Science.gov

Sample records for 120-kg dry mass

  1. Drying temperature effects on fish dry mass measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of tissue composition in fish often requires dry samples. Time needed to dry fish decreases as temperature is increased, but additional volatile material may be lost. Effects of 10??C temperature increases on percentage dry mass (%DM) were tested against 60??C controls for groups of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Lake trout %DMs were lower at greater temperatures, but not significantly different from 60??C controls. Rainbow smelt and slimy sculpin %DMs were lower at greater temperatures and differences were significant when test temperatures reached 90??C. Significant differences were not found in tests using alewives because variability in %DM was high between fish. To avoid inter-fish variability, 30 alewives were each dried successively at 60, 70, 80, and then 90??C and for all fish %DM declined at each higher temperature. In general, %DMs were lower at greater temperatures and after reaching a stable dry weight, fish did not lose additional mass if temperature remained constant. Results indicate that caution should be used when comparing dry mass related indices from fish dried at different temperatures because %DM was negatively related to temperature. The differences in %DM observed with rising temperature could account for substantial portions of the variability in reported energy values for the species tested. Differences in %DM means for the 60 vs. 80??C and 60 vs. 90??C tests for rainbow smelt and alewife could represent of from 8 to 38% of observed annual energy cycles for Lakes Ontario and Michigan.

  2. Lateral Mixing DRI Analysis: Submesoscale Water-Mass Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lateral Mixing DRI Analysis: Submesoscale Water-Mass... submesoscale on horizontal lengthscales of 0.1-10 km. These scales of the subinertial fields are not well understood dynamically for subinertial...program to determine submesoscale variability in the Sargasso Sea under weak-to-moderate mesoscale conditions. Two sites were examined, a quiet site

  3. Impact of dry granular masses on rigid barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvetti, F.; di Prisco, C.; Vairaktaris, E.

    2015-09-01

    This work concerns the impact of dry granular masses on rigid artificial obstacles. The authors approached the problem by performing an extensive campaign of numerical analyses with a commercial code based on the discrete element theory. The standard approaches employed to design sheltering structures are exclusively based on the assessment of the Maximum Impact Force (MIF) exerted by the soil mass on the obstacle, and the sheltering structure is usually designed according to simplified pseudo-static approaches. In a previous paper the authors considered the dependence of MIF on the Froude number and on a large series of both geometrical and mechanical parameters. Indeed, the impulsive nature of the force exerted by the soil onto the structure has to be considered in order to optimize the design of this type of structures. For this reason in this paper the evolution with time of the impact force and the mechanics of the phenomenon are investigated.

  4. Estimation of cauliflower mass transfer parameters during convective drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Medine; Doymaz, İbrahim

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments such as citric acid and hot water blanching and air temperature on drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices. Experiments were carried out at four different drying air temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C with the air velocity of 2.0 m/s. It was observed that drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices were greatly influenced by air temperature and pre-treatment. Six commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying kinetics of cauliflower slices. The Midilli et al. model described the drying behaviour of cauliflower slices at all temperatures better than other models. The values of effective moisture diffusivities ( D eff ) were determined using Fick's law of diffusion and were between 4.09 × 10-9 and 1.88 × 10-8 m2/s. Activation energy was estimated by an Arrhenius type equation and was 23.40, 29.09 and 26.39 kJ/mol for citric acid, blanch and control samples, respectively.

  5. Estimation of cauliflower mass transfer parameters during convective drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Medine; Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments such as citric acid and hot water blanching and air temperature on drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices. Experiments were carried out at four different drying air temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C with the air velocity of 2.0 m/s. It was observed that drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices were greatly influenced by air temperature and pre-treatment. Six commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying kinetics of cauliflower slices. The Midilli et al. model described the drying behaviour of cauliflower slices at all temperatures better than other models. The values of effective moisture diffusivities (D eff ) were determined using Fick's law of diffusion and were between 4.09 × 10-9 and 1.88 × 10-8 m2/s. Activation energy was estimated by an Arrhenius type equation and was 23.40, 29.09 and 26.39 kJ/mol for citric acid, blanch and control samples, respectively.

  6. Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaz, Benjamin; Cano, Elena; Colomb, Tristan; Kühn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Simanis, Viesturs; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    Digital holography microscopy (DHM) is an optical technique which provides phase images yielding quantitative information about cell structure and cellular dynamics. Furthermore, the quantitative phase images allow the derivation of other parameters, including dry mass production, density, and spatial distribution. We have applied DHM to study the dry mass production rate and the dry mass surface density in wild-type and mutant fission yeast cells. Our study demonstrates the applicability of DHM as a tool for label-free quantitative analysis of the cell cycle and opens the possibility for its use in high-throughput screening.

  7. Combining micro dry column chromatography and mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Dry column chromatography principles applied in microscale produce technique to minimize time in preparing and analyzing colorless constituents of soluble mixtures. Glass pipette microcolumns filled with finely sieved adsorbents permit capillary attraction and separation in 3 to 15 minutes. Technique is adaptable to gas chromatography.

  8. Native Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Noncovalent Protein Complexes Directly from Dried Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Griffiths, Rian L.; Edwards, Rebecca L.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry is a promising tool for the analysis of intact proteins from biological substrates. Here, we demonstrate native LESA mass spectrometry of noncovalent protein complexes of myoglobin and hemoglobin from a range of surfaces. Holomyoglobin, in which apomyoglobin is noncovalently bound to the prosthetic heme group, was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of myoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride surfaces. Tetrameric hemoglobin [(αβ)2 4H] was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of hemoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surfaces, and from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Heme-bound dimers and monomers were also observed. The `contact' LESA approach was particularly suitable for the analysis of hemoglobin tetramers from DBS.

  9. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  10. MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry of artifacts in "dried droplet" polymer samples.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Steffen; Knappe, Patrick; Panne, Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging of polystyrenes with various molecular masses was applied to study spatial molecular mass distribution of polymers in sample spots prepared by the "dried droplet" method. When different solvents and target surfaces were examined, a segregation of single homologous polymers was observed depending upon the evaporation rate of the solvent. For the observed patterns left by the evaporating droplet, a hypothesis is offered taking into account different hydrodynamic interactions and diffusion. The results illustrate that spot preparation using the conventionally "dried droplet" method is prone to artifacts and should be avoided for reliable and reproducible MALDI mass spectrometry experiments with regards to the determination of molecular masses and mass distributions.

  11. Multi-layer onion drying: Study of mass and heat transfer mechanism and quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiah, N.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Drying is one of methods to prolong storage life of onion. The outer layer of onion has kept dry around 12% of moisture content or below to retain the freshness of its inside part. The model of multi layers onion drying is very important to predict the water and temperature transport during dying process. In this case, one dimensional partial equation was used for predicting moisture distribution in the onion layer. To support the study, the onion drying was performed at various temperatures ranging of 40-50 °C. Then the attribute quality (quercetin content) of dried onion was analysed. The experimental data was to validate the value of water diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient used in the model. Results showed that the model can predict moisture distribution in each layer of onion. Moreover, based on the average moisture content during the drying, the model result closed to experiment data with accuracy of R2 0.970-0.999. The model was useful to estimate the drying time of outer layer to the desired level. Besides that, the quality evaluation showed that after 2 hours drying process, quercetin content can be retained.

  12. 24. The DryingRoom in the coating mill at Lawrence, Mass. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. The Drying-Room in the coating mill at Lawrence, Mass. After the paper has received its coating from the coating-machine shown in the previous picture, it passes in a continuous web to the drying-room. Blasts of hot air coming out of galvanized ducts beneath support it for a distance of 100 feet, until it reaches the drying-chamber in the rear of the room. Here it hangs in festoons much like those of cotton cloth shown on page 219. In the picture the paper is passing from right to left. After leaving the drying-room it is wound on rolls, as shown in the next picture. (p.238.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  13. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  14. Advantages and Challenges of Dried Blood Spot Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Across the Total Testing Process

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263

  15. Homogeneous Matrix Deposition on Dried Agar for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Microbial Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-11-01

    Matrix deposition on agar-based microbial colonies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is often complicated by the complex media on which microbes are grown. This Application Note demonstrates how consecutive short spray pulses of a matrix solution can form an evenly closed matrix layer on dried agar. Compared with sieving dry matrix onto wet agar, this method supports analyte cocrystallization, which results in significantly more signals, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and improved ionization efficiency. The even matrix layer improves spot-to-spot precision of measured m/z values when using TOF mass spectrometers. With this technique, we established reproducible imaging mass spectrometry of myxobacterial cultures on nutrient-rich cultivation media, which was not possible with the sieving technique.

  16. Enhancement of mass transfer by ultrasound: Application to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The physical mechanisms of heat and mass transfer enhancement by ultrasound have been identified by people. Basically, the effect of 'cavitation' induced by ultrasound is the main reason for the enhancement of heat and mass transfer in a liquid environment, and the acoustic streaming and vibration are the main reasons for that in a gaseous environment. The adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration are typical heat and mass transfer process, and the intensification of the two processes by ultrasound is of complete feasibility. This paper makes an overview on recent studies regarding applications of power ultrasound to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. The concerned adsorbents include desiccant materials (typically like silica gel) for air dehumidification and other ones (typically active carbon and polymeric resin) for water treatment. The applications of ultrasound in the regeneration of these adsorbents have been proved to be energy saving. The concerned foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. Although the ultrasonic treatment may cause food degradation or nutrient loss, it can greatly reduce the food processing time and decrease drying temperature. From the literature, it can be seen that the ultrasonic conditions (i.e., acoustic frequency and power levels) are always focused on during the study of ultrasonic applications. The increasing number of relevant studies argues that ultrasound is a very promising technology applied to the adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

  17. Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganhou, J.

    This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model.

  18. Heat and mass transfer analysis of convective drying of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the modelling and simulation of the dehydration of chickpea in a complex drying system process, using COMSOL Multiphysics Program. A model, based on mass and energy balances, was developed for the simulation of unsteady convective drying with air (3.0 m/s and 60 °C). The program predicted an 8 hours-dehydration time, with an effective moisture diffusivity of 3.1 *10- 10 which was experimentally obtained. The empirical model that best represented the process was the exponential one.

  19. Estimation of whole lemon mass transfer parameters during hot air drying using different modelling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    To design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments, accurate values of mass transfer parameters is of great importance. In this study, an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying whole lemons was carried out. The whole lemons were dried in a convective hot air dryer at different air temperatures (50, 60 and 75 °C) and a constant air velocity (1 m s-1). In theoretical consideration, three moisture transfer models including Dincer and Dost model, Bi- G correlation approach and conventional solution of Fick's second law of diffusion were used to determine moisture transfer parameters and predict dimensionless moisture content curves. The predicted results were then compared with the experimental data and the higher degree of prediction accuracy was achieved by the Dincer and Dost model.

  20. Living cell dry mass measurement using quantitative phase imaging with quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry: an accuracy and sensitivity discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Savatier, Julien; Bon, Pierre; Galland, Frédéric; Abdeladim, Lamiae; Wattellier, Benoit; Monneret, Serge

    2015-12-01

    Single-cell dry mass measurement is used in biology to follow cell cycle, to address effects of drugs, or to investigate cell metabolism. Quantitative phase imaging technique with quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) allows measuring cell dry mass. The technique is very simple to set up, as it is integrated in a camera-like instrument. It simply plugs onto a standard microscope and uses a white light illumination source. Its working principle is first explained, from image acquisition to automated segmentation algorithm and dry mass quantification. Metrology of the whole process, including its sensitivity, repeatability, reliability, sources of error, over different kinds of samples and under different experimental conditions, is developed. We show that there is no influence of magnification or spatial light coherence on dry mass measurement; effect of defocus is more critical but can be calibrated. As a consequence, QWLSI is a well-suited technique for fast, simple, and reliable cell dry mass study, especially for live cells.

  1. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Convective Drying of Building Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Ashwani; Chandramohan, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer is developed for convective drying of building material. A rectangular brick is considered for sample object. Finite-difference method with semi-implicit scheme is used for solving the transient governing heat and mass transfer equation. Convective boundary condition is used, as the product is exposed in hot air. The heat and mass transfer equations are coupled through diffusion coefficient which is assumed as the function of temperature of the product. Set of algebraic equations are generated through space and time discretization. The discretized algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Siedel method via iteration. Grid and time independent studies are performed for finding the optimum number of nodal points and time steps respectively. A MATLAB computer code is developed to solve the heat and mass transfer equations simultaneously. Transient heat and mass transfer simulations are performed to find the temperature and moisture distribution inside the brick.

  2. Suitability of differently formulated dry powder Newcastle disease vaccines for mass vaccination of poultry.

    PubMed

    Huyge, Katrien; Van Reeth, Kristien; De Beer, Thomas; Landman, Wil J M; van Eck, Jo H H; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Dry powders containing a live-attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine (LZ58 strain) and intended for mass vaccination of poultry were prepared by spray drying using mannitol in combination with trehalose or inositol, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and/or bovine serum albumin (BSA) as stabilizers. These powders were evaluated for vaccine stabilizing capacity during production and storage (at 6 °C and 25 °C), moisture content, hygroscopicity and dry powder dispersibility. A mixture design, varying the ratio of mannitol, inositol and BSA, was used to select the stabilizer combination which resulted in the desired powder properties (i.e. good vaccine stability during production and storage, low moisture content and hygroscopicity and good dry dispersibility). Inositol-containing powders had the same vaccine stabilizing capacity as trehalose powders, but were less hygroscopic. Incorporation of BSA enhanced the vaccine stability in the powders compared to PVP-containing formulations. However, increasing the BSA concentration increased the hygroscopicity and reduced the dry dispersibility of the powder. No valid mathematical model could be calculated for vaccine stability during production or storage, but the individual experiments indicated that a formulation combining mannitol, inositol and BSA in a ratio of 73.3:13.3:13.3 (wt/wt) resulted in the lowest vaccine titre loss during production (1.6-2.0 log(10) 50% egg infectious dose (EID(50)) and storage at 6 °C (max. 0.8 log(10) EID(50) after 6 months) in combination with a low moisture content (1.1-1.4%), low hygroscopicity (1.9-2.1% water uptake at 60% relative humidity) and good dry dispersibility properties.

  3. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of losartan and its active metabolite on dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Rao, R Nageswara; Raju, S Satyanarayana; Vali, R Mastan; Sankar, G Girija

    2012-08-01

    A simple and rapid quantitative bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of losartan and its active metabolite, losartan carboxylic acid on rat dried blood spots was developed and validated as per regulatory guidelines. Losartan and its metabolite were extracted from dried blood spots using 50% aqueous methanol and separated on Waters XTerra(®) RP18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using mobile phase composed of 40% acetonitrile and 60% aqueous ammonium acetate (10mM). The eluents were monitored using ESI tandem mass spectrometric detection with negative polarity in MRM mode using ion transitions m/z 421.2→179.0, m/z 435.3→157.0 and m/z 427.3→193.0 for losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and Irbesartan (internal standard), respectively. The method was validated over the linear range of 1-200 ng/mL and 5-1000 ng/mL with lower limits of quantification of 1.0 ng/mL and 5.0 ng/mL for losartan and losartan carboxylic acid, respectively. Inter and intra-day precision and accuracy (Bias) were below 5.96% and between -2.8 and 1.5%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the analytes from dried blood spots were between 89% and 97%. No significant carry over and matrix effects were observed. The stability of stock solution, whole blood, dried blood spot and processed samples were tested under different conditions and the results were found to be well within the acceptable limits. Additional validation parameters such as influence of hematocrit and spot volume were also evaluated and found to be well within the acceptable limits.

  4. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  5. Numerical simulation of coupled heat and mass transfer in wood dried at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhenggang; Kaliske, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The mutual effect between heat and mass transfer is investigated for wood dried at high temperature. A numerical model of coupled heat and mass transfer under the effect of the pressure gradient is presented. Based on the macroscopic viewpoint of continuum mechanics, the mathematical model with three independent variables (temperature, moisture content and gas pressure) is constructed. Mass transfer in the pores involves a diffusional flow driven by the gradient of moisture content, convectional flow of gaseous mixture governed by the gradient of gas pressure, the Soret effect and phase change of water. Energy gain or loss due to phase change of water is taken as the heat source. Numerical methods, the finite element method and the finite difference method are used to discretize the spatial and time dimension, respectively. A direct iteration method to solve the nonlinear problem without direct evaluation of the tangential matrix is introduced. The local convergence condition based on the contraction-mapping principle is discussed. The mathematical model is applied to a 3-D wood board dried at high temperature with the Neumann boundary conditions for both temperature and moisture content, and the Dirichlet boundary conditions for gas pressure.

  6. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  7. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  8. Effect of biological treatment of the ceramic mass on the drying and firing of facing tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, V.V.; Sidorova, V.A.; Skripnik, V.P.; Solnyshkina, T.N.; Vainberg, S.N.; Vlasov, A.S.; Yashchenko, O.I.

    1985-12-01

    The authors studied the ceramic masses of the Minsk Building Materials Production complex (MZSM) and the Kishinev FinishingMaterials Plant (KZOM) having the following compositions: MZSM--48% Vesejovsk VGP clay, 22% nepheline concentrate, 17% quartz sand, 8% dolomite, 5% title scrap, and above 100% 3% bentonite, 0.1% soda ash, and 0.28% liquid glass; KZOM-48% Veselovsk VGP clay, 28% nepheline-syenite, 8% limestone filings (scrap), 16% title scrap, and, above 100%, 1% bentonite and 3% sodium tripolyphosphate. Improving the quality of ceramic tiles and reducing the mineral and fuel-energy consumption in their production are among the practical industrial problems. This paper discusses a method of solving them by improving the drying and firing processes of the products.

  9. Mathematical modeling of convective heat and mass transfer in the drying of solid particles in a bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakorchevskii, A. I.; Vylegzhanin, A. N.; Gaskevich, I. V.

    1994-07-01

    A closed system of equations is proposed for calculating convective heat and mass transfer in the drying of solid particles by a gaseous heat transfer agent in a moving bed. As an example, the operation of a belt-type dryer with crossed interaction of a drying agent and a bed of fruit cut into circular slices is considered. Results of a numerical solution of the problem are presented in figures.

  10. Technical note: Air compared to nitrogen as nebulizing and drying gases for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mielczarek, P; Silberring, J; Smoluch, M

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we tested the application of compressed air instead of pure nitrogen as the nebulizing and drying gas, and its influence on the quality of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra. The intensities of the signals corresponding to protonated molecules were significantly (twice) higher when air was used. Inspection of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios revealed that, in both cases, sensitivity was comparable. A higher ion abundance after the application of compressed air was followed by a higher background. Another potential risk of using air in the ESI source is the possibility for sample oxidation due to the presence of oxygen. To test this, we selected five easily oxidizing compounds to verify their susceptibility to oxidation. In particular, the presence of methionine was of interest. For all the compounds studied, no oxidation was observed. Amodiaquine oxidizes spontaneously in water solutions and its oxidized form can be detected a few hours after preparation. Direct comparison of the spectra where nitrogen was used with the corresponding spectra obtained when air was applied did not show significant differences. The only distinction was slightly different patterns of adducts when air was used. The difference concerns acetonitrile, which forms higher signals when air is the nebulizing gas. It is also important that the replacement of nitrogen with air does not affect quantitative data. The prepared calibration curves also visualize an intensity twice as high (independent of concentration within tested range) of the signal where air was applied. We have used our system continuously for three months with air as the nebulizing and drying gas and have not noticed any unexpected signal deterioration caused by additional source contamination from the air. Moreover, compressed air is much cheaper and easily available using oil-free compressors or pumps.

  11. Sulfatide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy in Dried Blood and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Spacil, Zdenek; Kumar, Arun Babu; Liao, Hsuan-Chieh; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Stark, Samantha; Suhr, Teryn R.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study. PMID:26585924

  12. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Rough Rice Under Convective and Infrared Drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared drying of rice can reduce drying time, perform disinfestations and reduce rice fissuring compared to traditional hot air drying method. Fissures in the rice kernels are caused by high moisture content gradients within the kernels. To understand the moisture distributions within a rice ker...

  13. Moisture and drug solid-state monitoring during a continuous drying process using empirical and mass balance models.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Gildemyn, Delphine; Peeters, Elisabeth; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Gernaey, Krist V; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Classically, the end point detection during fluid bed drying has been performed using indirect parameters, such as the product temperature or the humidity of the outlet drying air. This paper aims at comparing those classic methods to both in-line moisture and solid-state determination by means of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools (Raman and NIR spectroscopy) and a mass balance approach. The six-segmented fluid bed drying system being part of a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line (ConsiGma™-25) was used for this study. A theophylline:lactose:PVP (30:67.5:2.5) blend was chosen as model formulation. For the development of the NIR-based moisture determination model, 15 calibration experiments in the fluid bed dryer were performed. Six test experiments were conducted afterwards, and the product was monitored in-line with NIR and Raman spectroscopy during drying. The results (drying endpoint and residual moisture) obtained via the NIR-based moisture determination model, the classical approach by means of indirect parameters and the mass balance model were then compared. Our conclusion is that the PAT-based method is most suited for use in a production set-up. Secondly, the different size fractions of the dried granules obtained during different experiments (fines, yield and oversized granules) were compared separately, revealing differences in both solid state of theophylline and moisture content between the different granule size fractions.

  14. Dried Blood Spot Proteomics: Surface Extraction of Endogenous Proteins Coupled with Automated Sample Preparation and Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spots offer many advantages as a sample format including ease and safety of transport and handling. To date, the majority of mass spectrometry analyses of dried blood spots have focused on small molecules or hemoglobin. However, dried blood spots are a potentially rich source of protein biomarkers, an area that has been overlooked. To address this issue, we have applied an untargeted bottom-up proteomics approach to the analysis of dried blood spots. We present an automated and integrated method for extraction of endogenous proteins from the surface of dried blood spots and sample preparation via trypsin digestion by use of the Advion Biosciences Triversa Nanomate robotic platform. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the resulting digests enabled identification of 120 proteins from a single dried blood spot. The proteins identified cross a concentration range of four orders of magnitude. The method is evaluated and the results discussed in terms of the proteins identified and their potential use as biomarkers in screening programs.

  15. A dried blood spot mass spectrometry metabolomic approach for rapid breast cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingjun; Sun, Tao; Cao, Yunfeng; Gao, Peng; Dong, Jun; Fang, Yanhua; Fang, Zhongze; Sun, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Zhitu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer (BC) is still a lethal threat to women worldwide. An accurate screening and diagnosis strategy performed in an easy-to-operate manner is highly warranted in clinical perspective. Besides the routinely focused protein markers, blood is full of small molecular metabolites with diverse structures and properties. This study aimed to screen metabolite markers with BC diagnosis potentials. Methods A dried blood spot-based direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic analysis was conducted for BC and non-BC differentiation. The targeted analytes included 23 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines. Results Multivariate analysis screened out 21 BC-related metabolites in the blood. Regression analysis generated a diagnosis model consisting of parameters Pip, Asn, Pro, C14:1/C16, Phe/Tyr, and Gly/Ala. Tested with another set of BC and non-BC samples, this model showed a sensitivity of 92.2% and a specificity of 84.4%. Compared to the routinely used protein markers, this model exhibited distinct advantage with its higher sensitivity. Conclusion Blood metabolites screening is a more plausible approach for BC detection. Furthermore, this direct MS analysis could be finished within few minutes, which means that its throughput is higher than the currently used imaging techniques. PMID:27042107

  16. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency. PMID:26609436

  17. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  18. Dried blood spot analysis by digital microfluidics coupled to nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shih, Steve C C; Yang, Hao; Jebrail, Mais J; Fobel, Ryan; McIntosh, Nathan; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2012-04-17

    Dried blood spot (DBS) samples on filter paper are surging in popularity as a sampling and storage vehicle for a wide range of clinical and pharmaceutical applications. For example, a DBS sample is collected from every baby born in the province of Ontario, Canada, for quantification of approximately one hundred analytes that are used to screen for 28 conditions, including succinylacetone (SA), a marker for hepatorenal tyrosinemia. Unfortunately, the conventional methods used to evaluate DBS samples for newborn screening and other applications are tedious and slow, with limited options for automated analysis. In response to this challenge, we have developed a method to couple digital microfluidics (DMF) to nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nESI-MS) for SA quantification in DBS samples. The new system is formed by sandwiching a pulled glass capillary emitter between the two DMF substrates such that the capillary emitter is immobilized without external seals or gaskets. Moreover, we introduce a new feedback control system that enables high-fidelity droplet manipulation across DBS samples without manual intervention. The system was validated by application to on-chip extraction, derivatization, and analysis of SA and other analytes from DBS samples, with comparable performance to gold-standard methods. We propose that the new methods described here can potentially contribute to a new generation of analytical techniques for quantifying analytes in DBS samples for a wide range of applications.

  19. Dried blood spot assay for the quantification of phenytoin using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Villanelli, Fabio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Rosati, Anna; Forni, Giulia; Funghini, Silvia; Shokry, Engy; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-02-02

    Phenytoin (PHT) is one of the most commonly used anticonvulsant drugs for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorders. The large amount of plasma required by conventional methods for drug quantification makes mass spectrometry combined with dried blood spot (DBS) sampling crucial for pediatric patients where therapeutic drug monitoring or pharmacokinetic studies may be difficult to realize. DBS represents a new convenient sampling support requiring minimally invasive blood drawing and providing long-term stability of samples and less expensive shipment and storage. The aim of this study was to develop a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of PHT on DBS. This analytical method was validated and gave good linearity (r(2)=0.999) in the range of 0-100mg/l. LOQ and LOD were 1.0mg/l and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The drug extraction from paper was performed in a few minutes using a mixture composed of organic solvent for 80%. The recovery ranged from 85 to 90%; PHT in DBS showed to be stable at different storage temperatures for one month. A good correlation was also obtained between PHT plasma and DBS concentrations. This method is both precise and accurate and appears to be particularly suitable to monitor treatment with a simple and convenient sample collection procedure.

  20. Protein identification from dried nipple aspirate fluid on Guthrie cards using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    DELMONICO, LUCAS; AREIAS, VIVIAN RABELLO; PINTO, RODRIGO CÉSAR; MATOS, CINTIA DA SILVA; ROSA, MARCO FELIPE FRANCO; DE AZEVEDO, CAROLINA MARIA; ALVES, GILDA

    2015-01-01

    Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) requires investigation as a potential source of biomarkers for early diagnosis or risk assessment in breast cancer and other breast disorders. The present study demonstrated that proteins were easily extracted from dried NAF spots on Guthrie cards and were suitable for mass spectrometry analysis. NAF was obtained from 80 women, collected on Guthrie cards, between 2007 and 2010. The NAF-proteins were extracted from the card by incubating the card in water. These proteins were then quantified and separated using one-dimensional, 12% SDS-PAGE, gel electrophoresis and on high-resolution gradient gels at different concentrations (4–12, 8–16 and 4–20%). The bands with the most abundant proteins were excised from the gradient gels and the proteins were identified by liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight. Immunoglobulins, Zn-α2-glicoprotein, apoliprotein D and prolactin inducible protein were among those identified. The NAF-Guthrie card collection method has not been applied previously, however, NAF proteins have been identified using other collecting techniques, confirming the feasibility of the NAF Guthrie card collection method for analyzing the proteins within NAF. The NAF-Guthrie card collecting method has multiple advantages, including being inexpensive, non-invasive, reliable and painless, and the cards can be stored at room temperature. Examining NAF may assist in identifying individuals at a higher risk of breast cancer and in improving patient prognosis. PMID:25760982

  1. Heat and mass transfer models to understand the drying mechanisms of a porous substrate.

    PubMed

    Songok, Joel; Bousfield, Douglas W; Gane, Patrick A C; Toivakka, Martti

    2016-02-01

    While drying of paper and paper coatings is expensive, with significant energy requirements, the rate controlling mechanisms are not currently fully understood. Two two-dimensional models are used as a first approximation to predict the heat transfer during hot air drying and to evaluate the role of various parameters on the drying rates of porous coatings. The models help determine the structural limiting factors during the drying process, while applying for the first time the recently known values of coating thermal diffusivity. The results indicate that the thermal conductivity of the coating structure is not the controlling factor, but the drying rate is rather determined by the thermal transfer process at the structure surface. This underlines the need for ensuring an efficient thermal transfer from hot air to coating surface during drying, before considering further measures to increase the thermal conductivity of porous coatings.

  2. [The analysis of the causes of variability of the relationship between leaf dry mass and area in plants].

    PubMed

    Vasfilov, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lamina dry mass: area ratio (LMA - Leaf Mass per Area) is a quite variable trait. Leaf dry mass consists of symplast mass (a set of all leaf protoplasts) and apoplast mass (a set of all cell walls in a leaf). The ratio between symplast and apoplast masses is positively related to any functional trait of leaf calculated per unit of dry mass. The value of this ratio is defined by cells size and their number per unit of leaf area, number of mesophyll cells layers and their differentiation between palisade and spongy ones, and also by density of cells packing. The LMA value is defined by leaf thickness and density. The extent and direction of variability in both leaf traits define the extent and direction of variability in LMA. Negative correlation between leaf thickness and density reduces the level of LMA variability. As a consequence of this correlation the following pattern emerges: the thinner a leaf, the denser it is. Changes in the traits that define the LMA value take place both within a species under the influence of environmental factors and between species that differ in leaf structure and functions. Light is the most powerful environmental factor that influences the LMA, increase in illumination leading to increase in LMA. This effect occurs during leaf growth at the expense of structural changes associated with the reduction of symplast/apoplast mass ratio. Under conditions of intense illumination, LMA may increase due to accumulation of starch. With regard to the majority of leaf functions, the mass of starch may be ascribed to apoplast. Starch accumulation in leaves is observed also under conditions of elevated CO2 concentration in the air. Under high illumination, however, LMA increases also due to increased apoplast contribution to leaf dry mass. Scarce mineral nutrition leads to LMA increase due to lowering of growth zones demands for phothosyntates and, therefore, to increase in starch content of leaves. High level of mineral nutrition during

  3. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze drying: II. Control and characterization of the degree of supercooling.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, Shailaja; Ramot, Roee; Bhugra, Chandan; Pikal, Michael J

    2004-08-05

    This study aims to investigate the effect of the ice nucleation temperature on the primary drying process using an ice fog technique for temperature-controlled nucleation. In order to facilitate scale up of the freeze-drying process, this research seeks to find a correlation of the product resistance and the degree of supercooling with the specific surface area of the product. Freeze-drying experiments were performed using 5% wt/vol solutions of sucrose, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch (HES), and mannitol. Temperature-controlled nucleation was achieved using the ice fog technique where cold nitrogen gas was introduced into the chamber to form an "ice fog," thereby facilitating nucleation of samples at the temperature of interest. Manometric temperature measurement (MTM) was used during primary drying to evaluate the product resistance as a function of cake thickness. Specific surface areas (SSA) of the freeze-dried cakes were determined. The ice fog technique was refined to successfully control the ice nucleation temperature of solutions within 1 degrees C. A significant increase in product resistance was produced by a decrease in nucleation temperature. The SSA was found to increase with decreasing nucleation temperature, and the product resistance increased with increasing SSA. The ice fog technique can be refined into a viable method for nucleation temperature control. The SSA of the product correlates well with the degree of supercooling and with the resistance of the product to mass transfer (ie, flow of water vapor through the dry layer). Using this correlation and SSA measurements, one could predict scale-up drying differences and accordingly alter the freeze-drying process so as to bring about equivalence of product temperature history during lyophilization.

  4. Simultaneous determination of cocaine and opiates in dried blood spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Antelo-Domínguez, Ángel; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    A sample pre-treatment method based on blood spot collection filter cards was optimized as a means of using small volume samples for the screening and confirmation of cocaine and opiates abuse. Dried blood spots (DBSs) were prepared by dispersing 20 µL of whole blood specimens previously mixed with the internal standards (deuterated analogs of each target), and subjecting the whole DBS to extraction with 5 mL of methanol under orbital-horizontal shaking (180 rpm) for 10 min. Determinations were based on direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) by injecting the re-dissolved methanol extract with the delivery solution (acetonitrile-water-formic acid, 80:19.875:0.125) at a flow rate of 60 µL min(-1), and using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the m/z (precursor ion)→m/z (product ion) transitions for acquisition. Matrix effect has been found to be statistically significant (Multiple Range Test) when assessing cocaine, BZE, codeine and morphine, and the use of the standard addition method (dispersion of whole blood previously mixed with standards onto the filter papers) was needed for accurate determinations. The developed DBS-ESI-MS/MS procedure offered good intra-day and inter-day precisions (lower than 10% and 12%, respectively), as well as good intra-day and inter-day accuracies (inter-day absolute recoveries, expressed as the mean analytical recovery over three target concentration levels, of 103%, 100%, 101%, 98% and 100% for cocaine, BZE, codeine, morphine and 6-MAM, respectively). The high sensitivity inherent to MS/MS determinations combined with the minimal dilution of sample allowed low limits of quantification for all targets, and the developed method results therefore adequate for cocaine and opiates screening and confirmation purposes. The procedure was finally applied to DBSs prepared from whole blood from polydrug abusers, and results were compared with those obtained after a conventional sample pretreatment

  5. Identification and quantification of the phosphorylated ovalbumin by high resolution mass spectrometry under dry-heating treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Tu, Zong-Cai; Liu, Guang-Xian; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    The specific phosphorylation sites and degree of phosphorylation (DP) at each site are directly related to protein's structure and functional properties. Thus, characterizing the introduced phosphate groups is of great importance. This study was to monitor the phosphorylation sites, DP and the number of phosphorylation sites in P-Oval achieved by dry heating in the presence of pyrophosphate for 1, 2 and 5days by using Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Two phosphorylation sites were found in natural ovalbumin, but the number of phosphorylation sites increased to 8, 8 and 10 after dry-heating phosphorylation for 1, 2 and 5days, respectively. In addition, dual-phosphorylated peptides were detected for samples without extensive heating. The phosphorylation sites were found to be mainly on Ser residues, which could be the preferred phosphorylation site for dry heating in the presence of pyrophosphate.

  6. Enhanced summer warming reduces fungal decomposer diversity and litter mass loss more strongly in dry than in wet tundra.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Casper T; Haugwitz, Merian S; Priemé, Anders; Nielsen, Cecilie S; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders; Grogan, Paul; Blok, Daan

    2017-01-01

    Many Arctic regions are currently experiencing substantial summer and winter climate changes. Litter decomposition is a fundamental component of ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles, with fungi being among the primary decomposers. To assess the impacts of seasonal climatic changes on litter fungal communities and their functioning, Betula glandulosa leaf litter was surface-incubated in two adjacent low Arctic sites with contrasting soil moisture regimes: dry shrub heath and wet sedge tundra at Disko Island, Greenland. At both sites, we investigated the impacts of factorial combinations of enhanced summer warming (using open-top chambers; OTCs) and deepened snow (using snow fences) on surface litter mass loss, chemistry and fungal decomposer communities after approximately 1 year. Enhanced summer warming significantly restricted litter mass loss by 32% in the dry and 17% in the wet site. Litter moisture content was significantly reduced by summer warming in the dry, but not in the wet site. Likewise, fungal total abundance and diversity were reduced by OTC warming at the dry site, while comparatively modest warming effects were observed in the wet site. These results suggest that increased evapotranspiration in the OTC plots lowered litter moisture content to the point where fungal decomposition activities became inhibited. In contrast, snow addition enhanced fungal abundance in both sites but did not significantly affect litter mass loss rates. Across sites, control plots only shared 15% of their fungal phylotypes, suggesting strong local controls on fungal decomposer community composition. Nevertheless, fungal community functioning (litter decomposition) was negatively affected by warming in both sites. We conclude that although buried soil organic matter decomposition is widely expected to increase with future summer warming, surface litter decay and nutrient turnover rates in both xeric and relatively moist tundra are likely to be significantly restricted by

  7. Improvement of industrial drying of natural rubber through analysis of heat and mass transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Naon, B.; Berthomieu, G.; Benet, J.C.; Saix, C.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis is presented of convective drying of natural rubber in granule form. Exploitation of the mathematical model developed from analysis of internal transfers requires determination of the drying rate and the energy exchange coefficient between the material and the drying air. This was performed using a portable laboratory dryer at the production site, avoiding the problem of changes in the material during transport. Analysis of the drying kinetics of material in thin layers led to modelling the drying rate at the temperatures, rates and relative humidity values encountered in industrial dryers. The energy exchange coefficient was found by measurement of air and granule temperatures. Thick layer trials showed the suitability of the model for simulation of changes in moisture content and temperature of air and granules in a granular environment. The study as a whole led to the development of a computer program for simulating a zone dryer. This software can be used to optimize the management of an industrial natural rubber drying installation.

  8. Grain sterility in relation to dry mass production and distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Puteh, Adam B; Mondal, M Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation.

  9. Grain Sterility in relation to Dry Mass Production and Distribution in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Puteh, Adam B.; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd. Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation. PMID:24895563

  10. Monitoring the biomass accumulation of recombinant yeast cultures: offline estimations of dry cell mass and cell counts.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shane M; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2012-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most important parameters for process optimization, scale-up and control in recombinant protein production experiments. However, a standard unit of biomass remains elusive. Methods of biomass monitoring have increasingly been developed towards online, in situ techniques in order to advance process analysis and control. Offline, ex situ methods, such as dry cell mass determination and direct cell counts, remain the reference for determining cell mass and number, respectively, but this type of analysis is time consuming. In this chapter, protocols are presented for determining these offline measures of the biomass yield of recombinant yeast cultures.

  11. Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Gieseler, Henning; Kessler, William J; Finson, Michael; Davis, Steven J; Mulhall, Phillip A; Bons, Vincent; Debo, David J; Pikal, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this work was to demonstrate the use of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) as a noninvasive method to continuously measure the water vapor concentration and the vapor flow velocity in the spool connecting a freeze-dryer chamber and condenser. The instantaneous measurements were used to determine the water vapor mass flow rate (g/s). The mass flow determinations provided a continuous measurement of the total amount of water removed. Full load runs of pure water at different pressure and shelf temperature settings and a 5% (w/w) mannitol product run were performed in both laboratory and pilot scale freeze dryers. The ratio of "gravimetric/TDLAS" measurements of water removed was 1.02 +/- 0.06. A theoretical heat transfer model was used to predict the mass flow rate and the model results were compared to both the gravimetric and TDLAS data. Good agreement was also observed in the "gravimetric/TDLAS" ratio for the 5% mannitol runs dried in both freeze dryers. The endpoints of primary and secondary drying for the product runs were clearly identified. Comparison of the velocity and mass flux profiles between the laboratory and pilot dryers indicated a higher restriction to mass flow for the lab scale freeze dryer.

  12. Use of dried blood spots and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multi-element determination in blood.

    PubMed

    Vacchina, Véronique; Huin, Vincent; Hulo, Sébastien; Cuny, Damien; Broly, Franck; Renom, Gilles; Perini, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the development of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method for multitrace element determination in dried blood spots (DBSs). The analytical conditions were optimized using Seronorm™ L-3 and L-1 Certified Reference Materials. The best results were obtained by sampling blood drops on a decontaminated PVDF filter membrane. After drying under metal-free conditions, the DBSs underwent acidic digestion and were analyzed with ICP MS. The method was then validated for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn. Using a matrix-matched calibration curve, the recovery levels ranged from 96% to 117%. The repeatability and reproducibility were generally below 15%. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.5 to 50 μg/L. In order to investigate the analytical procedure under real sampling conditions, the results obtained from DBSs and liquid blood aliquots (less subject to contamination) from two adult subjects were compared.

  13. Development Strategies for Herbal Products Reducing the Influence of Natural Variance in Dry Mass on Tableting Properties and Tablet Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    One “Quality by Design” approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

  14. Analysis on the go: quantitation of drugs of abuse in dried urine with digital microfluidics and miniature mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Andrea E; Lafrenière, Nelson M; Seale, Brendon; Hendricks, Paul I; Cooks, R Graham; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2014-06-17

    We report the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets of solvent to dried urine samples and then transport extracted analytes to an array of nanoelectrospray emitters for analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection was performed using a fully autonomous 25 kg instrument. Using the new method, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and codeine can be quantified from four samples in less than 15 min from (dried) sample to analysis. The figures of merit for the new method suggest that it is suitable for on-site screening; for example, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for cocaine is 40 ng/mL, which is compatible with the performance criteria for laboratory analyses established by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. More importantly, the LOQ of the new method is superior to the 300 ng/mL cutoff values used by the only other portable analysis systems we are aware of (relying on immunoassays). This work serves as a proof-of-concept for integration of microfluidics with miniature mass spectrometry. The system is attractive for the quantitation of drugs of abuse from urine and, more generally, may be useful for a wide range of applications that would benefit from portable, quantitative, on-site analysis.

  15. A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based method for measuring propranolol on dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Villanelli, Fabio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Bagnoli, Paola; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2013-05-05

    Propranolol, a non-selective beta blocker drug, is used in young infants and newborns for treating several heart diseases; its pharmacokinetics has been extensively evaluated in adult patients using extrapolation to treat pediatric population. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a method to measure propranolol levels in dried blood spots. The analysis was performed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 2.5-200 μg/L with correlation coefficient r=0.9996. Intra-day and inter-day precisions and biases were less than 8.0% (n=10) and 11.5% (n=10) respectively. The recoveries ranged from 94 to 100% and the matrix effect did not result in a severe signal suppression. Propranolol on dried blood spot showed a good stability at three different temperatures for one month. This paper describes a micromethod for measuring propranolol levels on dried blood spot, which determines a great advantage in neonates or young infants during pharmacokinetic studies because of less invasive sampling and small blood volume required.

  16. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Tang, Camilla; Eriksson, Eva; Jönsson, Karin; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening.

  17. A macroscale mixture theory analysis of deposition and sublimation rates during heat and mass transfer in dry snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. C.; Foslien, W. E.

    2015-09-01

    The microstructure of a dry alpine snowpack is a dynamic environment where microstructural evolution is driven by seasonal density profiles and weather conditions. Notably, temperature gradients on the order of 10-20 K m-1, or larger, are known to produce a faceted snow microstructure exhibiting little strength. However, while strong temperature gradients are widely accepted as the primary driver for kinetic growth, they do not fully account for the range of experimental observations. An additional factor influencing snow metamorphism is believed to be the rate of mass transfer at the macroscale. We develop a mixture theory capable of predicting macroscale deposition and/or sublimation in a snow cover under temperature gradient conditions. Temperature gradients and mass exchange are tracked over periods ranging from 1 to 10 days. Interesting heat and mass transfer behavior is observed near the ground, near the surface, as well as immediately above and below dense ice crusts. Information about deposition (condensation) and sublimation rates may help explain snow metamorphism phenomena that cannot be accounted for by temperature gradients alone. The macroscale heat and mass transfer analysis requires accurate representations of the effective thermal conductivity and the effective mass diffusion coefficient for snow. We develop analytical models for these parameters based on first principles at the microscale. The expressions derived contain no empirical adjustments, and further, provide self consistent values for effective thermal conductivity and the effective diffusion coefficient for the limiting cases of air and solid ice. The predicted values for these macroscale material parameters are also in excellent agreement with numerical results based on microscale finite element analyses of representative volume elements generated from X-ray tomography.

  18. Comparison of laser ablation and dried solution aerosol as sampling systems in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a study designed to determine the possibility of using a dried aerosol solution for calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The relative sensitivities of tested materials mobilized by laser ablation and by aqueous nebulization were established, and the experimentally determined relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were used in conjunction with aqueous calibration for the analysis of solid steel samples. To such a purpose a set of CRM carbon steel samples (SS-451/1 to SS-460/1) were sampled into an ICP-MS instrument by solution nebulization using a microconcentric nebulizer with membrane desolvating (D-MCN) and by laser ablation (LA). Both systems were applied with the same ICP-MS operating parameters and the analyte signals were compared. The RSF (desolvated aerosol response/ablated solid response) values were close to 1 for the analytes Cr, Ni, Co, V, and W, about 1.3 for Mo, and 1.7 for As, P, and Mn. Complementary tests were carried out using CRM SS-455/1 as a solid standard for one-point calibration, applying LAMTRACE software for data reduction and quantification. The analytical results are in good agreement with the certified values in all cases, showing that the applicability of dried aerosol solutions is a good alternative calibration system for laser ablation sampling.

  19. Direct tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous assay of opioids, cocaine and metabolites in dried urine spots.

    PubMed

    Otero-Fernández, Mara; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-06-19

    A micro-analytical method based on spotting urine samples (20μL) onto blood/urine spot collection cards followed by air-drying and extraction (dried urine spot, DUS) was developed and validated for the screening/confirmation assay of morphine, 6-methylacetylmorphine (6-MAM), codeine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE). Acetonitrile (3 mL) was found to be a useful solvent for target extraction from DUSs under an orbital-horizontal stirring at 180 rpm for 10 min. Determinations were performed by direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) under positive electrospray ionization conditions, and by using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with one precursor ion/product ion transition for the identification and quantification (deuterated analogs of each target as internal standards) of each analyte. The limits of detection of the method were 0.26, 0.94, 1.5, 1.1, and 2.0 ng mL(-1), for cocaine, BZE, codeine, morphine and 6-MAM, respectively; whereas, relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8 and 11%, respectively, and intra- and inter-day analytical recoveries ranged from 94±4 to 105±3%. The small volume of urine required (20 μL), combined with the simplicity of the analytical technique makes it a useful procedure for screening/quantifying drugs of abuse. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of urine from polydrug abusers.

  20. Wet and dry deposition of 129I in Seville (Spain) measured by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-Gutiérrez, J M; García-León, M; Schnabel, C; Suter, M; Synal, H A; Szidat, S

    2001-01-01

    Iodine-129 (T1/2 = 1.57 x 10(7) yr) concentrations have been determined by accelerator mass spectrometry in rainwater samples taken at Seville (southwestern Spain) in 1996 and 1997. This technique allows a reduction in the detection limits for this radionuclide in comparison to radiometric counting and other mass spectrometric methods such as ICP-MS. Typical 129I concentrations range from 4.7 x 10(7) 129I atoms/l (19.2%) to 4.97 x 10(9) 129I atoms/l (5.9%), while 129I depositions are normally in the order of 10(8)-10(10) atoms/m2d. These values agree well with other results obtained for recent rainwater samples collected in Europe. Apart from these, the relationship between 129I deposition and some atmospheric factors has been analyzed, showing the importance of the precipitation rate and the concentration of suspended matter in it.

  1. Hemoglobin Variant Analysis via Direct Surface Sampling of Dried Blood Spots Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited disorders. Newborn blood screening for clinically significant hemoglobin variants, including sickle (HbS), HbC, and HbD, has been adopted in many countries as it is widely acknowledged that early detection improves the outcome. We present a method for determination of Hb variants by direct surface sampling of dried blood spots by use of an Advion Triversa Nanomate automated electrospray system coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The method involves no sample preparation. It is possible to unambiguously identify homozygous and heterozygous HbS, HbC, and HbD variants in <10 min without the need for additional confirmation. The method allows for repeated analysis of a single blood spot over a prolonged time period and is tolerant of blood spot storage conditions. PMID:21341716

  2. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.

  3. Analysing drying unit performance in a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing line by means of mass--energy balances.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2014-04-01

    The current trend in the pharmaceutical industry to move from batch-wise to continuous production processes strengthens the need for monitoring and controlling the process in-line. The ConsiGma™ continuous tableting line collects data of the different subunits in real-time, but these are not really used. In this paper the data of the six-segmented fluidized bed dryer in the line are used for the development and evaluation of a mass and energy balance. The objectives are multiple: (1) prediction of the moisture content of the granules leaving the dryer solely based on the currently logged data and (2) prediction of the gas outlet temperature to check the mass balances. Once a validated system is established the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the drying unit can be predicted. Calculations are also used to identify errors in the system and to propose alternative sensor locations. A calibration is performed in order to predict the evaporation rate. The balances were able to predict both the moisture content of the granules at the end of the drying process and the gas outlet temperature quite accurately. Combining the gathered information with the height of the bed in the fluidized bed can be used to predict the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the dryer. An extra sensor measuring the gas temperature and the humidity at the wet transfer line would increase the accuracy of the calculations. An extra gas velocity sensor at the outlet would be useful to incorporate an extra supervision of the calculations.

  4. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermani, M. J.; Stockie, J. M.

    2004-02-01

    The transport of three gas species, O2, H2O and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically. The diffusion of the individual species is modeled via the Maxwell-Stefan equations, coupled with appropriate conservation equations. Two mechanisms are assumed for the internal energy sources in the system: a volumetric heat source due to the electrical current flowing through the cathode; and heat flow towards the cathode at the cathode-membrane interface due to the exothermic chemical reaction at this interface, in which water is generated. The governing equations of the unsteady fluid motion are written in fully conservative form, and consist of the following: (i) three equations for the mass conservation of the species; (ii) the momentum equation for the mixture, which is approximated using Darcy's Law for flow in porous media; and (iii) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable.

  5. Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, James

    1999-02-12

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

  6. On-line liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry simultaneous determination of opiates, cocainics and amphetamines in dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Saussereau, E; Lacroix, C; Gaulier, J M; Goulle, J P

    2012-02-15

    A novel approach has been developed for the illicit drugs quantitative determination using dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. The illicit drugs tested were opiates (morphine and its 3- and 6-glucuronide metabolites, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine), cocainics (ecgonine methylester, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, cocaethylene) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA). The described method, requiring a small blood volume, is based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using on-line extraction. A Whatman card 903 was spotted with 30μL of whole blood and left overnight to dry at room temperature. A 3-mm diameter disk was removed using a manual punch, suspended in 150μL of water for 10min with ultrasonication, and then 100μL was injected in the on-line LC-MS/MS system. An Oasis HLB was used as an extraction column and a C18 Atlantis as an analytical column. The chromatographic cycle was performed with 20mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 2.8) (solvent A) and acetonitrile/solvent A (90:10, v/v) gradient in 16min. Detection was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI+) with a Quattro Micro (Waters). Recoveries of all analytes were up to 80%. DBS were stored in duplicate at 4°C and -20°C for up to 6 months. Illicit drugs seemed to be much more stabled at -20°C. Furthermore, it was tested whether analysis of DBS may be as reliable as that of whole blood investigating authentic samples; significant correlations were obtained. This DBS assay has potential as rapid, sensitive and inexpensive option for the illicit drugs determination in small blood volumes, which seems of great interest in suspected cases of driving under the influence of drugs.

  7. Quantification of Warfarin in Dried Rat Plasma Spots by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development and validation of a novel method for quantification of the oral anticoagulant drug warfarin in dried plasma spots (DPS) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Blood plasma was chosen as a biological fluid to preclude the influence of the hematocrit on the results of the analysis. A 30 μL sample of rat plasma was placed onto Whatman 903 Protein Saver Card and was allowed to dry. A single DPS is sufficient for preparing eight 3.2 mm discs, each containing approximately 1.5–1.6 μL of plasma. Warfarin extraction from one 3.2 mm disc was carried out by adding 200 μL of the acetonitrile : water mixture (1 : 1, v/v) containing 10 mM NH4COOH (pH 4.0), with incubation on a shaker at 1000 rpm for 1 h at 25°C. After chromatographic separation, warfarin and coumachlor (an internal standard) were measured using negative-ion multiple-reaction monitoring with ion transitions m/z 307 → 161 for warfarin and m/z 341 → 161 for the internal standard. The working range of this method is 10–10,000 ng/mL. Within this range, intra- and interday variability of precision and accuracy was <13% and recovery was 82–99%. The results indicate that the new method requires only small plasma samples and may be useful for pharmacokinetic research on warfarin. PMID:28058133

  8. Direct multiplex assay of enzymes in dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry for the newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Turecek, Frantisek; Scott, C. Ron; Chamoles, Nestor A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Tandem mass spectrometry is currently used in newborn screening programmes to quantify the level of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots for detection of metabolites associated with treatable diseases. We have developed assays for lysosomal enzymes in re-hydrated dried blood spots in which a set of substrates is added and the set of corresponding enzymatic products are quantified using tandem mass spectrometry with the aid of mass-differentiated internal standards. We have developed a multiplex assay of the set of enzymes that, when deficient, cause the lysosomal storage disorders Fabry, Gaucher, Hurler, Krabbe, Niemann–Pick A/B and Pompe diseases. These diseases were selected because treatments are now available or expected to emerge shortly. The discovery that acarbose is a selective inhibitor of maltase glucoamylase allows the Pompe disease enzyme, acid α-glucosidase, to be selectively assayed in white blood cells and dried blood spots. When tested with dried blood spots from 40 unaffected individuals and 10–12 individuals with the lysosomal storage disorder, the tandem mass spectrometry assay led to the correct identification of the affected individuals with 100% sensitivity. Many of the reagents needed for the new assays are commercially available, and those that are not are being prepared under Good Manufacturing Procedures for approval by the FDA. Our newborn screening assay for Krabbe disease is currently being put in place at the Wadsworth Center in New York State for the analysis of ~1000 dried blood spots per day. Summary We have developed tandem mass spectrometry for the direct assay of lysosomal enzymes in rehydrated dried blood spots that can be implemented for newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. Several enzymes can be analysed by a single method (multiplex analysis) and in a high-throughput manner appropriate for newborn screening laboratories. PMID:16763908

  9. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, III: control and characterization of dryer differences via operational qualification tests.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, S; Tchessalov, S; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-04-21

    The objective of this research was to estimate differences in heat and mass transfer between freeze dryers due to inherent design characteristics using data obtained from sublimation tests. This study also aimed to provide guidelines for convenient scale-up of the freeze-drying process. Data obtained from sublimation tests performed on laboratory-scale, pilot, and production freeze dryers were used to evaluate various heat and mass transfer parameters: nonuniformity in shelf surface temperatures, resistance of pipe, refrigeration system, and condenser. Emissivity measurements of relevant surfaces such as the chamber wall and the freeze dryer door were taken to evaluate the impact of atypical radiation heat transfer during scale-up. "Hot" and "cold" spots were identified on the shelf surface of different freeze dryers, and the impact of variation in shelf surface temperatures on the primary drying time and the product temperature during primary drying was studied. Calculations performed using emissivity measurements on different freeze dryers suggest that a front vial in the laboratory lyophilizer received 1.8 times more heat than a front vial in a manufacturing freeze dryer operating at a shelf temperature of -25 degrees C and a chamber pressure of 150 mTorr during primary drying. Therefore, front vials in the laboratory are much more atypical than front vials in manufacturing. Steady-state heat and mass transfer equations were used to study a combination of different scale-up issues pertinent during lyophilization cycles commonly used for the freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in the Transfer of Spent Nuclear Fuel from "Wet" to "Dry" Cask Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, Yu. E.; Pletnev, A. A.; Fedorovich, E. D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes in brief the heat and mass transfer processes in the transfer of spent nuclear fuel of the RBMK-100 reactor from "wet" to "dry" cask storage. The algorithms are described and the results are presented of the "through" calculation of the heat and mass transfer processes in ampoules and in a metal-concrete cask at various stages of spent nuclear fuel management.

  11. Dried blood spots: liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its main metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Sorella, Vittorio; Somaini, Lorenzo; Giocondi, Daniele; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2013-01-04

    A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method has been developed for the first time for the analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (the most important active cannabinoid) and its hydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites in human Dried Blood Spots (DBSs). The simultaneous determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and its two main metabolites allows assessing the time elapsed after the drug intake and distinguishing between acute or former consumption. This is an important information in specific contexts such as "on street" controls by police forces. DBSs have been chosen as the optimal biological matrix for this kind of testing, since they provide information on the actual state of intoxication, without storage and transportation problems usually associated with classical blood testing. The analysis is carried out on a C8 reversed phase column with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in a water/methanol mixture and an electrospray ionisation (ESI) source, coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated according to international guidelines, with satisfactory results in terms of extraction yields, precision, stability and accuracy. Application to real DBS samples from Cannabis abusers gave reliable results, thus confirming the methodology suitability for roadside testing.

  12. Therapeutic drug monitoring of everolimus using the dried blood spot method in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, J; de Beer, Y; Hoogtanders, K; Christiaans, M; de Jong, G J; Neef, C; Stolk, L

    2009-11-01

    An assay of everolimus based on finger prick sampling and consecutive application as a blood spot on sampling paper has been developed. We explored several methods [K. Hoogtanders, J. van der Heijden, M. Christiaans, P. Edelbroek, J. van Hooff, L. Stolk, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44 (2006) 658-664; A. Allanson, M. Cotton, J. Tettey, et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44 (2007) 963-969] and developed a new method, namely the impregnation of sampling paper with a solution of plasma-protein, formic acid and ammonium acetate, in combination with the extraction of the blood spot by filter filtration. This kind of sample preparation provides new possibilities for blood spot sampling especially if analytes are adsorbed to the paper. The dried blood spot was analysed using the HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method, with 32-desmethoxyrapamycin as the internal standard. The working range of our study was 2-30 microg/l. Within this range, intra-and inter-assay variability for precision and accuracy was <15%. Everolimus blood spot samples proved stable for 3 days at 60 degrees C and for 32 days at 4 degrees C. Everolimus concentrations of one stable out-patient were compared after both blood spot sampling and conventional venous sampling on various occasions. Results indicate that this new method is promising for therapeutic drug monitoring in stable renal transplant patients.

  13. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a twin quadrupole instrument using laser ablation sample introduction and monodisperse dried microparticulate injection

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Lloyd A.

    1996-10-17

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of a twin quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the simultaneous detection of two m/z values. The twin quadrupole ICP-MS is used with laser ablation sample introduction in both the steady state (10 Hz) and single pulse modes. Steady state signals are highly correlated and the majority of flicker noise cancels when the ratio is calculated. Using a copper sample, the isotope ratio 63Cu+/65Cu+ is measured with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.26%. Transient signals for single laser pulses are also obtained. Copper isotope ratio measurements for several laser pulses are measured with an RSD of 0.85%. Laser ablation (LA) is used with steel samples to assess the ability of the twin quadrupole ICP-MS to eliminate flicker noise of minor components of steel samples. Isotopic and internal standard ratios are measured in the first part of this work. The isotope ratio 52Cr+/53Cr+ (Cr present at 1.31 %) can be measured with an RSD of 0.06 % to 0.1 %. For internal standard elements, RSDs improve from 1.9 % in the Cr+ signal to 0.12% for the ratio of 51V+ to 52Cr+. In the second part of this work, one mass spectrometer is scanned while the second channel measures an individual m/z value. When the ratio of these two signals is calculated, the peak shapes in the mass spectrum are improved significantly. Pulses of analyte and matrix ions from individual drops are measured simultaneously using the twin quadrupole ICP-MS with monodisperse dried microparticulate injection (MDMI). At modest Pb concentrations (500 ppm), a shoulder on the leading edge of the Li+ signal becomes apparent. Space charge effects are consistent with the disturbances seen.

  14. Simultaneous quantitation of metformin and sitagliptin from mouse and human dried blood spots using laser diode thermal desorption tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Gallagher, Richard T; Denn, Mark; Peter, Raimund M

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and robust high-throughput assay for the simultaneous analysis of metformin and sitagliptin from mouse and human dried blood spot samples using laser diode thermal desorption interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS/MS) was developed for use in a pharmaceutical discovery environment as an alternative to traditional plasma analysis. Analytes were extracted from dried blood spots using a simple punch disc and solvent extract procedure. Details of the method development and optimization of the instrumental parameters are presented. The method was successfully applied to spiked mouse and human dried blood spot samples. Analyte stability was determined in dried blood spots on FTA cards and as extracts of dried blood spots. The method was subsequently used to determine the oral pharmacokinetics of metformin and sitagliptin after dosing to male mice. Metformin and Sitagliptin results are compared to data generated by more traditional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy and precision across the analytes and species deviated by less than 30% at all calibration levels and less than 20% at all quality control levels.

  15. Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement (MTM), a process analytical technology tool in freeze drying, part III: heat and mass transfer measurement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates the procedures for determining the vial heat transfer coefficient and the extent of primary drying through manometric temperature measurement (MTM). The vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) were calculated from the MTM-determined temperature and resistance and compared with Kv values determined by a gravimetric method. The differences between the MTM vial heat transfer coefficients and the gravimetric values are large at low shelf temperature but smaller when higher shelf temperatures were used. The differences also became smaller at higher chamber pressure and smaller when higher resistance materials were being freeze-dried. In all cases, using thermal shields greatly improved the accuracy of the MTM Kv measurement. With use of thermal shields, the thickness of the frozen layer calculated from MTM is in good agreement with values obtained gravimetrically. The heat transfer coefficient "error" is largely a direct result of the error in the dry layer resistance (ie, MTM-determined resistance is too low). This problem can be minimized if thermal shields are used for freeze-drying. With suitable use of thermal shields, accurate Kv values are obtained by MTM; thus allowing accurate calculations of heat and mass flow rates. The extent of primary drying can be monitored by real-time calculation of the amount of remaining ice using MTM data, thus providing a process analytical tool that greatly improves the freeze-drying process design and control.

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following microwave distillation and headspace solid-phase microextraction for fast analysis of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Deng, Chunhui; Li, Yan; Ye, Hao; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2006-11-10

    In this paper, a novel method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following microwave distillation-headspace solid-phase microextraction (MD-HS-SPME) was developed for the determination of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is dried before being preserved and used, there is too little water to absorb microwave energy and heat the TCM samples. In the work, carbonyl iron powders (CIP) was added and mixed with the dried TCM sample, which was used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of the TCM. At the same time, SPME was used for the extraction and concentration of essential oil after MD. The dry rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea DC was used as the model TCM, and used in the study. The MD-HS-SPME parameters including fiber coating, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added CIP, were studied. To demonstrate the method feasibility, the conventional HS-SPME method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in the TCM. Experimental results show that more compounds were isolated and identified by MD-HS-SPME than those by HS-SPME. Compared to conventional HS-SPME, the advantages of the proposed method are: short extraction time and high extraction efficiency. All experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative tool for fast analysis of essential oils in dry TCMs.

  17. An improved high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in freeze-dried and hot-air-dried Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Chen, Bing Huei

    2011-10-30

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antioxidant and anti-cancer activities, has been reported to contain functional components like carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and amount of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in hot-air-dried and freeze-dried R. nasutus. An Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column and a gradient mobile phase composed of methanol/N,N-dimethylformamide (97:3, v/v), acetonitrile and acetone were employed to separate internal standard zinc-phthalocyanine plus 12 cholorophylls and their derivatives within 21 min, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', hydroxychlorophyll a, 15-OH-lactone chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', hydroxychlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin a', hydroxypheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a' and pheophytin b in hot-air-dried R. nasutus with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. But, in freeze-dried R. nasutus, only 4 chlorophylls and their derivatives, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b and pheophytin a were detected. Zinc-phthalocyanine was found to be an appropriate internal standard to quantify all the chlorophyll compounds. After quantification by HPLC-DAD, both chlorophyll a and pheophytin a were the most abundant in hot-air-dried R. nasutus, while in freeze-dried R. nasutus, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b dominated.

  18. Quantification of rifapentine, a potent antituberculosis drug, from dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Teresa L; Marzinke, Mark A; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R; Dorman, Susan E; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials.

  19. Quantification of Rifapentine, a Potent Antituberculosis Drug, from Dried Blood Spot Samples Using Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Teresa L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  20. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from dry-blanched peanut skins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kerr, William L; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Swanson, Ruthann B; Pegg, Ronald B

    2014-08-22

    A large variety of phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and their esters), stilbenes (trans-resveratrol and trans-piceatannol), flavan-3-ols (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and their polymers {the proanthocyanidins, PACs}), other flavonoids (e.g., isoflavones, flavanols, and flavones, etc.) and biflavonoids (e.g., morelloflavone), were identified in dry-blanched peanut skins (PS) by this study. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was applied to separate and identify the phenolic constituents. Reversed-phase HPLC was employed to separate free phenolic compounds as well as PAC monomers, dimers, and trimers. PACs with a degree of polymerization (DP) of >4 were chromatographed via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Tentative identification of the separated phenolics was based solely on molecular ions and MS(n) fragmentation patterns acquired by ESI-MS in the negative-ion mode. The connection sequence of PAC oligomers (DP <5) could be deduced mainly through characteristic quinone methide (QM) cleavage ions. When the DP reached 6, only a proportion of the flavan-3-ols could be ascertained in the PACs because of the extremely complicated fragmentation patterns involved. The identification of free phenolic acids, stilbenes, and flavonoids was achieved by authentic commercial standards and also by published literature data. Quantification was performed based on peak areas of the UV (free phenolic compounds) or fluorescence (PACs) signals from the HPLC chromatograms and calibration curves of commercial standards. Overall, PS contain significantly more PACs compared to free phenolic compounds.

  1. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  2. Measurement of succinyl-carnitine and methylmalonyl-carnitine on dried blood spot by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Cristiano; Boenzi, Sara; Inglese, Rita; la Marca, Giancarlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Martinez, Tegra Barreiro; Johnson, David W; Zelli, Eleonora; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2014-02-15

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is one of the most frequent organic acidurias, a class of diseases caused by enzymatic defects mainly involved in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Recently, mild MMA and C4-dicarboxylyl-carnitine (C4DC-C) accumulation have been reported in patients carrying mutation in genes encoding the α-subunit (SUCLG1) and the β-subunit (SUCLA2) of the ADP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS). We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify in dried blood spot the two isobaric compounds of C4DC-C, succinyl-carnitine and methylmalonyl-carnitine, to allow the differential diagnosis between classical MMA and SCS-related defects. This method, with an easy liquid-phase extraction and derivatization procedure, has been validated to demonstrate the specificity, linearity, recovery, lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy and precision for quantitative determination of blood succinyl-carnitine and methylmalonyl-carnitine. The assay was linear over a concentration range of 0.025-10 μmol/L and achieved the LLOQ of 0.025 μmol/L for both metabolites. The average slope, intercept, and coefficient of linear regression (r(2)) were respectively: 0.3389 (95% confidence interval 0.2888-0.3889), 0.0113 (95% confidence interval -0.0157 to 0.0384), 0.9995 (95% confidence interval 0.9990-1.0000) for succinyl-carnitine and 0.5699 (95% confidence interval 0.5263-0.6134), 0.0319 (95% confidence interval -0.0038 to 0.0677), 0.9997 (95% confidence interval 0.9995-1.0000) for methylmalonyl-carnitine. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation (CV) were 1.94% and 3.19% for succinyl-carnitine and 3.21%, and 2.56 for methylmalonyl-carnitine. This method is accurate and provides a new tool to differentiate patients with classical methylmalonic acidemia from those with SCS-related defects.

  3. High temperature and vapor pressure deficit aggravate architectural effects but ameliorate non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production of tomato

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi M. N.; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop and often cultivated in regions exposed to salinity and high temperatures (HT) which change plant architecture, decrease canopy light interception and disturb physiological functions. However, the long-term effects of salinity and HT combination (S+HT) on plant growth are still unclear. A dynamic functional-structural plant model (FSPM) of tomato was parameterized and evaluated for different levels of S+HT combinations. The evaluated model was used to quantify the contributions of morphological changes (architectural effects) and physiological disturbances (non-architectural effects) on the reduction of shoot dry mass under S+HT. The model predicted architectural variables with high accuracy (>85%), which ensured the reliability of the model analyses. HT enhanced architectural effects but reduced non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production. The stronger architectural effects of salinity under HT could not be counterbalanced by the smaller non-architectural effects. Therefore, long-term influences of HT on shoot dry mass under salinity were negative at the whole plant level. Our model analysis highlights the importance of plant architecture at canopy level in studying the plant responses to the environments and shows the merits of dynamic FSPMs as heuristic tools. PMID:26539203

  4. High temperature and vapor pressure deficit aggravate architectural effects but ameliorate non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production of tomato.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi M N; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop and often cultivated in regions exposed to salinity and high temperatures (HT) which change plant architecture, decrease canopy light interception and disturb physiological functions. However, the long-term effects of salinity and HT combination (S+HT) on plant growth are still unclear. A dynamic functional-structural plant model (FSPM) of tomato was parameterized and evaluated for different levels of S+HT combinations. The evaluated model was used to quantify the contributions of morphological changes (architectural effects) and physiological disturbances (non-architectural effects) on the reduction of shoot dry mass under S+HT. The model predicted architectural variables with high accuracy (>85%), which ensured the reliability of the model analyses. HT enhanced architectural effects but reduced non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production. The stronger architectural effects of salinity under HT could not be counterbalanced by the smaller non-architectural effects. Therefore, long-term influences of HT on shoot dry mass under salinity were negative at the whole plant level. Our model analysis highlights the importance of plant architecture at canopy level in studying the plant responses to the environments and shows the merits of dynamic FSPMs as heuristic tools.

  5. Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Direct Assay of Lysosomal Enzymes in Dried Blood Spots: Application to Screening Newborns for Mucopolysaccharidosis I

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Sophie; Sadilek, Martin; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Treatments now available for Mucopolysaccharidosis I require early detection for optimum therapy. Therefore, we have developed an assay appropriate for newborn screening of the activity of the relevant enzyme, α-l-iduronidase. Methods We synthesized a new α-l-iduronidase substrate that can be used to assay the enzyme by use of tandem mass spectrometry together with an internal standard. The assay uses a dried blood spot on a newborn screening card as the enzyme source. The assay protocol uses a simple liquid-liquid extraction step prior to mass spectrometry. We optimized enzyme reaction conditions and procedures for the assay, including the concentration of substrate, the reaction pH, the incubation time, and mass spectrometer operation. We also assessed inter- and intra-assay imprecision. Results When the assay was tested on dried blood spots, the α-l-iduronidase activity measured for 5 patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis I was well below the interval found for 10 randomly chosen newborns. Inter- and intra-assay imprecision were less than 10 %. The synthesis of the α-l-iduronidase substrate is practical on a scale needed to support newborn screening demands. Conclusions This newly developed tandem mass spectrometry assay has the potential to be adopted for newborn screening of Mucopolysaccharidosis I. It presents advantages compared to the one previously published from this laboratory and has the potential to be performed in a multiplex fashion with several lysosomal enzymes relevant to treatable lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:19042989

  6. The use of label-free mass spectrometry for relative quantification of sarcoplasmic proteins during the processing of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Concepción Aristoy, M; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify changes in the abundance of the major sarcoplasmic proteins throughout the ham dry-curing process by using a label-free mass spectrometry methodology based on the measurement of mass spectral peak intensities obtained from the extracted ion chromatogram. For this purpose, extraction of sarcoplasmic proteins was followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (Q/TOF) for the identification and relative quantification of sarcoplasmic proteins through individual quantification of trypsinised peptides. In total, 20 proteins, including 12 glycolytic enzymes, were identified and quantified. The accuracy of the protocol was based on MS/MS replicates, and beta-lactoglobulin protein was used to normalise data and correct possible variations during sample preparation or LC-MS/MS analysis. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides precise identification and quantification of proteins in comparison with traditional methodologies based on gel electrophoresis, especially in the case of overlapping proteins. Moreover, the label-free approach used in this study proved to be a simple, fast, reliable method for evaluating proteolytic degradation of sarcoplasmic proteins during the processing of dry-cured ham.

  7. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Apple Slice under Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a new simultaneous infrared dry blanching and dehydration process for producing high-quality blanched and partially dehydrated products, apple slices with three different thicknesses, 5, 9, and 13 mm, were heated using infrared for up to 10 min at 4000W/m2 IR intensity. The surface and ce...

  8. Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assays of Palmitoyl Protein Thioesterase 1 and Tripeptidyl Peptidase Activity in Dried Blood Spots for the Detection of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report new substrates for quantitative enzyme activity measurements of human palmitoyl protein thioesterase (PPT1) and tripeptidyl peptidase (TPP1) in dried blood spots from newborns using tandem mass spectrometry. Deficiencies in these enzyme activities due to inborn errors of metabolism cause neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. The assays use synthetic compounds that were designed to mimic the natural substrates. Incubation produces nanomole quantities of enzymatic products per a blood spot that are quantified by tandem mass spectrometry using synthetic internal standards and selected reaction monitoring. The assays utilize a minimum steps for sample workup and can be run in a duplex format for the detection of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses or potentially multiplexed with other mass spectrometry-based assays for newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:25019629

  9. Quantification of the effects of architectural traits on dry mass production and light interception of tomato canopy under different temperature regimes using a dynamic functional-structural plant model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi My Nguyet; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in evaluating the environmental effects on crop architectural traits and yield improvement. However, crop models describing the dynamic changes in canopy structure with environmental conditions and the complex interactions between canopy structure, light interception, and dry mass production are only gradually emerging. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as a model crop, a dynamic functional-structural plant model (FSPM) was constructed, parameterized, and evaluated to analyse the effects of temperature on architectural traits, which strongly influence canopy light interception and shoot dry mass. The FSPM predicted the organ growth, organ size, and shoot dry mass over time with high accuracy (>85%). Analyses of this FSPM showed that, in comparison with the reference canopy, shoot dry mass may be affected by leaf angle by as much as 20%, leaf curvature by up to 7%, the leaf length:width ratio by up to 5%, internode length by up to 9%, and curvature ratios and leaf arrangement by up to 6%. Tomato canopies at low temperature had higher canopy density and were more clumped due to higher leaf area and shorter internodes. Interestingly, dry mass production and light interception of the clumped canopy were more sensitive to changes in architectural traits. The complex interactions between architectural traits, canopy light interception, dry mass production, and environmental conditions can be studied by the dynamic FSPM, which may serve as a tool for designing a canopy structure which is 'ideal' in a given environment.

  10. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 1, Dry sorbent injection: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    This report presents the results of fundamental mass transfer testing for in-duct removal of SO{sub 2}. Following this initial part of an experimental program, it became clear that the amount of initial moisture on the sorbent strongly affected the extent of Ca(OH){sub 2} conversion. Novel techniques aimed at increasing sorbent utilization were investigated and are described. Major novel technique investigated and reported on here was the reaction with SO{sub 2} of sorbents with initial free moisture (damp sorbents). The duct injection process using damp solids has the following steps: preparation of sorbent as a slurry, blending of the slurry with dry recycle materials to create damp solids, injection of the solids into the duct, reaction and drying of the solids with flue gas in the duct, collection in particulate control equipment, and finally recycle of dry solids with some bleed to disposal. The moisture content of the solids at each step affects system performance. Various factors favor high moisture whereas others favor low moisture. (VC)

  11. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR)

    PubMed Central

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method (“rinse-wipe-rinse”) for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants. PMID:28152053

  12. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR).

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    The UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method ("rinse-wipe-rinse") for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants.

  13. Parallel ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the quantification of HIV protease inhibitors using dried spot sample collection format.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyoko; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2014-08-15

    An assay was developed and validated for the quantification of eight protease inhibitors (indinavir (IDV), ritonavir (RTV), lopinavir (LPV), saquinavir (SQV), amprenavir (APV), nelfinavir (NFV), atazanavir (AZV) and darunavir (DRV)) in dried plasma spots using parallel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. For each analyte an isotopically labeled internal standard was used and the assay based on liquid-solid extraction the area response ratio (analyte/IS) was found to be linear; from 0.025 μg/ml to 20 μg/ml for IDV, SQV, DRV, AZV, LPV, from 0.025 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml for NFV, APV and from 0.025 μg/ml to 5 μg/ml for RTV using 15 μl of plasma spotted on filter paper placed in a sample tube. The total analysis time was of 4 min and inter-assay accuracies and precisions were in the range of 87.7-109% and 2.5-11.8%, respectively. On dried plasma spots all analytes were found to be stable for at least 7 days. Practicability of the assay to blood was also demonstrated. The sample drying process could be reduced to 5 min using a commercial microwave system without any analyte degradation. Together with quantification, confirmatory analysis was performed on representative clinical samples.

  14. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile.

  15. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. Effect of empty fruit bunch to the accumulated plant height, mass of fresh and dry weight of tomato plant treated with organic and inorganic fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Aishah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan

    2016-11-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of different type of compost and fertilizers on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments. Compost of Empty fruit bunch (EFB) and cow dung is mixed in the ratio of 3:2:1 (soil: compost: sand) and put into 25.4 mm2 polyethylene bag. Organic fertilizer of 10 ml were added twice a week, while inorganic fertilizer was applied at the rate of 3 g per polyethylene bag of soil three weeks after sowing. Treatment without fertilizer application was established as a control. The treatments were laid in a split-split plot design with three replications. Plant growth was assessed using accumulating plant height, fresh weight and dry weight. The application of organic plus inorganic fertilizer had significant effects on plant height. The application of organic fertilizer combination with cow dung gave significant difference to plant mass (fresh and dry). The data obtained from these treatments were significantly higher than the data obtained from the control (without fertilizer). In conclusion, the type of compost did not gave significant difference towards plant height while it only gave significant difference towards plant mass.

  17. Effect of drying methods on the free and conjugated bufadienolide content in toad venom determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled with a pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Gong, Yan; Ma, Hongyue; Wang, Honglan; Qian, Dawei; Wen, Hongmei; Liu, Rui; Duan, Jinao; Wu, Qinan

    2015-10-10

    Drying is a useful technique for extending the shelf-life of biological products and enabling long-term storage; however, improper drying can reduce the chemical quality of the products. In this study, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the effects of four drying methods (V: vacuum-drying at 60°C, F: freeze-drying, H: air-drying at 60°C and R: air-drying at room temperature) on the levels of 36 bufadienolides in toad venom. Vacuum-drying at 60°C produced the highest quality dried toad venom in terms of total bufadienolide content, whereas traditional air-drying at room temperature (RT) to dehydrate the toad venom led to a dramatic loss in free and conjugated bufadienolides, reaching up to 60% and 70%, respectively. Assaying for free bufadienolides ranked the drying methods as V≈F>H>R, whereas assaying for conjugated bufadienolides slightly changed the order to V>F≈H>R. Furthermore, we identified 21 bufadienolides as biomarkers responsible for the decline in the quality of dried toad venom, whose loss varied from 1.5-fold to 100-fold. Of these biomarkers, group I bufadienolides that contain 16-OAc (e.g., cinobufagin and its hydroxyl or arginine ester derivatives) were characteristic components and were reduced to trace levels (loss of more than 10-fold) following traditional air-drying at RT. This might be attributed to the fact that most enzyme-sensitive bufadienolides were biotransformed or degraded at room temperature but were retained using other drying methods.

  18. Determination of moulds and mycotoxins in dry dog and cat food using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Błajet-Kosicka, A; Kosicki, R; Twarużek, M; Grajewski, J

    2014-01-01

    In this study moulds and 12 mycotoxins in dry pet food samples (25 for dogs and 24 for cats) were determined. Primary moulds identified were Aspergillus, Mucor and Penicillium, found in 55% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone (ZEN) were detected in all samples with mean respective concentrations being 97.3 and 38.3 µg kg(-1) in cat food and 114 and 20.1 µg kg(-1) in dog food. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were present in 88% and 84% of the samples, respectively. Two samples contained fumonisins, with a maximum concentration of 108 µg kg(-1). Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 8% and 45% of the samples, respectively. The measured mould and mycotoxin levels were consistent with results obtained by other studies. However, potential exposure to relatively high concentrations of an oestrogen mycotoxin as is ZEN, especially when in combination with other mycotoxins, needs attention.

  19. Mass transfer during drying of colloidal film beneath a patterned mask that contains a hexagonal array of holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasevich, Yu Yu; Vodolazskaya, I. V.

    2016-02-01

    We simulated an experiment in which a thin colloidal sessile droplet is allowed to dry out on a horizontal hydrophilic surface when a mask just above the droplet predominantly allows evaporation from the droplet free surface directly beneath the holes in the mask [Harris D J, Hu H, Conrad J C and Lewis J A 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 148301]. We considered one particular case when centre-to-centre spacing between the holes is much less than the drop diameter. In our model, advection, diffusion, and sedimentation were taken into account. FlexPDE was utilized to solve an advection-diffusion equation using the finite element method. The simulation demonstrated that the colloidal particles accumulate below the holes as the solvent evaporates. Diffusion can reduce this accumulation.

  20. Dried Blood Spot Methodology in Combination With Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Facilitates the Monitoring of Teriflunomide

    PubMed Central

    Lunven, Catherine; Turpault, Sandrine; Beyer, Yann-Joel; O'Brien, Amy; Delfolie, Astrid; Boyanova, Neli; Sanderink, Ger-Jan; Baldinetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teriflunomide, a once-daily oral immunomodulator approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is eliminated slowly from plasma. If necessary to rapidly lower plasma concentrations of teriflunomide, an accelerated elimination procedure using cholestyramine or activated charcoal may be used. The current bioanalytical assay for determination of plasma teriflunomide concentration requires laboratory facilities for blood centrifugation and plasma storage. An alternative method, with potential for greater convenience, is dried blood spot (DBS) methodology. Analytical and clinical validations are required to switch from plasma to DBS (finger-prick sampling) methodology. Methods: Using blood samples from healthy subjects, an LC-MS/MS assay method for quantification of teriflunomide in DBS over a range of 0.01–10 mcg/mL was developed and validated for specificity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and stability. Results were compared with those from the current plasma assay for determination of plasma teriflunomide concentration. Results: Method was specific and selective relative to endogenous compounds, with process efficiency ∼88%, and no matrix effect. Inaccuracy and imprecision for intraday and interday analyses were <15% at all concentrations tested. Quantification of teriflunomide in DBS assay was not affected by blood deposit volume and punch position within spot, and hematocrit level had a limited but acceptable effect on measurement accuracy. Teriflunomide was stable for at least 4 months at room temperature, and for at least 24 hours at 37°C with and without 95% relative humidity, to cover sampling, drying, and shipment conditions in the field. The correlation between DBS and plasma concentrations (R2 = 0.97), with an average blood to plasma ratio of 0.59, was concentration independent and constant over time. Conclusions: DBS sampling is a simple and practical method for monitoring teriflunomide

  1. Effect of pregrazing herbage mass on methane production, dry matter intake, and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season period.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2010-10-01

    Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4

  2. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  3. Tray Drying of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afacan, Artin; Masliyah, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    Describes a drying experiment useful in presenting the concept of simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Background information, equipment requirements, experimental procedures, and results are provided. The reasonably good agreement in the calculated rate of drying and that observed experimentally makes students feel confident in applying…

  4. Proteomic analysis of tears following acupuncture treatment for menopausal dry eye disease by two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingyu; Liu, Junling; Ren, Chengda; Cai, Wenting; Wei, Qingquan; Song, Yi; Yu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acupuncture is effective at treating dry eye disease among postmenopausal women and to identify the possible mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight postmenopausal women with dry eye disease were randomly divided into two groups: an acupuncture plus artificial tears (AC + AT) group and an artificial tears (AT) only group. After baseline examination of clinical parameters and tear sample collection, each patient received the designated modality of topical therapy for 2 months. Post-treatment documentation of clinical parameters was recorded, and tear samples were collected. Tear samples from the AC + AT group were subjected to two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2D nano-LC-MS/MS). Western blot analysis was also performed on tear samples from both groups. Results After treatment, the Ocular Surface Disease Index scores, symptom assessment scores, scores of sign assessment, and tear break-up time were significantly improved in both groups (P=0.000). Symptom assessment scores were significantly improved in the AC + AT group (P=0.000) compared with the AT group. 2D nano-LC-MS/MS identified 2,411 proteins, among which 142 were downregulated and 169 were upregulated. After combined AC + AT treatment, the abundance of secreted proteins was increased, whereas that of cytoplasmic proteins decreased (Pearson’s χ2 test, P=0.000, P=0.000, respectively). Proteins involved in immunity and regulation were also more abundant (Pearson’s χ2 test, P=0.040, P=0.016, respectively), while components and proliferation-related proteins were downregulated (Pearson’s χ2 test, P=0.003, P=0.011, respectively). Conclusion AC + AT treatment increased protein synthesis and secretion, and improved clinical symptoms. These results indicate that acupuncture may be a complimentary therapy for treating postmenopausal dry eye disease. PMID:28280333

  5. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  6. Determination of rare earth elements in human hair and wheat flour reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with dry ashing and microwave digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yin; Bing, Li

    1998-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of all rare earth elements (REEs) at sub ng g -1 levels in human hair (GBW 09101, SRM, Republic of China) and wheat flour (GBW 08503, SRM, Republic of China) by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The values obtained by dry ashing and microwave oven digestion procedures were compared with those obtained by traditional open vessel acid digestion method. The validity of the analytical procedure was examined by analyzing spiked samples and two vegetables (GBW 07603 and GBW 07605, SRMs, Republic of China). The results are satisfactory. The detection limits for 14 REEs ranged from 0.0039 to 0.0003 ng cm -3 in solution and the quantification limits ranged from 0.16 to 0.01 ng g -1 in solid sample. The precision for most REEs were less than 10% RSD.

  7. Effects of pregrazing herbage mass in late spring on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Letelier, P A; Ungerfeld, E M; Morales, J M; Hube, S; Pérez-Prieto, L A

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of fresh forage quality on enteric methane (CH4) emissions of dairy cows under grazing conditions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of 2 contrasting forage qualities induced by different pregrazing herbage masses in late spring on enteric CH4 emissions and milk production of grazing dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 24 lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cows randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in 2 experimental periods. Each period had a duration of 3wk (2wk for diet adaptation and 1wk for measurements), and the interval between them was 2wk. Treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing herbage masses [2,200 and 5,000kg of dry matter (DM)/ha above 3cm], generated by different regrowth periods, corresponding to low (LHM) and high (HHM) herbage mass treatments, respectively. Daily herbage allowance (Lolium perenne) for both treatments was 20kg of DM per cow measured above 3cm. Enteric CH4 emissions were individually determined during the last week of each period using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique. Daily herbage intakes by individual cows during the CH4 measurement weeks were estimated using the n-alkanes technique. During the CH4 measurement weeks, milk yield and body mass were determined twice daily, whereas milk composition was determined once in the week. The LHM pasture had a higher crude protein concentration, lower neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations, and higher in vitro digestibility, with a lower proportion of ryegrass pseudostems, than the HHM pasture. Cows offered the LHM pasture had greater herbage (+13%) and total DM (+12%) intakes, increased milk (+13%) and energy-corrected milk (+11%) yields, and tendencies toward higher milk protein (+4.5%) and higher milk urea nitrogen (+15%) concentrations than their counterparts offered the HHM pasture. No differences were found between treatments in total daily CH4 production

  8. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and relative metabolites in Aspergillus species and dried vine fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jingming; Cheng, Zhan; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycotoxin is quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were 74.5-108.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-8.4% for fungal culture. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.03-0.87 μg l(-)(1), and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.07 to 2.90 μg l(-)(1). In addition, the extraction solutions and clean-up columns were optimised specifically for dried vine fruit samples to improve the performance of the method. Methanol-1% sodium bicarbonate extraction solution (6:4, v/v) was determined to be the most efficient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed as a clean-up step prior to HPLC-MS/MS analysis to reduce matrix effects. Recoveries ranged from 80.1% to 110.8%. RSDs ranged from 0.1% to 3.6%. LODs and LOQs ranged from 0.06 to 0.40 μg kg(-)(1) and from 0.19 to 1.20 μg kg(-)(1), respectively. The analytical method was established and used to identify and quantify OTA and related compounds from Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in cultures and dried vine fruits. The results showed that A. carbonarius produced OTα, OTB and OTA, whereas A. ochraceus produced OTB, OTA and mellein after 7 days of cultivation. Of 30 commercial samples analysed, 10 were contaminated with ochratoxins; OTB, OTα and mellein were also detected in different samples.

  10. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... or chewing tobacco can increase dry mouth symptoms. Methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine use can cause severe dry mouth and damage to teeth, a condition also known as "meth mouth." If you don't have enough saliva ...

  11. Sensitive determination of prohibited drugs in dried blood spots (DBS) for doping controls by means of a benchtop quadrupole/Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Crone, Catharina; Kellmann, Markus; Moehring, Thomas; Thevis, Mario

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, a new type of mass spectrometer combining a quadrupole mass filter, a higher collision dissociation (HCD) cell and an Orbitrap detector, was evaluated for the analysis of dried blood spots (DBS) in doping controls. DBS analysis is characterized by the necessity to detect prohibited compounds in sub-nanogram-per-milliliter levels with high identification capacity. After extraction of DBS with an organic solvent and liquid chromatographic separation (using a regular C18-RP-analytical UHPLC-column) of target analytes, mass spectrometry is performed with a high-resolution full scan in positive and negative mode by means of electrospray ionisation. Single-product ion mass spectra are acquired using the data-dependent analysis mode (employing an inclusion list) for previously selected precursors of known prohibited compounds with fixed retention time ranges. Besides, a sensitive screening in a targeted approach, non-targeted analysis for retrospective data evaluation is thus possible. The chosen experimental design enables the determination of various drugs from different classes with one generic sample preparation which is shown for 26 selected model compounds (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), methylhexaneamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, nikethamide, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, strychnine, mesocarb, salbutamol, formoterol, clenbuterol, metandienone, stanozolol, bisoprolol, propranolol, metoprolol, anastrazole, clomiphene, exemestane, dexamethasone, budesonide, selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S4 (andarine), SARM S1, hydrochlorothiazide). Generally, only qualitative result interpretation was focussed upon, but for target analytes with deuterium-labelled internal standards (salbutamol, clenbuterol, cocaine, dexamethasone, THC-COOH and THC) quantitative analysis was also possible. Especially the most challenging analytes, THC and its carboxy

  12. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  13. Analysis of carbohydrates in Fusarium verticillioides using size-exclusion HPLC – DRI and direct analysis in real time ionization – time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time ionization – time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (DART-MS) and size-exclusion HPLC – DRI are used, respectively, to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the carbohydrates extracted from the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides. In situ permethylation in the DART...

  14. A quantitative method for acylcarnitines and amino acids using high resolution chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry in newborn screening dried blood spot analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Poston, Philip A; Karnes, H Thomas

    2012-08-15

    We have developed a high resolution liquid chromatographic separation with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry detection for the combined analysis of twelve acylcarnitines and seven amino acids commonly measured in newborn screening heritable metabolic disorders. Samples were prepared by punching 3.2 mm disks out of dried blood spots and extracting with a mixture of methanol and 0.1% formic acid containing stable isotopically labeled internal standards. Analysis was performed on an UHPLC system using a HILIC amide, 2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm column. A normal phase gradient, employing 10mM ammonium acetate in 90:10 acetonitrile/water for mobile phase B and 0.1% formic acid in water for mobile phase A, was used. Optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for detection of amino acids and acylcarnitines on a Waters Premier mass spectrometer. Quantification of analytes was performed using internal calibration by fortification of sodium heparin whole blood with analytes at appropriate levels to encompass the range around the reported cut-off values. The method was fully validated with respect to precision, accuracy, recovery, linearity, matrix suppression and extraction robustness. Precision and accuracy were evaluated over 3 days and determined to be acceptable with an overall precision within 10% and accuracy within 15% of theoretical for all analytes except for acetylcarnitne at one fortified level, which quantitated 21.8% lower than the expected value. This method is suitable as a second-tier test for newborn screening of specific disorders associated with abnormal levels of acylcarnitines and amino acids, potentially reducing false positive cases and shortening the time to diagnosis.

  15. Mass spectrometric studies on the in vivo metabolism and excretion of SIRT1 activating drugs in rat urine, dried blood spots, and plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Höppner, Sebastian; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The NAD(+) depending enzyme SIRT1 regulates the mitochondrial biogenesis, fat and glucose metabolism through catalyzing the deacetylation of several metabolism-related protein-substrates. Recently, synthetic activators of SIRT1 referred to as STACs (Sirtuin activating compounds, e.g. SRT2104) were identified and tested in clinical studies for the treatment of aging-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and obesity. Although the mechanism of SIRT1 activation by small molecules has caused considerable controversy, STACs demonstrated a significant performance enhancement in mice experiments including an improvement of endurance, muscle strength, and locomotor behavior. Due to their potential to increase exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, SIRT1 activators are currently being monitored by anti-doping authorities. In the present study, the in vivo metabolic clearance of three SIRT1 activators was investigated in rats by the collection of urine, DBS (dried blood spots) and plasma samples following a single oral administration. The resulting metabolic products were studied by positive electrospray ionization - (tandem) mass spectrometry and confirmed by the comparison with in vitro generated metabolites using human and rat liver microsomal preparations. Subsequently, a screening procedure for five SIRT1 activators and the metabolite M1-SRT1720 in DBS specimens was developed. Liquid-liquid-extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was employed based on diagnostic ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode and two deuterated internal standards namely d8-SRT1720 and d8-M1-SRT1720 were utilized. The doping control assay was characterized with regard to specificity, limit of detection (10-50ng/ml), recovery (65-83%) and imprecision (7-20%) and ion suppression/enhancement effects (<10%), demonstrating its fitness-for-purpose for sports drug testing applications.

  16. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (P<0.01) on the L treatment and cows grazing the L pastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (P<0.05). Treatment did not affect daily milk production or pasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (P<0.01) and increase grazing time (P<0.05) to compensate for a lower pre-grazing HM (P<0.01). The results indicate that, while pre-grazing HM did not influence daily milk yield per cow, adapting the practise of grazing low HM (1150 kg DM/ha) pasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  17. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples.

  18. Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Method for the Determination of Pesticides in Dry Samples (Rice and Wheat Flour) Using Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grande-Martínez, Ángel; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Moreno, Laura Díaz; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive multiresidue method was developed and validated for the determination of around 100 pesticides in dry samples (rice and wheat flour) by ultra-performance LC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass analyzer working in tandem mode (UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS). The sample preparation step was optimized for both matrixes. Pesticides were extracted from rice samples using aqueous ethyl acetate, while aqueous acetonitrile extraction [modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method] was used for wheat flour matrixes. In both cases the extracts were then cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with MgSO4 and primary secondary amine+C18 sorbents. A further cleanup step with Florisil was necessary to remove fat in wheat flour. The method was validated at two concentration levels (3.6 and 40 μg/kg for most compounds), obtaining recoveries ranging from 70 to 120%, intraday and interday precision values≤20% expressed as RSDs, and expanded uncertainty values≤50%. The LOQ values ranged between 3.6 and 20 μg/kg, although it was set at 3.6 μg/kg for the majority of the pesticides. The method was applied to the analysis of 20 real samples, and no pesticides were detected.

  19. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  20. Determination of volatile components in fresh, frozen, and freeze-dried Padrón-type peppers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using dynamic headspace sampling and microwave desorption.

    PubMed

    Oruña-Concha, M J; López-Hernández, J; Simal-Lozano, J A; Simal-Gándara, J; González-Castro, M J; de la Cruz García, C

    1998-12-01

    "Padrón-type" peppers are a small variety of Capsicum annuum cultivated mainly in Galicia, Spain. To compare the effects of freezing and freeze-drying on the volatile components of Padrón-type peppers, preserved samples are analyzed by means of dynamic headspace sampling on an adsorbent followed by microwave desorption into a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometric detector. Sixty-five compounds are identified, including hydrocarbons, terpenes, alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, esters, pyrroles, pyrazines, and sulfurous compounds. Fresh whole, homogenized, and freeze-dried peppers have characteristic volatile-component profiles, whereas frozen peppers have a highly variable volatile-component profile.

  1. Separation and characterization of soluble esterified and glycoside-bound phenolic compounds in dry-blanched peanut skins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kerr, William L; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Swanson, Ruthann B; Pegg, Ronald B

    2014-11-26

    A large variety of soluble phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids, ethyl protocatechuate, and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as phenylacetic acid and phenyllactic acid), stilbenes (trans-piceatannol and trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene), flavan-3-ols (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epiafzelechin, and their polymers (the proanthocyanidins, PACs)), other flavonoids (e.g., isoflavones, flavanols, and flavones), and biflavonoids, were released from esters and glycosides by base/acid hydrolysis and identified in acetonic extracts of dry-blanched peanut skins (PS). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was applied to separate and identify the phenolic constituents. Tentative identification of the separated phenolics was based on molecular ions and MS(n) fragmentation patterns acquired by ESI-MS in the negative-ion mode. Identification of free phenolic acids, stilbenes, and flavonoids was also achieved by commercial standards and by published literature data. Quantification was performed on the basis of peak areas of the UV signals from the HPLC chromatograms and calibration curves of the commercial standards. The flavonoids of PS exist mostly in glycoside-bound forms, but the aglycones can be liberated upon acid hydrolysis. PS contain significantly more PACs compared to free phenolic compounds: PAC monomers to tetramers constituted 92.0% of esterified phenolic compounds. The PAC monomer ((+)-catechin) and dimers are the main phenolics released from glycosides and account for 31.7 and 59.1%, respectively, of the total glycoside-bound phenolic compounds.

  2. Microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based determination of polar low molecular weight compounds in dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Sadones, Nele; Van Bever, Elien; Archer, John R H; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I; Van Bortel, Luc; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-09-23

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i.e. "microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization", to minimize sample preparation of DBS. In this approach the derivatization reagents are directly applied onto the DBS and derivatization takes place in a microwave instead of via conventional heating. In this manuscript we evaluated the applicability of this new concept of derivatization for the determination of two polar low molecular weight molecules, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gabapentin, in DBS using a standard GC-MS configuration. The method was successfully validated for both compounds, with imprecision and bias values within acceptance criteria (<20% at LLOQ, <15% at 3 other QC levels). Calibration lines were linear over the 10-100μg/mL and 1-30μg/mL range for GHB and gabapentin, respectively. Stability studies revealed no significant decrease of gabapentin and GHB in DBS upon storage at room temperature for at least 84 days. Furthermore, DBS-specific parameters, including hematocrit and volume spotted, were evaluated. As demonstrated by the analysis of GHB and gabapentin positive samples, "microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization" proved to be reliable, fast and applicable in routine toxicology. Moreover, other polar low molecular weight compounds of interest in clinical and/or forensic toxicology, including vigabatrin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,2-butanediol, can also be

  3. Therapeutic drug monitoring of carbamazepine and its metabolite in children from dried blood spots using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Engy; Villanelli, Fabio; Malvagia, Sabrina; Rosati, Anna; Forni, Giulia; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-05-10

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line drug for the treatment of different forms of epilepsy and the first choice drug for trigeminal neuralgia. CBZ is metabolized in the liver by oxidation into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZE), its major metabolite which is equipotent and known to contribute to the pharmacological activity of CBZ. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a reliable, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of CBZ and its active metabolite in dried blood spots (DBS). The extraction process was carried out from DBS using methanol-water-formic acid (80:20:0.1, v/v/v). Chromatographic elution was achieved by using a linear gradient with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water-0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.50mL/min. The method was linear over the range 1-40mg/L and 0.25-20mg/L for CBZ and CBZE, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.75mg/L and 0.25mg/L for CBZ and CBZE. Intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were found to be lower than 5.13%, 6.46% and 11.76%, 4.72% with mean percentage accuracies of 102.1%, 97.5% and 99.2%, 97.8% for CBZ and CBZE. We successfully applied the method for determining DBS finger-prick samples in paediatric patients and confirmed the results with concentrations measured in matched plasma samples. This novel approach allows quantification of CBZ and its metabolite from only one 3.2mm DBS disc by LC-MS/MS thus combining advantages of DBS technique and LC-MS/MS in clinical practice.

  4. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry sensitivity enhancement via online sample dilution and trapping: applications in microdosing and dried blood spot (DBS) bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fumin; Zulkoski, John P; Ding, Jie; Brown, Wes; Addison, Tom

    2010-09-15

    A simple online sample dilution, enrichment, and cleanup technique was developed for sensitive microdosing and dried blood spot (DBS) liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) bioanalysis. Samples are diluted online with water and enriched in a trap column which is subsequently switched inline with the analytical column. Excellent lansoprazole (in acetonitrile) peak shape is maintained even with an 80-microL injection. In comparison, similar chromatographic peaks were observed only when a small volume of the same solution, i.e., 1 microL, was injected on a regular high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, where an injection of 5 microL resulted in severe peak fronting. A substantial enhancement in sensitivity is realized in the trapping mode using large injection volumes. The trap column is washed at the beginning and at the end of each injection with aqueous and organic solvent respectively to remove matrix components. This ultimately leads to reduction of matrix effects and mass spectrometer noise, thus facilitating the utilization of protein precipitation as the sample preparation for plasma samples. A lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.5 pg/mL was demonstrated for lansoprazole in human plasma with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 13 using a 100 microL injection. Excellent intra-day precision and accuracy were established for lansoprazole in human plasma with good linearity (R(2) > 0.999) from 0.5 to 500 pg/mL. This level of LLOQ makes LC/MS/MS a practical alternative for microdosing bioanalysis, where the dose is typically 100 times lower than the therapeutic dose. The same technique was applied to quantitate lansoprazole in human whole blood employing DBS technology. With a single 3-mm punch, i.e. approximately 2 microL of whole blood or approximately 1 microL plasma, a LLOQ of 0.1 ng/mL showed sufficient S/N ratio (40) for lansoprazole when 75 microL of extract was injected. In all, the online sample dilution, cleanup, and

  5. Sensitive screening of abused drugs in dried blood samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion booster-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chepyala, Divyabharathi; Tsai, I-Lin; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Chao, Hsi-Chun; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2017-03-31

    An increased rate of drug abuse is a major social problem worldwide. The dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique offers many advantages over using urine or whole blood sampling techniques. This study developed a simple and efficient ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion booster-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IB-QTOF-MS) method for the analysis of abused drugs and their metabolites using DBS. Fifty-seven compounds covering the most commonly abused drugs, including amphetamines, opioids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and many other new and emerging abused drugs, were selected as the target analytes of this study. An 80% acetonitrile solvent with a 5-min extraction by Geno grinder was used for sample extraction. A Poroshell column was used to provide efficient separation, and under optimal conditions, the analytical times were 15 and 5min in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. Ionization parameters of both electrospray ionization source and ion booster (IB) source containing an extra heated zone were optimized to achieve the best ionization efficiency of the investigated abused drugs. In spite of their structural diversity, most of the abused drugs showed an enhanced mass response with the high temperature ionization from an extra heated zone of IB source. Compared to electrospray ionization, the ion booster (IB) greatly improved the detection sensitivity for 86% of the analytes by 1.5-14-fold and allowed the developed method to detect trace amounts of compounds on the DBS cards. The validation results showed that the coefficients of variation of intra-day and inter-day precision in terms of the signal intensity were lower than 19.65%. The extraction recovery of all analytes was between 67.21 and 115.14%. The limits of detection of all analytes were between 0.2 and 35.7ngmL(-1). The stability study indicated that 7% of compounds showed poor stability (below 50%) on the DBS cards after 6 months of storage at

  6. Advances in drying: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include recent thoughts in modeling of drying phenomena, use of computers in rational design of drying particulates, recent advances in drying of wood, and heat/mass transfer phenomena in drying of solids. As the readers will no doubt notice, special effort is made to ensure the truly international nature of the contents of this serial publication. As existing knowledge on drying and dryers becomes more widely and readily accessible, it is expected that more and more dryers will be designed rationally rather than built solely with the benefit of empiricism.

  7. Contribution of Soil Fauna to Foliar Litter-Mass Loss in Winter in an Ecotone between Dry Valley and Montane Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Yang, Wanqin; Li, Jun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Chuan; Yue, Kai; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition during winter can provide essential nutrients for plant growth in the subsequent growing season, which plays important role in preventing the expansion of dry areas and maintaining the stability of ecotone ecosystems. However, limited information is currently available on the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition during winter in such ecosystems. Therefore, a field experiment that included litterbags with two different mesh sizes (0.04 mm and 3 mm) was conducted to investigate the contribution of soil fauna to the loss of foliar litter mass in winter from November 2013 to April 2014 along the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Two litter types of the dominant species were selected in each ecosystem: cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and oak (Quercus baronii) in ecotone; cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and clovershrub (Campylotropis macrocarpa) in dry valley; and fir (Abies faxoniana) and birch (Betula albosinensis) in montane forest. Over one winter incubation, foliar litter lost 6.0%-16.1%, 11.4%-26.0%, and 6.4%-8.5% of initial mass in the ecotone, dry valley and montane forest, respectively. Soil fauna showed obvious contributions to the loss of foliar litter mass in all of the ecosystems. The highest contribution (48.5%-56.8%) was observed in the ecotone, and the lowest contribution (0.4%-25.8%) was observed in the montane forest. Compared with other winter periods, thawing period exhibited higher soil fauna contributions to litter mass loss in ecotone and dry valley, but both thawing period and freezing period displayed higher soil fauna contributions in montane forest. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of soil fauna was significantly correlated with temperature and soil moisture during the winter-long incubation. These results suggest that temperature might be the primary control factor in foliar litter decomposition, but more active soil fauna in the ecotone could contribute more in litter decomposition and

  8. Contribution of Soil Fauna to Foliar Litter-Mass Loss in Winter in an Ecotone between Dry Valley and Montane Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yan; Yang, Wanqin; Li, Jun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Chuan; Yue, Kai; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition during winter can provide essential nutrients for plant growth in the subsequent growing season, which plays important role in preventing the expansion of dry areas and maintaining the stability of ecotone ecosystems. However, limited information is currently available on the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition during winter in such ecosystems. Therefore, a field experiment that included litterbags with two different mesh sizes (0.04 mm and 3 mm) was conducted to investigate the contribution of soil fauna to the loss of foliar litter mass in winter from November 2013 to April 2014 along the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Two litter types of the dominant species were selected in each ecosystem: cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and oak (Quercus baronii) in ecotone; cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and clovershrub (Campylotropis macrocarpa) in dry valley; and fir (Abies faxoniana) and birch (Betula albosinensis) in montane forest. Over one winter incubation, foliar litter lost 6.0%-16.1%, 11.4%-26.0%, and 6.4%-8.5% of initial mass in the ecotone, dry valley and montane forest, respectively. Soil fauna showed obvious contributions to the loss of foliar litter mass in all of the ecosystems. The highest contribution (48.5%-56.8%) was observed in the ecotone, and the lowest contribution (0.4%-25.8%) was observed in the montane forest. Compared with other winter periods, thawing period exhibited higher soil fauna contributions to litter mass loss in ecotone and dry valley, but both thawing period and freezing period displayed higher soil fauna contributions in montane forest. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of soil fauna was significantly correlated with temperature and soil moisture during the winter-long incubation. These results suggest that temperature might be the primary control factor in foliar litter decomposition, but more active soil fauna in the ecotone could contribute more in litter decomposition and

  9. Reference intervals for orotic acid in urine, plasma and dried blood spot using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Oceania; Garofalo, Daniela; la Marca, Giancarlo; Dello Russo, Antonio; Corso, Gaetano

    2012-02-01

    Orotic acid (OA), a marker of hereditary orotic aciduria, is usually used for the differential diagnosis of some hyperammonemic inherited defects of urea cycle and of basic amino acid transporters. This study was aimed to establish age related reference intervals of OA in urine, and for the first time in plasma, and dried blood spot (DBS) from 229 apparently healthy subjects aged from three days to 40 years. The quantification of OA was performed by a previously implemented method, using a stable isotope dilution with 1,3-[(15)N(2)]-orotic acid and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). The method has proved to be sensitive and accurate for a quantitative analysis of OA also in DBS and plasma. According to previous studies, urinary OA levels (mmol/mol of creatinine) decrease significantly with age. The upper limits (as 99th %ile) were of 3.44 and 1.30 in groups aged from three days to 1 year (group 1) and from 1 year to 12 years (group 2), respectively; in teenagers (from 13 to 19 years; group 3) and adults (from 20 to 40 years; group 4) urinary levels became more stable and the upper limits were of 0.64 and 1.21, respectively. Furthermore, OA levels in DBS (μM) also resulted significantly higher in subjects of group 1 (upper limit of 0.89) than in subjects of groups 2, 3 and 4 (upper limits of 0.24, 0.21, and 0.29, respectively). OA levels in plasma (μM) were significantly lower in subjects of group 3 (upper limit of 0.30) than in subjects of groups 1, 2, and 4 (upper limits of 0.59, 0.48, and 0.77, respectively). This method was also employed for OA quantification in plasma and DBS of 17 newborns affected by urea cycle defects, resulting sensitive and specific enough to screen these disorders.

  10. Quantification of the HIV-integrase inhibitor raltegravir and detection of its main metabolite in human plasma, dried blood spots and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysate by means of high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ter Heine, R; Hillebrand, M J X; Rosing, H; van Gorp, E C M; Mulder, J W; Beijnen, J H; Huitema, A D R

    2009-02-20

    For the quantification of the HIV-integrase inhibitor raltegravir in human plasma, dried blood spots and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) lysate, an assay was developed and validated, using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The assay also allowed detection, but no quantification due to absence of reference substance, of the main metabolite, raltegravir-glucuronide. Raltegravir was extracted from plasma by means of protein precipitation with a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile using only 50microL plasma. Extraction from dried blood spots was performed with a simple one-step extraction with a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.2M zincsulphate in water (1:1:2, v/v/v) and extraction from cell lysate was performed in 50% methanol in water. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed phase C18 column (150mmx2.0mm, particle size 5microm) with a quick stepwise gradient using an acetate buffer (pH 5) and methanol, at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min. The analytical run time was 10min. The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ion-mode and multiple reaction monitoring was used for drug quantification. The method was validated over a range of 50-10,000ng/mL in plasma and dried blood spots and a range of 1-500ng/mL in PBMC lysate. Dibenzepine was used as the internal standard. The method was proven to be specific, accurate, precise and robust. Accuracies ranged from 104% to 105% in plasma, from 93% to 105% in dried blood spots and from 82% to 113% in PBMC lysate. Precision over the complete concentration range was less than 6%, 11% and 13% in plasma, dried blood spots and PBMC lysate, respectively. The method is now applied for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacological research in HIV-infected patients treated with raltegravir.

  11. Rapid screening assay of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by measuring 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry from dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Chen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lin, Wei-De; Lee, Cheng-Chun

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and specific method was developed for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) from dried blood spots on newborn screening cards based on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The usefulness of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 OH-P) determination on dried filter-paper blood samples from patients with CAH caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency was evaluated. The LC/MS/MS detection of 17 OH-P was rapid, <4 min. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision of the method were <7%. Our procedure maintained good linearities (R(2) > 0.992) and recovery rate (>83%). We used this new method to directly determine the 17 OH-P levels in dried blood specimens from abnormal children of various ages, with a detection limit of 20 ng/ml (approximately 240 pg), to avoid the time-consuming derivatization steps required by the gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Four dried filter-paper blood samples of CAH patients (three girls and one boy, 1-14 years old) were all quantified in an LC/MS/MS study and revealed high 17 OH-P levels (>90 ng/ml). After treatment, all of the elevated 17 OH-P levels either decreased or disappeared. Compared with CAH patients, 17 OH-P was nearly undetectable (<20 ng/ml) in the normal infants by LC/MS/MS. This LC/MS/MS assay is not only useful for both diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of CAH in all other age groups, it also can be used as a screening test for CAH infants. In this study, we provided the first data on 17 OH-P in dried blood specimens affected with CAH using HPLC/ESI-MS/MS.

  12. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  13. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  14. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results.

  15. Rapid freeze-drying cycle optimization using computer programs developed based on heat and mass transfer models and facilitated by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS).

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    Computer programs in FORTRAN were developed to rapidly determine the optimal shelf temperature, T(f), and chamber pressure, P(c), to achieve the shortest primary drying time. The constraint for the optimization is to ensure that the product temperature profile, T(b), is below the target temperature, T(target). Five percent mannitol was chosen as the model formulation. After obtaining the optimal sets of T(f) and P(c), each cycle was assigned with a cycle rank number in terms of the length of drying time. Further optimization was achieved by dividing the drying time into a series of ramping steps for T(f), in a cascading manner (termed the cascading T(f) cycle), to further shorten the cycle time. For the purpose of demonstrating the validity of the optimized T(f) and P(c), four cycles with different predicted lengths of drying time, along with the cascading T(f) cycle, were chosen for experimental cycle runs. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to continuously measure the sublimation rate. As predicted, maximum product temperatures were controlled slightly below the target temperature of -25 degrees C, and the cascading T(f)-ramping cycle is the most efficient cycle design. In addition, the experimental cycle rank order closely matches with that determined by modeling.

  16. Development of a new QuEChERS method based on dry ice for the determination of 168 pesticides in paprika using tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Woo; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Cho, Soon-Kil; Yu, Hyun-A; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han

    2011-07-15

    This study describes a new QuEChERS method referred to as the dry ice-partitioning QuEChERS method. This current method can be differentiated from the other QuEChERS methods in the sense that it uses dry ice rather than salts or buffers to extract and partition pesticides in the first extraction step. The dry ice-partitioning QuEChERS method consists of extraction method A (for detection of the acetonitrile layer) and extraction method B (for detection of both acetonitrile and aqueous layers). The extraction efficiency was then compared with the citrate-buffering QuEChERS method by means of recovery. Recovery values of the tested 168 pesticides were above 76%, with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Certain problematic pesticides, including benfuracarb, carbosulfan, dichlofluanid, probenazole, pymetrozine, tolylfluanid, TFNA, and TFNG evidenced acceptable recoveries via the dry ice-partitioning QuEChERS method compared to the less than 70% recoveries of the citrate-buffering QuEChERS method examined herein. The matrix effect of paprika on the method developed herein was not significant, and matrix-matched calibration was performed well, with an r(2)≥0.99. The dry ice-partitioning QuEChERS method is capable of detecting the aqueous layer as well as the acetonitrile layer; this interesting feature makes it worth in application as an alternative QuEChERS method for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides within a broad polarity range in various matrices.

  17. Amazonian vegetable oils and fats: fast typification and quality control via triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles from dry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Sérgio A; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Catharino, Rodrigo R

    2009-05-27

    Amazonian oils and fats display unique triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and, because of their economic importance as renewable raw materials and use by the cosmetic and food industries, are often subject to adulteration and forgery. Representative samples of these oils (andiroba, Brazil nut, buriti, and passion fruit) and fats (cupuaçu, murumuru, and ucuúba) were characterized without pre-separation or derivatization via dry (solvent-free) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Characteristic profiles of TAG were obtained for each oil and fat. Dry MALDI-TOF MS provides typification and direct and detailed information, via TAG profiles, of their variable combinations of fatty acids. A database from spectra could be developed and may be used for their fast and reliable typification, application screening, and quality control.

  18. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.

  19. Steam drying -- Modeling and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmerstedt, R.; Hager, J.

    1996-08-01

    The concept of steam drying originates from the mid of the last century. However, a broad industrial acceptance of the technique has so far not taken place. The paper deals with modelling the steam drying process and applications of steam drying within certain industrial sectors where the technique has been deemed to have special opportunities. In the modelling section the mass and heat transfer processes are described along with equilibrium, capillarity and sorption phenomena occurring in porous materials during the steam drying process. In addition existing models in the literature are presented. The applications discussed involve drying of fuels with high moisture contents, cattle feed exemplified by sugar beet pulp, lumber, paper pulp, paper and sludges. Steam drying is compared to flue gas drying of biofuels prior to combustion in a boiler. With reference to a current installation in Sweden, the exergy losses, as manifested by loss of co-generation capacity, are discussed. The energy saving potential when using steam drying of sugar beet pulp as compared to other possible plant configurations is demonstrated. Mechanical vapor recompression applied to steam drying is analyzed with reference to reported data from industrial plants. Finally, environmental advantages when using steam drying are presented.

  20. Drying in cyclones -- A review

    SciTech Connect

    Nebra, S.A.; Silva, M.A.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of vortex (or cyclone) dryers. The focus is on the potential of the cyclone configuration for drying of particulates. A selective review is made of the literature pertains to single phase and gas-particle flow in cyclone geometries. Recent data on drying of particulates in cyclone dryers are summarized. 56 refs.

  1. Comparison of Mercury Mass Loading in Streams to Wet and Dry Atmospheric Deposition in Watersheds of the Western US: Evidence for Non-Atmospheric Mercury Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, J. L.; Majewski, M. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Eckley, C.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams in the western United States (US) are listed as impaired by mercury (Hg), and it is important to understand the magnitudes of the various sources in order to implement management strategies. Atmospheric deposition of Hg and can be a major source of aquatic contamination, along with mine wastes, and other sources. Prior studies in the eastern US have shown that streams deliver less than 50% of the atmospherically deposited Hg on an annual basis. In this study, we compared annual stream Hg loads for 20 watersheds in the western US to measured wet and modeled dry deposition. Land use varies from undisturbed to mixed (agricultural, urban, forested, mining). Data from the Mercury Deposition Network was used to estimate Hg input from precipitation. Dry deposition was not directly measured, but can be modeled using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. At an undeveloped watershed in the Rocky Mountains, the ratio of stream Hg load to atmospheric deposition was 0.2 during a year of average precipitation. In contrast, at the Carson River in Nevada, with known Hg contamination from historical silver mining with Hg amalgamation, stream export exceeded atmospheric deposition by a factor of 60, and at a small Sierran watershed with gold mining, the ratio was 70. Larger watersheds with mixed land uses, tend to have lower ratios of stream export relative to atmospheric deposition suggesting storage of Hg. The Sacramento River was the largest watershed for which Hg riverine loads were available with an average ratio of stream Hg export to atmospheric deposition of 0.10. Although Hg was used in upstream historical mining operations, the downstream river Hg load is partially mitigated by reservoirs, which trap sediment. This study represents the first compilation of riverine Hg loads in comparison to atmospheric deposition on a regional scale; the approach may be useful in assessing the relative importance of atmospheric and non-atmospheric Hg sources.

  2. Quality Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham Made from Two Different Three-way Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Hong, Doo-Il; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical traits of dry-cured hams made from two different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc (YLD) and Yorkshire×Berkshire×Duroc (YBD). Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 110 to 120 kg and cooled at 0°C for 24 h in a chilling room, the ham portion of the carcasses were cut and processed by dry-curing for physico-chemical analyses. While the moisture and crude protein contents of dry-cured ham were higher in YLD than in YBD, crude fat and ash content were higher in YBD (p<0.05). The salt contents of ham from YBD were higher than those from YLD (p<0.05). YBD ham samples showed a higher L* and b* values than those from YLD, while YBD ham showed lower a* value (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of YLD hams were lower than those of YBD samples (p<0.05). Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and shear force values of YBD ham were higher than those of YLD sample (p<0.05). Saltiness was significantly higher in YBD ham than in YLD samples (p<0.05). YLD ham displayed a superior quality than YBD. Considering the meat quality parameters of two-way crossbred ham, YLD hams could be more suitable for the production of dry-cured products. PMID:26333670

  3. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of polyphenols and secoiridoids in california-style black ripe olives and dry salt-cured olives.

    PubMed

    Melliou, Eleni; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-03-11

    The chemical composition of finished table olive products is influenced by the olive variety and the processing method used to debitter or cure table olives. Herein, a rapid ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring, was developed for the quantitation of 12 predominant phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in olive fruit, including hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol-4-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, verbascoside, oleoside-11-methyl ester, 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and o-coumaric acids), oleuropein aglycone, and ligstroside aglycone. Levels of these compounds were measured in fresh and California-style black ripe processed Manzanilla olives and two dry salt-cured olive varieties (Mission from California and Throuba Thassos from Greece). Results indicate that the variety and debittering processing method have strong impact on the profile of phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in table olives. The dry salt-cured olives contained higher amounts of most compounds studied, especially oleuropein (1459.5 ± 100.1 μg/g), whereas California-style black ripe olives had a significant reduction or loss of these bioactive compounds (e.g., oleuropein level at 36.7 ± 3.1 μg/g).

  4. Dry Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    Dry macular degeneration Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dry macular degeneration is a common eye disorder among people over 65. ... vision in your direct line of sight. Dry macular degeneration may first develop in one eye and then ...

  5. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth ... National Cancer Institute. Chemotherapy and you: support for people with cancer. Updated May 2007. ... ...

  6. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  7. Vertical distribution of corn stover dry mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from biomass may reduce reliance on imported fossil fuel, increase revenue for farmers and rural communities, and reduce rates of greenhouse gas production. Corn stover and other crop biomass are viewed by the renewable energy industry as an inexpensive, "unused" source of feedsto...

  8. Development of a compact freeze vacuum drying for jelly fish (Schypomedusae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamid, M. Idrus; Yulianto, M.; Nasruddin

    2012-06-01

    A new design of a freeze vacuum drying with internal cooling and heater from condenser's heat loss was built and tested. The dryer was used to dry jelly fish (schypomedusae), to study the effect of drying parameters such as the temperature within the drying chamber on mass losses (evaporation) during the freezing stage and the moisture ratio at the end of the drying process. The midili thin layer mathematical drying model was used to estimate and predict the moisture ratio curve based on different drying chamber temperatures. This experiment shows that decreasing the drying chamber temperature with constant pressure results in less mass loss during the freezing stage Drying time was reduced with an increase in drying temperature. Decreasing the drying chamber temperature results in lower pressure saturation of the material has no effect of drying chamber pressure on mass transfer.

  9. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  10. Novel application of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the characterization of drying oils in art: Elucidation on the composition of original paint materials used by Edvard Munch (1863-1944).

    PubMed

    La Nasa, Jacopo; Zanaboni, Marco; Uldanck, Daniele; Degano, Ilaria; Modugno, Francesca; Kutzke, Hartmut; Tveit, Eva Storevik; Topalova-Casadiego, Biljana; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-08

    Modern oil paints, introduced at the beginning of the 20th century, differ from those classically used in antiquity in their chemical and compositional features. The main ingredients were still traditional drying oils, often used in mixtures with less expensive oils and added with several classes of additives. Consequently, detailed lipid profiling, together with the study of lipid degradation processes, is essential for the knowledge and the conservation of paint materials used in modern and contemporary art. A multi-analytical approach based on mass spectrometry was used for the study of original paint materials from Munch's atelier, owned by the Munch Museum in Oslo. The results obtained in the analysis of paint tubes were compared with those obtained by characterizing a paint sample collected from one of the artist's sketches for the decoration of the Festival Hall of the University of Oslo (1909-1916). Py-GC/MS was used as screening method to evaluate the presence of lipid, proteic or polysaccaridic materials. GC/MS after hydrolysis and derivatization allowed us to determine the fatty acid profile of the paint tubes, and to evaluate the molecular changes associated to curing and ageing. The determination of the fatty acid profile is not conclusive for the characterization of complex mixtures of lipid materials, thus the characterization of the triglyceride profiles was performed using an analytical procedure based on HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF. This paper describes the first application of HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF for the acquisition of the triglyceride profile in a modern paint sample, showing the potentialities of liquid chromatography in the field of lipid characterization in modern paint materials. Moreover, our results highlighted that the application of this approach can contribute to address dating, authenticity and conservation issues relative to modern and contemporary artworks.

  11. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  12. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    components include: a dry ice pellet supply, a non-reactive propellant gas source, a pellet and propellant metering device, and a media transport and acceleration hose and nozzle arrangement. Dry ice cleaning system operating parameters include: choice of propellant gas, its pressure and temperature, dry ice mass flow rate, dry ice pellet size and shape, and acceleration nozzle configuration. These parameters may be modified to fit different applications. The growth of the dry ice cleaning industry will depend upon timely data acquisition of the effects that independent changes in these parameters have on cleaning rates, with respect to different surface coating and substrate combinations. With this data, optimization of cleaning rates for particular applications will be possible. The analysis of the applicable range of modulation of these parameters, within system component mechanical constraints, has just begun.

  13. Structure of drying costs

    SciTech Connect

    Sztabert, Z.T.

    1996-05-01

    A knowledge of cost structure and cost behavior is necessary in the management activities, particularly in the domain of investment or production decision making, as well as in the areas of production cost planning and control. Prediction and analysis of values of cost components for different technologies of drying are important when selection of a drying method and drying equipment should be done. Cost structures of lumber and coal drying processes together with an application of the factor method for prediction of the drying cost are presented.

  14. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  15. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  16. Dry Snow Metamorphism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-19

    REPORT Dry Snow Metamorphism Final Report Grant: 51065-EV 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The goal of this project was to characterize the...structural evolution of dry snow as it underwent metamorphism under either quasi-isothermal conditions or a temperature gradient, and to determine...Z39.18 - 5-Aug-2011 Dry Snow Metamorphism Final Report Grant: 51065-EV Report Title ABSTRACT The goal of this project was to characterize the structural

  17. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  18. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  19. Dry imaging cameras.

    PubMed

    Indrajit, Ik; Alam, Aftab; Sahni, Hirdesh; Bhatia, Mukul; Sahu, Samaresh

    2011-04-01

    Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  20. Packaged kiln dried firewood

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrara, A.

    1986-07-01

    A process is described for kiln drying firewood consisting of essentially uniform lengths of split firewood pieces, the process comprising splitting essentially uniform lengths of green tree logs to form firewood pieces, placing the firewood pieces in open mesh bags to provide a plurality of bags of firewood, placing the plurality of bags of green firewood pieces in a kiln drying oven, kiln drying the pieces at temperatures in excess of 150/sup 0/F. by moving heated air over the pieces until the pieces have an overall moisture content ranging from 15% up to 30% by weight, operating the kiln at a temperature below a level which would render the structural characteristics of the bag useless and removing the kiln dried firewood pieces in the plurality of bags from the kiln drying oven.

  1. Mechanisms of Drying of Skin Forming Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Haydar Mahmood

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The literature relating to evaporation from single droplets of pure liquids, and to the drying of droplets containing solids and of droplet sprays has been reviewed. The heat and mass transfer rates for a single droplet suspended from a nozzle were studied within a 42mm I.D. horizontal wind tunnel designed to supply hot dry air, to simulate conditions encountered in practical spray dryer. A novel rotating glass nozzle was developed to facilitate direct measurements of droplet weight and core temperature. This design minimised heat conduction through the nozzle. Revised correlations were obtained for heat and mass transfer coefficients, for evaporation from pure water droplets suspended from a rotating nozzle. (UNFORMATTED TABLE OR EQUATION FOLLOWS)eqalign {rm Nu&= rm 2.0 + 0.27 ({1over B})^{0.18}Re^{0.5}Pr ^{0.33}crrm Sh&= rm 2.0 + 0.575({Ta-Ts over Tamb})^{ -0.04}Re^{0.5}Sc^{0.33 }cr}(TABLE/EQUATION ENDS)Experimental drying studies were carried out on single droplets of different types of skin-forming materials, namely, custard, starch, gelatin, skim milk and fructose at air temperatures ranging from 19^circC to 198 ^circC. Dried crusts were recovered and examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Skin-forming materials were classified into three types according to the mechanisms of skin formation. In the first type (typified by droplets of custard and starch) skin formed due to gelatinisation at high temperatures. Increasing the drying temperature resulted in increased crust resistance to mass transfer due to increased granule swelling and the crust resistance was completely transferred to a skin resistance at drying temperatures >150 ^circC. In the second type e.g. gelatin droplets the skin formed immediately drying had taken place at any drying temperature. At drying temperature >60^circC a more resistant skin was formed. In the third type (typified by droplets of skim milk and fructose) the skin

  2. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  3. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  4. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  5. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  6. Drying SDS-Polyacrylamide Gels.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, Joseph; Russell, David W

    2006-09-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes a method for drying SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Gels containing proteins radiolabeled with (35)S-labeled amino acids must be dried before autoradiographic images can be obtained. Nonradioactive gels can also be preserved by drying.

  7. Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment for freeze-drying fruits and vegetables which aims to expose college students to the principles of drying and simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The experimental apparatus, procedure of the experiment, and data analysis are also included. (HM)

  8. Drying of porous materials in a medium with variable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Y. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an application of the Luikov system of heat and mass transfer equations in dimensionless form to predict the temperature and moisture distributions in a slab of capillary-porous material during drying. The heat and mass potentials of the external medium in the boundary conditions are assumed to vary linearly with time. The method of solution is illustrated by considering the drying of a slab of lumber. Numerical results based on the estimated thermophysical properties of spruce are presented.

  9. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  10. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  11. Magnetically responsive dry fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid.Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01784b

  12. Some considerations in simulation of superheated steam drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, S.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model for high-temperature drying of softwood lumber with moist air has been modified and extended to simulate wood drying with superheated steam. In the simulation, differences between the two types of drying are considered, these include: external heat and mass transfer processes and calculation of equilibrium moisture content. The external mass transfer coefficient in the superheated steam drying was found to be much higher than that in the moist air drying, however, the heat transfer coefficients for these two cases were of the same order. The predicted drying curves and wood temperatures from the superheated steam drying model were compared with experimental data and there was close agreement. Further studies will apply the model to development of commercial drying schedules for wood drying with superheated steam.

  13. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  14. Experimental study on drying kinetic of cassava starch in a pneumatic drying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suherman, Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Kusworo, Tutuk Djoko

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are to present the experimental research on the drying of cassava starch in a pneumatic dryer, to describe its drying curves, as well as to calculate its thermal efficiency. The effects of operating conditions, namely the inlet air temperature (60-100 °C) and solid-gas flow rate ratio (Ms/Mg 0.1-0.3) were studied. Heat transfer is accomplished through convection mechanism in a drying chamber based on the principle of direct contact between the heated air and the moist material. During the drying process, intensive heat and mass transfer between the drying air and the cassava starch take place. In order to meet the SNI standards on solid water content, the drying process was done in two cycles. The higher the temperature of the drying air, the lower the water content of the solids exiting the dryer. Thermal efficiency of the 2nd cycle was found to be lower than the 1st cycle.

  15. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  16. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  17. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods.

    PubMed

    E, Jayashree; R, Visvanathan; T, John Zachariah

    2014-11-01

    Ginger rhizomes sliced to various lengths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm and whole rhizomes were dried from an initial moisture content of 81.3 % to final moisture content of less than 10 % by various drying methods like sun drying, solar tunnel drying and cabinet tray drying at temperatures of 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. Slicing of ginger rhizomes significantly reduced the drying time of ginger in all the drying methods. It was observed that drying of whole ginger rhizomes under sun took the maximum time (9 days) followed by solar tunnel drying (8 days). Significant reduction in essential oil and oleoresin content of dry ginger was found as the slice length decreased. The important constituents of ginger essential oil like zingiberene, limonene, linalool, geraniol and nerolidol as determined using a gas chromatography was also found to decrease during slicing and as the drying temperature increased. The pungency constituents in the oleoresin of ginger like total gingerols and total shogoals as determined using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography also showed a decreasing trend on slicing and with the increase in drying temperature. It was observed from the drying studies that whole ginger rhizomes dried under sun drying or in a solar tunnel drier retained the maximum essential oil (13.9 mg/g) and oleoresin content (45.2 mg/g) of dry ginger. In mechanical drying, the drying temperature of 60 °C was considered optimum however there was about 12.2 % loss in essential oil at this temperature.

  18. Evolution of AC conductivity of wet illitic clay during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Š.; Štubňa, I.; Trnovcová, V.; Ondruška, J.; Vozár, L.; Dobroň, P.

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of the AC electrical conductivity during drying as well as the relationship between sample volume and moisture of green illite samples were investigated. The samples were prepared from illitic clay (80 mass % illite, 4 mass % montmorillonite, 12 mass % quartz and 4 mass % of orthoclase) and distilled water with initial moisture content 36 mass % and were freely dried in air. Conductivity was measured by the volt-ampere method with AC power supply of 5 V in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 10 kHz. The AC conductivity steeply increased with increasing moisture, up to 15 mass %. At higher values of the moisture, the AC conductivity was high and almost constant. The volume of samples increased with increasing moisture when the moisture was higher than 8 mass %. Below this value, the dimensions of samples do not significantly change. The dependence of the relative volume change on moisture is presented in a form of the Bigot’s curve.

  19. Scaling theory of drying in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Tsimpanogiannis, I.N.; Yortsos, Y.C.; Poulou, S.; Kanellopoulos, N.; Stubos, A.K.

    1999-04-01

    Concepts of immiscible displacements in porous media driven by mass transfer are utilized to model drying of porous media. Visualization experiments of drying in two-dimensional glass micromodels are conducted to identify pore-scale mechanisms. Then, a pore network approach is used to analyze the advancing drying front. It is shown that in a porous medium, capillarity induces a flow that effectively limits the extent of the front, which would otherwise be of the percolation type, to a finite width. In conjuction with the predictions of a macroscale stable front, obtained from a linear stability analysis, the process is shown to be equivalent to invasion percolation in a stabilizing gradient. A power-law scaling relation of the front width with a diffusion-based capillary number is also obtained. This capillary number reflects the fact that drying is controlled by diffusion in contrast to external drainage. The scaling exponent predicted is compatible with the experimental results of Shaw [Phys Rev. Lett. {bold 59}, 1671 (1987)]. A framework for a continuum description of the upstream drying regimes is also developed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in a crown compensated impulse drying press roll, The lubrication problem. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.; Hojjatie, B.; Bloom, F.

    1994-08-01

    Although evaporative drying is currently used to dry paper, research has showed that significant energy savings could be realized with the newer impulse drying technology in drying heavy weight grades of paper. This report analyzes the lubrication problem which arises in modeling impulse drying employing a crown compensated roll. The geometry for the associated steady flow problem is constructed and expressions are derived for the relevant velocity fields, mass flow rates, and normal and tangential forces acting on both the bottom surface of an internal hydrostatic shoe and the inside surface of the crown-compensated roll. Results from the analytical model agreed well with experimental data from Beloit Corp. for the small shoe/roll configuration. The model can be used to predict effect of design and physical parameters on the performance of the press roll (lubricant thickness, pressure distributions, mechanical power required to operate the roll, etc.) and to determine optimal performance under various operating conditions.

  1. Drying characteristics and modeling of yam slices under different relative humidity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying characteristics of yam slices under different 23 constant relative humidity (RH) and step-down RH levels were studied. A mass transfer model was developed based on Bi-Di correlations containing a drying coefficient and a lag factor to describe the drying process. It was validated using ex...

  2. Dry etching of metallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, D.

    1983-01-01

    The production dry etch processes are reviewed from the perspective of microelectronic fabrication applications. The major dry etch processes used in the fabrication of microelectronic devices can be divided into two categories - plasma processes in which samples are directly exposed to an electrical discharge, and ion beam processes in which samples are etched by a beam of ions extracted from a discharge. The plasma etch processes can be distinguished by the degree to which ion bombardment contributes to the etch process. This, in turn is related to capability for anisotropic etching. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) and Ion Beam Etching are of most interest for etching of thin film metals. RIE is generally considered the best process for large volume, anisotropic aluminum etching.

  3. The questionably dry eye.

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, I. A.; Seal, D. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate matter in the unstained tear film is associated with low tear lysozyme concentration. Tear flow and tear lysozyme are not necessarily interrelated, but a low lysozyme concentration (tear lysozyme ratio < 1.0) is associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The Schirmer I test can produce false positive results, and we have suggested a modification to overcome this. This modified test will detect the eye with severely depleted lysozyme secretion, but it is unreliable for detecting the eye with moderately depleted secretion. We find that its lowest normal limit should be considered as 6 mm. Images PMID:7448154

  4. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-09

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  5. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-07-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  6. Superlubricity of dry nanocontacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnecco, Enrico; Maier, Sabine; Meyer, Ernst

    2008-09-01

    We discuss how various forms of dry superlubricity, recently observed on the nanoscale, have been interpreted by simple phenomenological models. In particular, we review the cases of static and dynamic single-contact lubricity, thermolubricity, and structural lubricity. All these phenomena have been studied by friction force microscopy and explained using the classical Prandtl-Tomlinson model and its extensions, including thermal activation, temporal and spatial variations of the surface energy corrugation, and multiple-contact effects.

  7. Drying of fiber webs

    DOEpatents

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  8. Drying of fiber webs

    DOEpatents

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  9. Fast analysis of phthalates in freeze-dried baby foods by ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Notardonato, Ivan

    2016-11-25

    This paper is focused on the determination of phthalates (PAEs), compounds "plausibly" endocrine disruptors, in baby food products by means of a method based on ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with GC-IT/MS (UVALLME-GC-IT/MS). Particularly, the whole procedure allows the determination of six phthalates such as DMP, DEP, DBP, iBcEP, BBP and DEHP. After dissolution of 0.1g product sample and addition of anthracene as Internal Standard, 250μL of n-heptane are used as extraction solvent. The solution, held for 5min on the vortex mixer and for 6min in an ultrasonic bath at 100W for favoring the solvent dispersion and consequently the analyte extraction, is centrifuged at 4000rpm for 30min. About 100μL of heptane are recovered and 1μL is injected into the GC-IT/MS. All the analytical parameters investigated are deeply discussed: under the best conditions, the percentage recoveries range between 96.2 and 109.2% with an RSD ≤10.5% whereas the Limit of Detections (LODs) and the Limit of Quantifications (LOQs) are below 11 and 20ngg(-1), respectively, for all the PAEs except for iBcEP (23 and 43ngg(-1), respectively). The linear dynamic range of this procedure is between 10 and 5000ngg(-1) with R(2) ≥0.92. The method has been applied to real commercial freeze-dried samples (chicken and turkey meats) available on the Italian pharmaceutical market: three PAEs were preliminary identified, i.e. DEP (14ngg(-1)), DBP (11ngg(-1)) and DEHP (64ngg(-1)).

  10. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  11. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  12. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  13. Dry removal of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Elias, J D

    1981-08-01

    A method for the dry removal of friable asbestos has been developed. The Workplace Safety and Health Branch in Manitoba's Limited have co-operated in the production of an improved procedure. It was employed for the first time in the fall of 1979 when the Industrial Hygiene Section was asked for advice about removal of asbestos from a Winnipeg School Division warehouse. Fans were used to maintain the work area under negative pressure to prevent the spread of asbestos throughout the building. The exhaust air was filtered to prevent environmental contamination, and special precautions were taken to protect workers.

  14. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  15. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  16. Electrohydrodynamic Drying of Carrot Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique. PMID:25874695

  17. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  18. Drying and decontamination of raw pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying.

    PubMed

    Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Brandl, Maria T; Wang, Bini; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Ruihong; Pan, Zhongli

    2017-04-04

    Pistachio nuts have been associated with outbreaks of foodborne disease and the industry has been impacted by numerous product recalls due to contamination with Salmonella enterica. The current hot air drying of pistachios has low energy efficiency and drying rates, and also does not guarantee the microbial safety of products. In the study described herein, dehulled and water-sorted pistachios with a moisture content (MC) of 38.14% (wet basis) were dried in a sequential infrared and hot air (SIRHA) drier to <9% MC. The decontamination efficacy was assessed by inoculating pistachios with Enterococcus faecium, a surrogate of Salmonella enterica used for quality control in the almond industry. Drying with IR alone saved 105min (34.4%) of drying time compared with hot air drying. SIRHA drying of pistachios for 2h with infrared (IR) heat followed by tempering at a product temperature of 70°C for 2h and then by hot air drying shortened the drying time by 40min (9.1%) compared with drying by hot air only. This SIRHA method also reduced the E. faecium cell population by 6.1-logCFU/g kernel and 5.41-logCFU/g shell of pistachios. The free fatty acid contents of SIRHA dried pistachios were on par with that of hot air dried samples. Despite significant differences in peroxide values (PV) of pistachio kernels dried with the SIRHA method compared with hot air drying at 70°C, the PV were within the permissible limit of 5Meq/kg for edible oils. Our findings demonstrate the efficacy of SIRHA drying in achieving simultaneous drying and decontamination of pistachios.

  19. [Formation of flavor of dry champignons (Agaricus bisporus)].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

    2010-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds of dry champignons (Agaricus bisporus L.) were identified using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 56 compounds were identified. It was found that the flavor of dry mushrooms was formed by the volatile compounds produced as a result of enzymatic and oxidative conversion of unsaturated fatty acids as well as in the Maillard reaction. Unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight carbon atoms determined the mushroom note of the product. The specific aroma of dry mushrooms was determined by a complex composition of substituted sulfur-, oxygen-, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds as well as by aliphatic carbonyl compounds and methional. It was found that the concentrations of volatile carbonylic and heterocyclic compounds increased after the addition of a mixture of amino acids to mushrooms before drying. As a result, the intensity of the aroma of dry mushrooms increased.

  20. Biogeochemical stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Lyons, W. B.; McKnight, D. M.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.; Fountain, A. G.; Wall, D. H.; Moorhead, D. L.

    2007-03-01

    Among aquatic and terrestrial landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, ecosystem stoichiometry ranges from values near the Redfield ratios for C:N:P to nutrient concentrations in proportions far above or below ratios necessary to support balanced microbial growth. This polar desert provides an opportunity to evaluate stoichiometric approaches to understand nutrient cycling in an ecosystem where biological diversity and activity are low, and controls over the movement and mass balances of nutrients operate over 10-106 years. The simple organisms (microbial and metazoan) comprising dry valley foodwebs adhere to strict biochemical requirements in the composition of their biomass, and when activated by availability of liquid water, they influence the chemical composition of their environment according to these ratios. Nitrogen and phosphorus varied significantly in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems occurring on landscape surfaces across a wide range of exposure ages, indicating strong influences of landscape development and geochemistry on nutrient availability. Biota control the elemental ratio of stream waters, while geochemical stoichiometry (e.g., weathering, atmospheric deposition) evidently limits the distribution of soil invertebrates. We present a conceptual model describing transformations across dry valley landscapes facilitated by exchanges of liquid water and biotic processing of dissolved nutrients. We conclude that contemporary ecosystem stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley soils, glaciers, streams, and lakes results from a combination of extant biological processes superimposed on a legacy of landscape processes and previous climates.

  1. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  2. Dry EEG Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gordo, M. A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Valle, F. Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications. PMID:25046013

  3. Mass Properties for Space Systems Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Current Verbiage in S-120 Applies to Dry Mass. Mass Margin is difference between Required Mass and Predicted Mass. Performance Margin is difference between Predicted Performance and Required Performance. Performance estimates and corresponding margin should be based on Predicted Mass (and other inputs). Contractor Mass Margin reserved from Performance Margin. Remaining performance margin allocated according to mass partials. Compliance can be evaluated effectively by comparison of three areas (preferably on a single sheet). Basic and Predicted Mass (including historical trend). Aggregate potential changes (threats and opportunities) which gives Mass Forecast. Mass Maturity by category (Estimated/Calculated/Actual).

  4. Comparative study of ¹³C composition in ethanol and bulk dry wine using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry and by nuclear magnetic resonance as an indicator of vine water status.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Gaillard, Laetitia; Grand, Mathilde; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The potential of wine (13)C isotope composition (δ(13)C) is presented to assess vine water status during grape ripening. Measurements of δ(13)C have been performed on a set of 32 authentic wines and their ethanol recovered after distillation. The data, obtained by isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyser (irm-EA/MS), show a high correlation between δ(13)C of the bulk wine and its ethanol, indicating that the distillation step is not necessary when the wine has not been submitted to any oenological treatment. Therefore, the ethanol/wine δ(13)C correlation can be used as an indicator of possible enrichment of the grape must or the wine with exogenous organic compounds. Wine ethanol δ(13)C is correlated to predawn leaf water potential (R(2) = 0.69), indicating that this parameter can be used as an indicator of vine water status. Position-specific (13)C analysis (PSIA) of ethanol extracted from wine, performed by isotope ratio monitoring by nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR), confirmed the non-homogenous repartition of (13)C on ethanol skeleton. It is the δ(13)C of the methylene group of ethanol, compared to the methyl moiety, which is the most correlated to predawn leaf water potential, indicating that a phase of photorespiration of the vine during water stress period is most probably occurring due to stomata closure. However, position-specific (13)C analysis by irm-(13)C NMR does not offer a greater precision in the assessment of vine water status compared to direct measurement of δ(13)C on bulk wine by irm-EA/MS.

  5. Latex migration in battery slurries during drying.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sanghyuk; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Yamamura, Masato

    2013-07-02

    We used real-time fluorescence microscopy to investigate the migration of latex particles in drying battery slurries. The time evolution of the fluorescence signals revealed that the migration of the latex particles was suppressed above the entanglement concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), while it was significantly enhanced when CMC fully covered the surfaces of the graphite particles. In particular, a two-step migration was observed when the graphite particles flocculated by depletion attraction at high CMC/graphite mass ratios. The transient states of the nonadsorbing CMC and graphite particles in a medium were discussed, and the uses of this novel measurement technique to monitor the complex drying processes of films were demonstrated.

  6. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  7. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface.

    The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Drying Residual RP-1 in Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Polsgrove, Robert; Tiller, Bruce; Rodriquez, Pete (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When a Rocket Engine shuts down under a fuel rich environment, a significant amount of unburned RP-1 is trapped In the engine. It is necessary to clean the residual RP-1 prior to subsequent firing to avoid any explosion due to detonation. The conventional method is to dry RP-1 with inert gas such as Nitrogen or Helium. It is difficult to estimate the drying time unless the engine is adequately equipped with instruments to measure the trace of RP-1 during the drying process. Such instrumentation in flight hardware is often impractical and costly. On the other hand numerical modeling of the drying process can provide a good insight for a satisfactory operation of the process. A numerical model can provide answer to questions such as a) how long it takes to dry, b) which fluid is a better dryer for RP-1, c) how to reduce drying time etc. The purpose of the present paper is to describe a numerical model of drying RP-1 trapped in a cavity with flowing nitrogen or helium. The numerical model assumes one dimensional flow of drying fluid in contact with liquid pool of RP-1. An evaporative mass transfer takes place across the contact surface.

  9. Influence of drying on the flavor quality of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad; González Viñas, M A; Cabezudo, M Dolores

    2003-02-26

    Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) was dried using three different drying methods: oven-drying at 45 degrees C, air-drying at ambient temperature, and freeze-drying. The effect of the drying method on the volatile compounds and on the structural integrity and sensory characteristics of the spice was evaluated. The volatile components from fresh and dried spearmint samples were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 28 compounds were identified, carvone, limonene, and 1,8-cineole, in that order, being the main components in all of the samples. Oven-drying at 45 degrees C and air-drying at ambient temperature were the methods that produced the best results. An increase in monoterpenes was observed in all of the dried samples, except in the freeze-dried samples that underwent freezing at -198 degrees C. Freeze-drying resulted in substantial losses in oxygenated terpenes and sesquiterpenes. The effect of each drying method on leaf structure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. From a sensory standpoint, drying the spearmint brought about a decrease in herbaceous and floral notes together with an increase in minty odor.

  10. [Tear osmolarity and dry eye].

    PubMed

    Pan, Shi-yin; Xiao, Xiang-hua; Wang, Yang-zheng; Liu, Xian-ning; Zhu, Xiu-ping

    2011-05-01

    Dry eye is a common eye disease, and its incidence rate has been escalating. The increased tear osmolarity is one of the main reasons for complaint, damage and inflammation of dry eye patients. With the breakthrough of testing technology for tear osmolarity, more research and application of tear osmolarity was reported, and papers on tear osmolarity of normal eye and dry eye in different regions were also published. In this article, the progress of the tear osmolarity research, the range of tear osmolarity and its application in diagnosis and therapy of dry eye was introduced, and the prospect for the clinical application of hypotonic artificial tears was also discussed.

  11. Space Technology for Crop Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas came up with a new method of drying agricultural crops derived from vacuum chamber technology called MIVAC, a compression of microwave vacuum drying system. A distant cousin of the home microwave oven, MIVAC dries by means of electrically- generated microwaves introduced to a crop-containing vacuum chamber. Microwaves remove moisture quickly and the very low pressure atmosphere in the chamber permits effective drying at much lower than customary temperatures. Thus energy demand is doubly reduced by lower heat requirement and by the shorter time electric power is needed.

  12. Effect of drying method on the volatiles in bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad; Cabezudo, M Dolores

    2002-07-31

    The effect of different drying treatments on the volatiles in bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.) was studied. Simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the volatile components in bay leaves. SDE yielded better quantitative analysis results. Four drying treatments were employed: air-drying at ambient temperature, oven-drying at 45 degrees C, freezing, and freeze-drying. Oven drying at 45 degrees C and air-drying at ambient temperature produced quite similar results and caused hardly any loss in volatiles as compared to the fresh herb, whereas freezing and freeze-drying brought about substantial losses in bay leaf aroma and led to increases in the concentration levels of certain components, e.g., eugenol, elemicin, spathulenol, and beta-eudesmol.

  13. Power ultrasound as a pretreatment to convective drying of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves: Impact on drying kinetics and selected quality properties.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Yilin; Kadam, Shekhar U; Han, Yongbin; Wang, Jiandong; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ultrasound pretreatment prior to convective drying on drying kinetics and selected quality properties of mulberry leaves was investigated in this study. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at 25.2-117.6 W/L for 5-15 min in a continuous mode. After sonication, mulberry leaves were dried in a hot-air convective dryer at 60 °C. The results revealed that ultrasound pretreatment not only affected the weight of mulberry leaves, it also enhanced the convective drying kinetics and reduced total energy consumption. The drying kinetics was modeled using a diffusion model considering external resistance and effective diffusion coefficient De and mass transfer coefficient hm were identified. Both De and hm during convective drying increased with the increase of acoustic energy density (AED) and ultrasound duration. However, De and hm increased slowly at high AED levels. Furthermore, ultrasound pretreatment had a more profound influence on internal mass transfer resistance than on external mass transfer resistance during drying according to Sherwood numbers. Regarding the quality properties, the color, antioxidant activity and contents of several bioactive compounds of dried mulberry leaves pretreated by ultrasound at 63.0 W/L for 10 min were similar to that of mulberry leaves without any pretreatments. Overall, ultrasound pretreatment is effective to shorten the subsequent drying time of mulberry leaves without damaging the quality of final product.

  14. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations.

  15. Staying dry under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Paul; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Megaridis, Constantine; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Patankar, Neelesh

    2012-11-01

    Lotus leaves are known for their non-wetting properties due to the presence of surface texture. The superhydrophobic behavior arises because of the prevention of liquid water from entering the pores of the roughness. Present superhydrophobic materials rely on air trapped within the surface pores to avoid liquid permeation. This is typically unsustainable for immersed bodies due to dissolution of the air, especially under elevated pressures. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the non-wetting behavior of an immersed ten-nanometer pore. This is accomplished by establishing thermodynamically sustained vapor pockets of the surrounding liquid medium. Over 300,000 atoms were used to construct the nanopore geometry and simulate SPC/E water molecules. Ambient pressure was varied along two isotherms (300 K, and 500 K). This approach for vapor-stabilization could offer valuable guidance for maintaining surfaces dry even in a submerged state without relying on trapped air. The approach may be extended to control general phase behavior of water adjacent to textured surfaces. ISEN support is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Dry wind tunnel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ping-Chih (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a ground flutter testing system without a wind tunnel, called Dry Wind Tunnel (DWT) System. The DWT system consists of a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) hardware system, a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) force controller software, and a real-time unsteady aerodynamic force generation software, that is developed from an aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM). The ground flutter test using the DWT System operates on a real structural model, therefore no scaled-down structural model, which is required by the conventional wind tunnel flutter test, is involved. Furthermore, the impact of the structural nonlinearities on the aeroelastic stability can be included automatically. Moreover, the aeroservoelastic characteristics of the aircraft can be easily measured by simply including the flight control system in-the-loop. In addition, the unsteady aerodynamics generated computationally is interference-free from the wind tunnel walls. Finally, the DWT System can be conveniently and inexpensively carried out as a post GVT test with the same hardware, only with some possible rearrangement of the shakers and the inclusion of additional sensors.

  17. Is Shape of a Fresh and Dried Leaf the Same?

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dominik; Górzkowska, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Plants kept as dried herbarium specimens share many characteristics with their living counterparts, but there are some substantial differences between them. Due to dehydration, leaves of herbarium specimens change not only their mass and colour, but in many cases change their dimensions, too. The present study aimed to determine whether leaf shape changes during the drying process. A total of 794 pairs of fresh and dried leaves or leaflets of 22 plant taxa were studied. The shape of the blades was quantified using elliptic Fourier analysis combined with principal component analysis. In addition, area and mass of the leaves were measured. Statistical tests were applied for comparing fresh and dried leaves. The results indicate that the preservation process of pressing and drying plants for herbarium purposes causes changes in leaf shape. In general, the shape changes were directional. As the shape of fresh and dried plants is different, it is strongly recommended that shape analyses should be performed on datasets containing either of the leaf types. PMID:27045956

  18. Impact of Variety and Agronomic Factors on Crude Protein and Total Lysine in Chicory; N(ε)-Carboxymethyl-lysine-Forming Potential during Drying and Roasting.

    PubMed

    Loaëc, Grégory; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Henry, Nicolas; Jacolot, Philippe; Jouquand, Céline; Janssens, Myriam; Hance, Philippe; Cadalen, Thierry; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Desprez, Bruno; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2015-12-02

    During the heat treatment of coffee and its substitutes some compounds potentially deleterious to health are synthesized by the Maillard reaction. Among these, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was detected at high levels in coffee substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of changes in agricultural practice on the lysine content present in chicory roots and try to limit CML formation during roasting. Of the 24 varieties analyzed, small variations in lysine content were observed, 213 ± 8 mg/100 g dry matter (DM). The formation of lysine tested in five commercial varieties was affected by the nitrogen treatment with mean levels of 176 ± 2 mg/100 g DM when no fertilizer was added and 217 ± 7 mg/100 g DM with a nitrogen supply of 120 kg/ha. The lysine content of fresh roots was significantly correlated to the concentration of CML formed in roasted roots (r = 0.51; p < 0.0001; n = 76).

  19. Whey drying on porous carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.

    1996-05-01

    Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on porous carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.

  20. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  1. Dry root rot of chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry root rot of chickpea is a serious disease under dry hot summer conditions, particularly in the semi-arid tropics of Ethiopia, and in central and southern India. It usually occurs at reproductive stages of the plant. Symptoms include drooping of petioles and leaflets of the tips, but not the low...

  2. Dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, H.L.; Lee, W.J.; Su, C.C.; Chao, H.R.; Fan, Y.C.

    1996-12-01

    Dry deposition and air sampling were undertaken, simultaneously, in the ambient air of an urban site and a petrochemical-industry (PCI) plant by using several dry deposition plates and PS-1 samplers from January to May 1994 in southern Taiwan. The dry deposition plate with a smooth surface was always pointed into the wind. Twenty-one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MSD). The dry deposition flux of total-PAHs in urban and PCI sites averaged 166 and 211 {micro}g/m{sup 2}{center_dot}d, respectively. In general, the PAH dry deposition flux increased with increases in the PAH concentration in the ambient air. The PAH pattern of dry deposition flux in both urban and PCI sites were similar to the pattern measured by the filter of the PS-1 sampler and completely different from the PAH pattern in the gas phase. The higher molecular weight PAHs have higher dry deposition velocities. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs primarily associated with the particle phase are deposited mostly by gravitational settling, while the gas phase PAHs were between 0.001 and 0.010 cm/s, only the lower molecular-weight PAHs--Nap and AcPy--had a significant fraction of dry deposition flux contributed by the gas phase. All the remaining higher molecular-weight PAHs had more than 94.5% of their dry deposition flux resulting from the particle phase. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs have a greater fraction in the particle phase and the dry deposition velocities of particulates are much higher than those of the gas phase.

  3. "Wet" Versus "Dry" Folding of Polyproline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liuqing; Holliday, Alison E.; Bohrer, Brian C.; Kim, Doyong; Servage, Kelly A.; Russell, David H.; Clemmer, David E.

    2016-06-01

    When the all- cis polyproline-I helix (PPI, favored in 1-propanol) of polyproline-13 is introduced into water, it folds into the all- trans polyproline-II (PPII) helix through at least six intermediates [Shi, L., Holliday, A.E., Shi, H., Zhu, F., Ewing, M.A., Russell, D.H., Clemmer, D.E.: Characterizing intermediates along the transition from PPI to PPII using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 12702-12711 (2014)]. Here, we show that the solvent-free intermediates refold into the all- cis PPI helix with high (>90%) efficiency. Moreover, in the absence of solvent, each intermediate appears to utilize the same small set of pathways observed for the solution-phase PPII → PPI transition upon immersion of PPIIaq in 1-propanol. That folding in solution (under conditions where water is displaced by propanol) and folding in vacuo (where energy required for folding is provided by collisional activation) occur along the same pathway is remarkable. Implicit in this statement is that 1-propanol mimics a "dry" environment, similar to the gas phase. We note that intermediates with structures that are similar to PPIIaq can form PPII under the most gentle activation conditions—indicating that some transitions observed in water (i.e. , "we t" folding, are accessible (albeit inefficient) in vacuo. Lastly, these "dry" folding experiments show that PPI (all cis) is favored under "dry" conditions, which underscores the role of water as the major factor promoting preference for trans proline.

  4. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system.

    The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles.

    Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone.

    This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged

  5. Solar drying of yam-flour pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Oladiran, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat/mass transfer characteristics of a turbulent impinging jet in cross flow in a model of a chamber used for solar drying of yam flour pellets is presented. The variables studied were the nozzle inclination, ..cap alpha.. and the jet-to-cross flow velocity ratio, M. These parameters were varied from 30/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/ and from 5.0 to 20.9 respectively. Superimposing a cross flow onto the jet reduced the heat transfer coefficients. At low cross flows, inclining the nozzle further reduced the heat transfer coefficients. However, at higher cross flows, inclining the nozzle could be beneficial. The thin film napthalene sublimation technique was employed for the mass transfer measurements.

  6. Changes in the chemical composition of basil caused by different drying procedures.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Luigi Francesco; Forni, Elisabetta; Viscardi, Daniela; Nani, Renato Carlo

    2003-06-04

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves were dried using a microwave oven at atmospheric pressure or two traditional methods: air-drying at 50 degrees C and freeze-drying. The microwave-drying was carried out at different powers and times on raw basil leaves, while for air and freeze-drying techniques, both raw and blanched leaves were used. The raw and dried basil was analyzed for selected aroma compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-selected-ion-monitoring, the chlorophyll a and b by HPLC and the color by a reflected-light colorimeter. For dried samples microwaved for 1 min at 270, 2 min at 440, 1 min at 650, and 1 min at 1100 W, the percentage retentions of the characteristic volatile compounds (eucalyptol, linalool, eugenol, and methyl eugenol) were higher than in the samples dried by traditional methods, with the exception of freeze-dried unblenched basil. Microwave drying allowed a larger retention of chlorophyll pigments than air-drying and freeze-drying (with or without blanching) and preserved the color of the raw basil. Microwave drying requires a much shorter treatment and implied the simultaneous blanching of the material.

  7. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  8. The release of monoterpenes during convective drying of wood chips

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1998-08-01

    The release of volatile organic components (VOC) during high temperature convective drying of wood chips was studied experimentally and theoretically. The drying medium was superheated steam with a pressure of two bar. Two different temperature levels of the drying medium, 160 and 180 C, and two different materials, Scots Pine and Norway Spruce, were investigated. It was found that the main components released consist of various types of monoterpenes, with {alpha}-pinene dominating in each of the two materials. The amount released is dependent on the drying temperature as well as the time of the drying process. In order to describe the release rate of monoterpenes during drying, two separate models, called the communicating and the non-communicating model respectively, were developed. The mechanisms included for the transport of monoterpenes are, in the communicating model, transport by diffusion and with the advective gas and liquid flow within the tracheids and, in the non-communicating model, diffusion within the resin canal system. The results obtained using the communicating model largely overpredict the experimental results. To avoid this rapid release, additional mass transfer resistance for the transport of monoterpenes between the two canal systems could be introduced. The non-communicating model was found to be useful in explaining the release rate when drying spruce. This model, however, cannot distinguish between the two temperature levels studied.

  9. Design of freeze-drying processes for pharmaceuticals: practical advice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin; Pikal, Michael J

    2004-02-01

    Design of freeze-drying processes is often approached with a "trial and error" experimental plan or, worse yet, the protocol used in the first laboratory run is adopted without further attempts at optimization. Consequently, commercial freeze-drying processes are often neither robust nor efficient. It is our thesis that design of an "optimized" freeze-drying process is not particularly difficult for most products, as long as some simple rules based on well-accepted scientific principles are followed. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the scientific foundations of the freeze-drying process design and then to consolidate these principles into a set of guidelines for rational process design and optimization. General advice is given concerning common stability issues with proteins, but unusual and difficult stability issues are beyond the scope of this review. Control of ice nucleation and crystallization during the freezing step is discussed, and the impact of freezing on the rest of the process and final product quality is reviewed. Representative freezing protocols are presented. The significance of the collapse temperature and the thermal transition, denoted Tg', are discussed, and procedures for the selection of the "target product temperature" for primary drying are presented. Furthermore, guidelines are given for selection of the optimal shelf temperature and chamber pressure settings required to achieve the target product temperature without thermal and/or mass transfer overload of the freeze dryer. Finally, guidelines and "rules" for optimization of secondary drying and representative secondary drying protocols are presented.

  10. Modeling the Secondary Drying Stage of Freeze Drying: Development and Validation of an Excel-Based Model.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Ekneet K; Pikal, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Although several mathematical models of primary drying have been developed over the years, with significant impact on the efficiency of process design, models of secondary drying have been confined to highly complex models. The simple-to-use Excel-based model developed here is, in essence, a series of steady state calculations of heat and mass transfer in the 2 halves of the dry layer where drying time is divided into a large number of time steps, where in each time step steady state conditions prevail. Water desorption isotherm and mass transfer coefficient data are required. We use the Excel "Solver" to estimate the parameters that define the mass transfer coefficient by minimizing the deviations in water content between calculation and a calibration drying experiment. This tool allows the user to input the parameters specific to the product, process, container, and equipment. Temporal variations in average moisture contents and product temperatures are outputs and are compared with experiment. We observe good agreement between experiments and calculations, generally well within experimental error, for sucrose at various concentrations, temperatures, and ice nucleation temperatures. We conclude that this model can serve as an important process development tool for process design and manufacturing problem-solving.

  11. [A simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Yi; Li, Gang; An, Dong-Sheng; Luo, Wei-Hong

    2012-04-01

    Dry matter allocation and translocation is the base of the formation of appearance quality of ornamental plants, and strongly affected by water supply. Taking cut lily cultivar 'Sorbonne' as test material, a culture experiment of different planting dates and water supply levels was conducted in a multi-span greenhouse in Nanjing from March 2009 to January 2010 to quantitatively analyze the seasonal changes of the dry matter allocation and translocation in 'Sorbonne' plants and the effects of substrate water potential on the dry matter allocation indices for different organs (flower, stem, leaf, bulb, and root), aimed to define the critical substrate water potential for the normal growth of the cultivar, and establish a simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential. The model established in this study gave a good prediction on the dry mass of plant organs, with the coefficient of determination and the relative root mean square error between the simulated and measured values of the cultivar' s flower dry mass, stem dry mass, leaf dry mass, bulb dry mass, and root dry mass being 0.96 and 19.2%, 0.95 and 12.4%, 0.86 and 19.4%, 0.95 and 12.2%, and 0.85 and 31.7%, respectively. The critical water potential for the water management of cut lily could be -15 kPa.

  12. Isothermal vapour flow in extremely dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todman, L. C.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Templeton, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    In dry soils hydraulic connectivity within the liquid water phase decreases and vapour flow becomes a significant transport mechanism for water. The temperature or solute concentration of the liquid phase affects the vapour pressure of the surrounding air, thus temperature or solute gradients can drive vapour flows. However, in extremely dry soils where water is retained by adsorptive forces rather than capillarity, vapour flows can also occur. In such soils tiny changes in water content significantly affect the equilibrium vapour pressure in the soil, and hence small differences in water content can initiate vapour pressure gradients. In many field conditions this effect may be negligible compared to vapour flows driven by other factors. However, flows of this type are particularly significant in a new type of subsurface irrigation system which uses pervaporation, via a polymer tubing, as the mechanism for water supply. In this system, water enters the soil in vapour phase. Experiments were performed in laboratory conditions using marine sand that had previously been oven dried and cooled. This dry sand was used to represent the desert conditions in which this irrigation system is intended for use. Experimental results show that isothermal vapour flows can significantly affect the performance of such irrigation systems due to the rapid transport of water through the soil via the vapour phase. When the irrigation pipe was buried at a depth of 10cm a vapour flow from the soil surface was observed in less than 2 hours. These flows therefore affect the loss of mass into the atmosphere and thus must be considered when evaluating the availability of water for the irrigated crop. The experiments also provide a rare opportunity to observe isothermal vapour flows initiating from a subsurface source. Such experiments allow the significance of these flows to be quantified and potentially applied to other areas of arid zone hydrology.

  13. Tetrachloroethylene Emissions and Exposure in Dry Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, J; Niemelä, R; Rosenberg, C

    2001-12-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) emissions and the exposure of workers in six commercial and three industrial dry-cleaning establishments that use dry-to-dry machines were determined. The personal samples and area samples [8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) and short-term exposure] were collected with charcoal tubes and passive monitors. The temporal variation of PCE concentration in the workplace air was monitored using a Fourier transform infrared analyzer (FTIR). The PCE emission rates were determined by multiplying the average PCE concentration in the room and the total airflow rate in the room. The PCE emissions were related to the cleaning rate in units of kg/hr. The operators' mean TWA exposure in commercial shops and industrial establishments was 28 (4.1 ppm) and 32 mg/m(3) (4.6 ppm), and the pressers' exposure was 3.4 (0.5 ppm) and 7.7 mg/m(3) (1.1 ppm), respectively. The customer service personnel had the lowest TWA exposure with a mean value of 0.8 mg/m(3) (0.1 ppm). The highest peak concentration (2300 mg/m(3); 334 ppm) was observed during cleaning of the lint and button trap, during which operation respirators were used. The PCE emission rates ranged from 4 to 118 g/hr corresponding to emission factors (mass of solvent evaporated per mass of cleaned cloths) of 0.3-3.6 g/kg. The workers' exposure to PCE was below the occupational limit values in the United States [according to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)] and in Finland. The outdoor PCE emissions were clearly below the limit values given in the European Union volatile organic compound (VOC) directive requirements.

  14. Tetrachloroethylene emissions and exposure in dry cleaning.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, J; Niemelä, R; Rosenberg, C

    2001-12-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) emissions and the exposure of workers in six commercial and three industrial dry-cleaning establishments that use dry-to-dry machines were determined. The personal samples and area samples [8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) and short-term exposure] were collected with charcoal tubes and passive monitors. The temporal variation of PCE concentration in the workplace air was monitored using a Fourier transform infrared analyzer (FTIR). The PCE emission rates were determined by multiplying the average PCE concentration in the room and the total airflow rate in the room. The PCE emissions were related to the cleaning rate in units of kg/hr. The operators' mean TWA exposure in commercial shops and industrial establishments was 28 (4.1 ppm) and 32 mg/m3 (4.6 ppm), and the pressers' exposure was 3.4 (0.5 ppm) and 7.7 mg/m3 (1.1 ppm), respectively. The customer service personnel had the lowest TWA exposure with a mean value of 0.8 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm). The highest peak concentration (2300 mg/m3; 334 ppm) was observed during cleaning of the lint and button trap, during which operation respirators were used. The PCE emission rates ranged from 4 to 118 g/hr corresponding to emission factors (mass of solvent evaporated per mass of cleaned cloths) of 0.3-3.6 g/kg. The workers' exposure to PCE was below the occupational limit values in the United States [according to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)] and in Finland. The outdoor PCE emissions were clearly below the limit values given in the European Union volatile organic compound (VOC) directive requirements.

  15. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Beetz, Charles

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  16. Drying of thin colloidal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  17. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

  18. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  19. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  20. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  1. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0.

  2. Degradation of PCBs in dry fermented sausages during drying/ripening.

    PubMed

    Lušnic Polak, M; Zlatić, E; Demšar, L; Žlender, B; Polak, T

    2016-12-15

    The effects of several commercial meat starter cultures on degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dry fermented sausages over 28days of drying/ripening were investigated. The sausage batter was prepared according to a classic recipe and spiked with a standard solution of a PCB congener mixture. With addition of different commercial meat starter cultures, five experimental groups were prepared: no further addition; and separate addition of each of four starter cultures: Texel DCM-1, Texel LM-30, Biostar Sprint, and SM-181. Samples were taken at the beginning of fermentation (zero time), and after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28days. PCB residues were extracted with hexane. The PCB contents were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCB levels were reduced in all of the experimental groups tested, where addition of starter culture Biostar Sprint (Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus) showed the highest PCB degradation rates.

  3. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-08-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  4. Sustaining dry surfaces under water.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul R; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M; Varanasi, Kripa K; Megaridis, Constantine M; Walther, Jens H; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-08-18

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  5. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments. PMID:26282732

  6. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  7. Comparison of Mathematical Equation and Neural Network Modeling for Drying Kinetic of Mendong in Microwave Oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulidah, Rifa'atul; Purqon, Acep

    2016-08-01

    Mendong (Fimbristylis globulosa) has a potentially industrial application. We investigate a predictive model for heat and mass transfer in drying kinetics during drying a Mendong. We experimentally dry the Mendong by using a microwave oven. In this study, we analyze three mathematical equations and feed forward neural network (FNN) with back propagation to describe the drying behavior of Mendong. Our results show that the experimental data and the artificial neural network model has a good agreement and better than a mathematical equation approach. The best FNN for the prediction is 3-20-1-1 structure with Levenberg- Marquardt training function. This drying kinetics modeling is potentially applied to determine the optimal parameters during mendong drying and to estimate and control of drying process.

  8. Morphology of drying blood pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  9. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  10. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  11. Biomass drying in a pulsed fluidized bed without inert bed particles

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Dening; Bi, Xiaotao; Lim, C. Jim; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2016-08-29

    Batch drying was performed in the pulsed fluidized bed with various species of biomass particles as an indicator of gas–solid contact efficiency and mass transfer rate under different operating conditions including pulsation duty cycle and particle size distribution. The fluidization of cohesive biomass particles benefited from the shorter opening time of pulsed gas flow and increased peak pressure drop. The presence of fines enhanced gas–solid contact of large and irregular biomass particles, as well as the mass transfer efficiency. A drying model based on two-phase theory was proposed, from which effective diffusivity was calculated for various gas flow rates, temperature and pulsation frequency. Intricate relationship was discovered between pulsation frequency and effective diffusivity, as mass transfer was deeply connected with the hydrodynamics. Effective diffusivity was also found to be proportional to gas flow rate and drying temperature. In conclusion, operating near the natural frequency of the system also favored drying and mass transfer.

  12. Evaluating industrial drying of cellulosic feedstock for bioenergy: A systems approach

    DOE PAGES

    Sokhansanj, Shahab; Webb, Erin

    2016-01-21

    Here, a large portion of herbaceous and woody biomass must be dried following harvest. Natural field drying is possible if the weather cooperates. Mechanical drying is a certain way of reducing the moisture content of biomass. This paper presents an engineering analysis applied to drying of 10 Mg h–1 (exit mass flow) of biomass with an initial moisture content ranging from 25% to 70% (wet mass basis) down to 10% exit moisture content. The requirement for hog fuel to supply heat to the dryer increases from 0.5 dry Mg to 3.8 dry Mg h–1 with the increased initial moisture ofmore » biomass. The capital cost for the entire drying system including equipment for biomass size reduction, pollution control, dryer, and biomass combustor sums up to more than 4.7 million dollars. The operating cost (electricity, labor, repair, and maintenance) minus fuel cost for the dryer alone amount to 4.05 Mg–1 of dried biomass. For 50% moisture content biomass, the cost of fuel to heat the drying air is 7.41 dollars/ dry ton of biomass for a total 11.46 dollars per dry ton at 10% moisture content. The fuel cost ranges from a low of 2.21 dollars to a high of 18.54 dollars for a biomass at an initial moisture content of 25% to 75%, respectively. This wide range in fuel cost indicates the extreme sensitivity of the drying cost to initial moisture content of biomass and to ambient air humidity and temperature and highlights the significance of field drying for a cost effective drying operation.« less

  13. Evaluating industrial drying of cellulosic feedstock for bioenergy: A systems approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahab; Webb, Erin

    2016-01-21

    Here, a large portion of herbaceous and woody biomass must be dried following harvest. Natural field drying is possible if the weather cooperates. Mechanical drying is a certain way of reducing the moisture content of biomass. This paper presents an engineering analysis applied to drying of 10 Mg h–1 (exit mass flow) of biomass with an initial moisture content ranging from 25% to 70% (wet mass basis) down to 10% exit moisture content. The requirement for hog fuel to supply heat to the dryer increases from 0.5 dry Mg to 3.8 dry Mg h–1 with the increased initial moisture of biomass. The capital cost for the entire drying system including equipment for biomass size reduction, pollution control, dryer, and biomass combustor sums up to more than 4.7 million dollars. The operating cost (electricity, labor, repair, and maintenance) minus fuel cost for the dryer alone amount to 4.05 Mg–1 of dried biomass. For 50% moisture content biomass, the cost of fuel to heat the drying air is 7.41 dollars/ dry ton of biomass for a total 11.46 dollars per dry ton at 10% moisture content. The fuel cost ranges from a low of 2.21 dollars to a high of 18.54 dollars for a biomass at an initial moisture content of 25% to 75%, respectively. This wide range in fuel cost indicates the extreme sensitivity of the drying cost to initial moisture content of biomass and to ambient air humidity and temperature and highlights the significance of field drying for a cost effective drying operation.

  14. Dehydration characteristics and mathematical modelling of lemon slices drying undergoing oven treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza; Tohidi, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of drying temperature on drying behaviour and mass transfer parameters of lemon slices was investigated. The drying experiments were conducted in a laboratory air ventilated oven dryer at temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C. It was observed that the drying temperature affected the drying time and drying rate significantly. Drying rate curves revealed that the process at the temperature levels taken place in the falling rate period entirely. The usefulness of eight thin layer models to simulate the drying kinetics was evaluated and the Midilli and Kucuk model showed the best fit to experimental drying curves. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined on the basis of Fick's second law and obtained to be 1.62 × 10-11, 3.25 × 10-11 and 8.11 × 10-11 m2 s-1 for the temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C, respectively. The activation energy and Arrhenius constant were calculated to be 60.08 kJ mol-1 and 0.08511 m2 s-1, respectively. The average value of convective mass transfer coefficient for the drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C was calculated to be 5.71 × 10-7, 1.62 × 10-6 and 2.53 × 10-6 m s-1, respectively.

  15. Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-03-02

    "Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system.

  16. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental

  17. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, P. C. D.; Dunne, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. `Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman-Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  18. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Dunne, Krista A.

    2016-01-01

    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. ‘Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman–Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  19. Influence of the Ultrasonic Power Applied on Freeze Drying Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, C.; Mulet, A.; García-Pérez, J. V.; Riera, E.; Cárcel, J. A.

    The atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) constitutes an interesting alternative to vacuum freeze drying providing products with similar quality at lowest cost. However, the long process time needed represent an important drawback. In this sense, the application of high intensity ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and intensify the operation. In hot air drying operation, the ultrasonic effects are dependent on the process variables such as air velocity, internal sample structure or ultrasonic power applied. However, in AFD processes, the internal structure of material or the air velocity has not significant influence on the magnitude of ultrasonic effects. The aim of this work was to determine the influence on drying kinetics of the ultrasonic power applied during the AFD of apple. For that purpose, AFD experiments (-10 °C, 2 m/s and 15% relative humidity) of apple slabs (cv. Granny Smith, 30 x 30 x 10 mm) were carried out with ultrasound application (21 kHz) at different power levels (0, 10.3, 20.5 and 30.8 kW/m3). The drying kinetics was obtained from the initial moisture content and the weight evolution of samples during drying. Experimental results showed a significant (p<0.05) influence of the ultrasound application on drying. Thus, drying time was shorter as higher the ultrasonic power applied. From modeling, it was observed that the effective diffusion coefficient identified was 4.8 times higher when ultrasound was applied at the lowest power tested (10.3 kW/m3) that illustrated the high intensification potential of ultrasound application in the AFD.

  20. Fragmentation of drying paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

  1. Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, E.; Chinnayya, A.; Domergue, L.; Hadjadj, A.; Haas, J.-F.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents results of experiments and numerical modeling on the mitigation of blast waves using dry aqueous foams. The multiphase formalism is used to model the dry aqueous foam as a dense non-equilibrium two-phase medium as well as its interaction with the high explosion detonation products. New experiments have been performed to study the mass scaling effects. The experimental as well as the numerical results, which are in good agreement, show that more than an order of magnitude reduction in the peak overpressure ratio can be achieved. The positive impulse reduction is less marked than the overpressures. The Hopkinson scaling is also found to hold particularly at larger scales for these two blast parameters. Furthermore, momentum and heat transfers, which have the main dominant role in the mitigation process, are shown to modify significantly the classical blast wave profile and thereafter to disperse the energy from the peak overpressure due to the induced relaxation zone. In addition, the velocity of the fireball, which acts as a piston on its environment, is smaller than in air. Moreover, the greater inertia of the liquid phase tends to project the aqueous foam far from the fireball. The created gap tempers the amplitude of the transmitted shock wave to the aqueous foam. As a consequence, this results in a lowering of blast wave parameters of the two-phase spherical decaying shock wave.

  2. Effects of pulse and press drying disturbance on benthic stream communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Dustin T.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disturbance is an integral component of most ecosystems and occurs in 3 different forms: pulse, press, and ramp. In lotic ecosystems, seasonal drought is a major form of disturbance, particularly in intermittent headwater streams, which often are reduced to pools that serve as refuges for biota. We used simulated intermittent stream pools to compare the effects of control, pulse, and press drying on growth and survival in 3 fish species (Lepomis megalotis, Campostoma anomalum, and Etheostoma spectabile) commonly found together in drought-prone streams in the Ozark Highlands, USA. We also compared effects on benthic community structure, including periphyton and chironomid density and sediment in deep (permanently watered) and shallow (intermittently dewatered) habitat. Only one species, L. megalotis, showed a significant reduction in length and mass growth in press drying compared with control treatments. Drying and type of drying had no effect on survival of any fish species. Drying and type of drying had strong overall effects on periphyton growth in shallow habitats, where ash-free dry mass decreased and the autotrophic index (the ratio of chlorophyll a to total biomass) increased significantly in drying relative to control and in press relative to pulse treatments. Drying negatively affected sediment accumulation in shallow habitat and chironomid density in deep habitat. Drying in intermittent streams has species-dependent effects on fish growth and benthic structure, and pulse and press drying differ in their effects on periphyton in these systems. These effects may have important consequences in seasonally drying streams as anthropogenic influence on stream drying increases.

  3. Comparison between analytical and numerical solution of mathematical drying model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Rasmani, K.; Jamil, N.

    2016-02-01

    Drying is often related to the food industry as a process of shifting heat and mass inside food, which helps in preserving food. Previous research using a mass transfer equation showed that the results were mostly concerned with the comparison between the simulation model and the experimental data. In this paper, the finite difference method was used to solve a mass equation during drying using different kinds of boundary condition, which are equilibrium and convective boundary conditions. The results of these two models provide a comparison between the analytical and the numerical solution. The result shows a close match between the two solution curves. It is concluded that the two proposed models produce an accurate solution to describe the moisture distribution content during the drying process. This analysis indicates that we have confidence in the behaviour of moisture in the numerical simulation. This result demonstrated that a combined analytical and numerical approach prove that the system is behaving physically. Based on this assumption, the model of mass transfer was extended to include the temperature transfer, and the result shows a similar trend to those presented in the simpler case.

  4. Drying leather with vacuum and toggling sequentially

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated a drying method that will enable leather to be dried under vacuum and stretch sequentially to improve area yield. Vacuum drying offers fast speed at a low temperature, which would be advantageous to heat-vulnerable chrome-free leather. Adding a toggle action after vacuum drying cou...

  5. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for...

  6. Foam-mat Drying Technology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2015-07-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method which allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40 -90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25 - 2%), egg white (3 - 20%), maltodextrin (0.5 - 05%) and gum Arabic (2 - 9%) are the commonly utilised additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous and sticky products which cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying and improved product quality it provides.

  7. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  8. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  9. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  10. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  11. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida...

  12. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  13. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  14. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  15. Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

  16. A new dry biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luce, R. S.; Cleveland, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Electronic circuitry contains new operational amplifier which incorporates monolithic super-gain transistors. Electrode does not provide voltage amplification; instead, it acts as current amplifier to make it possible to pick up electrical potentials from surface of highly resistant dry skin.

  17. Granular flow: Dry and wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, N.; Nakanishi, H.

    2012-04-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture.

  18. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  19. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  20. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  1. Moisture variation associated with water input and evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Liu, Hong-Tao; Zheng, Guo-Di; Yang, Qi-Wei

    2012-08-01

    The variation of moisture during sewage sludge bio-drying was investigated. In situ measurements were conducted to monitor the bulk moisture and water vapor, while the moisture content, water generation, water evaporation and aeration water input of the bio-drying bulk were calculated based on the water mass balance. The moisture in the sewage sludge bio-drying material decreased from 66% to 54% in response to control technology for bio-drying. During the temperature increasing and thermophilic phases of sewage sludge bio-drying, the moisture content, water generation and water evaporation of the bulk initially increased and then decreased. The peak water generation and evaporation occurred during the thermophilic phase. During the bio-drying, water evaporation was much greater than water generation, and aeration facilitated the water evaporation.

  2. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M.

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  3. Wet mammals shake at tuned frequencies to dry

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Mills, Zachary G.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f ∼ M−0.22, which is close to our prediction of f ∼ M−0.19 based upon the balance of centrifugal and capillary forces. We also observe a novel role for loose mammalian dermal tissue: by whipping around the body, it increases the speed of drops leaving the animal and the ensuing dryness relative to tight dermal tissue. PMID:22904256

  4. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-12-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product.

  5. Quantification of perchloroethylene residues in dry-cleaned fabrics.

    PubMed

    Sherlach, Katy S; Gorka, Alexander P; Dantzler, Alexa; Roepe, Paul D

    2011-11-01

    We have used a novel gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based approach to quantify perchloroethylene (PCE) residues in dry-cleaned fabrics. Residual PCE was extracted from fabric samples with methanol and concentration was calculated by the gas chromatographic peak area, standardized using PCE calibration data. Extracts examined were from samples of 100% wool, polyester, cotton, or silk, which were dry cleaned from one to six times in seven different Northern Virginia dry-cleaning establishments. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of PCE release in the extraction solvent and to the open air. We found that polyester, cotton, and wool retained ≥ µM levels of PCE, that these levels increased in successive dry-cleaning cycles, and that PCE is slowly volatilized from these fabrics under ambient room air conditions. We found that silk does not retain appreciable PCE. Measured differences across dry-cleaning establishments and fabric type suggest more vigorous monitoring of PCE residues may be warranted. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2481-2487. © 2011 SETAC.

  6. Vacuum Drying of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.

    2004-05-20

    Composites of sludge from Tanks 241-B-203, 241-T-203, 241 T 204, and 241-T-110 at the Hanford Site were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory from core samples retrieved from these tanks. These tank composites may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste within these underground storage tanks. The composite samples were diluted with water at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to represent the slurries that are expected to be received from tank retrieval operations and processed to produce a final waste stream. The dilutions were vacuum dried at 60 C and 26 in. of mercury ({approx} 100 torr). Semi-quantitative measurements of stickiness and cohesive strength were made on these dilutions as a function of drying time. Mass loss as a function of drying time and total solids concentration of the initial dilution and at the conclusion of drying were also measured. Visual observations of the sludge were recorded throughout the drying process.

  7. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  8. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    PubMed

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  9. Scrotal masses

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause scrotal masses can be easily treated. Even testicular cancer has a high cure rate if found and ... your provider to determine if it may be testicular cancer. Prevention You can prevent scrotal masses caused by ...

  10. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... lumpy mass in the right upper quadrant. Liver enlargement (hepatomegaly) can cause a firm, irregular mass below ... the kidney (usually only affects one kidney). Spleen enlargement (splenomegaly) can sometimes be felt in the left- ...

  11. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Heng; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Liu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a formulation of liposomal salbutamol sulfate (SBS) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for the treatment of asthma. Liposomes of high encapsulation efficiency (more than 80%) were prepared by a vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG) technique. SBS VPG liposomes were subjected to lyophilization using different kinds of cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Coarse lactose (63-106 microm) in different mass ratios was used as a carrier. Magnesium stearate (0.5%) was added as a lubricator. The dry liposomal powders were then crushed by ball milling and sieved through a 400-mesh sieve to control the mean particle size at about 10 microm. The effects of different kinds of cryoprotectants and the amount of lactose carrier on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SBS were investigated. The results showed that the developed formulation of liposomal dry powder inhaler was obtained using lactose as a cryoprotectant with a mass ratio of lyophilized powder to carrier lactose at 1 : 5; 0.5% magnesium stearate was used as a lubricator. The value of FPF for SBS was 41.51+/-2.22% for this formulation. Sustained release of SBS from the VPG liposomes was found in the in vitro release study. The study results offer the promising possibility of localized pulmonary liposomal SBS delivery in the anhydrous state.

  12. Investigation of design space for freeze-drying: use of modeling for primary drying segment of a freeze-drying cycle.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Venkat Rao; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Berry, Mark R; Osterberg, Thomas; Youssef, Maickel; Hiebert, David N; Kanka, Frank A; Nolan, Martin; Barrett, Rosemary; Scalzo, Gioval; Fitzpatrick, Gillian; Fitzgibbon, Niall; Luthra, Sumit; Zhang, Liling

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we explore the idea of using mathematical models to build design space for the primary drying portion of freeze-drying process. We start by defining design space for freeze-drying, followed by defining critical quality attributes and critical process parameters. Then using mathematical model, we build an insilico design space. Input parameters to the model (heat transfer coefficient and mass transfer resistance) were obtained from separate experimental runs. Two lyophilization runs are conducted to verify the model predictions. This confirmation of the model predictions with experimental results added to the confidence in the insilico design space. This simple step-by-step approach allowed us to minimize the number of experimental runs (preliminary runs to calculate heat transfer coefficient and mass transfer resistance plus two additional experimental runs to verify model predictions) required to define the design space. The established design space can then be used to understand the influence of critical process parameters on the critical quality attributes for all future cycles.

  13. Dry Eye and Designer Ophthalmics

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Gordon W.; Olsakovsky, Leslie A.; Conway, Brian P.; McKown, Robert L.; Kitagawa, Kazuko; Nichols, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    EST, proteomic, and antibody capture assays are revealing a level of tear film protein complexity far greater than previously appreciated. A systems biology approach will be needed to fully appreciate function as tear protein doses fluctuate in time through different conditions. Although consensus is growing on what fully constitutes the human tear proteome, questions remain about the source and significance of the ∼256 tear proteins designated as ‘intracellular’. Many of these may derive from normal cellular turnover and could therefore be informative. A further >183 are designated as ‘extracellular’. Surprisingly, only 4 – 5% of these appear to be dysregulated in the three forms of dry eye preliminarily examined to date. Some differ and a couple overlap, suggesting that disease-specific signatures could be identified. Future dry eye treatment might include recombinant tear protein rescue as a personalized ophthalmic approach to ocular surface disease. PMID:18677231

  14. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-04

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  15. Superficial versus deep dry needling.

    PubMed

    Baldry, Peter

    2002-08-01

    Ninety percent of my patients with myofascial trigger point (MTrP) pain have this alone and are treated with superficial dry needling. Approximately 10% have concomitant MTrP pain and nerve root compression pain. These are treated with deep dry needling. SUPERFICIAL DRY NEEDLING (SDN): The activated and sensitised nociceptors of a MTrP cause it to be so exquisitely tender that firm pressure applied to it gives rise to a flexion withdrawal reflex (jump sign) and in some cases the utterance of an expletive (shout sign). The optimum strength of SDN at a MTrP site is the minimum necessary to abolish these two reactions. With respect to this patients are divided into strong, average and weak responders. The responsiveness of each individual is determined by trial and error. It is my practice to insert a needle (0.3mm x 30mm) into the tissues immediately overlying the MTrP to a depth of 5-10 mm and to leave it in situ long enough for the two reactions to be abolished. For an average reactor this is about 30secs. For a weak reactor it is several minutes. And for a strong reactor the insertion of the needle and its immediate withdrawal is all that is required. Following treatment muscle stretching exercises should be carried out, and any steps taken to eliminate factors that might lead to the reactivation of the MTrPs. DEEP DRY NEEDLING (DDN): This in my practice is only used either when primary MTrP activity causes shortening of muscle sufficient enough to bring about compression of nerve roots. Or when there is nerve compression pain usually from spondylosis or disc prolapse and the secondary development of MTrP activity. Unlike SDN, DDN is a painful procedure and one which gives rise to much post-treatment soreness.

  16. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  17. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  18. Solar drying in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O. )

    1992-03-01

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

  19. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  20. The effect of dryer load on freeze drying process design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Jameel, Feroz; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Freeze-drying using a partial load is a common occurrence during the early manufacturing stages when insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are available. In such cases, the immediate production needs are met by performing lyophilization with less than a full freeze dryer load. However, it is not obvious at what fractional load significant deviations from full load behavior begin. The objective of this research was to systematically study the effects of variation in product load on freeze drying behavior in laboratory, pilot and clinical scale freeze-dryers. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol (high heat and mass flux) and 5% sucrose (low heat and mass flux) at different product loads (100%, 50%, 10%, and 2%). Product temperature was measured in edge as well as center vials with thermocouples. Specific surface area (SSA) was measured by BET gas adsorption analysis and residual moisture was measured by Karl Fischer. In the lab scale freeze-dryer, the molar flux of inert gas was determined by direct flow measurement using a flowmeter and the molar flux of water vapor was determined by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. Comparative pressure measurement (capacitance manometer vs. Pirani) was used to determine primary drying time. For both 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose, primary drying time decreases and product temperature increases as the load on the shelves decreases. No systematic variation was observed in residual moisture and vapor composition as load decreased. Further, SSA data suggests that there are no significant freezing differences under different load conditions. Independent of dryer scale, among all the effects, variation in radiation heat transfer from the chamber walls to the product seems to be the dominant effect resulting in shorter primary drying time as the load on the shelf decreases (i.e., the fraction of edge vials increases).

  1. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  2. Thin layer solar drying of rough rice

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, M.A.; Bala, B.K. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a set of simple empirical equations for natural air flow solar drying of rough rice in mixed-mode type dryer, box-type dryer and open floor drying system. The moisture contents predicted by the equations were in good agreement with the observed values. The effect of drying air temperature on the drying rate constants for these three cases were found to be insignificant. The equilibrium moisture content appeared to be the most important variable controlling the drying rate. The highest drying rate was observed in case of mixed-mode dryer. The drying rate of box dryer was next to that of mixed-mode dryer. This study shows that the introduction of solar dryer for drying of rough rice is highly recommended in Bangladesh.

  3. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deficient in sugar, sufficient pure dry sugar may be added to increase the total solids content to 25... exclusive of pulp). Pure dry sugar may be used for sweetening. After complete fermentation or...

  4. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... deficient in sugar, sufficient pure dry sugar may be added to increase the total solids content to 25... exclusive of pulp). Pure dry sugar may be used for sweetening. After complete fermentation or...

  5. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deficient in sugar, sufficient pure dry sugar may be added to increase the total solids content to 25... exclusive of pulp). Pure dry sugar may be used for sweetening. After complete fermentation or...

  6. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deficient in sugar, sufficient pure dry sugar may be added to increase the total solids content to 25... exclusive of pulp). Pure dry sugar may be used for sweetening. After complete fermentation or...

  7. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dry Mouth? Don' ... or neck cancer. back to top Advice for Consumers If you have persistent dry mouth: Talk to ...

  8. Nanoceria: a Potential Therapeutic for Dry AMD.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xue; McGinnis, James F

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blinding diseases. The "dry" form of AMD is the most common form of AMD. In contrast to the treatable neovascular (wet) AMD, no effective treatment is available for dry AMD. In this review, we summarize the animal models and therapeutic strategies for dry AMD. The novel candidates as potential treatment targets and the potential effectiveness of nanoceria as a treatment of dry AMD are also discussed.

  9. Drying and color characteristics of coriander foliage using convective thin-layer and microwave drying.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Mark; Meda, Venkatesh; Tabil, Lope; Opoku, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Heat sensitive properties (aromatic, medicinal, color) provide herbs and spices with their high market value. In order to prevent extreme loss of heat sensitive properties when drying herbs, they are normally dried at low temperatures for longer periods of time to preserve these sensory properties. High energy consumption often results from drying herbs over a long period. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., Umbelliferae) was dehydrated in two different drying units (thin layer convection and microwave dryers) in order to compare the drying and final product quality (color) characteristics. Microwave drying of the coriander foliage was faster than convective drying. The entire drying process took place in the falling rate period for both microwave and convective dried samples. The drying rate for the microwave dried samples ranged from 42.3 to 48.2% db/min and that of the convective dried samples ranged from 7.1 to 12.5% db/min. The fresh sample color had the lowest L value at 26.83 with higher L values for all dried samples. The results show that convective thin layer dried coriander samples exhibited a significantly greater color change than microwave dried coriander samples. The color change index values for the microwave dried samples ranged from 2.67 to 3.27 and that of the convective dried samples varied from 4.59 to 6.58.

  10. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried fruit. 24.202... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.202 Dried fruit. In the production of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that...

  11. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  12. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate...

  13. Composite drying with simultaneous vacuum and toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is an important mechanical operation in the leather making process. Leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility in the drying operation. Vacuum drying offers fast water removal at a low temperature, which is particularly advantageous to heat-vulnerable chrome-free leathe...

  14. Composite drying with simultaneous vacuum and toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is one of key steps to govern the physical properties of leather and it is where leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility. Recently we have been working diligently to improve chrome-free leather by optimizing its drying process. We developed a drying method using a co...

  15. 21 CFR 131.149 - Dry cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry cream. 131.149 Section 131.149 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.149 Dry cream. (a) Description. Dry cream is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk or cream or...

  16. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  17. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried means that the portion of kernel is firm and crisp, not pliable...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Well dried. Well dried means that the kernel is firm and brittle, not pliable or leathery....

  20. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2961 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2086 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Well dried. Well dried means that the kernel is firm and crisp, not pliable or leathery....

  5. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the kernel is firm and brittle, and not pliable or leathery....

  6. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2086 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the kernel is firm and brittle, and not pliable or leathery....

  9. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2961 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Well dried. Well dried means that the kernel is firm and crisp, not pliable or leathery....

  11. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the portion of kernel is firm and crisp, not pliable or leathery....

  14. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the portion of kernel is firm and crisp, not pliable or leathery....

  15. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried means that the portion of kernel is firm and crisp, not pliable...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2086 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Well dried. Well dried means that the kernel is firm and brittle, not pliable or leathery....

  20. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2961 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  2. Long-term elemental dry deposition fluxes measured around Lake Michigan with an automated dry deposition sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, U. Yi, S.M.; Paode, R.D.; Holsen, T.M.

    2000-05-15

    Long-term measurements of mass and elemental dry deposition (MG, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) were made with an automated dry deposition sampler (Eagle II) containing knife-edge surrogate surfaces during the Lake Michigan Mass Balance/Mass Budget Study. Measurements were made over a roughly 700-day period in Chicago, IL; in South Haven and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI; and over Lake Michigan on the 68th Street drinking water intake cribs from December 1993 to October 1995. Average mass fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 65, 10, 3.6, and 12 mg m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Primarily crustal elemental fluxes were significantly smaller than the mass fluxes but higher than primarily anthropogenic elemental fluxes. For example, the average elemental flux of Al in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 1.0, 0.34, 0.074, and 0.34 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The average Pb fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 0.038, 0.023, 0.035, and 0.032 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The measured fluxes at the various sites were used to calculate the dry deposition loadings to the lake. These estimated fluxes were highest for Mg and lowest for Cd.

  3. An experimental verification of numerical model on superheated steam drying of Belchatow lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, M.; Sciazko, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Hashimoto, A.; Kaneko, S.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, J. S.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Due to low production costs, lignite is an important component of energy mixes of countries in its possession. However, high moisture content undermines its applicability as fuel for power generation. Drying in superheated steam is a prospective method of upgrading quality of lignite. The study aimed to validate the drying model of lignite from Belchatow mine in Poland. The experimental investigation on superheated steam drying of lignite was previously conducted. Spheres of 10 mm in diameter were exposed to the drying medium at the temperature range of 110-170oC. The drying behaviour was described in the form of moisture content, drying rate and temperature profile curves against time. With the application of basic coal properties (e.g. density, water percentage, specific heat) as well as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in subsequent stages of the process, the numerical model of drying was constructed. It was tentatively verified with reference to experimental results both in terms of drying parameters and temperature. The model illustrated drying behaviour in the entire range of conditions. Nevertheless, further development of numerical model is desirable regarding accuracy of the process parameters.

  4. Simulation of deep-bed drying of Virginia peanuts to minimize energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kulasiri, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    A deep-bed drying model simulating the drying of peanuts in a fixed bed is required for designing energy-efficient and automatically controlled dryers. A deep-red drying model consists of a thin-layer drying model to calculate the moisture release from the material and a set of mass and energy balances. An experimental setup was constructed to determine drying rates of Virginia-type peanuts under 14 different drying air conditions. Selected empirical and semi-theoretical models available for modeling thin-layer drying rates were fitted to the collected data using nonlinear regression techniques. The modified Page's model and the two-term exponential model fitted the data better than other models considered. A deep-bed drying model PEATECH based on four coupled partial differential equations consisting of four variables, air temperature, peanut temperature, air humidity, and peanut moisture content was developed. Validation of the model was accomplished by using the data collected from 36 deep-bed drying experiments conducted using three laboratory dryers during 1987, 1988, and 1989. PEATECH predicted the variables within a peanut bed with an accuracy of less than {plus minus} 6%. The energy saving potential of exhaust-air recirculation was established by conducting simulated experiments using a modified version of PEATECH.

  5. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve; Lee, Lesley; Gemhardt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally.METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1-g, 0.17-g, and 0.3-g, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17-g and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.311.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trend lines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  6. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally. METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1 G, 0.17 G, and 0.3 G, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17 G and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.3 11.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trendlines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  7. Creep of dry clinopyroxene aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, Misha; Mackwell, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We have determined diffusional and dislocation creep rheologies for clinopyroxenite Ca1.0Mg0.8Fe0.2Si2O6 under dry conditions by deforming natural and hot-pressed samples at confining pressures of 300-430 MPa and temperatures of 1100°-1250°C with the oxygen fugacity buffered by either nickel-nickel oxide or iron-wüstite powders. The coarse-grained natural Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite yielded a stress exponent of n = 4.7 ± 0.2 and an activation energy for creep of Q = 760 ± 40 kJ mol-1, consistent with deformation in the dislocation creep regime. The strength of the natural clinopyroxenite is consistent with previous high-temperature measurements of dislocation creep behavior of Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite by Kirby and Kronenberg [1984] and Boland and Tullis [1986]. Fine-grained clinopyroxenite was prepared from ground powders of the natural clinopyroxenite. Hot-pressed samples were deformed under similar conditions to the natural samples. Mixed-mode deformation behavior was observed, with diffusional creep (n = 1) at lower differential stresses and dislocation creep (with n and Q similar to those of the natural samples) at higher differential stresses. Within the dislocation creep field the predried hot-pressed samples generally yielded creep rates that were about an order of magnitude faster than the natural samples. Thus, even at the highest differential stresses, a component of strain accommodation by grain boundary diffusion was present in the hot-pressed samples. Optical and electron microscope investigations of the deformation microstructures of the natural and hot-pressed samples show evidence for mechanical twinning and activation of dislocation slip systems. When extrapolated to geological conditions expected in the deep crust and upper mantle on Earth and other terrestrial planets, the strength of dry single-phase clinopyroxene aggregates is very high, exceeding that of dry olivine-rich rocks.

  8. Neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed.

  9. Small polarons in dry DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacham, Helio; Alexandre, Simone S.; Soler, Jose M.; Artacho, Emilio

    2004-03-01

    The phenomenon of charge transport in DNA has been attracting attention of both biologists and physicists. From the biology side, there are evidences that charge injection can be associated to damage, mutation, and repair processes in DNA. From the physical sciences side, recent developments in nanotechnology now allow the measurement of currents through single DNA molecules in dried samples, which depict semiconductor behavior. Several mechanisms have been proposed for charge migration and transport in DNA. In that respect, detailed electrical transport measurements through DNA molecules containing identical base pairs (poly(dA)-poly(dT) and poly(dG)-poly(dC)) have been recently reported by Yoo et al [1]. These results fit extremely well a model in which the conduction is due to small polaron motion. In particular, these results indicate that the I-V characteristic of poly(dG)-poly(dC) DNA above 200 K is consistent with a small polaron hopping regime with an activation energy of 0.12 eV. In this work [2] we investigate the polaron formation in dry DNA by applying ab initio calculations to both neutral and charged fragments of dry poly(dG)-poly(dC). Our calculations show that the hole polaron in dry poly(dG)-poly(dC) DNA is a clear case of small polaron. This is verified by four basic properties: (i) the small variation of the polaron binding energy as a function of the DNA fragment size, for small fragment sizes, which is an indication of polaron localization; (ii) the fact that the width of the uppermost valence band is an order of magnitude smaller than the polaron binding energy; (iii) the explicit localization of the hole wavefunction for the largest considered fragment (four base pairs), indicated by the fact that about half of the norm of the hole is localized on a single guanine site; (iv) the localization of structural deformations at the nucleotides where the hole is concentrated. Our calculations also give a polaron binding energy of 0.30 eV. This allows

  10. Freeze-dried bank bone.

    PubMed

    Delloye, C; Buccafusca, G C

    1989-09-01

    The authors present their experience with freeze-dried bone of human origin. Since 1983, 500 preserved allografts have been implanted in 228 patients. The implants were monitored radiographically and, based on perfect fusion with the recipient bone, the results were as follows: excellent: 78%; good: 8.6%; failure: 12.4%. In nearly all the cases of failure this was attributed to an erronous implant method or an improper use of the graft. Bank bone is only osteoconductive: thus, in the absence of osteogenetic properties, a perfect method of implant and its correct use are essential.

  11. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  12. Dry-Column Flash Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusterman, Alan J.; McDougal, Patrick G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

    1997-10-01

    Dry-column flash chromatography is a safe, powerful, yet easily learned preparative chromatography technique. It has proven useful in research, and an adaptation of the technique for use in large teaching laboratories (general chemistry, organic chemistry) is described here. The student version is similar to vacuum filtration, uses the same compact, readily available glassware, and inexpensive and safe solvents (ethyl acetate and hexane) and adsorbent (Merck grade 60 silica gel). The technique is sufficiently simple and powerful that a beginning student can successfully resolve diastereomers on sample scales ranging from 100 mg to >1 g.

  13. Coordinated evolution of leaf and stem economics in tropical dry forest trees.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paz, Horacio; Cruz Zuluaga, Rossana; Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E

    2012-11-01

    With data from 15 species in eight families of tropical dry forest trees, we provide evidence of coordination between the stem and leaf economic spectra. Species with low-density, flexible, breakable, hydraulically efficient but cavitationally vulnerable wood shed their leaves rapidly in response to drought and had low leaf mass per area and dry mass content. In contrast, species with the opposite xylem syndrome shed their costlier but more drought-resistant leaves late in the dry season. Our results explain variation in the timing of leaf shedding in tropical dry forests: selection eliminates combinations such as low-productivity leaves atop highly vulnerable xylem or water-greedy leaves supplied by xylem of low conductive efficiency. Across biomes, rather than a fundamental trade-off underlying a single axis of trait covariation, the relationship between leaf and stem economics is likely to occupy a wide space in which multiple combinations are possible.

  14. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  15. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  16. Experimental study of cassava sun drying

    SciTech Connect

    Njie, D.N.; Rumsey, T.R.

    1997-03-01

    Sun drying experiments were performed to compare drying of cassava chips in sheet-metal trays with drying on mesh wire trays. In the sheet-metal trays, there was air flow across the top of the bed chips, while the mesh wire trays permitted air to flow through the bed. Drying rate was faster and more uniform in the trays with through-flow air circulation. Higher temperatures were reached by chips in the sheet-metal trays than those in the mesh trays because of contact heating, but the drying rate was lower because of the reduced air flow.

  17. Drying and Quality Characteristics of Fresh and Sugar-infused Blueberries Dried with Infrared Radiation Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the finished product quality and infrared (IR) drying characteristics of fresh and sugar-infused blueberries dried with a catalytic infrared (CIR) dryer. IR drying tests were conducted at four product temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90oC) to evaluate the drying rate, and the color and te...

  18. Microwave application on air drying of apple (var. Granny Smith). The influence of vacuum impregnation pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Esparza, Maria Eugenia

    Combined hot air-microwave drying has been studied on apple (var. Granny Smith), with and without vacuum impregnation (VI) pretreatment with isotonic solution, respect to kinetics, microstructural and final quality items. In order to reach this objective, a drier has been designed and built, that allows to control and to register all the variables which take place during the drying process. Thermal and dielectric properties, that are very important characteristics when studying heat and mass transfer phenomena that occur during the combined drying process, have been related to temperature and/or moisture content throughout empirical equations. It could be observed that all these properties decreased with product moisture content. Respect to dielectric properties, a relationship among water binding forms to food structure and water molecules relaxation frequency has been found. On the other hand, the effect of drying treatment conditions (air rate, drying temperature, sample thickness and incident microwave power) on the drying rate, from an empirical model based on diffusional mechanisms with two kinetic parameters (k1 and k2), both function of the incident microwave power, has been studied. Microwave application to air drying implied a notable decrease on drying time, the higher the applied power the higher the reduction. Microstructural study by Cryo-Sem revealed fast water vaporization taking place when microwaves are applied. Vacuum impregnation did not implied an additional advantage for combined drying as drying rate was similar to that of NIV samples. Finally, it has been studied the influence of process conditions on the color and mechanical properties of the dried product (IV and NIV). Vacuum impregnation implied an increase on the fracture resistance and less purity and tone angle. Microwave application induced product browning with respect to air drying (tone decreased and purity increased).

  19. Optimization of the drying process in batch dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Khattab, N.M.

    1996-04-01

    Because batch dryers are relatively cheap to build and inexpensive to maintain, they are widely used to dry agricultural products. A major drawback of these dryers is the continuously changing temperature and humidity of the drying air due to heat and mass transfer inside the dryers so that saturation level of the air is often reached before it leaves the dryer. This problem can be avoided by determining the suitable loading capacity for the dryer in relation to the inlet air condition. The maximum load can be determined either by limiting the number of trays, or by fixing tray loading with the above constrained condition of saturation. In either case, productivity, which is the maximum load divided by the corresponding drying time, is obtained and the optimum condition for each flow rate can then be determined. It was found for both drying conditions that there is a maximum value of productivity that determines the optimum dimensions and performance of the dryer at every flow rate.

  20. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma

    2008-04-01

    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  1. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacatalina, J. V.; Cárcel, J. A.; Simal, S.; Garcia-Perez, J. V.; Mulet, A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms-1), temperature (-10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm-3,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  2. X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated cryosections.

    PubMed

    Zierold, K

    1988-05-01

    The elemental composition and the ultrastructure of biological cells were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The preparation technique involves cryofixation, cryoultramicrotomy, cryotransfer, and freeze-drying of samples. Freeze-dried cryosections 100-nm thick appeared to be appropriate for measuring the distribution of diffusible elements and water in different compartments of the cells. The lateral analytical resolution was less than 50 nm, depending on ice crystal damage and section thickness. The detection limit was in the range of 10 mmol/kg dry weight for all elements with an atomic number higher than 12; for sodium and magnesium the detection limits were about 30 and 20 mmol/kg dry weight, respectively. The darkfield intensity in STEM is linearly related to the mass thickness. Thus, it becomes possible to measure the water content in intracellular compartments by using the darkfield signal of the dry mass remaining after freeze-drying. By combining the X-ray microanalytical data expressed as dry weight concentrations with the measurements of the water content, physiologically more meaningful wet weight concentrations of elements were determined. In comparison to freeze-dried cryosections frozen-hydrated sections showed poor contrast and were very sensitive against radiation damage, resulting in mass loss. The high electron exposure required for recording X-ray spectra made reproducible microanalysis of ultrathin (about 100-nm thick) frozen-hydrated sections impossible. The mass loss could be reduced by carbon coating; however, the improvement achieved thus far is still insufficient for applications in X-ray microanalysis. Therefore, at present only bulk specimens or at least 1-micron thick sections can be used for X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated biological samples.

  3. 5. Aerial view (altitude 5,000 ft.) looking southeast showing Dry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view (altitude 5,000 ft.) looking southeast showing Dry Dock No. 4. completed (top center). Note major expansion of land mass to south of Dry Dock No. 4 resulting from placement of excavated soils and rock prior to and during construction (8/3/43). Photographer: Mr. Rudnick, PHoM 2/C. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Experimental research of solid waste drying in the process of thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhmirov, V. V.; Kolibaba, O. B.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2015-10-01

    The convective drying process of municipal solid waste layer as a polydispersed multicomponent porous structure is studied. On the base of the experimental data criterial equations for calculating heat transfer and mass transfer processes in the layer, depending on the humidity of the material, the speed of the drying agent and the layer height are obtained. These solutions are used in the thermal design of reactors for the thermal processing of multicomponent organic waste.

  5. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  6. Drying of solids in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, C.S.; Thomas, P.P.; Varma, Y.B.G.

    1995-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying is advantageously adopted in industrial practice for drying of granular solids such as grains, fertilizers, chemicals, and minerals either for long shelf life or to facilitate further processing or handling. Solids are dried in batch and in continuous fluidized beds corresponding to cross-flow and countercurrent flow of phases covering a wide range in drying conditions. Materials that essentially dry with constant drying rate and then give a falling drying rate approximately linear with respect to solids moisture content (sand) as well as those with an extensive falling rate period with the subsequent falling rate being a curve with respect to the moisture content (mustard, ragi, poppy seeds) are chosen for the study. The performance of the continuous fluidized bed driers is compared with that of batch fluidized bed driers; the performance is predicted using batch kinetics, the residence time distribution of solids, and the contact efficiency between the phases.

  7. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  8. Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, G. W.

    2005-05-01

    Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

  9. Thermal characterization and syngas production from the pyrolysis of biophysical dried and traditional thermal dried sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Han, Rong; Zhao, Chenxi; Liu, Jinwen; Chen, Aixia; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-01

    A novel method for energy recycling from sewage sludge was developed through biophysical drying coupled with fast pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition properties of biophysical-dried sludge (BDS) and thermal-dried sludge (TDS) were characterized through thermogravimetric (TG) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. BDS exhibited typical peaks in each differential thermogravimetric (DTG) region and presented slower mass loss rates in H, C, and L regions (180-550°C) but remarkable weight loss in region I (>550°C) compared with TDS. The charring process centered at region I, was responsible for the prominent H2 emission from BDS. The pseudo multicomponent model showed that the Em values of BDS and TDS were 48.84 and 37.75 kJ/mol, respectively. Furthermore, fast pyrolysis of BDS was proven to facilitate syngas and char formation more than TDS. For the yielded syngas, the thermal conversion of BDS was characterized by high H2 and CH4 content beyond 700°C.

  10. Experimental Study of influence on The Moving of Sublimation Interface by Precooling Rate and Drying Temperature During Freeze-drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin; Tao, Le-Ren

    2007-06-01

    For complex heat and mass transfer during freeze-drying, the shape and the moving rate of sublimation interface have not been clearly recognized yet. In this paper, Micro-CT scanner was used to follow the moving interface during sublimation. Apple slices cut into 16mm in diameter and 8mm in thickness were used as experimental samples, they were scanned every two hours during sublimation. The scanning images were analyzed and measured, then variation curves of grey value and curves of sublimation rate in two directions were obtained. The moving rates of sublimation interface under various precooling rates and primary drying temperatures were compared. The results show that, heat and mass transfer happens both at the upper and the under surface of the sample. Also it happens at the side surface to some extent. The interface shows as a three-dimensional moving mode, contracts to the geometric centre of the sample and presents an approximately spheral shape. Apple samples frozen at low rate sublimated more quickly than those by high rate. While drying temperature was higher, the sublimation interface moved more quickly. Under slow precooling condition, the sublimation rate rose quickly near the end of sublimation not only in vertical direction, but in horizontal direction.

  11. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  12. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying for dry powder inhaler formulation of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Kho, Katherine; Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2012-03-15

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles - polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers - have emerged as a potent therapeutic nano-carrier alternative to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Herein we perform comparative studies of employing spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD) to produce inhalable dry-powder form of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), lecithin, and levofloxacin are employed as the polymer, lipid, and drug models, respectively. The hybrid nanoparticles are transformed into micro-scale nanoparticle aggregates (or nano-aggregates) via SD and SFD, where the effects of (1) different excipients (i.e. mannitol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and leucine), and (2) nanoparticle to excipient ratio on nano-aggregate characteristics (e.g. size, flowability, aqueous reconstitution, aerosolization efficiency) are examined. In both methods, PVA is found more effective than mannitol for aqueous reconstitution, whereas hydrophobic leucineis needed to achieve effective aerosolization as it reduces nano-aggregate agglomeration. Using PVA, both methods are equally capable of producing nano-aggregates having size, density, flowability, yield and reconstitutibility in the range ideal for inhaled delivery. Nevertheless, nano-aggregates produced by SFD are superior to SD in terms of their aerosolization efficiency manifested in the higher emitted dose and fine particle fraction with lower mass median aerodynamic diameter.

  13. Dry holes of Georges Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, D.M.

    1982-11-01

    After winning the controversial Georges Bank debate, five oil companies have found only commercially unprofitable dry holes, which experts predict will become anywhere from marginal to vital in future years. The economic boom that offshore drilling was to bring to New England has not materialized despite rumors that the companies found either oil or gas that they are not yet ready to announce. Bad weather and the high cost of offshore drilling may be more responsible for the removal of drilling rigs from the area, but an industry-wide survey finds that only 2200 of 4800 offshore rigs are currently operating. Debate over Georges Bank focused on possible damage to the fishing industry and the windfall the government will receive if leasing is accelerated. Many expect to see rigs returning to Georges Bank in the spring. (DCK)

  14. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  15. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOEpatents

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  16. The effect of drying and size reduction pretreatments on recovery of inorganic crop nutrients from inedible wheat residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Alazraki, M. P.; Judkins, J.

    2003-01-01

    Inorganic nutrients can be easily recovered from ALS crop residue solid wastes by aqueous leaching. However, oven drying and milling pretreatment of these residues has been frequently required to accommodate crop scientists and facility storage limitations. As part of a research study that will compare three different bioreactor technologies for processing these wastes, we realized that different drying and size-reduction pretreatments had been utilized for each technology. This paper compares the effects of residue pretreatment on recovery of nutrients by leaching. Pretreatments included three drying methods [fresh, oven-dried (70 degrees C overnight), and freeze-dried] and two size reduction methods [chopped (2 cm length) and milled (2 mm diameter)]. Determination of mass balances (dry weight and ash content of solids) before and after leaching indicated solubilization was least for fresh residues (23% dry weight loss and 50% for ash loss), and most for freeze-dried residues (41-47% dry weight loss and nearly 100% for ash loss). Mineral recovery of major elements (NO3, PO4, K, Ca, and Mg) in leachates was poorest for fresh residues. P and K recovery in leachates were best for oven-dried residues and Ca, Mg, and N recovery best for freeze-dried residues. The differences in recovery for N, P, and K in leachates were minimal between chopping and milling and slightly better for Ca and Mg from milled residues.

  17. Size distribution and dry deposition of road dust PAHs

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.H.; Chiang, C.F.; Lee, W.J.; Hwang, K.P.; Wu, E.M.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for road dust and for the engine exhaust of both gasoline-powered cars and motorcycles was investigated. In addition, by using the measured size distribution data, monitoring and modeling the PAH dry deposition, the contribution fraction of road dust on the dry deposition materials was also studied. Twenty-one PAHs were analyzed primarily by using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The mass median diameters (MMDs) of 21 individual PAHs for resuspendable road dust (cut size < 100 {micro}m) ranged between 63.4 {micro}m and 65.5 {micro}m. However, the MMDs of total-PAH size distributions for the engine exhaust of both gasoline-powered cars and four-stroke motorcycles averaged 0.45 {micro}m and 0.35 {micro}m, respectively, which were near the MMDs of PAHs (average 0.50 {micro}m) in the ambient air of traffic intersections. Suspended particle-phase total PAHs in the ambient air of traffic intersections were found to be more than 90% of the result of the automobile exhaust; that is, less than 10% of the amount was contributed by the road dust. However, the modeled MMDs of 21 individual PAHs on the dry deposition material were between 22.1 {micro}m and 44.6 {micro}m, and the contribution fraction of road dust on the PAH dry deposition was found to be more than 95%, even though the suspendable ambient-air PAHs were mainly from the mobile exhaust.

  18. A mathematical model for constant and intermittent batch drying of grains in a novel rotating jet spouted bed

    SciTech Connect

    Jumah, R.Y.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Raghavan, G.S.V.

    1996-05-01

    A diffusion-based mathematical model is presented for batch drying of corn in a novel rotating jet spouted bed device under constant as well as intermittent drying conditions. Such a device is suited for drying of large particles (e.g. grains, beans, seeds, etc.) for which internal heat and mass transfer rates control the drying kinetics. Based on literature data for moisture diffusivities the model predictions are compared with experimental data for both continuous and time-dependent air supply and/or heat input. Effects of relevant parameters are evaluated and discussed in the light of potential practical applications. 44 refs.

  19. State-of-the-art dried blood spot analysis: an overview of recent advances and future trends.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Roland Jw; Hooff, Gero P

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spots have become a popular method in a variety of micro blood-sampling techniques in the life sciences sector, consequently competing with the field of conventional, invasive blood sampling by venepuncture. Dried blood spots are widely applied in numerous bioanalytical assays and have gained a significant role in the screening of inherited metabolic diseases, in PK and PD modeling; in the treatment and diagnosis of infectious diseases; and in therapeutic drug monitoring. Recent technological developments such as automation, online extraction, mass spectrometric direct analysis and also conventional dried blood spot bioanalysis, as well as future developments in dried blood spot bioanalysis are highlighted and presented in this article.

  20. Setting up the drying regimes based on the theory of moisture migration during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Drying is energy intensive process which has important effect on the quality of the clay tiles that are dried commercially. Chamber and tunnel dryers are constantly improving. Better technical equipment and operational strategies have lead to higher quality of the dried clay products. The moisture migration during isothermal drying process can be visually traced on the curve that represents the relationship between variable effective moisture diffusivity (MR) with time (t). Proposed non isothermal drying regimes were consisted from several isothermal segments. For the first time, the choice of isothermal segments specification and its duration was not specified by experience or by trial-and-error method. It was detected from the isothermal curves Deff - MR in accordance with the theory of moisture migration during drying. Proposed drying regimes were tested. Clay roofing tiles were dried without cracks. Dried clay roofing tiles has satisfied all requirements defined in EN 1304 norm related to the shape regularity and mechanical properties.

  1. Experimental study on agitated drying characteristics of sewage sludge under the effects of different additive agents.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenyi; Su, Yaxin

    2014-07-01

    Drying experiments of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS) were conducted on a agitated paddle dryer, and the effects of additive agents, i.e., CaO, pulverized coal (PC), heavy oil (HO), and dried sludge ("DS" through back mixing) on the agitated drying characteristics of DSS were investigated. The results indicated that CaO can significantly increase the drying rate of DSS. The drying rate at CaO/DSS (mass ratio)=1/100 was 135% higher than that of CaO/DSS=0. Pulverized coal has no obvious effect on drying rate, but the increase of PC/DSS can promote breaking up of sludge lump. Heavy oil was found to be slightly effective in improving the drying rate of DSS in the examined experimental range of HO/DSS=0-1/20. It is also found that HO can reduce the torque of the dryer shaft, due to its lubrication effect. Back mixing of DS was found to be effective in alleviating the unfavorable effect of the lumpy phase by improving the mixing effect of the paddle dryer. There was a marked increase of drying rate with an increase of the DS/DSS in the experimental range of DS/DSS=0-1/3.

  2. Parameterizations of Dry Deposition for the Industrial Source Complex Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesely, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Touma, J. S.

    2002-05-01

    Improved algorithms have been developed to simulate the dry deposition of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) with the Industrial Source Complex model system. The dry deposition velocities are described in conventional resistance schemes, for which micrometeorological formulas are applied to describe the aerodynamic resistances above the surface. Pathways to uptake of gases at the ground and in vegetative canopies are depicted with several resistances that are affected by variations in air temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, and soil moisture. Standardized land use types and seasonal categories provide sets of resistances to uptake by various components of the surface. To describe the dry deposition of the large number of gaseous organic HAPS, a new technique based on laboratory study results and theoretical considerations has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the role of lipid solubility on uptake by the waxy outer cuticle of vegetative plant leaves. The dry deposition velocities of particulate HAPs are simulated with a resistance scheme in which deposition velocity is described for two size modes: a fine mode with particles less than about 2.5 microns in diameter and a coarse mode with larger particles but excluding very coarse particles larger than about 10 microns in diameter. For the fine mode, the deposition velocity is calculated with a parameterization based on observations of sulfate dry deposition. For the coarse mode, a representative settling velocity is assumed. Then the total deposition velocity is estimated as the sum of the two deposition velocities weighted according to the amount of mass expected in the two modes.

  3. Short-term post-wildfire dry-ravel processes in a chaparral fluvial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, Joan L.; Chin, Anne; O'Hirok, Linda S.; Storesund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Dry ravel, the transport of sediment by gravity, transfers material from steep hillslopes to valley bottoms during dry conditions. Following wildfire, dry ravel greatly increases in the absence of vegetation on hillslopes, thereby contributing to sediment supply at the landscape scale. Dry ravel has been documented as a dominant hillslope erosion mechanism following wildfire in chaparral environments in southern California. However, alteration after initial deposition is not well understood, making prediction of post-fire flood hazards challenging. The majority of Big Sycamore Canyon burned during the May 2013 Springs Fire leaving ash and a charred layer that covered hillslopes and ephemeral channels. Dry-ravel processes following the fire produced numerous deposits in the hillslope-channel transition zone. Field data focus on: 1) deposition from an initial post-wildfire dry-ravel pulse; and 2) subsequent alteration of dry ravel deposits over a seven-month period between September 2013 and April 2014. We quantify geomorphic responses in dry ravel deposits including responses during the one small winter storm that generated runoff following the fire. Field measurements document volumetric changes after initial post-wildfire deposition of sediment derived from dry ravel. Erosion and deposition mechanisms that occurred within dry-ravel deposits situated in the hillslope-channel transition zone included: 1) mobilization and transport of a portion or the entire deposit by fluvial erosion; 2) rilling on the surface of the unconsolidated deposits; 3) deposition on deposits via continued hillslope sediment supply; and 4) mass wasting that transfers sediment within deposits where surface profiles are near the angle of repose. Terrestrial LiDAR scanning point clouds were analyzed to generate profiles quantifying depth of sediment erosion or deposition over remaining dry ravel deposits after the first storm season. This study contributes to the understanding of potential

  4. Mass Deacidification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Reviews methods being developed for mass deacidification of books to prevent deterioration of paper. The use of diethyl zinc, liquified gas, and morpholine, and the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of each are considered. A 26-item bibliography is included. (JD)

  5. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices.

  6. [An experience of dried cornea transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gundorova, R A; Chentsova, E V; Makarov, P V; Kugusheva, A É; Rakova, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sometimes an urgent lamellar keratoplasty remains the only treatment option for corneal defect closure. When fresh donor tissue is absent as it is regular in recent years dried cornea transplantation becomes reasonable. In recent years in ocular trauma department 320 transplantations of dried on silicagel cornea were performed. Analysis of results allows to conclude that use of dried cornea is a promising surgical procedure to preserve the globe and in some cases to prepare the eye with severe trauma for subsequent optic surgery.

  7. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOEpatents

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  8. Energy conservation in grain (corn) drying with combination high-temperature, low-temperature methods. Final report, July 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morey, R. Vance; Gustafson, Robert J.; Cloud, Harold A.; Walter, Kenneth L.

    1980-03-01

    The need to conserve energy has led to efforts to improve efficiency of grain drying systems. Combination high-temperature, low-temperature drying offers potential for meeting this need. Combination drying is any system in which high-temperature drying is followed by in-storage cooling and low-temperature drying. The high-temperature (120 to 240/sup 0/F) phase can be a continuous flow or automatic batch dryer, or a bin dryer using elevated air temperatures (continuous flow; unstirred, stirred or recirculated batch. The purpose of the high-temperature dryer is to reduce the corn moisture content to a level where drying can be safely completed with in-storage, low-temperature methods. In-storage drying is accomplished by moving low-temperature air through the grain mass. This process may take from four to eight weeks, or longer, to complete. In fact, drying may be halted in late fall and completed during the following spring. Potential advantages of the combination approach compared to conventional drying with in-drying cooling include: reduced energy requirements, increased drying capacity, and improved grain quality. Combination drying studies from four corn harvest seasons (1975 to 1978) at the University of Minnesota Rosemount Experiment Station, and results of simulation analysis of the low-tempeature phase of combination drying are presented. The model used for this analysis was validated with experimental data from the field studies. Finally, design and management recommendations, and economic considerations for combination drying are discussed. (LCL)

  9. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  10. Optimal energy management in grain drying.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, S

    1986-01-01

    Grain drying is very specific to the geographic location, kind of drying system, and the type of grain. Under a given set of conditions, the optimal system can be selected based on careful evaluation. However, a good choice of drying systems, procedures, and management practices can be made from the information already available. The review of several grain-drying procedures has provided some insight in making a quick evaluation of the process and arriving at the most suitable system for a particular application. Despite extensive research efforts, the present knowledge of grain drying is yet insufficient to optimally design each drying process with respect to capacity, quality, and energy requirement. There is a need for incorporating grain and air parameters more accurately. It is also important to develop comprehensive drying simulation models to encompass agronomic practices, such as planting and harvesting. Recent efforts indicate a strong influence of planting and harvesting strategies on optimal drying and storage system selection. Results of the varietal trials at Ohio State University indicate that it is now possible to select midseason varieties, which dry down rapidly, without sacrificing yield. Also, low moisture at harvest is important to the energy management process because it affects total drying time and energy required. It is also important from a quality standpoint because kernel damage increases rapidly at harvesting moisture levels above 25%. The trend in grain-dryer design has shifted from focusing on drying capacity and operation reliability to energy consumption. The development in design of energy efficient continuous-flow dryers has been significant. Multistage concurrentflow dryers are excellent examples. Various aspects of dryer staging for efficient operation and control are yet to be determined. Recirculation of the exhaust air is a proven method of improving energy efficiency. Likewise, in batch-in-bin systems, stirring and

  11. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  12. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  13. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  14. Characterization and aerosol dispersion performance of advanced spray-dried chemotherapeutic PEGylated phospholipid particles for dry powder inhalation delivery in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Meenach, Samantha A; Anderson, Kimberly W; Zach Hilt, J; McGarry, Ronald C; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-07-16

    Pulmonary inhalation chemotherapeutic drug delivery offers many advantages for lung cancer patients in comparison to conventional systemic chemotherapy. Inhalable particles are advantageous in their ability to deliver drug deep in the lung by utilizing optimally sized particles and higher local drug dose delivery. In this work, spray-dried and co-spray dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic PEGylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders containing paclitaxel were rationally designed via organic solution advanced spray drying (no water) in closed-mode from dilute concentration feed solution. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) with varying PEG chain length were mixed with varying amounts of paclitaxel in methanol to produce co-spray dried microparticles and nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy showed the spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. Thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction confirmed the retention of the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid-state following spray drying, the degree of solid-state molecular order, and solid-state phase transition behavior. The residual water content of the particles was very low as quantified analytically Karl Fisher titration. The amount of paclitaxel loaded into the particles was quantified which indicated high encapsulation efficiencies (43-99%). Dry powder aerosol dispersion performance was measured in vitro using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) coupled with the Handihaler dry powder inhaler device and showed mass median aerodynamic diameters in the range of 3.4-7 μm. These results demonstrate that this novel microparticulate/nanoparticulate chemotherapeutic PEGylated phospholipid dry powder inhalation aerosol platform has great potential in lung cancer drug delivery.

  15. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-06-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  16. A comparison of solute migration in a test granulation dried by fluidization and other methods.

    PubMed

    Travers, D N

    1975-07-01

    The intragranular migration of sodium chloride in granules made by the wet massing of heavy kaolin B.P. with salt solution has been studied in batches dried by fluidization and a vacuum tumbling method. The larger granules from the fluidized batch exhibited considerable intragranular variation with the outer crust containing over twice the average salt concentration. Solute loss from this layer by abrasion on prolonged fluidization was slight but the dust eluted from the dryer had a salt content above average. Analysis of sieved fractions of the dust showed that this enrichment was concentrated in the fine material passing a 53 mum mesh. The vacuum dried granules had less migration and were less resistant to crushing than those dried by fluidization. The dust produced had a salt content only slightly greater than the average composition and the overall solute content of the sized fractions were all close to this average. The same system was used to study intergranular migration in a fixed bed when the granules were dried by infrared radiation, by microwave radiation, by convection from air and in a vacuum. The greatest migration occurred in samples dried by infrared radiation and the maximum solute concentration was near the middle of the bed. The air dried granules had less migration and the maximum concentration was in the surface layer. The granules dried in a vacuum and by microwave radiation were fairly uniform in composition throughout the bed. The above results are explained on the basis of the capillary theory of drying together with the modifying influence of the drying method on the probable heat and mass transfer rates.

  17. Limited influence of dry deposition of semivolatile organic vapors on secondary organic aerosol formation in the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Karl, T.; Camredon, M.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.

    2013-06-01

    The dry deposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its impact on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are investigated in the Mexico City plume. Gas-phase chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of oxygenated VOCs are modeled with the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) from C3 to C25 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics. Results show that dry deposition of oxidized gases is not an efficient sink for SOA, as it removes <5% of SOA within the city's boundary layer and ~15% downwind. Dry deposition competes with the gas-particle uptake, and only gases with fewer than ~12 carbons dry deposit while longer species partition to SOA. Because dry deposition of submicron aerosols is slow, condensation onto particles protects organic gases from deposition, thus increasing their atmospheric burden and lifetime. In the absence of this condensation, ~50% of the regionally produced mass would have been dry deposited.

  18. Solidification of coatings: Theory and modeling of drying, curing and microstructure growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabral, Mahendra

    1999-10-01

    This thesis explores the crucial link between processing and microstructure formation in multicomponent polymer-solvent based solution coatings that undergo solidification by a combination of drying, curing, and accompanying phase transformations. The drying process is modeled as one-dimensional coupled heat and mass transfer in a multicomponent system. Solution thermodynamics is described with Flory-Huggins theory; solvent diffusion, with multicomponent Fickian diffusion theory, which relates ternary diffusion coefficients to solvent self-diffusion coefficients and solution thermodynamics. Analysis of the model yields families of drying process paths, and time courses of compositions at successive depths into the coating. The trajectories of these paths and speed along them depend on the volatilities and diffusivities of the volatile components, and on the external drying conditions, namely gas flow rate, temperature and partial pressures of solvents in the gas phase. Porous polymeric coatings prepared by drying-induced phase separation illustrate the link between the external drying conditions and the final microstructure. Coatings dried in room air---slow natural convection and low gas phase mass transfer---give rise to a graded porous structure consisting of a dense skin atop a porous substructure. Computed process paths show that the near-surface region can vitrify rapidly. In contrast, the bulk of the solution coating undergoes phase separation by spinodal decomposition followed by coarsening. Coatings of the same solution when dried by impinging air-rapid forced convection-end up dense. All of the process paths followed by the drying coating evade the two-phase region and vitrify rapidly. Another example is drying and curing of a polyamic acid solution coated to produce polyimide film. After the coated layer is gelled, stripped and further dried and cured, the two sides---air side and substrate side, as coated or cast---differ in adhesion performance. This

  19. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    PubMed

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD <20%). After qualifying problematic lipophilic pesticides in fat-rich cereals (fat content >7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of <70% in quantification when the standard QuEChERS method with water was used. A second extraction was carried out analogous to the QuEChERS method, however, without the addition of water. With this simple modification, the problematic lipophilic pesticides, which had been strongly affected by the fat content of the commodities, could be determined with recoveries above 70% even at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg. Moreover, a GC-MS/MS screening method for 120 pesticides at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg was established by employing analyte protectants (ethylglycerol, gulonolactone, and sorbitol). The use of only one standardized calibration, made of an apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%).

  20. Differential drying rates of recalcitrant Trichilia dregeana embryonic axes: a study of survival and oxidative stress metabolism.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Boby; Sershen; Berjak, Patricia; Varghese, Dalia; Pammenter, Norman W

    2011-08-01

    Studies to elucidate the biochemical basis of survival of excised embryonic axes (EAs) of recalcitrant seeds of Trichilia dregeana at different drying rates revealed significant differences between slow and rapid drying. Rapid drying allowed these EAs to survive dehydration to much lower water contents (WCs; ca. 0.31 g g⁻¹ dry mass basis with 73% germination) compared with slow drying, where 90% of the EAs lost viability at a WC of ca. 0.79 g g⁻¹. In EAs slowly dried within seeds, the levels of hydroxyl radical (three- to fivefold at WCs > 0.5 g g⁻¹) and lipid peroxidation (50% at similar WC) were significantly higher compared with those dried rapidly to comparable WCs. When EAs were dried slowly, enzymic antioxidant levels were not sustained and declined significantly with prolonged storage. In contrast, sustained activity of enzymic antioxidants was detected in rapidly dried EAs even at relatively low WCs. Furthermore, the greater decline in glutathione (GSH)/GSH disulphide ratio in EAs slowly dried within seeds compared with rapidly dried EAs and a shift in GSH redox potential to relatively more positive values in the EAs slowly dried within seeds was correlated with considerable viability loss. It is apparent from this study that greater retention of viability to lower WCs in rapidly dried EAs from recalcitrant seeds may at least be partly explained by the retention of functional antioxidant status. It is also suggested that the reduction of viability in rapidly dried EAs at very low WCs appears to be a non-oxidative process.

  1. Experimental Performance of a Thermoelectric Heat-Pump Drying System for Drying Herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsim, K.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Siriamornpun, S.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we investigated thermoelectric (TE) heat-pump drying of laurel clock vine leaves, and the effect of drying-air temperature on the characteristics of the leaves. The TE drying system comprised four TE modules each with its own rectangular fin heat sink. The hot side of each TE module was fixed to its own heat sink; the cold sides were fixed to heat-pipe heat sinks and a drying chamber. The drying time depended on drying-air temperature. The heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) increased as the current supplied to the TE modules was increased. Calculated COP for the entire TE heat-pump drying system were 1.28 and 0.81 for drying-air temperatures of 50 and 40°C, respectively.

  2. Spray drying technique. I: Hardware and process parameters.

    PubMed

    Cal, Krzysztof; Sollohub, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    Spray drying is a transformation of feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate form by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium. The main aim of drying by this method in pharmaceutical technology is to obtain dry particles with desired properties. This review presents the hardware and process parameters that affect the properties of the dried product. The atomization devices, drying chambers, air-droplet contact systems, the collection of dried product, auxiliary devices, the conduct of the spray drying process, and the significance of the individual parameters in the drying process, as well as the obtained product, are described and discussed.

  3. Characterisation of inorganic elements and volatile organic compounds in the dried sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Na-Lae; Cho, Kichul; Yang, Hye Young; Yim, Kyung June; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Myunglip; Kim, Dong Hyeun; Koh, Hyoung Bum; Jung, Won-Kyo; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Daekyung

    2014-03-15

    The sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus lives in a variety of marine habitats and is an important cultivated edible aquatic species in East Asia. In this study, S. japonicus, collected from the sea near Jeju Island of Korea, was lyophilised or vacuum-dried and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The GC-MS profiles of vacuum-dried and lyophilised samples differed. Based on direct injection and static headspace analysis, 37 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in vacuum-dried samples and 33 VOCs were identified in lyophilised samples. Therefore, the odour of vacuum-dried sea cucumber is thought to be due to the presence of various VOCs that are absent in lyophilised sea cucumber. According to ICP-MS analysis, the levels of 15 inorganic elements were slightly higher in lyophilised samples than in vacuum-dried samples. The results of the inorganic and organic chemical analyses provide information about the composition of dried sea cucumber.

  4. Kinetics of microwave drying of a free-flowing organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalender'yan, V. A.; Boshkova, I. L.; Volgusheva, N. V.

    2006-05-01

    The kinetics of drying of a dense buckwheat layer in a microwave electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz has been investigated for different amounts of the material charged into a working chamber. Analysis of the kinetics curves has shown that the drying of the material studied is divided into the periods of heating, drying with a constant rate, and drying with a decreasing rate. The influence of the power supplied as well as the mass and dimensions of a sample on the rate of its drying has been investigated and a formula for calculating this rate has been obtained. It has been established that, in the process of drying of a disperse material, the amount of microwave energy converted into heat energy depends not only on the mass of a sample, but also on the thickness and area of its surface layer. Generalized equations for calculating the moisture content in a layer of a free-flowing material and its temperature have been obtained.

  5. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  6. EMISSIONS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of ‘airing...

  7. WET AND DRY SCRUBBERS FOR EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generally speaking, absorption equipment includes two major categories: Wet adsorption scrubbers (or wet scrubbers); Dry absorption scrubbers (or dry scrubbers).
    Wet scrubbers: As the name implies, wet scrubbers (also known as wet collectors) are devices which use a liquid fo...

  8. Hot-dry-rock feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The hot-dry-rock project tasks are covered as follows: hot-dry-rock reservoir; generation facilities; water resources; transmission requirements; environmental issues; government and community institutional factors; leasing, ownership and management of facilities; regulations, permits, and laws; and financial considerations. (MHR)

  9. Dry phase reactor for generating medical isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Heltemes, Thad Alexander

    2016-05-03

    An apparatus for generating medical isotopes provides for the irradiation of dry-phase, granular uranium compounds which are then dissolved in a solvent for separation of the medical isotope from the irradiated compound. Once the medical isotope is removed, the dissolved compound may be reconstituted in dry granular form for repeated irradiation.

  10. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  11. The effects of drying on physical properties of bilimbi slices (Averrhoa bilimbi l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Nursabrina, M.; Suhairah, A. Zai

    2015-05-01

    Physical appearance analyses of fruits are used to maintain food quality throughout and at the end of processing. However, control variables have to be designed to obtained the desired food quality. In the present study, the effects of pretreatment and drying air temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C on the drying kinetics of belimbi slices were investigated using a hot-air dryer. In order to investigate and select the appropriate drying model, seven experiment based mathematical drying models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE and RMSE), a Logarithmic model was found to be the best model to describe the drying behaviour of belimbi slices at 40°C for control; The Page/modified Page model was the best model to describe drying behaviour at 40°C, 60°C pre-treatment and 50°C for the control and the Wang and Singh model fitted well for 50°C pre-treatment and 60°C for the control. Comparison between experiment based mathematical modelling with a single phase mathematical model shows that close agreement was produced. The qualities of belimbi slices in terms of colour, texture and shrinkage with different air temperature and pre-treatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lighter colour but greater product shrinkage, whilst pre-treatment can reduce product shrinkage and drying time and can also give good texture properties. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important to improve mass and heat transfer as well as the product characteristics such as colour, shrinkage and texture.

  12. Real-time monitoring of drying parameters in semitrailers during peanut drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient control of drying parameters is essential to ensure that peanuts are dried at the optimal rate, preserving quality and desired flavor. The present peanut drying process has limitations in means for measuring parameters such as temperature and relative humidity of the air being blown in...

  13. Improved Energy and Processing Efficiencies of Strawberry Drying Using Sequential Infrared Freeze-Drying Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberries are rich in nutrients but highly perishable. Freeze-drying is an excellent dehydration method for strawberry preservation. However, freeze-drying is an expensive dehydration process due to slow drying rates, high capital operating costs and low energy efficiency. Strawberry slice wei...

  14. Hydrogen ions associated with the dry deposition of pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.; Khalili, E.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The data provided in this paper demonstrates that pollen can generate significant amounts of hydrogen ions when added to water and that the deposition of tree pollen in forested areas represents a significant hydrogen ion source. Measurements of dry deposition of pollen were made during the months of May and June, 1987 in Northern Wisconsin, using a smooth surrogate surface. Rain samples were also collected. Deposited particles were weighed to determine mass fluxes, then washed and ion chromatographed for SO {sub 4} = and NO {sub 3} {minus} analysis. Species of pollen collected from different types of trees during the sampling period were analyzed for SO{sub 4} = NO {sub 3} and other trace constituents. The micrograms of hydrogen ions (protons) generated per gram for different types of pollen added to water, were measured. From 56 to 566 gm were generated per gram or pollen added. The amount generated varied with pollen type. Based on this information, the equivalent protons from the dry deposition of pollen were calculated and compared with the wet deposition proton data. The sulfate, nitrate, and protons associated with dry deposition were of a magnitude comparable with wet deposition.

  15. Hugoniot Measurements on Dry and Water-Saturated Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Matthew; Stewart, Sarah; Kraus, Richard

    2015-06-01

    To better understand the shock properties of granular materials, we present a series of shock Hugoniot experiments on three types of soil in both dry and water-saturated states. We measured the shock states induced via planar impact experiments on the Harvard 40-mm gas gun. Shock wave velocities in the soils were measured using both VISAR and piezo-pins. The soils were composed primarily of quartz with different mass fractions of phyllosilicates and amorphous material. Using initial particle sizes ranging from 150 to 300 microns, the samples were pressed to densities ranging from 1.89 to 1.93 g cm-3 (about 25% porous). Water-sat samples had densities ranging from 2.2 to 2.6 g cm-3. We find that the dry soils have a linear Us -up relation that is similar to dry quartz sand with the same initial density. The water-sat samples are less compressible and have much greater scatter in shock velocities. The VISAR measurement records the dispersion around the mean shock state that arises from reflections between grains, and we compare the VISAR data to meso-scale hydrocode simulations. These data will be used to generate more accurate rheological models for hydrocode simulations of the shock response of heterogeneous granular materials in the low-pressure regime (< 10 GPa). We acknowledge support from Army Research Office Grant #W911NF-10-1-037.

  16. EUV extendibility via dry development rinse process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayan, Safak; Zheng, Tao; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2016-03-01

    Conventional photoresist processing involves resist coating, exposure, post-exposure bake, development, rinse and spin drying of a wafer. DDRP mitigates pattern collapse by applying a special polymer material (DDRM) which replaces the exposed/developed part of the photoresist material before wafer is spin dried. As noted above, the main mechanism of pattern collapse is the capillary forces governed by surface tension of rinse water and its asymmetrical recession from both sides of the lines during the drying step of the develop process. DDRP essentially eliminates these failure mechanisms by replacing remaining rinse water with DDRM and providing a structural framework that support resist lines from both sides during spin dry process. Dry development rinse process (DDRP) eliminates the root causes responsible for pattern collapse of photoresist line structures. Since these collapse mechanisms are mitigated, without the need for changes in the photoresist itself, achievable resolution of the state-of-the-art EUV photoresists can further be improved.

  17. Technical and economical evaluation of solar drying

    SciTech Connect

    Imre, L.

    1986-01-01

    Precondition of the successful application of solar drying is the economy mainly influenced by the savings and the costs. Components of savings and costs are related to the design of the solar dryer and the drying technology to be performed. Analysis of relations between the technical solutions and the economy is presented with regard to some often neglected or undervaluated effects, i.e. savings obtained by the absolute cleanness of solar energy, quality of the dried product and, the energy effectiveness of the drying process itself. Conclusions offer some contributions of principle to the selection of the system of solar dryer to be used, to design of solar dryers and, to direction of the drying technology.

  18. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed.

  19. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  20. Evidence of Self-Organized Criticality in Dry Sliding Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zypman, Fredy R.; Ferrante, John; Jansen, Mark; Scanlon, Kathleen; Abel, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents experimental results on unlubricated friction, which suggests that stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality (SOC). The data, obtained with a pin-on-disc tribometer examines the variation of the friction force as a function of time-or sliding distance. This is the first time that standard tribological equipment has been used to examine the possibility of SOC. The materials were matching pins and discs of aluminium loaded with 250, 500 and 1000 g masses, and matching M50 steel couples loaded with a 1000 g mass. An analysis of the data shows that the probability distribution of slip sizes follows a power law. We perform a careful analysis of all the properties, beyond the two just mentioned, which are required to imply the presence of SOC. Our data strongly support the existence of SOC for stick-slip in dry sliding friction.

  1. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  2. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route.

  3. Emerging freeze-drying process development and scale-up issues.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Although several guidelines do exist for freeze-drying process development and scale-up, there are still a number of issues that require additional attention. The objective of this review article is to discuss some emerging process development and scale-up issue with emphasis on effect of load condition and freeze-drying in novel container systems such as syringes, Lyoguard trays, ampoules, and 96-well plates. Understanding the heat and mass transfer under different load conditions and for freeze-drying in these novel container systems will help in developing a robust freeze-drying process which is also easier to scale-up. Further research and development needs in these emerging areas have also been addressed.

  4. Feasibility of spray drying bacteriophages into respirable powders to combat pulmonary bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Singh, Abhishek; Vandersteegen, Katrien; Klumpp, Jochen; Lavigne, Rob; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2013-08-01

    The use of bacterial viruses for antibacterial treatment (bacteriophage therapy) is currently being reevaluated. In this study, we analyze the potential of processing bacteriophages in a dry powder formulation, using a laboratory spray dryer. The phages were dried in the presence of lactose, trehalose or dextran 35, serving as an excipient to give the resulting powder the necessary bulk mass and offer protection to the delicate phage structure. Out of the three excipients tested, trehalose was found to be the most efficient in protecting the phages from temperature and shear stress throughout the spray drying process. A low inlet air temperature and atomizing force appeared to be the best parameter conditions for phage survival. Pseudomonas podovirus LUZ19 was remarkably stable, suffering less than 1 logarithmic unit reduction in phage titer. The phage titer of Staphyloccus phage Romulus-containing powders, a member of the Myoviridae family, showed more than 2.5 logarithmic units reduction. On the other hand, Romulus-containing powders showed more favorable characteristics for pulmonary delivery, with a high percentage of dry powder particles in the pulmonary deposition fraction (1-5 μm particle diameter). Even though the parameters were not optimized for spray drying all phages, it was demonstrated that spray drying phages with this industrial relevant and scalable set up was possible. The resulting powders had desirable size ranges for pulmonary delivery of phages with dry powder inhalers (DPIs).

  5. Highly sensitive electromembrane extraction for the determination of volatile organic compound metabolites in dried urine spot.

    PubMed

    Suh, Joon Hyuk; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Unyong; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kang, Wonjae; Kim, Da Som; Han, Sang Beom

    2015-10-16

    Electromembrane extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for determination of ten volatile organic compound metabolites in dried urine spot samples. The dried urine spot approach is a convenient and economical sampling method, wherein urine is spotted onto a filter paper and dried. This method requires only a small amount of sample, but the analysis sometimes suffers from low sensitivity, which can lead to analytical problems in the detection of minor components in samples. The newly developed dried urine spot analysis using electromembrane extraction exhibited improved sensitivity and extraction, and enrichment of the sample was rapidly achieved in one step by applying an electric field. Aliquots of urine were spotted onto Bond Elut DMS cards and dried at room temperature. After drying, the punched out dried urine spot was eluted with water. Volatile organic compound metabolites were extracted from the sample through a supported liquid membrane into an alkaline acceptor solution inside the lumen of a hollow fiber with the help of an electric potential. The optimum extraction conditions were determined by using design of experiments (fractional factorial design and response surface methodology). Satisfactory sensitivity was achieved and the limits of quantification (LOQ) obtained were lower than the regulatory threshold limits. The method was validated by assessing the linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, reproducibility, stability, and matrix effects. The results were acceptable, and the developed method was successfully applied to biological exposure monitoring of volatile organic compound metabolites in fifty human urine samples.

  6. Multi-scale model of food drying: Current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Joardder, Mohammad U H; Khan, M I H; Nghia, Duc Pham; Karim, M A

    2016-09-19

    For a long time, food engineers have been trying to describe the physical phenomena that occur during food processing especially drying. Physics-based theoretical modeling is an important tool for the food engineers to reduce the hurdles of experimentation. Drying of food is a multi-physics phenomenon such as coupled heat and mass transfer. Moreover, food structure is multi-scale in nature, and the microstructural features play a great role in the food processing specially in drying. Previously simple macroscopic model was used to describe the drying phenomena which can give a little description about the smaller scale. The multiscale modeling technique can handle all the phenomena that occur during drying. In this special kind of modeling approach, the single scale models from bigger to smaller scales are interconnected. With the help of multiscale modeling framework, the transport process associated with drying can be studied on a smaller scale and the resulting information can be transferred to the bigger scale. This article is devoted to discussing the state of the art multi-scale modeling, its prospect and challenges in the field of drying technology. This article has also given some directions to how to overcome the challenges for successful implementation of multi-scale modeling.

  7. Noncontact Infrared-Mediated Heat Transfer During Continuous Freeze-Drying of Unit Doses.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; De Meyer, Laurens; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Recently, an innovative continuous freeze-drying concept for unit doses was proposed, based on spinning the vials during freezing. An efficient heat transfer during drying is essential to continuously process these spin frozen vials. Therefore, the applicability of noncontact infrared (IR) radiation was examined. The impact of several process and formulation variables on the mass of sublimed ice after 15 min of primary drying (i.e., sublimation rate) and the total drying time was examined. Two experimental designs were performed in which electrical power to the IR heaters, distance between the IR heaters and the spin frozen vial, chamber pressure, product layer thickness, and 5 model formulations were included as factors. A near-infrared spectroscopy method was developed to determine the end point of primary and secondary drying. The sublimation rate was mainly influenced by the electrical power to the IR heaters and the distance between the IR heaters and the vial. The layer thickness had the largest effect on total drying time. The chamber pressure and the 5 model formulations had no significant impact on sublimation rate and total drying time, respectively. This study shows that IR radiation is suitable to provide the energy during the continuous processing of spin frozen vials.

  8. How to use fluidization to obtain drying kinetics coupled with quality evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, M.; Hemati, M.; Steinmetz, D.; Laguerie, C.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents the main activities of the Gas Fluidization and Drying Team of the Chemical Engineering Laboratory at Toulouse. The emphasis has been put on the modeling of a fluidized bed dryer and its derivates such as a flotation fluidized bed, by the analysis of heat and mass transfer together with the physico-chemical transformations of the product during drying. Several studies have been performed on different solids (cereal and chemical products) to illustrate the effect of the operating conditions on dehydration and degradation kinetics. The knowledge of heat and mass transfer coefficients in flotation fluidized bed allows one to determine intrinsic drying and degradation kinetics. These kinetics can be used in any conductive or convective dryer model.

  9. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Markus; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs), we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried plasma spots (DPSs) as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only) and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status. PMID:26605791

  10. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Markus; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs), we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried plasma spots (DPSs) as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only) and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  11. Crop drying by indirect active hybrid solar - Electrical dryer in the eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahara

    SciTech Connect

    Boughali, S.; Bouchekima, B.; Mennouche, D.; Bouguettaia, H.; Bechki, D.; Benmoussa, H.

    2009-12-15

    In the present work, a new specific prototype of an indirect active hybrid solar-electrical dryer for agricultural products was constructed and investigated at LENREZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara). In the new configuration of air drying passage; the study was done in a somewhat high range of mass flow rate between 0.04 and 0.08 kg/m{sup 2} s a range not properly investigated by most researchers. Experimental tests with and without load were performed in winter season in order to study the thermal behavior of the dryer and the effect of high air masse flow on the collector and system drying efficiency. The fraction of electrical and solar energy contribution versus air mass flow rate was investigated. Slice tomato was studied with different temperatures and velocities of drying air in order to study the influence of these parameters on the removal moisture content from the product and on the kinetics drying and also to determine their suitable values. Many different thin layer mathematical drying models were compared according to their coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and reduced chi square ({chi}{sup 2}) to estimate experimental drying curves. The Middli model in this condition proved to be the best for predicting drying behavior of tomato slice with (R{sup 2} = 0.9995, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.0001). Finally an economic evaluation was calculated using the criterion of payback period which is found very small 1.27 years compared to the life of the dryer 15 years. (author)

  12. Analytical solutions of drying in porous media for gravity-stabilized fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiotis, A. G.; Salin, D.; Tajer, E. S.; Yortsos, Y. C.

    2012-04-01

    We develop a mathematical model for the drying of porous media in the presence of gravity. The model incorporates effects of corner flow through macroscopic liquid films that form in the cavities of pore walls, mass transfer by diffusion in the dry regions of the medium, external mass transfer over the surface, and the effect of gravity. We consider two different cases: when gravity opposes liquid flow in the corner films and leads to a stable percolation drying front, and when it acts in the opposite direction. In this part, we develop analytical results when the problem can be cast as an equivalent continuum and described as a one-dimensional (1D) problem. This is always the case when gravity acts against drying by opposing corner flow, or when it enhances drying by increasing corner film flow but it is sufficiently small. We obtain results for all relevant variables, including drying rates, extent of the macroscopic film region, and the demarkation of the two different regimes of constant rate period and falling rate period, respectively. The effects of dimensionless variables, such as the bond number, the capillary number, and the Sherwood number for external mass transfer are investigated. When gravity acts to enhance drying, a 1D solution is still possible if an appropriately defined Rayleigh number is above a critical threshold. We derive a linear stability analysis of a model problem under this condition that verifies front stability. Further analysis of this problem, when the Rayleigh number is below critical, requires a pore-network simulator which will be the focus of future work.

  13. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  14. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Robinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  15. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  16. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  17. Biomass drying in a pulsed fluidized bed without inert bed particles

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Dening; Bi, Xiaotao; Lim, C. Jim; ...

    2016-08-29

    Batch drying was performed in the pulsed fluidized bed with various species of biomass particles as an indicator of gas–solid contact efficiency and mass transfer rate under different operating conditions including pulsation duty cycle and particle size distribution. The fluidization of cohesive biomass particles benefited from the shorter opening time of pulsed gas flow and increased peak pressure drop. The presence of fines enhanced gas–solid contact of large and irregular biomass particles, as well as the mass transfer efficiency. A drying model based on two-phase theory was proposed, from which effective diffusivity was calculated for various gas flow rates, temperaturemore » and pulsation frequency. Intricate relationship was discovered between pulsation frequency and effective diffusivity, as mass transfer was deeply connected with the hydrodynamics. Effective diffusivity was also found to be proportional to gas flow rate and drying temperature. In conclusion, operating near the natural frequency of the system also favored drying and mass transfer.« less

  18. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozyardımci, B.; Denli, E.; Ic, E.

    2006-03-01

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses, (˜1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  19. Cryopreservation of spin-dried mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Nilay; Menze, Michael A; Malsam, Jason; Aksan, Alptekin; Hand, Steven C; Toner, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This study reports an alternative approach to achieve vitrification where cells are pre-desiccated prior to cooling to cryogenic temperatures for storage. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells suspended in a trehalose solution were rapidly and uniformly desiccated to a low moisture content (<0.12 g of water per g of dry weight) using a spin-drying technique. Trehalose was also introduced into the cells using a high-capacity trehalose transporter (TRET1). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to examine the uniformity of water concentration distribution in the spin-dried samples. 62% of the cells were shown to survive spin-drying in the presence of trehalose following immediate rehydration. The spin-dried samples were stored in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) at a vitrified state. It was shown that following re-warming to room temperature and re-hydration with a fully complemented cell culture medium, 51% of the spin-dried and vitrified cells survived and demonstrated normal growth characteristics. Spin-drying is a novel strategy that can be used to improve cryopreservation outcome by promoting rapid vitrification.

  20. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  1. Survival of freeze-dried bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto-Shinohara, Yukie; Sukenobe, Junji; Imaizumi, Takashi; Nakahara, Toro

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of freeze-dried bacterial species stored at the International Patent Organism Depository (IPOD) and to elucidate the characteristics affecting survival. Bacterial strains were freeze-dried, sealed in ampoules under a vacuum (<1 Pa), and stored in the dark at 5 degrees C. The survival of a variety of species following storage for up to 20 years was analyzed. The survival of freeze-dried species was analyzed in terms of two stages, freeze-drying and storing. Nonmotile genera showed relatively high survival after freeze-drying. Motile genera with peritrichous flagella showed low survival rates after freeze-drying. Vibrio and Aeromonas, which produce numerous flagella, showed very low survival rates. In Lactobacillus, non-trehalose-fermenting species showed better survival rates after freeze-drying than did fermenting species, and those species with teichoic acid in the cell wall showed lower survival rates during storage than species with teichoic acid in the cell membrane. Human pathogenic species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Streptococcus, and Klebsiella showed lower survival rates during storage than nonpathogenic species within the same genus. Among Pseudomonas species, P. chlororaphis, the only species tested that forms levan from sucrose, showed the lowest survival rate during storage in the genus. Survival rates of Gram-negative species during storage tended to be lower than those of Gram-positive species, though Chryseobacterium meningosepticum had stable survival during storage. The conclusion is that smooth cell surfaces (i.e., no flagella) and lack of trehalose outside the cytoplasm improved survival rates after freeze-drying. Because desiccation is important for survival during storage, the presence of extracellular polysaccharides or teichoic acids is disadvantageous for long-term survival. The lower survival rates of freeze-dried Gram-negative bacteria compared with those of Gram-positive bacteria

  2. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  3. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  4. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  5. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  6. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  7. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  8. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  9. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  10. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  11. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  12. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  13. THEORY OF GEOTROPISM BASED ON MASS ACTION.

    PubMed

    Loeb, J

    1923-07-20

    1. It is shown that the rate of geotropic curvature of a piece of stem of Bryophyllum calycinum when suspended horizontally increases with the mass of an apical leaf attached to the stem. 2. It is shown that the dry weight of the stem increases with the mass of the leaf attached and also that the degree of curvature increases with this increase in the dry weight of the stem. 3. The conclusion is drawn that geotropic curvature is in this case a function of mass action of the material sent by the leaf into the basal part of the stem. 4. The material sent by a leaf into the apical part of a stem does not lead to the same geotropic curvature.

  14. Mass Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    2001-01-18

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying

  15. Effect of Drying Temperature on the Chemical Properties and Diffusivity of belimbi (averrhoa belimbi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Jamil, N.; Rasmani, K. A.; Nursabrina

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, many dried fruit products have been developed in response to a strong demand by the customer. This type of fruit has a different composition and hence different moisture diffusivity (D). During drying, Fick's Law of diffusion, which describes the movement of liquid water was used to calculate this diffusivity. However diffusivity has strong effects on the material drying characteristics and these must be determined. In this paper, Fick's Law of diffusion with different kinds of boundary conditions was solve using separation of variable (SOV). In order to get the value of D, results obtained using SOV will be compared with the results from the drying of belimbi at temperature of 40°C, 50°C and 60°C. Although the results show that variation in the values of diffusivity for different temperatures is relatively small, but the variation in the total time required for drying is significantly bigger: between 3-7 hours. Its shown that diffusivity is an important measurement and should be considered in the modeling of the drying process. The chemical properties of belimbi slices in terms of vitamin C, total ash and antioxidant activity with different air temperatures and pretreatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lower vitamin C and antioxidant activity but a greater total of ash, whilst pre-treatment can increased vitamin C and antioxidant activity. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important variables to improve mass and heat transfer, as well as the belimbi chemical properties.

  16. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica)

    PubMed Central

    Abano, Ernest Ekow

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10−9 to 2.13 × 10−9 m2/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58–17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality. PMID:26904667

  17. Degradation of anionic surfactants during drying of UASBR sludges on sand drying beds.

    PubMed

    Mungray, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2008-09-01

    Anionic surfactant (AS) concentrations in wet up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) sludges from five sewage treatment plants (STPs) were found to range from 4480 to 9,233 mg kg(-1)dry wt. (average 7,347 mg kg(-1)dry wt.) over a period of 18 months. After drying on sand drying beds (SDBs), AS in dried-stabilized sludges averaged 1,452 mg kg(-1)dry wt., a reduction of around 80%. The kinetics of drying followed simple first-order reduction of moisture with value of drying constant (k(d))=0.051 d(-1). Reduction of AS also followed first-order kinetics. AS degradation rate constant (k(AS)) was found to be 0.034 d(-1) and half-life of AS as 20 days. The order of rates of removal observed was k(d)>k(AS)>k(COD)>k(OM) (drying >AS degradation>COD reduction>organic matter reduction). For the three applications of dried-stabilized sludges (soil, agricultural soil, grassland), values of risk quotient (RQ) were found to be <1, indicating no risk.

  18. Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate impingement drying (ID) as a rapid drying method to dry wet apple pomace (WAP) and to investigate the fortification of dried apple pomace flour (APF) or WAP in bakery and meat products. ID at ~110 °C reduced the moisture content of apple pomace from 80 % (wet basis) to 4.5 % within 3 h, compared with 24 h to 2.2 % using 40 °C forced-air drying and ~60 h to 2.3 % using freeze drying. Furthermore, ID enhanced the extractable phenolic compounds, allowing for a 58 % increase in total phenolic content (TPC) compared with wet pomace, a 110 % and 83 % higher than TPC in forced-air dried and freeze dried samples, respectively. The 15-20 % APF-fortified cookies were found to be ~44-59 % softer, ~30 % more chewy, and ~14 % moister than those of the control. WAP-fortified meat products had significantly higher dietary fiber content (0.7-1.8 % vs. 0.1-0.2 % in control) and radical scavenging activity than that of the control. These results suggest that impingement drying is a fast and effective method for preparing dried APF with highly retained bioactive compounds, and apple pomace fortified products maintained or even had improved quality.

  19. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2016-11-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  20. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  1. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  2. Spent fuel behavior in dry storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. B., Jr.; Pankaskie, P. J.; Gilbert, E. R.

    1982-02-01

    Dry storage is emerging as an attractive and timely alternative to complement wet storage, and assist utilities to meet interim storage needs. Spent fuel is handled and stored under dry conditions. Dry storage of irradiated Zircaloy clad fuel in metal casks, drywells, silos and vaults is demonstrated. Hot cell and laboratory studies also are underway to investigate specific phenomena related to cladding behavior in dry storage. A substantial fraction of the LWR spent fuel inventory has aged for relatively long times and has relatively low decay heats. This suggests that much of the fuel inventory can be stored at relatively low temperatures. Alternatively, rod consolidation of the older can be considered without exceeding maximum cladding temperatures.

  3. Hydrothermal regimes of the dry active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Mamoru; Zhang, Yinsheng; Kadota, Tsutomu; Ohata, Tetsuo

    2006-04-01

    Evaporation and condensation in the soil column clearly influence year-round nonconductive heat transfer dynamics in the dry active layer underlying semiarid permafrost regions. We deduced this from heat flux components quantified using state-of-the-art micrometeorological data sets obtained in dry and moist summers and in winters with various snow cover depths. Vapor moves easily through large pores, some of which connect to the atmosphere, allowing (1) considerable active layer warming driven by pipe-like snowmelt infiltration, and (2) direct vapor linkage between atmosphere and deeper soils. Because of strong adhesive forces, water in the dry active layer evaporates with great difficulty. The fraction of latent heat to total soil heat storage ranged from 26 to 45% in dry and moist summers, respectively. These values are not negligible, despite being smaller than those of arctic wet active layer, in which only freezing and thawing were considered.

  4. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  5. Nitrogen loss during solar drying of biosolids.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, S A; Song, I; Artiola, J F; Choi, C Y

    2008-01-01

    Solar drying has been used extensively to dewater biosolids for ease of transportation and to a lesser degree to reduce pathogens prior to land application. The nitrogen in biosolids makes them a relatively inexpensive but valuable source of fertilizer. In this study, nitrogen loss from tilled and untilled biosolids was investigated during the solar drying process. Samples of aerobically and anaerobically digested biosolids during three solar drying experiments were analyzed for their nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) ions concentrations. Nitrogen losses varied depending on the solar drying season and tillage. Although not directly measured, the majority of nitrogen loss occurred through ammonia volatilization; organic nitrogen content (organic N) remained relatively stable for each sample, nitrate concentrations for the majority of samples remained below detectable levels and the decline of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) generally followed the trend of moisture loss in the biosolids.

  6. Dry-heat resistance of selected psychrophiles.

    PubMed

    Winans, L; Pflug, I J; Foster, T L

    1977-08-01

    The dry-heat resistance characteristics of spores of psychrophilic organisms isolated from soil samples from the Viking spacecraft assembly areas at Cape Kennedy Space Flight Center, Cape Canaveral, Fla., were studied. Spore suspensions were produced, and dry-heat D values were determined for the microorganisms that demonstrated growth or survival under a simulated Martian environment. The dry-heat tests were carried out by using the planchet-boat-hot plate system at 110 and 125 degrees C with an ambient relative humidity of 50% at 22 degrees C. The spores evaluated had a relatively low resistance to dry heat. D(110 degrees C) values ranged from 7.5 to 122 min, whereas the D(123 degrees C) values ranged from less than 1.0 to 9.8 min.

  7. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  8. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  9. Dry Eye in Pediatric Contact Lens Wearers

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Katie L.; Walline, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether children who wear contact lenses truly have fewer dry eye complaints than adults. Methods Ninety-four pediatric contact lens wearers, ages 8 to 14 years, were recruited and given the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ) short form. The survey is designed to diagnose dry eye syndrome by obtaining information on the frequency of dryness and light sensitivity and their corresponding intensity levels within the first two hours of putting in the lenses, in the middle of the day, and at the end of the day. The responses were scored by multiplying the frequency by the average intensity and a constant. A composite score was calculated by subtracting the photophobia score from the dryness score, and the results were compared to adult samples from the literature. The questionnaire also asked whether the subject thought he/she had dry eyes while wearing contact lenses. Subjects that thought they had dry eyes and had a CLDEQ composite score >0.03 were diagnosed with dry eye. Subjects who were unsure if they dry eye or said they did not have dry eye but scored >1.29 were also diagnosed with dry eye. Results The average (± SD) age of the sample was 11.7 ± 1.5 years, 56.4% were female, 59.6% were white, and 19.1% were black. The mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 0.25 ±0.50 (range= -1.20 to 1.45). In the literature, the adult mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 1.02 ±0.80 (range= -0.74 to 4.50). Of the 94 surveys collected, 4.3% of children were categorized with dry eye compared to 56.2% of adults who completed the CLDEQ survey in the adult study. Conclusions Pediatric contact lens wearers have fewer complaints about dry eyes than adult contact lens wearers, which may be due to improved tear film, differences in reporting of symptoms, or modality of contact lens wear. PMID:21060258

  10. Solar energy assisted fluidized bed fruit drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkis, B.

    The possibility of using the fluidized-bed principle for solar drying of fruits economically and simply is explored. With the aid of computerized design methods, an optimized fluidized bed/packed bed combination was achieved, that in addition functions as a solar air heater. Based on this configuration, a novel aparatus was designed in Turkey for drying Turkish grapes. Comparisons with comparable systems are made.

  11. Methane storage in dry water gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixing; Bray, Christopher L; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2008-09-03

    Dry water stores 175 v(STP)/v methane at 2.7 MPa and 273.2 K in a hydrate form which is close to the Department of Energy volumetric target for methane storage. Dry water is a silica-stabilized free-flowing powder (95% wt water), and fast methane uptakes were observed (90% saturation uptake in 160 min with no mixing) as a result of the relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of this material.

  12. Dry Mouth - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... مع عالج السرطان - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Dry Mouth with Cancer Treatment 癌症治疗造成的口腔干燥 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Dry Mouth with Cancer Treatment ...

  13. Dry-Enzyme Test For Gaseous Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barzana, Eduardo; Karel, Marcus; Klibanov, Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Simple, dry-chemical test detects ethanol in human breath. Method of test also adapted to detection of such toxic chemicals as formaldehyde in airstreams. Used qualitatively to detect chemical compounds above present level; for example, ethanol above legal level for driving. Also used to indicate quantitatively concentrations of compounds. Involves dry enzyme and color indicator. Adapted to detect any gaseous compound transformed by enzymes to produce change evident to human eye or to instrument.

  14. Vegetable Drying in Two Novel Food Dryers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-95/008 VEGETABLE DRYING IN TWO NOVEL FOOD DRYERS by Joseph Cohen, Christopher Rees, Linnea Hallberg, and Tom C.S. Yang...VEGETABLE DRYING IN TWO NOVEL FOOD DRYERS 6. AUTHOR(S) FTBB 1313 PR: ID:TB-PST Joseph Cohen, Christopher Rees, Linnea Hallberg, and Tom C.S. Yan__ 7...up from the laboratory to large commercial units. ( Priestley , 1962). The technique involves levitating particulate solids in an upward-flowing gas

  15. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  16. Using solar dryers to dry clay bricks

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, J.A.; Wicker, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    Experiments using a small-scale solar dryer have been performed to determine the effect of incorporating solar dryers in the pre-firing stage of clay brick production. A comparison of brick moisture content over time is presented for dry bricks that underwent additional drying either naturally through direct exposure, in convection ovens set at 65.6 C and 104 C, in the solar dryer, or sealed in plastic bags. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were monitored along with the solar dryer temperature. Results indicated the solar dryer removed from one to two percent more moisture than natural drying, but removed less moisture than did the ovens. A similar comparison of wet bricks naturally dried, oven dried, and placed in the solar dryer for periods of five and seven days is also presented. The solar dryer reduced the amount of time required for bricks to be dried to a specified moisture content and increased the amount of moisture removed for a given amount of time.

  17. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  18. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  19. Monitoring fluidized bed drying of pharmaceutical granules.

    PubMed

    Briens, Lauren; Bojarra, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Placebo granules consisting of lactose monohydrate, corn starch, and polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared using de-ionized water in a high-shear mixer and dried in a conical fluidized bed dryer at various superficial gas velocities. Acoustic, vibration, and pressure data obtained over the course of drying was analyzed using various statistical, frequency, fractal, and chaos techniques. Traditional monitoring methods were also used for reference. Analysis of the vibration data showed that the acceleration levels decreased during drying and reached a plateau once the granules had reached a final moisture content of 1–2 wt.%; this plateau did not differ significantly between superficial gas velocities, indicating a potential criterion to support drying endpoint identification. Acoustic emissions could not reliably identify the drying endpoint. However, high kurtosis values of acoustic emissions measured in the filtered air exhaust corresponded to high entrainment rates. This could be used for process control to adjust the fluidization gas velocity to allow drying to continue rapidly while minimizing entrainment and possible product losses.

  20. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  1. 21 CFR 131.147 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.147 Dry whole milk. (a... blending fluid, condensed, or dried nonfat milk with liquid or dried cream or with fluid, condensed,...

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract drying with different carrier agent: Drying rate evaluation and color analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Utari, F. D.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different carrier agents on roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa L.extract drying. Carrier agent was used for reducing stickiness of material and avoiding agglomeration as well as improving stability. The method consisted of two steps involving roselle extraction and drying process. The liquid roselle extract was mixed with carrier agent (maltodextrin-arabic gum) in various composition. The mixture was then dried at different air temperature ranging 40 - 80°C. As a response, moisture content in the extract was observed by gravimetry every 10 minutes during90 minutes. The procedurewas repeated for the drying without carrieragent. The result showed that constant rate of drying with carrier agent was higher up to l.7 times than that of without carrier agent. Based on the color analysis,roselle extract drying with carrier agent also showed reasonable quality.

  3. Effect of drying temperature and slice size on quality of dried okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Pendre, N K; Nema, Prabhat K; Sharma, Harsh P; Rathore, S S; Kushwah, S S

    2012-06-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) is an important vegetable crop of India. Dried okra pods have wide use in snacks and are in great demand for domestic as well as export market. Hence, effect of four slice sizes (1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) and four drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) on quality of hot air dried okra were studied. Okra pods were dried in the form of slices cut across the length at different temperatures. Quality assessment of okra was done on the basis of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content. Okra slice sizes and drying temperatures affected all the quality parameters significantly (p < 0.05). Maximum retention of protein, ascorbic acid and fibre content were found in 2 cm long slices dried at 60 °C temperature.

  4. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  5. Recent drying of the Fertile Crescent: natural or externally forced?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Colin

    2014-05-01

    There has been a reduction in observed precipitation over the greater Mediterranean region since the middle of the 20th Century. Recent studies suggest that while anthropogenic forcing has already begun to assert itself in recent decades, the preponderance of the winter drying trend is attributable to the large natural multidecadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), while over the eastern Mediterranean, the anthropogenic, or forced drying signal is more clearly evident. This forced drying is projected to increase during the 21st Century according to the newest global climate models and this aridification would present significant challenges for a region that is already water-stressed. Although the Fertile Crescent is historically known for its agricultural prosperity, the severity and persistence of the recent multiyear drought in Syria, directly prior to the 2011 uprising there, leads us to ask whether this is evidence of emerging global warming influence. This drought exacerbated existing water insecurity, resulting in an agricultural collapse and a mass migration of rural drought refugees to the urban areas in Syria's west. This migration followed the previous influx of Iragi refugees and combined with strong natural population growth to place a severe strain on resources. Here we examine observations of precipitation and temperature, both gridded and stations, along with simulations and projections from the newest global climate models, to estimate the forced contribution to the recent Syrian drought, and assess the uncertainty in future drying according to the models. We find that this region has experienced a long-term downward trend in precipitation, and a concomitant increase in temperature, serving to further dry the soil, and in surface pressure. We find that the shift in the distributions of three-year running means of surface pressure and precipitation due to the forcing make severe events such as the recent Syrian drought several

  6. Mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Burlingame, A.L.; Baillie, T.A.; Derrick, P.J.

    1986-04-01

    It is the intention of the review to bring together in one source the direction of major developments in mass spectrometry and to illustrate these by citing key contributions from both fundamental and applied research. The Review is intended to provide the reader with a sense of the main currents, their breadth and depth, and probable future directions. It is also intended to provide the reader with a glimpse of the diverse discoveries and results that underpin the eventual development of new methods and instruments - the keys to obtaining new insights in all the physical, chemical, and biological sciences which depend on mass spectrometry at various levels of sophistication. Focal points for future interdisciplinary synergism might be selective quantitative derivatization of large peptides, which would convey properties that direct fragmentation providing specific sequence information, or optimization of LCMS for biooligomer sequencing and mixture analysis, or the perfect way to control or enhance the internal energy of ions of any size, or many others. 1669 references.

  7. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2016-08-01

    Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  8. The Impact of Dry Saharan Air on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The controversial role of the dry Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on tropical storm intensification in the Atlantic will be addressed. The SAL has been argued in previous studies to have potential positive influences on storm development, but most recent studies have argued for a strong suppressing influence on storm intensification as a result of dry air, high stability, increased vertical wind shear, and microphysical impacts of dust. Here, we focus on observations of Hurricane Helene (2006), which occurred during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (NAMMA) experiment. Satellite and airborne observations, combined with global meteorological analyses depict the initial environment of Helene as being dominated by the SAL, although with minimal evidence that the SAL air actually penetrated to the core of the disturbance. Over the next several days, the SAL air quickly moved westward and was gradually replaced by a very dry, dust-free layer associated with subsidence. Despite the wrapping of this very dry air around the storm, Helene intensified steadily to a Category 3 hurricane suggesting that the dry air was unable to significantly slow storm intensification. Several uncertainties remain about the role of the SAL in Helene (and in tropical cyclones in general). To better address these uncertainties, NASA will be conducting a three year airborne campaign called the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The HS3 objectives are: To obtain critical measurements in the hurricane environment in order to identify the role of key factors such as large-scale wind systems (troughs, jet streams), Saharan air masses, African Easterly Waves and their embedded critical layers (that help to isolate tropical disturbances from hostile environments). To observe and understand the three-dimensional mesoscale and convective-scale internal structures of tropical disturbances and cyclones and their role in intensity change. The mission objectives will be achieved using

  9. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  10. Predicting the drying properties of sludge based on hydrothermal treatment under subcritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Fraikin, Laurent; Léonard, Angélique; Benavente, Verónica; Fullana, Andrés

    2016-03-15

    The effects of hydrothermal treatment on the drying properties of sludge were determined. Sludge was hydrothermally treated at 180-260 °C for 0.5-5 h using NaOH and HCl as additives to influence reaction conditions. Untreated sludge and attained hydrochar samples were then dried under identical conditions with a laboratory microdryer and an X-ray microtomograph was used to follow changes in sample dimensions. The effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar samples were determined and the effect of process conditions on respective mean diffusivities evaluated using multiple linear regression. Based on the results the drying time of untreated sludge decreased from approximately 80 min to 37-59 min for sludge hydrochar. Drying of untreated sludge was governed by the falling rate period where drying flux decreased continuously as a function of sludge moisture content due to heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage. Hydrothermal treatment increased the drying flux of sludge hydrochar and decreased the effect of internal heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage especially at higher treatment temperatures. The determined effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar increased as a function of decreasing moisture content and the mean diffusivity of untreated sludge (8.56·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) and sludge hydrochar (12.7-27.5·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) were found statistically different. The attained regression model indicated that treatment temperature governed the mean diffusivity of hydrochar, as the effects of NaOH and HCl were statistically insignificant. The attained results enabled prediction of sludge drying properties through mean moisture diffusivity based on hydrothermal treatment conditions.

  11. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture in dried whey cheese production.

    PubMed

    Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as a starter culture for protein-enriched dried whey cheese. For comparison reasons, dried whey cheese with thermally-dried free kefir culture and with no starter culture were also produced. The effect of the nature of the culture, the ripening temperature and the ripening process on quality characteristics of the whey cheese was studied. The association of microbial groups during cheese maturation suggested repression of spoilage and protection from pathogens due to the thermally-dried kefir, as counts of coliforms, enterobacteria and staphylococci were significantly reduced in cheeses produced using thermally-dried kefir starter cultures. The effect of the starter culture on production of volatile compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied using the SPME GC/MS technique. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir starter culture resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds. The preliminary sensory evaluation ascertained the soft, fine taste and the overall improved quality of cheese produced with the thermally-dried immobilized kefir. The potential of protein-based thermally-dried starter cultures in dairy products is finally highlighted and assessed.

  12. [Effect on quality of Scrophulariae Radix with modern drying technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-wei; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-wei; Lu, Xue-jun; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-11-01

    Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.

  13. Effect of liquid retentate storage on flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate and isolate.

    PubMed

    Whitson, M; Miracle, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of holding time of liquid retentate on flavor of spray-dried whey proteins: Cheddar whey protein isolate (WPI) and Mozzarella 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Liquid WPC80 and WPI retentate were manufactured and stored at 3°C. After 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h, the product was spray-dried (2kg) and the remaining retentate held until the next time point. The design was replicated twice for each product. Powders were stored at 21°C and evaluated every 4 mo throughout 12 mo of storage. Flavor profiles of rehydrated proteins were documented by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile components were analyzed with solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in both spray-dried products with increased retentate storage time and cabbage flavors increased in WPI. Concurrent with sensory results, lipid oxidation products (hexanal, heptanal, octanal) and sulfur degradation products (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide) increased in spray-dried products with increased liquid retentate storage time, whereas diacetyl decreased. Shelf stability was decreased in spray-dried products from longer retentate storage times. For maximum quality and shelf life, liquid retentate should be held for less than 12h before spray drying.

  14. The impact of drought on ozone dry deposition over eastern Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T.

    2016-02-01

    Dry deposition represents a critical pathway through which ground-level ozone is removed from the atmosphere. Understanding the effects of drought on ozone dry deposition is essential for air quality modeling and management in regions of the world with recurring droughts. This work applied the widely used Zhang dry deposition algorithm to examine seasonal and interannual changes in estimated ozone dry deposition velocities and component resistances/conductances over eastern Texas during years with drought (2006 and 2011) as well as a year with slightly cooler temperatures and above average rainfall (2007). Simulated area-averaged daytime ozone dry deposition velocities ranged between 0.26 and 0.47 cm/s. Seasonal patterns reflected the combined seasonal variations in non-stomatal and stomatal deposition pathways. Daytime ozone dry deposition velocities during the growing season were consistently larger during 2007 compared to 2006 and 2011. These differences were associated with differences in stomatal conductances and were most pronounced in forested areas. Reductions in stomatal conductances under drought conditions were highly sensitive to increases in vapor pressure deficit and warmer temperatures in Zhang's algorithm. Reductions in daytime ozone deposition velocities and deposition mass during drought years were associated with estimates of higher surface ozone concentrations.

  15. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-02

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge.

  16. Drying dynamics of a charged colloidal dispersion in a confined drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loussert, Charles; Bouchaudy, Anne; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-12-01

    We perform a thorough investigation of the drying dynamics of a charged colloidal dispersion drop in a confined geometry. We develop an original methodology based on Raman microspectroscopy to measure spatially resolved colloids concentration profiles during the drying of the drop. These measurements lead to estimates of the collective diffusion coefficient of the dispersion over a wide range of concentration. The collective diffusion coefficient is one order of magnitude higher than the Stokes-Einstein estimate, showing the importance of the electrostatic interactions for the relaxation of concentration gradients. At the same time, we also perform fluorescence imaging of tracers embedded within the dispersion during the drying of the drop, which reveals two distinct regimes. At early stages, concentration gradients along the drop lead to buoyancy-induced flows. Strikingly, these flows do not influence the colloidal concentration gradients that generate them, as the mass transport remains dominated by diffusion. At longer time scales, the tracer trajectories reveal the formation of a gel that dries quasihomogeneously. For such a gel, we show using linear poroelastic modeling that the drying dynamics is still described by the same transport equations as for the liquid dispersion. However, the collective diffusion coefficient follows a modified generalized Stokes-Einstein relation, as also demonstrated in the context of unidirectional consolidation by Style and Peppin [Style and Peppin, Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions, Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 174 (2011), 10.1098/rspa.2010.0039].

  17. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  18. Heat-Stable Dry Powder Oxytocin Formulations for Delivery by Oral Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Karine; Curley, Kieran; Guarneri, Joseph; Adamo, Benoit; Laurenzi, Brendan; Grant, Marshall; Offord, Robin; Kraft, Kelly; Leone-Bay, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In this work, heat stable dry powders of oxytocin (OT) suitable for delivery by oral inhalation were prepared. The OT dry powders were prepared by spray drying using excipients chosen to promote OT stability including trehalose, isoleucine, polyvinylpyrrolidone, citrate (sodium citrate and citric acid), and zinc salts (zinc chloride and zinc citrate). Characterization by laser diffraction indicated that the OT dry powders had a median particle size of 2 μm, making them suitable for delivery by inhalation. Aerodynamic performance upon discharge from proprietary dry powder inhalers was evaluated by Andersen cascade impaction (ACI) and in an anatomically correct airway (ACA) model, and confirmed that the powders had excellent aerodynamic performance, with respirable fractions up to 77% (ACI, 30 L/min). Physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the powders were amorphous (X-ray diffraction) with high glass transition temperature (modulated differential scanning calorimetry, MDSC), suggesting the potential for stabilization of the OT in a glassy amorphous matrix. OT assay and impurity profile were conducted by reverse phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) after storage up to 32 weeks at 40°C/75%RH. Analysis demonstrated that OT dry powders containing a mixture of citrate and zinc salts retained more than 90% of initial assay after 32 weeks storage and showed significant reduction in dimers and trisulfide formation (up to threefold reduction compared to control).

  19. Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051

  20. Energy-saving drying and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovbasyuk, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Superheated steam is efficiently applied as a coolant for the intensification of drying, which is an important component of many up-to-date technologies. However, traditional drying is extremely energy consuming, and many drying apparatus are environmentally unfriendly. Thus, it is important to implement the proposed drying technique using superheated steam under pressure significantly higher than the atmospheric one with subsequent steam transfer for use in a turbine for electric power generation as a compensation of energy costs for drying. This paper includes a brief thermodynamic analysis of such a technique, its environmental advantages, and possible benefits of the use of wet wastes and obtaining high-quality fuels from wet raw materials. A scheme is developed for the turbine protection from impurities that can occur in the steam at drying. Potential advantage of the technique are also the absence of heating surfaces that are in contact with wet media, the absence of the emissions to the atmosphere, and the use of low potential heat for desalination and the purification of water. The new drying technique can play an extremely important part in the implementation in the field of thermal destruction of anthropogenic wastes. In spite of the promotion of waste sorting to obtain valuable secondary raw materials, the main problem of big cities is nonutilizable waste, which makes not less than 85% of the starting quantity of waste. This can only be totally solved by combustion, which even more relates to the sewage sludge utilization. The wastes can be safely and efficiently combusted only provided that they are free of moisture. Combustion temperature optimization makes possible full destruction of dioxins and their toxic analogues.