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Sample records for 120-kg dry mass

  1. Drying temperature effects on fish dry mass measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of tissue composition in fish often requires dry samples. Time needed to dry fish decreases as temperature is increased, but additional volatile material may be lost. Effects of 10??C temperature increases on percentage dry mass (%DM) were tested against 60??C controls for groups of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Lake trout %DMs were lower at greater temperatures, but not significantly different from 60??C controls. Rainbow smelt and slimy sculpin %DMs were lower at greater temperatures and differences were significant when test temperatures reached 90??C. Significant differences were not found in tests using alewives because variability in %DM was high between fish. To avoid inter-fish variability, 30 alewives were each dried successively at 60, 70, 80, and then 90??C and for all fish %DM declined at each higher temperature. In general, %DMs were lower at greater temperatures and after reaching a stable dry weight, fish did not lose additional mass if temperature remained constant. Results indicate that caution should be used when comparing dry mass related indices from fish dried at different temperatures because %DM was negatively related to temperature. The differences in %DM observed with rising temperature could account for substantial portions of the variability in reported energy values for the species tested. Differences in %DM means for the 60 vs. 80??C and 60 vs. 90??C tests for rainbow smelt and alewife could represent of from 8 to 38% of observed annual energy cycles for Lakes Ontario and Michigan.

  2. Dry-mass sensing for microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; White, D. A.; Knowles, T. P. J.

    2014-11-01

    We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor's quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

  3. Conjugate mixed convection heat and mass transfer in brick drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, H. N.; Aswatha Narayana, P. A.; Seetharamu, K. N.

    In this study, a numerical methodology for the solution of conjugate heat and mass transfer problem is presented. Fluid flow, heat and mass transfer over a rectangular brick due to transient laminar mixed convection has been numerically simulated. The coupled non-linear partial differential equations, for both gas phase and solid are solved using finite element procedure. Flow is assumed to be incompressible, two-dimensional, laminar. Analysis has been carried out at a Reynolds number of 200 with Pr=0.71. The effect of buoyancy on the brick drying has been investigated. Velocity vectors, streamlines in the flow field and temperature and moisture contours and temperature distribution along the solid surface are presented. It is observed that there is considerable effect of buoyancy during drying. The results indicate a non-uniform drying of the brick with the leading edge drying faster than the rest of the brick.

  4. Cumulative ventilation air drying potential as an indication of dry mass content in wastewater sludge in a thin-layer solar drying facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Controlling low-temperature drying facilities which utilise nonprepared air is quite difficult, due to very large variability of ventilation air parameters - both in daily and seasonal cycles. The paper defines the concept of cumulative drying potential of ventilation air and presents experimental evidence that there is a relation between this parameter and condition of the dried matter (sewage sludge). Knowledge on current dry mass content in the dried matter (sewage sludge) provides new possibilities for controlling such systems. Experimental data analysed in the paper was collected in early 2012 during operation of a test solar drying facility in a sewage treatment plant in Błonie near Warsaw, Poland.

  5. The use of mass spectrometry to analyze dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michel; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) typically consist in the deposition of small volumes of capillary blood onto dedicated paper cards. Comparatively to whole blood or plasma samples, their benefits rely in the fact that sample collection is easier and that logistic aspects related to sample storage and shipment can be relatively limited, respectively, without the need of a refrigerator or dry ice. Originally, this approach has been developed in the sixties to support the analysis of phenylalanine for the detection of phenylketonuria in newborns using bacterial inhibition test. In the nineties tandem mass spectrometry was established as the detection technique for phenylalanine and tyrosine. DBS became rapidly recognized for their clinical value: they were widely implemented in pediatric settings with mass spectrometric detection, and were closely associated to the debut of newborn screening (NBS) programs, as a part of public health policies. Since then, sample collection on paper cards has been explored with various analytical techniques in other areas more or less successfully regarding large-scale applications. Moreover, in the last 5 years a regain of interest for DBS was observed and originated from the bioanalytical community to support drug development (e.g., PK studies) or therapeutic drug monitoring mainly. Those recent applications were essentially driven by improved sensitivity of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. This review presents an overall view of all instrumental and methodological developments for DBS analysis with mass spectrometric detection, with and without separation techniques. A general introduction to DBS will describe their advantages and historical aspects of their emergence. A second section will focus on blood collection, with a strong emphasis on specific parameters that can impact quantitative analysis, including chromatographic effects, hematocrit effects, blood effects, and analyte stability. A third part of the review is dedicated to

  6. Estimation of cauliflower mass transfer parameters during convective drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Medine; Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments such as citric acid and hot water blanching and air temperature on drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices. Experiments were carried out at four different drying air temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C with the air velocity of 2.0 m/s. It was observed that drying and rehydration characteristics of cauliflower slices were greatly influenced by air temperature and pre-treatment. Six commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying kinetics of cauliflower slices. The Midilli et al. model described the drying behaviour of cauliflower slices at all temperatures better than other models. The values of effective moisture diffusivities (D eff ) were determined using Fick's law of diffusion and were between 4.09 × 10-9 and 1.88 × 10-8 m2/s. Activation energy was estimated by an Arrhenius type equation and was 23.40, 29.09 and 26.39 kJ/mol for citric acid, blanch and control samples, respectively.

  7. Combining micro dry column chromatography and mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Dry column chromatography principles applied in microscale produce technique to minimize time in preparing and analyzing colorless constituents of soluble mixtures. Glass pipette microcolumns filled with finely sieved adsorbents permit capillary attraction and separation in 3 to 15 minutes. Technique is adaptable to gas chromatography.

  8. Processes of heat and mass transfer in straw bales using flue gasses as a drying medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Wojciech; Szubel, Mateusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Moisture content is a main problem of using straw in form of bales for energy production. The paper presents possibility of straw drying in dedicated, innovative and patented in Poland straw dryers which using flue gasses as a drying medium. Paper presents an improved way of drying which proved to be very sufficient. Temperature and humidity of straw during the process of drying were measured. The measurements helped understand and perform numerical model of heat and mass transfer inside the straw bale. By using CFD codes it was possible to perform analysis of phenomenon occurring inside the dried straw bale. Based on the CFD model, proposals of the optimization and improvement process of drying have been discussed. Experimental and computational data have been compared in terms of convergence. A satisfying degree of agreement has been achieved. Applying improved drying method, homogenous field of moisture content and temperature in the straw bale is achieved in a very cost effective way.

  9. Modeling dry deposition of total particle mass in trafficked and rural sites of central Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, G.C.; Wu, Y.S.

    1999-07-01

    Dry deposition plates, PS-1, micro orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), Noll rotary impactor (NRI), and Universal samplers were used to measure dry deposition fluxes and ambient air particle concentrations during day and night periods at a trafficked and a rural sampling site in central Taiwan. The results indicate that dry deposition fluxes of total particle mass at the trafficked site are about 100 times higher than at the rural sampling site. Statistical results also proved that there are no significant differences for the coarse particle concentrations in the trafficked and rural sampling sites. MOUDI, NRI, and Universal samplers were used to estimate the dry deposition flux. The ratios of estimated/measured dry deposition flux of total particle mass in the trafficked area are better than for the rural sampling site. This is because the NRI sampler was applied in the trafficked area. The Noll and Fang model-predicted dry deposition flux is more accurate than that predicted by the Sehmel and Hodgson model in both the traffic and rural sampling sites. The Universal sampler was applied in predicting dry deposition flux in the rural site. The results show that the Universal sampler is not a suitable device in predicting dry deposition because it can only collect particle sizes less than 10 {micro}m. However, this study indicates that NRI combined with the Universal sampler is useful in predicting particle mass dry deposition.

  10. Freeze-drying in novel container system: Characterization of heat and mass transfer in glass syringes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing and understanding different modes of heat and mass transfer in glass syringes to develop a robust freeze-drying process. Two different holder systems were used to freeze-dry in syringes: an aluminum (Al) block and a plexiglass holder. The syringe heat transfer coefficient was characterized by a sublimation test using pure water. Mannitol and sucrose (5% w/v) were also freeze-dried, as model systems, in both the assemblies. Dry layer resistance was determined from manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and product temperature was measured using thermocouples, and was also determined from MTM. Further, freeze-drying process was also designed using Smart freeze-dryer to assess its application for freeze-drying in novel container systems. Heat and mass transfer in syringes were compared against the traditional container system (i.e., glass tubing vial). In the Al block, the heat transfer was via three modes: contact conduction, gas conduction, and radiation with gas conduction being the dominant mode of heat transfer. In the plexiglass holder, the heat transfer was mostly via radiation; convection was not involved. Also, MTM/Smart freeze-drying did work reasonably well for freeze-drying in syringes. When compared to tubing vials, product temperature decreases and hence drying time increases in syringes. PMID:20166199

  11. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  12. Effects of solvent drying time on mass change of three adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Emamieh, Shila; Sadr, Alireza; Ghasemi, Amir; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Akhavanzanjani, Vegharedin; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adhesives may change their mass due to water sorption or dilution of components after curing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of air-drying time and water storage on mass changes (MC) of three adhesives; Adper Single Bond2 (ASB), One-step plus (OSP), Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB). Materials and Methods: Rectangular-shape samples from each adhesive were prepared and cured for 120 s with a halogen light curing unit. Prior to curing, their solvent was evaporated by means of three different procedures depending on the passive air-drying time (i.e., no air drying, equal to active air drying, complete evaporation after 3 h). Each group was further divided into two subgroups based on the time of water storage (1-day, 7-days), prior to measurement of MC (n = 10). The data were analyzed using a three-way ANOVA. Results: Adhesives showed different patterns of MC in relation to air drying and water storage; (P < 0.05). In OSP and CSB with increasing water storage and air drying, the MC increased significantly (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The highest MC in the etch-and-rinse adhesives was observed when the adhesive was not dried, while in the self-etch adhesive the highest changes were observed when the adhesive was completely dried. PMID:24082570

  13. Native Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Noncovalent Protein Complexes Directly from Dried Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Griffiths, Rian L.; Edwards, Rebecca L.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry is a promising tool for the analysis of intact proteins from biological substrates. Here, we demonstrate native LESA mass spectrometry of noncovalent protein complexes of myoglobin and hemoglobin from a range of surfaces. Holomyoglobin, in which apomyoglobin is noncovalently bound to the prosthetic heme group, was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of myoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride surfaces. Tetrameric hemoglobin [(αβ)2 4H] was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of hemoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surfaces, and from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Heme-bound dimers and monomers were also observed. The `contact' LESA approach was particularly suitable for the analysis of hemoglobin tetramers from DBS.

  14. Multi-layer onion drying: Study of mass and heat transfer mechanism and quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiah, N.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Drying is one of methods to prolong storage life of onion. The outer layer of onion has kept dry around 12% of moisture content or below to retain the freshness of its inside part. The model of multi layers onion drying is very important to predict the water and temperature transport during dying process. In this case, one dimensional partial equation was used for predicting moisture distribution in the onion layer. To support the study, the onion drying was performed at various temperatures ranging of 40-50 °C. Then the attribute quality (quercetin content) of dried onion was analysed. The experimental data was to validate the value of water diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient used in the model. Results showed that the model can predict moisture distribution in each layer of onion. Moreover, based on the average moisture content during the drying, the model result closed to experiment data with accuracy of R2 0.970-0.999. The model was useful to estimate the drying time of outer layer to the desired level. Besides that, the quality evaluation showed that after 2 hours drying process, quercetin content can be retained.

  15. 24. The DryingRoom in the coating mill at Lawrence, Mass. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. The Drying-Room in the coating mill at Lawrence, Mass. After the paper has received its coating from the coating-machine shown in the previous picture, it passes in a continuous web to the drying-room. Blasts of hot air coming out of galvanized ducts beneath support it for a distance of 100 feet, until it reaches the drying-chamber in the rear of the room. Here it hangs in festoons much like those of cotton cloth shown on page 219. In the picture the paper is passing from right to left. After leaving the drying-room it is wound on rolls, as shown in the next picture. (p.238.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  16. Influence of drying air parameters on mass transfer characteristics of apple slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    To efficiently design both new drying process and equipment and/or to improve the existing systems, accurate values of mass transfer characteristics are necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of drying air parameters (i.e. temperature, velocity and relative humidity) on effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient of apple slices. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the mass transfer characteristics. The obtained Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the apple slices was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient values obtained to be in the ranges of 7.13 × 10-11-7.66 × 10-10 and 1.46 × 10-7-3.39 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively and the both of them increased with increasing drying air temperature and velocity, and decreasing relative humidity. The validation of the model showed that the model predicted the experimental drying curves of the samples with a good accuracy.

  17. Homogeneous Matrix Deposition on Dried Agar for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Microbial Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-11-01

    Matrix deposition on agar-based microbial colonies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is often complicated by the complex media on which microbes are grown. This Application Note demonstrates how consecutive short spray pulses of a matrix solution can form an evenly closed matrix layer on dried agar. Compared with sieving dry matrix onto wet agar, this method supports analyte cocrystallization, which results in significantly more signals, higher signal-to-noise ratios, and improved ionization efficiency. The even matrix layer improves spot-to-spot precision of measured m/z values when using TOF mass spectrometers. With this technique, we established reproducible imaging mass spectrometry of myxobacterial cultures on nutrient-rich cultivation media, which was not possible with the sieving technique.

  18. Enhancement of mass transfer by ultrasound: Application to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The physical mechanisms of heat and mass transfer enhancement by ultrasound have been identified by people. Basically, the effect of 'cavitation' induced by ultrasound is the main reason for the enhancement of heat and mass transfer in a liquid environment, and the acoustic streaming and vibration are the main reasons for that in a gaseous environment. The adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration are typical heat and mass transfer process, and the intensification of the two processes by ultrasound is of complete feasibility. This paper makes an overview on recent studies regarding applications of power ultrasound to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. The concerned adsorbents include desiccant materials (typically like silica gel) for air dehumidification and other ones (typically active carbon and polymeric resin) for water treatment. The applications of ultrasound in the regeneration of these adsorbents have been proved to be energy saving. The concerned foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. Although the ultrasonic treatment may cause food degradation or nutrient loss, it can greatly reduce the food processing time and decrease drying temperature. From the literature, it can be seen that the ultrasonic conditions (i.e., acoustic frequency and power levels) are always focused on during the study of ultrasonic applications. The increasing number of relevant studies argues that ultrasound is a very promising technology applied to the adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. PMID:26964979

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction as a preparation method for mass spectrometry of dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Atsuki; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Nishiumi, Shin; Suzuki, Makoto; Azuma, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2014-10-15

    The potential of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as a preparation method for mass spectrometry of dried blood spots (DBS) was examined. SFE is generally used for the extraction of hydrophobic compounds, but hydrophilic metabolites such as amino acids, amines, and nucleic-acid-related metabolites could be extracted by adding a low level of methanol as a modifier. Under the optimized conditions, over 200 metabolites were detected from a dried serum spot, of which over 160 metabolites could be analyzed stably (RSD <20%). These results show that SFE is an effective extraction method of metabolites with a wide range of polarity in DBS. PMID:25178194

  20. Heat and mass transfer analysis of convective drying of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the modelling and simulation of the dehydration of chickpea in a complex drying system process, using COMSOL Multiphysics Program. A model, based on mass and energy balances, was developed for the simulation of unsteady convective drying with air (3.0 m/s and 60 °C). The program predicted an 8 hours-dehydration time, with an effective moisture diffusivity of 3.1 *10- 10 which was experimentally obtained. The empirical model that best represented the process was the exponential one.

  1. Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganhou, J.

    This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model.

  2. Estimation of whole lemon mass transfer parameters during hot air drying using different modelling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    To design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments, accurate values of mass transfer parameters is of great importance. In this study, an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying whole lemons was carried out. The whole lemons were dried in a convective hot air dryer at different air temperatures (50, 60 and 75 °C) and a constant air velocity (1 m s-1). In theoretical consideration, three moisture transfer models including Dincer and Dost model, Bi- G correlation approach and conventional solution of Fick's second law of diffusion were used to determine moisture transfer parameters and predict dimensionless moisture content curves. The predicted results were then compared with the experimental data and the higher degree of prediction accuracy was achieved by the Dincer and Dost model.

  3. e-MALDI: An Electrowetting-Enhanced Drop Drying Method for MALDI Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kudina, Olena; Eral, Burak; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-05-01

    The performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is frequently compromised by the heterogeneous distribution of matrix and analyte deposits on the target plate arising during the conventional drop-drying sample preparation procedure. It was recently shown that this so-called coffee stain effect can be suppressed by exciting evaporating complex fluids throughout the drying process using AC-electrowetting. Here, we demonstrate that electrowetting-assisted drying of solutions of common MALDI matrix materials and a variety of common low molecular weight pharmaceutical molecules indeed leads to substantially smaller and more homogeneous sample spots on special electrowetting-functionalized e-MALDI target plates. The improved spot quality enables 2-30× enhanced MALDI-MS signals along with substantial reductions of the typical lateral variations of the MALDI-MS. The latter largely eliminates the time-consuming need to search for "sweet spots". PMID:27026060

  4. Living cell dry mass measurement using quantitative phase imaging with quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry: an accuracy and sensitivity discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Savatier, Julien; Bon, Pierre; Galland, Frédéric; Abdeladim, Lamiae; Wattellier, Benoit; Monneret, Serge

    2015-12-01

    Single-cell dry mass measurement is used in biology to follow cell cycle, to address effects of drugs, or to investigate cell metabolism. Quantitative phase imaging technique with quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) allows measuring cell dry mass. The technique is very simple to set up, as it is integrated in a camera-like instrument. It simply plugs onto a standard microscope and uses a white light illumination source. Its working principle is first explained, from image acquisition to automated segmentation algorithm and dry mass quantification. Metrology of the whole process, including its sensitivity, repeatability, reliability, sources of error, over different kinds of samples and under different experimental conditions, is developed. We show that there is no influence of magnification or spatial light coherence on dry mass measurement; effect of defocus is more critical but can be calibrated. As a consequence, QWLSI is a well-suited technique for fast, simple, and reliable cell dry mass study, especially for live cells.

  5. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Convective Drying of Building Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Ashwani; Chandramohan, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer is developed for convective drying of building material. A rectangular brick is considered for sample object. Finite-difference method with semi-implicit scheme is used for solving the transient governing heat and mass transfer equation. Convective boundary condition is used, as the product is exposed in hot air. The heat and mass transfer equations are coupled through diffusion coefficient which is assumed as the function of temperature of the product. Set of algebraic equations are generated through space and time discretization. The discretized algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Siedel method via iteration. Grid and time independent studies are performed for finding the optimum number of nodal points and time steps respectively. A MATLAB computer code is developed to solve the heat and mass transfer equations simultaneously. Transient heat and mass transfer simulations are performed to find the temperature and moisture distribution inside the brick.

  6. The effects of loaded carrier mass and formulation mass on aerosolization efficiency in dry powder inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Gill, Charlotte; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that particle-particle impaction may influence aerosolization properties in carrier-based dry powder inhalers, through transfer of kinetic energy from large carriers to surface-deposited active drug. The importance of particle-particle collision has yet to be compared against other mechanisms that could lead to drug liberation, such as particle-wall impaction and turbulence. In particular, particle-particle collisions are difficult to model in silico due to computational restrictions. This study investigated the effects of dry powder inhaler particle-particle collisions in vitro using an established carrier-drug model dry powder inhalation formulation. Spherical polystyrene beads of median size 82.80 μm were chosen as a model carrier as they were of uniform size, shape, surface area, density, porosity and hardness and thus eliminated potential variables that would have conflicted with the study. This model carrier was geometrically blended with micronized salbutamol sulphate (loaded blend). The correlation between the mass of loaded blend (5-40 mg) in the Rotahaler® DPI device and resulting fine particle fraction (FPF) was examined at a constant flow rate of 60 L.min(-1). In a second experiment, the mass of loaded blend was kept constant and a variable amount of blank carrier particles were added to the Rotahaler® device to ascertain if additional "blank" carrier particles affected the final FPF. The efficiency of aerosolization remained constant with varying amounts of blank carrier particles as determined by the fine particle fraction of the emitted dose (FPFED) and fine particle fraction of the loaded dose (FPFLD). No statistical difference in FPFED and FPFLD values were observed for increasing masses of blank carrier. In addition, no statistical difference in FPFED and FPFLD between the two experiments was obtained. These observations suggest that particle-particle collisions are not a driving mechanism responsible for

  7. Aeolian vertical mass flux profiles above a dry and moist sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotnicka, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The vertical distribution of aeolian mass flux was investigated in a natural beach environment. Field experiments conducted on the beach of the Łeba Barrier, southern Baltic coast, Poland, measured the sand transport rate and the vertical mass flux distribution above dry rippled sand and a moist flat sandy surface. The experiments were intended to show the changes in the vertical distribution of sand with changing wind speed. All the data represent maximum flux conditions achieved during alongshore winds. Sand transport was measured using 0.5 m-high vertically segmented sand traps, the wind speed and direction were monitored at 1 m elevation. The obtained dataset comprises 65 measurements on dry surfaces and 51 measurements on moist sandy surfaces. The sand transport rate above the moist surface was higher than above the dry surface, but higher velocities gave smaller differences between the surfaces. The saltation layer was thicker above the moist surface than above the dry surface. All the vertical sand flux profiles are best described by exponential decay functions. Analysis of the normalised flux profiles grouped by wind velocity shows that the fitted curves are less inclined for moist surfaces than dry surfaces.The regression coefficients depict a marked trend in which the intercept decreases and the slope increases with increasing wind speed; this indicates that more sand is transported at higher elevations above the bed and less at lower elevations. The proportion of total transport seems to be independent of wind speed at elevations of approximately 35 mm and 50 mm above the dry and moist surfaces, respectively. Differences between the measured- and exponential-fit values of mass flux are particularly distinct close to the bed, where the exponential fit either over- or under-predicts the measured values. Over-predictions occur in weaker winds, whereas under-predictions become more pronounced as the wind becomes stronger and when the layer in which the

  8. Lipidomic profiling of dried seahorses by hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Dai, Zhiyuan; Huang, Yao-Wen; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2016-08-15

    Dried seahorse is a precious raw food material for cooking soups. In this study, a lipidomics strategy using the techniques of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-QTOF/MS) was developed for extraction, visualization, and quantification of phospholipids in dried seahorses. The parameters of SPE were optimized, and 1 mL of sample and chloroform/methanol (1:2, v/v) were found to be the best loading volume and eluting solvent, respectively. Afterwards, each phospholipid class was successfully separated on a HILIC column and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 50 phospholipid molecular species were identified and determined, including 15 phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 14 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), 12 phosphatidylinositols (PIs) and 9 phosphatidylserines (PSs). In comparison to previously methods, this strategy was robust and efficient in extraction, characterization, and determination of phospholipids. The dried seahorse was found to contain large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acyl phospholipids which are beneficial to human health. PMID:27006218

  9. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  10. Emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies improving dried blood spot analysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ramisetti Nageswara

    2014-08-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS), a micro blood sampling technique, has recently gained interest in drug discovery and development due to its inherent advantages over the conventional whole blood, plasma or serum sample collection. Since the regulatory authorities have agreed to the use of blood as an acceptable biological matrix for drug exposure measurements, its applications have been extended not only to therapeutic drug monitoring but also to toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies. The pharmaceutical industry is keen to promote DBS as a prominent tool in bioanalytical applications due to the financial, ethical and organizational issues involved in clinical trials. This could be accomplished due to the latest advances in modern analytical technology, particularly liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present review discusses some of the emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies in improving DBS analysis for its innovative applications in the development of new drugs. PMID:24697571

  11. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  12. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  13. Effect of biological treatment of the ceramic mass on the drying and firing of facing tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, V.V.; Sidorova, V.A.; Skripnik, V.P.; Solnyshkina, T.N.; Vainberg, S.N.; Vlasov, A.S.; Yashchenko, O.I.

    1985-12-01

    The authors studied the ceramic masses of the Minsk Building Materials Production complex (MZSM) and the Kishinev FinishingMaterials Plant (KZOM) having the following compositions: MZSM--48% Vesejovsk VGP clay, 22% nepheline concentrate, 17% quartz sand, 8% dolomite, 5% title scrap, and above 100% 3% bentonite, 0.1% soda ash, and 0.28% liquid glass; KZOM-48% Veselovsk VGP clay, 28% nepheline-syenite, 8% limestone filings (scrap), 16% title scrap, and, above 100%, 1% bentonite and 3% sodium tripolyphosphate. Improving the quality of ceramic tiles and reducing the mineral and fuel-energy consumption in their production are among the practical industrial problems. This paper discusses a method of solving them by improving the drying and firing processes of the products.

  14. Dried blood spots analysis with mass spectrometry: Potentials and pitfalls in therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Marina Venzon; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Linden, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) relays in the availability of specialized laboratory assays, usually available in reference centers that are not accessible to all patients. In this context, there is a growing interest in the use of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling, usually obtained from finger pricks, which allows simple and cost-effective logistics in many settings, particularly in Developing Countries. The use of DBS assays to estimate plasma concentrations is highly dependent on the hematocrit of the blood, as well as the particular characteristics of the measured analyte. DBS assays require specific validation assays, most of them are related to hematocrit effects. In the present manuscript, the application of mass spectrometric assays for determination of drugs for TDM purposes in the last ten years is reviewed, as well as the particular validation assays for new DBS methods. PMID:27179588

  15. Influence of power ultrasound application on mass transport and microstructure of orange peel during hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, Carmen; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Puig, Ana; Riera, Enrique; Garcia-Perez, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    Power ultrasound application on convective drying of foodstuffs may be considered an emergent technology. This work deals with the influence of power ultrasound on drying of natural materials addressing the kinetic as well as the product's microstructure. Convective drying kinetics of orange peel slabs (thickness 5.95±0.41 mm) were carried out at 40 ∘C and 1 m/s with (US) and without (AIR) power ultrasound application. A diffusion model considering external resistance to mass transfer was considered to describe drying kinetics. Fresh, US and AIR dried samples were analyzed using Cryo-SEM. Results showed that drying kinetics of orange peel were significantly improved by the application of power ultrasound. From modeling, it was observed a significant (p¡0.05) increase in both mass transfer coefficient and effective moisture diffusivity. The effects on mass transfer properties were confirmed from microestructural observations. In the cuticle surface, the pores were obstructed by wax components scattering, which evidence the ultrasonic effects on the interfaces. The cells of the flavedo were compressed and large intercellular air spaces were generated in the albedo facilitating water transfer through it.

  16. Dietary dried plum increases bone mass, suppresses proinflammatory cytokines and promotes attainment of peak bone mass in male mice.

    PubMed

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Wronski, Thomas J; Li, Min; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Nissenson, Robert A; Halloran, Bernard P

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health and attainment of peak bone mass. Diets containing dried plum (DP) have been shown to increase bone volume and strength. These effects may be linked to the immune system and DP-specific polyphenols. To better understand these relationships, we studied DP in skeletally mature (6-month-old) and growing (1- and 2-month-old) C57Bl/6 male mice. In adult mice, DP rapidly (<2 weeks) increased bone volume (+32%) and trabecular thickness (+24%). These changes were associated with decreased osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS) and decreased serum CTX, a marker of bone resorption. The reduction in Oc.S/BS was associated with a reduction in the osteoclast precursor pool. Osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) and bone formation rate were also decreased suggesting that the gain in bone in adult mice is a consequence of diminished bone resorption and formation, but resorption is reduced more than formation. The effects of DP on bone were accompanied by a decline in interleukins, TNF and MCP-1, suggesting that DP is acting in part through the immune system to suppress inflammatory activity and reduce the size of the osteoclast precursor pool. Feeding DP was accompanied by an increase in plasma phenolics, some of which have been shown to stimulate bone accrual. In growing and young adult mice DP at levels as low as 5% of diet (w/w) increased bone volume. At higher levels (DP 25%), bone volume was increased by as much as 94%. These data demonstrate that DP feeding dramatically increases peak bone mass during growth. PMID:27239754

  17. Sulfatide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy in Dried Blood and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Spacil, Zdenek; Kumar, Arun Babu; Liao, Hsuan-Chieh; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Stark, Samantha; Suhr, Teryn R.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study. PMID:26585924

  18. Dried Blood Spot Proteomics: Surface Extraction of Endogenous Proteins Coupled with Automated Sample Preparation and Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spots offer many advantages as a sample format including ease and safety of transport and handling. To date, the majority of mass spectrometry analyses of dried blood spots have focused on small molecules or hemoglobin. However, dried blood spots are a potentially rich source of protein biomarkers, an area that has been overlooked. To address this issue, we have applied an untargeted bottom-up proteomics approach to the analysis of dried blood spots. We present an automated and integrated method for extraction of endogenous proteins from the surface of dried blood spots and sample preparation via trypsin digestion by use of the Advion Biosciences Triversa Nanomate robotic platform. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the resulting digests enabled identification of 120 proteins from a single dried blood spot. The proteins identified cross a concentration range of four orders of magnitude. The method is evaluated and the results discussed in terms of the proteins identified and their potential use as biomarkers in screening programs.

  19. Analysis of methylcitrate in dried blood spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; McIntosh, Nathan; McRoberts, Christine; Fisher, Larry; Rashed, Mohamed S; Makhseed, Nawal; Geraghty, Michael T; Santa, Tomofumi; Chakraborty, Pranesh

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of propionylcarnitine (C3) in neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) is indicative of inborn errors of propionate metabolism including propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic aciduria (MMA), and cobalamin (Cbl) metabolic defects. Concentrations of C3 in affected newborns overlap with healthy individuals rendering this marker neither specific nor sensitive. While a conservative C3 cutoff together with relevant acylcarnitines ratios improve screening sensitivity, existing mass spectrometric methods in newborn screening laboratories are inadequate at improving testing specificity. Therefore, using the original screening DBS, we sought to measure 2-methylcitric acid (MCA), a pathognomonic hallmark of C3 disorders to decrease the false positive rate and improve the positive predictive value of C3 disorders. MCA was derivatized with 4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethylaminosulfonyl]-7-(2-aminoethylamino)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DAABD-AE). No separate extraction step was required and derivatization was performed directly using a 3.2-mm disc of DBS as a sample (65°C for 45 min). The reaction mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. MCA was well separated and eluted at 2.3 min with a total run time of 7 min. The median and (range) of MCA of 0.06 μmol/L (0-0.63) were in excellent agreement with the literature. The method was applied retrospectively on DBS samples from established patients with PA, MMA, Cbl C, Cbl F, maternal vitamin B12 deficiency (n = 20) and controls (n = 337). Comparison with results obtained by another method was satisfactory (n = 252). This method will be applied as a second tier test for samples which trigger positive PA or MMA results by the primary newborn screening method. PMID:24997714

  20. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency. PMID:26609436

  1. A dried blood spot mass spectrometry metabolomic approach for rapid breast cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingjun; Sun, Tao; Cao, Yunfeng; Gao, Peng; Dong, Jun; Fang, Yanhua; Fang, Zhongze; Sun, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Zhitu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer (BC) is still a lethal threat to women worldwide. An accurate screening and diagnosis strategy performed in an easy-to-operate manner is highly warranted in clinical perspective. Besides the routinely focused protein markers, blood is full of small molecular metabolites with diverse structures and properties. This study aimed to screen metabolite markers with BC diagnosis potentials. Methods A dried blood spot-based direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic analysis was conducted for BC and non-BC differentiation. The targeted analytes included 23 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines. Results Multivariate analysis screened out 21 BC-related metabolites in the blood. Regression analysis generated a diagnosis model consisting of parameters Pip, Asn, Pro, C14:1/C16, Phe/Tyr, and Gly/Ala. Tested with another set of BC and non-BC samples, this model showed a sensitivity of 92.2% and a specificity of 84.4%. Compared to the routinely used protein markers, this model exhibited distinct advantage with its higher sensitivity. Conclusion Blood metabolites screening is a more plausible approach for BC detection. Furthermore, this direct MS analysis could be finished within few minutes, which means that its throughput is higher than the currently used imaging techniques. PMID:27042107

  2. Direct Tandem Mass Spectrometric Profiling of Sulfatides in Dry Urinary Samples for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kuchař, Ladislav; Asfaw, Befekadu; Poupětová, Helena; Honzíková, Jitka; Tureček, František; Ledvinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Background Prediagnostic steps in suspected metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) rely onclinical chemical methods other than enzyme assays. We report a new diagnostic method which evaluates changes in the spectrum of molecular types of sulfatides (3-O-sulfogalactosyl ceramides) in MLD urine. Methods The procedure allows isolation of urinary sulfatides by solid-phase extraction on DEAE-cellulose membranes, transportation of a dry membrane followed by elution and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis in the clinical laboratory. Major sulfatide isoforms are normalized to the least variable component of the spectrum, which is the indigenous C18:0 isoform. This procedure does not require the use of specific internal standards and minimizes errors caused by sample preparation and measurement. Results Urinary sulfatides were analyzed in a set of 21 samples from patients affected by sulfatidosis. The combined abundance of the five most elevated isoforms, C22:0, C22:0-OH, C24:0, C24:1-OH, and C24:0-OH sulfatides, was found to give the greatest distinction between MLD-affected patients and a control group. Conclusions The method avoids transportation of liquid urine samples and generates stable membrane-bound sulfatide samples that can be stored at ambient temperature. MS/MS sulfatide profiling targeted on the most MLD-representative isoforms is simple with robust results and is suitable for screening. PMID:23838369

  3. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency. PMID:26609436

  4. Protein identification from dried nipple aspirate fluid on Guthrie cards using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Delmonico, Lucas; Areias, Vivian Rabello; Pinto, Rodrigo César; Matos, Cintia Da Silva; Rosa, Marco Felipe Franco; De Azevedo, Carolina Maria; Alves, Gilda

    2015-07-01

    Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) requires investigation as a potential source of biomarkers for early diagnosis or risk assessment in breast cancer and other breast disorders. The present study demonstrated that proteins were easily extracted from dried NAF spots on Guthrie cards and were suitable for mass spectrometry analysis. NAF was obtained from 80 women, collected on Guthrie cards, between 2007 and 2010. The NAF-proteins were extracted from the card by incubating the card in water. These proteins were then quantified and separated using one-dimensional, 12% SDS-PAGE, gel electrophoresis and on high-resolution gradient gels at different concentrations (4-12, 8-16 and 4-20%). The bands with the most abundant proteins were excised from the gradient gels and the proteins were identified by liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight. Immunoglobulins, Zn-α2-glicoprotein, apoliprotein D and prolactin inducible protein were among those identified. The NAF-Guthrie card collection method has not been applied previously, however, NAF proteins have been identified using other collecting techniques, confirming the feasibility of the NAF Guthrie card collection method for analyzing the proteins within NAF. The NAF-Guthrie card collecting method has multiple advantages, including being inexpensive, non-invasive, reliable and painless, and the cards can be stored at room temperature. Examining NAF may assist in identifying individuals at a higher risk of breast cancer and in improving patient prognosis. PMID:25760982

  5. Heat and mass transfer models to understand the drying mechanisms of a porous substrate.

    PubMed

    Songok, Joel; Bousfield, Douglas W; Gane, Patrick A C; Toivakka, Martti

    2016-02-01

    While drying of paper and paper coatings is expensive, with significant energy requirements, the rate controlling mechanisms are not currently fully understood. Two two-dimensional models are used as a first approximation to predict the heat transfer during hot air drying and to evaluate the role of various parameters on the drying rates of porous coatings. The models help determine the structural limiting factors during the drying process, while applying for the first time the recently known values of coating thermal diffusivity. The results indicate that the thermal conductivity of the coating structure is not the controlling factor, but the drying rate is rather determined by the thermal transfer process at the structure surface. This underlines the need for ensuring an efficient thermal transfer from hot air to coating surface during drying, before considering further measures to increase the thermal conductivity of porous coatings. PMID:26920528

  6. Analysis of heat and mass transfer within a sheet of papermaking fibers during drying

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.F.; Hinds, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Drying is an energy and capital intensive process in the production of paper. In many cases drying rate is limited primarily by the transport of heat and moisture within the paper. The internal transport processes occur simultaneously and are interactive. The processes were modeled mathematically and solved for a variety of drying conditions provided that a consistent and accurate set of transport coefficients are available. 11 refs.

  7. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze drying: II. Control and characterization of the degree of supercooling.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, Shailaja; Ramot, Roee; Bhugra, Chandan; Pikal, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of the ice nucleation temperature on the primary drying process using an ice fog technique for temperature-controlled nucleation. In order to facilitate scale up of the freeze-drying process, this research seeks to find a correlation of the product resistance and the degree of supercooling with the specific surface area of the product. Freeze-drying experiments were performed using 5% wt/vol solutions of sucrose, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch (HES), and mannitol. Temperature-controlled nucleation was achieved using the ice fog technique where cold nitrogen gas was introduced into the chamber to form an "ice fog," thereby facilitating nucleation of samples at the temperature of interest. Manometric temperature measurement (MTM) was used during primary drying to evaluate the product resistance as a function of cake thickness. Specific surface areas (SSA) of the freeze-dried cakes were determined. The ice fog technique was refined to successfully control the ice nucleation temperature of solutions within 1 degrees C. A significant increase in product resistance was produced by a decrease in nucleation temperature. The SSA was found to increase with decreasing nucleation temperature, and the product resistance increased with increasing SSA. The ice fog technique can be refined into a viable method for nucleation temperature control. The SSA of the product correlates well with the degree of supercooling and with the resistance of the product to mass transfer (ie, flow of water vapor through the dry layer). Using this correlation and SSA measurements, one could predict scale-up drying differences and accordingly alter the freeze-drying process so as to bring about equivalence of product temperature history during lyophilization. PMID:15760055

  8. Multiplexed Quantitation of Endogenous Proteins in Dried Blood Spots by Multiple Reaction Monitoring - Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Yang, Juncong; Camenzind, Alexander G.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling, coupled with multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS), is a well-established approach for quantifying a wide range of small molecule biomarkers and drugs. This sampling procedure is simpler and less-invasive than those required for traditional plasma or serum samples enabling collection by minimally trained personnel. Many analytes are stable in the DBS format without refrigeration, which reduces the cost and logistical challenges of sample collection in remote locations. These advantages make DBS sample collection desirable for advancing personalized medicine through population-wide biomarker screening. Here we expand this technology by demonstrating the first multiplexed method for the quantitation of endogenous proteins in DBS samples. A panel of 60 abundant proteins in human blood was targeted by monitoring proteotypic tryptic peptides and their stable isotope-labeled analogs by MRM. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 40 of the 65 peptide targets demonstrating multiple proteins can be quantitatively extracted from DBS collection cards. The method was also highly reproducible with a coefficient of variation of <15% for all 40 peptides. Overall, this assay quantified 37 proteins spanning a range of more than four orders of magnitude in concentration within a single 25 min LC/MRM-MS analysis. The protein abundances of the 33 proteins quantified in matching DBS and whole blood samples showed an excellent correlation, with a slope of 0.96 and an R2 value of 0.97. Furthermore, the measured concentrations for 80% of the proteins were stable for at least 10 days when stored at −20 °C, 4 °C and 37 °C. This work represents an important first step in evaluating the integration of DBS sampling with highly-multiplexed MRM for quantitation of endogenous proteins. PMID:23221968

  9. Simultaneous determination of cocaine and opiates in dried blood spots by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Antelo-Domínguez, Ángel; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    A sample pre-treatment method based on blood spot collection filter cards was optimized as a means of using small volume samples for the screening and confirmation of cocaine and opiates abuse. Dried blood spots (DBSs) were prepared by dispersing 20 µL of whole blood specimens previously mixed with the internal standards (deuterated analogs of each target), and subjecting the whole DBS to extraction with 5 mL of methanol under orbital-horizontal shaking (180 rpm) for 10 min. Determinations were based on direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) by injecting the re-dissolved methanol extract with the delivery solution (acetonitrile-water-formic acid, 80:19.875:0.125) at a flow rate of 60 µL min(-1), and using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the m/z (precursor ion)→m/z (product ion) transitions for acquisition. Matrix effect has been found to be statistically significant (Multiple Range Test) when assessing cocaine, BZE, codeine and morphine, and the use of the standard addition method (dispersion of whole blood previously mixed with standards onto the filter papers) was needed for accurate determinations. The developed DBS-ESI-MS/MS procedure offered good intra-day and inter-day precisions (lower than 10% and 12%, respectively), as well as good intra-day and inter-day accuracies (inter-day absolute recoveries, expressed as the mean analytical recovery over three target concentration levels, of 103%, 100%, 101%, 98% and 100% for cocaine, BZE, codeine, morphine and 6-MAM, respectively). The high sensitivity inherent to MS/MS determinations combined with the minimal dilution of sample allowed low limits of quantification for all targets, and the developed method results therefore adequate for cocaine and opiates screening and confirmation purposes. The procedure was finally applied to DBSs prepared from whole blood from polydrug abusers, and results were compared with those obtained after a conventional sample pretreatment

  10. Identification and quantification of the phosphorylated ovalbumin by high resolution mass spectrometry under dry-heating treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Tu, Zong-Cai; Liu, Guang-Xian; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    The specific phosphorylation sites and degree of phosphorylation (DP) at each site are directly related to protein's structure and functional properties. Thus, characterizing the introduced phosphate groups is of great importance. This study was to monitor the phosphorylation sites, DP and the number of phosphorylation sites in P-Oval achieved by dry heating in the presence of pyrophosphate for 1, 2 and 5days by using Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Two phosphorylation sites were found in natural ovalbumin, but the number of phosphorylation sites increased to 8, 8 and 10 after dry-heating phosphorylation for 1, 2 and 5days, respectively. In addition, dual-phosphorylated peptides were detected for samples without extensive heating. The phosphorylation sites were found to be mainly on Ser residues, which could be the preferred phosphorylation site for dry heating in the presence of pyrophosphate. PMID:27211632

  11. Development strategies for herbal products reducing the influence of natural variance in dry mass on tableting properties and tablet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    One "Quality by Design" approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

  12. Dry Deposition of Fine Aerosol Nitrogen to an Agricultural Field Measured by Eddy-Correlation Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, D. A.; Allen, J. O.

    2005-12-01

    In urban areas high emissions of reactive nitrogen species cause an increase in atmospheric aerosol nitrogen formation and deposition. This nitrogen is eventually removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition, with dry deposition often accounting for more than half of the total deposition of particulate nitrate. Total N deposition is not adequately characterized, in part because dry deposition is difficult to measure or model. For example measured fine particle deposition to a forest canopy differs from predicted values by an order of magnitude. The eddy-correlation technique is a micrometeorological method used to directly measure fluxes from measurements made above the surface. Eddy-correlation mass spectrometry (ECMS) has been developed to directly measure aerosol particle deposition velocities from fast response aerosol concentration and wind velocity measurements. Using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), the size and composition of ambient aerosols were measured at 10~Hz. The AMS signal is proportional to non-refractory PM1.0 mass. Aerosol deposition fluxes for a given averaging period are then calculated directly as the covariance of the vertical wind velocity with the AMS signal (F = -\\overline{w'S'}). A field study was conducted to measure aerosol nitrogen dry deposition to an agricultural field immediately downwind of the Phoenix metropolitan area using eddy-correlation mass spectrometry. The study was supplemented with aerosol composition measurements including bulk deposition collectors and filter bank samplers. Here we compare the results of the flux estimates from bulk collection with inferential measurements (filter samples and modeled deposition velocities) and direct micrometeorological measurements (ECMS) in order to improve nitrogen deposition estimates.

  13. Dry Deposition of Fine Aerosol Nitrogen to an Agricultural Field Measured by Eddy-Correlation Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, D. A.; Allen, J. O.; Smith, K. A.; Hope, D.

    2004-12-01

    In urban areas high emissions of reactive nitrogen species cause an increase in atmospheric aerosol nitrogen formation and deposition. This nitrogen is eventually removed from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition, with dry deposition often accounting for more than half of the total deposition of particulate nitrate (Lovett, 1994). Total N deposition is not adequately characterized, in part because dry deposition is difficult to measure or model. For example measured fine particle deposition to a forest canopy differs from predicted values by an order of magnitude (Gallagher et al., 1997). The eddy-correlation technique is a micrometeorological method used to directly measure fluxes from measurements made above the surface (Wesely and Hicks, 2000). Eddy-correlation mass spectrometry (ECMS) has been developed to directly measure aerosol particle deposition velocities from fast response aerosol concentration and wind velocity measurements. Using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) (Jayne et al., 2000), the size and composition of ambient aerosols is measured at a high frequency. The AMS signal is proportional to non-refractory PM1.0 mass. Aerosol deposition fluxes for a given averaging period are then calculated directly as the covariance of the vertical wind velocity with the AMS signal (F = -/line{w'S'}). A field study was conducted to measure aerosol nitrogen dry deposition to an agricultural field immediately downwind of the Phoenix metropolitan area using eddy-correlation mass spectrometry. The study was supplemented with aerosol composition measurements including bulk deposition collectors and filter bank samplers. Bulk deposition samples and 24-hour filter samples were analyzed for ammonia and nitrogen. Here we compare the results of the flux estimates from bulk collection with inferential measurements (filter samples and modeled deposition velocities) and direct micrometeorological measurements (ECMS) in order to improve N deposition estimates.

  14. Grain Sterility in relation to Dry Mass Production and Distribution in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Puteh, Adam B.; Mondal, M. Monjurul Alam; Ismail, Mohd. Razi; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate potential causes of grain sterility in widely cultivated rice variety in Malaysia, MR219 and its two mutant lines (RM311 and RM109) by examining the source-sink relations. RM311 produced increased dry matter yield both at heading and maturity and also showed higher grain yield with greater proportion of grain sterility than the other two genotypes (RM109 and MR219) resulting in the lowest harvest index (49.68%). In contrast, harvest index was greater in RM109 (53.34%) and MR219 (52.76%) with less grain sterility percentage than MR311 indicating that dry matter partitioning to economic yield was better in RM109 and MR219 than in MR311. Results indicated that dry matter allocation per spikelet from heading to maturity was important for reducing grain sterility in rice. The greater above-ground crop dry matter per spikelet was observed in RM109 and MR219 as compared to high dry matter producing genotype; RM311 implies that poor grain filling may not have resulted from dry matter production or source limitation. These findings suggest that grain sterility or poor grain filling in rice is the result of poor translocation and partitioning of assimilates into grains (sink) rather than of limited biomass production or source limitation. PMID:24895563

  15. Liquid extraction surface analysis field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry for the analysis of dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Rian L; Dexter, Alex; Creese, Andrew J; Cooper, Helen J

    2015-10-21

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) is a surface sampling technique that allows electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of a wide range of analytes directly from biological substrates. Here, we present LESA mass spectrometry coupled with high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) for the analysis of dried blood spots on filter paper. Incorporation of FAIMS in the workflow enables gas-phase separation of lipid and protein molecular classes, enabling analysis of both haemoglobin and a range of lipids (phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin species) from a single extraction sample. The work has implications for multiplexed clinical assays of multiple analytes. PMID:26198596

  16. Development Strategies for Herbal Products Reducing the Influence of Natural Variance in Dry Mass on Tableting Properties and Tablet Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    One “Quality by Design” approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

  17. Regular Thermal Regime and Influence of Heat and Mass Transfer Similarity Criteria on the Process of Convective Drying of Porous Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol‧shanskii, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of investigations of the drying kinetics of porous ceramics on the basis of the regular regime theory are presented. The influence of the main heat and mass transfer criteria on the drying process of porous ceramics has been considered. The main thermophysical characteristics of porous ceramics have been determined.

  18. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Tang, Camilla; Eriksson, Eva; Jönsson, Karin; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening. PMID:24830785

  19. Freeze-drying of mannitol-trehalose-sodium chloride-based formulations: the impact of annealing on dry layer resistance to mass transfer and cake structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Pikal, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the mechanism by which annealing increases the primary drying time in mannitol-trehalose-sodium chloride-based formulations. The thermal events occurring during annealing and the glass transition of the frozen solutions were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Manometric temperature measurement was used to evaluate the dry layer resistances during primary drying. The morphologies of the freeze-dried cakes were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The degrees of crystallinity of mannitol and sodium chloride (NaCl) in freeze-dried cakes were determined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC results indicated that annealing during freezing did not increase the glass transition temperature (Tg') significantly, but there was a distinct decrease of deltaCp at Tg' with annealing, suggesting a decrease in amorphous content. SEM revealed that most mannitol crystallized as the delta-form during annealing at -23 degrees C, and further crystallized as the alpha-form, together with NaCl crystallization, during subsequent annealing at -33 degrees C. The powder XRD results demonstrated that annealing caused crystal growth of mannitol and NaCl, and thus prevented the partial collapse observed without annealing. However, the highly crystallized mannitol blocked the pathways for water vapor escape, contributing to the increase in the dry layer resistance and thus the longer times for primary drying. Freeze-dried cakes without annealing had lower dry layer resistances because partial collapse created larger channels for water vapor escape. Therefore, two-step annealing in freezing makes mannitol-trehalose-sodium chloride-based formulations robust in freeze-drying, but annealing increases the dry layer resistances, thereby extending primary drying. PMID:15000469

  20. Application and limitations of a mass transfer VOC emission model for a dry building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, S.; Lungu, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from building materials into air has been quantified, characterized and modeled. Internal diffusion of VOC through a material based on Fick's law of diffusion is the basis for mass transfer modeling of diffusive emission used to estimate VOC concentrations in air over time. Current mass transfer models have been shown to appropriately estimate air VOC concentrations at approximate room temperature, while other research has shown that temperature has a profound effect on the diffusion coefficient, D, of VOC in a material. Here, a mass transfer model is operated at 23 °C and 40 °C using input parameters applicable for each temperature. The model estimates are validated against environmental test chamber data for styrene emission from a vinyl ester resin thermoset composite material. The model correlates well with the 23 °C chamber data, but underestimates chamber data by as much as 10-4 at 264 h for the 40 °C modeling. This suggests that the model requires adjustment for predicting VOC air concentrations at temperatures other than 23 °C.

  1. Multiple artificial geothermal cracks in a hot dry rock mass for extraction of heat

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, Y.; Abe, H.; Sekine, H.; Takahashi, Y.

    1985-06-01

    Theoretical analysis is made for multiple geothermal cracks. A periodic array of two-dimensional cracks is considered as a model of the multiple geothermal cracks, and is analyzed on the basis of the two-dimensional theory of quasi-static thermoelasticity. The singular integral equations are derived from the boundary conditions, and they are solved by applying the combination of inversion formula and collocation method. Numerical results for the fluid temperature at an outlet, the rock mass temperature, the shape of the geothermal cracks and the stress distribution around the geothermal cracks are shown in graphs.

  2. The propagation and deposition process of a finite dry granular mass down a rough incline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geng Lin; Yang, Fu-Ling

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a theoretical analysis on the propagation and arresting process of a 2 D finite granular mass in shallow configuration down a rough incline. The coherence-length constitutive model proposed by Ertas and Halsey (2002) is used to solve the bulk motion and local coherence length scale, l (x , t) , that characterizes internal granular clusters. Flow depth profile, h (x , t) , governed by an advection-diffusion equation is solved by the matched asymptotic method under shallowness and used to determine a flow front trajectory, xf (t) . The solutions reveal l (x , t) < h (x , t) in the front indicating the clusters can move freely and transport momentum flux in a flowing bulk. The trend of l (x , t) shows monotonic growing and becomes comparable to h (x , t) upstream, indicating clusters transmit basal decelerating impulse to decelerate the flow, giving rise to rear deposit. The critical location where l (x , t) = h (x , t) is solved to the leading order to determine a deposition front trajectory, xd (t) . Under the constraint of conserved total mass, finite run-out distance, Ld, and arrested time, Td, are estimated and used to construct a modified front propagation model, xfm (t) , which compares well to the experimental data reported in Pouliquen and Forterre (2002).

  3. A novel method for quantification of human hemoglobin from dried blood spots by use of tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chaowen; Zhang, Juan; Yuan, Zhaojian; Liu, Hao; Wang, Xingbin; Wang, Ming; Zou, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of human hemoglobin (Hb) is essential for diagnosis of anemia, especially for screening for thalassemia and sickle cell disease. The main methods currently used for quantification of Hb, including spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and electrochemical assays, are all based on the structural integrity of Hb, which could be affected by hemolysis and degradation. When used for disease screening, whole blood specimens cannot meet requirements for sample collecting, transport, and storage. Here, we report a novel MS-MS method for quantification of Hb from dried blood spots (DBS) by use of a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Proteospecific peptides from α-globin chains were selected after tryptic digestion. The precursor → product ion transitions of representative peptides were studied to identify the best choice with regard to sensitivity and chromatographic properties. For quantification, stable isotope-labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The concentration of Hb in each sample was obtained by calculation on the basis of established equations. The precision of the method was within 15 % and accuracy was in the range -7 to 13.0 %. Compared with routine clinical results obtained by use of the automated hematology analyzer (AHA) assay, the correlation, r (2), was >0.993. When used for determination of anemia levels the sensitivity of the assay was 95.7 % and specificity 96.5 %. Our new approach for quantification of the concentration of Hb from DBS is feasible, and precision is acceptable. The method could be used for determination of anemia levels when screening for hemoglobin disorders. Graphical Abstract Quantification of human hemoglobin from digested dried blood spot samples using tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:26345440

  4. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats. PMID:17354417

  5. Analysing drying unit performance in a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing line by means of mass--energy balances.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2014-04-01

    The current trend in the pharmaceutical industry to move from batch-wise to continuous production processes strengthens the need for monitoring and controlling the process in-line. The ConsiGma™ continuous tableting line collects data of the different subunits in real-time, but these are not really used. In this paper the data of the six-segmented fluidized bed dryer in the line are used for the development and evaluation of a mass and energy balance. The objectives are multiple: (1) prediction of the moisture content of the granules leaving the dryer solely based on the currently logged data and (2) prediction of the gas outlet temperature to check the mass balances. Once a validated system is established the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the drying unit can be predicted. Calculations are also used to identify errors in the system and to propose alternative sensor locations. A calibration is performed in order to predict the evaporation rate. The balances were able to predict both the moisture content of the granules at the end of the drying process and the gas outlet temperature quite accurately. Combining the gathered information with the height of the bed in the fluidized bed can be used to predict the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the dryer. An extra sensor measuring the gas temperature and the humidity at the wet transfer line would increase the accuracy of the calculations. An extra gas velocity sensor at the outlet would be useful to incorporate an extra supervision of the calculations. PMID:24380678

  6. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, E A; Tiffany, J M; Yokoi, N; Bron, A J

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  7. Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, J.

    1999-02-12

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

  8. Determination of Synacthen(®) in dried blood spots for doping control analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling, a technique used for taking whole blood samples dried on a filter paper, was initially reported in 1963 by Robert Guthrie. While the diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in newborns was the focus of investigations at that time, the number of established applications for preclinical drug development, toxicological studies, and therapeutic drug monitoring increased enormously in the last decades. As a consequence of speed, simplicity, and minimal invasiveness, DBS recommends itself as the preferential technique in sports drug testing. The present approach highlights for the first time the development of a screening assay for the analysis of the synthetic human adrenocorticotropic hormone tetracosactide hexaacetate (Synacthen(®)) in DBS using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highly purified sample extracts were obtained by an advanced sample preparation procedure including the addition of an internal standard (d8-tetracosactide) and immunoaffinity purification. The method's overall recovery was 27.6 %, and the assay's imprecision was calculated between 8.1 and 17.9 % for intraday and 12.9 to 20.5 % for interday measurements. Stability of the synthetic peptide in DBS was shown for at least 10 days at room temperature and presents a major benefit, since a rapid degradation in conventionally applied matrices such as urine or plasma is well known. With a limit of detection of 50 pg/mL, a detection window of several hours is expected considering reported steady-state plasma levels of 300 pg/mL after intramuscular application of Synacthen(®) Depot (1 mg). The analysis of authentic DBS samples within the scope of an administration study with 250 μg Synacthen(®) (short stimulation test) demonstrated the great potential of the developed assay to simplify the analysis of Synacthen(®) for doping control purposes. PMID:25863802

  9. Direct multiplex assay of enzymes in dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry for the newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Michael H; Turecek, Frantisek; Scott, C Ron; Chamoles, Nestor A

    2006-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry is currently used in newborn screening programmes to quantify the level of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots for detection of metabolites associated with treatable diseases. We have developed assays for lysosomal enzymes in rehydrated dried blood spots in which a set of substrates is added and the set of corresponding enzymatic products are quantified using tandem mass spectrometry with the aid of mass-differentiated internal standards. We have developed a multiplex assay of the set of enzymes that, when deficient, cause the lysosomal storage disorders Fabry, Gaucher, Hurler, Krabbe, Niemann-Pick A/B and Pompe diseases. These diseases were selected because treatments are now available or expected to emerge shortly. The discovery that acarbose is a selective inhibitor of maltase glucoamylase allows the Pompe disease enzyme, acid alpha-glucosidase, to be selectively assayed in white blood cells and dried blood spots. When tested with dried blood spots from 40 unaffected individuals and 10-12 individuals with the lysosomal storage disorder, the tandem mass spectrometry assay led to the correct identification of the affected individuals with 100% sensitivity. Many of the reagents needed for the new assays are commercially available, and those that are not are being prepared under Good Manufacturing Procedures for approval by the FDA. Our newborn screening assay for Krabbe disease is currently being put in place at the Wadsworth Center in New York State for the analysis of approximately 1000 dried blood spots per day. Summary We have developed tandem mass spectrometry for the direct assay of lysosomal enzymes in rehydrated dried blood spots that can be implemented for newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. Several enzymes can be analysed by a single method (multiplex analysis) and in a high-throughput manner appropriate for newborn screening laboratories. PMID:16763908

  10. Heat and mass transfer scale-up issues during freeze-drying, III: control and characterization of dryer differences via operational qualification tests.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, S; Tchessalov, S; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate differences in heat and mass transfer between freeze dryers due to inherent design characteristics using data obtained from sublimation tests. This study also aimed to provide guidelines for convenient scale-up of the freeze-drying process. Data obtained from sublimation tests performed on laboratory-scale, pilot, and production freeze dryers were used to evaluate various heat and mass transfer parameters: nonuniformity in shelf surface temperatures, resistance of pipe, refrigeration system, and condenser. Emissivity measurements of relevant surfaces such as the chamber wall and the freeze dryer door were taken to evaluate the impact of atypical radiation heat transfer during scale-up. "Hot" and "cold" spots were identified on the shelf surface of different freeze dryers, and the impact of variation in shelf surface temperatures on the primary drying time and the product temperature during primary drying was studied. Calculations performed using emissivity measurements on different freeze dryers suggest that a front vial in the laboratory lyophilizer received 1.8 times more heat than a front vial in a manufacturing freeze dryer operating at a shelf temperature of -25 degrees C and a chamber pressure of 150 mTorr during primary drying. Therefore, front vials in the laboratory are much more atypical than front vials in manufacturing. Steady-state heat and mass transfer equations were used to study a combination of different scale-up issues pertinent during lyophilization cycles commonly used for the freeze-drying of pharmaceuticals. PMID:16796357

  11. Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement (MTM), a process analytical technology tool in freeze drying, part III: heat and mass transfer measurement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates the procedures for determining the vial heat transfer coefficient and the extent of primary drying through manometric temperature measurement (MTM). The vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) were calculated from the MTM-determined temperature and resistance and compared with Kv values determined by a gravimetric method. The differences between the MTM vial heat transfer coefficients and the gravimetric values are large at low shelf temperature but smaller when higher shelf temperatures were used. The differences also became smaller at higher chamber pressure and smaller when higher resistance materials were being freeze-dried. In all cases, using thermal shields greatly improved the accuracy of the MTM Kv measurement. With use of thermal shields, the thickness of the frozen layer calculated from MTM is in good agreement with values obtained gravimetrically. The heat transfer coefficient "error" is largely a direct result of the error in the dry layer resistance (ie, MTM-determined resistance is too low). This problem can be minimized if thermal shields are used for freeze-drying. With suitable use of thermal shields, accurate Kv values are obtained by MTM; thus allowing accurate calculations of heat and mass flow rates. The extent of primary drying can be monitored by real-time calculation of the amount of remaining ice using MTM data, thus providing a process analytical tool that greatly improves the freeze-drying process design and control. PMID:17285746

  12. An improved high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in freeze-dried and hot-air-dried Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Chen, Bing Huei

    2011-10-30

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antioxidant and anti-cancer activities, has been reported to contain functional components like carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and amount of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in hot-air-dried and freeze-dried R. nasutus. An Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column and a gradient mobile phase composed of methanol/N,N-dimethylformamide (97:3, v/v), acetonitrile and acetone were employed to separate internal standard zinc-phthalocyanine plus 12 cholorophylls and their derivatives within 21 min, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', hydroxychlorophyll a, 15-OH-lactone chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', hydroxychlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin a', hydroxypheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a' and pheophytin b in hot-air-dried R. nasutus with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. But, in freeze-dried R. nasutus, only 4 chlorophylls and their derivatives, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b and pheophytin a were detected. Zinc-phthalocyanine was found to be an appropriate internal standard to quantify all the chlorophyll compounds. After quantification by HPLC-DAD, both chlorophyll a and pheophytin a were the most abundant in hot-air-dried R. nasutus, while in freeze-dried R. nasutus, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b dominated. PMID:22063550

  13. Quantification of rifapentine, a potent antituberculosis drug, from dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Teresa L; Marzinke, Mark A; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R; Dorman, Susan E; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-11-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  14. Quantification of Rifapentine, a Potent Antituberculosis Drug, from Dried Blood Spot Samples Using Liquid Chromatographic-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Teresa L.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hoang, Thuy; Bliven-Sizemore, Erin; Weiner, Marc; Mac Kenzie, William R.; Dorman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials. PMID:25182637

  15. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from dry-blanched peanut skins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kerr, William L; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Swanson, Ruthann B; Pegg, Ronald B

    2014-08-22

    A large variety of phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and their esters), stilbenes (trans-resveratrol and trans-piceatannol), flavan-3-ols (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and their polymers {the proanthocyanidins, PACs}), other flavonoids (e.g., isoflavones, flavanols, and flavones, etc.) and biflavonoids (e.g., morelloflavone), were identified in dry-blanched peanut skins (PS) by this study. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was applied to separate and identify the phenolic constituents. Reversed-phase HPLC was employed to separate free phenolic compounds as well as PAC monomers, dimers, and trimers. PACs with a degree of polymerization (DP) of >4 were chromatographed via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Tentative identification of the separated phenolics was based solely on molecular ions and MS(n) fragmentation patterns acquired by ESI-MS in the negative-ion mode. The connection sequence of PAC oligomers (DP <5) could be deduced mainly through characteristic quinone methide (QM) cleavage ions. When the DP reached 6, only a proportion of the flavan-3-ols could be ascertained in the PACs because of the extremely complicated fragmentation patterns involved. The identification of free phenolic acids, stilbenes, and flavonoids was achieved by authentic commercial standards and also by published literature data. Quantification was performed based on peak areas of the UV (free phenolic compounds) or fluorescence (PACs) signals from the HPLC chromatograms and calibration curves of commercial standards. Overall, PS contain significantly more PACs compared to free phenolic compounds. PMID:25016324

  16. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  17. Rapid characterization of dry cured ham produced following different PDOs by proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS).

    PubMed

    Del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Soukoulis, Christos; Biasioli, Franco; Cappellin, Luca; García, Carmen; Gasperi, Flavia; Granitto, Pablo; Märk, Tilmann D; Piasentier, Edi; Schuhfried, Erna

    2011-07-15

    In the present study, the recently developed proton transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) technique was used for the rapid characterization of dry cured hams produced according to 4 of the most important Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs): an Iberian one (Dehesa de Extremadura) and three Italian ones (Prosciutto di San Daniele, Prosciutto di Parma and Prosciutto Toscano). In total, the headspace composition and respective concentration for nine Spanish and 37 Italian dry cured ham samples were analyzed by direct injection without any pre-treatment or pre-concentration. Firstly, we show that the rapid PTR-ToF-MS fingerprinting in conjunction with chemometrics (Principal Components Analysis) indicates a good separation of the dry cured ham samples according to their production process and that it is possible to set up, using data mining methods, classification models with a high success rate in cross validation. Secondly, we exploited the higher mass resolution of the new PTR-ToF-MS, as compared with standard quadrupole based versions, for the identification of the exact sum formula of the mass spectrometric peaks providing analytical information on the observed differences. The work indicates that PTR-ToF-MS can be used as a rapid method for the identification of differences among dry cured hams produced following the indications of different PDOs and that it provides information on some of the major volatile compounds and their link with the implemented manufacturing practices such as rearing system, salting and curing process, manufacturing practices that seem to strongly affect the final volatile organic profile and thus the perceived quality of dry cured ham. PMID:21645714

  18. High temperature and vapor pressure deficit aggravate architectural effects but ameliorate non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production of tomato

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi M. N.; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop and often cultivated in regions exposed to salinity and high temperatures (HT) which change plant architecture, decrease canopy light interception and disturb physiological functions. However, the long-term effects of salinity and HT combination (S+HT) on plant growth are still unclear. A dynamic functional-structural plant model (FSPM) of tomato was parameterized and evaluated for different levels of S+HT combinations. The evaluated model was used to quantify the contributions of morphological changes (architectural effects) and physiological disturbances (non-architectural effects) on the reduction of shoot dry mass under S+HT. The model predicted architectural variables with high accuracy (>85%), which ensured the reliability of the model analyses. HT enhanced architectural effects but reduced non-architectural effects of salinity on dry mass production. The stronger architectural effects of salinity under HT could not be counterbalanced by the smaller non-architectural effects. Therefore, long-term influences of HT on shoot dry mass under salinity were negative at the whole plant level. Our model analysis highlights the importance of plant architecture at canopy level in studying the plant responses to the environments and shows the merits of dynamic FSPMs as heuristic tools. PMID:26539203

  19. Simultaneous measurement of cyclosporin A and tacrolimus from dried blood spots by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, Edward; Adaway, Joanne E; Keevil, Brian G

    2012-02-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus are immunosuppressant drugs principally used in solid organ transplant recipients. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of both drugs is essential to avoid toxicity related to overdosage, and transplant rejection from underdosage. This necessitates frequent hospital visits to phlebotomy services. Capillary blood sampling onto dried blood spots (DBS) provides numerous advantages to venous whole blood sampling, including the ability for patients to send DBS to the laboratory by post, significantly reducing the number of unnecessary hospital visits. We have developed a novel, simple and rapid method for the extraction and simultaneous UPLC-MS/MS measurement of both CsA and tacrolimus from DBS. The extraction method involved a simple 30 min hot solvent extraction with ultrasonication. Extract (10 μL) was injected onto a Waters Acquity UPLC column filter unit security frit, coupled to a Waters Acquity BEH C18 UPLC column, with methanolic mobile phase gradient elution. Eluant was connected to a Waters Quattro Premier XE tandem mass spectrometer operating in ES+ mode. We detected multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of m/z 1220>1203 and 1231.9>1215.1 for CsA and d12 CsA respectively which co-eluted at 1.30min, and 821.6>768.5 and 809.6>756.5 for tacrolimus and ascomycin respectively which co-eluted at 1.17 min. Ion suppression was negligible. Mean recovery was 95.5% for CsA and 92.8% for tacrolimus. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were both 8.5 μg/L for CsA, and 0.5 and 2.3 μg/L respectively for tacrolimus. The assay was linear up to 1500μg/L for CsA (r(2)=0.9999), and up to 50 μg/L for tacrolimus (r(2)=0.9994). Mean intra assay imprecision, inter assay imprecision and bias were all <10% for both CsA and tacrolimus. DBS were stable for at least 14 days at room temperature. Comparison of the DBS UPLC-MS/MS method and the routine venous whole blood LC-MS/MS assay demonstrated good agreement between the two methods

  20. Analysis of tacrolimus and creatinine from a single dried blood spot using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Dennis R.; Bleyle, Lisa A.; Munar, Myrna; Cherala, Ganesh; Al-Uzri, Amira

    2014-01-01

    Long term therapeutic drug monitoring and assessment of renal function are required in renal transplant recipients on immunosuppressant therapy such as tacrolimus. Dry blood spots (DBS) have been used successfully in the clinic for many years and offers a convenient, simple and non-invasive method for repeated blood tests. We developed and performed a preliminary validation of a method for the analysis of tacrolimus and creatinine from a single DBS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS). Tacrolimus and creatinine were extracted from a 6 mm punch with a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile containing ascomycin and deuterated creatinine as internal standards. A 10 μl aliquot of the extract was analyzed directly after dilution for creatinine with normal phase high performance liquid chromatography and multiple reaction monitoring. The remainder of the extract was processed and analyzed for tacrolimus. The lower limit of quantification for tacrolimus was 1 ng/ml with accuracy of 0.34% bias and precision (CV) of 11.1%. The precision ranged from 1.33% to 7.68% and accuracy from −4.44% to 11.6% bias for the intra- and inter-day analysis. The lower limit of quantification of creatinine was 0.01 mg/dL with precision of 7.94%. Accuracy was based on recovery of additional creatinine spiked into whole blood samples and ranged from −2.45% bias at 5 mg/dL to 3.75% bias at 0.5 mg/dL. Intra- and inter-day precision was from 3.48 to 4.11%. The assay was further validated with DBS prepared from pediatric renal transplant recipients. There was excellent correlation between the levels of tacrolimus and creatinine obtained from the clinical laboratory and the DBS method developed. After additional validation, this assay may have a significant impact on compliance with medication intake as well as potentially lowering the cost associated with intravenous blood draws in clinical laboratories. PMID:23548676

  1. The use of label-free mass spectrometry for relative quantification of sarcoplasmic proteins during the processing of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Concepción Aristoy, M; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify changes in the abundance of the major sarcoplasmic proteins throughout the ham dry-curing process by using a label-free mass spectrometry methodology based on the measurement of mass spectral peak intensities obtained from the extracted ion chromatogram. For this purpose, extraction of sarcoplasmic proteins was followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (Q/TOF) for the identification and relative quantification of sarcoplasmic proteins through individual quantification of trypsinised peptides. In total, 20 proteins, including 12 glycolytic enzymes, were identified and quantified. The accuracy of the protocol was based on MS/MS replicates, and beta-lactoglobulin protein was used to normalise data and correct possible variations during sample preparation or LC-MS/MS analysis. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides precise identification and quantification of proteins in comparison with traditional methodologies based on gel electrophoresis, especially in the case of overlapping proteins. Moreover, the label-free approach used in this study proved to be a simple, fast, reliable method for evaluating proteolytic degradation of sarcoplasmic proteins during the processing of dry-cured ham. PMID:26593512

  2. Quantification of Sulfatides in Dried Blood and Urine Spots From Metachromatic Leukodystrophy Patients by Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Barcenas, Mariana; Suhr, Teryn R.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatments are being developed for metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), suggesting the need for eventual newborn screening. Previous studies have shown that sulfatide molecular species are increased in the urine of MLD patients compared to samples from non-MLD individuals, but there is no data using dried blood spots (DBS), the most common sample available for newborn screening laboratories. Methods We used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) to quantify sulfatides in DBS and dried urine spots from 14 MLD patients and 50 non-MLD individuals. Results Several sulfatide molecular species were increased in dried urine samples from all MLD samples compared to non-MLD samples. Sulfatides, especially low molecular species, were increased in DBS from MLD patients, but the sulfatide levels were relatively low. There was good separation in sulfatide levels between MLD and non-MLD samples when dried urine spots were used, but not with DBS, because DBS from non-MLD individuals have measurable levels of sulfatides. Conclusion Sulfatide accumulation studies in urine, but not in DBS, emerges as the method of choice if newborn screening is to be proposed for MLD. PMID:24370383

  3. [Determination of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd by modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Ma, Junmei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis was developed for the determination of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd. Yuba and dried beancurd samples were soaked by deionized water, then acetonitrile was added to extract the analytes. Sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate were added for liquid-liquid separation. The extracts were cleaned-up by dispersive solid-phase using N-propyl diethylamine. The analytes were separated by liquid chromatography and determined by mass spectrometry. External standard method was used for quantification. The recoveries of dimethyl yellow were in the range of 73.5%-84.5% at spiked levels of 0.3, 1 and 10 kg/kg and the recoveries of diethyl yellow were in range of 70.5%-81.2% at spiked levels of 0.1,1 and 10 µg/kg; relative standard deviations of the method were lower than 11%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of dimethyl yellow were 0.1 µg/kg and 0.3 µg/kg, respectively; the limit of detection and the limit of quantification of diethyl yellow were 0.05 µg/kg and 0.1 µg/kg, respectively. This method can be used in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of dimethyl yellow and diethyl yellow in yuba and dried beancurd. PMID:26536771

  4. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Apple Slice under Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a new simultaneous infrared dry blanching and dehydration process for producing high-quality blanched and partially dehydrated products, apple slices with three different thicknesses, 5, 9, and 13 mm, were heated using infrared for up to 10 min at 4000W/m2 IR intensity. The surface and ce...

  5. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta(13)C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis x camaldulensis and E. grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, D; Stock, W D; Bond, W J; Maphanga, D

    1996-05-01

    Clonal variation in water use efficiency (WUE), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of crude leaf fiber extracts was determined in six clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. grown for 16 months in field lysimeters in two soil water regimes. The relationships between delta(13)C and WUE calculated on the basis of leaf, harvestable stem, shoot and whole-plant dry mass accumulation were investigated. There was no clonal variation in dry mass accumulation but clonal allocation to roots, harvestable stems, branches and leaves varied. Water use efficiencies (mass of plant or plant part/water used over 16 months) differed significantly between clones. The clonal ranking of WUE varied depending on the units of dry mass accumulation used. Significant relationships between delta(13)C values and instantaneous water use efficiencies and ratios of internal leaf to ambient CO(2) concentrations were found only in the high soil water treatment. There were no relationships between delta(13)C values and whole-plant, shoot and harvestable stem water use efficiencies and soil water availability. Values of delta(13)C were negatively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the low soil water treatment. At the whole-plant level, WUE was positively correlated with dry mass accumulation in the high soil water treatment. We found significant differences in delta(13)C values between clones and the clonal rankings in delta(13)C and WUE were maintained in both soil water treatments. PMID:14871719

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Therapeutic Drugs in Dried Blood Spot Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry: An Avenue to Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manicke, Nicholas Edward; Abu-Rabie, Paul; Spooner, Neil; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-09-01

    A method is presented for the direct quantitative analysis of therapeutic drugs from dried blood spot samples by mass spectrometry. The method, paper spray mass spectrometry, generates gas phase ions directly from the blood card paper used to store dried blood samples without the need for complex sample preparation and separation; the entire time for preparation and analysis of blood samples is around 30 s. Limits of detection were investigated for a chemically diverse set of some 15 therapeutic drugs; hydrophobic and weakly basic drugs, such as sunitinib, citalopram, and verapamil, were found to be routinely detectable at approximately 1 ng/mL. Samples were prepared by addition of the drug to whole blood. Drug concentrations were measured quantitatively over several orders of magnitude, with accuracies within 10% of the expected value and relative standard deviation (RSD) of around 10% by prespotting an internal standard solution onto the paper prior to application of the blood sample. We have demonstrated that paper spray mass spectrometry can be used to quantitatively measure drug concentrations over the entire therapeutic range for a wide variety of drugs. The high quality analytical data obtained indicate that the technique may be a viable option for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  7. Quantitation of trace metals in liquid samples by dried-droplet laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Mester, Zoltán

    2005-05-01

    A new, discrete sample introduction approach based on laser ablation (LA) is described for the quantitation of several trace metals in aqueous samples by ICPMS. Dried microdroplets of sample, previously mixed with a sodium acetate matrix, were quantitatively ablated from a polystyrene substrate. Calibration via the method of standard additions or isotope dilution provided accurate results for Ni, Cd, and Pb in drinking water and Se in a yeast extract. Compared to conventional solution nebulization, LA sample introduction provided a 2-7-fold enhancement in absolute sensitivity and transport efficiency of 2-14% for the elements examined. Estimated detection limits are 1-7-fold poorer for the dried-droplet LA technique, primarily a result of degraded precision arising from counting statistics limitations for discrete sample introduction. On the basis of the several-second half-width of the resulting transient signals, sample throughput can be in the range of 250 samples per hour. Additionally, integration of the transient signal should eliminate contributions to elemental fractionation from the LA step. Dried-droplet LA-ICPMS offers several advantages over its counterpart, ETV-ICPMS, with respect to background intensity, throughput, and ease of desorption. PMID:15859618

  8. Quantification of the effects of architectural traits on dry mass production and light interception of tomato canopy under different temperature regimes using a dynamic functional–structural plant model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi My Nguyet; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in evaluating the environmental effects on crop architectural traits and yield improvement. However, crop models describing the dynamic changes in canopy structure with environmental conditions and the complex interactions between canopy structure, light interception, and dry mass production are only gradually emerging. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as a model crop, a dynamic functional–structural plant model (FSPM) was constructed, parameterized, and evaluated to analyse the effects of temperature on architectural traits, which strongly influence canopy light interception and shoot dry mass. The FSPM predicted the organ growth, organ size, and shoot dry mass over time with high accuracy (>85%). Analyses of this FSPM showed that, in comparison with the reference canopy, shoot dry mass may be affected by leaf angle by as much as 20%, leaf curvature by up to 7%, the leaf length:width ratio by up to 5%, internode length by up to 9%, and curvature ratios and leaf arrangement by up to 6%. Tomato canopies at low temperature had higher canopy density and were more clumped due to higher leaf area and shorter internodes. Interestingly, dry mass production and light interception of the clumped canopy were more sensitive to changes in architectural traits. The complex interactions between architectural traits, canopy light interception, dry mass production, and environmental conditions can be studied by the dynamic FSPM, which may serve as a tool for designing a canopy structure which is ‘ideal’ in a given environment. PMID:25183746

  9. A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in fresh fish and dried seafoods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenshuo; Han, Zheng; Aerts, Johan; Nie, Dongxia; Jin, Mengtong; Shi, Wen; Zhao, Zhiyong; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhao, Yong; Wu, Aibo

    2015-03-27

    A reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine mycotoxins, i.e., aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin, HT2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON), in fresh fish (muscle and entrails) as well as dried seafoods. Special focus was given to sample pretreatment which is crucial for an accurate and reliable analytical method. With regards to the high complexity of the matrices, extraction solvent, time, and temperature as well as clean-up cartridges were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce matrix effects. The optimum procedure included ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v) at 40 °C for 30 min, defatting with n-hexane and purification by Oasis HLB cartridges. The method was further validated by determining the linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9989), sensitivity (limit of detection ≤ 2 μg/kg, limit of quantitation ≤ 3 μg/kg), recovery (72.2-119.9%) and precision (≤ 18.3%) in muscle and entrails of fresh crucian carp (Carassius carassius) as well as dried fish products. The method was proven to be suitable for its intended purposes. Mycotoxins of OTA, ZEN and AFB2 have been found in fresh fish and dried seafoods for the first time. PMID:25711425

  10. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-04-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile. PMID:26305878

  11. Parallel ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the quantification of HIV protease inhibitors using dried spot sample collection format.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyoko; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2014-08-15

    An assay was developed and validated for the quantification of eight protease inhibitors (indinavir (IDV), ritonavir (RTV), lopinavir (LPV), saquinavir (SQV), amprenavir (APV), nelfinavir (NFV), atazanavir (AZV) and darunavir (DRV)) in dried plasma spots using parallel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. For each analyte an isotopically labeled internal standard was used and the assay based on liquid-solid extraction the area response ratio (analyte/IS) was found to be linear; from 0.025 μg/ml to 20 μg/ml for IDV, SQV, DRV, AZV, LPV, from 0.025 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml for NFV, APV and from 0.025 μg/ml to 5 μg/ml for RTV using 15 μl of plasma spotted on filter paper placed in a sample tube. The total analysis time was of 4 min and inter-assay accuracies and precisions were in the range of 87.7-109% and 2.5-11.8%, respectively. On dried plasma spots all analytes were found to be stable for at least 7 days. Practicability of the assay to blood was also demonstrated. The sample drying process could be reduced to 5 min using a commercial microwave system without any analyte degradation. Together with quantification, confirmatory analysis was performed on representative clinical samples. PMID:25049214

  12. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 1, Dry sorbent injection: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    This report presents the results of fundamental mass transfer testing for in-duct removal of SO{sub 2}. Following this initial part of an experimental program, it became clear that the amount of initial moisture on the sorbent strongly affected the extent of Ca(OH){sub 2} conversion. Novel techniques aimed at increasing sorbent utilization were investigated and are described. Major novel technique investigated and reported on here was the reaction with SO{sub 2} of sorbents with initial free moisture (damp sorbents). The duct injection process using damp solids has the following steps: preparation of sorbent as a slurry, blending of the slurry with dry recycle materials to create damp solids, injection of the solids into the duct, reaction and drying of the solids with flue gas in the duct, collection in particulate control equipment, and finally recycle of dry solids with some bleed to disposal. The moisture content of the solids at each step affects system performance. Various factors favor high moisture whereas others favor low moisture. (VC)

  13. [Determination of trace metals in atmospheric dry deposition with a heavy matrix of PUF by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy after microwave digestion].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue-peng; Wang, Yue-si; Yang, Yong-jie; Wu, Dan; Xin, Jin-yuan; Fan, Wen-yan

    2010-03-01

    Interest in atmospheric dry deposition results mostly from concerns about the effects of the deposited trace elements entering waterbody, soil and vegetation as well as their subsequent health effects. A microwave assisted digestion method followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (MAD-ICP/MS) analysis was developed to determine the concentrations of a large number of trace metals in atmospheric dry deposition samples with a heavy matrix of polyurethane foam (PUF). A combination of HNO3-H2O2-HF was used for digestion. The experimental protocol for the microwave assisted digestion was established using two different SRMs (GBW 07401, Soil and GBW 08401, Coal fly ash). Subsequently, blanks and limits of detection for total trace metal concentrations were determined for PUF filter which was used for dry deposition sampling. Finally, the optimized digestion method was applied to real world atmospheric dry deposition samples collected at 10 sites in Jingjinji area in winter from Dec. 2007 to Feb. 2008. The results showed that the area-averaged total mass fluxes ranged between 85 and 912 mg x (m2 x d)(-1), and fluxes of most elements were highest at Baoding and lowest at Xinglong. In addition, the elemental fluxes in urban areas of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan were measured to be higher than that in suburb and rural sites. The average fluxes of crust elements (A1, Fe, Mn, K, Na, Ca and Mg) were one to three orders of magnitude higher than anthropogenic elements (Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, V, Zn and Ba), varying from 151 to 16034 microg x (m2 x d)(-1) versus 14 to 243 microg x (m2 x d)(-1). Zinc was the most abundant heavy metal and calcium the highest of the crust elements while the elements Mo, Co, Cd, As and Be deposited less or even could not be detected. The anthropogenic and crustal contributions were estimated by employing enrichment factors (EF) calculated relative to the average crustal composition. The EF values of all elements except Pb and Zn were below

  14. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  15. Effect of drying methods on the free and conjugated bufadienolide content in toad venom determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled with a pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Gong, Yan; Ma, Hongyue; Wang, Honglan; Qian, Dawei; Wen, Hongmei; Liu, Rui; Duan, Jinao; Wu, Qinan

    2015-10-10

    Drying is a useful technique for extending the shelf-life of biological products and enabling long-term storage; however, improper drying can reduce the chemical quality of the products. In this study, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the effects of four drying methods (V: vacuum-drying at 60°C, F: freeze-drying, H: air-drying at 60°C and R: air-drying at room temperature) on the levels of 36 bufadienolides in toad venom. Vacuum-drying at 60°C produced the highest quality dried toad venom in terms of total bufadienolide content, whereas traditional air-drying at room temperature (RT) to dehydrate the toad venom led to a dramatic loss in free and conjugated bufadienolides, reaching up to 60% and 70%, respectively. Assaying for free bufadienolides ranked the drying methods as V≈F>H>R, whereas assaying for conjugated bufadienolides slightly changed the order to V>F≈H>R. Furthermore, we identified 21 bufadienolides as biomarkers responsible for the decline in the quality of dried toad venom, whose loss varied from 1.5-fold to 100-fold. Of these biomarkers, group I bufadienolides that contain 16-OAc (e.g., cinobufagin and its hydroxyl or arginine ester derivatives) were characteristic components and were reduced to trace levels (loss of more than 10-fold) following traditional air-drying at RT. This might be attributed to the fact that most enzyme-sensitive bufadienolides were biotransformed or degraded at room temperature but were retained using other drying methods. PMID:26186722

  16. Mass transfer during drying of colloidal film beneath a patterned mask that contains a hexagonal array of holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasevich, Yu Yu; Vodolazskaya, I. V.

    2016-02-01

    We simulated an experiment in which a thin colloidal sessile droplet is allowed to dry out on a horizontal hydrophilic surface when a mask just above the droplet predominantly allows evaporation from the droplet free surface directly beneath the holes in the mask [Harris D J, Hu H, Conrad J C and Lewis J A 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 148301]. We considered one particular case when centre-to-centre spacing between the holes is much less than the drop diameter. In our model, advection, diffusion, and sedimentation were taken into account. FlexPDE was utilized to solve an advection-diffusion equation using the finite element method. The simulation demonstrated that the colloidal particles accumulate below the holes as the solvent evaporates. Diffusion can reduce this accumulation.

  17. Dried Blood Spot Methodology in Combination With Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Facilitates the Monitoring of Teriflunomide

    PubMed Central

    Lunven, Catherine; Turpault, Sandrine; Beyer, Yann-Joel; O'Brien, Amy; Delfolie, Astrid; Boyanova, Neli; Sanderink, Ger-Jan; Baldinetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teriflunomide, a once-daily oral immunomodulator approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is eliminated slowly from plasma. If necessary to rapidly lower plasma concentrations of teriflunomide, an accelerated elimination procedure using cholestyramine or activated charcoal may be used. The current bioanalytical assay for determination of plasma teriflunomide concentration requires laboratory facilities for blood centrifugation and plasma storage. An alternative method, with potential for greater convenience, is dried blood spot (DBS) methodology. Analytical and clinical validations are required to switch from plasma to DBS (finger-prick sampling) methodology. Methods: Using blood samples from healthy subjects, an LC-MS/MS assay method for quantification of teriflunomide in DBS over a range of 0.01–10 mcg/mL was developed and validated for specificity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and stability. Results were compared with those from the current plasma assay for determination of plasma teriflunomide concentration. Results: Method was specific and selective relative to endogenous compounds, with process efficiency ∼88%, and no matrix effect. Inaccuracy and imprecision for intraday and interday analyses were <15% at all concentrations tested. Quantification of teriflunomide in DBS assay was not affected by blood deposit volume and punch position within spot, and hematocrit level had a limited but acceptable effect on measurement accuracy. Teriflunomide was stable for at least 4 months at room temperature, and for at least 24 hours at 37°C with and without 95% relative humidity, to cover sampling, drying, and shipment conditions in the field. The correlation between DBS and plasma concentrations (R2 = 0.97), with an average blood to plasma ratio of 0.59, was concentration independent and constant over time. Conclusions: DBS sampling is a simple and practical method for monitoring teriflunomide

  18. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity. PMID:22878390

  19. Determination of moulds and mycotoxins in dry dog and cat food using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Błajet-Kosicka, A; Kosicki, R; Twarużek, M; Grajewski, J

    2014-01-01

    In this study moulds and 12 mycotoxins in dry pet food samples (25 for dogs and 24 for cats) were determined. Primary moulds identified were Aspergillus, Mucor and Penicillium, found in 55% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone (ZEN) were detected in all samples with mean respective concentrations being 97.3 and 38.3 µg kg(-1) in cat food and 114 and 20.1 µg kg(-1) in dog food. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were present in 88% and 84% of the samples, respectively. Two samples contained fumonisins, with a maximum concentration of 108 µg kg(-1). Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 8% and 45% of the samples, respectively. The measured mould and mycotoxin levels were consistent with results obtained by other studies. However, potential exposure to relatively high concentrations of an oestrogen mycotoxin as is ZEN, especially when in combination with other mycotoxins, needs attention. PMID:24919718

  20. Tray Drying of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afacan, Artin; Masliyah, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    Describes a drying experiment useful in presenting the concept of simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Background information, equipment requirements, experimental procedures, and results are provided. The reasonably good agreement in the calculated rate of drying and that observed experimentally makes students feel confident in applying…

  1. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive ... or twice a week Add conditioners Avoid blow drying and harsh styling products

  2. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  3. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 2, Duct spray drying: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}] slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  4. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  5. Application of automated serial blood sampling and dried blood spot technique with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Philip; Pham, Roger; Whitely, Carl; Soto, Marcus; Salyers, Kevin; James, Christopher; Bruenner, Bernd A

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this work was to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice with the use of an automated blood sampling system and dried blood spot (DBS) technique. AMG 517, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor (VR1) antagonist, was dosed to mice (n=3) intravenously and blood samples were collected using the automated blood sampling system with the "no blood waste" method. The collected blood samples were a mixture of 25 μL blood and 50 μL of heparinized saline solution. Two 15 μL aliquots were manually spotted onto a DBS card and dried at room temperature for at least 2h before being stored in zip bags with desiccant. The remaining samples (45 μL) were stored at -70°C until analysis. Both the DBS and the whole blood samples (diluted with saline (1:2, v/v)) were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The overall extraction recovery of the analyte from the dried blood spots was determined to be about 90%. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the whole blood or the DBS concentration data were comparable, and were obtained from only 3 mice, whereas conventional sampling and analysis would have required up to 27 mice to achieve the same result. The analyte was shown to be stable in the diluted whole blood (blood:saline 1:2) at room temperature for at least 4h and in the DBS for at least 34 days when stored at room temperature. These results indicated that the automated blood sampling system and DBS collection are promising techniques to obtain full pharmacokinetic profiles from individual mice and reduce the use of animals. PMID:21784595

  6. Tear proteomic analysis of Sjögren syndrome patients with dry eye syndrome by two-dimensional-nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Sheng, Minjie; Li, Jianhua; Yan, Guoquan; Lin, Anjuan; Li, Min; Wang, Weifang; Chen, Yihui

    2014-01-01

    We examined the tear film proteome of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and dry eye syndrome (group A), patients with dry eye symptoms (group B) and normal volunteers (group C). Tear samples were pooled from 8 subjects from each group and were subjected to two-dimensional-nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2D-nano-LC-MS/MS). The tear breakup time for group A was significantly reduced compared with group B and C (P < 0.001). Group A (Schirmer I test, 2.13 ± 2.38 mm/5 min) had markedly lower tear volume than group B (5.94 ± 4.75 mm/5 min) and C (14.44 ± 6.57 mm/5 min) (P < 0.001). Group A had significantly higher normalized tear protein content (1.8291 ± 0.2241 μg/mm) than group B (1.0839 ± 0.1120 μg/mm) (P = 0.001) and C (0.2028 ± 0.0177 μg/mm) (P = 0.001). The 2D-nano-LC-MS/MS analysis identified a total of 435 proteins, including 182 (54.8%), 247 (74.4%) and 278 (83.7%) in group A, B, and C, respectively, with 56 (16.7%) proteins including defensin α1, clusterin and lactotransferrin unique to group A. In conclusion, dry eye syndrome in SS patients is associated with an altered proteomic profile with dysregulated expression of proteins involved in a variety of important cellular process including inflammation, immunity, and oxidative stress. PMID:25159733

  7. Development and validation of a dried blood spot assay for the quantification of ribavirin using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jimmerson, Leah C.; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Bushman, Lane R.; MacBrayne, Christine E.; Anderson, Peter L.; Kiser, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient, inexpensive and sensitive assays for the measurement of drugs are of interest for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) analysis. Dried blood spots (DBS) are a unique bioanaltyical matrix with the potential to fulfill this interest for the measurement of numerous analytes. Here we describe the development and validation of a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (LC), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assay for the determination of ribavirin (RBV) in DBS. A 3mm punch from spotted and dried whole blood was extracted in methanol utilizing isotopically labeled internal standard for LC-MS/MS analysis. Validation was performed over a range of 0.05 μg/mL to 10.0 μg/mL and the method was shown to be precise (coefficient of variation ≤ 15%) and accurate (within ±15% of control). These acceptance criteria were met for hematocrit ranges of 20-54%, for center versus edge punches and for spot volumes from 10-60 μL. RBV was stable for up to 140 days at room temperature and −20°C as well as for three freeze/thaw cycles. Correlation of RBV in DBS versus in plasma yielded r2 ≥ 0.98 demonstrating that DBS can be used as an alternative to plasma for PK-PD studies in human subjects. PMID:24291608

  8. [Determination of trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium in dried edible fungi by microwave ashing-liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhanglin; Tang, Fubin; Qu, Minghua; Mo, Runhong

    2014-02-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) for the determination of trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in dried edible fungi was established. Edible fungi sample was ashed by a microwave ashing system and Na2 EDTA was added to the ashing sample to stabilize the Cr(III). An anion exchange column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 10 microm) with a 60 mmol/L nitric acid (pH 9.3) solution as mobile phase was used for the separation and using ICP-MS as a detector for the determination of trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.5-50 microg/L and the correlation coefficients were 0. 999 9 for Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The average recoveries of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ranged from 78.0% to 90.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) less than 4%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 0.5 microg/L. The method is efficient, reliable and sensitive, and can meet the requirement for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in dried edible fungi. PMID:24822453

  9. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer inside a vertical tube in evaporating a heated falling alcohols liquid film into a stream of dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senhaji, S.; Feddaoui, M.; Mediouni, T.; Mir, A.

    2009-03-01

    A numerical study of the evaporation in mixed convection of a pure alcohol liquid film: ethanol and methanol was investigated. It is a turbulent liquid film falling on the internal face of a vertical tube. A laminar flow of dry air enters the vertical tube at constant temperature in the downward direction. The wall of the tube is subjected to a constant and uniform heat flux. The model solves the coupled parabolic governing equations in both phases including turbulent liquid film together with the boundary and interfacial conditions. The systems of equations obtained by using an implicit finite difference method are solved by TDMA method. A Van Driest model is adopted to simulate the turbulent liquid film flow. The influence of the inlet liquid flow, Reynolds number in the gas flow and the wall heat flux on the intensity of heat and mass transfers are examined. A comparison between the results obtained for studied alcohols and water in the same conditions is made.

  10. Determination of rare earth elements in human hair and wheat flour reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with dry ashing and microwave digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yin; Bing, Li

    1998-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of all rare earth elements (REEs) at sub ng g -1 levels in human hair (GBW 09101, SRM, Republic of China) and wheat flour (GBW 08503, SRM, Republic of China) by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The values obtained by dry ashing and microwave oven digestion procedures were compared with those obtained by traditional open vessel acid digestion method. The validity of the analytical procedure was examined by analyzing spiked samples and two vegetables (GBW 07603 and GBW 07605, SRMs, Republic of China). The results are satisfactory. The detection limits for 14 REEs ranged from 0.0039 to 0.0003 ng cm -3 in solution and the quantification limits ranged from 0.16 to 0.01 ng g -1 in solid sample. The precision for most REEs were less than 10% RSD.

  11. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2016-03-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib in dried blood spot by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Eva; Trontelj, Jurij; Pajič, Tadej; Kristl, Albin

    2012-08-15

    Imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib are three tyrosine kinase inhibitors currently used to treat Bcr-Abl1 positive chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). However, achieving maximum benefit with these drugs may require optimal dosing and adherence to therapy. In those cases, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can be a useful tool in managing patients with CML. The paper presents simple and high throughput method for simultaneous determination of all three TKIs in dried blood spot (DBS) samples from CML patients. DBS samples were prepared by applying 10 μL of spiked whole blood onto an Agilent DBS cards. Whole blood spot was punched out of the card, transferred to a well in a 96-well Captiva ND Lipids filter plate. After the addition of isotopically labelled internal standard, the drug was extracted with 0.1% formic acid in methanol. The collected extract (1 μL) was injected onto a Phenomenex Kinetex 50 mm × 2.1 mm C18 column and eluted with acetonitrile gradient into a triple quadrupole ESI-MS/MS Agilent 6460 operated in positive mode. The total run time was only 2.6 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, selectivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, absolute and relative matrix effect and stability. The effect of haematocrit (Hct) on the accurate concentration determination was also examined. The method was linear in the range of 50-5000 μg/L for imatinib and nilotinib and in the range of 2.5-250 μg/L for dasatinib, with correlation coefficient values higher than 0.997. Lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 50 μg/L for imatinib and nilotinib and 2.5 μg/L for dasatinib. The method proved to be accurate (% bias < 13.2) and precise (CV < 10.3%) on intra- as well as on inter-day basis. Sample matrix (% ME=94.5-106.7) and different Hct values had no significant effect on the accuracy of measured concentrations. Samples proved to be stable whilst stored on DBS cards at room temperature or in the refrigerator; however, at 40 °C the stability of

  13. Identification and quantification of psychoactive drugs in whole blood using dried blood spot (DBS) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marchei, Emilia; Scaravelli, Giulia; García-Algar, Oscar; Supervía, August; Graziano, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of twenty three psychoactive drugs and metabolites in whole blood using dried blood spot (DBS). Chromatographic separation was achieved at ambient temperature using a reverse-phase column and a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 5mM ammonium formate at pH 3. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode, using multiple reaction monitoring via positive electro-spray ionization. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (5ng/ml for all the analytes apart from 15ng/ml for Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and metabolites) to 500ng/ml, and showed good correlation coefficients (r(2)=0.990) for all substances. Analytical recovery of analytes under investigation was always higher than 75% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy always better than 15%. Using the validated method, ten DBS samples, collected at the hospital emergency department in cases of acute drug intoxication, were found positive to one or more psychoactive drugs. Our data support the potential of DBS sampling for non invasive monitoring of exposure/intoxication to psychoactive drugs. PMID:27232151

  14. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and relative metabolites in Aspergillus species and dried vine fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jingming; Cheng, Zhan; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycotoxin is quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were 74.5-108.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-8.4% for fungal culture. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.03-0.87 μg l(-)(1), and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.07 to 2.90 μg l(-)(1). In addition, the extraction solutions and clean-up columns were optimised specifically for dried vine fruit samples to improve the performance of the method. Methanol-1% sodium bicarbonate extraction solution (6:4, v/v) was determined to be the most efficient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed as a clean-up step prior to HPLC-MS/MS analysis to reduce matrix effects. Recoveries ranged from 80.1% to 110.8%. RSDs ranged from 0.1% to 3.6%. LODs and LOQs ranged from 0.06 to 0.40 μg kg(-)(1) and from 0.19 to 1.20 μg kg(-)(1), respectively. The analytical method was established and used to identify and quantify OTA and related compounds from Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in cultures and dried vine fruits. The results showed that A. carbonarius produced OTα, OTB and OTA, whereas A. ochraceus produced OTB, OTA and mellein after 7 days of cultivation. Of 30 commercial samples analysed, 10 were contaminated with ochratoxins; OTB, OTα and mellein were also detected in different samples. PMID:27442910

  15. Sensitive determination of prohibited drugs in dried blood spots (DBS) for doping controls by means of a benchtop quadrupole/Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Crone, Catharina; Kellmann, Markus; Moehring, Thomas; Thevis, Mario

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, a new type of mass spectrometer combining a quadrupole mass filter, a higher collision dissociation (HCD) cell and an Orbitrap detector, was evaluated for the analysis of dried blood spots (DBS) in doping controls. DBS analysis is characterized by the necessity to detect prohibited compounds in sub-nanogram-per-milliliter levels with high identification capacity. After extraction of DBS with an organic solvent and liquid chromatographic separation (using a regular C18-RP-analytical UHPLC-column) of target analytes, mass spectrometry is performed with a high-resolution full scan in positive and negative mode by means of electrospray ionisation. Single-product ion mass spectra are acquired using the data-dependent analysis mode (employing an inclusion list) for previously selected precursors of known prohibited compounds with fixed retention time ranges. Besides, a sensitive screening in a targeted approach, non-targeted analysis for retrospective data evaluation is thus possible. The chosen experimental design enables the determination of various drugs from different classes with one generic sample preparation which is shown for 26 selected model compounds (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), methylhexaneamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, nikethamide, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, strychnine, mesocarb, salbutamol, formoterol, clenbuterol, metandienone, stanozolol, bisoprolol, propranolol, metoprolol, anastrazole, clomiphene, exemestane, dexamethasone, budesonide, selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S4 (andarine), SARM S1, hydrochlorothiazide). Generally, only qualitative result interpretation was focussed upon, but for target analytes with deuterium-labelled internal standards (salbutamol, clenbuterol, cocaine, dexamethasone, THC-COOH and THC) quantitative analysis was also possible. Especially the most challenging analytes, THC and its carboxy

  16. Experiment and numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer during a spray freeze-drying process of ovalbumin in a tray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chi-Sung; Yeom, Geum-Su

    2009-11-01

    Spray freeze-drying is a promising technology for producing high-quality porous particles primarily for pharmaceutical uses. The advantages of freeze-drying in the production of pharmaceuticals and biomedical products, such as minimization of thermal and chemical degradation, retention of volatile components, preservation of high porosity, and a very low content of residual water after drying, are mostly retained in spray freeze-drying. In this study, we performed spray freeze-drying of a 3% (w/w) chicken egg ovalbumin solution in a tray with a batch-type spray freeze-dryer that we developed. The physical characteristics of the spray freeze-dried particles were qualitatively evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy. The freeze-drying behavior of spray-frozen particles was experimentally investigated by measuring the histories of product temperatures and numerically studied by developing an analysis model based on the finite volume method in a fixed grid system.

  17. Analysis of carbohydrates in Fusarium verticillioides using size-exclusion HPLC – DRI and direct analysis in real time ionization – time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time ionization – time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (DART-MS) and size-exclusion HPLC – DRI are used, respectively, to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the carbohydrates extracted from the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides. In situ permethylation in the DART...

  18. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... or under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  19. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  20. Elucidation of conformer preferences for a hydrophobic antimicrobial peptide by vesicle capture-freeze-drying: a preparatory method coupled to ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Patrick, John W; Gamez, Roberto C; Russell, David H

    2015-01-01

    A novel sample preparation method to probe the solution phase structure of dimerized Gramicidin A (GA) inserted into lipid vesicle bilayers is described. This method, termed vesicle capture-freeze-drying (VCFD), when coupled with electrospray ionization-ion mobility-mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), successfully demonstrates the first evidence for the preservation of membrane-bound structure in the analysis of solution phase conformers retained into the gas phase. The extremely hydrophobic character of GA ensures that only membrane-bound conformations are captured and subsequently monitored when samples are prepared using VCFD, removing a barrier that has prevented previous attempts at direct analysis using mass spectrometry. Solution-phase physicochemical interactions of GA influenced by lipid acyl chain length and extent of acyl chain unsaturation can now be probed by monitoring the conformer preferences using IM-MS. Increasing the acyl chain length from 12 to 22 carbons yields [2GA + 2Na](2+) IM-MS profiles with reduced conformer microheterogeneity. POPC (16:0, 18:1 PC), a lipid possessing a single acyl chain unsaturation point, yields the highest abundance of the single stranded head to head (SSHH) conformer. Conformer preferences adopted in the lipid bilayer are maintained as GA dimers travel from the solution phase to fully desolvated gas-phase ions demonstrating that distributions observed using ESI-IM-MS unambiguously reflect the ensemble of conformers observed in the solution phase. VCFD-ESI-IM-MS yields novel biophysical insight into the influence of lipid bilayer membranes on conformer preferences and conformer heterogeneity of an important channel-forming membrane peptide. PMID:25522119

  1. Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Method for the Determination of Pesticides in Dry Samples (Rice and Wheat Flour) Using Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grande-Martínez, Ángel; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Moreno, Laura Díaz; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive multiresidue method was developed and validated for the determination of around 100 pesticides in dry samples (rice and wheat flour) by ultra-performance LC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass analyzer working in tandem mode (UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS). The sample preparation step was optimized for both matrixes. Pesticides were extracted from rice samples using aqueous ethyl acetate, while aqueous acetonitrile extraction [modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method] was used for wheat flour matrixes. In both cases the extracts were then cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with MgSO4 and primary secondary amine+C18 sorbents. A further cleanup step with Florisil was necessary to remove fat in wheat flour. The method was validated at two concentration levels (3.6 and 40 μg/kg for most compounds), obtaining recoveries ranging from 70 to 120%, intraday and interday precision values≤20% expressed as RSDs, and expanded uncertainty values≤50%. The LOQ values ranged between 3.6 and 20 μg/kg, although it was set at 3.6 μg/kg for the majority of the pesticides. The method was applied to the analysis of 20 real samples, and no pesticides were detected. PMID:26525236

  2. Profiling of acylcarnitines and sterols from dried blood or plasma spot by atmospheric pressure thermal desorption chemical ionization (APTDCI) tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Corso, Gaetano; D'Apolito, Oceania; Garofalo, Daniela; Paglia, Giuseppe; Dello Russo, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Free carnitine and acylcarnitines play an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids. Sterols are structural lipids found in the membranes of many eukaryotic cells, and they also have functional roles such as the regulation of membrane permeability and fluidity, activity of membrane-bound enzymes and signals transduction. Abnormal profiles of these compounds in biological fluids may be useful markers of metabolic changes. In this review, we describe the subset of the lipidome represented by acylcarnitines and sterols, and we summarize how these compounds have been analyzed in the past. Over the last 50years, lipid mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved to become one of the most useful techniques for metabolic analysis. Today, the introduction of new ambient ionization techniques coupled to MS (AMS), which are characterized by the direct desorbing/ionizing of molecules from solid samples, is generating new possibilities for in situ analysis. Recently, we developed an AMS approach called APTDCI to desorb/ionize using a heated gas flow and an electrical discharge to directly analyze sterols and indirectly investigate acylcarnitines in dried blood or plasma spot samples. Here, we also describe the APTDCI method and some of its clinical applications, and we underline the common complications and issues that remain to be resolved. PMID:21683155

  3. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  4. Dry-season vegetation mass and cover fraction from SWIR1.6 and SWIR2.1 band ratio: Ground-radiometer and MODIS data in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergoat, L.; Hiernaux, P.; Dardel, C.; Pierre, C.; Guichard, F.; Kalilou, A.

    2015-07-01

    The potential of the short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands to detect dry-season vegetation mass and cover fraction is investigated with ground radiometry and MODIS data, confronted to vegetation data collected in rangeland and cropland sites in the Sahel (Senegal, Niger, Mali). The ratio of the 1.6 and 2.1 μm bands (called STI) acquired with a ground radiometer proved well suited for grassland mass estimation up to 2500 kg/ha with a linear relation (r2 = 0.89). A curvilinear regression is accurate for masses ranging up to 3500 kg/ha. STI proved also well suited to retrieve vegetation cover fraction in crop fields, fallows and rangelands. Such dry-season monitoring, with either ground or satellite data, has important applications for forage, erosion risk and fire risk assessment in semi-arid areas.

  5. Multiplex Assay of Second-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Dried Blood Spots Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Jun, Sun-Hee; Han, Minje; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyoung Un

    2016-01-01

    As dried blood spots (DBSs) have various advantages over conventional venous blood sampling, some assays for detection of one or two anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in DBSs have been developed. However, there are no assays currently available for the simultaneous measurement of three or more anti-TB drugs in DBSs. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiplex method for detecting nine anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, cycloserine, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, prothionamide, and linezolid in DBSs by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Seventy-nine patient samples of DBS were analyzed on the UPLC-MS/MS system. All drug concentrations were determined within 4 min, and assay performance was evaluated. All drugs were clearly separated without ion suppression. Within-run and between-run precisions were 1.7-13.0% and 5.7-17.0%, respectively, at concentrations representing low and high levels for the nine drugs. Lower limits of detection and quantification were 0.06-0.6 and 0.5-5.0 µg/mL, respectively. Linearity was acceptable at five level concentrations for each drug. Correlations between drug concentrations in plasma and DBSs by using Passing-Bablock regression and Pearson's rho (ρ, 0.798-0.989) were acceptable. In conclusion, we developed a multiplex assay to measure nine second-line anti-TB drugs in DBSs successfully. This assay provided convenient and rapid drug quantification and could have applications in drug monitoring during treatment. PMID:27374716

  6. The use of dried blood spots for quantification of 15 antipsychotics and 7 metabolites with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Patteet, Lisbeth; Maudens, Kristof E; Stove, Christophe P; Lambert, Willy E; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard; Neels, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring of antipsychotics is important in optimizing individual therapy. In psychiatric populations, classical venous blood sampling is experienced as frightening. Interest in alternative techniques, like dried blood spots (DBS), has consequently increased. A fast and easy to perform DBS method for quantification of 16 antipsychotics (amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, bromperidol, clozapine, haloperidol, iloperidone, levosulpiride, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, pipamperone, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole and zuclopenthixol) and 8 metabolites was developed. DBS were prepared using 25 μL of whole blood and extraction of complete spots was performed using methanol: methyl-t-butyl-ether (4:1). After evaporation, the extract was reconstituted in the mobile phase and 10 μL were injected on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Separation using a C18 column and gradient elution with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min resulted in a 6-min run-time. Ionization was performed in positive mode and a dynamic MRM method was applied. Median recovery was 66.4 % (range 28.7-84.5%). Accuracy was within the acceptance criteria, except for pipamperone (LLOQ and low concentration) and lurasidone (low concentration). Imprecision was only aberrant for lurasidone at low and medium concentration. All compounds were stable during 1 month at room temperature, 4 °C and -18 °C. Lurasidone was unstable when the extract was stored for 12 h on the autosampler. Absolute matrix effects (ME) (median 66.1%) were compensated by the use of deuterated IS (median 98.8%). The DBS method was successfully applied on 25-μL capillary DBS from patients and proved to be a reliable alternative for quantification of all antipsychotics except for olanzapine and N-desmethylolanzapine. PMID:25132670

  7. Multiplex Assay of Second-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Dried Blood Spots Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Jun, Sun Hee; Han, Minje; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan

    2016-09-01

    As dried blood spots (DBSs) have various advantages over conventional venous blood sampling, some assays for detection of one or two anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in DBSs have been developed. However, there are no assays currently available for the simultaneous measurement of three or more anti-TB drugs in DBSs. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiplex method for detecting nine anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, cycloserine, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, prothionamide, and linezolid in DBSs by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Seventy-nine patient samples of DBS were analyzed on the UPLC-MS/MS system. All drug concentrations were determined within 4 min, and assay performance was evaluated. All drugs were clearly separated without ion suppression. Within-run and between-run precisions were 1.7-13.0% and 5.7-17.0%, respectively, at concentrations representing low and high levels for the nine drugs. Lower limits of detection and quantification were 0.06-0.6 and 0.5-5.0 μg/mL, respectively. Linearity was acceptable at five level concentrations for each drug. Correlations between drug concentrations in plasma and DBSs by using Passing-Bablock regression and Pearson's rho (ρ 0.798-0.989) were acceptable. In conclusion, we developed a multiplex assay to measure nine second-line anti-TB drugs in DBSs successfully. This assay provided convenient and rapid drug quantification and could have applications in drug monitoring during treatment. PMID:27374716

  8. Application of a Liquid Extraction Based Sealing Surface Sampling Probe for Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Dried Blood Spots and Mouse Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2009-01-01

    The utility of a liquid extraction based sealing surface sampling probe (SSSP) for the direct mass spectrometric analysis of targeted drugs and metabolites in dried blood spots (DBSs) and whole mouse thin tissue sections was demonstrated. The accuracy and precision for the quantitative analysis of a minimum of 50 ng/mL sitamaquine or acetaminophen in DBSs on paper were well within the required 15% dictated by internationally recognized acceptance criteria for assay validations. Analysis of whole-body mouse thin tissue sections from animals dosed with propranolol, adhered to an adhesive tape substrate, provided semi-quantitative information for propranolol and its hydroxyproranolol glucuronide metabolite within specific organs of the tissue. The relative abundances recorded for the two compounds in the brain, lung, kidney and liver were in nominal agreement with previously reported amounts based on analysis using a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP), and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) and HPLC-MS analysis. The ability to sample and analyze from tape-adhered tissue samples, which are generally employed in WBA analysis, presents the possibility of consecutive WBA and SSSP-MS analysis of the same tissue section. This would facilitate assignment, and possibly quantitation, of the different molecular forms of total drug related material detected in the WBA analysis. The flexibility to sample larger or smaller spot sizes, alternative probe sealing mechanisms, and a reduction in internal volumes and associated sample carryover issues will be among the first simple improvements necessary to make the SSSP-MS method a practical DBS and/or thin tissue section analysis tool or to expand its use to other surface sampling applications.

  9. Dried Blood Spot Testing for Seven Steroids Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry With Reference Interval Determination in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Borahm; Lee, Mi-Na; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kim, Jong Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) using immunoassays generates a large number of false-positive results. A more specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been introduced to minimize unnecessary follow-ups. However, because of limited data on its use in the Korean population, LC-MS/MS has not yet been incorporated into newborn screening programs in this region. The present study aims to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of seven steroids in dried blood spots (DBS) for CAH screening, and to define age-specific reference intervals in the Korean population. Methods We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine the reference intervals of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone simultaneously in 453 DBS samples. The samples were from Korean subjects stratified by age group (78 full-term neonates, 76 premature neonates, 89 children, and 100 adults). Results The accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and extraction recovery were satisfactory for all the steroids at three concentrations; values of intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variance, bias, and recovery were 0.7-7.7%, -1.5-9.8%, and 49.3-97.5%, respectively. The linearity range was 1-100 ng/mL for cortisol and 0.5-50 ng/mL for other steroids (R2>0.99). The reference intervals were in agreement with the previous reports. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS method and the reference intervals validated in the Korean population can be successfully applied to analyze seven steroids in DBS for the diagnosis of CAH. PMID:26354345

  10. Personalized monitoring of therapeutic salicylic acid in dried blood spots using a three-layer setup and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siebenhaar, Markus; Küllmer, Kai; Fernandes, Nuno Miguel de Barros; Hüllen, Volker; Hopf, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is an emerging technology for direct therapeutic drug monitoring in dried blood spots (DBS). Current DBS methods require manual application of small molecules as internal standards for absolute drug quantification. With industrial standardization in mind, we superseded the manual addition of standard and built a three-layer setup for robust quantification of salicylic acid directly from DBS. We combined a dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate weave facilitating sample spreading with a cellulose layer for addition of isotope-labeled salicylic acid as internal standard and a filter paper for analysis of the standard-containing sample by DESI-MS. Using this setup, we developed a quantification method for salicylic acid from whole blood with a validated linear curve range from 10 to 2000 mg/L, a relative standard deviation (RSD%) ≤14%, and determination coefficients of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) was 8 mg/L and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 mg/L. Recovery rates in method verification by LC-MS/MS were 97 to 101% for blinded samples. Most importantly, a study in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of Aspirin provides evidence to suggest that the three-layer setup may enable individual pharmacokinetic and endpoint testing following blood collection by finger pricking by patients at home. Taken together, our data suggests that DBS-based quantification of drugs by DESI-MS on pre-manufactured three-layer cartridges may be a promising approach for future near-patient therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:26168972

  11. Advances in drying: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include recent thoughts in modeling of drying phenomena, use of computers in rational design of drying particulates, recent advances in drying of wood, and heat/mass transfer phenomena in drying of solids. As the readers will no doubt notice, special effort is made to ensure the truly international nature of the contents of this serial publication. As existing knowledge on drying and dryers becomes more widely and readily accessible, it is expected that more and more dryers will be designed rationally rather than built solely with the benefit of empiricism.

  12. Dry socket

    MedlinePlus

    ... care for the dry socket at home: Take pain medicine and antibiotics as directed Apply a cold pack to the outside of your jaw Carefully rinse the dry socket as directed by your dentist If taking antibiotics, avoid smoking or using tobacco and alcohol

  13. Contribution of Soil Fauna to Foliar Litter-Mass Loss in Winter in an Ecotone between Dry Valley and Montane Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Yang, Wanqin; Li, Jun; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Chuan; Yue, Kai; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition during winter can provide essential nutrients for plant growth in the subsequent growing season, which plays important role in preventing the expansion of dry areas and maintaining the stability of ecotone ecosystems. However, limited information is currently available on the contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition during winter in such ecosystems. Therefore, a field experiment that included litterbags with two different mesh sizes (0.04 mm and 3 mm) was conducted to investigate the contribution of soil fauna to the loss of foliar litter mass in winter from November 2013 to April 2014 along the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Two litter types of the dominant species were selected in each ecosystem: cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and oak (Quercus baronii) in ecotone; cypress (Cupressus chengiana) and clovershrub (Campylotropis macrocarpa) in dry valley; and fir (Abies faxoniana) and birch (Betula albosinensis) in montane forest. Over one winter incubation, foliar litter lost 6.0%-16.1%, 11.4%-26.0%, and 6.4%-8.5% of initial mass in the ecotone, dry valley and montane forest, respectively. Soil fauna showed obvious contributions to the loss of foliar litter mass in all of the ecosystems. The highest contribution (48.5%-56.8%) was observed in the ecotone, and the lowest contribution (0.4%-25.8%) was observed in the montane forest. Compared with other winter periods, thawing period exhibited higher soil fauna contributions to litter mass loss in ecotone and dry valley, but both thawing period and freezing period displayed higher soil fauna contributions in montane forest. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of soil fauna was significantly correlated with temperature and soil moisture during the winter-long incubation. These results suggest that temperature might be the primary control factor in foliar litter decomposition, but more active soil fauna in the ecotone could contribute more in litter decomposition and

  14. Exploring Potential Chemical Transformation by Chemical Profiling Approach for Rapidly Evaluating Chemical Consistency between Sun-Dried and Sulfur-Fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) based on a chemical profiling method was applied to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba. By virtue of the high resolution, high speed of UPLC, and the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS coupled with reliable MarkerLynx software, five newly assigned monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were found and identified in sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba samples. This method could be applied for rapid quality evaluation of different kinds of sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba among commercial samples. PMID:24381637

  15. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  16. A fully automated method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits by pressurized liquid extraction and online solid-phase extraction cleanup coupled to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Russo, Mariateresa; Valdés, Alberto; Ibáñez, Clara; Rastrelli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    According to current demands and future perspectives in food safety, this study reports a fast and fully automated analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of the mycotoxins with high toxicity and wide spread, aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried fruits, a high-risk foodstuff. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), with aqueous methanol (30%) at 110 °C, of the slurried dried fruit and online solid-phase extraction (online SPE) cleanup of the PLE extracts with a C18 cartridge. The purified sample was directly analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for sensitive and selective determination of AFs and OTA. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for different dried fruits (vine fruit, fig and apricot), providing method detection and quantification limits much lower than the AFs and OTA maximum levels imposed by EU regulation in dried fruit for direct human consumption. Also, recoveries (83-103%) and repeatability (RSD < 8, n = 3) meet the performance criteria required by EU regulation for the determination of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. The main advantage of the proposed method is full automation of the whole analytical procedure that reduces the time and cost of the analysis, sample manipulation and solvent consumption, enabling high-throughput analysis and highly accurate and precise results. PMID:25694147

  17. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  18. SPME-GC-MS versus Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analyses for the study of volatile compound generation and oxidation status during dry fermented sausage processing.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alicia; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, José Luis; Smith, David; Spanĕl, Patrik; Flores, Mónica

    2011-03-01

    The use of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry together with solid phase microextraction (GC-MS-SPME) has been compared in the analysis of volatile compounds during dry fermented sausage processing. Thus, the headspace (HS) of samples of dry fermented sausages with different fat contents was analyzed during their manufacture using both techniques, and significant and positive correlations were found between SIFT-MS and SPME-GC-MS measurements for the compounds pentanal, hexanal, 2-heptenal, octanal, 2-nonenal, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, ethanol, acetic acid, and hexanoic acid. The oxidative status of fermented sausages during processing was also evaluated, and a significant correlation was obtained between the HS concentration of lipid autoxidation volatile compounds measured by SIFT-MS and SPME-GC-MS and the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the sausage. The hexanal measured by SIFT-MS resulted in a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.936) than that obtained using SPME-GC-MS (r = 0.927). SIFT-MS is shown to be a fast, real time analytical technique for monitoring changes in the profile of volatile compounds in dry fermented sausages during processing and a useful tool to evaluate the oxidative status of meat products. PMID:21294565

  19. Rapid freeze-drying cycle optimization using computer programs developed based on heat and mass transfer models and facilitated by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS).

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    Computer programs in FORTRAN were developed to rapidly determine the optimal shelf temperature, T(f), and chamber pressure, P(c), to achieve the shortest primary drying time. The constraint for the optimization is to ensure that the product temperature profile, T(b), is below the target temperature, T(target). Five percent mannitol was chosen as the model formulation. After obtaining the optimal sets of T(f) and P(c), each cycle was assigned with a cycle rank number in terms of the length of drying time. Further optimization was achieved by dividing the drying time into a series of ramping steps for T(f), in a cascading manner (termed the cascading T(f) cycle), to further shorten the cycle time. For the purpose of demonstrating the validity of the optimized T(f) and P(c), four cycles with different predicted lengths of drying time, along with the cascading T(f) cycle, were chosen for experimental cycle runs. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to continuously measure the sublimation rate. As predicted, maximum product temperatures were controlled slightly below the target temperature of -25 degrees C, and the cascading T(f)-ramping cycle is the most efficient cycle design. In addition, the experimental cycle rank order closely matches with that determined by modeling. PMID:19504575

  20. Amazonian vegetable oils and fats: fast typification and quality control via triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles from dry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Sérgio A; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Catharino, Rodrigo R

    2009-05-27

    Amazonian oils and fats display unique triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and, because of their economic importance as renewable raw materials and use by the cosmetic and food industries, are often subject to adulteration and forgery. Representative samples of these oils (andiroba, Brazil nut, buriti, and passion fruit) and fats (cupuaçu, murumuru, and ucuúba) were characterized without pre-separation or derivatization via dry (solvent-free) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Characteristic profiles of TAG were obtained for each oil and fat. Dry MALDI-TOF MS provides typification and direct and detailed information, via TAG profiles, of their variable combinations of fatty acids. A database from spectra could be developed and may be used for their fast and reliable typification, application screening, and quality control. PMID:19358529

  1. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies. PMID:20039220

  2. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery, called punctal cautery, is recommended to permanently close the drainage holes. The procedure helps keep the limited volume of tears on the eye for a longer period of time. In some patients with dry eye, supplements or dietary sources (such as tuna fish) of omega-3 fatty ...

  3. Steam drying -- Modeling and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmerstedt, R.; Hager, J.

    1996-08-01

    The concept of steam drying originates from the mid of the last century. However, a broad industrial acceptance of the technique has so far not taken place. The paper deals with modelling the steam drying process and applications of steam drying within certain industrial sectors where the technique has been deemed to have special opportunities. In the modelling section the mass and heat transfer processes are described along with equilibrium, capillarity and sorption phenomena occurring in porous materials during the steam drying process. In addition existing models in the literature are presented. The applications discussed involve drying of fuels with high moisture contents, cattle feed exemplified by sugar beet pulp, lumber, paper pulp, paper and sludges. Steam drying is compared to flue gas drying of biofuels prior to combustion in a boiler. With reference to a current installation in Sweden, the exergy losses, as manifested by loss of co-generation capacity, are discussed. The energy saving potential when using steam drying of sugar beet pulp as compared to other possible plant configurations is demonstrated. Mechanical vapor recompression applied to steam drying is analyzed with reference to reported data from industrial plants. Finally, environmental advantages when using steam drying are presented.

  4. Effects of idebenone on the intracellular water and dry mass content as well as of the intracellular monovalent ion concentrations of brain cortical cells of SHRsp rats as revealed by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Lustyik, G; Szállási, Z; Casoli, T; Zs -Nagy, I

    1990-01-01

    The cerebral cortex of ten male SHRsp rats kept in conventional housing conditions were studied. Starting from the age of 3 months, five animals received placebo (5% gum arabic solution) and five other rats received 50 mg/kg idebenone suspended in the gum arabic, through a gastric tube for 4 weeks (except Sundays). During the last 2 weeks of treatment, 0.9% NaCl was added to the drinking water. Several completely untreated SHRsp rats of various ages were also involved in these studies. Blood pressure was measured weekly on the tail by means of an appropriate instrument. Serious hypertension was observed already by the end of the second week of treatment, displaying values of 250-260 mm Hg and increased further by about 20 mm Hg during the last 2 weeks of treatment. Intracellular water, dry mass and monovalent electrolyte concentrations were measured by means of a bulk specimen X-ray microanalytic method. The brain cells contained 77+/-1% water and 23% dry mass by weight in both placebo and verum-treated groups. The intracellular Na(+) content of all the male SHRsp rats was found to be significantly higher (180-200%) in the brain cells, whereas K(+) content increased only moderately, when expressed as percent of the intracellular dry mass. Idebenone treatment, however, lowered the intracellular Na(+) content of the brain cells to a significant extent (about 20%), i.e., it improved the Na(+) tolerance of the SHRsp rats, but did not alter the blood pressure. PMID:15374475

  5. The bronchodilator response from inhaled terbutaline is influenced by the mass of small particles: a study on a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler).

    PubMed

    Persson, G; Wirén, J E

    1989-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate if particles approximately less than 5 microns are optimal when delivered from a dry powder inhaler. It was performed as a cumulative dose response study of twelve asthmatic adults. Three different versions of a dry powder inhaler, Bricanyl Turbuhaler, were studied. Each inhaler delivered 0.5 mg of pure terbutaline sulphate with each dose. Out of this 0.5 mg, they delivered 90 micrograms, 40 micrograms and 5 micrograms, respectively, of particles approximately less than 5 microns with each dose at an inspiratory flow rate of 28 l.min-1. Terbutaline 0.5 mg, 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg was inhaled with a 30 min interval between the doses. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured 5 and 20 min after each dose. The bronchodilator response was greater with the inhaler delivering 90 micrograms of small particles with each dose than with the inhaler delivering 5 micrograms, thus confirming the importance of small (approximately less than 5 microns) particles. PMID:2731603

  6. Drying Thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    In searching for an improved method of removing water from polyester type resins without damaging the materials, Conair Inc. turned to the NASA Center at the University of Pittsburgh for assistance. Taking an organized, thorough look at existing technology before beginning research has helped many companies save significant time and money. They searched the NASA and other computerized files for microwave drying of thermoplastics. About 300 relevant citations were retrieved - eight of which were identified as directly applicable to the problem. Company estimates it saved a minimum of a full year in compiling research results assembled by the information center.

  7. Drying in cyclones -- A review

    SciTech Connect

    Nebra, S.A.; Silva, M.A.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of vortex (or cyclone) dryers. The focus is on the potential of the cyclone configuration for drying of particulates. A selective review is made of the literature pertains to single phase and gas-particle flow in cyclone geometries. Recent data on drying of particulates in cyclone dryers are summarized. 56 refs.

  8. Quality Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham Made from Two Different Three-way Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Hong, Doo-Il; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical traits of dry-cured hams made from two different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc (YLD) and Yorkshire×Berkshire×Duroc (YBD). Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 110 to 120 kg and cooled at 0°C for 24 h in a chilling room, the ham portion of the carcasses were cut and processed by dry-curing for physico-chemical analyses. While the moisture and crude protein contents of dry-cured ham were higher in YLD than in YBD, crude fat and ash content were higher in YBD (p<0.05). The salt contents of ham from YBD were higher than those from YLD (p<0.05). YBD ham samples showed a higher L* and b* values than those from YLD, while YBD ham showed lower a* value (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of YLD hams were lower than those of YBD samples (p<0.05). Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and shear force values of YBD ham were higher than those of YLD sample (p<0.05). Saltiness was significantly higher in YBD ham than in YLD samples (p<0.05). YLD ham displayed a superior quality than YBD. Considering the meat quality parameters of two-way crossbred ham, YLD hams could be more suitable for the production of dry-cured products. PMID:26333670

  9. Comparison of Mercury Mass Loading in Streams to Wet and Dry Atmospheric Deposition in Watersheds of the Western US: Evidence for Non-Atmospheric Mercury Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, J. L.; Majewski, M. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Eckley, C.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams in the western United States (US) are listed as impaired by mercury (Hg), and it is important to understand the magnitudes of the various sources in order to implement management strategies. Atmospheric deposition of Hg and can be a major source of aquatic contamination, along with mine wastes, and other sources. Prior studies in the eastern US have shown that streams deliver less than 50% of the atmospherically deposited Hg on an annual basis. In this study, we compared annual stream Hg loads for 20 watersheds in the western US to measured wet and modeled dry deposition. Land use varies from undisturbed to mixed (agricultural, urban, forested, mining). Data from the Mercury Deposition Network was used to estimate Hg input from precipitation. Dry deposition was not directly measured, but can be modeled using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. At an undeveloped watershed in the Rocky Mountains, the ratio of stream Hg load to atmospheric deposition was 0.2 during a year of average precipitation. In contrast, at the Carson River in Nevada, with known Hg contamination from historical silver mining with Hg amalgamation, stream export exceeded atmospheric deposition by a factor of 60, and at a small Sierran watershed with gold mining, the ratio was 70. Larger watersheds with mixed land uses, tend to have lower ratios of stream export relative to atmospheric deposition suggesting storage of Hg. The Sacramento River was the largest watershed for which Hg riverine loads were available with an average ratio of stream Hg export to atmospheric deposition of 0.10. Although Hg was used in upstream historical mining operations, the downstream river Hg load is partially mitigated by reservoirs, which trap sediment. This study represents the first compilation of riverine Hg loads in comparison to atmospheric deposition on a regional scale; the approach may be useful in assessing the relative importance of atmospheric and non-atmospheric Hg sources.

  10. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Xerostomia Request Permissions Print to PDF Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  11. Evolution of testes characteristics in entire and immunocastrated male pigs from 30 to 120 kg live weight as assessed by computed tomography with perspective on boar taint.

    PubMed

    Font-i-Furnols, Maria; Carabús, Anna; Muñoz, Israel; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Gispert, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The present study addressed (1) the levels of boar taint compounds in entire (EM) and immunocastrated (IM) male pigs during their growth, (2) the evolution of testes volume and density and (3) the relationship between physical characteristics of the testes and boar taint compounds. For that purpose 24 EM and 20 IM pigs were CT scanned at several body weights (TBW). After each scanning a subsample of pigs was slaughtered, and subcutaneous fat was collected to determine androstenone and skatole concentration. Additional subsample (n=4/sex) was CT scanned 13 days after the second vaccination (V2). Testes density changes with growth, is different in EM and IM, but is not a reliable marker of the level of boar taint compounds. On the other hand, testes to body volume ratio is a better predictor for androstenone and could provide a good tool at slaughter plants to detect immunocastrated pigs with high boar taint compounds. PMID:26835834

  12. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of polyphenols and secoiridoids in california-style black ripe olives and dry salt-cured olives.

    PubMed

    Melliou, Eleni; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-03-11

    The chemical composition of finished table olive products is influenced by the olive variety and the processing method used to debitter or cure table olives. Herein, a rapid ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring, was developed for the quantitation of 12 predominant phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in olive fruit, including hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol-4-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, verbascoside, oleoside-11-methyl ester, 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and o-coumaric acids), oleuropein aglycone, and ligstroside aglycone. Levels of these compounds were measured in fresh and California-style black ripe processed Manzanilla olives and two dry salt-cured olive varieties (Mission from California and Throuba Thassos from Greece). Results indicate that the variety and debittering processing method have strong impact on the profile of phenolic and secoiridoid compounds in table olives. The dry salt-cured olives contained higher amounts of most compounds studied, especially oleuropein (1459.5 ± 100.1 μg/g), whereas California-style black ripe olives had a significant reduction or loss of these bioactive compounds (e.g., oleuropein level at 36.7 ± 3.1 μg/g). PMID:25668132

  13. Drum drying of fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmelen, D.; Moyne, C.; Perre, R.; Lebois, P.

    1997-10-01

    A study of drying of textile fabrics on a drum heated by natural gas burner is presented. In the first stage of study, the distribution of the heat flux over the outer surface of the drum is calculated by an analytical method. In the second stage, this heat flux is entered in a numerical code able to simulate the heat and mass transfers in porous media. The simulation results validate the analytical model assumptions. Special attention is paid to the contact resistance between the drum and the fabric.

  14. Comparison of the quantification of acetaminophen in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rachel R.; Hoffman, Keith L.; Schniedewind, Björn; Clavijo, Claudia; Galinkin, Jeffrey L.; Christians, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for the management of pain in children. Quantification of acetaminophen in pre-term and term neonates and small children requires the availability of highly sensitive assays in small volume blood samples. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of acetaminophen in human plasma, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and dried blood spots (DBS). Reconstitution in water (DBS only) and addition of a protein precipitation solution containing the deuterated internal standard were the only manual steps. Extracted samples were analyzed on a Kinetex 2.6 μm PFP column using an acetonitrile/formic acid gradient. The analytes were detected in the positive multiple reaction mode. Alternatively, DBS were automatically processed using direct desorption in a sample card and preparation (SCAP) robotic autosampler in combination with online extraction. The range of reliable response in plasma and CSF was 3.05-20,000 ng/ml (r2 > 0.99) and 27.4-20,000 ng/ml (r2 > 0.99) for DBS (manual extraction and automated direct desorption). Inter-day accuracy was always within 85-115% and inter-day precision for plasma, CSF and manually extracted DBS were less than 15%. Deming regression analysis comparing 167 matching pairs of plasma and DBS samples showed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. Bland Altman analysis indicated a 26.6% positive bias in DBS, most likely reflecting the blood: plasma distribution ratio of acetaminophen. DBS are a valid matrix for acetaminophen pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23670126

  15. Screening of degradation products, impurities and precursors of chemical warfare agents in water and wet or dry organic liquid samples by in-sorbent tube silylation followed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terzic, Oliver

    2010-07-23

    A standard method used by inspection teams of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for preparation of aqueous samples requires several extraction and derivatization steps. This results in tedious and time consuming on-site analysis. A simple thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to analyse for a broad range of degradation products, impurities and precursors of chemical warfare agents (CWA) in water solutions and wet or dry organic liquid samples. The method is fast, sensitive, requires only microliter volumes of sample and enables the simultaneous determination of a wide range of compounds with widely differing polarity, volatility and reactivity. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by successful analysis of five OPCW Official Proficiency Test samples. PMID:20541765

  16. Monitoring of volatile compound emissions during dry anaerobic digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste by Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Papurello, Davide; Soukoulis, Christos; Schuhfried, Erna; Cappellin, Luca; Gasperi, Flavia; Silvestri, Silvia; Santarelli, Massimo; Biasioli, Franco

    2012-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) formed during anaerobic digestion of aerobically pre-treated Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW), have been monitored over a 30 day period by a direct injection mass spectrometric technique: Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Most of the tentatively identified compounds exhibited a double-peaked emission pattern which is probably the combined result from the volatilization or oxidation of the biomass-inherited organic compounds and the microbial degradation of organic substrates. Of the sulfur compounds, hydrogen sulfide had the highest accumulative production. Alkylthiols were the predominant sulfur organic compounds, reaching their maximum levels during the last stage of the process. H(2)S formation seems to be influenced by the metabolic reactions that the sulfur organic compounds undergo, such as a methanogenesis induced mechanism i.e. an amino acid degradation/sulfate reduction. Comparison of different batches indicates that PTR-ToF-MS is a suitable tool providing information for rapid in situ bioprocess monitoring. PMID:23079412

  17. A Simple and Rapid Method Based on Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of α-L-Iduronidase Activity in Dried Blood Spots: An Application to Mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler) Screening

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jeong Soo; Min, Hye Kyeong; Oh, Hyeon Ju; Woo, Hye In; Lee, Soo-Youn; Kim, Jong-Won; Song, Junghan

    2015-01-01

    Background We developed an analytical method to measure α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity in dried blood spots. This was achieved by using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. Methods Chromatographic separation was completed using mobile phase involving water-formic acid and acetonitrile-formic acid over 2.8 min of run time on a column with a Kinetex XB-C18 (Phenomenex, USA). The detection of column effluent was performed using a Xevo TQ-S triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Waters, USA) in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. This method was verified with blank and control samples at four activity levels: base, low, medium, and high. Control materials were provided from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Results Intra- and inter-day precisions were between 2.6% and 16.5% and between 7.9% and 17.0%, respectively. A correlative regression study on the IDUA activity in CDC-control samples performed to assess the validity of the developed method showed a highly significant linear association (r2=0.9976) between the calculated and CDC-reported values and an obvious difference in activity among the four levels. This reliable analytical method was applied to mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler) screening of patients under treatment (n=4) and in normal controls (n=129). IDUA activity ranged from 8.98 to 77.12 µmol/hr/L) in normal controls, and patients undergoing medical treatment showed low IDUA activity. Conclusions This method had advantages of simplicity, rapid sample preparation, and liquid chromatographic separation, which efficiently inhibited ionization suppression induced by matrix effects in mass spectrometric detection. PMID:25553279

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Hot Air Drying of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulet, Antonio; Cárcel, Juan Andrés; García-Pérez, José Vicente; Riera, Enrique

    This chapter deals with the application of power ultrasound, also named high-intensity ultrasound, in the hot air drying of foods. The aim of ultrasound-assisted drying is to overcome some of the limitations of traditional convective drying systems, especially by increasing drying rate without reducing quality attributes. The effects of ultrasound on drying rate are responsible for some of the phenomena produced in the internal and/or external resistance to mass transfer.

  19. Effect of different drying methods on the quality of Angelicae Sinensis Radix evaluated through simultaneously determining four types of major bioactive components by high performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detector and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying-Jia; Kong, Ming; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Song-Lin

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of drying methods on the quality of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (DG), was evaluated by newly developed high performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). Ten major bioactive components including two phenolic acids, two hydroxyl phthalides, four alkyl phthalides and two phthalide dimers were selected as evaluation chemical markers and the newly-established method was qualitatively and quantitatively validated. DG slices and whole roots dried in shade, sun light, hot air, vacuum, microwave, far infrared ray and combination of microwave and far infrared ray as well as the fresh DG samples were determined by the established methods. DG slices dried in hot air kept the similar chemical composition to that of fresh DG, while DG whole roots dried in vacuum retained highest contents of the major components. Coniferyl ferulate and ligustilide degraded significantly in DG slices dried by microwave, far infrared ray and their combination. The influence of such chemical changes induced by different drying methods on the bioactivities of DG warrants further investigation, so that the optimal drying method can be obtained for the standardization of DG herb. PMID:24561333

  20. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1989-05-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during manufacture of paper and similar web products. Impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip where one of the rolls is heated to a very high temperature. Steam generated by contact with the hot roll expands and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is much lower than that required for conventional evaporative drying. Tests have been completed that elucidate the unique displacement mechanism of water removal in the impulse drying process. A pilot roll press has been designed, installed and used to examine impulse drying under conditions that simulate commercial press conditions. The results of this earlier work have been reported in three previous reports. During this report period October, 1987 to September, 1988, the pilot press was equipped with a second impulse drying roll to facilitate studies of surface uniformity in impulse dried paper. Studies have also been completed which examine the origins of sheet delamination that has been been encountered during impulse drying of certain heavyweight paper grades, and which investigate approaches to prevent delamination in these grades. Finally, an experimental plan has been formalized to examine impulse drying of lightweight grades which are candidates for early commercialization. 7 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  2. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  3. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  4. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  5. Vertical distribution of corn stover dry mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from biomass may reduce reliance on imported fossil fuel, increase revenue for farmers and rural communities, and reduce rates of greenhouse gas production. Corn stover and other crop biomass are viewed by the renewable energy industry as an inexpensive, "unused" source of feedsto...

  6. Development of a compact freeze vacuum drying for jelly fish (Schypomedusae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamid, M. Idrus; Yulianto, M.; Nasruddin

    2012-06-01

    A new design of a freeze vacuum drying with internal cooling and heater from condenser's heat loss was built and tested. The dryer was used to dry jelly fish (schypomedusae), to study the effect of drying parameters such as the temperature within the drying chamber on mass losses (evaporation) during the freezing stage and the moisture ratio at the end of the drying process. The midili thin layer mathematical drying model was used to estimate and predict the moisture ratio curve based on different drying chamber temperatures. This experiment shows that decreasing the drying chamber temperature with constant pressure results in less mass loss during the freezing stage Drying time was reduced with an increase in drying temperature. Decreasing the drying chamber temperature results in lower pressure saturation of the material has no effect of drying chamber pressure on mass transfer.

  7. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth ... Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you may have include: Mouth sores Thick ...

  8. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  9. Novel application of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the characterization of drying oils in art: Elucidation on the composition of original paint materials used by Edvard Munch (1863-1944).

    PubMed

    La Nasa, Jacopo; Zanaboni, Marco; Uldanck, Daniele; Degano, Ilaria; Modugno, Francesca; Kutzke, Hartmut; Tveit, Eva Storevik; Topalova-Casadiego, Biljana; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-01

    Modern oil paints, introduced at the beginning of the 20th century, differ from those classically used in antiquity in their chemical and compositional features. The main ingredients were still traditional drying oils, often used in mixtures with less expensive oils and added with several classes of additives. Consequently, detailed lipid profiling, together with the study of lipid degradation processes, is essential for the knowledge and the conservation of paint materials used in modern and contemporary art. A multi-analytical approach based on mass spectrometry was used for the study of original paint materials from Munch's atelier, owned by the Munch Museum in Oslo. The results obtained in the analysis of paint tubes were compared with those obtained by characterizing a paint sample collected from one of the artist's sketches for the decoration of the Festival Hall of the University of Oslo (1909-1916). Py-GC/MS was used as screening method to evaluate the presence of lipid, proteic or polysaccaridic materials. GC/MS after hydrolysis and derivatization allowed us to determine the fatty acid profile of the paint tubes, and to evaluate the molecular changes associated to curing and ageing. The determination of the fatty acid profile is not conclusive for the characterization of complex mixtures of lipid materials, thus the characterization of the triglyceride profiles was performed using an analytical procedure based on HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF. This paper describes the first application of HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF for the acquisition of the triglyceride profile in a modern paint sample, showing the potentialities of liquid chromatography in the field of lipid characterization in modern paint materials. Moreover, our results highlighted that the application of this approach can contribute to address dating, authenticity and conservation issues relative to modern and contemporary artworks. PMID:26482002

  10. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic ... mouth trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking a burning feeling in the mouth a dry feeling in the throat cracked lips ...

  11. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  12. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  13. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-01-01

    components include: a dry ice pellet supply, a non-reactive propellant gas source, a pellet and propellant metering device, and a media transport and acceleration hose and nozzle arrangement. Dry ice cleaning system operating parameters include: choice of propellant gas, its pressure and temperature, dry ice mass flow rate, dry ice pellet size and shape, and acceleration nozzle configuration. These parameters may be modified to fit different applications. The growth of the dry ice cleaning industry will depend upon timely data acquisition of the effects that independent changes in these parameters have on cleaning rates, with respect to different surface coating and substrate combinations. With this data, optimization of cleaning rates for particular applications will be possible. The analysis of the applicable range of modulation of these parameters, within system component mechanical constraints, has just begun.

  14. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    components include: a dry ice pellet supply, a non-reactive propellant gas source, a pellet and propellant metering device, and a media transport and acceleration hose and nozzle arrangement. Dry ice cleaning system operating parameters include: choice of propellant gas, its pressure and temperature, dry ice mass flow rate, dry ice pellet size and shape, and acceleration nozzle configuration. These parameters may be modified to fit different applications. dry ice cleaning industry will depend upon timely data acquisition of the effects that independent changes in these parameters have on cleaning rates, with respect to different surface coating and substrate combinations. &With this data, optimization of cleaning rates for particular applications will be possible. The analysis of the applicable range of modulation of these parameters, within system component mechanical constraints, has just begun.

  15. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1990-09-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. Impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. Hence, it has been projected that wide commercialization of impulse drying would result in at least a 10% industry-wide energy saving. This report covers work completed between October, 1988 and September, 1989. During this period, pilot press trails demonstrated that newsprint as well as linerboard experience delamination. Hence, the major focus of the research was the resolution of the delamination problem. In order to document potential process improvements, measurement methods were developed to quantify sheet delamination. Using these methods, low thermal diffusivity ceramic roll surfaces were shown to extend the range of impulse drying operating conditions while avoiding sheet delamination. As compared to steel surfaces, ceramics were found to provide significantly higher water volume without inducing sheet delamination. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Development of a multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides in cereals and dry animal feed using gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry II. Improvement and extension to new analytes.

    PubMed

    Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2008-10-24

    This paper describes the extension and re-validation of a previously published multi-residue method to currently 140 pesticides and 4 pesticide degradation products in cereals and feedingstuffs. The pesticides were extracted using buffered QuEChERS ("quick, easy, cheap, rugged, effective and safe") method and then cleaned up using dispersive solid-phase extraction with Bondesil PSA and C18 sorbents, and optionally by a freezing-out clean-up step. The final extracts were analyzed in a single injection gas chromatographic-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC-MS/MS) acquisition method. A high degree of confidence was achieved by entering two multiple reaction monitoring transitions per compound. In this way, quantification of analytical results and unequivocal identification of pesticide residues in compliance with the recent European Union criteria could be done in a single analysis. Thorough optimization of the GC-MS/MS acquisition conditions and application of an effective clean-up procedure has resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the validation parameters. The linearity of the calibration curves was excellent in matrix-matched standards, and yielded the coefficients of determination (R(2))> or =0.99 for approximately 96% of the target analytes. Average recoveries of the pesticides spiked at 0.01mgkg(-1) into a feed mixture and wheat grain were in the range 70-120% with associated RSD values < or =20% for approximately 60% and 67% of the compounds, respectively. At the higher spiking levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5mgkg(-1) average recoveries and RSDs readily met the validation criteria for nearly all the studied pesticides. Based on these results, the proposed approach has been proven to be highly efficient and suitable for routine determinations of multi-class pesticides in a range of cereal and related matrices. Up to now, 145 samples of matrices of differing complexity including cereals grain, bran, whole ears, straw, hay, feed mixtures and other samples

  17. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  18. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  19. Dry pressing technical ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.A. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Dry pressing of technical ceramics is a fundamental method of producing high-quality ceramic components. The goals of dry pressing technical ceramics are uniform compact size and green density, consistent part-to-part green density and defect-free compact. Dry pressing is the axial compaction of loosely granulated dry ceramic powders (< 3% free moisture) within a die/punch arrangement. The powder, under pressure, conforms to the specific shape of the punch faces and die. Powder compaction occurs within a rigid-walled die and usually between a top and bottom punch. Press configurations include anvil, rotary, multiple-punch and multiple-action.

  20. On the drying of food products in a tunnel dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.; Hawlader, M.N.A.; Chua, K.J.

    1997-03-01

    The authors present a dryer model for simulating the drying of hygroscopic-porous food products in a tunnel dryer. The model employs an improved receding-front formulation by taking into consideration the material volumetric shrinkage and the variation of the heat and mass transfer coefficient during drying. Predicted results show close agreement when compared with experimental data. The authors report a parametric analysis using the dryer model to study the drying transient and the need to cascade the drying process so as to maximize the drying potential of the air stream.

  1. To Dry Or Not To Dry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, Audrey E.

    1977-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most frustrating problems which confront many teachers is lack of adequate drying space or facilities for prints, paintings and three-dimensional art activities. Suggests requirements necessary for an adequate storage unit and how to construct one. (Author/RK)

  2. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  3. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  4. Dry imaging cameras

    PubMed Central

    Indrajit, IK; Alam, Aftab; Sahni, Hirdesh; Bhatia, Mukul; Sahu, Samaresh

    2011-01-01

    Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow. PMID:21799589

  5. Packaged kiln dried firewood

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrara, A.

    1986-07-01

    A process is described for kiln drying firewood consisting of essentially uniform lengths of split firewood pieces, the process comprising splitting essentially uniform lengths of green tree logs to form firewood pieces, placing the firewood pieces in open mesh bags to provide a plurality of bags of firewood, placing the plurality of bags of green firewood pieces in a kiln drying oven, kiln drying the pieces at temperatures in excess of 150/sup 0/F. by moving heated air over the pieces until the pieces have an overall moisture content ranging from 15% up to 30% by weight, operating the kiln at a temperature below a level which would render the structural characteristics of the bag useless and removing the kiln dried firewood pieces in the plurality of bags from the kiln drying oven.

  6. Mechanisms of Drying of Skin Forming Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Haydar Mahmood

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The literature relating to evaporation from single droplets of pure liquids, and to the drying of droplets containing solids and of droplet sprays has been reviewed. The heat and mass transfer rates for a single droplet suspended from a nozzle were studied within a 42mm I.D. horizontal wind tunnel designed to supply hot dry air, to simulate conditions encountered in practical spray dryer. A novel rotating glass nozzle was developed to facilitate direct measurements of droplet weight and core temperature. This design minimised heat conduction through the nozzle. Revised correlations were obtained for heat and mass transfer coefficients, for evaporation from pure water droplets suspended from a rotating nozzle. (UNFORMATTED TABLE OR EQUATION FOLLOWS)eqalign {rm Nu&= rm 2.0 + 0.27 ({1over B})^{0.18}Re^{0.5}Pr ^{0.33}crrm Sh&= rm 2.0 + 0.575({Ta-Ts over Tamb})^{ -0.04}Re^{0.5}Sc^{0.33 }cr}(TABLE/EQUATION ENDS)Experimental drying studies were carried out on single droplets of different types of skin-forming materials, namely, custard, starch, gelatin, skim milk and fructose at air temperatures ranging from 19^circC to 198 ^circC. Dried crusts were recovered and examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Skin-forming materials were classified into three types according to the mechanisms of skin formation. In the first type (typified by droplets of custard and starch) skin formed due to gelatinisation at high temperatures. Increasing the drying temperature resulted in increased crust resistance to mass transfer due to increased granule swelling and the crust resistance was completely transferred to a skin resistance at drying temperatures >150 ^circC. In the second type e.g. gelatin droplets the skin formed immediately drying had taken place at any drying temperature. At drying temperature >60^circC a more resistant skin was formed. In the third type (typified by droplets of skim milk and fructose) the skin

  7. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  8. Ultrasonic Drying Processing Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, V.; Bon, J.; Riera, E.; Pinto, A.

    The design of a high intensity ultrasonic chamber for drying process was investigated. The acoustic pressure distribution in the ultrasonic drying chamber was simulated solving linear elastic models with attenuation for the acoustic-structure interaction. Together with the government equations, the selection of appropriate boundary conditions, mesh refinement, and configuration parameters of the calculation methods, which is of great importance to simulate adequately the process, were considered. Numerical solution, applying the finite element method (FEM), of acoustic-structure interactions involves to couple structural and fluid elements (with different degrees of freedom), whose solution implies several problems of hardware requirements and software configuration, which were solved. To design the drying chamber, the influence of the directivity of the drying open camera and the staggered reflectors over the acoustic pressure distribution was analyzed. Furthermore, to optimize the influence of the acoustic energy on the drying process, the average value of the acoustic energy distribution in the drying chamber was studied. This would determine the adequate position of the food samples to be dried. For this purpose, the acoustic power absorbed by the samples will be analyzed in later studies.

  9. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  10. Exergetic simulation of a combined infrared-convective drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza

    2016-04-01

    Optimal design and performance of a combined infrared-convective drying system with respect to the energy issue is extremely put through the application of advanced engineering analyses. This article proposes a theoretical approach for exergy analysis of the combined infrared-convective drying process using a simple heat and mass transfer model. The applicability of the developed model to actual drying processes was proved using an illustrative example for a typical food.

  11. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  12. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  13. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  14. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  15. Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment for freeze-drying fruits and vegetables which aims to expose college students to the principles of drying and simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The experimental apparatus, procedure of the experiment, and data analysis are also included. (HM)

  16. Development of spray dried liposomal dry powder inhaler of Dapsone.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Mahavir; Padhi, Bijay; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate practical feasibility of site specific pulmonary delivery of liposomal encapsulated Dapsone (DS) dry powder inhaler for prolonged drug retention in lungs as an effective alternative in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) associated with immunocompromised patients. DS encapsulated liposomes were prepared by thin film evaporation technique and resultant liposomal dispersion was passed through high pressure homogenizer. DS nano-liposomes (NLs) were separated by ultra centrifugation and characterized. NLs were dispersed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.4 containing different carriers like lactose, sucrose, and hydrolyzed gelatin, and 15% L-leucine as antiadherent. The resultant dispersion was spray dried and spray dried formulation were characterized to ascertain its performance. In vitro pulmonary deposition was assessed using Andersen Cascade Impactor as per USP. NLs were found to have average size of 137 +/- 15 nm, 95.17 +/- 3.43% drug entrapment, and zeta potential of 0.8314 +/- 0.0827 mV. Hydrolyzed gelatin based formulation was found to have low density, good flowability, particle size of 7.9 +/- 1.1 microm, maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) of 75.6 +/- 1.6%, mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 2.2 +/- 0.1 microm, and geometric standard deviation (GSD) 2.3 +/- 0.1. Developed formulations were found to have in vitro prolonged drug release up to 16 h, and obeys Higuchi's Controlled Release model. The investigation provides a practical approach for direct delivery of DS encapsulated in NLs for site specific controlled and prolonged release behavior at the site of action and hence, may play a promising role in prevention of PCP. PMID:18446460

  17. Drying of porous materials in a medium with variable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Y. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an application of the Luikov system of heat and mass transfer equations in dimensionless form to predict the temperature and moisture distributions in a slab of capillary-porous material during drying. The heat and mass potentials of the external medium in the boundary conditions are assumed to vary linearly with time. The method of solution is illustrated by considering the drying of a slab of lumber. Numerical results based on the estimated thermophysical properties of spruce are presented.

  18. Dry Dock No. 3. View of head of Dry Dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dry Dock No. 3. View of head of Dry Dock with stair to right of shot. View facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 3, On northern shoreline of shipyard, west of Dry Dock Nos. 1 & 2, near the intersection of Avenue G and Sixth Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Influence of the drying medium parameters on drying induced stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Musielak, G.

    2000-03-01

    A thermomechanical model of drying of capillary-porous materials whose material constants depend on moisture content and temperature is presented in the paper. The finite element method is used for the solution of two-dimensional problem of convective drying of a prismatic bar. The moisture distributions, temperature distributions, drying induced strains and stresses for various drying medium parameters are determined. The effect of these parameters on moisture distribution and in particular on drying induced stresses is discussed.

  20. Cocoon drying through solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulunk, M.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, silk cocoon drying operations through solar energy have been presented. Nearly no comprehensive work has been appeared in literature on this unusual application. General mechanism of solar drying methods are presented by some authors for instance, Roman and Jindal. This application seems vitally significant for silk cocoon producer countries like Turkey. The rate of production accelerates year by year and it is about 3000 tons per year presently in Turkey. In Turkey, by now and currently, a water vapour chamber is utilized in the killing process of silkworm. Vapour produced by burning of conventional fuels posses many drawbacks beside being very expensive and also non-renewable. Vapour effects the quality and quantity of silk thread negatively. For instance, the colour of silk cocoon tends to turn to pale instead of being gleamy. This is not tolerable. The length and mass of silk thread obtained per a typical cocoon sample is increased about 10.1 and 16.5 per cent respectively in the average by using solar energy.

  1. Dry anaerobic methane fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W.J.; Dell'Orto, S.; Fanfoni, K.J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of relatively dry organics directly to biogas increases the potential of using large amounts of organics such as mixtures of crop residues and animal manures on the farm, crop residues, and urban solid wastes. Besides the use of the dry fermentation process on farms and in centralized facilities, the possibility of using this concept as a residential energy generating system exists. Existing crop residues can be used to generate biogas without major water needs problems. Requirements for an efficient reaction include initial solid content less than 30%, an active methanogenic slurry addition of 40% dry weight (depending on the substrate), and a reaction period of 60-300 days, depending on the reactor temperatures. Further analyses are required to clarify the controlling parameters and the economic feasibility.

  2. Magnetically responsive dry fluids.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J O

    2013-08-21

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. PMID:23831769

  3. Magnetically responsive dry fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid.Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01784b

  4. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  5. Experimental study on drying kinetic of cassava starch in a pneumatic drying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suherman, Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Kusworo, Tutuk Djoko

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are to present the experimental research on the drying of cassava starch in a pneumatic dryer, to describe its drying curves, as well as to calculate its thermal efficiency. The effects of operating conditions, namely the inlet air temperature (60-100 °C) and solid-gas flow rate ratio (Ms/Mg 0.1-0.3) were studied. Heat transfer is accomplished through convection mechanism in a drying chamber based on the principle of direct contact between the heated air and the moist material. During the drying process, intensive heat and mass transfer between the drying air and the cassava starch take place. In order to meet the SNI standards on solid water content, the drying process was done in two cycles. The higher the temperature of the drying air, the lower the water content of the solids exiting the dryer. Thermal efficiency of the 2nd cycle was found to be lower than the 1st cycle.

  6. Drying Mechanisms in Plasticized Latex Films: Role of Horizontal Drying Fronts.

    PubMed

    Divry, V; Gromer, A; Nassar, M; Lambour, C; Collin, D; Holl, Y

    2016-07-14

    This article presents studies on the drying kinetics of latexes with particles made progressively softer by adding increasing amounts of a plasticizer, in relation to speeds of horizontal drying fronts and particle deformation mechanisms. Global drying rates were measured by gravimetry, and speeds of the horizontal fronts were recorded using a video camera and image processing. Particle deformation mechanisms were inferred using the deformation map established by Routh and Russel (RR). This required precise measurements of the rheological properties of the polymers using a piezorheometer. The results show that latexes with softer particles dry slowly, but in our systems, this is not due to skin formation. A correlation between global drying rates and speeds of horizontal fronts could be established and interpreted in terms of the evolution of mass transfer coefficients of water in different areas of the drying system. The speeds of the horizontal drying fronts were compared with the RR model. A remarkable qualitative agreement of the curve shapes was observed; however, the fit could not be considered good. These results call for further research efforts in modeling and simulation. PMID:27244562

  7. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  8. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen in dried blood spots--development, validation and clinical application during breast cancer adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Marina Venzon; Raymundo, Suziane; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Staudt, Dilana Elisabeth; Gössling, Gustavo; Peteffi, Giovana Piva; Biazús, Jorge Villanova; Cavalheiro, José Antônio; Tre-Hardy, Marie; Capron, Arnaud; Haufroid, Vincent; Wallemacq, Pierre; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Linden, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A LC-MSMS method for the simultaneous determination of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen in dried blood spots samples was developed and validated. The method employs an ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction and a reversed phase separation in an Acquity(®) C18 column (150×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm). Mobile phase was a mixture of formic acid 0.1% (v/v) pH 2.7 and acetonitrile (gradient from 60:40 to 50:50, v/v). Total analytical run time was 8 min. Precision assays showed CV % lower than 10.75% and accuracy in the range 94.5 to 110.3%. Mean analytes recoveries from DBS ranged from 40% to 92%. The method was successfully applied to 91 paired clinical DBS and plasma samples. Dried blood spots concentrations were highly correlated to plasma, with rs>0.83 (P<0.01). Median estimated plasma concentrations after hematocrit and partition factor adjustment were: TAM 123.3 ng mL(-1); NDT 267.9 ng mL(-1), EDF 10.0 ng mL(-1) and HTF 1.3 ng mL(-1,) representing in average 98 to 104% of the actually measured concentrations. The DBS method was able to identify 96% of patients with plasma EDF concentrations below the clinical threshold related to better prognosis (5.9 ng mL(-1)). The procedure has adequate analytical performance and can be an efficient tool to optimize adjuvant breast cancer treatment, especially in resource limited settings. PMID:25476377

  9. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  10. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  11. Cooling of dried coal

    SciTech Connect

    Siddoway, M.A.

    1988-06-14

    This patent describes a process for noncombustibly drying particulate coal comprising: separating the coal into two wet coal streams; passing one wet coal system into a dryer to form a bed; heating air in a furnace; admitting the heated air to the dryer to fluidize the bed; withdrawing dryer exhaust gas; passing the exhaust gas through a cyclone and withdrawing coal fines from the cyclone; withdrawing a hot, dry coal stream from the dryer; blending the drier hot dry coal stream with the cyclone coal fines; withdrawing cyclone exhaust gas; wet scrubbing the cyclone exhaust gas to form a coal fines slurry and scrubber exhaust gas; passing the coal fines slurry to a sedimentation pool; blending the second wet coal stream with the drier hot dry coal stream and the cyclone coal fines; passing the latter blended stream to a cooler to form a bed; fluidizing the latter bed with ambient air; withdrawing cooler exhaust gas and passing the gas to a cyclone; passing exhaust gas from the latter cyclone to a baghouse and collecting coal fines therein; passing the latter coal fines to the furnace as fuel for heating the air; and withdrawing cooled coal from the cooler and blending the cooled coal with coal fines from the latter cyclone.

  12. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  13. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  14. Scaling theory of drying in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Tsimpanogiannis, I.N.; Yortsos, Y.C.; Poulou, S.; Kanellopoulos, N.; Stubos, A.K.

    1999-04-01

    Concepts of immiscible displacements in porous media driven by mass transfer are utilized to model drying of porous media. Visualization experiments of drying in two-dimensional glass micromodels are conducted to identify pore-scale mechanisms. Then, a pore network approach is used to analyze the advancing drying front. It is shown that in a porous medium, capillarity induces a flow that effectively limits the extent of the front, which would otherwise be of the percolation type, to a finite width. In conjuction with the predictions of a macroscale stable front, obtained from a linear stability analysis, the process is shown to be equivalent to invasion percolation in a stabilizing gradient. A power-law scaling relation of the front width with a diffusion-based capillary number is also obtained. This capillary number reflects the fact that drying is controlled by diffusion in contrast to external drainage. The scaling exponent predicted is compatible with the experimental results of Shaw [Phys Rev. Lett. {bold 59}, 1671 (1987)]. A framework for a continuum description of the upstream drying regimes is also developed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Drying characteristics and modeling of yam slices under different relative humidity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying characteristics of yam slices under different 23 constant relative humidity (RH) and step-down RH levels were studied. A mass transfer model was developed based on Bi-Di correlations containing a drying coefficient and a lag factor to describe the drying process. It was validated using ex...

  16. Dry etching of metallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, D.

    1983-01-01

    The production dry etch processes are reviewed from the perspective of microelectronic fabrication applications. The major dry etch processes used in the fabrication of microelectronic devices can be divided into two categories - plasma processes in which samples are directly exposed to an electrical discharge, and ion beam processes in which samples are etched by a beam of ions extracted from a discharge. The plasma etch processes can be distinguished by the degree to which ion bombardment contributes to the etch process. This, in turn is related to capability for anisotropic etching. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) and Ion Beam Etching are of most interest for etching of thin film metals. RIE is generally considered the best process for large volume, anisotropic aluminum etching.

  17. An unusually dry story.

    PubMed

    Rajagopala, Srinivas; Danigeti, Gurukiran; Subrahmanyan, Dharanipragada

    2015-09-01

    We present a middle-aged woman with a prior history of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorder who presented with an acute onset quadriparesis and respiratory failure. The evaluation revealed distal renal tubular acidosis with hypokalemia and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Weakness persisted despite potassium correction, and ongoing evaluation confirmed recurrent CNS and long-segment spinal cord demyelination with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. There was no history of dry eyes or dry mouth. Anti-Sjogren's syndrome A antigen antibodies were elevated, and there was reduced salivary flow on scintigraphy. Coexistent antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with inferior vena cava thrombosis was also found on evaluation. The index patient highlights several rare manifestations of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) as the presenting features and highlights the differential diagnosis of the clinical syndromes in which pSS should be considered in the Intensive Care Unit. PMID:26430343

  18. An unusually dry story

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopala, Srinivas; Danigeti, Gurukiran; Subrahmanyan, Dharanipragada

    2015-01-01

    We present a middle-aged woman with a prior history of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorder who presented with an acute onset quadriparesis and respiratory failure. The evaluation revealed distal renal tubular acidosis with hypokalemia and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Weakness persisted despite potassium correction, and ongoing evaluation confirmed recurrent CNS and long-segment spinal cord demyelination with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. There was no history of dry eyes or dry mouth. Anti-Sjogren's syndrome A antigen antibodies were elevated, and there was reduced salivary flow on scintigraphy. Coexistent antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with inferior vena cava thrombosis was also found on evaluation. The index patient highlights several rare manifestations of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) as the presenting features and highlights the differential diagnosis of the clinical syndromes in which pSS should be considered in the Intensive Care Unit. PMID:26430343

  19. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE?s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  20. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  1. Drying of fiber webs

    DOEpatents

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  2. Drying of fiber webs

    DOEpatents

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  3. Dry dock no. 4. Service Building between dry docks 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dry dock no. 4. Service Building between dry docks 4 and 5. Floor plans (Navy Yard Public Works Office 1941). In files of Cushman & Wakefield, building 501. Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Service Building, Dry Docks No. 4 & 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-04-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future. PMID:26507489

  5. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more concentrated in the tear film of dry eye patients. In hot weather, sleep with the windows shut and keep cool with air conditioning. • Dry eye patients often develop or aggravate allergies. An ...

  6. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause dry mouth. Symptoms you may have include: Mouth sores Thick and stringy saliva Cuts or cracks in ... air dry between brushings. If toothpaste makes your mouth sore, brush with a solution of 1 teaspoon of ...

  7. Non isothermal drying process optimisation - Drying of clay tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2015-11-01

    In our previous studies we have developed a model for determination of the variable effective diffusivity and identification of the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms. The next goal was to develop a drying regime which could in advance characterize the real non isothermal process of drying clay tiles. In order to do this four isothermal experiments were recorded. Temperature and humidity were maintained at 350C / 75%; 450C / 70%; 450C / 60% and 500C / 60%; respectively in each experiment. All experimentally collected data were analyzed and the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms were detected. Characteristic drying period (time) for each isothermal drying mechanism was also detected. The real, non-isothermal drying process was approximated by 5 segments. In each of these segments approximately isothermal drying condition were maintained. Temperature and humidity of the drying air, in the first four segments, was maintained on the same level as in recorded isothermal experiments while in the fifth segment, it were maintained at 700C / 40%. The duration of the first four segments were calculated from the diagrams Deff - t respectively for each experiment. The clay tile in experiment five was dried without cracking using the proposed non isothermal drying regime.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique. PMID:25874695

  9. Electrohydrodynamic Drying of Carrot Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Changjiang; Lu, Jun; Song, Zhiqing

    2015-01-01

    Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique. PMID:25874695

  10. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  11. Dry sand foam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Edgley, K.D.; Stromberg, J.L.

    1988-10-25

    A method of generating a foam containing particulate material for treating a subsurface earth formation penetrated by a well bore, the method comprising: (a) introducing a first stream of pressurized gas having dry particulate material entrained therein into a vessel, the particulate material flowing vertically downward into the vessel, at least in part due to the action of gravity; (b) introducing a second stream of liquid into the vessel; (c) varying the second stream into a self-impinging conical jet; (d) impinging the conical jet onto the first stream and thereby forming a foam containing particulate material; and (e) injecting such a foam into the well bore.

  12. Method of drying articles

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  13. Mass Properties for Space Systems Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Current Verbiage in S-120 Applies to Dry Mass. Mass Margin is difference between Required Mass and Predicted Mass. Performance Margin is difference between Predicted Performance and Required Performance. Performance estimates and corresponding margin should be based on Predicted Mass (and other inputs). Contractor Mass Margin reserved from Performance Margin. Remaining performance margin allocated according to mass partials. Compliance can be evaluated effectively by comparison of three areas (preferably on a single sheet). Basic and Predicted Mass (including historical trend). Aggregate potential changes (threats and opportunities) which gives Mass Forecast. Mass Maturity by category (Estimated/Calculated/Actual).

  14. Pattern formation in drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, D.; Sobac, B.; Loquet, B.; Sampol, J.

    2011-01-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood exhibits coupled physical mechanisms, such as Marangoni flow, evaporation and wettability. The final stage of a whole blood drop evaporation reveals regular patterns with a good reproducibility for a healthy person. Other experiments on anaemic and hyperlipidemic people were performed, and different patterns were revealed. The flow motion inside the blood drop is observed and analyzed with the use of a digital camera: the influence of the red blood cells (RBCs) motion is revealed at the drop periphery as well as its consequences on the final stage of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of the dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of haematology. The blood drop evaporation process is evidenced to be driven only by Marangoni flow. The same axisymetric pattern formation is observed, and can be forecast for different blood drop diameters. The evaporation mass flux can be predicted with a good agreement, assuming only the knowledge of the colloids mass concentration.

  15. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  16. Dry EEG Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gordo, M. A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Valle, F. Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications. PMID:25046013

  17. Impact of Variety and Agronomic Factors on Crude Protein and Total Lysine in Chicory; N(ε)-Carboxymethyl-lysine-Forming Potential during Drying and Roasting.

    PubMed

    Loaëc, Grégory; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Henry, Nicolas; Jacolot, Philippe; Jouquand, Céline; Janssens, Myriam; Hance, Philippe; Cadalen, Thierry; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Desprez, Bruno; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2015-12-01

    During the heat treatment of coffee and its substitutes some compounds potentially deleterious to health are synthesized by the Maillard reaction. Among these, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) was detected at high levels in coffee substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of changes in agricultural practice on the lysine content present in chicory roots and try to limit CML formation during roasting. Of the 24 varieties analyzed, small variations in lysine content were observed, 213 ± 8 mg/100 g dry matter (DM). The formation of lysine tested in five commercial varieties was affected by the nitrogen treatment with mean levels of 176 ± 2 mg/100 g DM when no fertilizer was added and 217 ± 7 mg/100 g DM with a nitrogen supply of 120 kg/ha. The lysine content of fresh roots was significantly correlated to the concentration of CML formed in roasted roots (r = 0.51; p < 0.0001; n = 76). PMID:26548778

  18. Comparative study of ¹³C composition in ethanol and bulk dry wine using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry and by nuclear magnetic resonance as an indicator of vine water status.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Gaillard, Laetitia; Grand, Mathilde; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The potential of wine (13)C isotope composition (δ(13)C) is presented to assess vine water status during grape ripening. Measurements of δ(13)C have been performed on a set of 32 authentic wines and their ethanol recovered after distillation. The data, obtained by isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyser (irm-EA/MS), show a high correlation between δ(13)C of the bulk wine and its ethanol, indicating that the distillation step is not necessary when the wine has not been submitted to any oenological treatment. Therefore, the ethanol/wine δ(13)C correlation can be used as an indicator of possible enrichment of the grape must or the wine with exogenous organic compounds. Wine ethanol δ(13)C is correlated to predawn leaf water potential (R(2) = 0.69), indicating that this parameter can be used as an indicator of vine water status. Position-specific (13)C analysis (PSIA) of ethanol extracted from wine, performed by isotope ratio monitoring by nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR), confirmed the non-homogenous repartition of (13)C on ethanol skeleton. It is the δ(13)C of the methylene group of ethanol, compared to the methyl moiety, which is the most correlated to predawn leaf water potential, indicating that a phase of photorespiration of the vine during water stress period is most probably occurring due to stomata closure. However, position-specific (13)C analysis by irm-(13)C NMR does not offer a greater precision in the assessment of vine water status compared to direct measurement of δ(13)C on bulk wine by irm-EA/MS. PMID:26438472

  19. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying of the Chinese wolfberry fruits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maosheng; Ding, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    The conventional methods of drying Chinese wolfberry fruits cause loss of active ingredients and the drying time is very long. In order to explore and investigate the new method of drying Chinese wolfberry fruits, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying system was used to drying for Chinese wolfberry fruits with a multiple needle-to-plate electrode on five levels alternating voltage at 0, 20, 24, 28 and 32 kV and a multiple needle-to-plate electrode on a level direct voltage at 28 kV. The drying rate, the moisture rate, shrinkage rate, rehydration ratio, and Vitamin C contents of Chinese wolfberry were measured. Ten different mathematical drying models were also determined and compared to simulate drying curves based on the root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and the coefficient of correlation. Each drying treatment was carried out at (25 ± 2) °C, the drying relative humidity was (30 ± 5) % and all samples were dehydrated until they reached the final moisture content (17 ± 1)/100 g. The results showed that the drying rate of Chinese wolfberry was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and improved by 1.8777, 2.0017, 2.3676 and 2.6608 times, respectively, at 20, 24, 28 and 32 kV, compared to that of the control in the 5 h. The drying rate with multiple needles-to-plate electrode under AC electric field is faster than that with a multiple needle-to-plate electrode under DC electric field and the mass transfer enhancement factor heightened with the increase of voltage. The EHD drying treatments have a significant effect on rehydration ratio, and Vitamin C contents of Chinese wolfberry, but no significant differences was observed in shrinkage rate of Chinese wolfberry. The specific energy consumption of EHD drying (kJ·kg(-1) water) were significantly influenced by the alternating voltage, it heightened with the increase of voltage. The Parabolic model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of

  20. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  1. Numerical Modeling of Drying Residual RP-1 in Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Polsgrove, Robert; Tiller, Bruce; Rodriquez, Pete (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When a Rocket Engine shuts down under a fuel rich environment, a significant amount of unburned RP-1 is trapped In the engine. It is necessary to clean the residual RP-1 prior to subsequent firing to avoid any explosion due to detonation. The conventional method is to dry RP-1 with inert gas such as Nitrogen or Helium. It is difficult to estimate the drying time unless the engine is adequately equipped with instruments to measure the trace of RP-1 during the drying process. Such instrumentation in flight hardware is often impractical and costly. On the other hand numerical modeling of the drying process can provide a good insight for a satisfactory operation of the process. A numerical model can provide answer to questions such as a) how long it takes to dry, b) which fluid is a better dryer for RP-1, c) how to reduce drying time etc. The purpose of the present paper is to describe a numerical model of drying RP-1 trapped in a cavity with flowing nitrogen or helium. The numerical model assumes one dimensional flow of drying fluid in contact with liquid pool of RP-1. An evaporative mass transfer takes place across the contact surface.

  2. Nanoliposomal Dry Powder Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Gaurang; Chougule, Mahavir; Singh, Mandip; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2013-01-01

    Liposomal dry powder formulations (DPFs) have proven their superiority over conventional DPFs due to favorably improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of entrapped drugs, and thus, reduced local and systemic toxicities. Nanoliposomal DPFs (NLDPFs) provide stable, high aerosolization efficiency to deep lung, prolonged drug release, slow systemic dilution, and avoid macrophage uptake of encapsulated drug by carrier-based delivery of nano-range liposomes. This chapter describes methods of preparation of nanoliposomes (NLs) and NLDPFs, using various techniques, and their characterization with respect to size distribution, flow behavior, in vitro drug release profile, lung deposition, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Some examples have been detailed for better understanding of the methods of preparation and evaluation of NLDPFs by investigators. PMID:19903555

  3. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface.

    The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  4. Effect of the applied drying method on the physical properties of purple carrot pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiszewska, E.; Witrowa-Rajchert, D.; Kidoń, M.; Czapski, J.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different drying methods on selected physical properties of pomace obtained from purple carrot cv. Deep Purple. Drying was performed using four methods: convective, microwave-convective, infrared-convective and freeze-drying. The freeze-dried material had the lowest apparent density (422 kg m-3), which was caused by slight shrinkage, and indicated high porosity. Apparent density was almost three times greater in dried materials produced using the other drying methods as compared to the freeze-dried variants. Freeze-dried pomace adsorbed vapour more quickly than the other dried variants, which was caused by its high porosity and relatively low degree of structural damage. Rehydration characteristicswere significantly affected by the dryingmethod. The highest mass increase and losses of soluble substance were recorded for the freeze-dried samples. Conversely, the traditional convective drying method resulted in the lowest mass increase and soluble substance leaching. A positive linear correlation was found between the loss of soluble dry substance components and the absorbance of liquid obtained during rehydration.

  5. Drying of a model soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, P.; Coussot, P.

    2010-09-01

    Drying experiments have been carried out with model soils made of different pastes filling granular packings. A detailed information concerning the time evolution of the water saturation distribution inside the sample was obtained from magnetic resonance imaging measurements. This study makes it possible to understand the physical origin of the drying characteristics of these materials. The drying curves exhibit a constant-rate period (CRP) and a falling-rate period (FRP) but the relative durations of these periods depend on the paste structure. With a kaolin suspension the CRP lasts down to very low water densities and is associated with a homogeneous drying of the paste throughout the sample. With a bentonite suspension the CRP is shorter and the drying in the FRP results from a complex process involving fractures progressing downward through the pasty matrix. With a gel the CRP period is even shorter and the drying in the FRP results from the progression of a dry front through the packing as a result of the shrinkage of the gel matrix. This provides an overview of the main possible processes at work when drying a soil as a function of its components along with some practical means for slowing down drying from soils.

  6. Drying of a model soil.

    PubMed

    Faure, P; Coussot, P

    2010-09-01

    Drying experiments have been carried out with model soils made of different pastes filling granular packings. A detailed information concerning the time evolution of the water saturation distribution inside the sample was obtained from magnetic resonance imaging measurements. This study makes it possible to understand the physical origin of the drying characteristics of these materials. The drying curves exhibit a constant-rate period (CRP) and a falling-rate period (FRP) but the relative durations of these periods depend on the paste structure. With a kaolin suspension the CRP lasts down to very low water densities and is associated with a homogeneous drying of the paste throughout the sample. With a bentonite suspension the CRP is shorter and the drying in the FRP results from a complex process involving fractures progressing downward through the pasty matrix. With a gel the CRP period is even shorter and the drying in the FRP results from the progression of a dry front through the packing as a result of the shrinkage of the gel matrix. This provides an overview of the main possible processes at work when drying a soil as a function of its components along with some practical means for slowing down drying from soils. PMID:21230167

  7. Convective drying of sludge cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  8. Space Technology for Crop Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas came up with a new method of drying agricultural crops derived from vacuum chamber technology called MIVAC, a compression of microwave vacuum drying system. A distant cousin of the home microwave oven, MIVAC dries by means of electrically- generated microwaves introduced to a crop-containing vacuum chamber. Microwaves remove moisture quickly and the very low pressure atmosphere in the chamber permits effective drying at much lower than customary temperatures. Thus energy demand is doubly reduced by lower heat requirement and by the shorter time electric power is needed.

  9. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    PubMed

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air. PMID:26875878

  10. Power ultrasound as a pretreatment to convective drying of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves: Impact on drying kinetics and selected quality properties.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Yilin; Kadam, Shekhar U; Han, Yongbin; Wang, Jiandong; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ultrasound pretreatment prior to convective drying on drying kinetics and selected quality properties of mulberry leaves was investigated in this study. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at 25.2-117.6 W/L for 5-15 min in a continuous mode. After sonication, mulberry leaves were dried in a hot-air convective dryer at 60 °C. The results revealed that ultrasound pretreatment not only affected the weight of mulberry leaves, it also enhanced the convective drying kinetics and reduced total energy consumption. The drying kinetics was modeled using a diffusion model considering external resistance and effective diffusion coefficient De and mass transfer coefficient hm were identified. Both De and hm during convective drying increased with the increase of acoustic energy density (AED) and ultrasound duration. However, De and hm increased slowly at high AED levels. Furthermore, ultrasound pretreatment had a more profound influence on internal mass transfer resistance than on external mass transfer resistance during drying according to Sherwood numbers. Regarding the quality properties, the color, antioxidant activity and contents of several bioactive compounds of dried mulberry leaves pretreated by ultrasound at 63.0 W/L for 10 min were similar to that of mulberry leaves without any pretreatments. Overall, ultrasound pretreatment is effective to shorten the subsequent drying time of mulberry leaves without damaging the quality of final product. PMID:26964954

  11. Is Shape of a Fresh and Dried Leaf the Same?

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dominik; Górzkowska, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Plants kept as dried herbarium specimens share many characteristics with their living counterparts, but there are some substantial differences between them. Due to dehydration, leaves of herbarium specimens change not only their mass and colour, but in many cases change their dimensions, too. The present study aimed to determine whether leaf shape changes during the drying process. A total of 794 pairs of fresh and dried leaves or leaflets of 22 plant taxa were studied. The shape of the blades was quantified using elliptic Fourier analysis combined with principal component analysis. In addition, area and mass of the leaves were measured. Statistical tests were applied for comparing fresh and dried leaves. The results indicate that the preservation process of pressing and drying plants for herbarium purposes causes changes in leaf shape. In general, the shape changes were directional. As the shape of fresh and dried plants is different, it is strongly recommended that shape analyses should be performed on datasets containing either of the leaf types. PMID:27045956

  12. Dry wind tunnel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ping-Chih (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a ground flutter testing system without a wind tunnel, called Dry Wind Tunnel (DWT) System. The DWT system consists of a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) hardware system, a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) force controller software, and a real-time unsteady aerodynamic force generation software, that is developed from an aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM). The ground flutter test using the DWT System operates on a real structural model, therefore no scaled-down structural model, which is required by the conventional wind tunnel flutter test, is involved. Furthermore, the impact of the structural nonlinearities on the aeroelastic stability can be included automatically. Moreover, the aeroservoelastic characteristics of the aircraft can be easily measured by simply including the flight control system in-the-loop. In addition, the unsteady aerodynamics generated computationally is interference-free from the wind tunnel walls. Finally, the DWT System can be conveniently and inexpensively carried out as a post GVT test with the same hardware, only with some possible rearrangement of the shakers and the inclusion of additional sensors.

  13. Dry sump crankcase

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A.H.; Dichi, R.E.

    1987-06-23

    A dry sump type crankcase is described for an automotive type internal combustion engine having an intake manifold and a positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system for automatically and continuously ventilating the crankcase. The system includes an essentially atmospheric pressure fresh air inlet to the engine passing air through to the crankcase and a connection from the oil pan to the vacuum in the intake manifold establishing a constant flow of crankcase vapors. The oil pan has a baffle partitioning it into an inner oil collecting funnel-like crankcase cavity and an outer oil reservoir. The inner cavity has an opening at its lower-most point for communication of oil with the reservoir. The opening is of a controlled vertical height for creating a pressure differential across the baffle during operation of the engine. Means connects the inner cavity to the air inlet pressure side of the PCV System while connecting the reservoir to the vacuum side of the PCV system for establishing a constant pressure differential across the baffle sufficient to displace the oil against gravity and maintain the oil level in the crankcase during operation of the engine at the height of the opening in the baffle. Gravity causes the oil to seek a level higher than the opening upon shutdown of the engine and the consequential decay of vacuum in the intake manifold.

  14. Staying dry under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Paul; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Megaridis, Constantine; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Patankar, Neelesh

    2012-11-01

    Lotus leaves are known for their non-wetting properties due to the presence of surface texture. The superhydrophobic behavior arises because of the prevention of liquid water from entering the pores of the roughness. Present superhydrophobic materials rely on air trapped within the surface pores to avoid liquid permeation. This is typically unsustainable for immersed bodies due to dissolution of the air, especially under elevated pressures. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the non-wetting behavior of an immersed ten-nanometer pore. This is accomplished by establishing thermodynamically sustained vapor pockets of the surrounding liquid medium. Over 300,000 atoms were used to construct the nanopore geometry and simulate SPC/E water molecules. Ambient pressure was varied along two isotherms (300 K, and 500 K). This approach for vapor-stabilization could offer valuable guidance for maintaining surfaces dry even in a submerged state without relying on trapped air. The approach may be extended to control general phase behavior of water adjacent to textured surfaces. ISEN support is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations. PMID:25578408

  16. Dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, H.L.; Lee, W.J.; Su, C.C.; Chao, H.R.; Fan, Y.C.

    1996-12-01

    Dry deposition and air sampling were undertaken, simultaneously, in the ambient air of an urban site and a petrochemical-industry (PCI) plant by using several dry deposition plates and PS-1 samplers from January to May 1994 in southern Taiwan. The dry deposition plate with a smooth surface was always pointed into the wind. Twenty-one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MSD). The dry deposition flux of total-PAHs in urban and PCI sites averaged 166 and 211 {micro}g/m{sup 2}{center_dot}d, respectively. In general, the PAH dry deposition flux increased with increases in the PAH concentration in the ambient air. The PAH pattern of dry deposition flux in both urban and PCI sites were similar to the pattern measured by the filter of the PS-1 sampler and completely different from the PAH pattern in the gas phase. The higher molecular weight PAHs have higher dry deposition velocities. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs primarily associated with the particle phase are deposited mostly by gravitational settling, while the gas phase PAHs were between 0.001 and 0.010 cm/s, only the lower molecular-weight PAHs--Nap and AcPy--had a significant fraction of dry deposition flux contributed by the gas phase. All the remaining higher molecular-weight PAHs had more than 94.5% of their dry deposition flux resulting from the particle phase. This is due to the fact that higher molecular weight PAHs have a greater fraction in the particle phase and the dry deposition velocities of particulates are much higher than those of the gas phase.

  17. Ultrasonic drying of foodstuff in a fluidized bed: Parametric study.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, J V; Cárcel, J A; de la Fuente-Blanco, S; Riera-Franco de Sarabia, E

    2006-12-22

    The application of high power ultrasound for dehydration of porous materials may be very effective in processes in which heat-sensitive materials such as foodstuffs have to be treated. In fact, high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations are capable of increasing heat and mass transfer processes in materials. The application of ultrasonic energy can be made alone or in combination with other kind of energy such as hot-air. In this case, ultrasound helps in reducing temperature or treatment time. The aim of this work is to study the effect of air flow rate, ultrasonic power and mass loading on hot-air drying assisted by a new power ultrasonic system. The drying chamber is an aluminium vibrating cylinder, which is able to create a high intensity ultrasonic field in the gas medium. To that purpose the chamber is driven at its centre by a power ultrasonic vibrator at 21.8 kHz. Drying kinetics of carrot cubes and lemon peel cylinders were carried out at 40 degrees C for different air velocities, with and without ultrasound. The results show that the effect of ultrasound on drying rate is affected by air flow rate, ultrasonic power and mass loading. In fact, at high air velocities the acoustic field inside the chamber is disturbed and the effect of ultrasound on drying kinetics diminishes. PMID:16889809

  18. Dry root rot of chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry root rot of chickpea is a serious disease under dry hot summer conditions, particularly in the semi-arid tropics of Ethiopia, and in central and southern India. It usually occurs at reproductive stages of the plant. Symptoms include drooping of petioles and leaflets of the tips, but not the low...

  19. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears. PMID:22574092

  20. Whey drying on porous carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitura, E.; Kaminski, W.

    1996-05-01

    Whey is treated very often as a waste which pollutes the natural environment. Whey which is a valuable source of protein, lacrose, vitamins and mineral salts should be utilized completely. The present paper is a proposal of whey drying on porous carriers. It is proved experimentally that the proposed drying method guarantees good product quality.

  1. "Wet" Versus "Dry" Folding of Polyproline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liuqing; Holliday, Alison E.; Bohrer, Brian C.; Kim, Doyong; Servage, Kelly A.; Russell, David H.; Clemmer, David E.

    2016-06-01

    When the all- cis polyproline-I helix (PPI, favored in 1-propanol) of polyproline-13 is introduced into water, it folds into the all- trans polyproline-II (PPII) helix through at least six intermediates [Shi, L., Holliday, A.E., Shi, H., Zhu, F., Ewing, M.A., Russell, D.H., Clemmer, D.E.: Characterizing intermediates along the transition from PPI to PPII using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 12702-12711 (2014)]. Here, we show that the solvent-free intermediates refold into the all- cis PPI helix with high (>90%) efficiency. Moreover, in the absence of solvent, each intermediate appears to utilize the same small set of pathways observed for the solution-phase PPII → PPI transition upon immersion of PPIIaq in 1-propanol. That folding in solution (under conditions where water is displaced by propanol) and folding in vacuo (where energy required for folding is provided by collisional activation) occur along the same pathway is remarkable. Implicit in this statement is that 1-propanol mimics a "dry" environment, similar to the gas phase. We note that intermediates with structures that are similar to PPIIaq can form PPII under the most gentle activation conditions—indicating that some transitions observed in water (i.e. , "we t" folding, are accessible (albeit inefficient) in vacuo. Lastly, these "dry" folding experiments show that PPI (all cis) is favored under "dry" conditions, which underscores the role of water as the major factor promoting preference for trans proline.

  2. Simulation of solar drying of chilli in solar tunnel drier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. A.; Woods, J. L.; Bala, B. K.

    2005-09-01

    This article presents modelling of a solar tunnel drier by taking into account heat transfer in the collector and coupled heat and mass transfer within the drying unit. One set of equations was developed to predict cover temperature, absorber temperature and air temperature in the collector and another set of partial differential equations was developed to predict the air and chilli temperatures and moisture content for drying of green chilli in the solar tunnel drier. The first set of equations was solved iteratively and the second set of equations was solved numerically on the basis of an exponential solution over the finite difference grid element using the outlet air conditions of the collector as inlet conditions of the drying unit. The simulated air temperatures in the collector and the drier agreed well with the observed air temperatures. Good agreement was also found between experimental and simulated moisture contents for drying green chilli.

  3. PAHs in corn grains submitted to drying with firewood.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Rafael Friedrich; Dionello, Rafael Gomes; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Barrionuevo, Simone; Radunz, Lauri Lourenço; Reichert Júnior, Francisco Wilson

    2017-01-15

    Grain drying using firewood as fuel for air heating, with direct fire, is still widely used in Brazil. The combustion of organic material, such as wood, can generate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known to have carcinogenic potential. In the present work corn grain drying was carried out at three drying air temperatures: 60°C, 60/80°C and 80°C. Following the drying process, the presence and quantification of PAH in the corn grains was investigated. After extracting the PAHs of the matrix, the material was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography with mass detector. he results showed the presence of seven compounds: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene. PMID:27542463

  4. Solar drying of yam-flour pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Oladiran, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat/mass transfer characteristics of a turbulent impinging jet in cross flow in a model of a chamber used for solar drying of yam flour pellets is presented. The variables studied were the nozzle inclination, ..cap alpha.. and the jet-to-cross flow velocity ratio, M. These parameters were varied from 30/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/ and from 5.0 to 20.9 respectively. Superimposing a cross flow onto the jet reduced the heat transfer coefficients. At low cross flows, inclining the nozzle further reduced the heat transfer coefficients. However, at higher cross flows, inclining the nozzle could be beneficial. The thin film napthalene sublimation technique was employed for the mass transfer measurements.

  5. The release of monoterpenes during convective drying of wood chips

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1998-08-01

    The release of volatile organic components (VOC) during high temperature convective drying of wood chips was studied experimentally and theoretically. The drying medium was superheated steam with a pressure of two bar. Two different temperature levels of the drying medium, 160 and 180 C, and two different materials, Scots Pine and Norway Spruce, were investigated. It was found that the main components released consist of various types of monoterpenes, with {alpha}-pinene dominating in each of the two materials. The amount released is dependent on the drying temperature as well as the time of the drying process. In order to describe the release rate of monoterpenes during drying, two separate models, called the communicating and the non-communicating model respectively, were developed. The mechanisms included for the transport of monoterpenes are, in the communicating model, transport by diffusion and with the advective gas and liquid flow within the tracheids and, in the non-communicating model, diffusion within the resin canal system. The results obtained using the communicating model largely overpredict the experimental results. To avoid this rapid release, additional mass transfer resistance for the transport of monoterpenes between the two canal systems could be introduced. The non-communicating model was found to be useful in explaining the release rate when drying spruce. This model, however, cannot distinguish between the two temperature levels studied.

  6. Drying-Induced Evaporation of Secondary Organic Aerosol during Summer.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Marwa M H; Amenumey, Dziedzorm; Hennigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    This study characterized the effect of drying on the concentration of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Simultaneous measurements of water-soluble organic carbon in the gas (WSOCg) and particle (WSOCp) phases were carried out in Baltimore, MD during the summertime. To investigate the effect of drying on SOA, the WSOCp measurement was alternated through an ambient channel (WSOCp) and a "dried" channel (WSOCp,dry) maintained at ∼35% relative humidity (RH). The average mass ratio between WSOCp,dry and WSOCp was 0.85, showing that significant evaporation of the organic aerosol occurred due to drying. The average amount of evaporated water-soluble organic matter (WSOM = WSOC × 1.95) was 0.6 μg m(-3); however, the maximum evaporated WSOM concentration exceeded 5 μg m(-3), demonstrating the importance of this phenomenon. The systematic difference between ambient and dry channels indicates a significant and persistent source of aqueous SOA formed through reversible uptake processes. The wide-ranging implications of the work are discussed, and include: new insight into atmospheric SOA formation; impacts on particle measurement techniques; a newly identified bias in PM2.5 measurements using the EPA's Federal Reference and Equivalent Methods (FRM and FEM); atmospheric model evaluations; and the challenge in relating ground-based measurements to remote sensing of aerosol properties. PMID:26910726

  7. Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Hot, Dry and Cloudy

    This artist's concept shows a cloudy Jupiter-like planet that orbits very close to its fiery hot star. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was recently used to capture spectra, or molecular fingerprints, of two 'hot Jupiter' worlds like the one depicted here. This is the first time a spectrum has ever been obtained for an exoplanet, or a planet beyond our solar system.

    The ground-breaking observations were made with Spitzer's spectrograph, which pries apart infrared light into its basic wavelengths, revealing the 'fingerprints' of molecules imprinted inside. Spitzer studied two planets, HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which were found, surprisingly, to have no water in the tops of their atmospheres. The results suggest that the hot planets are socked in with dry, high clouds, which are obscuring water that lies underneath. In addition, HD209458b showed hints of silicates, suggesting that the high clouds on that planet contain very fine sand-like particles.

    Capturing the spectra from the two hot-Jupiter planets was no easy feat. The planets cannot be distinguished from their stars and instead appear to telescopes as single blurs of light. One way to get around this is through what is known as the secondary eclipse technique. In this method, changes in the total light from a so-called transiting planet system are measured as a planet is eclipsed by its star, vanishing from our Earthly point of view. The dip in observed light can then be attributed to the planet alone.

    This technique, first used by Spitzer in 2005 to directly detect the light from an exoplanet, currently only works at infrared wavelengths, where the differences in brightness between the planet and star are less, and the planet's light is easier to pick out. For example, if the experiment had been done in visible light, the total light from the system would appear to be unchanged

  8. Technical aspects of the production of dried extract of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves by jet spouted bed drying.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Daniel S; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2005-08-11

    This work presents an evaluation of the performance of jet spouted bed with inert particles for production of dried extracts of Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. The development of the extraction procedure was carried-out with the aid of three factors and three levels Box-Behnken design. The effects of the extraction variables, temperature (Text); stirring time (theta); and the ratio of the plant to solvent mass (m(p)/m(s)) on the extraction yield were investigated. The drying performance and product properties were evaluated through the measurement of the product size distribution, loss on drying (Up), flavonoid degradation (D) and, process thermal efficiency (eta). These parameters were measured as a function of the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (Tgi), the feed mass flow rate of the concentrated extract relative to mass flow rate of the spouting gas (Ws/Wg), the ratio between the feed flow rate of spouting gas relative to feed flow rate at a minimum spouting condition (Q/Qms) and the static bed height (H0). A powder product with a low degradation of active substances and good physical properties were obtained for selected operating conditions. These results indicate the feasibility of this drying equipment for the production of dried extracts of M. ilicifolia Martius ex Reiss leaves. PMID:15978755

  9. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

  10. Concentration profiles in drying cylindrical filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaputa, Klaus; Brenn, Günter; Meile, Walter

    2008-12-01

    We analyze theoretically the drying of cylindrical filaments. For modelling the mass transfer on the gas side of the liquid-gas interface of the shrinking circular cylindrical filament, we apply the model of Abramzon and Sirignano, which was originally developed for spherical geometry. As a consequence of mass transfer at constant Sherwood number, we obtain a d2-law for the shrinkage of the cylinder as in the case of the spherical geometry, which expresses that the cross-sectional area of the cylinder shrinks at a constant rate with time. For this situation, the diffusion equation for the liquid phase mixture components becomes separable upon transformation into similarity coordinates and is solved analytically to obtain the concentration profiles inside the filament as functions of time. The dependency of the profiles on the radial coordinate is determined by a series of Kummer’s functions. Applying this result, we study the evolution of the concentration profiles in the liquid phase with time as dependent on a parameter given as the ratio of rate of shrinkage of the cross-sectional area of the cylinder to liquid-phase diffusion coefficient, which was identified as relevant for the shape of the concentration profiles formed in the liquid during the drying process. As an example, we present computed results for the constant evaporation rate regime in the dry-spinning process of a polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA)-water system. Comparison of our analytical results with full numerical solutions of the diffusion equation from the literature, achieved with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient, reveals very good agreement.

  11. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  12. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  13. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  14. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  15. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  16. 7 CFR 58.239 - Drying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying. 58.239 Section 58.239 Agriculture Regulations... Drying. Each dryer should be operated to produce the highest quality dry product consistent with the most efficient operation. The dry products shall be removed from the drying chamber continuously during...

  17. Aging and dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote the development of MGD and dry eye disease. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms of age-related MGD. PMID:22569356

  18. [Conservative treatment of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Hefner, J; Reinshagen, H

    2014-11-01

    The use of topic anti-inflammatory drugs has become very important in the treatment of dry eye disease. Besides the basic therapy including tear replacement, use of serum eye drops and mucolytic eye drops, the topical application of corticosteroids and cyclosporin A is more commonly used in moderate to severe forms of dry eye disease. The consistent treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction as a frequent reason for evaporative dry eye is also of particular importance. Understanding the chronicity of the disease and long-term compliance are the essential for successful therapy of this widespread disease. PMID:25275793

  19. Why do drying films crack?

    PubMed

    Lee, Wai Peng; Routh, Alexander F

    2004-11-01

    Understanding the mechanism by which films fail during drying is the first step in controlling this natural process. Previous studies have examined the spacing between cracks with predictions made by assuming a balance between elastic energy released with a surface energy consumed. We introduce a new scaling for the spacing between cracks in drying dispersions. The scaling relates to the distance that solvent can flow, to relieve capillary stresses, as a film fails. The scaling collapses data for a range of evaporation rates, film thicknesses, particle sizes, and materials. This work identifies capillary pressures, induced by packed particle fronts travelling horizontally across films, as responsible for the failure in dried films. PMID:15518466

  20. Degradation of PCBs in dry fermented sausages during drying/ripening.

    PubMed

    Lušnic Polak, M; Zlatić, E; Demšar, L; Žlender, B; Polak, T

    2016-12-15

    The effects of several commercial meat starter cultures on degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dry fermented sausages over 28days of drying/ripening were investigated. The sausage batter was prepared according to a classic recipe and spiked with a standard solution of a PCB congener mixture. With addition of different commercial meat starter cultures, five experimental groups were prepared: no further addition; and separate addition of each of four starter cultures: Texel DCM-1, Texel LM-30, Biostar Sprint, and SM-181. Samples were taken at the beginning of fermentation (zero time), and after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28days. PCB residues were extracted with hexane. The PCB contents were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCB levels were reduced in all of the experimental groups tested, where addition of starter culture Biostar Sprint (Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus) showed the highest PCB degradation rates. PMID:27451178

  1. Sustaining dry surfaces under water.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul R; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M; Varanasi, Kripa K; Megaridis, Constantine M; Walther, Jens H; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments. PMID:26282732

  2. Circulating system simplifies dry scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, S.Q.; Jorgensen, C.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes a circulating dry scrubber, based on fluid-bed absorption process, which demonstrates high SO{sub 2} removal with minimal O and M requirements. Unlike other dry scrubbers, this one involves dry reagent and results in dry products. Before construction can begin on a new coal-fired plant, a rigorous set of permit requirements must be satisfied. When the Roanoke Valley Energy Facility, Weldon, NC, began the permitting process for their proposed 44-MW pulverized-coal (p-c)-fired Unit 2, the facility permit limited not only SO{sub 2} emissions (0.187 lb SO{sub 2}/million Btu) but also the removal efficiency of the flue-gas desulfurization process (93%) and the maximum amount of sulfur in the coal (1.6%).

  3. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments. PMID:26282732

  4. MECHANISMS OF DRY SO2 CONTROL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses physical and chemical processes and reaction mechanisms for lime spray drying and dry injection of sodium compounds in dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. It includes: chemical reactions, physical changes, proposed reaction mechanisms and mathematic...

  5. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  6. Dehydration characteristics and mathematical modelling of lemon slices drying undergoing oven treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza; Tohidi, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of drying temperature on drying behaviour and mass transfer parameters of lemon slices was investigated. The drying experiments were conducted in a laboratory air ventilated oven dryer at temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C. It was observed that the drying temperature affected the drying time and drying rate significantly. Drying rate curves revealed that the process at the temperature levels taken place in the falling rate period entirely. The usefulness of eight thin layer models to simulate the drying kinetics was evaluated and the Midilli and Kucuk model showed the best fit to experimental drying curves. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined on the basis of Fick's second law and obtained to be 1.62 × 10-11, 3.25 × 10-11 and 8.11 × 10-11 m2 s-1 for the temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C, respectively. The activation energy and Arrhenius constant were calculated to be 60.08 kJ mol-1 and 0.08511 m2 s-1, respectively. The average value of convective mass transfer coefficient for the drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 75 °C was calculated to be 5.71 × 10-7, 1.62 × 10-6 and 2.53 × 10-6 m s-1, respectively.

  7. Spray-dried respirable powders containing bacteriophages for the treatment of pulmonary infections.

    PubMed

    Matinkhoo, Sadaf; Lynch, Karlene H; Dennis, Jonathan J; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2011-12-01

    Myoviridae bacteriophages were processed into a dry powder inhalable dosage form using a low-temperature spray-drying process. The phages were incorporated into microparticles consisting of trehalose, leucine, and optionally a third excipient (either a surfactant or casein sodium salt). The particles were designed to have high dispersibility and a respirable particle size, and to preserve the phages during processing. Bacteriophages KS4- M, KS14, and cocktails of phages ΦKZ/D3 and ΦKZ/D3/KS4-M were spray-dried with a processing loss ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 log pfu. The aerosol performance of the resulting dry powders as delivered from an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI) exceeded the performance of commercially available DPIs; the emitted mass and the in vitro total lung mass of the lead formulation were 82.7% and 69.7% of filled capsule mass, respectively. The total lung mass had a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-2.8 µm. The total in vitro lung doses of the phages, delivered from a single actuation of the inhaler, ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) pfu, levels that are expected to be efficacious in vivo. Spray drying of bacteriophages into a respirable dry powder was found to be feasible. PMID:22020816

  8. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  9. Overall elemental dry deposition velocities measured around Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Seung-Muk; Shahin, Usama; Sivadechathep, Jakkris; Sofuoglu, Sait C.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    Overall dry deposition velocities of several elements were determined by dividing measured fluxes by measured airborne concentrations in different particle size ranges. The dry deposition measurements were made with a smooth surrogate surface on an automated dry deposition sampler (Eagle II) and the ambient particle concentrations were measured with a dichotomous sampler. These long-term measurements were made in Chicago, IL, South Haven, MI, and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI, from December 1993 through October 1995 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study. In general, the dry deposition fluxes of elements were highly correlated with coarse particle concentrations, slightly less well correlated with total particle concentrations, and least well correlated with fine particle concentrations. The calculated overall dry deposition velocities obtained using coarse particle concentrations varied from approximately 12 cm s -1 for Mg in Chicago to 0.2 cm s -1 for some primarily anthropogenic metals at the more remote sites. The velocities calculated using total particle concentrations were slightly lower. The crustal elements (Mg, Al, and Mn) had higher deposition velocities than anthropogenic elements (V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb). For crustal elements, overall dry deposition velocities were higher in Chicago than at the other sites.

  10. Galaxy masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courteau, Stéphane; Cappellari, Michele; de Jong, Roelof S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Hoekstra, Henk; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, Gary A.; Maraston, Claudia; Treu, Tommaso; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The different sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and gas-poor galaxies, with some attention paid to our Milky Way, and masses from weak and strong lensing methods all provide review material on galaxy masses in a self-consistent manner.

  11. Influence of the Ultrasonic Power Applied on Freeze Drying Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brines, C.; Mulet, A.; García-Pérez, J. V.; Riera, E.; Cárcel, J. A.

    The atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) constitutes an interesting alternative to vacuum freeze drying providing products with similar quality at lowest cost. However, the long process time needed represent an important drawback. In this sense, the application of high intensity ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and intensify the operation. In hot air drying operation, the ultrasonic effects are dependent on the process variables such as air velocity, internal sample structure or ultrasonic power applied. However, in AFD processes, the internal structure of material or the air velocity has not significant influence on the magnitude of ultrasonic effects. The aim of this work was to determine the influence on drying kinetics of the ultrasonic power applied during the AFD of apple. For that purpose, AFD experiments (-10 °C, 2 m/s and 15% relative humidity) of apple slabs (cv. Granny Smith, 30 x 30 x 10 mm) were carried out with ultrasound application (21 kHz) at different power levels (0, 10.3, 20.5 and 30.8 kW/m3). The drying kinetics was obtained from the initial moisture content and the weight evolution of samples during drying. Experimental results showed a significant (p<0.05) influence of the ultrasound application on drying. Thus, drying time was shorter as higher the ultrasonic power applied. From modeling, it was observed that the effective diffusion coefficient identified was 4.8 times higher when ultrasound was applied at the lowest power tested (10.3 kW/m3) that illustrated the high intensification potential of ultrasound application in the AFD.

  12. "Wet" Versus "Dry" Folding of Polyproline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liuqing; Holliday, Alison E.; Bohrer, Brian C.; Kim, Doyong; Servage, Kelly A.; Russell, David H.; Clemmer, David E.

    2016-04-01

    When the all-cis polyproline-I helix (PPI, favored in 1-propanol) of polyproline-13 is introduced into water, it folds into the all-trans polyproline-II (PPII) helix through at least six intermediates [Shi, L., Holliday, A.E., Shi, H., Zhu, F., Ewing, M.A., Russell, D.H., Clemmer, D.E.: Characterizing intermediates along the transition from PPI to PPII using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 12702-12711 (2014)]. Here, we show that the solvent-free intermediates refold into the all-cis PPI helix with high (>90%) efficiency. Moreover, in the absence of solvent, each intermediate appears to utilize the same small set of pathways observed for the solution-phase PPII → PPI transition upon immersion of PPIIaq in 1-propanol. That folding in solution (under conditions where water is displaced by propanol) and folding in vacuo (where energy required for folding is provided by collisional activation) occur along the same pathway is remarkable. Implicit in this statement is that 1-propanol mimics a "dry" environment, similar to the gas phase. We note that intermediates with structures that are similar to PPIIaq can form PPII under the most gentle activation conditions—indicating that some transitions observed in water (i.e., "wet" folding, are accessible (albeit inefficient) in vacuo. Lastly, these "dry" folding experiments show that PPI (all cis) is favored under "dry" conditions, which underscores the role of water as the major factor promoting preference for trans proline.

  13. Volatile N-nitrosamines in dried foods.

    PubMed

    Sen, N P; Seaman, S

    1981-09-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the levels of volatile N-nitrosamines in several dried food commodities such as malt, instant skim milk powder, infant formula containing milk powder, instant coffee, soup and soup bases, and baby cereals. The method involves vacuum distillation of the sample from 3N KOH or 1% sulfamic acid, followed by extraction of the aqueous distillate with dichloromethane. The dichloromethane extract is then washed with an acidic buffer (to remove amines), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, concentrated in a Kuderna-Danish concentrator, and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, using a thermal energy analyzer. Detection limit is 0.1-0.5 ppb. Of the samples analyzed thus far, all malts (22 samples) and instant skim milk powders (11 samples ) were positive for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); average levels were 7.4 ppb (1.3-67.0 ppb) and 0.4 ppb (0.3-0.7 ppb), respectively. Traces of NDMA and/or N-nitrosopyrrolidine were also detected in 3 of 20 dried soups and 5 of 10 instant coffees analyzed. Traces of NDMA and/or N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) were detected in 3 of 8 powdered instant formulas. All for baby cereal samples were negative. The identity of NDMA in 14 samples of malt and that of NDMA and NPIP in a infant formula was confirmed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; identity of N-nitrosamines in 3 instant coffees and 1 infant formula was independently verified by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. PMID:7287621

  14. Drying/self-assembly of nanoparticle suspensions.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Plimpton, Steven James; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier that can be processed with well-known techniques such as spin, drip and spray coating, fiber drawing, and casting. The next stage in the processing is often solidification involving drying by solvent evaporation. While there has been significant progress in the past few years in developing discrete element numerical methods to model dense nanoparticle dispersion/suspension rheology which properly treat the hydrodynamic interactions of the solvent, these methods cannot at present account for the volume reduction of the suspension due to solvent evaporation. As part of LDRD project FY-101285 we have developed and implemented methods in the current suite of discrete element methods to remove solvent particles and volume, and hence solvent mass from the liquid/vapor interface of a suspension to account for volume reduction (solvent drying) effects. To validate the methods large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to follow the evaporation process at the microscopic scale.

  15. Fragmentation of drying paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Katinka; Dombi, András; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-11-01

    Fragmentation of thin layers of drying granular materials on a frictional surface are studied both by experiments and computer simulations. Besides a qualitative description of the fragmentation phenomenon, the dependence of the average fragment size as a function of the layer thickness is thoroughly investigated. Experiments are done using a special nail polish, which forms characteristic crack structures during drying. In order to control the layer thickness, we diluted the nail polish in acetone and evaporated in a controlled manner different volumes of this solution on glass surfaces. During the evaporation process we managed to get an instable paint layer, which formed cracks as it dried out. In order to understand the obtained structures a previously developed spring-block model was implemented in a three-dimensional version. The experimental and simulation results proved to be in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. An earlier suggested scaling relation between the average fragment size and the layer thickness is reconfirmed.

  16. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, T.

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  17. Comparison between analytical and numerical solution of mathematical drying model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Rasmani, K.; Jamil, N.

    2016-02-01

    Drying is often related to the food industry as a process of shifting heat and mass inside food, which helps in preserving food. Previous research using a mass transfer equation showed that the results were mostly concerned with the comparison between the simulation model and the experimental data. In this paper, the finite difference method was used to solve a mass equation during drying using different kinds of boundary condition, which are equilibrium and convective boundary conditions. The results of these two models provide a comparison between the analytical and the numerical solution. The result shows a close match between the two solution curves. It is concluded that the two proposed models produce an accurate solution to describe the moisture distribution content during the drying process. This analysis indicates that we have confidence in the behaviour of moisture in the numerical simulation. This result demonstrated that a combined analytical and numerical approach prove that the system is behaving physically. Based on this assumption, the model of mass transfer was extended to include the temperature transfer, and the result shows a similar trend to those presented in the simpler case.

  18. Negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2015-03-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

  19. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  20. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  1. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  2. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drying room. 58.409 Section 58.409 Agriculture....409 Drying room. When applicable, a drying room of adequate size shall be provided to accommodate the... provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which...

  3. Combined infrared and freeze-drying.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying of the combined infrared (IR) and freeze-drying of food materials has been shown to be very rapid compared to regular freeze drying (FD). The resulting tissue structure of products processed with sequential infrared and freeze drying (SIRFD) tends to have higher crispness than those proce...

  4. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried eggs. 160.105 Section 160.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.105 Dried eggs. (a) Dried eggs, dried whole...

  5. Drying leather with vacuum and toggling sequentially

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated a drying method that will enable leather to be dried under vacuum and stretch sequentially to improve area yield. Vacuum drying offers fast speed at a low temperature, which would be advantageous to heat-vulnerable chrome-free leather. Adding a toggle action after vacuum drying cou...

  6. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  7. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  8. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  9. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida...

  10. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried yeasts. 172.896 Section 172.896 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.896 Dried yeasts. Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces fragilis) and dried torula yeast (Candida utilis) may be safely used in food provided the total folic...

  11. Stabilized dried blood spot collection.

    PubMed

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Toth, Monika; Liew, Oi Wah; Muradoglu, Murat; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-08-01

    During the collection phase of the dried blood spot method, practitioners need to ensure that there is no smearing of the blood sample on the filter paper or else readings from it will be invalid. This can be difficult to accomplish in the field if there is relative motion between the site of blood discharge on the finger and the filter paper. In this article, a gyroscope stabilization method is introduced and demonstrated to provide consistent and improved dried blood spot collection within a circular guide region notwithstanding the presence of rocking. PMID:27156813

  12. Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Thushanthi; Young, Matthew R.; Zhang, Zhiying; Murphy, Gwen; Colburn, Nancy H.; Lanza, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl J.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Scope Aim of the study was to identify and monitor metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies that each had shown chemopreventive effects of dry bean consumption on colorectal neoplasia risk. Methods and Results Using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy +/− electrospray ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, serum metabolites of dry beans were measured in 46 men before and after a four-week dry bean-enriched diet (250 g/d) and 12 mice that received a standardized diet containing either 0 or 10% navy bean ethanol extract for 6 weeks; we also investigated fecal metabolites in the mice. The serum metabolites identified in these controlled feeding studies were then investigated in 212 polyp-free participants from the Polyp Prevention Trial who self-reported either increased (≥+31 g/d from baseline), high dry bean intake of ≥42 g/d in year 3 or low, unchanged dry bean consumption of <8 g/d; serum was analyzed from baseline and year 3. Serum pipecolic acid and S-methyl-cysteine were elevated after dry bean consumption in human and mouse studies and reflected dry bean consumption in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Conclusions Serum levels of pipecolic acid and S-methyl-cysteine are useful biomarkers of dry bean consumption. PMID:25641932

  13. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  14. Energy and quality aspects of food drying

    SciTech Connect

    Strumillo, C.; Adamiec, J.

    1996-05-01

    High energy consumption and increasing consumers` interest in new products are two problems worthy of note in the drying of food. Difficulties in producing high-quality food and degrading transformations of the material during drying are mentioned. The kinetics of quality degradation due to drying is described. The role of water activity in maintaining product quality is emphasized. Examples of drying methods and tendencies toward a reduction in quality degradation of dried food products are shown.

  15. Granular flow: Dry and wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, N.; Nakanishi, H.

    2012-04-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture.

  16. Hope, for the Dry Side.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husted, Bette Lynch

    2001-01-01

    Describes the experiences of the author as she tries to transfigure her students enrolled in freshman writing and college preparatory writing classes at Blue Mountain Community College in Pendleton, Oregon (located in the "dry side" of the state). Addresses students' racism, homophobia, and distrust of their own skills in writing. (RS)

  17. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  18. Dry Zones Around Frozen Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbano, Caitlin; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    The saturation pressure of water vapor above supercooled water exceeds that above ice at the same temperature. A frozen droplet will therefore grow by harvesting water vapor from neighboring supercooled condensate, which has recently been demonstrated to be a primary mechanism of in-plane frost growth on hydrophobic surfaces. The underlying physics of this source-sink interaction is still poorly understood. In this work, a deposited water droplet is frozen on a dry hydrophobic surface initially held above the dew point. We demonstrate that when the surface is then cooled beneath the dew point, the frozen droplet harvests nearby water vapor in the air. This results in an annular dry zone that forms between the frozen droplet and the forming supercooled condensation. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the length of the dry zone varied strongly with surface temperature and weakly with droplet volume. The dependence of the dry zone on surface temperature is due to the fact that the vapor pressure gradients between the ambient and the surface and between the liquid and frozen water are both functions of temperature.

  19. Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

  20. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  1. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  2. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-12-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

  3. Permeability alteration induced by drying of brines in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peysson, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Permeability of reservoir rocks can be strongly altered by salt precipitation induced by drying. Indeed, gas injection in deep saline aquifers leads first to the brine displacement. The liquid saturation decreases near the injection point and reaches a residual water saturation. But at longer time, the water mass transfer to the gas phase by evaporation can become significant and the dissolved salt can precipitate in the porous structure. The solid salts fill the pores and the permeability decreases. Permeability alteration by salting out is a risk of injectivity decline in the context of CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers where high level of gas injection has to be maintained over decades. However, this problem has been poorly investigated. It implies physical processes that are strongly coupled: drying, water and gas flows in the porous structure and precipitation. This work is an experimental investigation aiming at measuring on natural rock samples the permeability alteration induced by convective drying where dry gas is injected through the sample. We show that alteration of permeability is strong and total blockage of the flow is even possible. We also show that the change in porosity due to the solid salt is heterogeneous along the rock samples. A local permeability-porosity relationship has been estimated from the measurements and we could deduce the permeability alteration function of time by modeling the drying dynamic. We show that it starts very early because capillary backflows are extremely efficient in this process to accumulate solid salt near the injection surfaces.

  4. Vacuum Drying of Actual Transuranic Waste from Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.

    2004-05-20

    Composites of sludge from Tanks 241-B-203, 241-T-203, 241 T 204, and 241-T-110 at the Hanford Site were prepared at the Hanford 222-S Laboratory from core samples retrieved from these tanks. These tank composites may not be representative of the entire contents of the tank but provide some indication of the properties of the waste within these underground storage tanks. The composite samples were diluted with water at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to represent the slurries that are expected to be received from tank retrieval operations and processed to produce a final waste stream. The dilutions were vacuum dried at 60 C and 26 in. of mercury ({approx} 100 torr). Semi-quantitative measurements of stickiness and cohesive strength were made on these dilutions as a function of drying time. Mass loss as a function of drying time and total solids concentration of the initial dilution and at the conclusion of drying were also measured. Visual observations of the sludge were recorded throughout the drying process.

  5. Wet mammals shake at tuned frequencies to dry

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Mills, Zachary G.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f ∼ M−0.22, which is close to our prediction of f ∼ M−0.19 based upon the balance of centrifugal and capillary forces. We also observe a novel role for loose mammalian dermal tissue: by whipping around the body, it increases the speed of drops leaving the animal and the ensuing dryness relative to tight dermal tissue. PMID:22904256

  6. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  7. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  8. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  9. Comparison of Selected Metals Content in Cambodian Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Using Solar Drying System and Open Sun Drying

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems. PMID:25688274

  10. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    PubMed

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems. PMID:25688274

  11. Dry powder inhaler formulation of high-payload antibiotic nanoparticle complex intended for bronchiectasis therapy: Spray drying versus spray freeze drying preparation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Teo, Jeanette; Chew, Jia Wei; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2016-02-29

    Inhaled nano-antibiotics have recently emerged as the promising bronchiectasis treatment attributed to the higher and more localized antibiotic exposure generated compared to native antibiotics. Antibiotic nanoparticle complex (or nanoplex in short) prepared by self-assembly complexation with polysaccharides addresses the major drawbacks of existing nano-antibiotics by virtue of its high payload and cost-effective preparation. Herein we developed carrier-free dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations of ciprofloxacin nanoplex by spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). d-Mannitol and l-leucine were used as the drying adjuvant and aerosol dispersion enhancer, respectively. The DPI formulations were evaluated in vitro in terms of the (1) aerosolization efficiency, (2) aqueous reconstitution, (3) antibiotic release, and (4) antimicrobial activity against respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The SFD powders exhibited superior aerosolization efficiency to their SD counterparts in terms of emitted dose (92% versus 66%), fine particle fraction (29% versus 23%), and mass median aerodynamic diameter (3μm versus 6μm). The superior aerosolization efficiency of the SFD powders was attributed to their large and porous morphology and higher l-leucine content. While the SFD powders exhibited poorer aqueous reconstitution that might jeopardize their mucus penetrating ability, their antibiotic release profile and antimicrobial activity were not adversely affected. PMID:26757148

  12. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Heng; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Liu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a formulation of liposomal salbutamol sulfate (SBS) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for the treatment of asthma. Liposomes of high encapsulation efficiency (more than 80%) were prepared by a vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG) technique. SBS VPG liposomes were subjected to lyophilization using different kinds of cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Coarse lactose (63-106 microm) in different mass ratios was used as a carrier. Magnesium stearate (0.5%) was added as a lubricator. The dry liposomal powders were then crushed by ball milling and sieved through a 400-mesh sieve to control the mean particle size at about 10 microm. The effects of different kinds of cryoprotectants and the amount of lactose carrier on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SBS were investigated. The results showed that the developed formulation of liposomal dry powder inhaler was obtained using lactose as a cryoprotectant with a mass ratio of lyophilized powder to carrier lactose at 1 : 5; 0.5% magnesium stearate was used as a lubricator. The value of FPF for SBS was 41.51+/-2.22% for this formulation. Sustained release of SBS from the VPG liposomes was found in the in vitro release study. The study results offer the promising possibility of localized pulmonary liposomal SBS delivery in the anhydrous state. PMID:20190418

  13. LC/MS/MS CHARACTERIZATION OF PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS IN DRIED PLUMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried plums are known as a healthy food in the West and used as medicine in India. They have been characterized by high concentrations of phenolic compounds, which are believed to play a crucial role in protection against various age-related diseases. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass s...

  14. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve; Lee, Lesley; Gemhardt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally.METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1-g, 0.17-g, and 0.3-g, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17-g and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.311.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trend lines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  15. Effect of Changing Weight and Mass on Human Performance in a Lunar Prototype Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Physical effort, compensation, and controllability in a spacesuit can be affected by suit mass and gravity level. Because of limitations in certain reduced-gravity simulators and the finite selection of lunar prototype suits, it is difficult to ascertain how a change in suit mass affects suited human performance. One method of simulating a change in mass is to vary the total gravity-adjusted weight (TGAW), which is defined as the sum of the suit mass and subject mass, multiplied by the gravity level. PURPOSE: To determine if two methods of changing TGAW during parabolic flight - changing suit mass or gravity level - affect subjective ratings of suited human performance equally. METHODS: A custom weight support structure was connected to a lunar prototype spacesuit, allowing the addition of mass to the suit while maintaining a near-constant center of mass. In the varied-weight (VW) series, suit mass (120 kg) was constant at 0.1 G, 0.17 G, and 0.3 G, yielding TGAWs of 196, 333, and 588 N, assuming an 80-kg subject. In the varied-mass (VM) series, gravity level was constant at 0.17 G and suit mass was 89, 120, and 181 kg, yielding TGAWs of 282, 333, and 435 N. The 333 N condition was common to both series. Direct comparison was not possible due to limited adjustability of suit mass and limited options for parabolic profiles. Five astronaut subjects (80.3 11.8 kg) completed 4 different tasks (walk, bag pickup, lunge, and shoveling) in all conditions and provided ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the gravity compensation and performance scale (GCPS) upon completion of each task. RESULTS: Where VM and VW series overlapped, RPE and GCPS trendlines were similar. Mean RPE and GCPS at 333 N was 8.4 and 3.7. Mean RPE and GCPS for VM was 7.8 and 3.8 for 282 N and 9.8 and 4.1 for 435 N. Extrapolation of the VM trend to match VW TGAWs 196 and 588 N predicts an RPE of 6.5 and 12.3 and GCPS of 4.4 and 5.9, whereas the measured VW values for RPE were 8.1 and 9.8 and GCPS were

  16. Investigation of design space for freeze-drying: use of modeling for primary drying segment of a freeze-drying cycle.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Venkat Rao; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Berry, Mark R; Osterberg, Thomas; Youssef, Maickel; Hiebert, David N; Kanka, Frank A; Nolan, Martin; Barrett, Rosemary; Scalzo, Gioval; Fitzpatrick, Gillian; Fitzgibbon, Niall; Luthra, Sumit; Zhang, Liling

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we explore the idea of using mathematical models to build design space for the primary drying portion of freeze-drying process. We start by defining design space for freeze-drying, followed by defining critical quality attributes and critical process parameters. Then using mathematical model, we build an insilico design space. Input parameters to the model (heat transfer coefficient and mass transfer resistance) were obtained from separate experimental runs. Two lyophilization runs are conducted to verify the model predictions. This confirmation of the model predictions with experimental results added to the confidence in the insilico design space. This simple step-by-step approach allowed us to minimize the number of experimental runs (preliminary runs to calculate heat transfer coefficient and mass transfer resistance plus two additional experimental runs to verify model predictions) required to define the design space. The established design space can then be used to understand the influence of critical process parameters on the critical quality attributes for all future cycles. PMID:21710335

  17. Hydrodynamic model for drying emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Sprakel, Joris; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-08-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model for film formation in a dense oil-in-water emulsion under a unidirectional drying stress. Water flow through the plateau borders towards the drying end leads to the buildup of a pressure gradient. When the local pressure exceeds the critical disjoining pressure, the water films between droplets break and the droplets coalesce. We show that, depending on the critical pressure and the evaporation rate, the coalescence can occur in two distinct modes. At low critical pressures and low evaporation rates, coalescence occurs throughout the sample, whereas at high critical pressures and high evaporation rate, coalescence occurs only at the front. In the latter case, an oil layer develops on top of the film, which acts as a diffusive barrier and slows down film formation. Our findings, which are summarized in a state diagram for film formation, are in agreement with recent experimental findings.

  18. Dry Eye and Designer Ophthalmics

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Gordon W.; Olsakovsky, Leslie A.; Conway, Brian P.; McKown, Robert L.; Kitagawa, Kazuko; Nichols, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    EST, proteomic, and antibody capture assays are revealing a level of tear film protein complexity far greater than previously appreciated. A systems biology approach will be needed to fully appreciate function as tear protein doses fluctuate in time through different conditions. Although consensus is growing on what fully constitutes the human tear proteome, questions remain about the source and significance of the ∼256 tear proteins designated as ‘intracellular’. Many of these may derive from normal cellular turnover and could therefore be informative. A further >183 are designated as ‘extracellular’. Surprisingly, only 4 – 5% of these appear to be dysregulated in the three forms of dry eye preliminarily examined to date. Some differ and a couple overlap, suggesting that disease-specific signatures could be identified. Future dry eye treatment might include recombinant tear protein rescue as a personalized ophthalmic approach to ocular surface disease. PMID:18677231

  19. The management of dry eye.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye disease (also called keratoconjunctivitis sicca) is a common condition, with a prevalence ranging from 8-34%, depending on the criteria used.(1) It becomes more common with increasing age and affects more women than men. Artificial tears and ocular lubricants are considered the mainstay of treatment and there is a very wide range of these products available. In England in 2014, over 6.4 million prescription items for artificial tears, ocular lubricants and astringents were dispensed in the community at a cost to the NHS of over £27 million.(2) In this article we review the management of dry eye disease, focusing on artificial tears and ocular lubricants. PMID:26763598

  20. Drying of Beulah Zap lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.; Molenda, D. ); Dang, Y.; Malhotra, V.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    Recent results on the kinetics of water's desorption from Beulah-Zap lignite coal, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique were reported. The kinetic analysis of DSC was further complimented by determining the mechanism of air drying of lignite coal with the help of an in-situ Desorption Kinetics via Fourier transform infrared (ISDK-FTIR) technique. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  2. Solar drying in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O. )

    1992-03-01

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

  3. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  4. Inhaled antibiotics: dry or wet?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Bos, Aukje C; Mouton, Johan W; Devadason, Sunalene; Janssens, Hettie M

    2014-11-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) delivering antibiotics for the suppressive treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients were developed recently and are now increasingly replacing time-consuming nebuliser therapy. Noninferiority studies have shown that the efficacy of inhaled tobramycin delivered by DPI was similar to that of wet nebulisation. However, there are many differences between inhaled antibiotic therapy delivered by DPI and by nebuliser. The question is whether and to what extent inhalation technique and other patient-related factors affect the efficacy of antibiotics delivered by DPI compared with nebulisers. Health professionals should be aware of the differences between dry and wet aerosols, and of patient-related factors that can influence efficacy, in order to personalise treatment, to give appropriate instructions to patients and to better understand the response to the treatment after switching. In this review, key issues of aerosol therapy are discussed in relation to inhaled antibiotic therapy with the aim of optimising the use of both nebulised and DPI antibiotics by patients. An example of these issues is the relationship between airway generation, structural lung changes and local concentrations of the inhaled antibiotics. The pros and cons of dry and wet modes of delivery for inhaled antibiotics are discussed. PMID:25323242

  5. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  6. The effect of dryer load on freeze drying process design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Jameel, Feroz; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Freeze-drying using a partial load is a common occurrence during the early manufacturing stages when insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are available. In such cases, the immediate production needs are met by performing lyophilization with less than a full freeze dryer load. However, it is not obvious at what fractional load significant deviations from full load behavior begin. The objective of this research was to systematically study the effects of variation in product load on freeze drying behavior in laboratory, pilot and clinical scale freeze-dryers. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol (high heat and mass flux) and 5% sucrose (low heat and mass flux) at different product loads (100%, 50%, 10%, and 2%). Product temperature was measured in edge as well as center vials with thermocouples. Specific surface area (SSA) was measured by BET gas adsorption analysis and residual moisture was measured by Karl Fischer. In the lab scale freeze-dryer, the molar flux of inert gas was determined by direct flow measurement using a flowmeter and the molar flux of water vapor was determined by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. Comparative pressure measurement (capacitance manometer vs. Pirani) was used to determine primary drying time. For both 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose, primary drying time decreases and product temperature increases as the load on the shelves decreases. No systematic variation was observed in residual moisture and vapor composition as load decreased. Further, SSA data suggests that there are no significant freezing differences under different load conditions. Independent of dryer scale, among all the effects, variation in radiation heat transfer from the chamber walls to the product seems to be the dominant effect resulting in shorter primary drying time as the load on the shelf decreases (i.e., the fraction of edge vials increases). PMID:20737639

  7. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  8. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  9. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... saliva, cavities may occur. back to top Dry Mouth Treatments Your doctor or dentist may recommend oral ...

  10. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: DRY-DEPOSITION PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dry-deposition rates were evaluated for two hazardous organic air pollutants, nitrobenzene and perchloroethylene, to determine their potential for removal from the atmosphere to three building material surfaces, cement, tar paper, and vinyl asbestos tile. Dry-deposition experimen...

  11. 7 CFR 58.409 - Drying room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum production of cheese during the flush period. Adequate shelving and air circulation shall be provided for proper drying. Temperature and humidity control facilities should be provided which will promote the development of a sound, dry surface of the cheese....

  12. Simulation of deep-bed drying of Virginia peanuts to minimize energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kulasiri, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    A deep-bed drying model simulating the drying of peanuts in a fixed bed is required for designing energy-efficient and automatically controlled dryers. A deep-red drying model consists of a thin-layer drying model to calculate the moisture release from the material and a set of mass and energy balances. An experimental setup was constructed to determine drying rates of Virginia-type peanuts under 14 different drying air conditions. Selected empirical and semi-theoretical models available for modeling thin-layer drying rates were fitted to the collected data using nonlinear regression techniques. The modified Page's model and the two-term exponential model fitted the data better than other models considered. A deep-bed drying model PEATECH based on four coupled partial differential equations consisting of four variables, air temperature, peanut temperature, air humidity, and peanut moisture content was developed. Validation of the model was accomplished by using the data collected from 36 deep-bed drying experiments conducted using three laboratory dryers during 1987, 1988, and 1989. PEATECH predicted the variables within a peanut bed with an accuracy of less than {plus minus} 6%. The energy saving potential of exhaust-air recirculation was established by conducting simulated experiments using a modified version of PEATECH.

  13. Stability of dry liposomes in sugar glasses.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, W Q; Leopold, A C; Crowe, L M; Crowe, J H

    1996-01-01

    Sugars, particularly trehalose and sucrose, are used to stabilize liposomes during hydration (freeze-drying and air-drying). As a result, dry liposomes are trapped in a sugar glass, a supersaturated and thermodynamically unstable solid solution. We investigated the effects of the glassy state on liposome fusion and solute retention in the dry state. Solute leakage from dry liposomes was extremely slow at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg); however, it increased exponentially as temperature increased to near or above the Tg, indicating that the glassy state had to be maintained for dry liposomes to retain trapped solutes. The leakage of solutes from dry liposomes followed the law of first-order kinetics and was correlated linearly with liposome fusion. The kinetics of solute leakage showed an excellent fit with the Arrhenius equation at temperatures both above and below the Tg, with a transitional break near the Tg. The activation energy of solute leakage was 1320 kJ/mol at temperatures above the Tg, but increased to 1991 kJ/mol at temperatures below the Tg. The stabilization effect of sugar glass on dry liposomes may be associated with the elevated energy barrier for liposome fusion and the physical separation of dry liposomes in the glassy state. The half-life of solute retention in dry liposomes may be prolonged by storing dry liposomes at temperatures below the Tg and by increasing the Tg of the dry liposome preparation. PMID:8785336

  14. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  15. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  16. Composite drying with simultaneous vacuum and toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is an important mechanical operation in the leather making process. Leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility in the drying operation. Vacuum drying offers fast water removal at a low temperature, which is particularly advantageous to heat-vulnerable chrome-free leathe...

  17. Composite drying with simultaneous vacuum and toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is one of key steps to govern the physical properties of leather and it is where leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility. Recently we have been working diligently to improve chrome-free leather by optimizing its drying process. We developed a drying method using a co...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2961 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2086 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2119 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2119 Section 51.2119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2119 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2086 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2086 Section 51.2086 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2086 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2287 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2287 Section 51.2287 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2287 Well dried. Well dried...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2961 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well dried. 51.2961 Section 51.2961 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2961 Well dried. Well dried means that...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1444 - Well dried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well dried. 51.1444 Section 51.1444 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Definitions § 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the...

  8. Composite Drying with Simultaneous Vacuum and Toggling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying is one of key steps to govern the physical properties of leather and it is where leather acquires its final texture, consistency and flexibility. Recently we have been working diligently to improve chrome-free leather by optimizing its drying process. We developed a drying method using a co...

  9. Long-term elemental dry deposition fluxes measured around Lake Michigan with an automated dry deposition sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, U. Yi, S.M.; Paode, R.D.; Holsen, T.M.

    2000-05-15

    Long-term measurements of mass and elemental dry deposition (MG, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) were made with an automated dry deposition sampler (Eagle II) containing knife-edge surrogate surfaces during the Lake Michigan Mass Balance/Mass Budget Study. Measurements were made over a roughly 700-day period in Chicago, IL; in South Haven and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI; and over Lake Michigan on the 68th Street drinking water intake cribs from December 1993 to October 1995. Average mass fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 65, 10, 3.6, and 12 mg m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Primarily crustal elemental fluxes were significantly smaller than the mass fluxes but higher than primarily anthropogenic elemental fluxes. For example, the average elemental flux of Al in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 1.0, 0.34, 0.074, and 0.34 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The average Pb fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 0.038, 0.023, 0.035, and 0.032 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The measured fluxes at the various sites were used to calculate the dry deposition loadings to the lake. These estimated fluxes were highest for Mg and lowest for Cd.

  10. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  11. Impact of dry eye on work productivity

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mizuno, Yoshinobu; Shigeyasu, Chika

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism. Methods A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years) were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed. Results The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person. Conclusion Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity. PMID:23091391

  12. Wet and dry bacterial spore densities determined by buoyant sedimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Tisa, L S; Koshikawa, T; Gerhardt, P

    1982-01-01

    The wet densities of various types of dormant bacterial spores and reference particles were determined by centrifugal buoyant sedimentation in density gradient solutions of three commercial media of high chemical density. With Metrizamide or Renografin, the wet density values for the spores and permeable Sephadex beads were higher than those obtained by a reference direct mass method, and some spore populations were separated into several density bands. With Percoll, all of the wet density values were about the same as those obtained by the direct mass method, and only single density bands resulted. The differences were due to the partial permeation of Metrizamide and Renografin, but not Percoll, into the spores and the permeable Sephadex beads. Consequently, the wet density of the entire spore was accurately represented only by the values obtained with the Percoll gradient and the direct mass method. The dry densities of the spores and particles were determined by gravity buoyant sedimentation in a gradient of two organic solvents, one of high and the other of low chemical density. All of the dry density values obtained by this method were about the same as those obtained by the direct mass method. PMID:6285824

  13. Creep of dry clinopyroxene aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, Misha; Mackwell, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We have determined diffusional and dislocation creep rheologies for clinopyroxenite Ca1.0Mg0.8Fe0.2Si2O6 under dry conditions by deforming natural and hot-pressed samples at confining pressures of 300-430 MPa and temperatures of 1100°-1250°C with the oxygen fugacity buffered by either nickel-nickel oxide or iron-wüstite powders. The coarse-grained natural Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite yielded a stress exponent of n = 4.7 ± 0.2 and an activation energy for creep of Q = 760 ± 40 kJ mol-1, consistent with deformation in the dislocation creep regime. The strength of the natural clinopyroxenite is consistent with previous high-temperature measurements of dislocation creep behavior of Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite by Kirby and Kronenberg [1984] and Boland and Tullis [1986]. Fine-grained clinopyroxenite was prepared from ground powders of the natural clinopyroxenite. Hot-pressed samples were deformed under similar conditions to the natural samples. Mixed-mode deformation behavior was observed, with diffusional creep (n = 1) at lower differential stresses and dislocation creep (with n and Q similar to those of the natural samples) at higher differential stresses. Within the dislocation creep field the predried hot-pressed samples generally yielded creep rates that were about an order of magnitude faster than the natural samples. Thus, even at the highest differential stresses, a component of strain accommodation by grain boundary diffusion was present in the hot-pressed samples. Optical and electron microscope investigations of the deformation microstructures of the natural and hot-pressed samples show evidence for mechanical twinning and activation of dislocation slip systems. When extrapolated to geological conditions expected in the deep crust and upper mantle on Earth and other terrestrial planets, the strength of dry single-phase clinopyroxene aggregates is very high, exceeding that of dry olivine-rich rocks.

  14. Tear dynamics and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, K

    1998-10-01

    Tears undergo four processes: production by the lacrimal gland, distribution by blinking, evaporation from the ocular surface and drainage through the nasolacrimal duct. Abnormalities in any of these steps can cause dry eye. There are two kinds of tear production, basic and reflex, which can be distinguished from each other by the Schirmer test with nasal stimulation. Reflex tearing is important because it supplies such essential components as EGF and vitamin A, whose deficiency may cause squamous metaplasia. There is no reflex tearing in Sjogren's syndrome because of destruction of the lacrimal gland. In cases of diminished or absent reflex tearing, topical autologous serum is the treatment of choice. Even when there is adequate tear production, insufficient distribution, such as occurs with the decreased blinking associated with the use of video display terminals (VDT), may cause dry eye. Any process or activity that suppresses blinking interferes with tear distribution. Tear evaporation increases under certain conditions and in some diseases. When the exposed ocular surface area is increased, such as in VDT work, tear evaporation increases. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) also causes increased tear evaporation by altering the quality of the oily layer in tears. Tear evaporation can be suppressed by using a warm compresser or a humidifier, narrowing the palpebral fissure, or wearing protective eyeglasses. The tear clearance rate is measured by fluorescein dye dilution in the conjunctiva. When the tear clearance is low, inflammatory cytokines or preservatives accumulate in the conjunctival sac, resulting in ocular surface diseases. Frequent use of artificial tears without preservative is the key treatment. A differential diagnosis of the abnormalities of tear dynamics can give us a proper understanding of the pathogenesis of dry eye. With this knowledge, we can formulate an efficient therapeutic approach. PMID:9777650

  15. Zinder: a city running dry.

    PubMed

    Price, T

    1993-01-01

    In the West African Sahel lies the old Hausa city of Zinder, Niger. Since the last few decades, it has constantly faced considerable population growth (19,300-119,8000 between 1960 and 1980) while its acute problems with the water supply are increasing. The dry regional climate compounds the problems. In the past, Zinder was a trade center between northern and sub-Saharan Africa as well as being the colonial capital of Niger (1911-26). Its economic and political position has fallen greatly with independence. Lower than average rainfall and the disastrous droughts of the 1970s and 1980s have seriously diminished the region's economic base, e.g., the average annual rainfall in 1930-60 was 535 mm, but by the 1980s, it was only 355 mm. Zinder sits on an elevated, rocky hill which is encircled by dry river valleys and there are no major permanent bodies of water in the vicinity. Impenetrable layers of stone prevent the digging of wells within the city, so the city depends on wells in nearby valleys. The reduced rainfall hinders replenishment of the aquifer, resulting in a drop in the availability of water for daily consumption from 6500 to 3500 sq m. Per capita water consumption in Zinder is much lower than the national average (55 1/day vs. about 100 1/day). The drought in 1992 caused per capita consumption to fall to 29 1/day, just barely above the minimal standards for private use in urban areas of 20 1/person/day. To further compound the problem, 20 villages in Zinder's environs, some villages with a population of 5000, people, rely on the same water system. Zinder serves as a refuge for the regional population in drought years and during the yearly dry season. Promised international financing cannot resolve Zinder's problems at a realistic cost. PMID:12287010

  16. Microwave application on air drying of apple (var. Granny Smith). The influence of vacuum impregnation pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Esparza, Maria Eugenia

    Combined hot air-microwave drying has been studied on apple (var. Granny Smith), with and without vacuum impregnation (VI) pretreatment with isotonic solution, respect to kinetics, microstructural and final quality items. In order to reach this objective, a drier has been designed and built, that allows to control and to register all the variables which take place during the drying process. Thermal and dielectric properties, that are very important characteristics when studying heat and mass transfer phenomena that occur during the combined drying process, have been related to temperature and/or moisture content throughout empirical equations. It could be observed that all these properties decreased with product moisture content. Respect to dielectric properties, a relationship among water binding forms to food structure and water molecules relaxation frequency has been found. On the other hand, the effect of drying treatment conditions (air rate, drying temperature, sample thickness and incident microwave power) on the drying rate, from an empirical model based on diffusional mechanisms with two kinetic parameters (k1 and k2), both function of the incident microwave power, has been studied. Microwave application to air drying implied a notable decrease on drying time, the higher the applied power the higher the reduction. Microstructural study by Cryo-Sem revealed fast water vaporization taking place when microwaves are applied. Vacuum impregnation did not implied an additional advantage for combined drying as drying rate was similar to that of NIV samples. Finally, it has been studied the influence of process conditions on the color and mechanical properties of the dried product (IV and NIV). Vacuum impregnation implied an increase on the fracture resistance and less purity and tone angle. Microwave application induced product browning with respect to air drying (tone decreased and purity increased).

  17. Characterisation of volatiles in dried white varieties figs (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Mujić, Ibrahim; Bavcon Kralj, Mojca; Jokić, Stela; Jug, Tjaša; Subarić, Drago; Vidović, Senka; Zivković, Jelena; Jarni, Kristjan

    2014-09-01

    The aromatic profile of volatiles in dried figs varieties Bružetka Bijela and Zimnica were characterised by headspace solid-phase (HS-SPME) procedure with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). The volatile compounds were distributed by distinct chemical classes, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, terpenic compounds, and other compounds. The figs were dried in a pilot plant cabinet dryer. Prior to drying process, figs were pre-treated by sulphur dioxide, immersed in solution of citric acid and ascorbic acid, respectively. Several mathematical thin-layer drying models, available in the literature, were fitted to experimental data of figs, implementing non-linear regression analysis techniques. The results showed that pre-treatments of figs decrease significantly the drying time. The best thin-layer drying model in terms of fitting performance was Wang and Singh model. The major volatile compound in dried figs was benzaldehyde. After benzaldehyde, the most abundant aldehyde in dried figs was hexanal. The comparison among dried figs showed the highest abundance of aldehydes, in general, in non-treated (control) dried figs compared to pre-treated samples. Furthermore, ascorbic acid was the most efficient in preserving esters and alcohols in case of Bružetka Bijela, whereas in case of Zimnica, sulphur dioxide was in advance compared to ascorbic acid. Ethyl acetate was the most abundant ester found in dried figs. Among other compounds, 2-butanone,3-hydroxy was the most abundant identified volatiles. Linalool, as the only identified terpen, was in case of both dried fig varieties, preserved by immersion into ascorbic acid. The immersion into citric acid has not been so successful in volatiles conservation. PMID:25190838

  18. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  19. Agent selection and protective effects during single droplet drying of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Khem, Sarim; Woo, Meng Wai; Small, Darryl M; Chen, Xiao Dong; May, Bee K

    2015-01-01

    The protective mechanisms of whey protein isolate (WPI), trehalose, lactose, and skim milk on Lactobacillus plantarum A17 during convective droplet drying has been explored. A single droplet drying technique was used to monitor cell survival, droplet temperature and corresponding changes in mass. WPI and skim milk provided the highest protection amongst the materials tested. In situ analysis of the intermediate stage of drying revealed that for WPI and skim milk, crust formation reduces the rate of sudden temperature increase thereby imparting less stress on the cells. Irreversible denaturation of the WPI components might have also contributed to the protection of the cells. Skim milk, however, 'loses' the protective behaviour towards the latter stages of drying. This indicates that the concentration of the WPI components could be another possible factor determining the sustained protective behaviour during the later stages of drying when the moisture content is low. PMID:25053047

  20. Drying and Quality Characteristics of Fresh and Sugar-infused Blueberries Dried with Infrared Radiation Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the finished product quality and infrared (IR) drying characteristics of fresh and sugar-infused blueberries dried with a catalytic infrared (CIR) dryer. IR drying tests were conducted at four product temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90oC) to evaluate the drying rate, and the color and te...

  1. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  2. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sæderup Lindeløv, Jesper; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  3. Experimental study of cassava sun drying

    SciTech Connect

    Njie, D.N.; Rumsey, T.R.

    1997-03-01

    Sun drying experiments were performed to compare drying of cassava chips in sheet-metal trays with drying on mesh wire trays. In the sheet-metal trays, there was air flow across the top of the bed chips, while the mesh wire trays permitted air to flow through the bed. Drying rate was faster and more uniform in the trays with through-flow air circulation. Higher temperatures were reached by chips in the sheet-metal trays than those in the mesh trays because of contact heating, but the drying rate was lower because of the reduced air flow.

  4. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma

    2008-04-01

    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  5. Experimental research of solid waste drying in the process of thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhmirov, V. V.; Kolibaba, O. B.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2015-10-01

    The convective drying process of municipal solid waste layer as a polydispersed multicomponent porous structure is studied. On the base of the experimental data criterial equations for calculating heat transfer and mass transfer processes in the layer, depending on the humidity of the material, the speed of the drying agent and the layer height are obtained. These solutions are used in the thermal design of reactors for the thermal processing of multicomponent organic waste.

  6. 5. Aerial view (altitude 5,000 ft.) looking southeast showing Dry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view (altitude 5,000 ft.) looking southeast showing Dry Dock No. 4. completed (top center). Note major expansion of land mass to south of Dry Dock No. 4 resulting from placement of excavated soils and rock prior to and during construction (8/3/43). Photographer: Mr. Rudnick, PHoM 2/C. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Next generation drying technologies for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert H; Bhatnagar, Bakul; Tchessalov, Serguei; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ohtake, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Drying is a commonly used technique for improving the product stability of biotherapeutics. Typically, drying is accomplished through freeze-drying, as evidenced by the availability of several lyophilized products on the market. There are, however, a number of drawbacks to lyophilization, including the lengthy process time required for drying, low energy efficiency, high cost of purchasing and maintaining the equipment, and sensitivity of the product to freezing and various other processing-related stresses. These limitations have led to the search for next-generation drying methods that can be applied to biotherapeutics. Several alternative drying methods are reviewed herein, with particular emphasis on methods that are commonly employed outside of the biopharmaceutical industry including spray drying, convective drying, vacuum drying, microwave drying, and combinations thereof. Although some of the technologies have already been implemented for processing biotherapeutics, others are still at an early stage of feasibility assessment. An overview of each method is presented, detailing the comparison to lyophilization, examining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and evaluating the potential of each to be utilized for drying biotherapeutic products. PMID:24916125

  8. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacatalina, J. V.; Cárcel, J. A.; Simal, S.; Garcia-Perez, J. V.; Mulet, A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms-1), temperature (-10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm-3,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  9. Experiments versus modeling of buoyant drying of porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salin, Dominique; Yiotis, Andreas; Tajer, Eshan; Yortsos, Yannis

    2013-11-01

    A series of isothermal drying experiments in packed glass beads saturated with hydrocarbons are conducted. The transparent cell allow observation of the formation of liquid films, as the gaseous phase invades the pore space. We demonstrate the existence of an early Constant Rate Period that lasts as long as the films saturate the surface of the packing, and of a subsequent Falling Rate Period that begins practically after the detachment of the film tips from the external surface. During the CRP, the process is controlled by diffusion within the stagnant gaseous phase in the upper part of the cells. During the FRP, the process is controlled by diffusion within the packing, with a drying rate inversely proportional to the observed position of the observed tips in the cell. Our model incorporates effects of corner film flow, internal and external mass transfer and the effect of gravity. Analytical results were derived. We are thus able to obtain results for the drying rates, the critical saturation and the extent of the film region with respect to the various dimensionless numbers that describe the process; the Bond, Capillary numbers and the dimensionless extent of the mass boundary layer. The experimental results agree very well with the theory, provided that the latter is generalized to account for the effects of corner roundness in the film region which were neglected in our analytical approach.

  10. Drying of solids in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, C.S.; Thomas, P.P.; Varma, Y.B.G.

    1995-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying is advantageously adopted in industrial practice for drying of granular solids such as grains, fertilizers, chemicals, and minerals either for long shelf life or to facilitate further processing or handling. Solids are dried in batch and in continuous fluidized beds corresponding to cross-flow and countercurrent flow of phases covering a wide range in drying conditions. Materials that essentially dry with constant drying rate and then give a falling drying rate approximately linear with respect to solids moisture content (sand) as well as those with an extensive falling rate period with the subsequent falling rate being a curve with respect to the moisture content (mustard, ragi, poppy seeds) are chosen for the study. The performance of the continuous fluidized bed driers is compared with that of batch fluidized bed driers; the performance is predicted using batch kinetics, the residence time distribution of solids, and the contact efficiency between the phases.

  11. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  12. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  13. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  14. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  15. Dry Eye in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Edoardo; Strologo, Marika Dello; Pichi, Francesco; Luccarelli, Saverio V.; De Cillà, Stefano; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this comparative cross-sectional study was to investigate the use of standardized clinical tests for dry eye in pediatric patients with active and quiet vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and to compare them with healthy children. We recruited 35 active VKC, 35 inactive VKC, and 70 age-matched control healthy subjects. Each child underwent a complete eye examination, including visual analog scale symptoms assessment, biomicroscopy, fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green staining, corneal esthesiometry, Schirmer test with anesthetic, and meibomian glands inspection and expression. Active VKC patients showed significantly increased symptoms and signs of ocular surface disease, compared with the other 2 groups. Inactive VKC patients, compared with control subjects, showed increased photophobia (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U test), conjunctival lissamine green staining and Schirmer test values, and reduced BUT and corneal sensitivity [P < 0.05 by analysis of variance (ANOVA) least significant difference posthoc test for BUT and Schirmer; P < 0.001 by Mann-Whitney U test for lissamine green staining and corneal sensitivity]. Our results confirm the association between VKC and short-BUT dry eye. This syndrome seems to affect the ocular surface in quiescent phases too, determining abnormalities in tear film stability, epithelial cells integrity, and corneal nerves function. The very long-term consequences of this perennial mechanism of ocular surface damage have not been fully understood yet. PMID:26496269

  16. Forced response of a cantilever beam with a dry friction damper attached. I - Theory. II - Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Schwartz, H. B.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the forced vibration response of a cantilevered beam with Coulomb damping nonlinearity is described. Viscous damping in the beam is neglected. Beam and dry friction damper configurations of interest for applications to turbine blade vibrations are considered. It is shown that the basic phenomena found by Dowell (1983) for a simply supported beam with an attached dry friction damper of specific geometry also apply to a cantilevered beam and a more general representation of the dry friction damper and its associated mass and stiffness.

  17. Drying of Durum Wheat Pasta and Enriched Pasta: A Review of Modeling Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Samuel; Mondor, Martin; Moresoli, Christine; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Marcos, Bernard

    2016-05-18

    Models on drying of durum wheat pasta and enriched pasta were reviewed to identify avenues for improvement according to consumer needs, product formulation and processing conditions. This review first summarized the fundamental phenomena of pasta drying, mass transfer, heat transfer, momentum, chemical changes, shrinkage and crack formation. The basic equations of the current models were then presented, along with methods for the estimation of pasta transport and thermodynamic properties. The experimental validation of these models was also presented and highlighted the need for further model validation for drying at high temperatures (>-100°C) and for more accurate estimation of the pasta diffusion and mass transfer coefficients. This review indicates the need for the development of mechanistic models to improve our understanding of the mass and heat transfer mechanisms involved in pasta drying, and to consider the local changes in pasta transport properties and relaxation time for more accurate description of the moisture transport near glass transition conditions. The ability of current models to describe dried pasta quality according to the consumers expectations or to predict the impact of incorporating ingredients high in nutritional value on the drying of these enriched pasta was also discussed. PMID:26053936

  18. [SHIFTS IN URINE PROTEIN PROFILE DURING DRY IMMERSION].

    PubMed

    Pastushkova L Kh; Kononikhin, A S; Tiys, E S; Nosovsky, A M; Dobrokhotov, I V; Ivanisenko, V A; Nikolaev, E N; Novoselova, N M; Custaud, M A; Larina, I M

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at tracking the proteomic profile of urine in 8 normal volunteers to 5-day dry immersion (DI). The proteome composition was determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry on high-efficient on-line liquid nano chromatograph Agilent 1100; complementary information about the protein spectra was obtained by dint of mass-spectrometer MaXis Impact 4G and hybrid mass-spectrometer LTQ-FT. Functional associations between proteins and biological functions were analyzed using computer system ANDCell (Associative Networks Discovery in Cells). A total of 256 proteins were identified; for 43 proteins difference in the detection rate during the baseline data collection and on DI day 4 exceeded 20%. PMID:26554129

  19. Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, G. W.

    2005-05-01

    Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

  20. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile. PMID:17926127

  1. A digital microfluidic method for dried blood spot analysis.

    PubMed

    Jebrail, Mais J; Yang, Hao; Mudrik, Jared M; Lafrenière, Nelson M; McRoberts, Christine; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Fisher, Lawrence; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2011-10-01

    Blood samples stored as dried blood spots (DBSs) are emerging as a useful sampling and storage vehicle for a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, the surging popularity of DBS samples has not yet been accompanied by an improvement in automated techniques for extraction and analysis. As a first step towards overcoming this challenge, we have developed a prototype microfluidic system for quantification of amino acids in dried blood spots, in which analytes are extracted, mixed with internal standards, derivatized, and reconstituted for analysis by (off-line and in-line) tandem mass spectrometry. The new method is fast, robust, precise, and most importantly, compatible with automation. We propose that the new method can potentially contribute to a new generation of analytical techniques for quantifying analytes in DBS samples for a wide range of applications. PMID:21869989

  2. Quasi-steady temperature gradient metamorphism in idealized, dry snow

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. . Methods Development Group); Burns, P.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sommerfeld, R.A. )

    1994-03-01

    A three-dimensional model for heat and mass transport in microscale ice lattices of dry snow is formulated consistent with conservation laws and solid-vapor interface constraints. A finite element model that employs continuous mesh deformation is developed, and calculation of the effective diffusion rates in snow, metamorphosing under a temperature gradient, is performed. Results of the research provide basic insight into the movement of heat and water vapor in seasonal snowcovers. Agreement between the numerical results and measured data of effective thermal conductivity is excellent. The enhancement to the water vapor diffusion rate in snow is bracketed in the range of 1.05--2.0 times that of water vapor in dry air.

  3. Dry bottom ash removal -- Ash cooling vs. boiler efficiency effects

    SciTech Connect

    Carrea, E.; Scavizzi, G.C.; Barsin, J.

    1998-07-01

    The current wet method of removing boiler bottom ash from coal fired utility boilers quenches the ash which in turn heats the water, evaporates a portion of it adding to the gas weights moved through the steam generator. The newer dry ash removal systems use a portion of the combustion air to cool ash and thus return some of the otherwise lost latent heat back to the furnace. There has been some debate concerning the overall effect upon boiler efficiency. For example when a large quantity of ash cooling air is required and the resulting decrease in air side air heater mass flow could result in an elevate stack gas temperature thus negating the efficiency enhancing dry bottom ash effect expected. The presentation will present actual data form operating units and provide various heat balances to demonstrate the actual performance conditions that have been achieved.

  4. The effect of drying and size reduction pretreatments on recovery of inorganic crop nutrients from inedible wheat residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Alazraki, M. P.; Judkins, J.

    2003-01-01

    Inorganic nutrients can be easily recovered from ALS crop residue solid wastes by aqueous leaching. However, oven drying and milling pretreatment of these residues has been frequently required to accommodate crop scientists and facility storage limitations. As part of a research study that will compare three different bioreactor technologies for processing these wastes, we realized that different drying and size-reduction pretreatments had been utilized for each technology. This paper compares the effects of residue pretreatment on recovery of nutrients by leaching. Pretreatments included three drying methods [fresh, oven-dried (70 degrees C overnight), and freeze-dried] and two size reduction methods [chopped (2 cm length) and milled (2 mm diameter)]. Determination of mass balances (dry weight and ash content of solids) before and after leaching indicated solubilization was least for fresh residues (23% dry weight loss and 50% for ash loss), and most for freeze-dried residues (41-47% dry weight loss and nearly 100% for ash loss). Mineral recovery of major elements (NO3, PO4, K, Ca, and Mg) in leachates was poorest for fresh residues. P and K recovery in leachates were best for oven-dried residues and Ca, Mg, and N recovery best for freeze-dried residues. The differences in recovery for N, P, and K in leachates were minimal between chopping and milling and slightly better for Ca and Mg from milled residues.

  5. Dispersibility in water of dried nanocrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephanie; Bouchard, Jean; Berry, Richard

    2012-05-14

    Dispersibility is important for nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) because recovering the unique suspension and particle properties is essential after the product has been dried for storage or transport. It is our goal to produce dried NCC that redisperses in water to yield colloidal suspensions without the use of additives or a large energy input. In contrast with the as-prepared acidic form of NCC (H-NCC), suspensions of neutral sodium-form NCC (Na-NCC) dried by evaporation, lyophilization, or spray-drying are readily dispersible in water. Suspension properties and NCC particle size determined by light scattering were used as indicators of dispersion quality. The neutral counterion content, drying technique, freezing action, drying and redispersion concentrations, and moisture content in the dried NCC were all found to influence dispersibility. When a minimum of 94% of the H(+) counterion is exchanged for Na(+), the neutral salt form is fully dispersible in water even when fully dried. Mild sonication is generally sufficient to recover measured particle sizes identical to those in the never-dried Na-NCC sample. A threshold moisture content of 4 wt % was found, above which dried H-NCC is fully dispersible in water. PMID:22482888

  6. A mathematical model for constant and intermittent batch drying of grains in a novel rotating jet spouted bed

    SciTech Connect

    Jumah, R.Y.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Raghavan, G.S.V.

    1996-05-01

    A diffusion-based mathematical model is presented for batch drying of corn in a novel rotating jet spouted bed device under constant as well as intermittent drying conditions. Such a device is suited for drying of large particles (e.g. grains, beans, seeds, etc.) for which internal heat and mass transfer rates control the drying kinetics. Based on literature data for moisture diffusivities the model predictions are compared with experimental data for both continuous and time-dependent air supply and/or heat input. Effects of relevant parameters are evaluated and discussed in the light of potential practical applications. 44 refs.

  7. How should nets be dried after insecticide treatment in the field?

    PubMed

    Magris, Magda; Lines, Jonathan D; Magbity, Edward; Alexander, Neal; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin

    2009-12-01

    Different procedures for drying polyamide (nylon) hammock nets (approximately 10 m2) posttreatment were evaluated. Forty-three nets were soaked for 10 min in a plastic bowl containing a solution of water and lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% (target dose of 10 mg/m2). Twenty-two freshly treated nets were put to dry in the sun: 13 of them hung vertically with the roof of the hammock net at the top and the hem at the bottom, and the other 9 were folded and laid flat on a plastic sheet. The rest of the nets (21) were dried in the shade: 11 of them hung vertically and 10 were folded flat on a plastic sheet. After 6-7 h, 2 15-cm2 samples of each net were cut, one on top of the lateral side and one 40 cm from the edge. Concentrations of lambdacyhalothrin were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on subsamples of netting (1 cm2). The mean insecticide concentrations of samples were compared between nets that were dried in the sun or in the shade, and placed to dry either hanging vertically or folded flat. In general, no differences were found between the mean insecticide concentrations of nets that were dried vertically in the sun or in the shade, or those dried flat in the shade. However, the mean dose was considerably lower in the remaining nets, which were dried flat in the sun. The reason for this is unclear but is hypothesized to be an effect of temperature. Results indicated that nets hung vertically either in the sun or shade dried faster than those laid flat. Based on the time to dry and mean insecticide extracted, it is recommended to hang treated nets vertically in the sun for drying. PMID:20099596

  8. Short-term post-wildfire dry-ravel processes in a chaparral fluvial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, Joan L.; Chin, Anne; O'Hirok, Linda S.; Storesund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Dry ravel, the transport of sediment by gravity, transfers material from steep hillslopes to valley bottoms during dry conditions. Following wildfire, dry ravel greatly increases in the absence of vegetation on hillslopes, thereby contributing to sediment supply at the landscape scale. Dry ravel has been documented as a dominant hillslope erosion mechanism following wildfire in chaparral environments in southern California. However, alteration after initial deposition is not well understood, making prediction of post-fire flood hazards challenging. The majority of Big Sycamore Canyon burned during the May 2013 Springs Fire leaving ash and a charred layer that covered hillslopes and ephemeral channels. Dry-ravel processes following the fire produced numerous deposits in the hillslope-channel transition zone. Field data focus on: 1) deposition from an initial post-wildfire dry-ravel pulse; and 2) subsequent alteration of dry ravel deposits over a seven-month period between September 2013 and April 2014. We quantify geomorphic responses in dry ravel deposits including responses during the one small winter storm that generated runoff following the fire. Field measurements document volumetric changes after initial post-wildfire deposition of sediment derived from dry ravel. Erosion and deposition mechanisms that occurred within dry-ravel deposits situated in the hillslope-channel transition zone included: 1) mobilization and transport of a portion or the entire deposit by fluvial erosion; 2) rilling on the surface of the unconsolidated deposits; 3) deposition on deposits via continued hillslope sediment supply; and 4) mass wasting that transfers sediment within deposits where surface profiles are near the angle of repose. Terrestrial LiDAR scanning point clouds were analyzed to generate profiles quantifying depth of sediment erosion or deposition over remaining dry ravel deposits after the first storm season. This study contributes to the understanding of potential

  9. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  10. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOEpatents

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  11. Dislocation creep of dry quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée.; Holyoke, Caleb W.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.; Stünitz, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Small-scale shear zones within the Permian Truzzo meta-granite developed during the Alpine orogeny at amphibolite facies conditions. In these shear zones magmatic quartz deformed by dislocation creep and recrystallized dynamically by grain boundary migration with minor subgrain rotation recrystallization to a grain size of around 250-750 µm, consistent with flow at low differential stresses. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy reveals very low water contents in the interior of recrystallized grains (in the form of discrete OH peaks, ~20 H/106Si and very little broad band absorption, <100 H/106Si). The spectral characteristics are comparable to those of dry Brazil quartz. In FTIR spectra, magmatic quartz grains show a broad absorption band related with high water concentrations only in those areas where fluid inclusions are present while other areas are dry. Drainage of fluid inclusions and synkinematic growth of hydrous minerals indicates that a hydrous fluid has been available during deformation. Loss of intragranular water during grain boundary migration recrystallization did not result in a microstructure indicative of hardening. These FTIR measurements provide the first evidence that quartz with extremely low intragranular water contents can deform in nature by dislocation creep at low differential stresses. Low intragranular water contents in naturally deformed quartz may not be necessarily indicative of a high strength, and the results are contrary to implications taken from deformation experiments where very high water contents are required to allow dislocation creep in quartz. It is suggested that dislocation creep of quartz in the Truzzo meta-granite is possible to occur at low differential stresses because sufficient amounts of intergranular water ensure a high recovery rate by grain boundary migration while the absence of significant amounts of intragranular water is not crucial at natural conditions.

  12. A statistical approach to optimize the spray drying of starch particles: application to dry powder coating.

    PubMed

    Bilancetti, Luca; Poncelet, Denis; Loisel, Catherine; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the preparation of starch particles, by spray drying, for possible application to a dry powder coating process. Dry powder coating consists of spraying a fine powder and a plasticizer on particles. The efficiency of the coating is linked to the powder morphological and dimensional characteristics. Different experimental parameters of the spray-drying process were analyzed, including type of solvent, starch concentration, rate of polymer feeding, pressure of the atomizing air, drying air flow, and temperature of drying air. An optimization and screening of the experimental parameters by a design of the experiment (DOE) approach have been done. Finally, the produced spray-dried starch particles were conveniently tested in a dry coating process, in comparison to the commercial initial starch. The obtained results, in terms of coating efficiency, demonstrated that the spray-dried particles led to a sharp increase of coating efficiency value. PMID:20706878

  13. Characteristic lengths affecting evaporative drying of porous media.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Peter; Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2008-05-01

    Evaporation from porous media involves mass and energy transport including phase change, vapor diffusion, and liquid flow, resulting in complex displacement patterns affecting drying rates. Force balance considering media properties yields characteristic lengths affecting the transition in the evaporation rate from a liquid-flow-based first stage limited only by vapor exchange with air to a second stage controlled by vapor diffusion through the medium. The characteristic lengths determine the extent of the hydraulically connected region between the receding drying front and evaporating surface (film region) and the onset of flow rate limitations through this film region. Water is displaced from large pores at the receding drying front to supply evaporation from hydraulically connected finer pores at the surface. Liquid flow is driven by a capillary pressure gradient spanned by the width of the pore size distribution and is sustained as long as the capillary gradient remains larger than gravitational forces and viscous dissipation. The maximum extent of the film region sustaining liquid flow is determined by a characteristic length L_{C} combining the gravity characteristic length L_{G} and viscous dissipation characteristic length L_{V} . We used two sands with particle sizes 0.1-0.5 mm ("fine") and 0.3-0.9 mm ("coarse") to measure the evaporation from columns of different lengths under various atmospheric evaporative demands. The value of L_{G} determined from capillary pressure-saturation relationships was 90 mm for the coarse sand and 140 mm for the fine sand. A significant decrease in drying rate occurred when the drying front reached the predicted L_{G} value (viscous dissipation was negligibly small in sand and L_{C} approximately L_{G} ). The approach enables a prediction of the duration of first-stage evaporation with the highest water losses from soil to the atmosphere. PMID:18643163

  14. Mass Deacidification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Reviews methods being developed for mass deacidification of books to prevent deterioration of paper. The use of diethyl zinc, liquified gas, and morpholine, and the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of each are considered. A 26-item bibliography is included. (JD)

  15. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  16. Drying apparatus for photographic sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, P.; Donovan, G.; Lawhite, E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An elongated drying chamber is provided with transport means for carrying photographic sheet material edgewise with the sheets in end-to-end relationship past a plurality of tubes that issue drying air streams. The tubes are slotted a distance equal to substantially the full width of the sheet material for complete, gentle drying by sheets of air. A common plenum supplies the tubes with heated air; the air is directed from the tube slots at a pronounced angle to the sheet surface to provide for arraying the tubes close to the surface for maximum drying effect while minimizing the danger of mechanical interference between the edges of the sheets and the slots in the tubes. The driver for the transport is housed in an enclosure between the plenum and the drying chamber; an air return duct is provided along another side to complete insulation of the drying chamber from ambient conditions.

  17. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices. PMID:24425966

  18. Dry process dependency of dupic fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kwangheon; Whang, Juho; Kim, Yun-goo; Kim, Heemoon

    1996-12-31

    During the Dry Process, volatile and semi-volatile elements are released from the fuel. The effects of these released radioactive nuclides on DUPIC fuel cycle are analyzed from the view-point of radiation hazard, decay beat, and hazard index. Radiation hazard of fresh and spent DUPIC fuel is sensitive to the method of Dry Process. Decay beat of the fuel is also affected. Hazard index turned out not to be dependent on Dry Process.

  19. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-06-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  20. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  1. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  2. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  3. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  4. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  5. Limited influence of dry deposition of semivolatile organic vapors on secondary organic aerosol formation in the urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Karl, T.; Camredon, M.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.

    2013-06-01

    The dry deposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its impact on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are investigated in the Mexico City plume. Gas-phase chemistry and gas-particle partitioning of oxygenated VOCs are modeled with the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) from C3 to C25 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics. Results show that dry deposition of oxidized gases is not an efficient sink for SOA, as it removes <5% of SOA within the city's boundary layer and ~15% downwind. Dry deposition competes with the gas-particle uptake, and only gases with fewer than ~12 carbons dry deposit while longer species partition to SOA. Because dry deposition of submicron aerosols is slow, condensation onto particles protects organic gases from deposition, thus increasing their atmospheric burden and lifetime. In the absence of this condensation, ~50% of the regionally produced mass would have been dry deposited.

  6. Multi-residue pesticide analysis (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection)-Improvement of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for dried fruits and fat-rich cereals-Benefit and limit of a standardized apple purée calibration (screening).

    PubMed

    Rasche, Claudia; Fournes, Britta; Dirks, Uwe; Speer, Karl

    2015-07-17

    Some steps of the QuEChERS method for the analysis of pesticides with GC-MS/MS in cereals and dried fruits were improved or simplified. For the latter, a mixing vessel with stator-rotor-system proved to be advantageous. The extraction procedure of dried fruits is much easier and safer than the Ultra Turrax and results in excellent validation data at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg (116 of 118 analytes with recoveries in the range of 70-120%, 117 of 118 analytes with RSD <20%). After qualifying problematic lipophilic pesticides in fat-rich cereals (fat content >7%), predominantly organochlorines showed recoveries of <70% in quantification when the standard QuEChERS method with water was used. A second extraction was carried out analogous to the QuEChERS method, however, without the addition of water. With this simple modification, the problematic lipophilic pesticides, which had been strongly affected by the fat content of the commodities, could be determined with recoveries above 70% even at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg. Moreover, a GC-MS/MS screening method for 120 pesticides at a concentration level of 0.01mg/kg was established by employing analyte protectants (ethylglycerol, gulonolactone, and sorbitol). The use of only one standardized calibration, made of an apple purée extract in combination with analyte protectants, allowed for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 120 pesticides in different matrix extracts (tomato, red pepper, sour cherries, dried apples, black currant powder, raisins, wheat flour, rolled oats, wheat germ). The analyte protectants leveled the differences in the matrix-induced protection effect of the analyzed extracts over a wide range. The majority of the pesticides were analyzed with good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSD <20%). PMID:26044382

  7. Experimental Performance of a Thermoelectric Heat-Pump Drying System for Drying Herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsim, K.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Siriamornpun, S.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we investigated thermoelectric (TE) heat-pump drying of laurel clock vine leaves, and the effect of drying-air temperature on the characteristics of the leaves. The TE drying system comprised four TE modules each with its own rectangular fin heat sink. The hot side of each TE module was fixed to its own heat sink; the cold sides were fixed to heat-pipe heat sinks and a drying chamber. The drying time depended on drying-air temperature. The heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) increased as the current supplied to the TE modules was increased. Calculated COP for the entire TE heat-pump drying system were 1.28 and 0.81 for drying-air temperatures of 50 and 40°C, respectively.

  8. Kinetics of microwave drying of a free-flowing organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalender'yan, V. A.; Boshkova, I. L.; Volgusheva, N. V.

    2006-05-01

    The kinetics of drying of a dense buckwheat layer in a microwave electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz has been investigated for different amounts of the material charged into a working chamber. Analysis of the kinetics curves has shown that the drying of the material studied is divided into the periods of heating, drying with a constant rate, and drying with a decreasing rate. The influence of the power supplied as well as the mass and dimensions of a sample on the rate of its drying has been investigated and a formula for calculating this rate has been obtained. It has been established that, in the process of drying of a disperse material, the amount of microwave energy converted into heat energy depends not only on the mass of a sample, but also on the thickness and area of its surface layer. Generalized equations for calculating the moisture content in a layer of a free-flowing material and its temperature have been obtained.

  9. DOE hot dry rock program

    SciTech Connect

    Nunz, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been used to create and subsequently to enlarge the first hot dry rock heat-extraction loop at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. Encouraging results prompted the DOE to expand this project into a program of national scope. The elements of that Program and their present status are discussed. Emphasis is given the ongoing Fenton Hill Project where techniques and information developed in the existing research system will soon be used to produce a multiply-fractured engineering system in hotter rock at the same site. Recent results from research loop operation and progress in constructing the engineering system are reported. Although acoustic mapping and system geometry indicate that the primary hydraulic fractures are essentially vertical, relatively low fracturing pressure and absence of a sharp breakdown suggest that at Fenton Hill fracture initiation occurs by reopening of old natural fractures rather than by initiation of new ones. Flow patterns and temperature behavior suggest opening of additional old fractures as the loop is operated. Except where the hot fluid leaves the crack system to enter the production well, flow impedances are very low without either artificial propping or inflation by pressurization.

  10. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  11. The effects of drying on physical properties of bilimbi slices (Averrhoa bilimbi l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Nursabrina, M.; Suhairah, A. Zai

    2015-05-01

    Physical appearance analyses of fruits are used to maintain food quality throughout and at the end of processing. However, control variables have to be designed to obtained the desired food quality. In the present study, the effects of pretreatment and drying air temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C on the drying kinetics of belimbi slices were investigated using a hot-air dryer. In order to investigate and select the appropriate drying model, seven experiment based mathematical drying models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE and RMSE), a Logarithmic model was found to be the best model to describe the drying behaviour of belimbi slices at 40°C for control; The Page/modified Page model was the best model to describe drying behaviour at 40°C, 60°C pre-treatment and 50°C for the control and the Wang and Singh model fitted well for 50°C pre-treatment and 60°C for the control. Comparison between experiment based mathematical modelling with a single phase mathematical model shows that close agreement was produced. The qualities of belimbi slices in terms of colour, texture and shrinkage with different air temperature and pre-treatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lighter colour but greater product shrinkage, whilst pre-treatment can reduce product shrinkage and drying time and can also give good texture properties. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important to improve mass and heat transfer as well as the product characteristics such as colour, shrinkage and texture.

  12. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  13. Reflectance characteristics of dry plant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorophyll and water obscure the absorption features of all other leaf constituents in the spectra of green leaves. The predominant near-IR and thermal IR spectral features of dry plant materials originate from lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. These compounds account for 80 to 98 percent of the dry weight in most plant materials.

  14. WET AND DRY SCRUBBERS FOR EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generally speaking, absorption equipment includes two major categories: Wet adsorption scrubbers (or wet scrubbers); Dry absorption scrubbers (or dry scrubbers).
    Wet scrubbers: As the name implies, wet scrubbers (also known as wet collectors) are devices which use a liquid fo...

  15. EMISSIONS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of ‘airing...

  16. Dry phase reactor for generating medical isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Heltemes, Thad Alexander

    2016-05-03

    An apparatus for generating medical isotopes provides for the irradiation of dry-phase, granular uranium compounds which are then dissolved in a solvent for separation of the medical isotope from the irradiated compound. Once the medical isotope is removed, the dissolved compound may be reconstituted in dry granular form for repeated irradiation.

  17. Hot-dry-rock feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The hot-dry-rock project tasks are covered as follows: hot-dry-rock reservoir; generation facilities; water resources; transmission requirements; environmental issues; government and community institutional factors; leasing, ownership and management of facilities; regulations, permits, and laws; and financial considerations. (MHR)

  18. Can wet roof insulation be dried out

    SciTech Connect

    Tobiasson, W.; Korhonen, C.; Coutermarsh, B.; Greatorex, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nondestructive techniques are being widely used to locate wet insulation in compact roofing systems. Now that wet insulation can be found, breather vents and so-called breathable membranes are being promoted to dry out wet insulation, thereby recovering its thermal effectiveness. Exposure tests in New Hampshire indicate that the above venting methods are all rather ineffective in drying sealed specimens of perlite and fibrous glass roof insulation. It would take many decades to dry our specimens at the rates measured over the past two years. Cross-ventilation within the insulation increased the rate of drying. For perlite insulation, the faster rate would still result in a drying time measured in decades. For fibrous glass insulation, the drying time was reduced to 13 years. Fibrous glass insulation in a roof was dried by removing the water with a vacuum cleaner. In a series of tests with a total duration of 134 h, about 0.4 2 m/sup 3/ (110 gal) of water was removed from a 17-m/sup 2/ (180-ft/sup 2/) area of 38-mm (1.5-in.)-thick insulation. Before the water was removed the insulation had only 21% of its dry insulating ability; afterward it had 83%.

  19. Can wet roof insulation be dried out

    SciTech Connect

    Tobiasson, W.; Coutermarsh, B.; Greatorex, A.; Korhonen, C.

    1981-12-01

    Nondestructive techniques are being widely used to locate wet insulation in compact roofing systems. Now that wet insulation can be found, breather vents and so called ''breathable'' membranes are being promoted to dry out wet insulation, thereby recovering its thermal effectiveness. Exposure tests in New Hampshire indicate that the above venting methods are all rather ineffective in drying sealed specimens of perlite and fibrous glass roof insulation. It would take many decades to dry specimens at the rates measured over the past two years. Cross-ventilation within the insulation increased the rate of drying. For perlite insulation, the faster rate would still result in a drying time measured in decades. For fibrous glass insulation, the drying time was reduced to 13 years. The authors have succeeded in drying fibrous glass insulation in a roof by removing the water with a vacuum cleaner. In a series of tests with a total duration of 134 h, about 0.42 m/sup 3/ (110 gal) of water was removed from a 17-m/sup 2/ (180-ft/sup 2/) area of 38-mm (1.5-in.)-thick insulation. Before the water was removed the insulation had only 21 percent of its dry insulating ability; afterward it had 83 percent.

  20. Integrated coal drying and steam gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Nahas, N.C.

    1981-08-18

    Carbonaceous solids slurried in an aqueous solution, which preferably contains catalyst constituents having gasification activity, are dried by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in a fluid bed slurry dryer and the resultant dried solids are subsequently gasified with steam generated in the dryer.

  1. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of wine from dried fruit, a quantity of water sufficient to restore the moisture content to that of... to that of the fresh fruit, or if the moisture content is not known, sufficient water may be added to reduce the density to 22 degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration is found to...

  2. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  3. Improved Energy and Processing Efficiencies of Strawberry Drying Using Sequential Infrared Freeze-Drying Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberries are rich in nutrients but highly perishable. Freeze-drying is an excellent dehydration method for strawberry preservation. However, freeze-drying is an expensive dehydration process due to slow drying rates, high capital operating costs and low energy efficiency. Strawberry slice wei...

  4. Real-time monitoring of drying parameters in semitrailers during peanut drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient control of drying parameters is essential to ensure that peanuts are dried at the optimal rate, preserving quality and desired flavor. The present peanut drying process has limitations in means for measuring parameters such as temperature and relative humidity of the air being blown in...

  5. Thermal energy in dry snow avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkogler, W.; Sovilla, B.; Lehning, M.

    2015-09-01

    Avalanches can exhibit many different flow regimes from powder clouds to slush flows. Flow regimes are largely controlled by the properties of the snow released and entrained along the path. Recent investigations showed the temperature of the moving snow to be one of the most important factors controlling the mobility of the flow. The temperature of an avalanche is determined by the temperature of the released and entrained snow but also increases by frictional processes with time. For three artificially released avalanches, we conducted snow profiles along the avalanche track and in the deposition area, which allowed quantifying the temperature of the eroded snow layers. This data set allowed to calculate the thermal balance, from release to deposition, and to discuss the magnitudes of different sources of thermal energy of the avalanches. For the investigated dry avalanches, the thermal energy increase due to friction was mainly depending on the effective elevation drop of the mass of the avalanche with a warming of approximately 0.3 °C per 100 vertical metres. Contrarily, the temperature change due to entrainment varied for the individual avalanches, from -0.08 to 0.3 °C, and depended on the temperature of the snow along the path and the erosion depth. Infrared radiation thermography (IRT) was used to assess the surface temperature before, during and just after the avalanche with high spatial resolution. This data set allowed to identify the warmest temperatures to be located in the deposits of the dense core. Future research directions, especially for the application of IRT, in the field of thermal investigations in avalanche dynamics are discussed.

  6. Hydrogen ions associated with the dry deposition of pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.; Khalili, E.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The data provided in this paper demonstrates that pollen can generate significant amounts of hydrogen ions when added to water and that the deposition of tree pollen in forested areas represents a significant hydrogen ion source. Measurements of dry deposition of pollen were made during the months of May and June, 1987 in Northern Wisconsin, using a smooth surrogate surface. Rain samples were also collected. Deposited particles were weighed to determine mass fluxes, then washed and ion chromatographed for SO {sub 4} = and NO {sub 3} {minus} analysis. Species of pollen collected from different types of trees during the sampling period were analyzed for SO{sub 4} = NO {sub 3} and other trace constituents. The micrograms of hydrogen ions (protons) generated per gram for different types of pollen added to water, were measured. From 56 to 566 gm were generated per gram or pollen added. The amount generated varied with pollen type. Based on this information, the equivalent protons from the dry deposition of pollen were calculated and compared with the wet deposition proton data. The sulfate, nitrate, and protons associated with dry deposition were of a magnitude comparable with wet deposition.

  7. EUV extendibility via dry development rinse process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayan, Safak; Zheng, Tao; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2016-03-01

    Conventional photoresist processing involves resist coating, exposure, post-exposure bake, development, rinse and spin drying of a wafer. DDRP mitigates pattern collapse by applying a special polymer material (DDRM) which replaces the exposed/developed part of the photoresist material before wafer is spin dried. As noted above, the main mechanism of pattern collapse is the capillary forces governed by surface tension of rinse water and its asymmetrical recession from both sides of the lines during the drying step of the develop process. DDRP essentially eliminates these failure mechanisms by replacing remaining rinse water with DDRM and providing a structural framework that support resist lines from both sides during spin dry process. Dry development rinse process (DDRP) eliminates the root causes responsible for pattern collapse of photoresist line structures. Since these collapse mechanisms are mitigated, without the need for changes in the photoresist itself, achievable resolution of the state-of-the-art EUV photoresists can further be improved.

  8. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  9. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. PMID:26705850

  10. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  11. Scrotal masses

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider to determine if it may be testicular cancer. Prevention You can prevent scrotal masses caused by sexually ... 21095426 . U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Testicular Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern ...

  12. Improved compaction of dried tannery wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Della Zassa, M; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Santomaso, A C; Canu, P

    2015-12-01

    We quantitatively studied the advantages of improving the compaction of a powder waste by several techniques, including its pelletization. The goal is increasing the mass storage capacity in a given storage volume, and reducing the permeability of air and moisture, that may trigger exothermic spontaneous reactions in organic waste, particularly as powders. The study is based on dried sludges from a wastewater treatment, mainly from tanneries, but the indications are valid and useful for any waste in the form of powder, suitable to pelletization. Measurements of bulk density have been carried out at the industrial and laboratory scale, using different packing procedures, amenable to industrial processes. Waste as powder, pellets and their mixtures have been considered. The bulk density of waste as powder increases from 0.64 t/m(3) (simply poured) to 0.74 t/m(3) (tapped) and finally to 0.82 t/m(3) by a suitable, yet simple, packing procedure that we called dispersion filling, with a net gain of 28% in the compaction by simply modifying the collection procedure. Pelletization increases compaction by definition, but the packing of pellets is relatively coarse. Some increase in bulk density of pellets can be achieved by tapping; vibration and dispersion filling are not efficient with pellets. Mixtures of powder and pellets is the optimal packing policy. The best compaction result was achieved by controlled vibration of a 30/70 wt% mixture of powders and pellets, leading to a final bulk density of 1t/m(3), i.e. an improvement of compaction by more than 54% with respect to simply poured powders, but also larger than 35% compared to just pellets. That means increasing the mass storage capacity by a factor of 1.56. Interestingly, vibration can be the most or the least effective procedure to improve compaction of mixtures, depending on characteristics of vibration. The optimal packing (30/70 wt% powders/pellets) proved to effectively mitigate the onset of smouldering

  13. Degradation of LIM domain-binding protein three during processing of Spanish dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Fraser, Paul D; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2014-04-15

    Extensive proteolysis takes place during the processing of dry-cured ham due to the action of muscle peptidases. The aim of this work was to study the degradation of LIM domain binding protein 3 (LDB3), which is located at the Z-lines of the sarcomere, at different times during the Spanish dry-cured ham processing (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 9 months). A total of 107 peptides have been identified by mass spectrometry, most of them generated from the first region of the protein sequence (position 1-90) providing evidence for the complexity and variability of proteolytic reactions throughout the whole process of dry-curing. Methionine oxidation has been observed in several peptides by the end of the process. The potential of some of the identified peptides to be used as biomarkers of dry-cured ham processing has also been considered. PMID:24295685

  14. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route. PMID:26871956

  15. Evidence of Self-Organized Criticality in Dry Sliding Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zypman, Fredy R.; Ferrante, John; Jansen, Mark; Scanlon, Kathleen; Abel, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents experimental results on unlubricated friction, which suggests that stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality (SOC). The data, obtained with a pin-on-disc tribometer examines the variation of the friction force as a function of time-or sliding distance. This is the first time that standard tribological equipment has been used to examine the possibility of SOC. The materials were matching pins and discs of aluminium loaded with 250, 500 and 1000 g masses, and matching M50 steel couples loaded with a 1000 g mass. An analysis of the data shows that the probability distribution of slip sizes follows a power law. We perform a careful analysis of all the properties, beyond the two just mentioned, which are required to imply the presence of SOC. Our data strongly support the existence of SOC for stick-slip in dry sliding friction.

  16. Highly sensitive electromembrane extraction for the determination of volatile organic compound metabolites in dried urine spot.

    PubMed

    Suh, Joon Hyuk; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Unyong; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kang, Wonjae; Kim, Da Som; Han, Sang Beom

    2015-10-16

    Electromembrane extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for determination of ten volatile organic compound metabolites in dried urine spot samples. The dried urine spot approach is a convenient and economical sampling method, wherein urine is spotted onto a filter paper and dried. This method requires only a small amount of sample, but the analysis sometimes suffers from low sensitivity, which can lead to analytical problems in the detection of minor components in samples. The newly developed dried urine spot analysis using electromembrane extraction exhibited improved sensitivity and extraction, and enrichment of the sample was rapidly achieved in one step by applying an electric field. Aliquots of urine were spotted onto Bond Elut DMS cards and dried at room temperature. After drying, the punched out dried urine spot was eluted with water. Volatile organic compound metabolites were extracted from the sample through a supported liquid membrane into an alkaline acceptor solution inside the lumen of a hollow fiber with the help of an electric potential. The optimum extraction conditions were determined by using design of experiments (fractional factorial design and response surface methodology). Satisfactory sensitivity was achieved and the limits of quantification (LOQ) obtained were lower than the regulatory threshold limits. The method was validated by assessing the linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, reproducibility, stability, and matrix effects. The results were acceptable, and the developed method was successfully applied to biological exposure monitoring of volatile organic compound metabolites in fifty human urine samples. PMID:26385086

  17. Assessing New Dry Deposition Parameterization Schemes for Incorporation into Global Atmospheric Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, T.; Perlinger, J. A.; Wu, S.; Fairall, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Dry deposition is a key process in atmosphere-surface exchange and is an important transmission route for atmospheric gases and aerosols to enter terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Vertical transport of atmospheric aerosols to Earth's surface is governed by several processes including turbulent transfer, interception, inertial impaction, settling, diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, and electrostatic effects. In global transport models (GTMs), particle dry deposition velocity (vd) from the lowest model layer to the surface is often parameterized using an electrical resistance analogy. This resistance analogy is widely used in a modified form to compute vd for steady-state dry deposition flux. Recently, a mass conservative formulation of dry deposition applicable to smooth and rough surfaces was proposed. Here, we evaluate dry deposition velocities computed using five different schemes with measurement results from a variety of surfaces including bare soil, grass, and coniferous, broad-leaf, and deciduous forest canopies. Based on this assessment, we provide suggestions for optimal treatment of dry deposition processes in GTMs and evaluate implementation of new dry deposition schemes.

  18. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  19. Diffusion properties of aqueous slurries in evaporative spray drying of copper (II) chloride dihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowikowski, M.; Naterer, G. F.; Odukoya, A.

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the evaporative heat transfer and diffusive mass transfer of a droplet of CuCl2 solution. The validation of a new predictive model involves comparisons with experimental data from previous studies of different fluids based on non-dimensional analysis. The study provides new insight about the effects of different concentrations of water on the CuCl2 slurry drying at low to moderate air temperatures. Predictive correlations of heat and mass transfer are developed for the aqueous solution, subject to various drying conditions. The analysis is performed for moist air in contact with a sprayed aqueous solution of copper (II) chloride dihydrate [CuCl2·(2H2O)]. Results are presented and discussed for the drying processes.

  20. Crop drying by indirect active hybrid solar - Electrical dryer in the eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahara

    SciTech Connect

    Boughali, S.; Bouchekima, B.; Mennouche, D.; Bouguettaia, H.; Bechki, D.; Benmoussa, H.

    2009-12-15

    In the present work, a new specific prototype of an indirect active hybrid solar-electrical dryer for agricultural products was constructed and investigated at LENREZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla (Algerian Sahara). In the new configuration of air drying passage; the study was done in a somewhat high range of mass flow rate between 0.04 and 0.08 kg/m{sup 2} s a range not properly investigated by most researchers. Experimental tests with and without load were performed in winter season in order to study the thermal behavior of the dryer and the effect of high air masse flow on the collector and system drying efficiency. The fraction of electrical and solar energy contribution versus air mass flow rate was investigated. Slice tomato was studied with different temperatures and velocities of drying air in order to study the influence of these parameters on the removal moisture content from the product and on the kinetics drying and also to determine their suitable values. Many different thin layer mathematical drying models were compared according to their coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and reduced chi square ({chi}{sup 2}) to estimate experimental drying curves. The Middli model in this condition proved to be the best for predicting drying behavior of tomato slice with (R{sup 2} = 0.9995, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.0001). Finally an economic evaluation was calculated using the criterion of payback period which is found very small 1.27 years compared to the life of the dryer 15 years. (author)

  1. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Markus; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs), we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried plasma spots (DPSs) as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only) and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status. PMID:26605791

  2. Simulation of paper-drying systems with incorporation of an experimental drum/paper thermal contact conductance relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Asensio, M.C.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.

    1993-12-01

    A theoretical model for simulation of conventional steam-heated cylinder dryers is developed by considering the heat and mass transfer in a porous sheet during drying. Expressions for sheet shrinkage as a function of mass of water removed and for reductions in sheet porosity are derived for inclusion in the model. The interface thermal contact conductance of moist paper handsheet/metal interfaces has been experimentally investigated. A resulting empirical correlation, representing the thermal contact conductance between the cast iron dryer surface and paper web, is incorporated into the drying simulation model to reflect reductions in heat input to the sheet during drying. Finite difference techniques are used to obtain the numerical solutions. Average sheet moisture content and temperature along the length of the dryer section as well as average evaporation rates per cylinder are predicted by the model. Consideration of the internal dynamics of the drying process allows profiles of sheet moisture content, temperature, liquid flux, and vapor flux through the sheet thickness to be developed throughout the dryer section. Drying results are consistent with actual production cases. The model can be used to design dryer sections, study changes in operating conditions or in layout of a multi-cylinder dryer, or simulate the application of enhanced drying devices to a conventional drying section. The effect of the drum/paper contact conductance on drying rates and resultant dryer section requirements is provided as an example application of the model.

  3. Phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants and analyzed for individual phenolic acids by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry and for antioxidant capacity...

  4. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as compared with corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...

  5. Comparison of dry fractionation methods to produce barley fractions enriched in proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At USDA-ARS, we initiated a trout-grains project to develop plant-based diets. Dry fractionation has been a primary means to enrich protein in cereal grains. Previous reports have not compared different methods, nor included analysis of mass balance for enriched fractions of cereal grains, which is ...

  6. TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF A WET-DRY CROSSFLOW COOLING TOWER, VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the test program and performance analysis of a single-cell mechanical-draft wet/dry cooling tower in Cliffside, NC. Objectives of the program were to obtain performance data and results on mass transfer, heat transfer, fluid flow, plume formation, and acousti...

  7. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  8. Cyclodextrin as membrane protectant in spray-drying and freeze-drying of PEGylated liposomes.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, Gert; Beijnen, Jos H; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2012-11-15

    In this study it was investigated whether hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is able to stabilize the liposomal membranes during drying of long circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated liposomes, as compared to the disaccharides trehalose and sucrose. PEGylated liposomes loaded with prednisolone disodium phosphate (PLP) were dried by spray-drying or freeze-drying. The dried powders were tested on their residual moisture content, glass transition temperature and amorphous character. Upon reconstitution the liposomal size, size distribution and drug retention were determined and the results were compared to the characteristics of the formulation solution before drying. In contrast to the disaccharides, HPβCD stabilizes the liposomal membranes of the PEGylated liposomes during the drying process of both spray drying and freeze-drying when present in a lipid:carbohydrate ratio of 1:6 (w/w). The resulting powder can be stored at room temperature. No changes in size and size distribution were seen upon reconstitution of the HPβCD containing formulations. Drying resulted in a minimal leaking of PLP from the liposomes. Its relatively high [Formula: see text] and T(g) of HPβCD, as compared to the disaccharides, make HPβCD an excellent membrane protectant for dry PEGylated liposomal formulations. PMID:22960501

  9. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  10. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozyardımci, B.; Denli, E.; Ic, E.

    2006-03-01

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses, (˜1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  11. Cryopreservation of Spin-Dried Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Nilay; Menze, Michael A.; Malsam, Jason; Aksan, Alptekin; Hand, Steven C.; Toner, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This study reports an alternative approach to achieve vitrification where cells are pre-desiccated prior to cooling to cryogenic temperatures for storage. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells suspended in a trehalose solution were rapidly and uniformly desiccated to a low moisture content (<0.12 g of water per g of dry weight) using a spin-drying technique. Trehalose was also introduced into the cells using a high-capacity trehalose transporter (TRET1). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to examine the uniformity of water concentration distribution in the spin-dried samples. 62% of the cells were shown to survive spin-drying in the presence of trehalose following immediate rehydration. The spin-dried samples were stored in liquid nitrogen (LN2) at a vitrified state. It was shown that following re-warming to room temperature and re-hydration with a fully complemented cell culture medium, 51% of the spin-dried and vitrified cells survived and demonstrated normal growth characteristics. Spin-drying is a novel strategy that can be used to improve cryopreservation outcome by promoting rapid vitrification. PMID:21966385

  12. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  13. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  14. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  15. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  16. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  17. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  18. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  19. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  20. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  1. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  2. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  3. Mass Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    2001-01-18

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying

  4. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Diebel, J.A.

    1996-03-11

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone.

  5. Airless drying -- Developments since IDS'94

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbing, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    Since its introduction to IDS'94 delegates, significant progress has been made with the development of airless drying technology. The ceramic industry internationally is beginning to benefit from both the energy use and drying time reductions it achieves, while on the basis of further theoretical work carried out since 1993 other industries, including the bioenergy sector, should also soon begin to exploit its advantages. As global warming becomes a reality and oil reserves decline, superheated steam drying and gasification of biomass will contribute to the mitigation of those problems.

  6. Effect of Drying Temperature on the Chemical Properties and Diffusivity of belimbi (averrhoa belimbi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Jamil, N.; Rasmani, K. A.; Nursabrina

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, many dried fruit products have been developed in response to a strong demand by the customer. This type of fruit has a different composition and hence different moisture diffusivity (D). During drying, Fick's Law of diffusion, which describes the movement of liquid water was used to calculate this diffusivity. However diffusivity has strong effects on the material drying characteristics and these must be determined. In this paper, Fick's Law of diffusion with different kinds of boundary conditions was solve using separation of variable (SOV). In order to get the value of D, results obtained using SOV will be compared with the results from the drying of belimbi at temperature of 40°C, 50°C and 60°C. Although the results show that variation in the values of diffusivity for different temperatures is relatively small, but the variation in the total time required for drying is significantly bigger: between 3-7 hours. Its shown that diffusivity is an important measurement and should be considered in the modeling of the drying process. The chemical properties of belimbi slices in terms of vitamin C, total ash and antioxidant activity with different air temperatures and pretreatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lower vitamin C and antioxidant activity but a greater total of ash, whilst pre-treatment can increased vitamin C and antioxidant activity. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important variables to improve mass and heat transfer, as well as the belimbi chemical properties.

  7. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica).

    PubMed

    Abano, Ernest Ekow

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10(-9) to 2.13 × 10(-9) m(2)/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58-17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality. PMID:26904667

  8. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica)

    PubMed Central

    Abano, Ernest Ekow

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10−9 to 2.13 × 10−9 m2/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58–17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality. PMID:26904667

  9. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. Patients and methods - We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: < 24.9, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9, and ≥ 40) and weight (5 categories: < 60, 60-79, 80-99, 100-119, and ≥ 120 kg). Numbers of TJAs according to BMI categories (lowest to highest) were as follows: 2,956, 3,350, 1,908, 633, and 214, respectively. The main outcome was prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). Results - 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (< 35), but they were twice as high with BMI 35-39.9 (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3) and 4 times higher with BMI ≥ 40 (adjusted HR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8-9.7). Weight ≥ 100 kg was identified as threshold for a significant increase in infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). Interpretation - BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics. PMID:26731633

  10. Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate impingement drying (ID) as a rapid drying method to dry wet apple pomace (WAP) and to investigate the fortification of dried apple pomace flour (APF) or WAP in bakery and meat products. ID at ~110 °C reduced the moisture content of apple pomace from 80 % (wet basis) to 4.5 % within 3 h, compared with 24 h to 2.2 % using 40 °C forced-air drying and ~60 h to 2.3 % using freeze drying. Furthermore, ID enhanced the extractable phenolic compounds, allowing for a 58 % increase in total phenolic content (TPC) compared with wet pomace, a 110 % and 83 % higher than TPC in forced-air dried and freeze dried samples, respectively. The 15-20 % APF-fortified cookies were found to be ~44-59 % softer, ~30 % more chewy, and ~14 % moister than those of the control. WAP-fortified meat products had significantly higher dietary fiber content (0.7-1.8 % vs. 0.1-0.2 % in control) and radical scavenging activity than that of the control. These results suggest that impingement drying is a fast and effective method for preparing dried APF with highly retained bioactive compounds, and apple pomace fortified products maintained or even had improved quality. PMID:26344970

  11. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  12. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  13. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  14. Recent Advances in Nanostructured Biomimetic Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras; Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The relatively large size of the gecko and its ability to climb a multitude of structures with ease has often been cited as the inspiration upon which the field of dry adhesives is based. Since 2010, there have been many advances in the field of dry adhesives with much of the new research focusing on developing nanoscale and hierarchical features in a concentrated effort to develop synthetic gecko-like dry adhesives which are strong, durable, and self-cleaning. A brief overview of the geckos and the hairs which it uses to adhere to many different surfaces is provided before delving into the current methods and materials used to fabricate synthetic gecko hairs. A summary of the recently published literature on bio-inspired, nanostructured dry adhesives is presented with an emphasis being placed on fabrication techniques. PMID:25023409

  15. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  16. Dry Creek Wilderness study area, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, B.R.; Stroud, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral evaluation study of the Dry Creek Wilderness Study Area indicated that the area has a probable resource potential for natural gas and little promise for the occurrence of other mineral commodities.

  17. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  18. SLUDGE DEWATERING AND DRYING ON SAND BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dewatering of water and wastewater treatment sludges was examined through mathematical modeling and experimental work. The various components of the research include: (1) chemical analyses of water treatment sludges, (2) drainage and drying studies of sludges, (3) a mathematical ...

  19. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  20. Dry Eye in Pediatric Contact Lens Wearers

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Katie L.; Walline, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether children who wear contact lenses truly have fewer dry eye complaints than adults. Methods Ninety-four pediatric contact lens wearers, ages 8 to 14 years, were recruited and given the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ) short form. The survey is designed to diagnose dry eye syndrome by obtaining information on the frequency of dryness and light sensitivity and their corresponding intensity levels within the first two hours of putting in the lenses, in the middle of the day, and at the end of the day. The responses were scored by multiplying the frequency by the average intensity and a constant. A composite score was calculated by subtracting the photophobia score from the dryness score, and the results were compared to adult samples from the literature. The questionnaire also asked whether the subject thought he/she had dry eyes while wearing contact lenses. Subjects that thought they had dry eyes and had a CLDEQ composite score >0.03 were diagnosed with dry eye. Subjects who were unsure if they dry eye or said they did not have dry eye but scored >1.29 were also diagnosed with dry eye. Results The average (± SD) age of the sample was 11.7 ± 1.5 years, 56.4% were female, 59.6% were white, and 19.1% were black. The mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 0.25 ±0.50 (range= -1.20 to 1.45). In the literature, the adult mean (± SD) CLDEQ composite score was 1.02 ±0.80 (range= -0.74 to 4.50). Of the 94 surveys collected, 4.3% of children were categorized with dry eye compared to 56.2% of adults who completed the CLDEQ survey in the adult study. Conclusions Pediatric contact lens wearers have fewer complaints about dry eyes than adult contact lens wearers, which may be due to improved tear film, differences in reporting of symptoms, or modality of contact lens wear. PMID:21060258