apparatus, procedure of the experiment, and data analysis are also included. (HM)

  13. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  14. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  15. Dry electrodes for electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Meziane, N; Webster, J G; Attari, M; Nimunkar, A J

    2013-09-01

    Patient biopotentials are usually measured with conventional disposable Ag/AgCl electrodes. These electrodes provide excellent signal quality but are irritating for long-term use. Skin preparation is usually required prior to the application of electrodes such as shaving and cleansing with alcohol. To overcome these difficulties, researchers and caregivers seek alternative electrodes that would be acceptable in clinical and research environments. Dry electrodes that operate without gel, adhesive or even skin preparation have been studied for many decades. They are used in research applications, but they have yet to achieve acceptance for medical use. So far, a complete comparison and evaluation of dry electrodes is not well described in the literature. This work compares dry electrodes for biomedical use and physiological research, and reviews some novel systems developed for cardiac monitoring. Lastly, the paper provides suggestions to develop a dry-electrode-based system for mobile and long-term cardiac monitoring applications.

  16. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  17. Pharmaceutical spray freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Wanning, Stefan; Süverkrüp, Richard; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-07-01

    Pharmaceutical spray-freeze drying (SFD) includes a heterogeneous set of technologies with primary applications in apparent solubility enhancement, pulmonary drug delivery, intradermal ballistic administration and delivery of vaccines to the nasal mucosa. The methods comprise of three steps: droplet generation, freezing and sublimation drying, which can be matched to the requirements given by the dosage form and route of administration. The objectives, various methods and physicochemical and pharmacological outcomes have been reviewed with a scope including related fields of science and technology.

  18. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  19. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample.

  20. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample. PMID:22397643

  1. Drying of porous materials in a medium with variable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Y. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an application of the Luikov system of heat and mass transfer equations in dimensionless form to predict the temperature and moisture distributions in a slab of capillary-porous material during drying. The heat and mass potentials of the external medium in the boundary conditions are assumed to vary linearly with time. The method of solution is illustrated by considering the drying of a slab of lumber. Numerical results based on the estimated thermophysical properties of spruce are presented.

  2. Dry Dock No. 3. View of head of Dry Dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dry Dock No. 3. View of head of Dry Dock with stair to right of shot. View facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 3, On northern shoreline of shipyard, west of Dry Dock Nos. 1 & 2, near the intersection of Avenue G and Sixth Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  4. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen in dried blood spots--development, validation and clinical application during breast cancer adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Marina Venzon; Raymundo, Suziane; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Staudt, Dilana Elisabeth; Gössling, Gustavo; Peteffi, Giovana Piva; Biazús, Jorge Villanova; Cavalheiro, José Antônio; Tre-Hardy, Marie; Capron, Arnaud; Haufroid, Vincent; Wallemacq, Pierre; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Linden, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A LC-MSMS method for the simultaneous determination of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen in dried blood spots samples was developed and validated. The method employs an ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction and a reversed phase separation in an Acquity(®) C18 column (150×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm). Mobile phase was a mixture of formic acid 0.1% (v/v) pH 2.7 and acetonitrile (gradient from 60:40 to 50:50, v/v). Total analytical run time was 8 min. Precision assays showed CV % lower than 10.75% and accuracy in the range 94.5 to 110.3%. Mean analytes recoveries from DBS ranged from 40% to 92%. The method was successfully applied to 91 paired clinical DBS and plasma samples. Dried blood spots concentrations were highly correlated to plasma, with rs>0.83 (P<0.01). Median estimated plasma concentrations after hematocrit and partition factor adjustment were: TAM 123.3 ng mL(-1); NDT 267.9 ng mL(-1), EDF 10.0 ng mL(-1) and HTF 1.3 ng mL(-1,) representing in average 98 to 104% of the actually measured concentrations. The DBS method was able to identify 96% of patients with plasma EDF concentrations below the clinical threshold related to better prognosis (5.9 ng mL(-1)). The procedure has adequate analytical performance and can be an efficient tool to optimize adjuvant breast cancer treatment, especially in resource limited settings. PMID:25476377

  5. Magnetically responsive dry fluids.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J O

    2013-08-21

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. PMID:23831769

  6. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization.

  7. Experimental study on drying kinetic of cassava starch in a pneumatic drying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suherman, Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Kusworo, Tutuk Djoko

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are to present the experimental research on the drying of cassava starch in a pneumatic dryer, to describe its drying curves, as well as to calculate its thermal efficiency. The effects of operating conditions, namely the inlet air temperature (60-100 °C) and solid-gas flow rate ratio (Ms/Mg 0.1-0.3) were studied. Heat transfer is accomplished through convection mechanism in a drying chamber based on the principle of direct contact between the heated air and the moist material. During the drying process, intensive heat and mass transfer between the drying air and the cassava starch take place. In order to meet the SNI standards on solid water content, the drying process was done in two cycles. The higher the temperature of the drying air, the lower the water content of the solids exiting the dryer. Thermal efficiency of the 2nd cycle was found to be lower than the 1st cycle.

  8. Magnetically responsive dry fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid.Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01784b

  9. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  10. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  11. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods.

    PubMed

    E, Jayashree; R, Visvanathan; T, John Zachariah

    2014-11-01

    Ginger rhizomes sliced to various lengths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm and whole rhizomes were dried from an initial moisture content of 81.3 % to final moisture content of less than 10 % by various drying methods like sun drying, solar tunnel drying and cabinet tray drying at temperatures of 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. Slicing of ginger rhizomes significantly reduced the drying time of ginger in all the drying methods. It was observed that drying of whole ginger rhizomes under sun took the maximum time (9 days) followed by solar tunnel drying (8 days). Significant reduction in essential oil and oleoresin content of dry ginger was found as the slice length decreased. The important constituents of ginger essential oil like zingiberene, limonene, linalool, geraniol and nerolidol as determined using a gas chromatography was also found to decrease during slicing and as the drying temperature increased. The pungency constituents in the oleoresin of ginger like total gingerols and total shogoals as determined using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography also showed a decreasing trend on slicing and with the increase in drying temperature. It was observed from the drying studies that whole ginger rhizomes dried under sun drying or in a solar tunnel drier retained the maximum essential oil (13.9 mg/g) and oleoresin content (45.2 mg/g) of dry ginger. In mechanical drying, the drying temperature of 60 °C was considered optimum however there was about 12.2 % loss in essential oil at this temperature.

  12. Scaling theory of drying in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Tsimpanogiannis, I.N.; Yortsos, Y.C.; Poulou, S.; Kanellopoulos, N.; Stubos, A.K.

    1999-04-01

    Concepts of immiscible displacements in porous media driven by mass transfer are utilized to model drying of porous media. Visualization experiments of drying in two-dimensional glass micromodels are conducted to identify pore-scale mechanisms. Then, a pore network approach is used to analyze the advancing drying front. It is shown that in a porous medium, capillarity induces a flow that effectively limits the extent of the front, which would otherwise be of the percolation type, to a finite width. In conjuction with the predictions of a macroscale stable front, obtained from a linear stability analysis, the process is shown to be equivalent to invasion percolation in a stabilizing gradient. A power-law scaling relation of the front width with a diffusion-based capillary number is also obtained. This capillary number reflects the fact that drying is controlled by diffusion in contrast to external drainage. The scaling exponent predicted is compatible with the experimental results of Shaw [Phys Rev. Lett. {bold 59}, 1671 (1987)]. A framework for a continuum description of the upstream drying regimes is also developed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Drying characteristics and modeling of yam slices under different relative humidity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying characteristics of yam slices under different 23 constant relative humidity (RH) and step-down RH levels were studied. A mass transfer model was developed based on Bi-Di correlations containing a drying coefficient and a lag factor to describe the drying process. It was validated using ex...

  14. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in a crown compensated impulse drying press roll, The lubrication problem. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.; Hojjatie, B.; Bloom, F.

    1994-08-01

    Although evaporative drying is currently used to dry paper, research has showed that significant energy savings could be realized with the newer impulse drying technology in drying heavy weight grades of paper. This report analyzes the lubrication problem which arises in modeling impulse drying employing a crown compensated roll. The geometry for the associated steady flow problem is constructed and expressions are derived for the relevant velocity fields, mass flow rates, and normal and tangential forces acting on both the bottom surface of an internal hydrostatic shoe and the inside surface of the crown-compensated roll. Results from the analytical model agreed well with experimental data from Beloit Corp. for the small shoe/roll configuration. The model can be used to predict effect of design and physical parameters on the performance of the press roll (lubricant thickness, pressure distributions, mechanical power required to operate the roll, etc.) and to determine optimal performance under various operating conditions.

  15. Mass Properties for Space Systems Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Current Verbiage in S-120 Applies to Dry Mass. Mass Margin is difference between Required Mass and Predicted Mass. Performance Margin is difference between Predicted Performance and Required Performance. Performance estimates and corresponding margin should be based on Predicted Mass (and other inputs). Contractor Mass Margin reserved from Performance Margin. Remaining performance margin allocated according to mass partials. Compliance can be evaluated effectively by comparison of three areas (preferably on a single sheet). Basic and Predicted Mass (including historical trend). Aggregate potential changes (threats and opportunities) which gives Mass Forecast. Mass Maturity by category (Estimated/Calculated/Actual).

  16. Dry etching of metallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, D.

    1983-01-01

    The production dry etch processes are reviewed from the perspective of microelectronic fabrication applications. The major dry etch processes used in the fabrication of microelectronic devices can be divided into two categories - plasma processes in which samples are directly exposed to an electrical discharge, and ion beam processes in which samples are etched by a beam of ions extracted from a discharge. The plasma etch processes can be distinguished by the degree to which ion bombardment contributes to the etch process. This, in turn is related to capability for anisotropic etching. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) and Ion Beam Etching are of most interest for etching of thin film metals. RIE is generally considered the best process for large volume, anisotropic aluminum etching.

  17. Dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr

    2011-07-01

    Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  18. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-07-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  19. Drying of fiber webs

    DOEpatents

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  20. Drying of fiber webs

    DOEpatents

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  1. Automatic dry eye detection.

    PubMed

    Yedidya, Tamir; Hartley, Richard; Guillon, Jean-Pierre; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2007-01-01

    Dry Eye Syndrome is a common disease in the western world, with effects from uncomfortable itchiness to permanent damage to the ocular surface. Nevertheless, there is still no objective test that provides reliable results. We have developed a new method for the automated detection of dry areas in videos taken after instilling fluorescein in the tear film. The method consists of a multi-step algorithm to first locate the iris in each image, then align the images and finally analyze the aligned sequence in order to find the regions of interest. Since the fluorescein spreads on the ocular surface of the eye the edges of the iris are fuzzy making the detection of the iris challenging. We use RANSAC to first detect the upper and lower eyelids and then the iris. Then we align the images by finding differences in intensities at different scales and using a least squares optimization method (Levenberg-Marquardt), to overcome the movement of the iris and the camera. The method has been tested on videos taken from different patients. It is demonstrated to find the dry areas accurately and to provide a measure of the extent of the disease. PMID:18051131

  2. Dry dock no. 4. Service Building between dry docks 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dry dock no. 4. Service Building between dry docks 4 and 5. Floor plans (Navy Yard Public Works Office 1941). In files of Cushman & Wakefield, building 501. Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Service Building, Dry Docks No. 4 & 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future. PMID:26507489

  4. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  5. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  6. Desiccant drying of gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    LaCasse, G.A.; Ingvordsen, T.

    1988-09-01

    Prevention of hydrates buildup and corrosion in gas pipelines after hydrostatic testing is increasingly important to those in the gas industry. This paper outlines a dry air method used in Denmark for drying gas pipelines. The psychrometric principles, drying method, and humidity measurements are described.

  7. Non isothermal drying process optimisation - Drying of clay tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2015-11-01

    In our previous studies we have developed a model for determination of the variable effective diffusivity and identification of the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms. The next goal was to develop a drying regime which could in advance characterize the real non isothermal process of drying clay tiles. In order to do this four isothermal experiments were recorded. Temperature and humidity were maintained at 350C / 75%; 450C / 70%; 450C / 60% and 500C / 60%; respectively in each experiment. All experimentally collected data were analyzed and the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms were detected. Characteristic drying period (time) for each isothermal drying mechanism was also detected. The real, non-isothermal drying process was approximated by 5 segments. In each of these segments approximately isothermal drying condition were maintained. Temperature and humidity of the drying air, in the first four segments, was maintained on the same level as in recorded isothermal experiments while in the fifth segment, it were maintained at 700C / 40%. The duration of the first four segments were calculated from the diagrams Deff - t respectively for each experiment. The clay tile in experiment five was dried without cracking using the proposed non isothermal drying regime.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic Drying of Carrot Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique. PMID:25874695

  9. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  10. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  11. Comparative study of ¹³C composition in ethanol and bulk dry wine using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry and by nuclear magnetic resonance as an indicator of vine water status.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Gaillard, Laetitia; Grand, Mathilde; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The potential of wine (13)C isotope composition (δ(13)C) is presented to assess vine water status during grape ripening. Measurements of δ(13)C have been performed on a set of 32 authentic wines and their ethanol recovered after distillation. The data, obtained by isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyser (irm-EA/MS), show a high correlation between δ(13)C of the bulk wine and its ethanol, indicating that the distillation step is not necessary when the wine has not been submitted to any oenological treatment. Therefore, the ethanol/wine δ(13)C correlation can be used as an indicator of possible enrichment of the grape must or the wine with exogenous organic compounds. Wine ethanol δ(13)C is correlated to predawn leaf water potential (R(2) = 0.69), indicating that this parameter can be used as an indicator of vine water status. Position-specific (13)C analysis (PSIA) of ethanol extracted from wine, performed by isotope ratio monitoring by nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR), confirmed the non-homogenous repartition of (13)C on ethanol skeleton. It is the δ(13)C of the methylene group of ethanol, compared to the methyl moiety, which is the most correlated to predawn leaf water potential, indicating that a phase of photorespiration of the vine during water stress period is most probably occurring due to stomata closure. However, position-specific (13)C analysis by irm-(13)C NMR does not offer a greater precision in the assessment of vine water status compared to direct measurement of δ(13)C on bulk wine by irm-EA/MS.

  12. Pattern formation in drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, D.; Sobac, B.; Loquet, B.; Sampol, J.

    2011-01-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood exhibits coupled physical mechanisms, such as Marangoni flow, evaporation and wettability. The final stage of a whole blood drop evaporation reveals regular patterns with a good reproducibility for a healthy person. Other experiments on anaemic and hyperlipidemic people were performed, and different patterns were revealed. The flow motion inside the blood drop is observed and analyzed with the use of a digital camera: the influence of the red blood cells (RBCs) motion is revealed at the drop periphery as well as its consequences on the final stage of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of the dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of haematology. The blood drop evaporation process is evidenced to be driven only by Marangoni flow. The same axisymetric pattern formation is observed, and can be forecast for different blood drop diameters. The evaporation mass flux can be predicted with a good agreement, assuming only the knowledge of the colloids mass concentration.

  13. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  14. Deep layer malt drying modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Virseda, P.; Martinez, G.; Llorca, M.

    1997-05-01

    In malt production drying operation plays an important role in the total processing cost, however there are not many studies on malt drying modeling and optimization. In this paper a deep layer malt drying mathematical model in the form of four partial differential equations is presented. To determine drying constants, malt thin layer drying experiments at several air temperatures and relative humidities were made. The model were validated at industrial scale. The greatest energy savings, approximately 5.5% in fuel and 7.5% in electric energy, were obtained by an additional (and increased) air recirculation, which is carried out during the last 6 hours of the drying process and a significant decrease of air flow-rate during the last 6 hours of the drying process.

  15. Dry EEG Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gordo, M. A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Valle, F. Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications. PMID:25046013

  16. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  17. Overview of industrial drying needs and competing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.G.; Hedman, B.A.; Salama, S.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The drying of solids is a common unit operation throughout industry accounting for about 9 percent of the total energy use in manufacturing. Analyzing the drying equipment selection process and associated energy use is complicated by the wide variety of products dried in industry and the numerous variations in drier designs used to meet those needs. Exact product specifications greatly influence both selection of a drier design and an energy source. Most often the complex mass and heat transfer mechanisms are studied only through pilot or full scale tests, and past successful operating experience is given much greater weight than the prospects for cost savings with an unconventional technology. Energy use in drying is dominated by the use of indirect steam-based technologies. These systems are less efficient than direct fired alternatives, but they assure fuel flexibility and a clean product. They also minimize the chances of product overheating. Natural gas is the second most common energy source providing quick and clean drying, suitable even for food products. Gas is particularly competitive in large volume drying of liquids in spray driers. Coal, oil, and electricity are used in selected markets; coal and oil when contamination is not an issues (ore, wastes) and electricity where radiant heating or precise small applications occur. Several new technologies (gas-fired pulsed combustor, electric microwave, and gas or electric infra-red) are entering the drying markets with mixed results. Each provides opportunities to dry certain products more simply, quickly or cleanly.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Drying Residual RP-1 in Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Polsgrove, Robert; Tiller, Bruce; Rodriquez, Pete (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When a Rocket Engine shuts down under a fuel rich environment, a significant amount of unburned RP-1 is trapped In the engine. It is necessary to clean the residual RP-1 prior to subsequent firing to avoid any explosion due to detonation. The conventional method is to dry RP-1 with inert gas such as Nitrogen or Helium. It is difficult to estimate the drying time unless the engine is adequately equipped with instruments to measure the trace of RP-1 during the drying process. Such instrumentation in flight hardware is often impractical and costly. On the other hand numerical modeling of the drying process can provide a good insight for a satisfactory operation of the process. A numerical model can provide answer to questions such as a) how long it takes to dry, b) which fluid is a better dryer for RP-1, c) how to reduce drying time etc. The purpose of the present paper is to describe a numerical model of drying RP-1 trapped in a cavity with flowing nitrogen or helium. The numerical model assumes one dimensional flow of drying fluid in contact with liquid pool of RP-1. An evaporative mass transfer takes place across the contact surface.

  19. Impact of Variety and Agronomic Factors on Crude Protein and Total Lysine in Chicory; N(ε)-Carboxymethyl-lysine-Forming Potential during Drying and Roasting.

    PubMed

    Loaëc, Grégory; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Henry, Nicolas; Jacolot, Philippe; Jouquand, Céline; Janssens, Myriam; Hance, Philippe; Cadalen, Thierry; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Desprez, Bruno; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2015-12-01

    During the heat treatment of coffee and its substitutes some compounds potentially deleterious to health are synthesized by the Maillard reaction. Among these, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was detected at high levels in coffee substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of changes in agricultural practice on the lysine content present in chicory roots and try to limit CML formation during roasting. Of the 24 varieties analyzed, small variations in lysine content were observed, 213 ± 8 mg/100 g dry matter (DM). The formation of lysine tested in five commercial varieties was affected by the nitrogen treatment with mean levels of 176 ± 2 mg/100 g DM when no fertilizer was added and 217 ± 7 mg/100 g DM with a nitrogen supply of 120 kg/ha. The lysine content of fresh roots was significantly correlated to the concentration of CML formed in roasted roots (r = 0.51; p < 0.0001; n = 76). PMID:26548778

  20. Impact of Variety and Agronomic Factors on Crude Protein and Total Lysine in Chicory; N(ε)-Carboxymethyl-lysine-Forming Potential during Drying and Roasting.

    PubMed

    Loaëc, Grégory; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Henry, Nicolas; Jacolot, Philippe; Jouquand, Céline; Janssens, Myriam; Hance, Philippe; Cadalen, Thierry; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Desprez, Bruno; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2015-12-01

    During the heat treatment of coffee and its substitutes some compounds potentially deleterious to health are synthesized by the Maillard reaction. Among these, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was detected at high levels in coffee substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of changes in agricultural practice on the lysine content present in chicory roots and try to limit CML formation during roasting. Of the 24 varieties analyzed, small variations in lysine content were observed, 213 ± 8 mg/100 g dry matter (DM). The formation of lysine tested in five commercial varieties was affected by the nitrogen treatment with mean levels of 176 ± 2 mg/100 g DM when no fertilizer was added and 217 ± 7 mg/100 g DM with a nitrogen supply of 120 kg/ha. The lysine content of fresh roots was significantly correlated to the concentration of CML formed in roasted roots (r = 0.51; p < 0.0001; n = 76).

  1. Dry ice blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  2. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface.

    The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  3. Influence of drying on the flavor quality of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad; González Viñas, M A; Cabezudo, M Dolores

    2003-02-26

    Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) was dried using three different drying methods: oven-drying at 45 degrees C, air-drying at ambient temperature, and freeze-drying. The effect of the drying method on the volatile compounds and on the structural integrity and sensory characteristics of the spice was evaluated. The volatile components from fresh and dried spearmint samples were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 28 compounds were identified, carvone, limonene, and 1,8-cineole, in that order, being the main components in all of the samples. Oven-drying at 45 degrees C and air-drying at ambient temperature were the methods that produced the best results. An increase in monoterpenes was observed in all of the dried samples, except in the freeze-dried samples that underwent freezing at -198 degrees C. Freeze-drying resulted in substantial losses in oxygenated terpenes and sesquiterpenes. The effect of each drying method on leaf structure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. From a sensory standpoint, drying the spearmint brought about a decrease in herbaceous and floral notes together with an increase in minty odor.

  4. Dry Arthroscopy of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Dry arthroscopy is attractive because it affords an unsurpassed clarity of view and minimizes swelling. The elbow is a challenging joint to assess arthroscopically; however, dry arthroscopy has some particular benefits in the elbow. The primary benefit is the quality of the tissue definition, but dry arthroscopy also increases the working time for surgery by reducing swelling and results in less postoperative discomfort for the patient. With dry arthroscopy, all joint surfaces are covered in synovial fluid, which reflects light, to provide a clearer image of the joint surfaces and depth of field. The air-fluid interface provides an uninterrupted appreciation of the synovial recesses and tissue perfusion. This article describes the technique and indications for dry elbow arthroscopy, which will allow other surgeons to reap the benefits of dry arthroscopy without the need for special equipment or changes in their basic technique. PMID:26759772

  5. Dried fruit and dental health.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  6. [Dried fruit as sugar substitute?].

    PubMed

    Strübig, W; Gülzow, H J

    1989-09-01

    Alternative foodstuffs restrict the usage of household sugar and instead recommend sweet honey or dried fruits; in popular informative magazines raisins and dried fruit are even described as "healthy snacks". In this study, with the help of sugar clearance and lactic acid measurements, the cariogenic potential of dried fruits is to be better estimated. The results clearly show that the alternative recommendations do not promote healthy teeth. The cariogenic potential of the named foodstuffs is comparable to sucrose containing products. PMID:2635063

  7. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    PubMed

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  8. Effect of drying method on the volatiles in bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad; Cabezudo, M Dolores

    2002-07-31

    The effect of different drying treatments on the volatiles in bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.) was studied. Simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the volatile components in bay leaves. SDE yielded better quantitative analysis results. Four drying treatments were employed: air-drying at ambient temperature, oven-drying at 45 degrees C, freezing, and freeze-drying. Oven drying at 45 degrees C and air-drying at ambient temperature produced quite similar results and caused hardly any loss in volatiles as compared to the fresh herb, whereas freezing and freeze-drying brought about substantial losses in bay leaf aroma and led to increases in the concentration levels of certain components, e.g., eugenol, elemicin, spathulenol, and beta-eudesmol.

  9. Convective drying of sludge cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  10. Space Technology for Crop Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas came up with a new method of drying agricultural crops derived from vacuum chamber technology called MIVAC, a compression of microwave vacuum drying system. A distant cousin of the home microwave oven, MIVAC dries by means of electrically- generated microwaves introduced to a crop-containing vacuum chamber. Microwaves remove moisture quickly and the very low pressure atmosphere in the chamber permits effective drying at much lower than customary temperatures. Thus energy demand is doubly reduced by lower heat requirement and by the shorter time electric power is needed.

  11. Power ultrasound as a pretreatment to convective drying of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves: Impact on drying kinetics and selected quality properties.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Yilin; Kadam, Shekhar U; Han, Yongbin; Wang, Jiandong; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ultrasound pretreatment prior to convective drying on drying kinetics and selected quality properties of mulberry leaves was investigated in this study. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at 25.2-117.6 W/L for 5-15 min in a continuous mode. After sonication, mulberry leaves were dried in a hot-air convective dryer at 60 °C. The results revealed that ultrasound pretreatment not only affected the weight of mulberry leaves, it also enhanced the convective drying kinetics and reduced total energy consumption. The drying kinetics was modeled using a diffusion model considering external resistance and effective diffusion coefficient De and mass transfer coefficient hm were identified. Both De and hm during convective drying increased with the increase of acoustic energy density (AED) and ultrasound duration. However, De and hm increased slowly at high AED levels. Furthermore, ultrasound pretreatment had a more profound influence on internal mass transfer resistance than on external mass transfer resistance during drying according to Sherwood numbers. Regarding the quality properties, the color, antioxidant activity and contents of several bioactive compounds of dried mulberry leaves pretreated by ultrasound at 63.0 W/L for 10 min were similar to that of mulberry leaves without any pretreatments. Overall, ultrasound pretreatment is effective to shorten the subsequent drying time of mulberry leaves without damaging the quality of final product. PMID:26964954

  12. Is Shape of a Fresh and Dried Leaf the Same?

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dominik; Górzkowska, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Plants kept as dried herbarium specimens share many characteristics with their living counterparts, but there are some substantial differences between them. Due to dehydration, leaves of herbarium specimens change not only their mass and colour, but in many cases change their dimensions, too. The present study aimed to determine whether leaf shape changes during the drying process. A total of 794 pairs of fresh and dried leaves or leaflets of 22 plant taxa were studied. The shape of the blades was quantified using elliptic Fourier analysis combined with principal component analysis. In addition, area and mass of the leaves were measured. Statistical tests were applied for comparing fresh and dried leaves. The results indicate that the preservation process of pressing and drying plants for herbarium purposes causes changes in leaf shape. In general, the shape changes were directional. As the shape of fresh and dried plants is different, it is strongly recommended that shape analyses should be performed on datasets containing either of the leaf types. PMID:27045956

  13. Is Shape of a Fresh and Dried Leaf the Same?

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Dominik; Górzkowska, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Plants kept as dried herbarium specimens share many characteristics with their living counterparts, but there are some substantial differences between them. Due to dehydration, leaves of herbarium specimens change not only their mass and colour, but in many cases change their dimensions, too. The present study aimed to determine whether leaf shape changes during the drying process. A total of 794 pairs of fresh and dried leaves or leaflets of 22 plant taxa were studied. The shape of the blades was quantified using elliptic Fourier analysis combined with principal component analysis. In addition, area and mass of the leaves were measured. Statistical tests were applied for comparing fresh and dried leaves. The results indicate that the preservation process of pressing and drying plants for herbarium purposes causes changes in leaf shape. In general, the shape changes were directional. As the shape of fresh and dried plants is different, it is strongly recommended that shape analyses should be performed on datasets containing either of the leaf types.

  14. Dry sump crankcase

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A.H.; Dichi, R.E.

    1987-06-23

    A dry sump type crankcase is described for an automotive type internal combustion engine having an intake manifold and a positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system for automatically and continuously ventilating the crankcase. The system includes an essentially atmospheric pressure fresh air inlet to the engine passing air through to the crankcase and a connection from the oil pan to the vacuum in the intake manifold establishing a constant flow of crankcase vapors. The oil pan has a baffle partitioning it into an inner oil collecting funnel-like crankcase cavity and an outer oil reservoir. The inner cavity has an opening at its lower-most point for communication of oil with the reservoir. The opening is of a controlled vertical height for creating a pressure differential across the baffle during operation of the engine. Means connects the inner cavity to the air inlet pressure side of the PCV System while connecting the reservoir to the vacuum side of the PCV system for establishing a constant pressure differential across the baffle sufficient to displace the oil against gravity and maintain the oil level in the crankcase during operation of the engine at the height of the opening in the baffle. Gravity causes the oil to seek a level higher than the opening upon shutdown of the engine and the consequential decay of vacuum in the intake manifold.

  15. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  16. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, Matthew; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our "lessons learned" from formative evaluation, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  17. Staying dry under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Paul; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Megaridis, Constantine; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Patankar, Neelesh

    2012-11-01

    Lotus leaves are known for their non-wetting properties due to the presence of surface texture. The superhydrophobic behavior arises because of the prevention of liquid water from entering the pores of the roughness. Present superhydrophobic materials rely on air trapped within the surface pores to avoid liquid permeation. This is typically unsustainable for immersed bodies due to dissolution of the air, especially under elevated pressures. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the non-wetting behavior of an immersed ten-nanometer pore. This is accomplished by establishing thermodynamically sustained vapor pockets of the surrounding liquid medium. Over 300,000 atoms were used to construct the nanopore geometry and simulate SPC/E water molecules. Ambient pressure was varied along two isotherms (300 K, and 500 K). This approach for vapor-stabilization could offer valuable guidance for maintaining surfaces dry even in a submerged state without relying on trapped air. The approach may be extended to control general phase behavior of water adjacent to textured surfaces. ISEN support is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Patterns from drying drops.

    PubMed

    Sefiane, Khellil

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this review is to investigate different deposition patterns from dried droplets of a range of fluids: paints, polymers and biological fluids. This includes looking at mechanisms controlling the patterns and how they can be manipulated for use in certain applications such as medical diagnostics and nanotechnology. This review introduces the fundamental properties of droplets during evaporation. These include profile evolution (constant contact angle regime (CCAR) and constant radius regime (CRR)) and the internal flow (Marangoni and Capillary flow (Deegan et al. [22])). The understanding of these processes and the basic physics behind the phenomenon are crucial to the understanding of the factors influencing the deposition patterns. It concludes with the applications that each of these fluids can be used in and how the manipulation of the deposition pattern is useful. The most commonly seen pattern is the coffee-ring deposit which can be seen frequently in real life from tea/coffee stains and in water colour painting. This is caused by an outward flow known as capillary flow which carries suspended particles out to the edge of the wetted area. Other patterns that were found were uniform, central deposits and concentric rings which are caused by inward Marangoni flow. Complex biological fluids displayed an array of different patterns which can be used to diagnose patients.

  19. Patterns from drying drops.

    PubMed

    Sefiane, Khellil

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this review is to investigate different deposition patterns from dried droplets of a range of fluids: paints, polymers and biological fluids. This includes looking at mechanisms controlling the patterns and how they can be manipulated for use in certain applications such as medical diagnostics and nanotechnology. This review introduces the fundamental properties of droplets during evaporation. These include profile evolution (constant contact angle regime (CCAR) and constant radius regime (CRR)) and the internal flow (Marangoni and Capillary flow (Deegan et al. [22])). The understanding of these processes and the basic physics behind the phenomenon are crucial to the understanding of the factors influencing the deposition patterns. It concludes with the applications that each of these fluids can be used in and how the manipulation of the deposition pattern is useful. The most commonly seen pattern is the coffee-ring deposit which can be seen frequently in real life from tea/coffee stains and in water colour painting. This is caused by an outward flow known as capillary flow which carries suspended particles out to the edge of the wetted area. Other patterns that were found were uniform, central deposits and concentric rings which are caused by inward Marangoni flow. Complex biological fluids displayed an array of different patterns which can be used to diagnose patients. PMID:23746427

  20. Dry wind tunnel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ping-Chih (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a ground flutter testing system without a wind tunnel, called Dry Wind Tunnel (DWT) System. The DWT system consists of a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) hardware system, a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) force controller software, and a real-time unsteady aerodynamic force generation software, that is developed from an aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM). The ground flutter test using the DWT System operates on a real structural model, therefore no scaled-down structural model, which is required by the conventional wind tunnel flutter test, is involved. Furthermore, the impact of the structural nonlinearities on the aeroelastic stability can be included automatically. Moreover, the aeroservoelastic characteristics of the aircraft can be easily measured by simply including the flight control system in-the-loop. In addition, the unsteady aerodynamics generated computationally is interference-free from the wind tunnel walls. Finally, the DWT System can be conveniently and inexpensively carried out as a post GVT test with the same hardware, only with some possible rearrangement of the shakers and the inclusion of additional sensors.

  1. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations. PMID:25578408

  2. Changes in the chemical composition of basil caused by different drying procedures.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Luigi Francesco; Forni, Elisabetta; Viscardi, Daniela; Nani, Renato Carlo

    2003-06-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves were dried using a microwave oven at atmospheric pressure or two traditional methods: air-drying at 50 degrees C and freeze-drying. The microwave-drying was carried out at different powers and times on raw basil leaves, while for air and freeze-drying techniques, both raw and blanched leaves were used. The raw and dried basil was analyzed for selected aroma compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-selected-ion-monitoring, the chlorophyll a and b by HPLC and the color by a reflected-light colorimeter. For dried samples microwaved for 1 min at 270, 2 min at 440, 1 min at 650, and 1 min at 1100 W, the percentage retentions of the characteristic volatile compounds (eucalyptol, linalool, eugenol, and methyl eugenol) were higher than in the samples dried by traditional methods, with the exception of freeze-dried unblenched basil. Microwave drying allowed a larger retention of chlorophyll pigments than air-drying and freeze-drying (with or without blanching) and preserved the color of the raw basil. Microwave drying requires a much shorter treatment and implied the simultaneous blanching of the material.

  3. "Wet" Versus "Dry" Folding of Polyproline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liuqing; Holliday, Alison E.; Bohrer, Brian C.; Kim, Doyong; Servage, Kelly A.; Russell, David H.; Clemmer, David E.

    2016-06-01

    When the all- cis polyproline-I helix (PPI, favored in 1-propanol) of polyproline-13 is introduced into water, it folds into the all- trans polyproline-II (PPII) helix through at least six intermediates [Shi, L., Holliday, A.E., Shi, H., Zhu, F., Ewing, M.A., Russell, D.H., Clemmer, D.E.: Characterizing intermediates along the transition from PPI to PPII using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 12702-12711 (2014)]. Here, we show that the solvent-free intermediates refold into the all- cis PPI helix with high (>90%) efficiency. Moreover, in the absence of solvent, each intermediate appears to utilize the same small set of pathways observed for the solution-phase PPII → PPI transition upon immersion of PPIIaq in 1-propanol. That folding in solution (under conditions where water is displaced by propanol) and folding in vacuo (where energy required for folding is provided by collisional activation) occur along the same pathway is remarkable. Implicit in this statement is that 1-propanol mimics a "dry" environment, similar to the gas phase. We note that intermediates with structures that are similar to PPIIaq can form PPII under the most gentle activation conditions—indicating that some transitions observed in water (i.e. , "we t" folding, are accessible (albeit inefficient) in vacuo. Lastly, these "dry" folding experiments show that PPI (all cis) is favored under "dry" conditions, which underscores the role of water as the major factor promoting preference for trans proline.

  4. Whey drying on porous carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.

    1996-05-01

    Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on porous carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.

  5. Solar drying of yam-flour pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Oladiran, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat/mass transfer characteristics of a turbulent impinging jet in cross flow in a model of a chamber used for solar drying of yam flour pellets is presented. The variables studied were the nozzle inclination, ..cap alpha.. and the jet-to-cross flow velocity ratio, M. These parameters were varied from 30/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/ and from 5.0 to 20.9 respectively. Superimposing a cross flow onto the jet reduced the heat transfer coefficients. At low cross flows, inclining the nozzle further reduced the heat transfer coefficients. However, at higher cross flows, inclining the nozzle could be beneficial. The thin film napthalene sublimation technique was employed for the mass transfer measurements.

  6. [A simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Yi; Li, Gang; An, Dong-Sheng; Luo, Wei-Hong

    2012-04-01

    Dry matter allocation and translocation is the base of the formation of appearance quality of ornamental plants, and strongly affected by water supply. Taking cut lily cultivar 'Sorbonne' as test material, a culture experiment of different planting dates and water supply levels was conducted in a multi-span greenhouse in Nanjing from March 2009 to January 2010 to quantitatively analyze the seasonal changes of the dry matter allocation and translocation in 'Sorbonne' plants and the effects of substrate water potential on the dry matter allocation indices for different organs (flower, stem, leaf, bulb, and root), aimed to define the critical substrate water potential for the normal growth of the cultivar, and establish a simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential. The model established in this study gave a good prediction on the dry mass of plant organs, with the coefficient of determination and the relative root mean square error between the simulated and measured values of the cultivar' s flower dry mass, stem dry mass, leaf dry mass, bulb dry mass, and root dry mass being 0.96 and 19.2%, 0.95 and 12.4%, 0.86 and 19.4%, 0.95 and 12.2%, and 0.85 and 31.7%, respectively. The critical water potential for the water management of cut lily could be -15 kPa.

  7. PAHs in corn grains submitted to drying with firewood.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Rafael Friedrich; Dionello, Rafael Gomes; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Barrionuevo, Simone; Radunz, Lauri Lourenço; Reichert Júnior, Francisco Wilson

    2017-01-15

    Grain drying using firewood as fuel for air heating, with direct fire, is still widely used in Brazil. The combustion of organic material, such as wood, can generate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known to have carcinogenic potential. In the present work corn grain drying was carried out at three drying air temperatures: 60°C, 60/80°C and 80°C. Following the drying process, the presence and quantification of PAH in the corn grains was investigated. After extracting the PAHs of the matrix, the material was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography with mass detector. he results showed the presence of seven compounds: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene. PMID:27542463

  8. Biohazards in pharmaceutical freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Hermanský, M; Graichman, T

    1990-01-01

    Among freeze-dried drugs there are many which may imperil manufacturing personnel, e.g. cytostatic drugs possessing carcinogenic effects. Production zones must be specially adapted for handling such drugs. There are many risks endangering a freeze-drying operation--power or water supply failure, but also improperly established freeze-drying cycle. A production batch of a rare, expensive and sensitive product represents a big value; modern equipment therefore features sophisticated automation, overriding possible human error. Problem of particulate contamination is less severe with vials stoppered inside the vacuum chamber, but rubber closures still may become a source of haze. Back-migration of oil from vacuum pumps may be another source. Economy of industrial freeze-drying may be much improved if freezing sequence, drying rate, adjustment of vacuum by "bleeding" nitrogen are tailored specially for each particular product.

  9. The release of monoterpenes during convective drying of wood chips

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1998-08-01

    The release of volatile organic components (VOC) during high temperature convective drying of wood chips was studied experimentally and theoretically. The drying medium was superheated steam with a pressure of two bar. Two different temperature levels of the drying medium, 160 and 180 C, and two different materials, Scots Pine and Norway Spruce, were investigated. It was found that the main components released consist of various types of monoterpenes, with {alpha}-pinene dominating in each of the two materials. The amount released is dependent on the drying temperature as well as the time of the drying process. In order to describe the release rate of monoterpenes during drying, two separate models, called the communicating and the non-communicating model respectively, were developed. The mechanisms included for the transport of monoterpenes are, in the communicating model, transport by diffusion and with the advective gas and liquid flow within the tracheids and, in the non-communicating model, diffusion within the resin canal system. The results obtained using the communicating model largely overpredict the experimental results. To avoid this rapid release, additional mass transfer resistance for the transport of monoterpenes between the two canal systems could be introduced. The non-communicating model was found to be useful in explaining the release rate when drying spruce. This model, however, cannot distinguish between the two temperature levels studied.

  10. Technical aspects of the production of dried extract of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves by jet spouted bed drying.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Daniel S; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2005-08-11

    This work presents an evaluation of the performance of jet spouted bed with inert particles for production of dried extracts of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. The development of the extraction procedure was carried-out with the aid of three factors and three levels Box-Behnken design. The effects of the extraction variables, temperature (Text); stirring time (theta); and the ratio of the plant to solvent mass (m(p)/m(s)) on the extraction yield were investigated. The drying performance and product properties were evaluated through the measurement of the product size distribution, loss on drying (Up), flavonoid degradation (D) and, process thermal efficiency (eta). These parameters were measured as a function of the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (Tgi), the feed mass flow rate of the concentrated extract relative to mass flow rate of the spouting gas (Ws/Wg), the ratio between the feed flow rate of spouting gas relative to feed flow rate at a minimum spouting condition (Q/Qms) and the static bed height (H0). A powder product with a low degradation of active substances and good physical properties were obtained for selected operating conditions. These results indicate the feasibility of this drying equipment for the production of dried extracts of M. ilicifolia Martius ex Reiss leaves.

  11. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  12. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system.

    The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles.

    Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone.

    This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged

  13. Isothermal vapour flow in extremely dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todman, L. C.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Templeton, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    In dry soils hydraulic connectivity within the liquid water phase decreases and vapour flow becomes a significant transport mechanism for water. The temperature or solute concentration of the liquid phase affects the vapour pressure of the surrounding air, thus temperature or solute gradients can drive vapour flows. However, in extremely dry soils where water is retained by adsorptive forces rather than capillarity, vapour flows can also occur. In such soils tiny changes in water content significantly affect the equilibrium vapour pressure in the soil, and hence small differences in water content can initiate vapour pressure gradients. In many field conditions this effect may be negligible compared to vapour flows driven by other factors. However, flows of this type are particularly significant in a new type of subsurface irrigation system which uses pervaporation, via a polymer tubing, as the mechanism for water supply. In this system, water enters the soil in vapour phase. Experiments were performed in laboratory conditions using marine sand that had previously been oven dried and cooled. This dry sand was used to represent the desert conditions in which this irrigation system is intended for use. Experimental results show that isothermal vapour flows can significantly affect the performance of such irrigation systems due to the rapid transport of water through the soil via the vapour phase. When the irrigation pipe was buried at a depth of 10cm a vapour flow from the soil surface was observed in less than 2 hours. These flows therefore affect the loss of mass into the atmosphere and thus must be considered when evaluating the availability of water for the irrigated crop. The experiments also provide a rare opportunity to observe isothermal vapour flows initiating from a subsurface source. Such experiments allow the significance of these flows to be quantified and potentially applied to other areas of arid zone hydrology.

  14. Concentration profiles in drying cylindrical filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaputa, Klaus; Brenn, Günter; Meile, Walter

    2008-12-01

    We analyze theoretically the drying of cylindrical filaments. For modelling the mass transfer on the gas side of the liquid-gas interface of the shrinking circular cylindrical filament, we apply the model of Abramzon and Sirignano, which was originally developed for spherical geometry. As a consequence of mass transfer at constant Sherwood number, we obtain a d2-law for the shrinkage of the cylinder as in the case of the spherical geometry, which expresses that the cross-sectional area of the cylinder shrinks at a constant rate with time. For this situation, the diffusion equation for the liquid phase mixture components becomes separable upon transformation into similarity coordinates and is solved analytically to obtain the concentration profiles inside the filament as functions of time. The dependency of the profiles on the radial coordinate is determined by a series of Kummer’s functions. Applying this result, we study the evolution of the concentration profiles in the liquid phase with time as dependent on a parameter given as the ratio of rate of shrinkage of the cross-sectional area of the cylinder to liquid-phase diffusion coefficient, which was identified as relevant for the shape of the concentration profiles formed in the liquid during the drying process. As an example, we present computed results for the constant evaporation rate regime in the dry-spinning process of a polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA)-water system. Comparison of our analytical results with full numerical solutions of the diffusion equation from the literature, achieved with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient, reveals very good agreement.

  15. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  16. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  17. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  18. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  19. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  20. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  1. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease.

  2. Aging and dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A

    2012-07-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD.

  3. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  4. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease. PMID:25275793

  5. Drying of poloxamer hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhiyong; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2004-06-01

    The drying of hydrogel films formed by Poloxamer 407 poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) amphiphilic block copolymer was investigated at various air relative humidity (RH) conditions ranging from 11 to 97%. Initially, the amount of water lost increased linearly with the drying time. After this linear region (stage I), a nonlinear behavior was observed (stage II). The drying rate increased with decreasing RH, thus greatly shortening the drying time. A decrease of the film thickness also shortened the drying time; however, the drying mechanism did not change. Three models for one-dimensional water diffusion were used to fit the experimental results at different RH conditions and film thicknesses. Model 1 assumes semi-infinite medium and constant diffusion coefficient, and fits very well the data in stage I of the drying process. The fitted water diffusion coefficient (D) is 5 x 10(-10) m(2)/s, whereas the effects of the RH are captured by a proportionality constant (alpha) that appears in the boundary condition. Model 2 considers a finite (constant) film thickness and captures the experimental observations over the whole drying period for the same D and alpha as in Model 1. The analytical solutions available for Models 1 and 2, used together with the experimentally derived model parameters D and alpha, allow for easy estimation of drying time and water loss from Poloxamer hydrogel films of various compositions and thicknesses and at different relative humidities. Numerical solutions for water diffusion under conditions of decreasing film thickness and diffusion coefficient being a function of concentration are also presented (Model 3). It becomes apparent from the fit of the data to the different models that the drying rate is more sensitive to the boundary condition at the film-air interface (represented by alpha) than to the diffusion in the film. It is notable that the alpha values obtained from the fits of the Poloxamer hydrogel drying

  6. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0.

  7. Degradation of PCBs in dry fermented sausages during drying/ripening.

    PubMed

    Lušnic Polak, M; Zlatić, E; Demšar, L; Žlender, B; Polak, T

    2016-12-15

    The effects of several commercial meat starter cultures on degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dry fermented sausages over 28days of drying/ripening were investigated. The sausage batter was prepared according to a classic recipe and spiked with a standard solution of a PCB congener mixture. With addition of different commercial meat starter cultures, five experimental groups were prepared: no further addition; and separate addition of each of four starter cultures: Texel DCM-1, Texel LM-30, Biostar Sprint, and SM-181. Samples were taken at the beginning of fermentation (zero time), and after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28days. PCB residues were extracted with hexane. The PCB contents were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCB levels were reduced in all of the experimental groups tested, where addition of starter culture Biostar Sprint (Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus) showed the highest PCB degradation rates. PMID:27451178

  8. Comparison of Mathematical Equation and Neural Network Modeling for Drying Kinetic of Mendong in Microwave Oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulidah, Rifa'atul; Purqon, Acep

    2016-08-01

    Mendong (Fimbristylis globulosa) has a potentially industrial application. We investigate a predictive model for heat and mass transfer in drying kinetics during drying a Mendong. We experimentally dry the Mendong by using a microwave oven. In this study, we analyze three mathematical equations and feed forward neural network (FNN) with back propagation to describe the drying behavior of Mendong. Our results show that the experimental data and the artificial neural network model has a good agreement and better than a mathematical equation approach. The best FNN for the prediction is 3-20-1-1 structure with Levenberg- Marquardt training function. This drying kinetics modeling is potentially applied to determine the optimal parameters during mendong drying and to estimate and control of drying process.

  9. The electrical analogy does not apply to modeling dry deposition of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Pleim, Jonathan

    The most commonly used expresion for dry deposition of particles is based on the electrical analogy. Because the electrical analogy is not consistent with the mass conservation equation, this expression for dry deposition velocity cannot be justified. This paper presents the correct expression.

  10. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments. PMID:26282732

  11. Physiologic effects of dry needling.

    PubMed

    Cagnie, Barbara; Dewitte, Vincent; Barbe, Tom; Timmermans, Frank; Delrue, Nicolas; Meeus, Mira

    2013-08-01

    During the past decades, worldwide clinical and scientific interest in dry needling (DN) therapy has grown exponentially. Various clinical effects have been credited to dry needling, but rigorous evidence about its potential physiological mechanisms of actions and effects is still lacking. Research identifying these exact mechanisms of dry needling action is sparse and studies performed in an acupuncture setting do not necessarily apply to DN. The studies of potential effects of DN are reviewed in reference to the different aspects involved in the pathophysiology of myofascial triggerpoints: the taut band, local ischemia and hypoxia, peripheral and central sensitization. This article aims to provide the physiotherapist with a greater understanding of the contemporary data available: what effects could be attributed to dry needling and what are their potential underlying mechanisms of action, and also indicate some directions at which future research could be aimed to fill current voids.

  12. Dry deposition of sulfate onto surrogate surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.I.; Cartwright, L.G.; Landis, L.R.; Lindberg, S.E.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1985-02-20

    Measurements of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ fluxes to surrogate surfaces have been conducted as part of the Dry Deposition Intercomparison Study in Champaign, Illinois. Data for Teflon plates without rims and for polycarbonate petri dishes with 1-cm rims have been obtained and compared with data for Teflon sheets and polyethylene dustfall buckets used by other investigators. Results show that deposition velocities for the Teflon plates are in the range of 0.17-0.42 cm/s, while corresponding values for the petri dishes are in the range of 0.18-0.61 cm/s. Comparisons among the four types of surrogate surfaces show deposition velocities which increase in the order Teflon sheets approx.Teflon plates mass is associated with particles of 0.5- 1-..mu..m aerodynamic diameter. However, using the size distributions as inputs to dry deposition models in the literature suggests that larger particles are responsible for most of the SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ mass deposition onto the surrogate surfaces. The calculated values for natural grass surfaces are in reasonable agreement with measured deposition velocities onto the petri dishes. Overall, the results of this study suggest that inertial impaction and sedimentation of supermicron airborne particles are more important than deposition of submicron material in influencing total SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ mass deposition into surrogate surfaces and onto natural vegetation at this site.

  13. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  14. Evaluating industrial drying of cellulosic feedstock for bioenergy: a systems approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Webb, Erin

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of herbaceous and woody biomass must be dried following harvest. Natural field drying is possible if the weather cooperates. Mechanical drying is a certain way of reducing the moisture content of biomass. This paper presents an engineering analysis applied to drying of 10 Mg h(-1) (exit mass flow) of biomass with an initial moisture content ranging from 25% to 70% (wet mass basis) down to 10% exit moisture content. The requirement for hog fuel to supply heat to the dryer increases from 0.5 dry Mg to 3.8 dry Mg h(-1) with the increased initial moisture of biomass. The capital cost for the entire drying system including equipment for biomass size reduction, pollution control, dryer, and biomass combustor sums up to more than $4.7 million. The operating cost (electricity, labor, repair, and maintenance) minus fuel cost for the dryer alone amount to 4.05 Mg-1 of dried biomass. For 50% moisture content biomass, the cost of fuel to heat the drying air is $7.41/ dry ton of biomass for a total $11.46 per dry ton at 10% moisture content. The fuel cost ranges from a low of $2.21 to a high of $18.54 for a biomass at an initial moisture content of 25% to 75%, respectively. This wide range in fuel cost indicates the extreme sensitivity of the drying cost to initial moisture content of biomass and to ambient air humidity and temperature and highlights the significance of field drying for a cost effective drying operation. (c) 2016 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  15. Evaluating industrial drying of cellulosic feedstock for bioenergy: A systems approach

    DOE PAGES

    Sokhansanj, Shahab; Webb, Erin

    2016-01-21

    Here, a large portion of herbaceous and woody biomass must be dried following harvest. Natural field drying is possible if the weather cooperates. Mechanical drying is a certain way of reducing the moisture content of biomass. This paper presents an engineering analysis applied to drying of 10 Mg h–1 (exit mass flow) of biomass with an initial moisture content ranging from 25% to 70% (wet mass basis) down to 10% exit moisture content. The requirement for hog fuel to supply heat to the dryer increases from 0.5 dry Mg to 3.8 dry Mg h–1 with the increased initial moisture ofmore » biomass. The capital cost for the entire drying system including equipment for biomass size reduction, pollution control, dryer, and biomass combustor sums up to more than 4.7 million dollars. The operating cost (electricity, labor, repair, and maintenance) minus fuel cost for the dryer alone amount to 4.05 Mg–1 of dried biomass. For 50% moisture content biomass, the cost of fuel to heat the drying air is 7.41 dollars/ dry ton of biomass for a total 11.46 dollars per dry ton at 10% moisture content. The fuel cost ranges from a low of 2.21 dollars to a high of 18.54 dollars for a biomass at an initial moisture content of 25% to 75%, respectively. This wide range in fuel cost indicates the extreme sensitivity of the drying cost to initial moisture content of biomass and to ambient air humidity and temperature and highlights the significance of field drying for a cost effective drying operation.« less

  16. Dehydration characteristics and mathematical modelling of lemon slices drying undergoing oven treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza; Tohidi, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of drying temperature on drying behaviour and mass transfer parameters of lemon slices was investigated. The drying experiments were conducted in a laboratory air ventilated oven dryer at temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C. It was observed that the drying temperature affected the drying time and drying rate significantly. Drying rate curves revealed that the process at the temperature levels taken place in the falling rate period entirely. The usefulness of eight thin layer models to simulate the drying kinetics was evaluated and the Midilli and Kucuk model showed the best fit to experimental drying curves. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined on the basis of Fick's second law and obtained to be 1.62 × 10-11, 3.25 × 10-11 and 8.11 × 10-11 m2 s-1 for the temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C, respectively. The activation energy and Arrhenius constant were calculated to be 60.08 kJ mol-1 and 0.08511 m2 s-1, respectively. The average value of convective mass transfer coefficient for the drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C was calculated to be 5.71 × 10-7, 1.62 × 10-6 and 2.53 × 10-6 m s-1, respectively.

  17. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  18. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  19. Dry mouth and older people.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring.

  20. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  1. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  2. Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-03-01

    "Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system.

  3. Influence of the Ultrasonic Power Applied on Freeze Drying Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, C.; Mulet, A.; García-Pérez, J. V.; Riera, E.; Cárcel, J. A.

    The atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) constitutes an interesting alternative to vacuum freeze drying providing products with similar quality at lowest cost. However, the long process time needed represent an important drawback. In this sense, the application of high intensity ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and intensify the operation. In hot air drying operation, the ultrasonic effects are dependent on the process variables such as air velocity, internal sample structure or ultrasonic power applied. However, in AFD processes, the internal structure of material or the air velocity has not significant influence on the magnitude of ultrasonic effects. The aim of this work was to determine the influence on drying kinetics of the ultrasonic power applied during the AFD of apple. For that purpose, AFD experiments (-10 °C, 2 m/s and 15% relative humidity) of apple slabs (cv. Granny Smith, 30 x 30 x 10 mm) were carried out with ultrasound application (21 kHz) at different power levels (0, 10.3, 20.5 and 30.8 kW/m3). The drying kinetics was obtained from the initial moisture content and the weight evolution of samples during drying. Experimental results showed a significant (p<0.05) influence of the ultrasound application on drying. Thus, drying time was shorter as higher the ultrasonic power applied. From modeling, it was observed that the effective diffusion coefficient identified was 4.8 times higher when ultrasound was applied at the lowest power tested (10.3 kW/m3) that illustrated the high intensification potential of ultrasound application in the AFD.

  4. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  5. Volatile N-nitrosamines in dried foods.

    PubMed

    Sen, N P; Seaman, S

    1981-09-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the levels of volatile N-nitrosamines in several dried food commodities such as malt, instant skim milk powder, infant formula containing milk powder, instant coffee, soup and soup bases, and baby cereals. The method involves vacuum distillation of the sample from 3N KOH or 1% sulfamic acid, followed by extraction of the aqueous distillate with dichloromethane. The dichloromethane extract is then washed with an acidic buffer (to remove amines), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, concentrated in a Kuderna-Danish concentrator, and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, using a thermal energy analyzer. Detection limit is 0.1-0.5 ppb. Of the samples analyzed thus far, all malts (22 samples) and instant skim milk powders (11 samples ) were positive for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); average levels were 7.4 ppb (1.3-67.0 ppb) and 0.4 ppb (0.3-0.7 ppb), respectively. Traces of NDMA and/or N-nitrosopyrrolidine were also detected in 3 of 20 dried soups and 5 of 10 instant coffees analyzed. Traces of NDMA and/or N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) were detected in 3 of 8 powdered instant formulas. All for baby cereal samples were negative. The identity of NDMA in 14 samples of malt and that of NDMA and NPIP in a infant formula was confirmed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; identity of N-nitrosamines in 3 instant coffees and 1 infant formula was independently verified by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. PMID:7287621

  6. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, P. C. D.; Dunne, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. `Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman-Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  7. Comparison between analytical and numerical solution of mathematical drying model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Rasmani, K.; Jamil, N.

    2016-02-01

    Drying is often related to the food industry as a process of shifting heat and mass inside food, which helps in preserving food. Previous research using a mass transfer equation showed that the results were mostly concerned with the comparison between the simulation model and the experimental data. In this paper, the finite difference method was used to solve a mass equation during drying using different kinds of boundary condition, which are equilibrium and convective boundary conditions. The results of these two models provide a comparison between the analytical and the numerical solution. The result shows a close match between the two solution curves. It is concluded that the two proposed models produce an accurate solution to describe the moisture distribution content during the drying process. This analysis indicates that we have confidence in the behaviour of moisture in the numerical simulation. This result demonstrated that a combined analytical and numerical approach prove that the system is behaving physically. Based on this assumption, the model of mass transfer was extended to include the temperature transfer, and the result shows a similar trend to those presented in the simpler case.

  8. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Mass in the abdomen ... care provider make a diagnosis. For example, the abdomen can be divided into four areas: Right-upper ... pain or masses include: Epigastric -- center of the abdomen just below the rib cage Periumbilical -- area around ...

  9. Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Domergue, L.; Hadjadj, A.; Haas, J.-F.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of experiments and numerical modeling on the mitigation of blast waves using dry aqueous foams. The multiphase formalism is used to model the dry aqueous foam as a dense non-equilibrium two-phase medium as well as its interaction with the high explosion detonation products. New experiments have been performed to study the mass scaling effects. The experimental as well as the numerical results, which are in good agreement, show that more than an order of magnitude reduction in the peak overpressure ratio can be achieved. The positive impulse reduction is less marked than the overpressures. The Hopkinson scaling is also found to hold particularly at larger scales for these two blast parameters. Furthermore, momentum and heat transfers, which have the main dominant role in the mitigation process, are shown to modify significantly the classical blast wave profile and thereafter to disperse the energy from the peak overpressure due to the induced relaxation zone. In addition, the velocity of the fireball, which acts as a piston on its environment, is smaller than in air. Moreover, the greater inertia of the liquid phase tends to project the aqueous foam far from the fireball. The created gap tempers the amplitude of the transmitted shock wave to the aqueous foam. As a consequence, this results in a lowering of blast wave parameters of the two-phase spherical decaying shock wave.

  10. Drying/self-assembly of nanoparticle suspensions.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Plimpton, Steven James; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier that can be processed with well-known techniques such as spin, drip and spray coating, fiber drawing, and casting. The next stage in the processing is often solidification involving drying by solvent evaporation. While there has been significant progress in the past few years in developing discrete element numerical methods to model dense nanoparticle dispersion/suspension rheology which properly treat the hydrodynamic interactions of the solvent, these methods cannot at present account for the volume reduction of the suspension due to solvent evaporation. As part of LDRD project FY-101285 we have developed and implemented methods in the current suite of discrete element methods to remove solvent particles and volume, and hence solvent mass from the liquid/vapor interface of a suspension to account for volume reduction (solvent drying) effects. To validate the methods large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to follow the evaporation process at the microscopic scale.

  11. Fragmentation of drying paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

  12. Freeze-dried microarterial allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, J.; Hargrave, J.C.

    1990-02-01

    Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts were implanted to bridge arterial defects using New Zealand White rabbits as the experimental model. Segments of artery from the rabbit ear and thigh were harvested and preserved for a minimum of 2 weeks after freeze-drying. These allografts, approximately 1 mm in diameter and ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length, were rehydrated and then implanted in low-pressure and high-pressure arterial systems. Poor patency was noted in low-pressure systems in both allografts and autografts, tested in 12 rabbits. In the high-pressure arterial systems, allografts that were freeze-dried and reconstituted failed in a group of 10 rabbits with an 8-week patency rate of 30 percent. Gamma irradiation in an effort to reduce infection and antigenicity of grafts after freeze-drying was associated with a patency rate of 10 percent at 8 weeks in this system in another group of 10 rabbits. Postoperative cyclosporin A therapy was associated with a patency rate of 22.2 percent in the high-pressure arterial system in a 9-rabbit group. Control autografts in this system in a group of 10 rabbits showed a 100 percent patency at 8 weeks. Microarterial grafts depend on perfusion pressure of the vascular bed for long-term patency. Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts do not seem to function well in lengths of 1 to 2.5 cm when implanted in a high-pressure arterial system. Freeze-dried arterial allografts are probably not antigenic.

  13. Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Thushanthi; Young, Matthew R.; Zhang, Zhiying; Murphy, Gwen; Colburn, Nancy H.; Lanza, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl J.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Scope Aim of the study was to identify and monitor metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies that each had shown chemopreventive effects of dry bean consumption on colorectal neoplasia risk. Methods and Results Using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy +/− electrospray ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, serum metabolites of dry beans were measured in 46 men before and after a four-week dry bean-enriched diet (250 g/d) and 12 mice that received a standardized diet containing either 0 or 10% navy bean ethanol extract for 6 weeks; we also investigated fecal metabolites in the mice. The serum metabolites identified in these controlled feeding studies were then investigated in 212 polyp-free participants from the Polyp Prevention Trial who self-reported either increased (≥+31 g/d from baseline), high dry bean intake of ≥42 g/d in year 3 or low, unchanged dry bean consumption of <8 g/d; serum was analyzed from baseline and year 3. Serum pipecolic acid and S-methyl-cysteine were elevated after dry bean consumption in human and mouse studies and reflected dry bean consumption in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Conclusions Serum levels of pipecolic acid and S-methyl-cysteine are useful biomarkers of dry bean consumption. PMID:25641932

  14. Optimization of drying process parameters for cauliflower drying.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Sehgal, V K; Arora, Sadhna

    2013-02-01

    The different sizes (3, 4 and 5 cm) of hybrid variety of cauliflower (variety no. 71) were dehydrated in thin layer at three temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C with velocities of 40, 50 and 60 m/min. Dehydrated samples were analyzed for vitamin C, rehydration ratio and browning. Statistical analysis indicated that drying time was dependent on initial size of cauliflower, drying air temperature and velocity, but rehydration ratio was significantly affected by the combined effect of temperature and airflow velocity. Vitamin C content of the dried cauliflower samples were significantly affected by temperature only and non enzymatic browning was function of temperature, airflow velocity, and combined effect of temperature and airflow velocity. Optimization of the drying process parameters for the given constraints resulted in 60.10(0)C, 59.28 m/min, 3.35 cm. The predicted responses for the optimized combination of process parameters were time, vitamin C content, rehydration ratio, and browning values of 491.22 min (time), 289.86 mg/100 g (Vitamin C), 6.91 ( rehydration ratio), and 0.14 (browning), respectively with the desirability factor of 0.787. PMID:24425888

  15. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  16. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  17. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  18. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  19. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  20. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  1. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  2. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  3. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  4. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for...

  5. Stabilized dried blood spot collection.

    PubMed

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Toth, Monika; Liew, Oi Wah; Muradoglu, Murat; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-08-01

    During the collection phase of the dried blood spot method, practitioners need to ensure that there is no smearing of the blood sample on the filter paper or else readings from it will be invalid. This can be difficult to accomplish in the field if there is relative motion between the site of blood discharge on the finger and the filter paper. In this article, a gyroscope stabilization method is introduced and demonstrated to provide consistent and improved dried blood spot collection within a circular guide region notwithstanding the presence of rocking. PMID:27156813

  6. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  7. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  8. Energy and quality aspects of food drying

    SciTech Connect

    Strumillo, C.; Adamiec, J.

    1996-05-01

    High energy consumption and increasing consumers` interest in new products are two problems worthy of note in the drying of food. Difficulties in producing high-quality food and degrading transformations of the material during drying are mentioned. The kinetics of quality degradation due to drying is described. The role of water activity in maintaining product quality is emphasized. Examples of drying methods and tendencies toward a reduction in quality degradation of dried food products are shown.

  9. Radiative-dynamical consequences of dry tongues in the tropical troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, B.E.; Zuidema, P.

    1996-02-15

    Dry layers are frequently observed in atmosperic soundings from the climatologically humid western Pacific warm pool regions. Some 2400 soundings from the TOGA COARE field program were objectively examined for humidity drops (layers in which relative humidity decreases rapidly with height), indicative of the bases of dry layers. These occur throughout the lower and middle troposphere, with frequency peaks near 550 (the 0{degrees}C level), 800, and 950 mb. A composite constructed from these sounding data indicates the following. (1) Almost all dry layers are too dry (and not warm enough) to be interpreted as conservative vertical displacements. (2) Dry tongues are anomalously virtually warm near their bases with a slight cool layer below; that is, they sit atop sharp stable layers or inversions. The authors hypothesize that radiation is responsible for the thermal structure of dry tongues. A composite-derived radiative heating perturbation, acting for 3.5 days in an idealized model of a dry tongue {approximately} 300 km in width, reproduces fairly well the vertical wavenumber components of the composite thermal structure. Dynamics acts to spread the effect of the radiative heating perturbation over a wider area and to concentrate the temperature perturbations near the dry tongue base, as observed. The deep layer-mean warmth of the composite dry tongue arises from slight correlation between dry tongue occurrence in this dataset and a {approximately} 1{degrees} C global-scale intraseasonal variation of tropical tropospheric temperature. A dry tongue affects convective clouds both directly, through its thermal structure, and indirectly, through dry air entrainment. Low level dry tongues can prevent deep convection outright, while the stable layers associated with dry tongues at higher altitudes may cause convection to detrain mass. Humidity drops, stable layers, and a proxy for layer clouds all have similiar altitude distributions. 40 refs., 19 fig., 1 tab.

  10. THE DIRT ON DRY MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Dey, Arjun; Cohen, Emma; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2011-04-01

    Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we analyze the mid-infrared (3-70 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions of dry merger candidates in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. These candidates were selected by previous authors to be luminous, red, early-type galaxies with morphological evidence of recent tidal interactions. We find that a significant fraction of these candidates exhibit 8 and 24 {mu}m excesses compared to expectations for old stellar populations. We estimate that a quarter of dry merger candidates have mid-infrared-derived star formation rates greater than {approx}1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. This represents a 'frosting' on top of a large old stellar population, and has been seen in previous studies of elliptical galaxies. Further, the dry merger candidates include a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies relative to a control sample without tidal features. We therefore conclude that the star formation in these massive ellipticals is likely triggered by merger activity. Our data suggest that the mergers responsible for the observed tidal features were not completely dry, and may be minor mergers involving a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

  11. Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

  12. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  13. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  14. Wet mammals shake at tuned frequencies to dry

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Mills, Zachary G.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f ∼ M−0.22, which is close to our prediction of f ∼ M−0.19 based upon the balance of centrifugal and capillary forces. We also observe a novel role for loose mammalian dermal tissue: by whipping around the body, it increases the speed of drops leaving the animal and the ensuing dryness relative to tight dermal tissue. PMID:22904256

  15. Wet mammals shake at tuned frequencies to dry.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Andrew K; Mills, Zachary G; Hu, David L

    2012-12-01

    In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f ∼ M(-0.22), which is close to our prediction of f ∼ M(-0.19) based upon the balance of centrifugal and capillary forces. We also observe a novel role for loose mammalian dermal tissue: by whipping around the body, it increases the speed of drops leaving the animal and the ensuing dryness relative to tight dermal tissue.

  16. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally. METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1 G, 0.17 G, and 0.3 G, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17 G and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.3 11.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trendlines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  17. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve; Lee, Lesley; Gemhardt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally.METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1-g, 0.17-g, and 0.3-g, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17-g and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.311.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trend lines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  18. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-12-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

  19. Quantification of perchloroethylene residues in dry-cleaned fabrics.

    PubMed

    Sherlach, Katy S; Gorka, Alexander P; Dantzler, Alexa; Roepe, Paul D

    2011-11-01

    We have used a novel gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based approach to quantify perchloroethylene (PCE) residues in dry-cleaned fabrics. Residual PCE was extracted from fabric samples with methanol and concentration was calculated by the gas chromatographic peak area, standardized using PCE calibration data. Extracts examined were from samples of 100% wool, polyester, cotton, or silk, which were dry cleaned from one to six times in seven different Northern Virginia dry-cleaning establishments. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of PCE release in the extraction solvent and to the open air. We found that polyester, cotton, and wool retained ≥ µM levels of PCE, that these levels increased in successive dry-cleaning cycles, and that PCE is slowly volatilized from these fabrics under ambient room air conditions. We found that silk does not retain appreciable PCE. Measured differences across dry-cleaning establishments and fabric type suggest more vigorous monitoring of PCE residues may be warranted. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2481-2487. © 2011 SETAC.

  20. A review of thin layer drying of foods: theory, modeling, and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Zafer; Icier, Filiz

    2010-05-01

    Drying is a complicated process with simultaneous heat and mass transfer, and food drying is especially very complex because of the differential structure of products. In practice, a food dryer is considerably more complex than a device that merely removes moisture, and effective models are necessary for process design, optimization, energy integration, and control. Although modeling studies in food drying are important, there is no theoretical model which neither is practical nor can it unify the calculations. Therefore the experimental studies prevent their importance in drying and thin layer drying equations are important tools in mathematical modeling of food drying. They are practical and give sufficiently good results. In this study first, the theory of drying was given briefly. Next, general modeling approaches for food drying were explained. Then, commonly used or newly developed thin layer drying equations were shown, and determination of the appropriate model was explained. Afterwards, effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy calculations were expressed. Finally, experimental studies conducted in the last 10 years were reviewed, tabulated, and discussed. It is expected that this comprehensive study will be beneficial to those involved or interested in modeling, design, optimization, and analysis of food drying. PMID:20373189

  1. Influence of drying temperature and granulation liquid viscosity on the inter- and intragranular drug migration in tray-dried granules and compacts.

    PubMed

    Kiekens, F; Zelkó, R; Remon, J P

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the drying temperature and granulation liquid viscosity on the inter- and intragranular migration of a poorly water-soluble compound in a granulation mass and in a compact was quantitatively assessed. The intergranular migration kinetics were investigated by evaluating the drug distribution at different drying-time intervals. The results were analyzed by use of two-factor, three-level, face-centered, central composite designs. Riboflavin was mixed with alpha-lactose monohydrate 90 M and granulated with distilled water, except for the viscosity experiments in which an aqueous polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (Kollidon K90) solution was used. The wet granules were dried in a hot-air oven or compacted prior to drying. The drug concentration at different locations inside the granulated mass and the compacts after drying was determined spectrophotometrically and by use of diffuse light reflectance measurements. The riboflavin distribution in the granulation masses and in the compacts was characterized by drug-enriched outer layers and drug-depleted inner regions, indicating a strong migration phenomenon. It was clear that the drying temperature had no influence on the inter- and intragranular drug distribution. The intergranular migration was avoided using the PVP as a binder in the granulation liquid, whereas a minimal granulation liquid viscosity of 100 mPa.sec was necessary to avoid the intragranular migration. The diffuse light reflectance measurements can be used for the in-process control of granule samples containing low drug concentrations without the destruction of the samples.

  2. Neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1994-04-01

    The existence of a finite neutrino mass would have important consequences in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Experimental sensitivities have continued to be pushed down without any confirmed evidence for a finite neutrino mass. Yet there are several observations of discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observations which might be possible indications of a finite neutrino mass. Thus, extensive theoretical and experimental work is underway to resolve these issues.

  3. Comparison of Selected Metals Content in Cambodian Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Using Solar Drying System and Open Sun Drying

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems. PMID:25688274

  4. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    PubMed

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  5. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    PubMed

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems. PMID:25688274

  6. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  7. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  8. Hydrodynamic model for drying emulsions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huanhuan; Sprakel, Joris; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-08-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model for film formation in a dense oil-in-water emulsion under a unidirectional drying stress. Water flow through the plateau borders towards the drying end leads to the buildup of a pressure gradient. When the local pressure exceeds the critical disjoining pressure, the water films between droplets break and the droplets coalesce. We show that, depending on the critical pressure and the evaporation rate, the coalescence can occur in two distinct modes. At low critical pressures and low evaporation rates, coalescence occurs throughout the sample, whereas at high critical pressures and high evaporation rate, coalescence occurs only at the front. In the latter case, an oil layer develops on top of the film, which acts as a diffusive barrier and slows down film formation. Our findings, which are summarized in a state diagram for film formation, are in agreement with recent experimental findings.

  9. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  10. Drying of Beulah Zap lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.; Molenda, D. ); Dang, Y.; Malhotra, V.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    Recent results on the kinetics of water's desorption from Beulah-Zap lignite coal, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique were reported. The kinetic analysis of DSC was further complimented by determining the mechanism of air drying of lignite coal with the help of an in-situ Desorption Kinetics via Fourier transform infrared (ISDK-FTIR) technique. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  12. Combined Corex/DRI technology

    SciTech Connect

    Flickenschild, A.J.; Reufer, F.; Eberle, A.; Siuka, D.

    1996-08-01

    A feasible steelmaking alternative, the Corex/direct reduction/electric arc furnace combination, provides an economic route for the production of high quality steel products. This combination is a major step into a new generation of iron and steel mills. These mills are based on the production of liquid steel using noncoking coal and comply with the increasing demands of environmental protection. The favorable production costs are based on: Utilization of Corex and DRI/HBI plants; Production of hot metal equal to blast furnace quality; Use of low cost raw materials such as noncoking coal and lump ore; Use of process gas as reducing agent for DRI/HBI production; and Use of electric arc furnace with high hot metal input as the steelmaking process. The high flexibility of the process permits the adjustment of production in accordance with the strategy of the steel mills. New but proven technologies and applications of the latest state of art steelmaking process, e.g., Corex, in conjunction with DRI production as basic raw material for an electric arc furnace, will insure high quality, high availability, optimized energy generation at high efficiency rates, and high product quality for steelmaking.

  13. Solar drying in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O. )

    1992-03-01

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

  14. Accelerated dry curing of hams.

    PubMed

    Marriott, N G; Kelly, R F; Shaffer, C K; Graham, P P; Boling, J W

    1985-01-01

    Uncured pork legs from the right side of 18 carcasses were treated with a Ross Tenderizer and the left side were controls. All 36 samples were dry-cured for 40, 56 or 70 days and evaluated for appearance traits, cure penetration characteristics, microbial load, Kramer Shear force and taste attributes. The tenderization treatment had no effect (P > 0·05) on visual color or cure penetration rate, weight loss before curing, percentage moisture, nitrate level, nitrite level, total plate count, anaerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, objective and subjective tenderness measurements or juiciness. However, the higher values of salt suggested a possible acceleration of the dry cure penetration process among the tenderized samples. Cure time had no effect (P > 0·05) on percentage moisture, percentage salt, nitrate content, nitrite content, shear force and juiciness. Results suggest a limited effect of the mechanical tenderization process on certain traits related to dry curing and that total process time should be at least 70 days if color stability during cooking is desired. PMID:22056076

  15. Drying characteristics and quality of shiitake mushroom undergoing microwave-vacuum drying and microwave-vacuum combined with infrared drying.

    PubMed

    Kantrong, Hataichanok; Tansakul, Ampawan; Mittal, Gauri S

    2014-12-01

    Shiitake mushrooms were dehydrated by two different drying methods, i.e., microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and microwave-vacuum combined with infrared drying (MVD + IR). MVD was operated at microwave powers of 56, 143, 209 and 267 W under absolute pressures of 18.66, 29.32, 39.99 and 50.65 kPa, whereas infrared radiation was added in MVD + IR at 100 and 200 W. The effects of microwave power, absolute pressure and infrared power on drying characteristics, qualities and specific energy consumption were investigated. It was found that drying rate increased with lower absolute pressure, higher microwave power and higher infrared power. In particular, the results also indicated that drying undergoing MVD + IR could provide better qualities in terms of color of dried shiitake mushroom, rehydration ratio and texture of rehydrated ones. Furthermore, the drying characteristics were described by fitting data to six different drying models. Based on their coefficient of determination, root mean square error, residual of sum square and chi-square, Modified Page model could accurately predict moisture ratio for all drying conditions. Within the range of this study, the suitable drying condition with respect to the product qualities and energy consumption was MVD + IR drying at 267 W of microwave power, 18.66 kPa of absolute pressure and 200 W of infrared power.

  16. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  17. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  18. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... saliva, cavities may occur. back to top Dry Mouth Treatments Your doctor or dentist may recommend oral ...

  19. Through drying of paper from mechanical and chemical pulp blends: Transport phenomena behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemi, S.J.; Douglas, W.J.M.

    1999-11-01

    Printing and heavier grades of paper, often made from pulp blends, are dried by a mature process, cylinder drying, which has a much lower drying rate than through air drying. Analysis of the possible extension of through drying to such semipermeable sheets requires knowledge of the basic characteristics of this process when applied to such grades. Both momentum transport and drying rate aspects of transport phenomena in through air drying were investigated for sheets made from mechanical pulp--chemical pulp blends. The first determination of air permeability for moist paper from TMP and blends of TMP and kraft pulp is reported. The porosity, bulk and specific surface of paper from such blends are also reported. For paper from such blends the mechanical pulp exerts a disproportionate influence through control of the macrostructure by the stiff mechanical pulp fibers and control of the microstructure by its high fines content. Changes in sheet structure affect the momentum transport sensitively but the heat and mass transfer behavior determining drying rate is much less affected. Progress was made on the fundamental Re-{integral}-d{sub p} basis of analysis of through drying. The highly nonlinear dependence of momentum transport properties on pulp blend composition and on moisture content was related to the corresponding changes in the macro-and micro-pore structure available for air through flow.

  20. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica).

    PubMed

    Abano, Ernest Ekow

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10(-9) to 2.13 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58-17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality.

  1. Simulation of deep-bed drying of Virginia peanuts to minimize energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kulasiri, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    A deep-bed drying model simulating the drying of peanuts in a fixed bed is required for designing energy-efficient and automatically controlled dryers. A deep-red drying model consists of a thin-layer drying model to calculate the moisture release from the material and a set of mass and energy balances. An experimental setup was constructed to determine drying rates of Virginia-type peanuts under 14 different drying air conditions. Selected empirical and semi-theoretical models available for modeling thin-layer drying rates were fitted to the collected data using nonlinear regression techniques. The modified Page's model and the two-term exponential model fitted the data better than other models considered. A deep-bed drying model PEATECH based on four coupled partial differential equations consisting of four variables, air temperature, peanut temperature, air humidity, and peanut moisture content was developed. Validation of the model was accomplished by using the data collected from 36 deep-bed drying experiments conducted using three laboratory dryers during 1987, 1988, and 1989. PEATECH predicted the variables within a peanut bed with an accuracy of less than {plus minus} 6%. The energy saving potential of exhaust-air recirculation was established by conducting simulated experiments using a modified version of PEATECH.

  2. Long-term elemental dry deposition fluxes measured around Lake Michigan with an automated dry deposition sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, U. Yi, S.M.; Paode, R.D.; Holsen, T.M.

    2000-05-15

    Long-term measurements of mass and elemental dry deposition (MG, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) were made with an automated dry deposition sampler (Eagle II) containing knife-edge surrogate surfaces during the Lake Michigan Mass Balance/Mass Budget Study. Measurements were made over a roughly 700-day period in Chicago, IL; in South Haven and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI; and over Lake Michigan on the 68th Street drinking water intake cribs from December 1993 to October 1995. Average mass fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 65, 10, 3.6, and 12 mg m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Primarily crustal elemental fluxes were significantly smaller than the mass fluxes but higher than primarily anthropogenic elemental fluxes. For example, the average elemental flux of Al in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 1.0, 0.34, 0.074, and 0.34 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The average Pb fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 0.038, 0.023, 0.035, and 0.032 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The measured fluxes at the various sites were used to calculate the dry deposition loadings to the lake. These estimated fluxes were highest for Mg and lowest for Cd.

  3. Fermentation efficiency of cells immobilized on delignified brewers' spent grains after low- and high-temperature thin layer thermal drying.

    PubMed

    Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Bekatorou, Argyro; Loukatos, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Low-cost dried yeasts immobilized on delignified brewers' spent grains for use in wine making and brewing were produced by simple thermal drying techniques. To optimize the thermal drying process, vacuum and air stream conditions were examined. Drying of thin layers of the biocatalysts was performed at low (30-38 degrees C) and high temperatures (40-70 degrees C). The fermentation efficiency of the thermally dried biocatalysts was acceptable, with immobilized cells showing a significantly higher thermotolerance compared with free cells. Immobilized cells dried at high temperatures presented slightly improved glucose fermentation efficiency compared with the low-temperature dried biocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of aroma volatiles of the fermented products revealed an increase of esters, lower higher alcohol formation, and significantly lower concentration of carbonylic compounds.

  4. Drying and color characteristics of coriander foliage using convective thin-layer and microwave drying.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Mark; Meda, Venkatesh; Tabil, Lope; Opoku, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Heat sensitive properties (aromatic, medicinal, color) provide herbs and spices with their high market value. In order to prevent extreme loss of heat sensitive properties when drying herbs, they are normally dried at low temperatures for longer periods of time to preserve these sensory properties. High energy consumption often results from drying herbs over a long period. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., Umbelliferae) was dehydrated in two different drying units (thin layer convection and microwave dryers) in order to compare the drying and final product quality (color) characteristics. Microwave drying of the coriander foliage was faster than convective drying. The entire drying process took place in the falling rate period for both microwave and convective dried samples. The drying rate for the microwave dried samples ranged from 42.3 to 48.2% db/min and that of the convective dried samples ranged from 7.1 to 12.5% db/min. The fresh sample color had the lowest L value at 26.83 with higher L values for all dried samples. The results show that convective thin layer dried coriander samples exhibited a significantly greater color change than microwave dried coriander samples. The color change index values for the microwave dried samples ranged from 2.67 to 3.27 and that of the convective dried samples varied from 4.59 to 6.58.

  5. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  6. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  7. Composite drying with simultaneous vacuum and toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is one of key steps to govern the physical properties of leather and it is where leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility. Recently we have been working diligently to improve chrome-free leather by optimizing its drying process. We developed a drying method using a co...

  8. Composite Drying with Simultaneous Vacuum and Toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is one of key steps to govern the physical properties of leather and it is where leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility. Recently we have been working diligently to improve chrome-free leather by optimizing its drying process. We developed a drying method using a co...

  9. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying systems. 58.220 Section 58.220 Agriculture....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... Milk Products Spray Drying Systems. The filtering system shall be cleaned or component parts...

  10. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying systems. 58.220 Section 58.220 Agriculture....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... Milk Products Spray Drying Systems. The filtering system shall be cleaned or component parts...

  11. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying systems. 58.220 Section 58.220 Agriculture....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... Milk Products Spray Drying Systems. The filtering system shall be cleaned or component parts...

  12. Wet and dry bacterial spore densities determined by buoyant sedimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Tisa, L S; Koshikawa, T; Gerhardt, P

    1982-01-01

    The wet densities of various types of dormant bacterial spores and reference particles were determined by centrifugal buoyant sedimentation in density gradient solutions of three commercial media of high chemical density. With Metrizamide or Renografin, the wet density values for the spores and permeable Sephadex beads were higher than those obtained by a reference direct mass method, and some spore populations were separated into several density bands. With Percoll, all of the wet density values were about the same as those obtained by the direct mass method, and only single density bands resulted. The differences were due to the partial permeation of Metrizamide and Renografin, but not Percoll, into the spores and the permeable Sephadex beads. Consequently, the wet density of the entire spore was accurately represented only by the values obtained with the Percoll gradient and the direct mass method. The dry densities of the spores and particles were determined by gravity buoyant sedimentation in a gradient of two organic solvents, one of high and the other of low chemical density. All of the dry density values obtained by this method were about the same as those obtained by the direct mass method. PMID:6285824

  13. Scrotal masses

    MedlinePlus

    ... The scrotum is the sac that contains the testicles. ... Symptoms include: Enlarged scrotum Painless or painful testicle lump ... If the scrotal mass is part of the testicle, it has a higher risk of being cancerous. ...

  14. Mass Deacidification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Reviews methods being developed for mass deacidification of books to prevent deterioration of paper. The use of diethyl zinc, liquified gas, and morpholine, and the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of each are considered. A 26-item bibliography is included. (JD)

  15. Microwave application on air drying of apple (var. Granny Smith). The influence of vacuum impregnation pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Esparza, Maria Eugenia

    Combined hot air-microwave drying has been studied on apple (var. Granny Smith), with and without vacuum impregnation (VI) pretreatment with isotonic solution, respect to kinetics, microstructural and final quality items. In order to reach this objective, a drier has been designed and built, that allows to control and to register all the variables which take place during the drying process. Thermal and dielectric properties, that are very important characteristics when studying heat and mass transfer phenomena that occur during the combined drying process, have been related to temperature and/or moisture content throughout empirical equations. It could be observed that all these properties decreased with product moisture content. Respect to dielectric properties, a relationship among water binding forms to food structure and water molecules relaxation frequency has been found. On the other hand, the effect of drying treatment conditions (air rate, drying temperature, sample thickness and incident microwave power) on the drying rate, from an empirical model based on diffusional mechanisms with two kinetic parameters (k1 and k2), both function of the incident microwave power, has been studied. Microwave application to air drying implied a notable decrease on drying time, the higher the applied power the higher the reduction. Microstructural study by Cryo-Sem revealed fast water vaporization taking place when microwaves are applied. Vacuum impregnation did not implied an additional advantage for combined drying as drying rate was similar to that of NIV samples. Finally, it has been studied the influence of process conditions on the color and mechanical properties of the dried product (IV and NIV). Vacuum impregnation implied an increase on the fracture resistance and less purity and tone angle. Microwave application induced product browning with respect to air drying (tone decreased and purity increased).

  16. Tear dynamics and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, K

    1998-10-01

    Tears undergo four processes: production by the lacrimal gland, distribution by blinking, evaporation from the ocular surface and drainage through the nasolacrimal duct. Abnormalities in any of these steps can cause dry eye. There are two kinds of tear production, basic and reflex, which can be distinguished from each other by the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation. Reflex tearing is important because it supplies such essential components as EGF and vitamin A, whose deficiency may cause squamous metaplasia. There is no reflex tearing in Sjogren's syndrome because of destruction of the lacrimal gland. In cases of diminished or absent reflex tearing, topical autologous serum is the treatment of choice. Even when there is adequate tear production, insufficient distribution, such as occurs with the decreased blinking associated with the use of video display terminals (VDT), may cause dry eye. Any process or activity that suppresses blinking interferes with tear distribution. Tear evaporation increases under certain conditions and in some diseases. When the exposed ocular surface area is increased, such as in VDT work, tear evaporation increases. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) also causes increased tear evaporation by altering the quality of the oily layer in tears. Tear evaporation can be suppressed by using a warm compresser or a humidifier, narrowing the palpebral fissure, or wearing protective eyeglasses. The tear clearance rate is measured by fluorescein dye dilution in the conjunctiva. When the tear clearance is low, inflammatory cytokines or preservatives accumulate in the conjunctival sac, resulting in ocular surface diseases. Frequent use of artificial tears without preservative is the key treatment. A differential diagnosis of the abnormalities of tear dynamics can give us a proper understanding of the pathogenesis of dry eye. With this knowledge, we can formulate an efficient therapeutic approach.

  17. 5. Aerial view (altitude 5,000 ft.) looking southeast showing Dry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view (altitude 5,000 ft.) looking southeast showing Dry Dock No. 4. completed (top center). Note major expansion of land mass to south of Dry Dock No. 4 resulting from placement of excavated soils and rock prior to and during construction (8/3/43). Photographer: Mr. Rudnick, PHoM 2/C. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Membranes, metabolism, and dry organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Our understanding of the ways in which desiccated organisms are protected from destruction by reactions in the dry state is in an early state of development. In this volume, contributions to each of these pathways of research are reported. The wide range of experimental and theoretical approaches, from biological to physicochemical, covers an exciting spectrum, from natural history to reductionist experimentation, and blends physiological, chemical, and physical methods in the pursuit of an understanding of anhydrous biology. Each individual report in this volume is separately abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  20. Hot dry rock reservoir engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept is a simple one. Two nearly parallel wells are drilled, and hydraulic fractures are then formed to hydraulically connect the wells. Water pumped down the injection well and through the fracture system is heated by contact with the hot rock and rises to the production well. This hot fluid is passed through a heat exchanger at the surface and the extracted heat is used for direct heating or electricity generation. The cooled production fluid is then reinjected, thereby setting up a circulation loop. This paper describes the development and execution of the HDR project at Fenton Hill, New Mexico.

  1. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma

    2008-04-01

    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  2. Experimental study of cassava sun drying

    SciTech Connect

    Njie, D.N.; Rumsey, T.R.

    1997-03-01

    Sun drying experiments were performed to compare drying of cassava chips in sheet-metal trays with drying on mesh wire trays. In the sheet-metal trays, there was air flow across the top of the bed chips, while the mesh wire trays permitted air to flow through the bed. Drying rate was faster and more uniform in the trays with through-flow air circulation. Higher temperatures were reached by chips in the sheet-metal trays than those in the mesh trays because of contact heating, but the drying rate was lower because of the reduced air flow.

  3. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  4. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacatalina, J. V.; Cárcel, J. A.; Simal, S.; Garcia-Perez, J. V.; Mulet, A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms-1), temperature (-10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm-3,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  5. [SHIFTS IN URINE PROTEIN PROFILE DURING DRY IMMERSION].

    PubMed

    Pastushkova L Kh; Kononikhin, A S; Tiys, E S; Nosovsky, A M; Dobrokhotov, I V; Ivanisenko, V A; Nikolaev, E N; Novoselova, N M; Custaud, M A; Larina, I M

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at tracking the proteomic profile of urine in 8 normal volunteers to 5-day dry immersion (DI). The proteome composition was determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry on high-efficient on-line liquid nano chromatograph Agilent 1100; complementary information about the protein spectra was obtained by dint of mass-spectrometer MaXis Impact 4G and hybrid mass-spectrometer LTQ-FT. Functional associations between proteins and biological functions were analyzed using computer system ANDCell (Associative Networks Discovery in Cells). A total of 256 proteins were identified; for 43 proteins difference in the detection rate during the baseline data collection and on DI day 4 exceeded 20%. PMID:26554129

  6. Forced response of a cantilever beam with a dry friction damper attached. I - Theory. II - Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Schwartz, H. B.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the forced vibration response of a cantilevered beam with Coulomb damping nonlinearity is described. Viscous damping in the beam is neglected. Beam and dry friction damper configurations of interest for applications to turbine blade vibrations are considered. It is shown that the basic phenomena found by Dowell (1983) for a simply supported beam with an attached dry friction damper of specific geometry also apply to a cantilevered beam and a more general representation of the dry friction damper and its associated mass and stiffness.

  7. Drying of solids in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, C.S.; Thomas, P.P.; Varma, Y.B.G.

    1995-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying is advantageously adopted in industrial practice for drying of granular solids such as grains, fertilizers, chemicals, and minerals either for long shelf life or to facilitate further processing or handling. Solids are dried in batch and in continuous fluidized beds corresponding to cross-flow and countercurrent flow of phases covering a wide range in drying conditions. Materials that essentially dry with constant drying rate and then give a falling drying rate approximately linear with respect to solids moisture content (sand) as well as those with an extensive falling rate period with the subsequent falling rate being a curve with respect to the moisture content (mustard, ragi, poppy seeds) are chosen for the study. The performance of the continuous fluidized bed driers is compared with that of batch fluidized bed driers; the performance is predicted using batch kinetics, the residence time distribution of solids, and the contact efficiency between the phases.

  8. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  9. Dry Eye in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Edoardo; Strologo, Marika Dello; Pichi, Francesco; Luccarelli, Saverio V.; De Cillà, Stefano; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this comparative cross-sectional study was to investigate the use of standardized clinical tests for dry eye in pediatric patients with active and quiet vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to compare them with healthy children. We recruited 35 active VKC, 35 inactive VKC, and 70 age-matched control healthy subjects. Each child underwent a complete eye examination, including visual analog scale symptoms assessment, biomicroscopy, fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green staining, corneal esthesiometry, Schirmer test with anesthetic, and meibomian glands inspection and expression. Active VKC patients showed significantly increased symptoms and signs of ocular surface disease, compared with the other 2 groups. Inactive VKC patients, compared with control subjects, showed increased photophobia (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test), conjunctival lissamine green staining and Schirmer test values, and reduced BUT and corneal sensitivity [P < 0.05 by analysis of variance (ANOVA) least significant difference posthoc test for BUT and Schirmer; P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test for lissamine green staining and corneal sensitivity]. Our results confirm the association between VKC and short-BUT dry eye. This syndrome seems to affect the ocular surface in quiescent phases too, determining abnormalities in tear film stability, epithelial cells integrity, and corneal nerves function. The very long-term consequences of this perennial mechanism of ocular surface damage have not been fully understood yet. PMID:26496269

  10. Characterization of dry biopotential electrodes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Yang, Geng; Xu, Linlin; Seoane, Fernando; Chen, Qiang; Zheng, Lirong

    2013-01-01

    Driven by the increased interest in wearable long-term healthcare monitoring systems, varieties of dry electrodes are proposed based on different materials with different patterns and structures. Most of the studies reported in the literature focus on proposing new electrodes and comparing its performance with commercial electrodes. Few papers are about detailed comparison among different dry electrodes. In this paper, printed metal-plate electrodes, textile based electrodes, and spiked electrodes are for the first time evaluated and compared under the same experimental setup. The contact impedance and noise characterization are measured. The in-vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is applied to evaluate the overall performance of different electrodes. Textile electrodes and printed electrodes gain comparable high-quality ECG signals. The ECG signal obtained by spiked electrodes is noisier. However, a clear ECG envelope can be observed and the signal quality can be easily improved by backend signal processing. The features of each type of electrodes are analyzed and the suitable application scenario is addressed.

  11. Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mércia H.

    2005-10-01

    Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

  12. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  13. Ohmic pre-drying of tomato paste.

    PubMed

    Hosainpour, Adel; Darvishi, Hosain; Nargesi, Farzad; Fadavi, Ali

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effects of ohmic pre-drying technique on moisture ratio, drying rate, drying time, specific energy consumption, drying efficiency, and effective moisture diffusivity of tomato paste were investigated. Pre-drying experiments were carried out in an ohmic laboratory dryer at voltage gradient levels of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 V/cm and oven at 105  and 1.0 m/s air velocity (control sample). Pre-drying was accomplished till the moisture content of the tomato paste reduced from initial moisture content of 90% (w.b.) to a safer level of 70% (w.b.). The ohmic pre-drying reduced the drying time of tomato paste by 80-97%, compared with the hot air drying. Pre-drying took place mainly in warming up, constant rate, and falling rate periods. Six available moisture-ratio models were fitted to the pre-drying data. The results showed that the Midilli et al. model is the most appropriate model for pre-drying behavior of tomato paste. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 5.39 × 10(-8) to 3.91 × 10(-7)m(2)/s with an activation energy of 2.082 (V/g.cm). Both specific energy consumption and drying efficiency were considerably enhanced by increasing voltage gradient. It was found that the specific energy consumption and drying efficiency varied from 3.72 to 2.29 MJ/kg water and 67.8 to 83.8%, respectively. PMID:23744116

  14. Ohmic pre-drying of tomato paste.

    PubMed

    Hosainpour, Adel; Darvishi, Hosain; Nargesi, Farzad; Fadavi, Ali

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effects of ohmic pre-drying technique on moisture ratio, drying rate, drying time, specific energy consumption, drying efficiency, and effective moisture diffusivity of tomato paste were investigated. Pre-drying experiments were carried out in an ohmic laboratory dryer at voltage gradient levels of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 V/cm and oven at 105  and 1.0 m/s air velocity (control sample). Pre-drying was accomplished till the moisture content of the tomato paste reduced from initial moisture content of 90% (w.b.) to a safer level of 70% (w.b.). The ohmic pre-drying reduced the drying time of tomato paste by 80-97%, compared with the hot air drying. Pre-drying took place mainly in warming up, constant rate, and falling rate periods. Six available moisture-ratio models were fitted to the pre-drying data. The results showed that the Midilli et al. model is the most appropriate model for pre-drying behavior of tomato paste. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 5.39 × 10(-8) to 3.91 × 10(-7)m(2)/s with an activation energy of 2.082 (V/g.cm). Both specific energy consumption and drying efficiency were considerably enhanced by increasing voltage gradient. It was found that the specific energy consumption and drying efficiency varied from 3.72 to 2.29 MJ/kg water and 67.8 to 83.8%, respectively.

  15. Thermal characterization and syngas production from the pyrolysis of biophysical dried and traditional thermal dried sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Han, Rong; Zhao, Chenxi; Liu, Jinwen; Chen, Aixia; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-01

    A novel method for energy recycling from sewage sludge was developed through biophysical drying coupled with fast pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition properties of biophysical-dried sludge (BDS) and thermal-dried sludge (TDS) were characterized through thermogravimetric (TG) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. BDS exhibited typical peaks in each differential thermogravimetric (DTG) region and presented slower mass loss rates in H, C, and L regions (180-550°C) but remarkable weight loss in region I (>550°C) compared with TDS. The charring process centered at region I, was responsible for the prominent H2 emission from BDS. The pseudo multicomponent model showed that the Em values of BDS and TDS were 48.84 and 37.75 kJ/mol, respectively. Furthermore, fast pyrolysis of BDS was proven to facilitate syngas and char formation more than TDS. For the yielded syngas, the thermal conversion of BDS was characterized by high H2 and CH4 content beyond 700°C.

  16. Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, G. W.

    2005-05-01

    Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

  17. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  18. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile. PMID:17926127

  19. Quasi-steady temperature gradient metamorphism in idealized, dry snow

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. . Methods Development Group); Burns, P.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sommerfeld, R.A. )

    1994-03-01

    A three-dimensional model for heat and mass transport in microscale ice lattices of dry snow is formulated consistent with conservation laws and solid-vapor interface constraints. A finite element model that employs continuous mesh deformation is developed, and calculation of the effective diffusion rates in snow, metamorphosing under a temperature gradient, is performed. Results of the research provide basic insight into the movement of heat and water vapor in seasonal snowcovers. Agreement between the numerical results and measured data of effective thermal conductivity is excellent. The enhancement to the water vapor diffusion rate in snow is bracketed in the range of 1.05--2.0 times that of water vapor in dry air.

  20. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying for dry powder inhaler formulation of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Kho, Katherine; Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2012-03-15

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles - polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers - have emerged as a potent therapeutic nano-carrier alternative to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Herein we perform comparative studies of employing spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD) to produce inhalable dry-powder form of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), lecithin, and levofloxacin are employed as the polymer, lipid, and drug models, respectively. The hybrid nanoparticles are transformed into micro-scale nanoparticle aggregates (or nano-aggregates) via SD and SFD, where the effects of (1) different excipients (i.e. mannitol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and leucine), and (2) nanoparticle to excipient ratio on nano-aggregate characteristics (e.g. size, flowability, aqueous reconstitution, aerosolization efficiency) are examined. In both methods, PVA is found more effective than mannitol for aqueous reconstitution, whereas hydrophobic leucineis needed to achieve effective aerosolization as it reduces nano-aggregate agglomeration. Using PVA, both methods are equally capable of producing nano-aggregates having size, density, flowability, yield and reconstitutibility in the range ideal for inhaled delivery. Nevertheless, nano-aggregates produced by SFD are superior to SD in terms of their aerosolization efficiency manifested in the higher emitted dose and fine particle fraction with lower mass median aerodynamic diameter.

  1. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  2. The effect of drying and size reduction pretreatments on recovery of inorganic crop nutrients from inedible wheat residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Alazraki, M. P.; Judkins, J.

    2003-01-01

    Inorganic nutrients can be easily recovered from ALS crop residue solid wastes by aqueous leaching. However, oven drying and milling pretreatment of these residues has been frequently required to accommodate crop scientists and facility storage limitations. As part of a research study that will compare three different bioreactor technologies for processing these wastes, we realized that different drying and size-reduction pretreatments had been utilized for each technology. This paper compares the effects of residue pretreatment on recovery of nutrients by leaching. Pretreatments included three drying methods [fresh, oven-dried (70 degrees C overnight), and freeze-dried] and two size reduction methods [chopped (2 cm length) and milled (2 mm diameter)]. Determination of mass balances (dry weight and ash content of solids) before and after leaching indicated solubilization was least for fresh residues (23% dry weight loss and 50% for ash loss), and most for freeze-dried residues (41-47% dry weight loss and nearly 100% for ash loss). Mineral recovery of major elements (NO3, PO4, K, Ca, and Mg) in leachates was poorest for fresh residues. P and K recovery in leachates were best for oven-dried residues and Ca, Mg, and N recovery best for freeze-dried residues. The differences in recovery for N, P, and K in leachates were minimal between chopping and milling and slightly better for Ca and Mg from milled residues.

  3. A mathematical model for constant and intermittent batch drying of grains in a novel rotating jet spouted bed

    SciTech Connect

    Jumah, R.Y.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Raghavan, G.S.V.

    1996-05-01

    A diffusion-based mathematical model is presented for batch drying of corn in a novel rotating jet spouted bed device under constant as well as intermittent drying conditions. Such a device is suited for drying of large particles (e.g. grains, beans, seeds, etc.) for which internal heat and mass transfer rates control the drying kinetics. Based on literature data for moisture diffusivities the model predictions are compared with experimental data for both continuous and time-dependent air supply and/or heat input. Effects of relevant parameters are evaluated and discussed in the light of potential practical applications. 44 refs.

  4. Short-term post-wildfire dry-ravel processes in a chaparral fluvial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, Joan L.; Chin, Anne; O'Hirok, Linda S.; Storesund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Dry ravel, the transport of sediment by gravity, transfers material from steep hillslopes to valley bottoms during dry conditions. Following wildfire, dry ravel greatly increases in the absence of vegetation on hillslopes, thereby contributing to sediment supply at the landscape scale. Dry ravel has been documented as a dominant hillslope erosion mechanism following wildfire in chaparral environments in southern California. However, alteration after initial deposition is not well understood, making prediction of post-fire flood hazards challenging. The majority of Big Sycamore Canyon burned during the May 2013 Springs Fire leaving ash and a charred layer that covered hillslopes and ephemeral channels. Dry-ravel processes following the fire produced numerous deposits in the hillslope-channel transition zone. Field data focus on: 1) deposition from an initial post-wildfire dry-ravel pulse; and 2) subsequent alteration of dry ravel deposits over a seven-month period between September 2013 and April 2014. We quantify geomorphic responses in dry ravel deposits including responses during the one small winter storm that generated runoff following the fire. Field measurements document volumetric changes after initial post-wildfire deposition of sediment derived from dry ravel. Erosion and deposition mechanisms that occurred within dry-ravel deposits situated in the hillslope-channel transition zone included: 1) mobilization and transport of a portion or the entire deposit by fluvial erosion; 2) rilling on the surface of the unconsolidated deposits; 3) deposition on deposits via continued hillslope sediment supply; and 4) mass wasting that transfers sediment within deposits where surface profiles are near the angle of repose. Terrestrial LiDAR scanning point clouds were analyzed to generate profiles quantifying depth of sediment erosion or deposition over remaining dry ravel deposits after the first storm season. This study contributes to the understanding of potential

  5. Characteristic lengths affecting evaporative drying of porous media.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Peter; Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2008-05-01

    Evaporation from porous media involves mass and energy transport including phase change, vapor diffusion, and liquid flow, resulting in complex displacement patterns affecting drying rates. Force balance considering media properties yields characteristic lengths affecting the transition in the evaporation rate from a liquid-flow-based first stage limited only by vapor exchange with air to a second stage controlled by vapor diffusion through the medium. The characteristic lengths determine the extent of the hydraulically connected region between the receding drying front and evaporating surface (film region) and the onset of flow rate limitations through this film region. Water is displaced from large pores at the receding drying front to supply evaporation from hydraulically connected finer pores at the surface. Liquid flow is driven by a capillary pressure gradient spanned by the width of the pore size distribution and is sustained as long as the capillary gradient remains larger than gravitational forces and viscous dissipation. The maximum extent of the film region sustaining liquid flow is determined by a characteristic length L_{C} combining the gravity characteristic length L_{G} and viscous dissipation characteristic length L_{V} . We used two sands with particle sizes 0.1-0.5 mm ("fine") and 0.3-0.9 mm ("coarse") to measure the evaporation from columns of different lengths under various atmospheric evaporative demands. The value of L_{G} determined from capillary pressure-saturation relationships was 90 mm for the coarse sand and 140 mm for the fine sand. A significant decrease in drying rate occurred when the drying front reached the predicted L_{G} value (viscous dissipation was negligibly small in sand and L_{C} approximately L_{G} ). The approach enables a prediction of the duration of first-stage evaporation with the highest water losses from soil to the atmosphere. PMID:18643163

  6. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  7. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOEpatents

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  8. Energy conservation in grain (corn) drying with combination high-temperature, low-temperature methods. Final report, July 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, R. Vance; Gustafson, Robert J.; Cloud, Harold A.; Walter, Kenneth L.

    1980-03-01

    The need to conserve energy has led to efforts to improve efficiency of grain drying systems. Combination high-temperature, low-temperature drying offers potential for meeting this need. Combination drying is any system in which high-temperature drying is followed by in-storage cooling and low-temperature drying. The high-temperature (120 to 240/sup 0/F) phase can be a continuous flow or automatic batch dryer, or a bin dryer using elevated air temperatures (continuous flow; unstirred, stirred or recirculated batch. The purpose of the high-temperature dryer is to reduce the corn moisture content to a level where drying can be safely completed with in-storage, low-temperature methods. In-storage drying is accomplished by moving low-temperature air through the grain mass. This process may take from four to eight weeks, or longer, to complete. In fact, drying may be halted in late fall and completed during the following spring. Potential advantages of the combination approach compared to conventional drying with in-drying cooling include: reduced energy requirements, increased drying capacity, and improved grain quality. Combination drying studies from four corn harvest seasons (1975 to 1978) at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station, and results of simulation analysis of the low-tempeature phase of combination drying are presented. The model used for this analysis was validated with experimental data from the field studies. Finally, design and management recommendations, and economic considerations for combination drying are discussed. (LCL)

  9. Setting up the drying regimes based on the theory of moisture migration during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Drying is energy intensive process which has important effect on the quality of the clay tiles that are dried commercially. Chamber and tunnel dryers are constantly improving. Better technical equipment and operational strategies have lead to higher quality of the dried clay products. The moisture migration during isothermal drying process can be visually traced on the curve that represents the relationship between variable effective moisture diffusivity (MR) with time (t). Proposed non isothermal drying regimes were consisted from several isothermal segments. For the first time, the choice of isothermal segments specification and its duration was not specified by experience or by trial-and-error method. It was detected from the isothermal curves Deff - MR in accordance with the theory of moisture migration during drying. Proposed drying regimes were tested. Clay roofing tiles were dried without cracks. Dried clay roofing tiles has satisfied all requirements defined in EN 1304 norm related to the shape regularity and mechanical properties.

  10. Drying characteristics of ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunhong; Sun, Yue; Miao, Shuai; Li, Fang; Luo, Denglin

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae was investigated in this study. The effects of drying parameters such as ultrasonic radiation distance, ultrasonic power and drying temperature on drying characteristics were discussed. The results showed that ultrasound application has positive and significant effects on hot air drying. Shortening ultrasonic radiation distance is beneficial to improve both ultrasonic energy efficiency and drying rate. Higher ultrasonic power had more positive and significant effects on drying rate. The influence of ultrasound power on drying rate decreased along with the decrease of moisture content during drying process, especially at low ultrasound powers. The increase of drying temperature significantly caused the reduction of drying time. D eff values ranged from 5.05 × 10(-11) to 20.33 × 10(-11) m(2)/s in ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae, and increased with the increase in drying temperature and ultrasonic power. The corresponding activation energy values ranged from 28.90 to 36.05 kJ/mol, and decreased with the increase in applied ultrasonic power. Therefore, ultrasound assistance is a helpful and promising method to enhance hot air drying process.

  11. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  12. Drying apparatus for photographic sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, P.; Donovan, G.; Lawhite, E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An elongated drying chamber is provided with transport means for carrying photographic sheet material edgewise with the sheets in end-to-end relationship past a plurality of tubes that issue drying air streams. The tubes are slotted a distance equal to substantially the full width of the sheet material for complete, gentle drying by sheets of air. A common plenum supplies the tubes with heated air; the air is directed from the tube slots at a pronounced angle to the sheet surface to provide for arraying the tubes close to the surface for maximum drying effect while minimizing the danger of mechanical interference between the edges of the sheets and the slots in the tubes. The driver for the transport is housed in an enclosure between the plenum and the drying chamber; an air return duct is provided along another side to complete insulation of the drying chamber from ambient conditions.

  13. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    PubMed

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  14. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  15. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-06-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  16. A comparison of solute migration in a test granulation dried by fluidization and other methods.

    PubMed

    Travers, D N

    1975-07-01

    The intragranular migration of sodium chloride in granules made by the wet massing of heavy kaolin B.P. with salt solution has been studied in batches dried by fluidization and a vacuum tumbling method. The larger granules from the fluidized batch exhibited considerable intragranular variation with the outer crust containing over twice the average salt concentration. Solute loss from this layer by abrasion on prolonged fluidization was slight but the dust eluted from the dryer had a salt content above average. Analysis of sieved fractions of the dust showed that this enrichment was concentrated in the fine material passing a 53 mum mesh. The vacuum dried granules had less migration and were less resistant to crushing than those dried by fluidization. The dust produced had a salt content only slightly greater than the average composition and the overall solute content of the sized fractions were all close to this average. The same system was used to study intergranular migration in a fixed bed when the granules were dried by infrared radiation, by microwave radiation, by convection from air and in a vacuum. The greatest migration occurred in samples dried by infrared radiation and the maximum solute concentration was near the middle of the bed. The air dried granules had less migration and the maximum concentration was in the surface layer. The granules dried in a vacuum and by microwave radiation were fairly uniform in composition throughout the bed. The above results are explained on the basis of the capillary theory of drying together with the modifying influence of the drying method on the probable heat and mass transfer rates. PMID:239157

  17. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOEpatents

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  18. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    PubMed

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD <20%). After qualifying problematic lipophilic pesticides in fat-rich cereals (fat content >7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of <70% in quantification when the standard QuEChERS method with water was used. A second extraction was carried out analogous to the QuEChERS method, however, without the addition of water. With this simple modification, the problematic lipophilic pesticides, which had been strongly affected by the fat content of the commodities, could be determined with recoveries above 70% even at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg. Moreover, a GC-MS/MS screening method for 120 pesticides at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg was established by employing analyte protectants (ethylglycerol, gulonolactone, and sorbitol). The use of only one standardized calibration, made of an apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%).

  19. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    PubMed

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD <20%). After qualifying problematic lipophilic pesticides in fat-rich cereals (fat content >7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of <70% in quantification when the standard QuEChERS method with water was used. A second extraction was carried out analogous to the QuEChERS method, however, without the addition of water. With this simple modification, the problematic lipophilic pesticides, which had been strongly affected by the fat content of the commodities, could be determined with recoveries above 70% even at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg. Moreover, a GC-MS/MS screening method for 120 pesticides at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg was established by employing analyte protectants (ethylglycerol, gulonolactone, and sorbitol). The use of only one standardized calibration, made of an apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%). PMID:26044382

  20. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  1. Optimal energy management in grain drying.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, S

    1986-01-01

    Grain drying is very specific to the geographic location, kind of drying system, and the type of grain. Under a given set of conditions, the optimal system can be selected based on careful evaluation. However, a good choice of drying systems, procedures, and management practices can be made from the information already available. The review of several grain-drying procedures has provided some insight in making a quick evaluation of the process and arriving at the most suitable system for a particular application. Despite extensive research efforts, the present knowledge of grain drying is yet insufficient to optimally design each drying process with respect to capacity, quality, and energy requirement. There is a need for incorporating grain and air parameters more accurately. It is also important to develop comprehensive drying simulation models to encompass agronomic practices, such as planting and harvesting. Recent efforts indicate a strong influence of planting and harvesting strategies on optimal drying and storage system selection. Results of the varietal trials at Ohio State University indicate that it is now possible to select midseason varieties, which dry down rapidly, without sacrificing yield. Also, low moisture at harvest is important to the energy management process because it affects total drying time and energy required. It is also important from a quality standpoint because kernel damage increases rapidly at harvesting moisture levels above 25%. The trend in grain-dryer design has shifted from focusing on drying capacity and operation reliability to energy consumption. The development in design of energy efficient continuous-flow dryers has been significant. Multistage concurrentflow dryers are excellent examples. Various aspects of dryer staging for efficient operation and control are yet to be determined. Recirculation of the exhaust air is a proven method of improving energy efficiency. Likewise, in batch-in-bin systems, stirring and

  2. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  3. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  4. Optimal energy management in grain drying.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, S

    1986-01-01

    Grain drying is very specific to the geographic location, kind of drying system, and the type of grain. Under a given set of conditions, the optimal system can be selected based on careful evaluation. However, a good choice of drying systems, procedures, and management practices can be made from the information already available. The review of several grain-drying procedures has provided some insight in making a quick evaluation of the process and arriving at the most suitable system for a particular application. Despite extensive research efforts, the present knowledge of grain drying is yet insufficient to optimally design each drying process with respect to capacity, quality, and energy requirement. There is a need for incorporating grain and air parameters more accurately. It is also important to develop comprehensive drying simulation models to encompass agronomic practices, such as planting and harvesting. Recent efforts indicate a strong influence of planting and harvesting strategies on optimal drying and storage system selection. Results of the varietal trials at Ohio State University indicate that it is now possible to select midseason varieties, which dry down rapidly, without sacrificing yield. Also, low moisture at harvest is important to the energy management process because it affects total drying time and energy required. It is also important from a quality standpoint because kernel damage increases rapidly at harvesting moisture levels above 25%. The trend in grain-dryer design has shifted from focusing on drying capacity and operation reliability to energy consumption. The development in design of energy efficient continuous-flow dryers has been significant. Multistage concurrentflow dryers are excellent examples. Various aspects of dryer staging for efficient operation and control are yet to be determined. Recirculation of the exhaust air is a proven method of improving energy efficiency. Likewise, in batch-in-bin systems, stirring and

  5. Limited influence of dry deposition of semivolatile organic vapors on secondary organic aerosol formation in the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Karl, T.; Camredon, M.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.

    2013-06-01

    The dry deposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its impact on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are investigated in the Mexico City plume. Gas-phase chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of oxygenated VOCs are modeled with the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) from C3 to C25 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics. Results show that dry deposition of oxidized gases is not an efficient sink for SOA, as it removes <5% of SOA within the city's boundary layer and ~15% downwind. Dry deposition competes with the gas-particle uptake, and only gases with fewer than ~12 carbons dry deposit while longer species partition to SOA. Because dry deposition of submicron aerosols is slow, condensation onto particles protects organic gases from deposition, thus increasing their atmospheric burden and lifetime. In the absence of this condensation, ~50% of the regionally produced mass would have been dry deposited.

  6. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  7. Solidification of coatings: Theory and modeling of drying, curing and microstructure growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabral, Mahendra

    1999-10-01

    This thesis explores the crucial link between processing and microstructure formation in multicomponent polymer-solvent based solution coatings that undergo solidification by a combination of drying, curing, and accompanying phase transformations. The drying process is modeled as one-dimensional coupled heat and mass transfer in a multicomponent system. Solution thermodynamics is described with Flory-Huggins theory; solvent diffusion, with multicomponent Fickian diffusion theory, which relates ternary diffusion coefficients to solvent self-diffusion coefficients and solution thermodynamics. Analysis of the model yields families of drying process paths, and time courses of compositions at successive depths into the coating. The trajectories of these paths and speed along them depend on the volatilities and diffusivities of the volatile components, and on the external drying conditions, namely gas flow rate, temperature and partial pressures of solvents in the gas phase. Porous polymeric coatings prepared by drying-induced phase separation illustrate the link between the external drying conditions and the final microstructure. Coatings dried in room air---slow natural convection and low gas phase mass transfer---give rise to a graded porous structure consisting of a dense skin atop a porous substructure. Computed process paths show that the near-surface region can vitrify rapidly. In contrast, the bulk of the solution coating undergoes phase separation by spinodal decomposition followed by coarsening. Coatings of the same solution when dried by impinging air-rapid forced convection-end up dense. All of the process paths followed by the drying coating evade the two-phase region and vitrify rapidly. Another example is drying and curing of a polyamic acid solution coated to produce polyimide film. After the coated layer is gelled, stripped and further dried and cured, the two sides---air side and substrate side, as coated or cast---differ in adhesion performance. This

  8. Kinetics of microwave drying of a free-flowing organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalender'yan, V. A.; Boshkova, I. L.; Volgusheva, N. V.

    2006-05-01

    The kinetics of drying of a dense buckwheat layer in a microwave electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz has been investigated for different amounts of the material charged into a working chamber. Analysis of the kinetics curves has shown that the drying of the material studied is divided into the periods of heating, drying with a constant rate, and drying with a decreasing rate. The influence of the power supplied as well as the mass and dimensions of a sample on the rate of its drying has been investigated and a formula for calculating this rate has been obtained. It has been established that, in the process of drying of a disperse material, the amount of microwave energy converted into heat energy depends not only on the mass of a sample, but also on the thickness and area of its surface layer. Generalized equations for calculating the moisture content in a layer of a free-flowing material and its temperature have been obtained.

  9. Experimental Performance of a Thermoelectric Heat-Pump Drying System for Drying Herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsim, K.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Siriamornpun, S.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we investigated thermoelectric (TE) heat-pump drying of laurel clock vine leaves, and the effect of drying-air temperature on the characteristics of the leaves. The TE drying system comprised four TE modules each with its own rectangular fin heat sink. The hot side of each TE module was fixed to its own heat sink; the cold sides were fixed to heat-pipe heat sinks and a drying chamber. The drying time depended on drying-air temperature. The heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) increased as the current supplied to the TE modules was increased. Calculated COP for the entire TE heat-pump drying system were 1.28 and 0.81 for drying-air temperatures of 50 and 40°C, respectively.

  10. The effects of drying on physical properties of bilimbi slices (Averrhoa bilimbi l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Nursabrina, M.; Suhairah, A. Zai

    2015-05-01

    Physical appearance analyses of fruits are used to maintain food quality throughout and at the end of processing. However, control variables have to be designed to obtained the desired food quality. In the present study, the effects of pretreatment and drying air temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C on the drying kinetics of belimbi slices were investigated using a hot-air dryer. In order to investigate and select the appropriate drying model, seven experiment based mathematical drying models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE and RMSE), a Logarithmic model was found to be the best model to describe the drying behaviour of belimbi slices at 40°C for control; The Page/modified Page model was the best model to describe drying behaviour at 40°C, 60°C pre-treatment and 50°C for the control and the Wang and Singh model fitted well for 50°C pre-treatment and 60°C for the control. Comparison between experiment based mathematical modelling with a single phase mathematical model shows that close agreement was produced. The qualities of belimbi slices in terms of colour, texture and shrinkage with different air temperature and pre-treatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lighter colour but greater product shrinkage, whilst pre-treatment can reduce product shrinkage and drying time and can also give good texture properties. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important to improve mass and heat transfer as well as the product characteristics such as colour, shrinkage and texture.

  11. Hydrogen ions associated with the dry deposition of pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.; Khalili, E.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The data provided in this paper demonstrates that pollen can generate significant amounts of hydrogen ions when added to water and that the deposition of tree pollen in forested areas represents a significant hydrogen ion source. Measurements of dry deposition of pollen were made during the months of May and June, 1987 in Northern Wisconsin, using a smooth surrogate surface. Rain samples were also collected. Deposited particles were weighed to determine mass fluxes, then washed and ion chromatographed for SO {sub 4} = and NO {sub 3} {minus} analysis. Species of pollen collected from different types of trees during the sampling period were analyzed for SO{sub 4} = NO {sub 3} and other trace constituents. The micrograms of hydrogen ions (protons) generated per gram for different types of pollen added to water, were measured. From 56 to 566 gm were generated per gram or pollen added. The amount generated varied with pollen type. Based on this information, the equivalent protons from the dry deposition of pollen were calculated and compared with the wet deposition proton data. The sulfate, nitrate, and protons associated with dry deposition were of a magnitude comparable with wet deposition.

  12. 7 CFR 58.153 - Dry storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry storage. 58.153 Section 58.153 Agriculture... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Storage of Finished Product § 58.153 Dry storage. The product should be stored at least 18 inches from the wall in aisles, rows,...

  13. 7 CFR 58.153 - Dry storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry storage. 58.153 Section 58.153 Agriculture... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Storage of Finished Product § 58.153 Dry storage. The product should be stored at least 18 inches from the wall in aisles, rows,...

  14. 7 CFR 58.153 - Dry storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry storage. 58.153 Section 58.153 Agriculture... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Storage of Finished Product § 58.153 Dry storage. The product should be stored at least 18 inches from the wall in aisles, rows,...

  15. 7 CFR 58.153 - Dry storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry storage. 58.153 Section 58.153 Agriculture... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Storage of Finished Product § 58.153 Dry storage. The product should be stored at least 18 inches from the wall in aisles, rows,...

  16. WET AND DRY SCRUBBERS FOR EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generally speaking, absorption equipment includes two major categories: Wet adsorption scrubbers (or wet scrubbers); Dry absorption scrubbers (or dry scrubbers).
    Wet scrubbers: As the name implies, wet scrubbers (also known as wet collectors) are devices which use a liquid fo...

  17. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry...

  18. Hot-dry-rock feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The hot-dry-rock project tasks are covered as follows: hot-dry-rock reservoir; generation facilities; water resources; transmission requirements; environmental issues; government and community institutional factors; leasing, ownership and management of facilities; regulations, permits, and laws; and financial considerations. (MHR)

  19. EMISSIONS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of ‘airing...

  20. Reflectance characteristics of dry plant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorophyll and water obscure the absorption features of all other leaf constituents in the spectra of green leaves. The predominant near-IR and thermal IR spectral features of dry plant materials originate from lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. These compounds account for 80 to 98 percent of the dry weight in most plant materials.

  1. Emissions of perchloroethylene from dry cleaned fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichenor, Bruce A.; Sparks, Leslie E.; Jackson, Merrill D.; Guo, Zhishi; Mason, Mark A.; Michelle Plunket, C.; Rasor, Susan A.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of 'airing out' dry cleaned clothes in reducing perchloroethylene emissions. Small chamber tests were conducted to determine perchloroethylene emission characteristics for three fabrics at several air exchange rates. Test house studies were conducted to determine the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene due to the placement of dry cleaned clothing in the house. Based on the study results, and assuming that test conditions were representative of normal dry cleaning and consumer practices, the following conclusions were reached. Emissions from freshly dry cleaned clothing cause elevated levels of perchloroethylene in residences. For the three fabrics tested, 'airing out' of dry cleaned clothing by consumers for short time periods (4-8 h) will not be effective in reducing perchloroethylene emissions. Adsorptive surfaces (i.e. sinks) in residences may have a major impact on consumer exposure to perchloroethylene. It is emphasized that these conclusions are based on the results of the study reported. Significant variations in dry cleaning practices and/or in the mix of fabrics and clothing being cleaned could provide different results and conclusions.

  2. Dry phase reactor for generating medical isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Heltemes, Thad Alexander

    2016-05-03

    An apparatus for generating medical isotopes provides for the irradiation of dry-phase, granular uranium compounds which are then dissolved in a solvent for separation of the medical isotope from the irradiated compound. Once the medical isotope is removed, the dissolved compound may be reconstituted in dry granular form for repeated irradiation.

  3. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  4. Evidence of Self-Organized Criticality in Dry Sliding Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zypman, Fredy R.; Ferrante, John; Jansen, Mark; Scanlon, Kathleen; Abel, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents experimental results on unlubricated friction, which suggests that stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality (SOC). The data, obtained with a pin-on-disc tribometer examines the variation of the friction force as a function of time-or sliding distance. This is the first time that standard tribological equipment has been used to examine the possibility of SOC. The materials were matching pins and discs of aluminium loaded with 250, 500 and 1000 g masses, and matching M50 steel couples loaded with a 1000 g mass. An analysis of the data shows that the probability distribution of slip sizes follows a power law. We perform a careful analysis of all the properties, beyond the two just mentioned, which are required to imply the presence of SOC. Our data strongly support the existence of SOC for stick-slip in dry sliding friction.

  5. Improved Energy and Processing Efficiencies of Strawberry Drying Using Sequential Infrared Freeze-Drying Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberries are rich in nutrients but highly perishable. Freeze-drying is an excellent dehydration method for strawberry preservation. However, freeze-drying is an expensive dehydration process due to slow drying rates, high capital operating costs and low energy efficiency. Strawberry slice wei...

  6. Real-time monitoring of drying parameters in semitrailers during peanut drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient control of drying parameters is essential to ensure that peanuts are dried at the optimal rate, preserving quality and desired flavor. The present peanut drying process has limitations in means for measuring parameters such as temperature and relative humidity of the air being blown in...

  7. Improved compaction of dried tannery wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Della Zassa, M; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Santomaso, A C; Canu, P

    2015-12-01

    We quantitatively studied the advantages of improving the compaction of a powder waste by several techniques, including its pelletization. The goal is increasing the mass storage capacity in a given storage volume, and reducing the permeability of air and moisture, that may trigger exothermic spontaneous reactions in organic waste, particularly as powders. The study is based on dried sludges from a wastewater treatment, mainly from tanneries, but the indications are valid and useful for any waste in the form of powder, suitable to pelletization. Measurements of bulk density have been carried out at the industrial and laboratory scale, using different packing procedures, amenable to industrial processes. Waste as powder, pellets and their mixtures have been considered. The bulk density of waste as powder increases from 0.64 t/m(3) (simply poured) to 0.74 t/m(3) (tapped) and finally to 0.82 t/m(3) by a suitable, yet simple, packing procedure that we called dispersion filling, with a net gain of 28% in the compaction by simply modifying the collection procedure. Pelletization increases compaction by definition, but the packing of pellets is relatively coarse. Some increase in bulk density of pellets can be achieved by tapping; vibration and dispersion filling are not efficient with pellets. Mixtures of powder and pellets is the optimal packing policy. The best compaction result was achieved by controlled vibration of a 30/70 wt% mixture of powders and pellets, leading to a final bulk density of 1t/m(3), i.e. an improvement of compaction by more than 54% with respect to simply poured powders, but also larger than 35% compared to just pellets. That means increasing the mass storage capacity by a factor of 1.56. Interestingly, vibration can be the most or the least effective procedure to improve compaction of mixtures, depending on characteristics of vibration. The optimal packing (30/70 wt% powders/pellets) proved to effectively mitigate the onset of smouldering

  8. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  9. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route.

  10. Dry intrusions in the West African monsoon mid-troposphere during the AMMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deme, A.; Roca, R.

    2009-04-01

    Mid-troposphere dry air patches (RH < 10%) have been recently detected over the African monsoon region and in particular over Sahel. At 500 hPa, these dry air features are thought to play a complex role onto convection: inhibition isolated convective cells but favouring already organized convection by feeding rear-inflow currents with dry air. The inhibiting action of the dry air onto convection comes from the temperature inversion induced by radiation at the bottom of the dry layer and/or by entrainment of dry air in ascending parcel that decreases its buoyancy. The organizing effect is associated to mesoscale currents within and around long lasting squall lines. This mid-tropospheric dry air has been shown to originate from the mid-latitudes upper level jets, therefore coined extra-tropical dry intrusions.Among all the forcings that control the dynamics of the West African monsoon, the role of a dry mid-troposphere needs to be clarified. The present study is dedicated to this objective and it is focused on extra-tropical dry air intrusions in the West African mid-troposphere during the AMMA campaign. The low level dynamics is documented (African Easterly Jet, African Easterly Wave) thanks to the NCEP operational analysis. It is completed by the radiosondes especially for the temperature and water vapor distribution. Back-trajectory are computed in order to highlight the origin of the tropospheric air mass. Finally Meteosat Second Generation derived water vapor and cloud and rainfall parameters are used to characterize the convective activity and its moist environment. Dry intrusions in the African mid troposphere during the summer 2006 have been shown to be associated with two major modes of occurrences: a 40-50 days mode and a 10-20 days mode. The long mode exhibits negative anomaly of the rainfall and a very large scale structure covering the whole West Africa region when occurring while the short mode is more restricted to the Sahelian longitude. Similarly

  11. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  12. New instruments for dry eye diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Komuro, Aoi; Maruyama, Kunio; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Several non-invasive techniques for dry eye diagnosis have been developed in the past decade. These include quantitative assessment of tear volume, tear film stability, tear dynamics, and integrity of ocular surface epithelium. A combination of meniscometry and interferometry is useful for proving focal dry eye, by confirming whether or not tears at the meniscus have an effect on the ocular surface. Interferometer is also useful to evaluate tear dynamics on soft contact lenses. Fluorophotometry is useful for assessing the severity of dry eye from the view point of corneal epithelial barrier function and measuring the tear turnover rate. Both video-meibography and meibometry are useful for screening meibomian gland dysfunction. The advances in these techniques accumulate knowledge regarding pathophysiology of dry eye and allow precise diagnosis of dry eye. More targeted treatment will become feasible based on the clearer pathophysiology.

  13. EUV extendibility via dry development rinse process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayan, Safak; Zheng, Tao; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2016-03-01

    Conventional photoresist processing involves resist coating, exposure, post-exposure bake, development, rinse and spin drying of a wafer. DDRP mitigates pattern collapse by applying a special polymer material (DDRM) which replaces the exposed/developed part of the photoresist material before wafer is spin dried. As noted above, the main mechanism of pattern collapse is the capillary forces governed by surface tension of rinse water and its asymmetrical recession from both sides of the lines during the drying step of the develop process. DDRP essentially eliminates these failure mechanisms by replacing remaining rinse water with DDRM and providing a structural framework that support resist lines from both sides during spin dry process. Dry development rinse process (DDRP) eliminates the root causes responsible for pattern collapse of photoresist line structures. Since these collapse mechanisms are mitigated, without the need for changes in the photoresist itself, achievable resolution of the state-of-the-art EUV photoresists can further be improved.

  14. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  15. Vacuum-drying of maltodextrin aqueous solutions with ethanol in a foamed state

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, E. ); Ido, K. ); Toei, R.; Okazaki, M. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an aqueous maltodextrin solution in a foamed state with ethanol as a model aroma component, vacuum-dried with radiative heat. A vacuum chamber was made in which the weight and temperature of the material on a belt were measured during the drying process. While measuring the drying rate, the material temperature and the retention of aroma, the effect of the drying conditions on the aroma retention were experimentally studied. Numerical solutions were obtained during the drying process by solving simultaneously two partial differential equations regarding heat and mass transfer. The drying rate depends on the heating temperature, the belt loading, and the initial total solids. Even when heated at a temperature of 150{degrees}C for 30 minutes, the experimentally measured aroma retention is over 65 percent for initial total solids exceeding 70 percent. A satisfactory agreement between the observed and the simulated values were obtained. This analytical model would appear to be useful for setting optimum drying conditions for practical vacuum dryers.

  16. Experiments versus modeling of buoyant drying of porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salin, D.; Yiotis, A.; Tajer, E.; Yortsos, Y. C.

    2012-12-01

    Experiments versus modeling of buoyant drying of porous media D. Salin and A.G. Yiotis, Laboratoire FAST, Univ Pierre & Marie Curie, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, Orsay 91405, France and E.S. Tajer and Y.C. Yortsos, Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1450 A series of isothermal drying experiments in packed glass beads saturated with volatile hydrocarbons (hexane or pentane) are conducted. The transparent glass cells containing the packing allow for the visual monitoring of the phase distribution patterns below the surface, including the formation of liquid films, as the gaseous phase invades the pore space, and for the control of the thickness of the diffusive mass boundary layer over the packing. We demonstrate the existence of an early Constant Rate Period, CRP, that lasts as long as the films saturate the surface of the packing, and of a subsequent Falling Rate Period, FRP, that begins practically after the detachment of the film tips from the external surface. During the CRP, the process is controlled by diffusion within the stagnant gaseous phase in the upper part of the cells, yielding a Stefan tube problem solution. During the FRP, the process is controlled by diffusion within the packing, with a drying rate inversely proportional to the observed position of the film tips in the cell. The critical residual liquid saturation that marks the transition between these two regimes is found to be a function of the average bead size in our packs and the incline of the cells with respect to the flat vertical, with larger beads and angles closer to the vertical position leading to earlier film detachment times and higher critical saturations. We developed a model for the drying of porous media in the presence of gravity. It incorporated effects of corner film flow, internal and external mass transfer and the effect of gravity. Analytical results were derived when gravity opposes

  17. Crop drying by indirect active hybrid solar - Electrical dryer in the eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahara

    SciTech Connect

    Boughali, S.; Bouchekima, B.; Mennouche, D.; Bouguettaia, H.; Bechki, D.; Benmoussa, H.

    2009-12-15

    In the present work, a new specific prototype of an indirect active hybrid solar-electrical dryer for agricultural products was constructed and investigated at LENREZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara). In the new configuration of air drying passage; the study was done in a somewhat high range of mass flow rate between 0.04 and 0.08 kg/m{sup 2} s a range not properly investigated by most researchers. Experimental tests with and without load were performed in winter season in order to study the thermal behavior of the dryer and the effect of high air masse flow on the collector and system drying efficiency. The fraction of electrical and solar energy contribution versus air mass flow rate was investigated. Slice tomato was studied with different temperatures and velocities of drying air in order to study the influence of these parameters on the removal moisture content from the product and on the kinetics drying and also to determine their suitable values. Many different thin layer mathematical drying models were compared according to their coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and reduced chi square ({chi}{sup 2}) to estimate experimental drying curves. The Middli model in this condition proved to be the best for predicting drying behavior of tomato slice with (R{sup 2} = 0.9995, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.0001). Finally an economic evaluation was calculated using the criterion of payback period which is found very small 1.27 years compared to the life of the dryer 15 years. (author)

  18. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  19. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Markus; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs), we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried plasma spots (DPSs) as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only) and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status. PMID:26605791

  20. Biomass drying in a pulsed fluidized bed without inert bed particles

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Dening; Bi, Xiaotao; Lim, C. Jim; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2016-08-29

    Batch drying was performed in the pulsed fluidized bed with various species of biomass particles as an indicator of gas–solid contact efficiency and mass transfer rate under different operating conditions including pulsation duty cycle and particle size distribution. The fluidization of cohesive biomass particles benefited from the shorter opening time of pulsed gas flow and increased peak pressure drop. The presence of fines enhanced gas–solid contact of large and irregular biomass particles, as well as the mass transfer efficiency. A drying model based on two-phase theory was proposed, from which effective diffusivity was calculated for various gas flow rates, temperaturemore » and pulsation frequency. Intricate relationship was discovered between pulsation frequency and effective diffusivity, as mass transfer was deeply connected with the hydrodynamics. Effective diffusivity was also found to be proportional to gas flow rate and drying temperature. In conclusion, operating near the natural frequency of the system also favored drying and mass transfer.« less

  1. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  2. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  3. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Robinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  4. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  5. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

    PubMed

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-12-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores. PMID:23572703

  6. Sun drying of seedless and seeded grapes.

    PubMed

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    In this study, sun drying behaviour of seedless and seeded grapes was investigated. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of seedless and seeded grapes of berry size of 1.72 cm and 2.20 cm thicknesses from the initial moisture contents of 78.2% and 79.5% (w.b.) to final moisture content of around 22% (w.b.) were 176 and 228 h in open sun drying, respectively. The drying data were fitted to 12 thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models were compared using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), mean relative percent error (P), reduced chi-square (χ (2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The results showed that Midilli et al. model was found to satisfactorily describe the sun drying curves of seedless and seeded grapes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were estimated from Fick's diffusion model by 1.02 × 10(-11) and 1.66 × 10(-11) m(2)/s for seeded and seedless grapes. PMID:23572844

  7. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  8. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  9. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  10. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  11. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  13. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  14. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  15. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  16. Airless drying -- Developments since IDS'94

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbing, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    Since its introduction to IDS'94 delegates, significant progress has been made with the development of airless drying technology. The ceramic industry internationally is beginning to benefit from both the energy use and drying time reductions it achieves, while on the basis of further theoretical work carried out since 1993 other industries, including the bioenergy sector, should also soon begin to exploit its advantages. As global warming becomes a reality and oil reserves decline, superheated steam drying and gasification of biomass will contribute to the mitigation of those problems.

  17. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Diebel, J.A.

    1996-03-11

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone.

  18. Holographic measurements of fresh dry bone elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo; Nygren, Kaarlo; Karna, Markku; Karna, Kari

    1992-08-01

    To compare the elasticity of bones covered with soft tissue and the elasticity of defleshed and dried bones, we used sampling screws to make the surface movements of the bones visible through the soft tissue. We compared fresh and dry European moose skulls before and after skinning. External forces were focused on the skull bones through the pedicles. A high correlation in fringe orientation was observed in the case of thick bone structures with rigid interdigited sutures. We also compared compression dynamics of fresh and dry moose antler cubes.

  19. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica).

    PubMed

    Abano, Ernest Ekow

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10(-9) to 2.13 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58-17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality. PMID:26904667

  20. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica)

    PubMed Central

    Abano, Ernest Ekow

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10−9 to 2.13 × 10−9 m2/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58–17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality. PMID:26904667

  1. Effect of Drying Temperature on the Chemical Properties and Diffusivity of belimbi (averrhoa belimbi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Jamil, N.; Rasmani, K. A.; Nursabrina

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, many dried fruit products have been developed in response to a strong demand by the customer. This type of fruit has a different composition and hence different moisture diffusivity (D). During drying, Fick's Law of diffusion, which describes the movement of liquid water was used to calculate this diffusivity. However diffusivity has strong effects on the material drying characteristics and these must be determined. In this paper, Fick's Law of diffusion with different kinds of boundary conditions was solve using separation of variable (SOV). In order to get the value of D, results obtained using SOV will be compared with the results from the drying of belimbi at temperature of 40°C, 50°C and 60°C. Although the results show that variation in the values of diffusivity for different temperatures is relatively small, but the variation in the total time required for drying is significantly bigger: between 3-7 hours. Its shown that diffusivity is an important measurement and should be considered in the modeling of the drying process. The chemical properties of belimbi slices in terms of vitamin C, total ash and antioxidant activity with different air temperatures and pretreatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lower vitamin C and antioxidant activity but a greater total of ash, whilst pre-treatment can increased vitamin C and antioxidant activity. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important variables to improve mass and heat transfer, as well as the belimbi chemical properties.

  2. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  3. Dry eye: diagnosis and current treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Paul D; Collum, Louis M T

    2004-07-01

    One in four patients attending ophthalmic clinics report symptoms of dry eye, making it one of the most common complaints seen by ophthalmologists. Aqueous-layer deficiency is the most common form of dry eye and is frequently caused by decreased secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Evaporative dry eye is often secondary to meibomian gland disease and results in a defective lipid layer. Tear replacement or preservation using artificial tears and/or punctal occlusion are the mainstay of treatment. Newer forms of therapy were designed to modify the underlying disease process. These include the use of topical cyclosporin A, autologous serum, and sodium hyaluronate drops, which suppress underlying inflammation, provide growth factors, and prevent the onset of squamous metaplasia in ocular surface epithelium. Hormonal therapy might have a role in the future of dry eye therapy.

  4. Recent Advances in Nanostructured Biomimetic Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras; Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The relatively large size of the gecko and its ability to climb a multitude of structures with ease has often been cited as the inspiration upon which the field of dry adhesives is based. Since 2010, there have been many advances in the field of dry adhesives with much of the new research focusing on developing nanoscale and hierarchical features in a concentrated effort to develop synthetic gecko-like dry adhesives which are strong, durable, and self-cleaning. A brief overview of the geckos and the hairs which it uses to adhere to many different surfaces is provided before delving into the current methods and materials used to fabricate synthetic gecko hairs. A summary of the recently published literature on bio-inspired, nanostructured dry adhesives is presented with an emphasis being placed on fabrication techniques. PMID:25023409

  5. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  6. Hydrothermal regimes of the dry active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Mamoru; Zhang, Yinsheng; Kadota, Tsutomu; Ohata, Tetsuo

    2006-04-01

    Evaporation and condensation in the soil column clearly influence year-round nonconductive heat transfer dynamics in the dry active layer underlying semiarid permafrost regions. We deduced this from heat flux components quantified using state-of-the-art micrometeorological data sets obtained in dry and moist summers and in winters with various snow cover depths. Vapor moves easily through large pores, some of which connect to the atmosphere, allowing (1) considerable active layer warming driven by pipe-like snowmelt infiltration, and (2) direct vapor linkage between atmosphere and deeper soils. Because of strong adhesive forces, water in the dry active layer evaporates with great difficulty. The fraction of latent heat to total soil heat storage ranged from 26 to 45% in dry and moist summers, respectively. These values are not negligible, despite being smaller than those of arctic wet active layer, in which only freezing and thawing were considered.

  7. High strength air-dried aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  8. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  9. Dry Eye in Pediatric Contact Lens Wearers

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Katie L.; Walline, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether children who wear contact lenses truly have fewer dry eye complaints than adults. Methods Ninety-four pediatric contact lens wearers, ages 8 to 14 years, were recruited and given the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ) short form. The survey is designed to diagnose dry eye syndrome by obtaining information on the frequency of dryness and light sensitivity and their corresponding intensity levels within the first two hours of putting in the lenses, in the middle of the day, and at the end of the day. The responses were scored by multiplying the frequency by the average intensity and a constant. A composite score was calculated by subtracting the photophobia score from the dryness score, and the results were compared to adult samples from the literature. The questionnaire also asked whether the subject thought he/she had dry eyes while wearing contact lenses. Subjects that thought they had dry eyes and had a CLDEQ composite score >0.03 were diagnosed with dry eye. Subjects who were unsure if they dry eye or said they did not have dry eye but scored >1.29 were also diagnosed with dry eye. Results The average (± SD) age of the sample was 11.7 ± 1.5 years, 56.4% were female, 59.6% were white, and 19.1% were black. The mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 0.25 ±0.50 (range= -1.20 to 1.45). In the literature, the adult mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 1.02 ±0.80 (range= -0.74 to 4.50). Of the 94 surveys collected, 4.3% of children were categorized with dry eye compared to 56.2% of adults who completed the CLDEQ survey in the adult study. Conclusions Pediatric contact lens wearers have fewer complaints about dry eyes than adult contact lens wearers, which may be due to improved tear film, differences in reporting of symptoms, or modality of contact lens wear. PMID:21060258

  10. Dry deposition of particulate polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, T.P.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holsen, T.M.

    1998-12-01

    Dry deposition was collected from November 1993 to October 1995 at multiple sites within the Lake Michigan basin to estimate fluxes of particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS). Samples were also collected during the Atmospheric Exchange over Lakes and Oceans (AEOLOS) project to estimate fluxes to coastal waters adjacent to the Chicago urban area. Fluxes of particulate PCBs and PAHs were higher in Chicago than <15 km offshore and at rural sites. Geometric mean dry deposition fluxes across the Lake Michigan basin ranged from 3.6 to 65 mg/m{sup 2}-day for particle mass, 0.06 to 0.21 {micro}g/m{sup 2}-day for {Sigma}-PCBs, and 0.25 to 18 {micro}g/m{sup 2}-day for {Sigma}-PAHs. Similarities in both the distribution pattern of PCB congeners and PAHs and the magnitude of their fluxes between dry deposition and surficial sediment suggest that dry deposition may dominate loadings to the lake. Conservative estimates of loadings to Lake Michigan through particle dry deposition are estimated to be 1100 kg/yr for PCBs and 5000 kg/yr for PAHs. These loadings are more than 3{times} greater than loadings by wet deposition and, for PCBs, are similar to inputs by air/water exchange.

  11. Dry-Enzyme Test For Gaseous Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barzana, Eduardo; Karel, Marcus; Klibanov, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Simple, dry-chemical test detects ethanol in human breath. Method of test also adapted to detection of such toxic chemicals as formaldehyde in airstreams. Used qualitatively to detect chemical compounds above present level; for example, ethanol above legal level for driving. Also used to indicate quantitatively concentrations of compounds. Involves dry enzyme and color indicator. Adapted to detect any gaseous compound transformed by enzymes to produce change evident to human eye or to instrument.

  12. R and D needs -- Drying of sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Kasakura, T.; Hasatani, M.

    1996-10-01

    Sludge management is a very important environmental issue in many industrialized countries, because its generated volume is the largest in all generated wastes. In the sludge management field, the role of drying is becoming more important as sludge disposal becomes more difficult. In this paper, the present status of drying of construction sludge, food industry sludge and municipal sludge are mentioned as concrete examples. To respond to these needs, it is necessary to advance further R and D.

  13. Determination of effective moisture diffusivity and drying kinetics for poplar sawdust by thermogravimetric analysis under isothermal condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2012-03-01

    The current study presents a thermogravimetric method to determine the effective moisture diffusivity and drying kinetics of biomass. Drying experiments on poplar sawdust were performed at four temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90°C) by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The major assumption in experimentally determining effective diffusivity by Fick's diffusion equation is that drying is mass transfer limited and temperature remains isothermal during drying. The results indicated that TGA could well achieve these determining conditions. The drying process of sawdust mostly took place in the falling rate period. Midilli-Kucuk model showed the best fit for all experimental data. The effective diffusivity values changed from 9.38 × 10(-10)m(2)/s to 1.38 × 10(-9)m(2)/s within the given temperature range, and the activation energy was calculated to be 12.3 kJ/mol. PMID:22237174

  14. Comparison of the effect of wet and dry torrefaction on chemical structure and pyrolysis behavior of corncobs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Kun; Wei, Guoqiang; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Wet and dry torrefaction of corncobs was conducted in high-pressure reactor and tube-type reactor, respectively. Effect of wet and dry torrefaction on chemical structure and pyrolysis behavior of corncobs was compared. The results showed that hemicellulose could be effectively removed from corncobs by torrefaction. However, dry torrefaction caused severe degradation of cellulose and the cross-linking and charring of corncobs. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that crystallinity degree of corncobs was evidently enhanced during wet torrefaction, but reduced during dry torrefaction as raising treatment temperature. In thermogravimetric analysis, wet torrefied corncobs produced less carbonaceous residues than raw corncobs, while dry torrefied corncobs gave much more residues owing to increased content of acid insoluble lignin. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis indicated that wet torrefaction significantly promoted levoglucosan yield owing to the removal of alkali metals. Therefore, wet torrefaction can be considered as a more effective pretreatment method for fast pyrolysis of biomass. PMID:25460979

  15. Comparison of the effect of wet and dry torrefaction on chemical structure and pyrolysis behavior of corncobs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Kun; Wei, Guoqiang; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Wet and dry torrefaction of corncobs was conducted in high-pressure reactor and tube-type reactor, respectively. Effect of wet and dry torrefaction on chemical structure and pyrolysis behavior of corncobs was compared. The results showed that hemicellulose could be effectively removed from corncobs by torrefaction. However, dry torrefaction caused severe degradation of cellulose and the cross-linking and charring of corncobs. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that crystallinity degree of corncobs was evidently enhanced during wet torrefaction, but reduced during dry torrefaction as raising treatment temperature. In thermogravimetric analysis, wet torrefied corncobs produced less carbonaceous residues than raw corncobs, while dry torrefied corncobs gave much more residues owing to increased content of acid insoluble lignin. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis indicated that wet torrefaction significantly promoted levoglucosan yield owing to the removal of alkali metals. Therefore, wet torrefaction can be considered as a more effective pretreatment method for fast pyrolysis of biomass.

  16. Contextual view of building 110 with dry dock 1 visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 110 with dry dock 1 visible on left; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Pump House, California Avenue, east side between Dry Dock 1 & Dry Dock 2, near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Contextual view of building 110 with dry dock 2 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 110 with dry dock 2 in foreground; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Pump House, California Avenue, east side between Dry Dock 1 & Dry Dock 2, near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor. (b) At least one dry chemical storage unit and hand hose line or monitor must be at the after end of...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor. (b) At least one dry chemical storage unit and hand hose line or monitor must be at the after end of...

  20. Using solar dryers to dry clay bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, J.A.; Wicker, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    Experiments using a small-scale solar dryer have been performed to determine the effect of incorporating solar dryers in the pre-firing stage of clay brick production. A comparison of brick moisture content over time is presented for dry bricks that underwent additional drying either naturally through direct exposure, in convection ovens set at 65.6 C and 104 C, in the solar dryer, or sealed in plastic bags. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were monitored along with the solar dryer temperature. Results indicated the solar dryer removed from one to two percent more moisture than natural drying, but removed less moisture than did the ovens. A similar comparison of wet bricks naturally dried, oven dried, and placed in the solar dryer for periods of five and seven days is also presented. The solar dryer reduced the amount of time required for bricks to be dried to a specified moisture content and increased the amount of moisture removed for a given amount of time.

  1. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery.

  2. Natural denitrification in drying process of dew

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Norimichi; Suzue, Takahiko; Ohira, Kingo; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuki; Morikawa, Tazuko

    1999-05-01

    This report is the first observation of natural chemical denitrification in the drying process of dew. Nitrogen compounds released in the atmosphere are considered to be subjected to oxidation to form nitric acid by the chemical process so far. The results here show that nitrous acid is reduced to N{sub 2} by drying of dew. Dew was collected at Osaka Prefecture University in Sakai City, Japan from 1996 to 1997. Concentrations of ammonium and nitrite ions in dew were very high related to those in rain, and pHs of dew were relatively high, pH ca. 6.5. The authors found that when dew was dried, most nitrite and ammonium ions included in dew were decomposed. It is well-known that concentrated ammonium nitrite aqueous solution is unstable and decomposes to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. During the drying process of dew, nitrite and ammonium would be concentrated and react to form N{sub 2}, and as a result, nitrite and ammonia in the dried dew are lost, that is, natural denitrification occurs in the drying process of dew. The authors report here results of the natural denitrification.

  3. Dry season streamflow persistence in seasonal climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems exhibit periods of high water availability followed by extended intervals during which rainfall is negligible and streamflows decline. Eventually, such declining flows will fall below the minimum values required to support ecosystem functions or services. The time at which dry season flows drop below these minimum values (Q*), relative to the start of the dry season, is termed the "persistence time" (). The persistence time determines how long seasonal streams can support various human or ecological functions during the dry season. In this study, we extended recent work in the stochastic hydrology of seasonally dry climates to develop an analytical model for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the persistence time. The proposed model accurately captures the mean of the persistence time distribution, but underestimates its variance. We demonstrate that this underestimation arises in part due to correlation between the parameters used to describe the dry season recession, but that this correlation can be removed by rescaling the flow variables. The mean persistence time predictions form one example of the broader class of streamflow statistics known as crossing properties, which could feasibly be combined with simple ecological models to form a basis for rapid risk assessment under different climate or management scenarios.

  4. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    PubMed

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  5. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yun-Ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R; Edwards, David

    2007-02-20

    With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing salts and cryoprotectant (e.g., glycerol) from bacterial suspensions, the significant osmotic pressures that are normally produced on bacterial membranes through droplet drying can be reduced sufficiently to minimize loss of viability on drying by up to 2 orders of magnitude. By placing the bacteria in a matrix of leucine, high-yield, free-flowing, "vial-fillable" powders of bacteria (including M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG) can be produced. These powders show relatively minor losses of activity after maintenance at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C up to and beyond 4 months. Comparisons with lyophilized material prepared both with the same formulation and with a commercial formulation reveal that the spray-dried BCG has better overall viability on drying.

  6. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  7. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  8. Recent drying of the Fertile Crescent: natural or externally forced?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Colin

    2014-05-01

    There has been a reduction in observed precipitation over the greater Mediterranean region since the middle of the 20th Century. Recent studies suggest that while anthropogenic forcing has already begun to assert itself in recent decades, the preponderance of the winter drying trend is attributable to the large natural multidecadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), while over the eastern Mediterranean, the anthropogenic, or forced drying signal is more clearly evident. This forced drying is projected to increase during the 21st Century according to the newest global climate models and this aridification would present significant challenges for a region that is already water-stressed. Although the Fertile Crescent is historically known for its agricultural prosperity, the severity and persistence of the recent multiyear drought in Syria, directly prior to the 2011 uprising there, leads us to ask whether this is evidence of emerging global warming influence. This drought exacerbated existing water insecurity, resulting in an agricultural collapse and a mass migration of rural drought refugees to the urban areas in Syria's west. This migration followed the previous influx of Iragi refugees and combined with strong natural population growth to place a severe strain on resources. Here we examine observations of precipitation and temperature, both gridded and stations, along with simulations and projections from the newest global climate models, to estimate the forced contribution to the recent Syrian drought, and assess the uncertainty in future drying according to the models. We find that this region has experienced a long-term downward trend in precipitation, and a concomitant increase in temperature, serving to further dry the soil, and in surface pressure. We find that the shift in the distributions of three-year running means of surface pressure and precipitation due to the forcing make severe events such as the recent Syrian drought several

  9. Predicting the drying properties of sludge based on hydrothermal treatment under subcritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Fraikin, Laurent; Léonard, Angélique; Benavente, Verónica; Fullana, Andrés

    2016-03-15

    The effects of hydrothermal treatment on the drying properties of sludge were determined. Sludge was hydrothermally treated at 180-260 °C for 0.5-5 h using NaOH and HCl as additives to influence reaction conditions. Untreated sludge and attained hydrochar samples were then dried under identical conditions with a laboratory microdryer and an X-ray microtomograph was used to follow changes in sample dimensions. The effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar samples were determined and the effect of process conditions on respective mean diffusivities evaluated using multiple linear regression. Based on the results the drying time of untreated sludge decreased from approximately 80 min to 37-59 min for sludge hydrochar. Drying of untreated sludge was governed by the falling rate period where drying flux decreased continuously as a function of sludge moisture content due to heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage. Hydrothermal treatment increased the drying flux of sludge hydrochar and decreased the effect of internal heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage especially at higher treatment temperatures. The determined effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar increased as a function of decreasing moisture content and the mean diffusivity of untreated sludge (8.56·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) and sludge hydrochar (12.7-27.5·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) were found statistically different. The attained regression model indicated that treatment temperature governed the mean diffusivity of hydrochar, as the effects of NaOH and HCl were statistically insignificant. The attained results enabled prediction of sludge drying properties through mean moisture diffusivity based on hydrothermal treatment conditions. PMID:26773481

  10. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  11. Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Pendre, N K; Nema, Prabhat K; Sharma, Harsh P; Rathore, S S; Kushwah, S S

    2012-06-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content. Okra slice sizes and drying temperatures affected all the quality parameters significantly (p < 0.05). Maximum retention of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content were found in 2 cm long slices dried at 60 °C temperature.

  12. Rate of drying and stresses in the first period of drying

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, S.J.; Rybicki, A.

    2000-03-01

    The paper presents a computer simulated processes and illustrate how the drying induced stresses are influenced by the rate of drying. It is shown that the moisture transport coefficient, and thus the rate of drying, depends on the thermal state of the drying material, defined by the wet-bulb temperature. Through these simulated processes one can observe the evolution of the moisture content and stress distributions during drying at constant, but in each process different, wet-bulb temperatures. A convective drying process of a bar with rectangular cross-section is considered as example, and a two-dimensional initial-boundary value problem is solved numerically with the use of the finite element method. The numerical results are visualized in spatial diagrams.

  13. Effects of dehumidification drying environment on drying speed of one component waterborne wood top coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeguang; Tang, Tong; Zhou, Ge; Jia, Wanda; Wang, Meng; Xu, Jing; Bai, Shihong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of dehumidification drying environment including air temperature and relative humidity and velocity on drying speed of one component waterborne wood top coating are studied by Orthogonal experimental design and the results are analyzed creatively by Duncan analyses. It is found that during the dehumidification drying process, hard drying time is decreasing with the increasing air temperature and velocity and decreasing relative humidity. Air velocity is extremely significant to hard drying time, which is more significant than relative humidity, and relative humidity is more significant than air temperature. The difference of hard drying time is significant when the difference is 5 min and above, and it is extremely significant when the difference is 10 min and above, which are critical to judge the hard time in practice.

  14. The Impact of Dry Saharan Air on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The controversial role of the dry Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on tropical storm intensification in the Atlantic will be addressed. The SAL has been argued in previous studies to have potential positive influences on storm development, but most recent studies have argued for a strong suppressing influence on storm intensification as a result of dry air, high stability, increased vertical wind shear, and microphysical impacts of dust. Here, we focus on observations of Hurricane Helene (2006), which occurred during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (NAMMA) experiment. Satellite and airborne observations, combined with global meteorological analyses depict the initial environment of Helene as being dominated by the SAL, although with minimal evidence that the SAL air actually penetrated to the core of the disturbance. Over the next several days, the SAL air quickly moved westward and was gradually replaced by a very dry, dust-free layer associated with subsidence. Despite the wrapping of this very dry air around the storm, Helene intensified steadily to a Category 3 hurricane suggesting that the dry air was unable to significantly slow storm intensification. Several uncertainties remain about the role of the SAL in Helene (and in tropical cyclones in general). To better address these uncertainties, NASA will be conducting a three year airborne campaign called the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The HS3 objectives are: To obtain critical measurements in the hurricane environment in order to identify the role of key factors such as large-scale wind systems (troughs, jet streams), Saharan air masses, African Easterly Waves and their embedded critical layers (that help to isolate tropical disturbances from hostile environments). To observe and understand the three-dimensional mesoscale and convective-scale internal structures of tropical disturbances and cyclones and their role in intensity change. The mission objectives will be achieved using

  15. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge. PMID:26642353

  16. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  17. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge.

  18. Impact of Ice Morphology on Design Space of Pharmaceutical Freeze-Drying.

    PubMed

    Goshima, Hiroshika; Do, Gabsoo; Nakagawa, Kyuya

    2016-06-01

    It has been known that the sublimation kinetics of a freeze-drying product is affected by its internal ice crystal microstructures. This article demonstrates the impact of the ice morphologies of a frozen formulation in a vial on the design space for the primary drying of a pharmaceutical freeze-drying process. Cross-sectional images of frozen sucrose-bovine serum albumin aqueous solutions were optically observed and digital pictures were acquired. Binary images were obtained from the optical data to extract the geometrical parameters (i.e., ice crystal size and tortuosity) that relate to the mass-transfer resistance of water vapor during the primary drying step. A mathematical model was used to simulate the primary drying kinetics and provided the design space for the process. The simulation results predicted that the geometrical parameters of frozen solutions significantly affect the design space, with large and less tortuous ice morphologies resulting in wide design spaces and vice versa. The optimal applicable drying conditions are influenced by the ice morphologies. Therefore, owing to the spatial distributions of the geometrical parameters of a product, the boundary curves of the design space are variable and could be tuned by controlling the ice morphologies. PMID:27238489

  19. The impact of drought on ozone dry deposition over eastern Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T.

    2016-02-01

    Dry deposition represents a critical pathway through which ground-level ozone is removed from the atmosphere. Understanding the effects of drought on ozone dry deposition is essential for air quality modeling and management in regions of the world with recurring droughts. This work applied the widely used Zhang dry deposition algorithm to examine seasonal and interannual changes in estimated ozone dry deposition velocities and component resistances/conductances over eastern Texas during years with drought (2006 and 2011) as well as a year with slightly cooler temperatures and above average rainfall (2007). Simulated area-averaged daytime ozone dry deposition velocities ranged between 0.26 and 0.47 cm/s. Seasonal patterns reflected the combined seasonal variations in non-stomatal and stomatal deposition pathways. Daytime ozone dry deposition velocities during the growing season were consistently larger during 2007 compared to 2006 and 2011. These differences were associated with differences in stomatal conductances and were most pronounced in forested areas. Reductions in stomatal conductances under drought conditions were highly sensitive to increases in vapor pressure deficit and warmer temperatures in Zhang's algorithm. Reductions in daytime ozone deposition velocities and deposition mass during drought years were associated with estimates of higher surface ozone concentrations.

  20. Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051