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Sample records for 125i-fibrinogen leg scanning

  1. Practical application of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen leg scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Hirsh, J.

    1981-07-01

    The diagnosis of venous thrombosis by radioiodine-labeled fibrinogen scanning depends upon the incorporation of circulating labeled fibrinogen into a developing or established thrombus which is then detected by measuring the increase of overlying surface radioactivity with an isotope detector. The scanning procedure is simple and rapid, and one technician can screen 15 to 20 patients daily. A single intravenous injection of 100 ..mu..Ci of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen enables scanning to be performed for approximately 7 days. leg scanning has been a valuable research tool and is also useful for the clinical management of patients with venous thrombosis. Its limitations are its insensitivity to iliac vein thrombosis and relative insensitivity to thrombi in the upper thigh, and when used diagnostically in patients with clinically suspected venous thrombosis there is a delay of up to 2 days before a positive result is obtained. For these reasons leg scanning should not be used alone in patients with clinically suspected venous thrombosis. The practical indications for using /sup 125/I-fibrinogen leg scanning are (1) for diagnosis of clinically suspected venous thrombosis when used in combination with impedance plethysmography; (2) detection of acute venous thrombosis in patients with chronic venous insufficiency; (3) screening patients who develop calf vein thrombosis when there is contraindication to anticoagulant therapy; and (4) screening certain high-risk patients and patient groups in whom the prophylaxis is either contraindicated or ineffective.

  2. Venous function in the leg after postoperative thrombosis diagnosed with /sup 125/I-fibrinogen uptake test

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhagen, A.; Bergqvist, D.; Hallboeoek, T.; Efsing, H.O.

    1983-02-01

    The /sup 125/I-fibrinogen uptake test (FUT) has been widely used in the past decade to detect postoperative thrombosis. FUT has been shown to correlate well with phlebography, and positive FUT is associated with a high frequency of pulmonary embolism. The long-term venous function of the leg after FUT-detected postoperative thrombosis, however, is inadequately documented. In 179 patients who had been studied after operation with FUT, a follow-up evaluation of FUT as an indicator of risk for development of deep venous insufficiency was made four to five years later. The patients replied to a questionnaire, were clinically examined, and underwent venous strain-gauge plethysmography, venous pressure measurement, and, in some cases, phlebography. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the parameters between legs that had been FUT-positive and those that were FUT-negative at the time of the operation. The frequency of deep venous insufficiency thus was equal in FUT-positive and FUT-negative legs. It was also independent of the site of FUT-detected thrombus in the leg.

  3. /sup 111/In-platelet and /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition in the lungs in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Goulbourne, I.A.; Watson, H.; Davies, G.C.

    1987-12-01

    An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary /sup 125/I-fibrinogen and /sup 111/In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. /sup 125/I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy.

  4. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called ...

  5. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  6. Effects of oral contraceptives, or lanosterol, on ADP-induced aggregation and binding of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen to rat platelets

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, L.; Toor, B.; McGregor, J.L.; Renaud, S.; Clemetson, K.J.

    1984-03-01

    The aggregation to ADP and the binding of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen to platelets from rats treated with oral contraceptives or normal platelets treated in vitro with lanosterol were compared to their respective controls. Both types of platelets showed a significant increase in ADP-induced aggregation and in binding of fibrinogen, indicating that the effect of oral contraceptives could be partly due to increased levels of lanosterol in platelet membrane.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of legs of two species of sucking lice (Anoplura: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Soler Cruz, M D; Martin Mateo, M P

    2009-04-01

    Pretarsal, tarsal and tibial structures of the forelegs, midlegs and hindlegs of Pediculus humanus of humans and of Haematopinus apri Goureau, 1866 (Phthiraptera), a parasite of feral hogs, were studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Details of the tibial thumb-like process (tl) with the spine of the thumb (spn), tarsal apophysis (ta) and the coupled finger-like process (cfl) can be observed in the leg photomicrograph of both species. A frontal view of the leg in open position shows the articulation of the claw: the structures of an open-closed system, a tooth row (te), rack-system (rs) and two telescopic columns (tc) which are present near the base of the claw in both species. In H. apri, we observed a pad-like structure, the flap-like tibial lobe (fl) on the ventral surface on the tarsus, the euplantulae, with several sensilla basiconica, which is present in each leg.

  8. Combined study of the strain gauge plethysmography and I-125 fibrinogen leg scan in the differentiation of deep vein thrombosis and postphlebitic syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    AbuRahma, A.F.; Osborne, L.

    1984-11-01

    The fallibility of the clinical diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and postphlebitic syndrome has led to a variety of noninvasive diagnostic modalities, e.g, Doppler ultrasound, plethysmography, and radionuclide phlebography. The purpose of this study is to analyze the value of combined strain gauge plethysmography (SPG) and I-125 fibrinogen leg scanning in the differentiation of DVT and postphlebitic syndrome. Using strain gauge plethysmograph, 600 studies were performed on 502 patients. The maximum venous outflow (MVO) was calculated. An MVO of 20 cm3/100 cm3 of tissue/min or above was considered normal, and MVO of less than 20 cm3 was abnormal. Of those, 150 limbs had I-125 fibrinogen leg scan and venograms. Of 82 normal SPG, when compared with venograms, 75 were normal, five had postphlebitic syndrome, and two had DVT (97.6% true-negative). Sixty-eight legs had positive SPG, 46 of which had DVT (67.6% true-positive), 21 had postphlebitic syndrome (30.9%), and one was normal (1.5% false-positive). When rubber tourniquets were placed lightly on each leg between the strain gauge and the thigh cuff, 12 legs changed from positive SPG to negative SPG; 56 legs only had positive SPG. Forty-six of these had DVT (82.1% true-positive), nine had postphlebitic syndrome, and one was normal. When positive SPG was combined with positive leg scan, the accuracy raised to 95.6% (44 of 46 legs). If the SPG was positive but the leg scan was negative, the possibility of postphlebitic syndrome was most likely (8 of 10, i.e., 80%).

  9. Lung and leg scanning with 99mTc-labelled albumin macroaggregates

    PubMed Central

    Driedger, Albert A.; Reid, Brian D.; Heagy, Fred C.

    1974-01-01

    The routine injection of 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin into dorsal foot veins for lung scanning allows en passant assessment to be made regarding the presence of deep venous phlebitis. The radiopharmaceutical adhered to fibrin deposits in veins of calves and thighs in 103 of 386 examinations. In the 103 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of thrombophlebitis, microembolization from labelled thrombi, producing “hot spots” in the lungs, occurred in 25 cases. It is inferred that pulmonary microembolization is a very common event in patients with phlebitis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4414524

  10. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  11. Broken Leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... through — like when you try to break a green stick of wood. Most broken bones in children ... subside before they are casted. Immobilization Restricting the movement of a broken bone in your leg is ...

  12. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  13. Leg Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... your lower leg that may have started after physical activity such as running or jumping?YesNoDo you have pain, swelling, redness or warmth in your calf?YesNoDo you have twisted dark blue or purple veins near the surface of the skin of your calf, and do you have pain ...

  14. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...

  15. Platelet adhesiveness and fibrinolysis after recent cerebro-vascular accidents and their relationship with subsequent deep venous thrombosis of the legs.

    PubMed

    Warlow, C P; Rennie, J A; Ogston, D; Douglas, A S

    1976-08-31

    In fifteen patients with a cerebro-vascular accident resulting in an acute hemiplegia there was a subsequent rise in the platelet count and plasma fibrinogen level. There were no significant alterations in platelet adhesiveness, plasminogen activator, plasminogen, FR-antigen and haematocrit. Patients diagnosed as developing deep venous thrombosis with the 125I-fibrinogen technique had a significantly lower platelet adhesiveness and plasminogen level than those who were not.

  16. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg problems. For example, knee osteoarthritis, common in older people, can cause pain and ...

  17. Management of leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, P; Ballantyne, S

    2000-01-01

    Leg ulcer is a leading cause of morbidity among older subjects, especially women in the Western world. About 400 years BC, Hippocrates wrote, "In case of an ulcer, it is not expedient to stand, especially if the ulcer be situated on the leg". Hippocrates himself had a leg ulcer. The best treatment of any leg ulcer depends upon the accurate diagnosis and the underlying aetiology. The majority of leg ulcers are due to venous disease and/or arterial disease, but the treatment of the underlying cause is far more important than the choice of dressing. The aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and the future trends in the management of the leg ulcers are discussed in this review.
 PMID:11060140

  18. [Prevention of leg ulcer].

    PubMed

    Marinović Kulisić, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Lower leg ulcers is the most common form of ulceration of the lower extremities. The prevalence of leg ulcer varies among studies from 0.1% to 0.6%. In the majority of studies, 1% of the population develop leg ulcer at least once in lifetime. The prevalence is higher in elderly people. There are several hypotheses used to explain the pathophysiological steps leading from the popliteal venous hypertension in value. Currently, the treatment of leg ulcer relies on due knowledge of ulcer pathophysiology and making an accurate diagnosis. Venous disease has a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity. In addition, costs associated with the prevention and treatment of lower leg ulcers are significant.

  19. Leg lengthening and shortening

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead to very unequal leg lengths. They include: Poliomyelitis Cerebral palsy Small, weak muscles or short, tight ( ... Cerebral palsy Legg-Calve-Perthes disease Long bones Polio Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: Neil ...

  20. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007394.htm Peripheral artery bypass - leg To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Peripheral artery bypass is surgery to reroute the blood supply ...

  1. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to an imbalance of the brain chemical dopamine, which sends messages to control muscle movement. Heredity ... in your legs. These include: Medications that increase dopamine in the brain. These medications reduce motion in ...

  2. Night Leg Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet or thighs might cramp as well. Forcefully stretching the contracted muscle relieves the pain. Most of ... include: Drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration Stretching your leg muscles or riding a stationary bicycle ...

  3. Actuator device for artificial leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An actuator device is described for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes a first articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly carried by the prosthesis whereby energy from the movement of the natural leg is transferred by a compressible fluid from the first hip joint assembly to the second hip joint assembly for moving the artificial leg.

  4. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  5. Hemoglobinopathies and Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients.

  6. 20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH CROSSED BRACE BLOCK, GROUND WIRES AND GUIDE WIRE. - Hat Point Fire Lookout Tower, Forest Service Road #4340, 24 miles from Imnaha, Imnaha, Wallowa County, OR

  7. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-13

    to bound. 3.2 Introduction Animals, including man, demonstrate feats of great mobility. Their legs allow them to move swiftly over terrain that is...135 Witt.D.C. A feasibility study on automatically-controlled powered lower-limb prosthesis . University of Oxford.. Department of Engineering Science

  8. Leg lengthening - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indications URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100127.htm Leg lengthening - series—Indications To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 ...

  9. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...

  10. Effective leg stiffness in running.

    PubMed

    Blum, Yvonne; Lipfert, Susanne W; Seyfarth, Andre

    2009-10-16

    Leg stiffness is a common parameter used to characterize leg function during bouncing gaits, like running and hopping. In the literature, different methods to approximate leg stiffness based on kinetic and kinematic parameters are described. A challenging point in estimating leg stiffness is the definition of leg compression during contact. In this paper four methods (methods A-D) based on ground reaction forces (GRF) and one method (method E) relying on temporal parameters are described. Leg stiffness calculated by these five methods is compared with running patterns, predicted by the spring mass model. The best and simplest approximation of leg stiffness is method E. It requires only easily accessible parameters (contact time, flight time, resting leg length, body mass and the leg's touch down angle). Method D is of similar quality but additionally requires the time-dependent progression of the GRF. The other three methods show clear differences from the model predictions by over- or underestimating leg stiffness, especially at slow speeds. Leg stiffness is derived from a conceptual model of legged locomotion and does not exist without this model. Therefore, it is important to prove which experimental method is suited best for approximating the stiffness in a specific task. This will help to interpret the predictions of the conceptual model in comparison with experimental data.

  11. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  12. Venous Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-08-02

    This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  13. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  14. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Borvansky DISTIBUTIo~ j 3T ENT A Approved for pubtc (eLaz-; Distribution Unkn!r hd MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 90 oU3 2?. 0h22 RLAD INSTRUC.TIONS...DATE Advanced Research P rojects Agency September 1989 1400 Wilson Blvd. 13. NUMfiEROF PAGES Arlington, VA 22209 203 14 MONITORING AGENCY NAME A ...this researchi is to bl)id a founidation of knowledge that can leadl bothi to tile coiistl luctionl of useful legged veldlis and to a better

  15. Biomechanics of Counterweighted One-Legged Cycling.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; McDaniel, John; Martin, James C

    2016-02-01

    One-legged cycling has served as a valuable research tool and as a training and rehabilitation modality. Biomechanics of one-legged cycling are unnatural because the individual must actively lift the leg during flexion, which can be difficult to coordinate and cause premature fatigue. We compared ankle, knee, and hip biomechanics between two-legged, one-legged, and counterweighted (11.64 kg) one-legged cycling. Ten cyclists performed two-legged (240 W), one-legged (120 W), and counterweighted one-legged (120 W) cycling (80 rpm). Pedal forces and limb kinematics were recorded to determine work during extension and flexion. During counterweighted one-legged cycling relative ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion work were less than one-legged but greater than two-legged cycling (all P < .05). Relative ankle plantar flexion and hip extension work for counterweighted one-legged cycling were greater than one-legged but less than two-legged cycling (all P < .05). Relative knee extension work did not differ across conditions. Counterweighted one-legged cycling reduced but did not eliminate differences in joint flexion and extension actions between one- and two-legged cycling. Even with these differences, counterweighted one-legged cycling seemed to have advantages over one-legged cycling. These results, along with previous work highlighting physiological characteristics and training adaptations to counterweighted one-legged cycling, demonstrate that this exercise is a viable alternative to one-legged cycling.

  16. Effect of leg press training on patellar realignment in patients with patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsien-Te; Song, Chen-Yi

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leg press and leg press with hip adduction exercise training on patellar alignment and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP). [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen patients participated in this study. Eight weeks of leg press or leg press with hip adduction training, including progressive lower-limb weight-training and stretching, was given. Patellar alignment (tilt and displacement) and pain measurements were conducted before and after leg press or leg press with hip adduction training. Patellar tilt angle and the bisect offset index were measured on axial computed tomography scans of the fully extended knee position with the quadriceps relaxed and contracted. Pain was assessed by using a 10-cm visual analog scale. [Results] No differences were found in patellar tilt and displacement with the quadriceps either relaxed or contracted after leg press and leg press with hip adduction. However, significant pain reduction was evident in both leg press and leg press with hip adduction. [Conclusion] The results indicated that patellar realignment does not appear to mediate pain alleviation. Furthermore, hip adduction in addition to leg press training had no additive beneficial effect on patellar realignment or pain reduction.

  17. Effect of leg press training on patellar realignment in patients with patellofemoral pain

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hsien-Te; Song, Chen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leg press and leg press with hip adduction exercise training on patellar alignment and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP). [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen patients participated in this study. Eight weeks of leg press or leg press with hip adduction training, including progressive lower-limb weight-training and stretching, was given. Patellar alignment (tilt and displacement) and pain measurements were conducted before and after leg press or leg press with hip adduction training. Patellar tilt angle and the bisect offset index were measured on axial computed tomography scans of the fully extended knee position with the quadriceps relaxed and contracted. Pain was assessed by using a 10-cm visual analog scale. [Results] No differences were found in patellar tilt and displacement with the quadriceps either relaxed or contracted after leg press and leg press with hip adduction. However, significant pain reduction was evident in both leg press and leg press with hip adduction. [Conclusion] The results indicated that patellar realignment does not appear to mediate pain alleviation. Furthermore, hip adduction in addition to leg press training had no additive beneficial effect on patellar realignment or pain reduction. PMID:26834371

  18. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  19. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  20. Leg discomfort: beyond the joints.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Although simple characterization of discomfort as cramps, heaviness, shooting pains, and so forth can be misleading, history and examination are key to accurate diagnosis. Absence of both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses strongly suggests peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and the presence of either pulse makes PAD less likely. Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are a common cause of lower extremity myalgias. Restless legs syndrome causes nocturnal discomfort but must be distinguished from confounding“mimics." Neurologic causes of leg symptoms include lumbar spinal stenosis, radiculopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and entrapment neuropathy. Many common causes of leg discomfort can be managed conservatively.

  1. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  2. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000239.htm Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had peripheral artery bypass surgery to re-route the blood supply ...

  3. Restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Vladimir; Relja, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Being of the most frequent causes of insomnia, which in the end leads to chronic fatigue, inadequate performance of daily activities, and serious disruption of quality of living, restless legs syndrome (RLS) is nowadays not only a serious medical problem but a socio-economical one as well. Prevalence of the disorder in general population is estimated at 5 to 15%. Family history is positive in over 50% of idiopathic RLS patients which points to genetic basis of the disorder. The characteristics of the secondary or acquired form of RLS are symptoms that start later in life as well as a rapid progression of the disease. On the other hand, idiopathic RLS more often starts at a younger age and the prognoses are better. Over twenty disorders and conditions are brought in connection with secondary RLS. Although the cause of primary RLS is still unknown, there is a strong connection between central metabolism of iron as well as dopamine levels and RLS manifestation. A differential diagnosis of RLS includes a wide specter of motor and sensory disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the history of disease. To correctly diagnose idiopathic RLS one must first eliminate secondary causes of RLS and then also exclude any disorders with clinical features that mimic those of RLS. It has been estimated that some 20 to 25% of patients need pharmacological therapy. Best initial therapy is the application of nonergot dopamine agonists. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and opioides can be given to patients who are refractory to dopaminergic therapy, those suffering from RLS with emphasized painful sensory component and those with RLS connected with insomnia.

  4. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders. PMID:26504610

  5. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  6. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body. It is a type of nuclear scan . How the Test is Performed Blood will ... radiation. Due to the slight radiation exposure, most nuclear scans (including WBC scan) are not recommended for ...

  7. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nuclear scan - technetium; Nuclear scan - liver or spleen Images Liver scan References Lidofsky S. Jaundice. In: Feldman M, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  8. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have an allergic reaction to the tracer material. Some people have pain, redness, or swelling at ... with diabetes. Most PET scans are now performed along with a CT scan. This combination scan ...

  9. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  10. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  11. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  12. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  13. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  14. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. HYPERTENSIVE-ISCHEMIC LEG ULCERS

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Eugene M.; Schmidt, Otto E. L.

    1950-01-01

    Ischemic ulcers of the leg having characteristics different from those of ordinary leg ulcers have been observed in a small number of hypertensive patients, mostly women, during the past few years. Such ulcers are usually located above the ankle. They begin with a small area of purplish discoloration at the site of slight trauma, and progress to acutely tender ulceration. In studies of tissue removed from the margin and the base of an ulcer of this kind, obliterative arteriolar sclerotic changes, ischemic-appearing connective tissue and inflammatory changes were noted. Two additional cases are reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:15398887

  16. Rotigotine for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davies, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder related to abnormal and unpleasant sensations and movements in the legs. It usually occurs at nighttime and thus has a detrimental impact on the ability to sleep, leading to poor patient quality of life. UCB has been developing rotigotine transdermal patch system (Neupro; SPM-962) as a treatment for RLS. This system is designed to replace levels of dopamine in the body via once-daily application of the patch, in a bid to restore proper motor functioning. The rotigotine patch has been authorized for the treatment of RLS since August 2008.

  17. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  18. FAQs on leg ulcer care.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene; King, Brenda; Knight, Susan; Keynes, Milton

    In a webchat on leg ulcer management issues, hosted by Nursing Times, participants raised three key areas of care: the role of healthcare assistants in compression bandaging; reporting and investigating damage caused by compression therapy; and recommendations for dressings to be used under compression. This article discusses each of these in turn.

  19. Rotational joint for prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.

  20. Bone Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mayo Clinic Staff A bone scan is a nuclear imaging test that helps diagnose and track several ... you're nursing. A bone scan is a nuclear imaging procedure. In nuclear imaging, tiny amounts of ...

  1. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  2. The one-leg standing radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7). 33%, 47.4% and 23.1% of the knees diagnosed with a KL grade of I, II and III in the both-legs standing views were changed to KL grade II, III and IV in the one-leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299

  3. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repeatability for the BIA method was established from duplicate measurements. Body composition was then determined by BIA in 1139 girls and 1243 boys aged 7-16 years, who were randomly sampled in eight local primary and secondary schools to establish reference ranges.
RESULTS—The 95% limits of agreement between BIA and DXA methods were considered acceptable (−3.3 kg to −0.5 kg fat mass and −3.9 to 0.6% body fat). The percentage body fat increased with increasing age. Compared to the 1993 Hong Kong growth survey, these children had higher body mass index. Mean (SD) percentage body fat at 7years of age was 17.2% (4.4%) and 14.0% (3.4%) respectively for boys and girls, which increased to 19.3% (4.8%) and 27.8% (6.3%) at age 16.
CONCLUSION—Leg to leg BIA is a valid alternative method to DXA for the measurement of body fat. Provisional reference ranges for percentage body fat for Hong Kong Chinese children aged 7-16 years are provided.

 PMID:11517118

  4. Gimbals in the insect leg.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Wang, Weiying

    2009-01-01

    We studied the common kinematic features of the coxa and trochanter in cursorial and raptorial legs, which are the short size of the podomers, predominantly monoaxial joints, and the approximate orthogonality of adjacent joint axes. The chain coxa-trochanter with its short elements and serial orthogonality of joint axes resembles the gimbals which combine versatility and tolerance to external perturbations. The geometry of legs was studied in 23 insect species of 12 orders. Insects with monoaxial joints were selected. The joint between the trochanter and the femur (TFJ) is defined either by two vestigial condyles or by a straight anterior hinge. Direction of the joint axes in the two basal podomers was assessed by 3D measurements or by goniometry in two planes. Length of the coxa is <15% (mostly <8%) of the total length of the cursorial leg, that of the trochanter <10%. Angles between the proximal and distal joint axes in the middle coxa range from 124 to 84 degrees (mean 97+/-14 degrees ), in the trochanter (in all legs studied) from 125 to 72 degrees (mean 90+/-13 degrees ). Vectors of the distal axis in the coxa are concentrated about the normal to the plane defined by the proximal axis and the midpoint between the distal condyles. These vectors in the trochanter lie at various angles to the normal; angles are correlated with the direction of the TFJ relative to the femur. Range of reduction about the TFJ is over 60 degrees in the foreleg of Ranatra linearis, Mantispa lobata and the hind leg in Carabus coriaceus (confirming observations of previous authors), 40-60 degrees in the foreleg of Vespa crabro and in the middle one in Ammophila campestris, 10-30 degrees in other studied specimens. The special role of the trochanter in autotomy and in active propulsion in some insect groups is discussed. The majority of insects possess small trochanters and slightly movable TFJs with the joint axis laying in the femur-tibia plane. We pose the hypothesis that the TFJ

  5. [Compression therapy in leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J; Protz, K; Reich-Schupke, S; Stücker, M; Kröger, K

    2016-04-01

    Compression therapy is well-tried treatment with only few side effects for most patients with leg ulcers and/or edema. Despite the very long tradition in German-speaking countries and good evidence for compression therapy in different indications, recent scientific findings indicate that the current situation in Germany is unsatisfactory. Today, compression therapy can be performed with very different materials and systems. In addition to the traditional bandaging with Unna Boot, short-stretch, long-stretch, or multicomponent bandage systems, medical compression ulcer stockings are available. Other very effective but far less common alternatives are velcro wrap systems. When planning compression therapy, it is also important to consider donning devices with the patient. In addition to compression therapy, intermittent pneumatic compression therapy can be used. Through these various treatment options, it is now possible to develop an individually accepted, geared to the needs of the patients, and functional therapy strategy for nearly all patients with leg ulcers.

  6. Renal scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urinate often to help remove the radioactive material from the body. How to Prepare for the Test Tell your health care provider if you take ... drink additional fluids before the scan. How the Test will ... into the vein. However, you will not feel the radioactive material. The scanning table may be hard and cold. ...

  7. Differential Glucose Uptake in Quadriceps and Other Leg Muscles During One-Legged Dynamic Submaximal Knee-Extension Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine; Døssing, Simon; Kjær, Andreas; Kjær, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p < 0.05), whereas the coefficient of variation was highest in VL (VL vs VI, p < 0.05). Coefficient of variation between the mean values of the four quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles in the exercising leg was 35 ± 9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity. PMID:22046164

  8. Tool Blunts Cotter Pin Legs for Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.; Helble, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Jaws on new insertion tool contain upset point and anvil. Point forces cotter-pin legs into loop as it engages anvil. Cotter pin before insertion consists of loop and straight shaft composed of two legs welded together as tips. After insertion, welded legs have been shaped into loop. Tool used to prevent bent loose ends of cotter pins from scratching workers' fingers or cutting and entangling wires.

  9. Radiation of anginal pain to the legs.

    PubMed Central

    Kolettis, M T; Kalogeropoulos, C K; Tzannetis, G C; Vitakis, S K; Xaplanteris, P P; Novas, I A

    1986-01-01

    Pain radiated from the chest to one or both legs (17 cases), or from the legs to the chest (two cases) in 19 patients with angina or acute myocardial infarction. The leg pain was assumed to be related to the angina pectoris when both were of a similar character and occurred together, when the leg pain occurred at rest, and when there were normal peripheral pulses in the leg. Pain was felt in the left leg by 10 patients, the right leg by two patients, and in both legs by seven. Three patients experienced pain in the thigh(s), six in the shin(s), and 10 had pain in both. In six patients the pain extended down to the inner two to four toes. The pain was always felt in front of the legs. This distribution accords with the suggestion that some sensory cardiac nerve fibres occur in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia and that pain is projected into the corresponding dermatomes. PMID:3942655

  10. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  11. Leg automaticity is stronger than arm automaticity during simultaneous arm and leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2014-04-03

    Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling.

  12. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  13. CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposing your baby to radiation. Reactions to contrast material In certain cases, your doctor may recommend you ... for a few hours before your scan Contrast material A special dye called a contrast material is ...

  14. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  15. On the Magnetism and Dynamics of Prominence Legs Hosting Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Arregui, I.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  16. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  17. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) Print A A A ... español Radiografía: fémur What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  18. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation.

  19. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases the cause is unknown, or it can be caused by or made worse by other health issues or medication. This may include: Low iron levels This can cause problems with brain cell communication that can lead to restless legs syndrome. ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: restless legs syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... T, Wichmann HE, Müller-Myhsok B, Meitinger T. Genome-wide association study identifies novel restless legs syndrome susceptibility loci on ... HE, Holsboer F, Müller-Myhsok B, Meitinger T. Genome-wide association study of restless legs syndrome identifies common variants in ...

  1. A Hydroxyurea-induced Leg Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seon-Wook; Hong, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jong-Keun; Sung, Ho-Suk

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a cytostatic agent that has recently become the drug of choice in the treatment of various myeloproliferative diseases. The cutaneous side effects of hydroxyurea include xerosis, hyperpigmentation, nail discoloration, and scaling. Leg ulcers have only rarely been reported in association with hydroxyurea treatment. A 75-year-old woman presented with leg ulcers, nail discoloration, and xerosis. The leg ulcers were refractory to conventional treatment. She had been taking oral hydroxyurea since being diagnosed with essential thrombocytosis in 2002. Hence, we suspected hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcers and discontinued her hydroxyurea treatment; the ulcers gradually healed thereafter. We present a rare case of hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcers in Korea. PMID:20548853

  2. Drug-induced restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome can be very troublesome but it has no serious physical complications. The underlying causes are unknown, but it can be triggered or aggravated by a drug. In early 2010, about 60 cases of drug-induced restless legs syndrome had been published in detail. The drugs implicated were mainly psychotropics, especially antidepressants and neuroleptics. Some drugs used to treat restless legs syndrome, especially dopaminergic drugs, can in fact aggravate symptoms. Drug-induced restless legs syndrome generally resolves when the dose is reduced or the drug is withdrawn. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in some cases. In practice, when a patient presents with restless legs syndrome, the role of a drug, especially a psychotropic, should be considered. Drug withdrawal or a dose reduction may be beneficial.

  3. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  4. Differences and correlations in knee and hip mechanics during single-leg landing, single-leg squat, double-leg landing, and double-leg squat tasks.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Michael R; Ellis, Samantha M; Heinbaugh, Erika M; Stephenson, Mitchell L; Zhu, Qin; Dai, Boyi

    2015-01-01

    Landing and squat tasks have been utilized to assess lower extremity biomechanics associated with anterior cruciate ligament loading and injury risks. The purpose of this study was to identify the differences and correlations in knee and hip mechanics during a single-leg landing, a single-leg squat, a double-leg landing, and a double-leg squat. Seventeen male and 17 female recreational athletes performed landings and squats when kinematic and kinetic data were collected. ANOVAs showed significant differences (p < 0.00001) for maximum knee flexion angles, maximum hip flexion angles, maximum knee abduction angles, maximum hip adduction angles, and maximum external knee abduction moments among squats and landings. For maximum knee and hip flexion angles, significant correlations (r ≥ 0.5, p ≤ 0.003) were observed between the two landings and between the two squats. For maximum knee abduction and hip adduction angles and maximum external knee abduction moments, significant correlations were mostly found between the two landings, and between the single-leg squat and landings (r ≥ 0.54, p ≤ 0.001). Individuals are likely to demonstrate different profiles of injury risks when screened using different tasks. While a double-leg landing should be considered as a priority in screening, a single-leg squat may be used as a surrogate to assess frontal plane motion and loading.

  5. Expansion Compression Contacts for Thermoelectric Legs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.

  6. CT angiography - arms and legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... combines a CT scan with the injection of dye. This technique is able to create pictures of ... Some exams require a special dye, called contrast, to be injected into your body before the test. Contrast helps certain areas show up better on the x- ...

  7. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  8. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  9. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  10. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  11. Rotational joint assembly for the prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.

  12. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  13. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  14. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    PubMed

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs.

  15. Leg extension is an important predictor of paretic leg propulsion in hemiparetic walking.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carrie L; Cheng, Jing; Kautz, Steven A; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-10-01

    Forward propulsion is a central task of walking that depends on the generation of appropriate anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (AP GRFs). The AP impulse (i.e., time integral of the AP GRF) generated by the paretic leg relative to the non-paretic leg is a quantitative measure of the paretic leg's contribution to forward propulsion and is variable across hemiparetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of propulsion generation in hemiparetic walking by identifying the biomechanical predictors of AP impulses. Three-dimensional kinematics and GRFs were recorded from 51 hemiparetic and 21 age-matched control subjects walking at similar speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Hierarchical regression models were generated for each leg to predict the AP impulse from independent biomechanical variables. Leg extension was a significant predictor and positively related to the propulsive impulse in the paretic, non-paretic and control legs. Secondarily, the hip flexor moment impulse was negatively related to the propulsive impulse. Also, the relationship of paretic and non-paretic ankle moments with the propulsive impulse depended on the paretic step ratio, suggesting the plantar flexor contribution to the propulsive impulse depends on leg angle. These results suggest that increasing paretic leg extension will increase propulsion. Increasing paretic plantar flexor output and decreasing paretic hip flexor output could also increase paretic leg propulsion. While increased pre-swing hip flexor output has been suggested to compensate for decreased plantar flexor output, such output may further impair propulsion by the paretic leg if it occurs too soon in the gait cycle.

  16. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results. PMID:23960288

  17. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  18. Probabilistic Mechanical Reliability Prediction of Thermoelectric Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-05-01

    The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.

  19. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  20. Leg spasticity and ambulation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Balantrapu, Swathi; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Pula, John H; Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal) and 4 (contracted). Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW), timed 25 foot walk (T25FW), and timed up-and-go (TUG), and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc.) for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n = 44) of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P = 0.0001, d = -0.86), T25FW (P = 0.003, d = 0.72), TUG (P = 0.001, d = 0.84), MSWS-12 (P = 0.0001, d = 1.09), O2 cost of walking (P = 0.001, d = 0.75), average steps/day (P < 0.05, d = -0.45), and walking velocity (P < 0.05, d = -0.53) and cadence (P < 0.05, d = -0.46). Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking.

  1. Leg Spasticity and Ambulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balantrapu, Swathi; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Pula, John H.; Sandroff, Brian M.; Motl, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal) and 4 (contracted). Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW), timed 25 foot walk (T25FW), and timed up-and-go (TUG), and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc.) for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n = 44) of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P = 0.0001, d = −0.86), T25FW (P = 0.003, d = 0.72), TUG (P = 0.001, d = 0.84), MSWS-12 (P = 0.0001, d = 1.09), O2 cost of walking (P = 0.001, d = 0.75), average steps/day (P < 0.05, d = −0.45), and walking velocity (P < 0.05, d = −0.53) and cadence (P < 0.05, d = −0.46). Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking. PMID:24999434

  2. Stripes on a 6-leg Hubbard ladder.

    PubMed

    White, Steven R; Scalapino, D J

    2003-09-26

    While density matrix renormalization group calculations find stripes on doped n-leg t-J ladders, little is known about the possible formation of stripes on n-leg Hubbard ladders. Here we report results for a 7x6 Hubbard model with four holes. We find that a stripe forms for values of U/t ranging from 6 to 20. For U/t approximately 3-4, the system exhibits the domain wall feature of a stripe, but the hole density is very broadened.

  3. Realizing the promise of robotic leg prostheses.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Michael; Lawson, Brian E; Shultz, Amanda H

    2013-11-06

    Recent advances in robotics technology are enabling the emergence of robotic leg prostheses that can emulate the full biomechanical functionality of the healthy limb. The behavior of such prostheses is software-controllable, in an analogous manner to the way in which the central nervous system controls the human musculoskeletal system. Although these prostheses have the capability of reproducing the biomechanical behavior of the healthy limb, their ability to do so is a function of how well the prosthesis control system coordinates the movement of the leg with the movement of the user.

  4. Respiratory-Related Leg Movements and Their Relationship with Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Manconi, Mauro; Zavalko, Irina; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Colamartino, Elisabetta; Pons, Marco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe the time structure of leg movements (LM) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, in order to advance understanding of their clinical significance. Location: Sleep Research Centre, Oasi Institute (IRCCS), Troina, Italy. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Eighty-four patients (16 females, 68 males, mean age 55.1 y, range 29-74 y). Methods: Respiratory-related leg movements (RRLM) and those unrelated to respiratory events (NRLM) were examined within diagnostic polysomnograms alone and together for their distributions within the sleep period and for their periodicity. Measurements and Results: Patients with OSA and RRLM exhibited more periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), particularly in NREM sleep. A gradual decrease in number of NRLM across the sleep period was observed in patients with RRLM. This pattern was less clear for RRLM. Frequency histograms of intermovement intervals of all LMs in patients with RRLM showed a prominent first peak at 4 sec, and a second peak at approximately 24 sec coincident with that of PLMS occurring in the absence of OSA. A third peak of lowest amplitude was the broadest with a maximum at approximately 42 sec. In patients lacking RRLM, NRLM were evident with a single peak at 2-4 sec. A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that, after controlling for a diagnosis of restless legs syndrome and apnea-hypopnea index, PLMS remained significantly associated with RRLM. Conclusion: The time structure of leg movements occurring in conjunction with respiratory events exhibit features of periodic leg movements in sleep occurring alone, only with a different and longer period. This brings into question the validity, both biologic and clinical, of scoring conventions with their a priori exclusion from consideration as periodic leg movements in sleep. Citation: Manconi M; Zavalko I; Bassetti CL; Colamartino E; Pons M; Ferri R. Respiratory-related leg movements and their relationship with periodic leg movements

  5. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.

  6. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ...

  7. Pure monoparesis of the leg due to cerebral infarctions: a diffusion-weighted imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Saiko; Ogawara, Kazue; Kamitsukasa, Ikuo

    2009-11-01

    Pure monoparesis of the leg due to cerebral infarction is rare compared to that of the hand. The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory is the most common lesion site in leg monoparesis, but diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI has not commonly been used for lesion detection. The purpose of this study was to use DW MRI to evaluate the radiological correlation with lesion location in patients presenting with pure leg monoparesis. We retrospectively studied six cerebral infarct patients with pure leg monoparesis who had undergone DW MRI. Patients were scanned within 3 days of symptom onset. DW MRI identified lesions in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) in two patients, in the corona radiata (two patients), in the subcortical white matter of the posterior frontal lobe (one patient), and in the frontal and parietal cortex, including the paracentral lobule and precuneus (one patient). The two patients with PLIC infarctions had characteristic linear infarction abnormalities along the long axis of the internal capsule. Corona radiata infarction were located posteriorly, and the two subcortical and cortical infarction were thought to be in the territory of the ACA. We thus concluded that in leg monoparesis due to infarctions, lesions may be located in the PLIC, corona radiata, or in the ACA territory. Recently, magnetic resonance tractography has shown that foot fibres of the corticospinal tract in the PLIC somatotopically may be posteromedial to hand fibres along the short axis of the internal capsule, rather than posterolateral along the long axis as has been thought. Thus, damage along the long axis of the PLIC by linear infarctions can cause pure monoparesis of the leg.

  8. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  9. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    PubMed

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses.

  10. Mechanics of six-legged runners.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Tu, M S

    1990-01-01

    Six-legged pedestrians, cockroaches, use a running gait during locomotion. The gait was defined by measuring ground reaction forces and mechanical energy fluctuations of the center of mass in Blaberus discoidalis (Serville) as they travelled over a miniature force platform. These six-legged animals produce horizontal and vertical ground-reaction patterns of force similar to those found in two-, four- and eight-legged runners. Lateral forces were less than half the vertical force fluctuations. At speeds between 0.08 and 0.66 ms-1, horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy changes were in phase. This pattern of energy fluctuation characterizes the bouncing gaits used by other animals that run. Blaberus discoidalis attained a maximum sustainable stride frequency of 13 Hz at 0.35 ms-1, the same speed and frequency predicted for a mammal of the same mass. Despite differences in body form, the mass-specific energy used to move the center of mass a given distance (0.9 J kg-1m-1) was the same for cockroaches, ghost crabs, mammals, and birds. Similarities in force production, stride frequency and mechanical energy production during locomotion suggest that there may be common design constraints in terrestrial locomotion which scale with body mass and are relatively independent of body form, leg number and skeletal type.

  11. Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078

  12. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  13. Tandem wheel drop-legs for standard truck trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, W.; Selstad, R.

    1970-01-01

    Tandem wheel drop-leg device provides a semitrailer with fore and aft mobility that allows it to be moved without a prime mover. The modified drop-legs have trunnion dual wheels and an adjustable brace.

  14. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  15. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  16. Acute leg volume changes in weightlessness and its simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Hedge, Vickie; Coleman, Eugen; Moore, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Leg volume changes were studied in six subjects during 150 min of horizontal, 6 deg headdown tilt and supine immersion. Results were compared to previously obtained space flight data. It is found that, at equivalent study times, the magnitude of the leg volume changes during the simulations was less than one half that seen during space flight. Relative and absolute losses from the upper leg were greater during space flight, while relative losses were greater from the lower leg during simulations.

  17. Venous Leg Ulcer in a Sarcoidosis Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Byun, Sang Young; Kim, In Su

    2015-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers, the most common form of leg ulcers, are relevant to the pathogenicity of pericapillary fibrin cuff. Sarcoidosis, a multiorgan granulomatous disease, causes fibrin deposition in tissues. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with venous leg ulcers coexisting with sarcoidosis. On the basis of the histologic findings, we propose the hypothesis that sarcoidosis patients are prone to the development of venous leg ulcers. PMID:26719645

  18. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-06-15

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders.

  19. Cell line segregation in a 45,X/46,XY mosaic child with asymmetric leg growth.

    PubMed

    Papenhausen, P R; Mueller, O T; Bercu, B; Salazar, J; Tedesco, T A

    1991-09-01

    Clinical evaluation of a 13 1/2-year-old male revealed a 4.4-cm leg length discrepancy and a small penis with a normal endocrine evaluation. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts derived from the back showed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with similar percentages of 45,X cells, 36% and 30% respectively. However, two separate skin fibroblast cultures derived from the thigh and calf of the short (right) leg showed significant lack of Y-bearing cells with 100% and 80% 45,X, respectively. In contrast, skin biopsies of the thigh and calf of the normal (left) leg both showed 100% 46,XY. Similar evidence for differences in the percentages of Y-bearing cells in the left versus right leg fibroblast cultures was obtained using densitometric scanning of dot blots following DNA hybridization with a Y-specific probe at the DYZ4 locus. Asymmetric limb growth in cases of X/XY lymphocyte mosaicism warrants further cytogenetic investigation to substantiate possible genotype-phenotype correlations which may help uncover the fundamental growth deficiency in Turner syndrome.

  20. Silent Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Raffaele; Cosentino, Filomena I.I.; Moussouttas, Michael; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Aricò, Debora; Bagai, Kanika; Wang, Lily; McLaughlin, BethAnn; Walters, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Growing literature suggests that patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be at increased risk for hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a known risk factor for clinical stroke. This study evaluated silent cerebral SVD by MRI in patients with RLS, in the absence of a history of previous clinical stroke or known stroke risk factors and taking into account disease duration. Methods: Fifty-three patients with RLS < 10 y were prospectively recruited along with 44 with RLS > 10 y and 74 normal controls. A magnetic resonance imaging study was obtained from all subjects and scans were analyzed for area and volume of SVD. Results: There was a significant increase in SVD area in the entire group of RLS patients compared to controls (P = 0.036); this was almost entirely driven by the group with RLS > 10 y. SVD area and volume were significantly increased in patients with RLS > 10 y with respect to both controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0014, respectively) and RLS < 10 y (P < 0.00022 and P < 0.003, respectively). Age, duration of RLS, and the interaction of age and duration of RLS were independent predictors of SVD disease. Duration of RLS was an independent predictor of the burden of cerebral SVD (area P < 0.00012 and volume P < 0.0025), whereas sex and insomnia were not. Conclusion: RLS duration should be taken into account when analyzing the association between RLS and cerebrovascular disease; our data support the hypothesis that a long-lasting RLS and its accompanying periodic limb movements in sleep are a risk factor for silent SVD and perhaps for the development of clinical stroke. Citation: Ferri R, Cosentino FI, Moussouttas M, Lanuzza B, Aricò D, Bagai K, Wang L, McLaughlin B, Walters AS. Silent cerebral small vessel disease in restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1371–1377. PMID:27091527

  1. [Cellular therapy and leg ulcers: Future approaches].

    PubMed

    Senet, P

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of leg ulcers, which are most commonly caused by venous insufficiency, is high in Europe. Current treatments are fairly unsatisfactory, with long healing times in many cases, as well as a high risk of relapse. Over the last 15 years, improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms at work in delayed wound healing has contributed to the development of cellular therapy in this field. The use of keratinocytes or cultured fibroblasts, whether autogenic or allogenic, has been of little value in terms of either healing times or rates of complete healing. For the moment, there are very few allogenic skin substitutes available; they are expensive and have been insufficiently studied in the indication of leg ulcers. Pluripotent mesenchymal adult stem cells have proved capable of accelerating wound healing in animal models and their study in chronic wounds in humans is currently awaited.

  2. Hemodynamic studies of the legs under weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    Following exposure to weightlessness, alterations in the return of blood from the legs play a crucial role in orthostatic tolerance and may be an important factor in work tolerance. To investigate some of the hemodynamic mechansism involved, an experiment was performed on the Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 missions to study arterial blood flow, venous compliance, and muscle pumping of blood. Skylab 4 results indicated that the most likely cause of increased blood flow was an increase in cardiac output secondary to increased central venous pressure caused by blood redistribution. Changes in venous compliance are thought to be primarily changes in somatic musculature which is postulated to primarily determine venous compliance of the legs. This was also thought to be demonstrated by the changes in muscle pumping. It is thought that these compliance changes, when taken with the decreased blood volume; provide a basis for the changes seen in orthostatic tolerance, work capacity and lower body negative pressure response.

  3. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-04-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  4. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  5. Efficiency and Speed in Legged Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    Alexander, Gregory Czerniak , Dr. Dave Bednarz and Sean Hadley, my co-authors on related conference publications. My committee members Professor C. J...2008) Bipedal Walkiing Army Science Conference. Orlando, FL. 102 Muench. P., Cheok, K. C., Czerniak , G., & Bednarz, D. (2009). Optimal Time and...Muench, P., Cheok, K.C., Czerniak , G., (2010) Optimal Powering Schemes for Legged Robotics. SPl£. Orlando, FL. NeIder. 1. A., and Mead, R. (1965). A

  6. Pharmacologic treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Dormandy, J A

    1995-01-01

    In terms of prevalence, total cost and morbidity, venous leg ulcers are probably by far the most important type of ulcerations in the leg. The macrocirculatory defect leading to a raised ambulatory venous pressure is now accepted as a common initial pathologic pathway. Most current treatment modalities, such as surgery or external compression, are designed to control the macrovascular defect. However, it is the microcirculatory consequences of the venous hypertension that give rise to the trophic skin changes and ultimately to ulceration. At this microcirculatory level, pharmacotherapy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The microcirculatory pathophysiologic changes include decreased fibrinolytic activity, elevated plasma fibrinogen, microcirculatory thrombi, and inappropriate activation of the white blood cells. The oxidative burst from the activated white cells probably plays a key role by releasing locally leukocyte-derived free radicals, proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, platelet-activating factor, and a number of other noxious mediators. An important additional component in recalcitrant venous ulcers is co-existing arterial disease, which is probably present in 15-20% of cases. Decreased arterial perfusion pressure will further aggravate the ischemic changes caused by the venous hypertension. Pentoxifylline downregulates leukocyte activation, reduces leukocyte adhesion, and also has fibrinolytic effects. A number of clinical studies have therefore been carried out to examine the clinical efficacy of pentoxifylline in treatment of venous leg ulcers. Probably the largest published placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study was reported in 1990. In this study, 80 patients received either pentoxifylline 400 mg three times a day orally or matching placebo for 6 months or until their reference ulcer healed if this occurred sooner. Complete healing of the reference ulcer occurred in 23 of the 38 patients treated with pentoxifylline

  7. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  8. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  9. Leg contracture in mice: an assay of normal tissue response

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, H.B.

    1984-07-01

    Leg contracture, defined as the difference in extensibility of the control and irradiated hind legs of mice, was found to correlate with single doses of radiation from about 20 to 80 Gy. The time of development of the early phase of the response coincided with that reported for the appearance of the acute skin response, and in some cases, partially reversed as this reaction healed. The contracture then progressed again at a moderate rate through 90 days, and then more slowly through one year. Skin contraction, measured by decrease in intertattoo distance, was assayed in the same mice. It followed the same time course as leg contracture, but had a different dose-response relationship. To determine the contribution of skin contraction to the overall leg contracture response, mice were sacrificed and the leg contracture measured before and after the removal of the skin of the leg. After doses of up to 30 Gy, little contracture remained from skinning the leg, indicating that skin contraction was largely responsible for leg contracture in this dose range. After doses of about 45 Gy and above, some contracture remained in the skinned legs, although less than in intact legs. There was little or no enhancement of either skin contraction or leg contracture by the hypoxic cell sensitizers metronidazole or misonidazole.

  10. Leg edema from intrathecal opiate infusions.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, J A; Couto da Silva JM

    2000-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of intrathecal infusions to treat patients with long-term non-cancer-related pain, this therapy is not without serious side-effects. Five out of 23 patients who had intrathecal infusions of opiates for longer than 24 months developed leg and feet edema. As predisposing factors, cardiovascular disease, deep venous thrombosis, peripheral vascular disease, and venous stasis of the lower extremities were considered. Every patient who developed pedal and leg edema after the implantation of an infusion pump was also found to have leg edema and venous stasis prior to the time when the pump was inserted. This complication was severe enough to limit their physical activity, and to produce lymphedema, ulcerations and hyperpigmentation of the skin. Reduction of the edema occurred when the dose of the opiate was decreased, and in two cases in which the infusion was discontinued, there was almost complete resolution of the syndrome. It appears that the pre-existence of pedal edema and of venous stasis is a relative contraindication to the long-term intrathecal infusion of opiates in patients with chronic non-cancer pain.

  11. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  12. Pyoderma vegetans developed on chronic leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Molodoi, Andreea Dana; Dimitriu, Andreea; Andronic, Cătălina Diana; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Bădescu, Aida; Boda, D; Brănisteanu, Daciana Elena

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma vegetans is a rare disorder that more commonly affects middle-aged persons, with a male predilection. It is characterized by vegetating lesions that coalescence into a plaque with eroded surface, covered by purulent discharge and crusts. The etiology of this disease is not known with certainty, but it is often associated with bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 73-year-old men who presented to the Iasi Dermatology Clinic with a large, irregular, relatively well-defined dermohypodermic ulcer, with infiltrated sclerosing borders, accompanied by pain, with the floor covered in the Northern part by a proliferative, vegetative bleeding area, and the rest by a yellowish secretion and cellular debris, located on the left leg. Bacteriological examination of ulcer secretion identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Anatomopathological examination confirmed the development of Pyoderma vegetans on chronic leg ulcer. Under specific treatment for chronic leg ulcer and eradication of infectious focus the outcome was favorable both in terms of trophic ulcer scar- ring and Pyoderma vegetans healing.

  13. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  14. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing.

  15. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - knee; Computed axial tomography scan - knee; Computed tomography scan - knee ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer makes several images of the body area. These ...

  16. HIDA Scan (Cholescintigraphy)

    MedlinePlus

    HIDA scan Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A hepatobiliary (HIDA) scan is an imaging procedure used to diagnose ... the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts. For a HIDA scan, also known as cholescintigraphy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy, ...

  17. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  18. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Electrocardiogram Heart Attack Send a link to NHLBI ... calcium, or calcifications, are a sign of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or coronary microvascular disease. A coronary calcium scan ...

  19. Fine Mapping a Locus Controlling Leg Morphology in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Quignon, P.; Schoenebeck, J.J.; Chase, K.; Parker, H.G.; Mosher, D.S.; Johnson, G.S.; Lark, K.G.; Ostrander, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The domestic dog offers a remarkable opportunity to disentangle the genetics of complex phenotypes. Here, we explore a locus, previously identified in the Portuguese water dog (PWD), associated with PC2, a morphological principal component characterized as leg width versus leg length. The locus was initially mapped to a region of 26 Mb on canine chromosome 12 (CFA12) following a genome-wide scan. Subsequent and extensive genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype analysis in both the PWD and selected breeds representing phenotypic extremes of PC2 reduced the region from 26 Mb to 500 kb. The proximity of the critical interval to two collagen genes suggests that the phenotype may be controlled by cis-acting mechanisms. PMID:19717540

  20. The use of fibrinogen uptake test in screening for deep vein thrombosis in patients with hip fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Fauno, P.; Suomalainen, O.; Bergqvist, D.; Fredin, H.; Kettunen, K.; Soimakallio, S.; Cederholm, C.; Karjalainen, P.; Vissinger, H.; Justesen, T. )

    1990-11-01

    255 hip fracture patients were studied by {sup 125}I-fibrinogen uptake test and bilateral phlebography. We found the sensitivity of fibrinogen scanning to be 44% for the non-operated limb and 50% for the calves. The predictive value of a negative result was found to be 92% and 93% respectively. We conclude that the use of fibrinogen uptake test as single diagnosticum is not valid and can only be recommended in combination with phlebography when studying patient where the frequency of DVT is expected to be low.

  1. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connor, James R; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood-brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia nigra

  2. Actigraphic assessment of periodic leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cippà, Maria A T; Baumann, Christian R; Siccoli, Massimiliano M; Bassetti, Claudio L; Poryazova, Rositsa; Werth, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) relies upon diagnostic criteria which are based on history only, and dopaminergic treatment is not normally the first choice of treatment for all patients. It would be worthwhile to identify patients non-responsive to dopaminergic treatment beforehand, because they may suffer from a restless legs-like syndrome and may require alternative treatment. We included retrospectively 24 adult patients fulfilling the four essential criteria for restless legs and 12 age-matched healthy controls. They were investigated by ambulatory actigraphy from both legs over three nights, and patients started treatment with dopamine agonists after this diagnostic work-up. We examined 12 responders to dopaminergic treatment and 12 non-responders and studied the association between response to dopaminergic treatment and the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) as assessed with actigraphy. Demographic characteristics, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue at baseline were similar in all three groups. Baseline RLS severity was similar between responders and non-responders [International Restless Legs Severity Scale (IRLS): 25 ± 9 and 24 ± 8]. Group comparisons of PLMI before treatment initiation showed significant differences between the three groups. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that healthy controls had significantly lower PLMI (4.9 ± 4.5) than responders (29.3 ± 22.7) and non-responders (13.3 ± 11.2). Similarly, the PLMI in responders was lower than in non-responders. PLMI day-to-day variability did not differ between responders and non-responders and there was no correlation between treatment effect, as assessed by the decrease of the IRLS and baseline PLMI. Our retrospective study indicates that actigraphy to assess periodic limb movements may contribute to a better diagnosis of dopamine-responsive restless legs syndrome.

  3. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  4. The natural shock absorption of the leg spring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wangdo; João, Filipa; Tan, John; Mota, Patricia; Vleck, Veronica; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, Antonio

    2013-01-04

    When a human being runs, muscles, tendons, and ligaments together behave like a single linear spring. This "leg spring" can be described remarkably well by spring/mass models. Although leg-stiffness during running (and logically, therefore, in hopping) has been shown to be adjusted in line with the individual characteristics of the external contact surface, the relative contribution of each of the sub-components of the leg spring to the mechanics of running is unclear. We proposed the three-degree-of-freedom leg spring chain in a position of stable equilibrium under the action of the leg stiffness. If the leg spring receives a displacement in hopping, the forces will no longer equilibrate, but the system will be exposed to the action of a force on a leg spring chain. We thus have two corresponding sets of modes, one set being the mode about which the chain is displaced, the other set for the forces which are evoked in consequence of the displacement. We found that if the leg has been displaced from a position of equilibrium about one of harmonic modes, then a vibration about this harmonic mode evokes a system of forces in the leg spring which in its turn tends to produce a motion on the original harmonic mode, and thus produce oscillation about the same harmonic mode. Our results suggest that the desired harmonic mode can be explained in terms of the natural shock absorption ability of the leg.

  5. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Craig P; Grabowski, Alena M; McDermott, William J; Herr, Hugh M; Kram, Rodger

    2012-08-07

    Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring-mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of unilateral amputees and both ALs of bilateral amputees compared with the bioL of non-amputees for nearly every variable measured. Leg stiffness remained constant or increased with speed in bioL, but decreased with speed in legs with RSPs. The decrease in leg stiffness in legs with RSPs was mainly owing to a combination of lower peak ground reaction forces and increased leg compression with increasing speeds. Leg stiffness is an important parameter affecting contact time and the force exerted on the ground. It is likely that the fixed stiffness of the prosthesis coupled with differences in the limb posture required to run with the prosthesis limits the ability to modulate whole leg stiffness and the ability to apply high vertical ground reaction forces during sprinting.

  6. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  7. A Repeat Validated Population Questionnaire of a Defined Swedish Population Verifies Reduction in Leg Ulcer Prevalence Over Time.

    PubMed

    Forssgren, Alexandra; Nelzén, Olle

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to measure if the introduced interventions in leg ulcer care in a selected Swedish county yield a detectable reduction in leg ulcer prevalence in the population. A validated postal questionnaire sent to 10,000 (9,868) randomly selected 30-89 year olds in the Skaraborg county (255,042 inhabitants). All positive responders were telephone interviewed and verified ulcer patients were clinically examined including assessment of arterial/venous circulation with hand-held Doppler and, where indicated, duplex ultrasound scanning. All results were compared with numbers from 1990 (initial study). The response rate was 82% (8,070/9,868), 200 active ulcers and 290 previous ulcers. The calculated prevalence was 0.75% for 30-89 years and 1.05% for 50-89 years (2.1% in 1990). The leg ulcer prevalence was reduced by 32% (0.52% compared to 0.77% in 1990), and the relative risk was reduced by 50% (95%, CI 0.36-0.69). The study shows a true reduction in leg ulcer prevalence detectable in the population supporting a successful care of leg ulcer patients.

  8. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].

    PubMed

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  9. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  10. Refractory leg ulcers associated with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yabuno, Yuto; Tosa, Mamiko; Iwakiri, Itaru; Nomoto, Shunichi; Kaneko, Mayuko; Kuwahara, Kousuke; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a man with refractory leg ulcers, bilateral varicosis of the lower extremities, and Buerger disease. Autoimmune work-up was negative. However, chromosome analysis showed Klinefelter syndrome (48 XXY). Ulcerative lesions of the lower extremities are a complication of Klinefelter syndrome. To date, the pathogenesis of ulcers in Klinefelter syndrome has not been clarified, but several factors, such as abnormalities of fibrinolysis and prothrombotic states, might be involved. Our present case emphasizes the importance of considering Klinefelter syndrome in the differential diagnosis of a male patient with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities.

  11. Leg ulcer in lepromatous leprosy - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; dos Santos, Talita Suzany Siqueira; Lopes, Ramon Rodrigues de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is a widespread infectious and contagious disease. Clinicians and specialists view leprosy broadly as a systemic infection, since, in its manifestations, it mimics many conditions, such as rheumatic, vascular, ENT, neurological and dermatological diseases. There are few studies that characterize the factors associated with ulcers in leprosy. These injuries should be prevented and treated promptly to avoid serious problems like secondary infections, sepsis, carcinomatous degeneration and amputations. We describe a patient with ulcers on his legs, involving late diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy. PMID:27828650

  12. Is leg compression beneficial for alpine skiers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of different levels of compression (0, 20 and 40 mmHg) produced by leg garments on selected psycho-physiological measures of performance while exposed to passive vibration (60 Hz, amplitude 4-6 mm) and performing 3-min of alpine skiing tuck position. Methods Prior to, during and following the experiment the electromygraphic (EMG) activity of different muscles, cardio-respiratory data, changes in total hemoglobin, tissue oxygenation and oscillatory movement of m. vastus lateralis, blood lactate and perceptual data of 12 highly trained alpine skiers were recorded. Maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance were assessed before and after the experiment. Results The knee angle (−10°) and oscillatory movement (−20-25.5%) were lower with compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). The EMG activities of the tibialis anterior (20.2-28.9%), gastrocnemius medialis (4.9-15.1%), rectus femoris (9.6-23.5%), and vastus medialis (13.1-13.7%) muscles were all elevated by compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). Total hemoglobin was maintained during the 3-min period of simulated skiing with 20 or 40 mmHg compression, but the tissue saturation index was lower (P < 0.05) than with no compression. No differences in respiratory parameters, heart rate or blood lactate concentration were observed with or maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance following simulated skiing for 3 min in the downhill tuck position were the same as in the absence of compression. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that with leg compression, alpine skiers could maintain a deeper tuck position with less perceived exertion and greater deoxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle, with no differences in whole-body oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. These changes occurred without compromising maximal leg strength, jumping performance or balance

  13. Leg length discrepancy following irradiation for childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Butler, M.S.; D'Angio, G.J.; Rate, W.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Leg length inequality developed in 12 of 67 children who were treated with radiation therapy to the kidney, abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities. All these children survived childhood cancer to the age of skeletal maturity. Of the 12 with anisomelia, seven were symptomatic. There were significant relationships between the development of leg length inequality and the total dose of radiation to the pelvic area, asymmetric irradiation to the pelvis, and high-dose irradiation to the leg.

  14. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  15. Perception of imposed leg length inequality in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Seamus; Kernohan, George; Fitzpatrick, Claire; Hill, Janet; Beverland, David

    2010-01-01

    Lower limb length differences of up to 10mm exist in 60% - 95% of the population.There are usually no symptoms or functional effects. Following Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), satisfactory clinical results can be spoiled by dissatisfaction due to a change in leg length. Although the change in leg length may be modest in comparison to the normal variation, the patient may perceive this as a leg length discrepancy. To study the average threshold for perception, artificial leg length discrepancies of 5 mm to 25 mm were created in 30 young healthy adults using calibrated wooden blocks. Responses were recorded and analysed using a chi-squared test for independence and an independent measures t-test. Awareness of leg length discrepancy was related to the magnitude of the discrepancy (X2 (15)= 156.6, p<0.05 on the right side, and X2 (15)= 178.725 p<0.05 on the left side). It was shown that no subject reported a 5mm increase in leg length to be uncomfortable while all subjects were aware of leg length discrepancies of 20 mm and 25 mm. When there was a discrepancy of 10 mm in either lower limb, 29 out of 30 subjects (96.7%) thought there was a difference in leg length. Consequently it is suggested that during total hip arthroplasty the surgeon should aim for a leg length discrepancy of less than 10 mm.

  16. Olanzapine-induced restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mangsuo; Geng, Tongchao; Qiao, Liyan; Zhang, Mingjie; Shi, Jie; Huang, Fangjie; Lin, Xianzhong; Wang, Jing; Zuo, Huancong

    2014-09-01

    Only nine patients with olanzapine-induced restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been reported in the literature to our knowledge. We describe two patients with olanzapine-induced RLS treated at our hospital and review the nine reported patients. There were five women and six men aged between 28 and 62 years in the overall group. RLS symptoms emerged at olanzapine doses between 2.5 and 20mg. The symptoms improved in all patients when the dose was reduced and immediately disappeared when the medication was stopped. International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) scores ranged from 10 to 35. Three patients had a family history of idiopathic RLS. Supplemental drugs were administered to control RLS symptoms in five patients. Ropinirole was effective in one patient, while two patients did not respond to the drug. Propoxyphene effectively relieved symptoms in one patient who did not respond to ropinirole or clonazepam. RLS symptoms did not recur following substitution of other antipsychotic drugs for olanzapine. In conclusion, olanzapine can induce RLS, particularly in patients with a family history of idiopathic RLS. More than half of the patients experienced severe to very severe symptoms. A dose-dependent relationship was observed between olanzapine and RLS symptoms. A gradual increase in dose may prevent olanzapine-induced RLS. The optimal treatment for olanzapine-induced RLS is discontinuation of olanzapine.

  17. Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

  18. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniques (stabilizing reversal and rhythmic stabilization), which were applied to facilitate trunk musculature. To examine balance ability, total displacement of the center of pressure was measured during balance tests. [Results] The total anterior–posterior center of pressure displacement was significantly reduced after applying rhythmic stabilization compared before exercise regardless of the balance test conditions. [Conclusion] The present results suggest that trunk stability exercise using rhythmic stabilization could effectively enhance balance ability under one-leg and double-leg conditions. PMID:27390392

  19. Reduced hip bone mineral density is related to physical fitness and leg lean mass in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; McKay, Heather A; Dawson, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Following a stroke, reduced level of physical activity and functional use of the paretic leg may lead to bone loss and muscle atrophy. These factors and the high incidence of falls may contribute to hip fractures in the stroke population. This study was the first to examine total proximal femur bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and their relationship to stroke-specific impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke (onset >1 year). We utilized dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to acquire proximal femur and total body scans on 58 (23 women) community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke. We report total proximal femur BMC (g) and BMD (g/cm2) derived from the proximal femur scans, and lean mass (g) and fat mass (g) for each leg derived from the total body scans. Each subject was evaluated for ambulatory capacity (Six Minute Walk Test), knee extension strength (hand-held dynamometry), physical fitness [Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)], and spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale). Results showed that the paretic leg had significantly lower proximal femur BMD, lean mass, and percent lean mass but higher fat mass than the non-paretic leg for both men and women. Proximal femur BMD of the paretic leg was significantly related to ambulatory capacity (r=0.33, p=0.011), muscle strength (r=0.39, p=0.002), physical fitness (r=0.57, p<0.001) but not related to spasticity (r=−0.23, p=0.080). Multiple regression analysis showed that lean mass in the paretic leg was a major predictor (R2=0.371, p<0.001) of the paretic proximal femur BMD. VO2max was a significant predictor of both paretic proximal femur BMD (R2=0.325, p<0.001) and lean mass in the paretic leg (R2=0.700, p<0.001). Further study is required to determine whether increasing physical fitness and lean mass is important to improve hip bone health in chronic stroke. PMID:15902416

  20. Reduced hip bone mineral density is related to physical fitness and leg lean mass in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Pang, Marco Y C; Eng, Janice J; McKay, Heather A; Dawson, Andrew S

    2005-12-01

    Following a stroke, the reduced level of physical activity and functional use of the paretic leg may lead to bone loss and muscle atrophy. These factors and the high incidence of falls may contribute to hip fractures in the stroke population. This study was the first to examine total proximal femur bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and their relationship to stroke-specific impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke (onset >1 year). We utilized dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to acquire proximal femur and total body scans on 58 (23 women) community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke. We reported total proximal femur BMC (g) and BMD (g/cm2) derived from the proximal femur scans, and lean mass (g) and fat mass (g) for each leg derived from the total body scans. Each subject was evaluated for ambulatory capacity (Six-Minute Walk Test), knee extension strength (hand-held dynamometry), physical fitness [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)] and spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale). Results showed that the paretic leg had significantly lower proximal femur BMD, lean mass and percent lean mass, but higher fat mass than the non-paretic leg for both men and women. Proximal femur BMD of the paretic leg was significantly related to ambulatory capacity (r=0.33, P=0.011), muscle strength (r=0.39, P=0.002), physical fitness (r=0.57, P<0.001), but not related to spasticity (r=-0.23, P=0.080). Multiple regression analysis showed that lean mass in the paretic leg was a major predictor (r2=0.371, P<0.001) of the paretic proximal femur BMD. VO2max was a significant predictor of both paretic proximal femur BMD (r2=0.325, P<0.001) and lean mass in the paretic leg (r2=0.700, P<0.001). Further study is required to determine whether increasing physical fitness and lean mass are important to improve hip bone health in chronic stroke.

  1. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  2. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  3. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  4. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  5. Cardiac CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... CT Scan Related Topics Aneurysm Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Pulmonary Embolism Send a link to ... imaging test can help doctors detect or evaluate coronary heart disease, calcium buildup in the coronary arteries, problems with ...

  6. The swollen leg and primary lymphoedema.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, N B; Carty, H M

    1994-01-01

    Children who present with unilateral or bilateral swelling of the legs are often suspected of having a deep venous thrombosis. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis in children is low and lymphoedema may be a more appropriate diagnosis. Lymphoedema can be primary or secondary. In childhood, primary lymphoedema is more common and may be seen associated with other congenital abnormalities, such as cardiac anomalies or gonadal dysgenesis. Primary hypoplastic lymphoedema is the most often encountered type. It is more common in girls, especially around puberty, and is typically painless. Atypical presentations produce diagnostic confusion and may require imaging to confirm the presence, extent, and precise anatomical nature of the lymphatic dysplasia. This article describes four patients presenting with limb pain and reviews the clinical features and imaging options in children with suspected lymphoedema. Images PMID:8067792

  7. Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.

    2004-09-01

    Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.

  8. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

    PubMed Central

    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  9. Ontogenetic shifts in functional morphology of dragonfly legs (Odonata: Anisoptera).

    PubMed

    Leipelt, Klaus Guido; Suhling, Frank; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-12-01

    Anisopteran leg functions change dramatically from the final larval stadium to the adult. Larvae use legs mainly for locomotion, walking, climbing, clinging, or burrowing. Adults use them for foraging and grasping mates, for perching, clinging to the vegetation, and for repelling rivals. In order to estimate the ontogenetic shift in the leg construction from the larva to the adult, this study quantitatively compared lengths of fore, mid, and hind legs and the relationships between three leg segments, femur, tibia, and tarsus, in larval and adult Anisoptera of the families Gomphidae, Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae, and Libellulidae, represented by two species each. We found that leg segment length ratio as well as ontogenetic shift in length ratios was different between families, but rather similar within the families. While little ontogenetic shift occurred in Aeshnidae, there were some modifications in Corduliidae and Libellulidae. The severest shift occurred in Gomphidae and Cordulegastridae, both having burrowing larvae. These two families form a cluster, which is in contrast to their taxonomic relationship within the Anisoptera. Cluster analysis implies that the function of larval legs is primarily responsible for grouping, whereas adult behavior or the taxonomic relationships do not explain the grouping. This result supports the previous hypothesis about the convergent functional shift of leg characters in the dragonfly ontogenesis.

  10. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) A A ... Radiografía: tibia y peroné What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a safe ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) Print A ... Radiografía: tibia y peroné What It Is An X-ray of the tibia and fibula is a safe ...

  12. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  13. Running on uneven ground: leg adjustments to altered ground level.

    PubMed

    Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2010-08-01

    In locomotion, humans have to deal with changes in ground level like pavement or stairs. When they encounter uneven ground with changes in terrain height, they reduce their angle of attack and leg stiffness on a step. This strategy was found for the single step upward movement. However, are these adjustments the result of a general strategy? In our study we focused on leg adjustments while running up and down, implying permanent adaptation to a new track level. To investigate this, we measured ten healthy participants as they ran along a runway with 10 cm increased and 10 cm lowered steps. We found that ground reaction force, leg length, leg stiffness, and angle of attack were adjusted to the direction of the vertical disturbance (up or down) but also to its length. When running upwards, leg stiffness decreased by about 20.4% on the single step and by about 9.3% on the permanently elevated track step. In addition to that - when running downwards - leg stiffness decreased in preparation for the downward step by about 18.8%. We also observed that the angle of attack diminished on elevated contact from 61 degrees to 59 degrees, and increased on lowered contact from 61 degrees to 65 degrees. The adjustment of leg stiffness seemed to be actively achieved, whereas the angle of attack appeared to be passively adjusted, consistent with a running model that includes leg retraction in late swing phase.

  14. Treatment of sickle cell leg ulcers with pentoxifylline.

    PubMed

    Frost, M L; Treadwell, P

    1990-06-01

    A 58-year-old black man with leg ulcers of 43 years duration responded to pentoxifylline 400 mg tid in 8 months. The ability of pentoxifylline to increase erythrocyte flexibility and decrease blood viscosity was the basis for our use of this agent. Oral pentoxifylline may be a useful adjunct in healing sickle cell leg ulcers and preventing their recurrence.

  15. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  16. Auger tension leg platform cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, A.D.; Smith, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    In 1986, Shell began investigating corrosion control systems for a generic 3,000 ft. water depth Tension Leg Platform (TLP) type structure to be located in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. In 1987, the 2,850 ft. deep Garden Banks block 426 ``Auger`` location was chosen for the first TLP, and the detailed design process began in earnest. During late 1993 and early 1994, the Auger hull was mated with the other components at its permanent site, and first oil and gas production began April 15, 1994. This paper describes the corrosion control design for the exterior submerged and buried steel surfaces of the 2,850 ft. (869 m) water depth Auger Tension Leg Platform structure. Each major type of component (hull, subsea marine wellhead/guidebase, tendon foundation template, tendon, and production riser) has its own combination of coating system and cathodic protection system designed for a thirty five year lifetime. Cathodic protection (CP) is achieved using a variety of sacrificial anode alloys and geometries (e.g. bracelet, flush-mount, and standoff anodes). Anode and cathode CP design parameters for each component depend upon water depth, and were developed using field test data, laboratory studies, field measurements on existing structures, and available literature information. CP design was performed using design spreadsheets constructed for each component, which optimized anode geometries. Extensive quality assurance efforts were part of the anode procurement process, to ensure performance for the intended life of the corrosion-control systems. Results of early in-service CP surveys of the tendons and guidebases are presented, showing the successful achievement of cathodic protection against seawater corrosion. Corrosion control of one additional system, the eight point lateral mooring system, is not addressed here.

  17. Lymphangiopathy in neurofibromatosis 1 manifesting with chylothorax, pericardial effusion, and leg edema

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Stollberger, Claudia; Stubenberger, Elisabeth; Tschakoschian, Sasan

    2013-01-01

    Background This case report documents the affliction of the lymph vessels as a phenotypic feature of neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). Methodology Routine transthoracic echocardiography, computed tomography scan of the thorax, magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries, and conventional digital subtraction angiography were applied. Comprehensive NF-1 mutation analysis was carried out by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, long-range reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and multiple-ligation probe assay. All other investigations were performed using routine, well-established techniques. Results The subject is a 34-year-old, half-Chinese male; NF-1 was suspected at age 15 years for the first time. His medical history included preterm birth, mild facial dysmorphism, “café au lait” spots, subcutaneous and paravertebral fibromas, multifocal tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure in early infancy. Noncalcified bone fibromas in the femur and tibia were detected at age 8 years. Surgical right leg lengthening was carried out at age 11 years. Bilateral renal artery stenosis, stenosis and aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery, and an infrarenal aortic stenosis were detected at age 15 years. Leg edema and ectasia of the basilar artery were diagnosed at age 18 years. After an episode with an erysipela at age 34 years, he developed pericardial and pleural effusion during a 4-month period. Stenosis of the left subclavian vein at the level of thoracic duct insertion was detected. After repeated pleural punctures, pleural effusion was interpreted as chylothorax. Reduction of lymph fluid production by diet and injection of talcum into the pleural cavity had a long-term beneficial effect on the chylothorax. Leg edema and chylothorax were attributed to affliction of the lymph vessels by the NF-1. Discussion Lymphangiopathy resulting in impaired lymph fluid flow and sequestration of lymph fluid into the pleural sinus and the legs may be a

  18. EMGs Analysis of Lumbar, Pelvic and Leg Muscles in Leg Length Discrepancy Adolescents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo-Barroso, Fernando; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Caudillo-Cisneros, Cipriana

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate differences in surface electromyography (EMGs) activity of lumbar, pelvic and leg muscles in adolescents with and without LLD. EMGs activity records were taken during rest and maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC). Peak to peak amplitude (PPA), mean rectified voltage (MRV) and root mean square (RMS), were analyzed. Statistical differences between short and large sides of LLD adolescents, were found (p<0.05). Higher values occurred in shorter limb muscles. No significative differences were found between left and right legs of the control subjects. When EMGs values were compared between short and large sides of LLD subjects with ipsilateral sides of controls, selective, statistically different EMGs values were exhibited. It is suggested that adaptative behavior to secondary biomechanical and/or neural changes occurred, even when none clinical symptoms were reported. The observations were remarked by the absence of EMGs differences between right and left sides of control subjects.

  19. Device for absorbing horizontally directed impacts on the support legs of an artificial island during lowering and lifting of the legs respectively

    SciTech Connect

    Boon, B.

    1984-06-26

    Device for absorbing horizontally directed impact loads on the supporting legs of an artificial island comprising a pontoon and legs that are movable in the vertical direction and can be locked when the legs are lowered or lifted respectively further comprising energy absorbing and/or transfering means (2) extending downwardly from the lower part (1) of each of the legs.

  20. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Bi, Shusheng

    2012-12-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks.

  1. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present. PMID:27213008

  2. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.

  3. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  4. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  5. 78 FR 68909 - Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire... Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Control No. 2900-NEW (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)''....

  6. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  7. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  8. A pneumatic leg brace for the treatment of tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, G P; Wetzler, M J; Levy, A S; Segal, D; Bissonnette, K

    1991-09-01

    Forty-two competitive athletes with posterior medial pain in the lower one-half of the tibia were evaluated by plain roentgenograms and bone scans. Twenty stress fractures were diagnosed in 17 patients by plain roentgenograms or bone scans or both. The remaining 25 patients were diagnosed as having shin splints. All 42 patients subsequently had a pneumatic leg brace applied to the affected limb or limbs. The 17 patients with stress fractures were able to ambulate without pain and were allowed to resume light training in an average of one week. Their injuries were nontender to palpation. The patients were allowed to resume intensive training at an average of 3.7 weeks postinjury. Patients returned to competition at the preinjury level in an average of 5.3 weeks after application of the brace. The pneumatic leg brace allowed the athletes with tibial stress fractures to begin pain-free ambulation and rehabilitation, thus facilitating the maintenance of their cardiovascular fitness and permitting an early return to competition.

  9. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force–length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force–length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. PMID:25355848

  10. Effect of dry needling of gluteal muscles on straight leg raise: a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Huguenin, L; Brukner, P; McCrory, P; Smith, P; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial to establish the effect on straight leg raise, hip internal rotation, and muscle pain of dry needling treatment to the gluteal muscles in athletes with posterior thigh pain referred from gluteal trigger points. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed normal hamstring musculature in most subjects. Straight leg raise and hip internal rotation remained unchanged in both groups at all times. Visual analogue scale assessment of hamstring pain and tightness and gluteal tightness after running showed improvements immediately after the intervention in both groups (p = 0.001), which were maintained at 24 and 72 hours. The magnitude of this improvement was the same for therapeutic and placebo interventions. Resting muscle pain and tightness were unaffected. Conclusions: Neither dry needling nor placebo needling of the gluteal muscles resulted in any change in straight leg raise or hip internal rotation. Both interventions resulted in subjective improvement in activity related muscle pain and tightness. Despite being commonly used clinical tests in this situation, straight leg raise and hip internal rotation are not likely to help the therapist assess response to treatment. Patient reports of response to such treatment are better indicators of its success. The mechanisms by which these responses occur and the reasons for the success of the placebo needling treatment are areas for further investigation. PMID:15665203

  11. Inelastic compression legging produces gradient compression and significantly higher skin surface pressures compared with an elastic compression stocking.

    PubMed

    Kline, Cassie N; Macias, Brandon R; Kraus, Emily; Neuschwander, Timothy B; Angle, Niren; Bergan, John; Hargens, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) investigate compression levels beneath an inelastic legging equipped with a new pressure-adjustment system, (2) compare the inelastic compression levels with those provided by a well-known elastic stocking, and (3) evaluate each support's gradient compression production. Eighteen subjects without venous reflux and 12 patients with previously documented venous reflux received elastic and inelastic compression supports sized for the individual. Skin surface pressures under the elastic (Sigvaris 500, 30-40 mm Hg range, Sigvaris, Inc., Peachtree City, GA) and inelastic (CircAid C3 with Built-in-Pressure System [BPS], CircAid Medical Products, San Diego, CA) supports were measured using a calibrated Tekscan I-Scan device (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA). The elastic stocking produced significantly lower skin surface pressures than the inelastic legging. Mean pressures (+/- standard error) beneath the elastic stocking were 26 +/- 2 and 23 +/- 1 mm Hg at the ankle and below-knee regions, respectively. Mean pressures (+/- standard error) beneath the inelastic legging with the BPS were 50 +/- 3 and 38 +/- 2 mm Hg at the ankle and below-knee regions, respectively. Importantly, our study indicates that only the inelastic legging with the BPS produces significant ankle to knee gradient compression (p = .001).

  12. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  13. Respiratory and leg muscles perceived exertion during exercise at altitude.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, A; Kayser, B; Lo Mauro, A; Quaranta, M; Pompilio, P; Dellacà, R L; Ora, J; Biasco, L; Cavalleri, L; Pomidori, L; Cogo, A; Pellegrino, R; Miserocchi, G

    2011-07-31

    We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and chest wall volume changes. At HA ventilation was increased at any leg power output by ∼ 54%. However, for any given ventilation, breathing pattern was unchanged in terms of tidal volume, respiratory rate and operational volumes of the different chest wall compartments. RPE,resp scaled uniquely with total respiratory power output, irrespectively of SL or HA, while RPE,legs for any leg power output was exacerbated at HA. With increasing respective power outputs, the rate of change of RPE,resp exponentially decreased, while that of RPE,legs increased. We conclude that RPE,resp uniquely relates to respiratory power output, while RPE,legs varies depending on muscle metabolic conditions.

  14. The need for a National Service Framework for leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Bulbulia, R A; Poskitt, K R

    2010-10-01

    Leg ulcers are common and costly to treat, and the quality of care provided to patients with this condition varies widely across the UK. The introduction of specialized community-based leg ulcer clinics in Gloucestershire has been associated with increased ulcer healing rates and decreased rates of ulcer recurrence, but this model of care has not been widely replicated. One way of ending this 'postcode lottery' is to produce a National Service Framework for leg ulcers, with the aim of delivering high-quality evidence-based care via such clinics under the supervision of local consultant vascular surgeons. Existing National Service Frameworks cover a range of common conditions that are, like leg ulceration, associated with significant morbidity, disability and resource use. These documents aim to raise quality and decrease regional variations in health care across the National Health Service, and leg ulceration fulfils all the necessary criteria for inclusion in a National Service Framework. Centrally defined standards of care for patients with leg ulceration, and the reorganization and restructuring of local services to allow the accurate assessment and treatment of such patients are required. Without a National Service Framework to drive up the quality of care across the country, the treatment of patients with leg ulcers will remain suboptimal for the majority of those who suffer from this common and debilitating condition.

  15. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Qadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; Al-Hejaili, Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 +/- 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 +/- 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  16. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lockie, Robert G.; Jalilvand, Farzad; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Murphy, Aron J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength). Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0–5, 5–10, and 0–10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ), a five-bound test (5BT), and the reactive strength index (RSI) defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson’s correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05) determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40–0.54). The 5BT (5–10 and 0–10 m intervals) and RSI (5–10 m interval) also related to velocity (r = 0.37–0.47). Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0–5 m flight times (r = −0.46 to −0.51), and a longer 0–10 m step length (r = 0.38). Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r2 = 0.14–0.29) tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes. PMID:26839607

  17. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    Bertisch, Suzanne M.; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W.; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Methods: Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Results: Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P < 0.001), with greater leg vascular resistance (P < 0.0001), before and during isometric exercise. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva ratios were similar between groups. Neither baroreflex gain nor vascular resistance was correlated with sleep duration, sleep quality, or symptom duration. Conclusion: Patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. Citation: Bertisch SM, Muresan C, Schoerning L, Winkelman JW, Taylor JA. Impact of restless legs syndrome on cardiovascular autonomic control. SLEEP 2016;39(3):565–571. PMID:26564128

  18. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  19. Deep venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing inguinal lymph node dissection for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arbeit, J.M.; Lowry, S.F.; Line, B.R.; Jones, D.C.; Brennan, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) was studied in 44 patients with clinical Stage I, II, and III melanoma undergoing staging and therapeutic inguinal lymph node dissection. The ability of two noninvasive methods of surveillance, the phleborheograph (PRG) and the /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan to detect deep venous thrombosis was determined by comparison with prospective bilateral lower extremity venograms. In addition, the therapeutic impact, both beneficial and detrimental, of low dose heparin, 5000 units administered subcutaneously two hours prior to and every eight hours after operation was determined in a double blind study. The sensitivity of the PRG and /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan were both 20%. There were five deep venous thrombi, and two pulmonary emboli for a combined incidence of DVT of 13.6% for the entire patient population. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT between the two groups. The heparin-treated patients had an increased total volume (796 +/- 516 versus 388 +/- 208 ml; p less than 0.05), and duration of wound drainage (9 +/- 4 versus 13 +/- 6 days; p less than 0.05).

  20. Deep venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing inguinal lymph node dissection for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arbeit, J.M.; Lowry, S.F.; Line, B.R.

    1981-11-01

    Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) was studied in 44 patients with clinical Stage I, II, and III melanoma undergoing staging and therapeutic inguinal lymph node dissection. The ability of two noninvasive methods of surveillance, the phleborheograph (PRG) and the /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan to detect deep venous thrombosis was determined by comparison with prospective bilateral lower extremity venograms. In addition, the therapeutic impact, both beneficial and detrimental, of low dose heparin, 5000 units administered subcutaneously two hours prior to and every eight hours after operation was determined in a double blind study. The sensitivity of the PRG and /sup 125/I fibrinogen scan were both 20%. There were five deep venous thrombi, and two pulmonary emboli for a combined incidence of DVT of 13.6% for the entire patient population. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT between the two groups. The heparin-treated patients had an increased total volume (796 +/- 516 versus 388 +/- 208 ml; p < 0.05), and duration of wound drainage (9 +/- 4 versus 13 +/- 6 days; p < 0.05).

  1. Palaeontology: leg feathers in an Early Cretaceous bird.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fucheng; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2004-10-21

    Here we describe a fossil of an enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous period in China that has substantial plumage feathers attached to its upper leg (tibiotarsus). The discovery could be important in view of the relative length and aerodynamic features of these leg feathers compared with those of the small 'four-winged' gliding dinosaur Microraptor and of the earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx. They may be remnants of earlier long, aerodynamic leg feathers, in keeping with the hypothesis that birds went through a four-winged stage during the evolution of flight.

  2. Restless Leg Syndrome in Neurologic and Medical Disorders.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Nadir; Askenasy, Jean-Jacques

    2015-09-01

    Adopting prior models of sleep-wake transitions, a flip-flop switch in synchronized neurotransmitter activity is proposed to underlie restless leg syndrome onset. In this model, leg quiescence homeostasis sustained through concerted activities of several neurotransmitters in basal ganglia is perturbed and produces striatal motor activity along sensory activity associated with thalamocortical circuits (conscious urge and discomfort). This model explains the association of restless leg syndrome with a wide variety of associated pathologies emphasizing that perturbed function and imbalance may occur under different steady states of neurotransmitter levels. Likewise, this concept links various central and peripheral etiologies and integrates the augmenting and transient effects of therapeutic neuromodulators.

  3. [Innovative therapy for leg ulcers: Electrostimulation].

    PubMed

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds can take a long time to heal despite appropriate therapy based upon aetiology and use of suitable dressings. The success of electrostimulation is based upon the existence within the skin of the endogenous currents involved in the wound healing process. Where skin continuity is broken by a wound, these electrical potentials are short-circuited, resulting in leakage of electrical current. Woundel(®) therapy is the only such treatment currently available in France and is based on the use of continuous pulsed current that generates an electrical field near the endogenous electrical fields. It utilises a console to deliver the electrical impulses, a dressing electrode and a dispersion electrode. The electrode dressing is left on the wound for 3 days, and venous compression bandaging may be applied to the leg, taking care to leave the connector free. Negative polarity stimulates migration of fibroblasts, resulting in elimination of fibrin. Positive polarity causes keratinocyte migration, which in turn leads to epidermisation. Electrostimulation is of recognised utility in the healing of chronic wounds: it has been assigned a high-level recommendation in the European and American guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers and bedsores with proof level of A. Further, the analgesic effect of electrostimulation has been demonstrated in several studies. Electrostimulation is already well developed in France among wound specialists, but prospective studies are planned so that it may be used at patients' homes.

  4. A digital driven right leg circuit.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Marcelo; Spinelli, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    A novel scheme and a digital approach to the Driven Right Leg Circuit (DRL) are presented. It presents an ultra high common mode (CM) reduction of power line interference (higher than 80dB) without endangering stability. This improves by 40-50dB the CM reduction provided by a classical analog DRL, retaining the same stability criterion. The improvement comes from the inclusion of a high Q resonator in parallel with the common mode amplifier. It provides a large gain at power line frequency (50/60 Hz) whereas it does not significantly affect the open loop gain for high frequencies. The proposed scheme can be thought as an analog circuit, but the accuracy required, mainly in the resonator frequency response, leads to a digital implementation. In this way, component ageing and thermal fluctuation problems are avoided, as well as the need for manual adjusting. A prototype of the proposed DRL circuit was built and tested in laboratory conditions showing an open-loop gain of 74dB at 50Hz. It was also tested by acquiring real EEG signals.

  5. The thigh and leg of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Damiano; Walker, Christopher S; Wei, Pianpian; Holliday, Trenton W; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R; DeSilva, Jeremy M

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the 108 femoral, patellar, tibial, and fibular elements of a new species of Homo (Homo naledi) discovered in the Dinaledi chamber of the Rising Star cave system in South Africa. Homo naledi possesses a mosaic of primitive, derived, and unique traits functionally indicative of a bipedal hominin adapted for long distance walking and possibly running. Traits shared with australopiths include an anteroposteriorly compressed femoral neck, a mediolaterally compressed tibia, and a relatively circular fibular neck. Traits shared with Homo include a well-marked linea aspera, anteroposteriorly thick patellae, relatively long tibiae, and gracile fibulae with laterally oriented lateral malleoli. Unique features include the presence of two pillars on the superior aspect of the femoral neck and a tubercular distal insertion of the pes anserinus on the tibia. The mosaic morphology of the H. naledi thigh and leg appears most consistent with a species intermediate between Australopithecus spp. and Homo erectus and, accordingly, may offer insight into the nature of the earliest members of genus Homo. These fossils also expand the morphological diversity of the Homo lower limb, perhaps indicative of locomotor diversity in our genus.

  6. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: A review

    PubMed Central

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery. PMID:24768121

  7. Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    1998-06-01

    After a sip of wine, "legs" of liquid typically run up and down the inside of the glass for many minutes. This phenomenon stems from the dipole-dipole intermolecular forces that are so important in understanding the physical behavior of aqueous solutions. The combination of cohesive forces within the liquid and adhesive forces between the liquid and a solid surface can explain physical phenomena such as viscosity, surface tension, capillary action, and the shape of the meniscus. Aqueous ethanol solutions tend to have cohesive forces that are weaker than those of pure water, while their adhesive forces toward polar glass surfaces are roughly equivalent to those of water. Because adhesive forces are stronger than cohesive forces, wine may cling to the glass surface, hovering high above the remainder of the wine in the bottom of the glass. As ethanol evaporates, however, cohesive forces increase until the wine falls in a thin stream. Upon touching the surface of the wine in the bottom of the glass, ethanol concentration is restored, cohesive forces weaken, and the thin stream of wine rises back to the top of the glass.

  8. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery.

  9. Athermal laser treatment of the diabetic leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, P.; Suteanu, S.; Brojbeanu, Gabriela; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1995-03-01

    This work shows the result obtained in the medical clinic of the `Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital' on a lot of 43 diabetic patients using the `LASSIS' devices composed of a He-Ne laser and 4 semiconductor lasers. The 43 patients showed various clinic pictures of a diabetic leg (diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy) 16 of the lot showed an arteriopathy with claudication and a decrease of pulses oscillometrically measurements, 15 had ulceration and a beginning of gangrene and the other 12 showed a plantary boring ill. There has been achieved an amelioration of the oscillometric index of the claudication while walking the amelioration of local circulation, together with the limitation of the necrosis. For the boring ill, there has been achieved the acceleration of the granulating and epithelization process avoiding surgeries, suppuration and cutaneous plasties. The response to the laser treatment was compared to the response to the classic treatment (vasodilatation surgery unstrapping, antibiotherapy) on a proving lot. We appreciated that the cicatrization and local vasodilatation with athermal laser treatment should be a hope for the treatment of patients suffering of diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy.

  10. Clinical interventions for venous leg ulcers: Proposals to improve the quality of clinical leg ulcer research.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Gerald S; Kirsner, Robert S; Zenilman, Jonathan; Valle, M Frances; Margolis, David J; Cullum, Nicky; Driver, Vickie R; Gould, Lisa; Lindsay, Ellie; Tunis, Sean; Marston, William; Bass, Eric; Ennis, William; Davidson, Jeffrey; Bowden, Jeremy

    2016-09-01

    The present status of clinical leg ulcer healing research was reviewed by 25 experts over 2 days on September 28 and 29, 2015. Multiple clinical effectiveness reviews were presented suggesting that published clinical wound healing research often does not meet present (2015) evidence based standards. Specific areas requiring remediation were highlighted and approaches to overcoming existing challenges were proposed. Participants using anonymous voting technology developed an action plan to resolve perceived deficiencies. Statements were accepted if 75% of participants agreed. Older patients with a high frequency of comorbid conditions posed particular difficulties in designing clinical research protocols and better diagnostic categorization is necessary A standardized model template for collecting information about diagnosis and evaluation of the effect of interventions on healing of all types of leg ulcers was considered a high priority. Such a model template could be modified depending on the specific etiology of the leg ulcers. Generally agreed on quantifiable standards to establish degree of morbidity was considered a high priority. There was universal agreement that sources of funding and conflicts of interest needed to be disclosed in presentations and all publications. All clinical research studies should be registered with appropriate authorities. There was substantial enthusiasm for a clinical research network with quality standards for membership and an advisory research core available to investigators. Such a network should be funded and actively managed to insure long-term viability. The governance of such an entity needs to be established by the wound care community. The present trend to integrate patients into the clinical research process was endorsed and there was enthusiasm to develop patient advocacy for wound healing research.

  11. Body segment parameter estimation of the human lower leg using an elliptical model with validation from DEXA.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Jennifer L; Dowling, James J

    2006-09-01

    Accurate estimates of human body segment parameters (BSPs) are required for kinetic analyses of motion. The purpose of this study was to develop a geometric model of the human lower leg based on the mass distribution properties of the segment. Forty subjects were recruited from 4 human populations. Each population was randomly divided equally into model development (MD) and model validation (MV) groups. Participants underwent frontal and sagittal plane dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans and anthropometric measurements. Leg BSPs were calculated from the scan information and mass distribution properties in the two planes were determined. Further, a geometric model was developed based on the ensemble averages of the mass distribution information from the MD groups. The model was applied to the MV groups and mean absolute errors were calculated for each BSP and each population. Finally, BSP estimates from literature sources were also determined and compared against DEXA. The model developed produced the lowest errors overall. Additionally, the results showed that the model developed estimated BSPs for all four populations with consistent accuracy whereas the other 4 models tested provided different levels of accuracy depending on the age and gender categories of the group tested. The results of this study present a model that accurately estimates BSPs of the lower leg for individuals varying in age, gender, race, and morphology. This study also presents a modelling technique that may successfully provide similar results for other body segments.

  12. [Influence of Achilles tendon vibration on the human vertical posture during standing with asymmetrical leg loading].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    The shift of center of pressure (CP) of body and CP of each leg was studied during Achilles tendon vibration of one or both legs while subject was standing with symmetrical load on the legs or with the load transferred on one leg. The CP shift of standing subject during unilateral Achilles tendon vibration depended both on the side of the tendon vibration and on the leg load. When standing with a load transferred on one leg the shift of common CP was larger than when the vibration was applied to the loaded leg. The CP shift of one leg was greater if the vibration, and the load was applied to it. Vibration of unloaded leg caused a CP shift in the contralateral loaded leg. In this case, the vibration of left unloaded leg caused no noticeable CP shift of left leg, while the vibration of the unloaded right leg caused CP shift of right foot. In the same conditions of load and vibration the CP displacement of right leg was larger than the CP shift of left foot. It can be assumed that the change in the load on the leg and unilateral vibration of leg muscles change of the internal representation of the vertical body axis, which affects the CP position of one leg during the muscles vibration.

  13. Bone scanning in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Noyek, A M

    1979-09-01

    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  14. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... later. The test is done to help diagnose: Arteriosclerosis of the arms or legs Blood clot (deep ... the wrong direction in veins) Arterial occlusion from atherosclerosis This test may also be done to help ...

  15. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  16. Detail of tower support construction shows two legs, cross beams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tower support construction shows two legs, cross beams end concrete point load footing on west side. Camera is pointed NW. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  17. Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000577.htm Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care To use ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the blood ...

  18. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Self-Tests and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in ... to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius: Email Print Restless Legs Syndrome Overview & Facts Causes & ...

  19. Caring for a patient with malodorous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Peter

    Patients with leg ulceration who experience symptoms of pain and malodour can become isolated and suffer psychological problems. Peter Cooke describes a patient who experienced these problems and identifies the importance of patient involvement in planning care.

  20. Leg Pain When Walking: Talk to Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is caused by hardening of the arteries in the legs and feet. ... test to measure blood pressure in the ankles. Hardening of the arteries is manageable, AbuRahma said in ...

  1. Swimming with stiff legs at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Daisuke

    2015-08-01

    Locomotion at low Reynolds number is not possible with cycles of reciprocal motion, an example being the oscillation of a single pair of rigid paddles or legs. Here, I demonstrate the possibility of swimming with two or more pairs of legs. They are assumed to oscillate collectively in a metachronal wave pattern in a minimal model based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. The model predicts locomotion in the direction of the traveling wave, as commonly observed along the body of free-swimming crustaceans. The displacement of the body and the swimming efficiency depend on the number of legs, the amplitude, and the phase of oscillations. This study shows that paddling legs with distinct orientations and phases offers a simple mechanism for driving flow.

  2. Orthotopic and heterotopic lower leg reimplantation. Evaluation of seven patients.

    PubMed

    Daigeler, A; Fansa, H; Schneider, W

    2003-05-01

    Reimplantation is a well-established procedure in reconstructive surgery. This is especially so after amputation of the upper limb since prostheses provide limited function. In unilateral amputation of the lower leg orthotopic reimplantation is the treatment of choice. With bilateral amputation, in which orthotopic reimplantation is not possible because of the complexity of the trauma, heterotopic reimplantation is an option. We report five patients who received orthotopic and two who received heterotopic reimplantations of the lower leg. We assessed the functional outcomewith reference to cutaneous sensation, mobility, pain, and the cosmetic result. The functional outcome was good, as was the patients' satisfaction. Their mobility, stability, and psychological state were satisfactory. Patients with heterotopic reimplantations preferred the reimplanted leg to a prosthesis. Although reimplantation of the lower leg requires prolonged hospitalisation, delayed mobilisation and secondary operations, we conclude that there is an indication for this operation in order to improve the patient's quality of life.

  3. Corner footing and structural connections of southwest tower leg, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Corner footing and structural connections of southwest tower leg, looking southwest. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Managing chronic venous leg ulcers: time for a new approach?

    PubMed

    Brown, A

    2010-02-01

    Leg ulcer management focuses on healing, but if the wound does not respond to treatment, the patient may feel dejected and guilty. Centering the patient's life around treatment only makes matters worse. An alternative approach is needed.

  5. Leg exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of human hopping.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Alena M; Herr, Hugh M

    2009-09-01

    During bouncing gaits such as hopping and running, leg muscles generate force to enable elastic energy storage and return primarily from tendons and, thus, demand metabolic energy. In an effort to reduce metabolic demand, we designed two elastic leg exoskeletons that act in parallel with the wearer's legs; one exoskeleton consisted of a multiple leaf (MLE) and the other of a single leaf (SLE) set of fiberglass springs. We hypothesized that hoppers, hopping on both legs, would adjust their leg stiffness while wearing an exoskeleton so that the combination of the hopper and exoskeleton would behave as a linear spring-mass system with the same total stiffness as during normal hopping. We also hypothesized that decreased leg force generation while wearing an exoskeleton would reduce the metabolic power required for hopping. Nine subjects hopped in place at 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, and 2.6 Hz with and without an exoskeleton while we measured ground reaction forces, exoskeletal compression, and metabolic rates. While wearing an exoskeleton, hoppers adjusted their leg stiffness to maintain linear spring-mass mechanics and a total stiffness similar to normal hopping. Without accounting for the added weight of each exoskeleton, wearing the MLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 6% and wearing the SLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 24% compared with hopping normally at frequencies between 2.0 and 2.6 Hz. Thus, when hoppers used external parallel springs, they likely decreased the mechanical work performed by the legs and substantially reduced metabolic demand compared with hopping without wearing an exoskeleton.

  6. Differentiating between red legs and cellulitis and reviewing treatment options.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Red legs (RL) is a chronic inflammatory condition often misdiagnosed as cellulitis. Antibiotic therapy is not required and does not resolve the symptoms. The main causes of RL are chronic dermatological and venous disease, including chronic oedema. Raising awareness of this condition among health professionals could prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary costly and potentially harmful antibiotic therapy. The aim of this paper is to highlight the differential diagnoses and management of red legs, and the author also includes an example through a case history.

  7. Leg length, proportion, health and beauty: a review.

    PubMed

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2009-12-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (foot + tibia + femur), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions (for example the relative leg length in proportion to stature, and the sitting height ratio [sitting height/stature x 100], among others) are used as epidemiological markers of risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e. a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) is the first genomic region that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, in most cases research has been showing that environment is a more powerful force to shape leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. There are a variety of cosmetic, fashion, and surgical interventions to enhance perceived or actual leg length.

  8. Large leg ulcers due to autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases. PMID:21169912

  9. Treatment of venous leg ulcers with sulodexide.

    PubMed

    Scondotto, G; Aloisi, D; Ferrari, P; Martini, L

    1999-11-01

    Venous ulcers are still today one of the main socioeconomic problems of medical interest in terms of prevalence, morbidity, and costs to the health service. In the past, various studies have been carried out to identify a systemic pharmacologic treatment able to accelerate venous ulcer healing times, but frequently the results have not been satisfactory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulodexide, a drug with profibrinolytic and antithrombotic activity, in accelerating venous ulcer's healing time. Ninety-four patients (32 men and 62 women), aged 72 years old on average, were randomly distributed between two groups. In the first group ("control group") a standard treatment was applied, which consisted of cleansing by washing with physiological solution and the application of elastic compression with short-extensibility, removable bandages. The second group ("sulodexide group") received the standard treatment plus sulodexide (600 lipoprotein lipase releasing units [LRU] by im route per day for 30 consecutive days, followed by 500 LRU by oral route per day for a further 30 days). After 2 months the venous ulcers were found healed in 15 patients (36%) in the control group and in 30 patients (58%) in the sulodexide group (p = 0.03). The life table showed that the healing times were shorter in the sulodexide group in the first 2 months of treatment. Total healing times amounted to 110 days in the control group and 72 days in the sulodexide group (p = 0.08) and the results were in proportion to the initial severity of the lesion. A significant correlation was noted between ulcer healing times and severity of the initial ulcerous lesion, the duration of the ulcer, and the group the patient belonged to. No correlation was found between age, gender of the patient and the etiology of the ulcer. In conclusion sulodexide was shown effective in the treatment of venous leg ulcers, yielding healing more quickly than the standard treatment.

  10. [Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies for restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement disorder].

    PubMed

    Happe, S; Paulus, W

    2006-06-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a clinical diagnosis based on the four essential criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). An idiopathic form can be separated from a symptomatic form. Neurophysiological studies have investigated the pathophysiology of the idiopathic RLS or have been used to exclude a symptomatic cause, in particular polyneuropathy. So far cortical excitability changes, corticomotor, somatosensory and auditory pathways, spinal cord excitability, B-wave rhythm and cycling alternating pattern, as well as reflex mechanisms have been investigated by electroencephalography, evoked potentials, Bereitschaftspotentials, nerve conduction and thermal threshold measurements, electromyography, transcranial Doppler sonography, measurements of the spinal flexor reflex as well as neuroimaging techniques. The etiology of the RLS cannot be revealed by these methods, neurophysiological studies in RLS are, however, useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and for exclusion of a polyneuropathy or other symptomatic causes. In addition to neurophysiological investigations, small fiber neuropathy, which seems to be a more common finding in RLS patients than expected to date, may need biopsy for confirmation. This review will focus on investigations of the different systems involved with diverse neurophysiological methods.

  11. [Pirogow's amputation as an alternative to lower leg amputation?].

    PubMed

    Bueschges, M; Ottomann, C; Mauss, K; Muehlberger, T; Bruck, J C

    2013-04-01

    Pirogow's amputation at the ankle presents a valuable alternative to lower leg amputation for patients with the corresponding indications. Although this method offers numerous advantages for the patient, such as the ability to stay mobile without the use of a prosthesis, it is rarely performed (0.1% of all lower limb amputations). The results of the operations on 20 patients were objectified 12 months after the operation using a patient questionnaire (Ankle Score), and these results were then compared to those of 20 patients who underwent lower leg amputation. Using a point system the criteria pain, functional and radiological assessment, difference in leg length, and mobility without prosthesis were recorded and evaluated. 65% of those questioned who were amputated following the Pirogow method indicated an excellent or very good result, in the control group 60% of those having undergone a lower leg amputation responded similarly, indicating an excellent or very good result.In 30% in the Pirogow group in contrast to 20% after lower leg amputation postoperative complications lead to a revision-operation. In patients suffering from diabetes or restricted perfusion of the lower extremity an amputation at the level of the ankle has to be considered critically keeping the necessity of a revision-operation in mind. However, if it can be carried out successfully, the benefits of Pirogow-amputation are found in the significantly reduced difference in leg length and the increase in mobility without prosthesis.

  12. Coordination of planar cell polarity pathways through Spiny-legs

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis and physiology of tissues and organs requires planar cell polarity (PCP) systems that orient and coordinate cells and their behaviors, but the relationship between PCP systems has been controversial. We have characterized how the Frizzled and Dachsous-Fat PCP systems are connected through the Spiny-legs isoform of the Prickle-Spiny-legs locus. Two different components of the Dachsous-Fat system, Dachsous and Dachs, can each independently interact with Spiny-legs and direct its localization in vivo. Through characterization of the contributions of Prickle, Spiny-legs, Dachsous, Fat, and Dachs to PCP in the Drosophila wing, eye, and abdomen, we define where Dachs-Spiny-legs and Dachsous-Spiny-legs interactions contribute to PCP, and provide a new understanding of the orientation of polarity and the basis of PCP phenotypes. Our results support the direct linkage of PCP systems through Sple in specific locales, while emphasizing that cells can be subject to and must ultimately resolve distinct, competing PCP signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09946.001 PMID:26505959

  13. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  14. Venous leg ulcer treatment and practice--part 1: the causes and diagnosis of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, S; Rigby, A J; Anand, S C

    2007-01-01

    This article, the first of a series of four on venous leg ulceration, discusses theories relating to the pathophysiology underlying the condition, and the range of diagnostic procedures undertaken to establish that ulceration is of venous origin.

  15. Resonant scanning mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John; Newman, Mike; Gutierrez, Homero; Hoffman, Charlie; Quakenbush, Tim; Waldeck, Dan; Leone, Christopher; Ostaszewski, Miro

    2014-10-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. developed a Resonant Scanning Mechanism (RSM) capable of combining a 250- Hz resonant scan about one axis with a two-hertz triangular scan about the orthogonal axis. The RSM enables a rapid, high-density scan over a significant field of regard (FOR) while minimizing size, weight, and power requirements. The azimuth scan axis is bearing mounted allowing for 30° of mechanical travel, while the resonant elevation axis is flexure and spring mounted with five degrees of mechanical travel. Pointing-knowledge error during quiescent static pointing at room temperature across the full range is better than 100 μrad RMS per axis. The compact design of the RSM, roughly the size of a soda can, makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low-altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) resonant springs which allow for a high-frequency scan axis with low power consumption; and ii) an independent lower-frequency scan axis allowing for a wide FOR. The pointing control system operates each axis independently and employs i) a position loop for the azimuth axis; and ii) a unique combination of parallel frequency and amplitude control loops for the elevation axis. All control and pointing algorithms are hosted on a 200-MHz microcontroller with 516 KB of RAM on a compact 3"×4" digital controller, also of Ball design.

  16. Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, E.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three combinations of whole-body scan modes and analysis software using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray densitometer. A group of 21 normal, healthy volunteers (11 male and 10 female) were scanned six times, receiving one pencil-beam and one array whole-body scan on three occasions approximately 1 week apart. The following combinations of scan modes and analysis software were used: pencil-beam scans analyzed with Hologic's standard whole-body software (PB scans); the same pencil-beam analyzed with Hologic's newer "enhanced" software (EPB scans); and array scans analyzed with the enhanced software (EA scans). Precision values (% coefficient of variation, %CV) were calculated for whole-body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass, %fat and total mass. In general, there was no significant difference among the three scan types with respect to short-term precision of BMD and only slight differences in the precision of BMC. Precision of BMC and BMD for all three scan types was excellent: < 1% CV for whole-body values, with most regional values in the 1%-2% range. Pencil-beam scans demonstrated significantly better soft tissue precision than did array scans. Precision errors for whole-body lean mass were: 0.9% (PB), 1.1% (EPB) and 1.9% (EA). Precision errors for whole-body fat mass were: 1.7% (PB), 2.4% (EPB) and 5.6% (EA). EPB precision errors were slightly higher than PB precision errors for lean, fat and %fat measurements of all regions except the head, although these differences were significant only for the fat and % fat of the arms and legs. In addition EPB precision values exhibited greater individual variability than PB precision values. Finally, absolute values of bone and soft tissue were compared among the three combinations of scan and analysis modes. BMC, BMD, fat mass, %fat and lean mass were significantly different between

  17. Heuristic exploration of how leg checking procedures may lead to inappropriate sacroiliac clinical interventions

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Several primary studies have shown that an anatomical short leg predicts anterior rotation of the ipsilateral ilium, whereas anatomical long leg predicts posterior rotation of the ilium on the long leg side. At the same time, in chiropractic and other manual therapy professions, it is widely believed that the leg check finding of a short leg is associated with posterior ilium rotation, and a long leg with anterior ilium rotation. The purpose of this commentary is to explore the consequences of this paradox for the manual therapy professions, insofar as leg checking procedures are commonly used to derive appropriate vectors for chiropractic manipulation/adjustive procedures. PMID:22027038

  18. Changes in the biophysical properties and ultrastructure of lungs, and intrapulmonary fibrin deposition in experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, A R; Davies, G C; Millar, A M; Taylor, T V

    1983-01-01

    Using an experimental model of acute pancreatitis in the rat, we have studied changes in the biophysical properties of lungs and intrapulmonary fibrin deposition in this condition. Acute pancreatitis is associated with a significant decrease in pulmonary compliance (p less than 0.01) and a significant increase in lung weight (p less than 0.01) compared with a control sham operation group. These changes are associated with a 24% increase in intrapulmonary 125I fibrinogen deposition (p less than 0.01), and an 18% increase in 125I fibrinogen deposition per gram of lung tissue (p less than 0.05) in acute pancreatitis, compared with a control sham operation group. The increased fibrinogen deposition is abolished by treatment with low dose heparin. Using the same animal model changes in pulmonary ultrastructure are shown using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that pulmonary abnormalities are associated with intrapulmonary fibrin deposition in experimental acute pancreatitis and these findings may be relevant to the well described respiratory complications of the condition in man. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:6618271

  19. Effect of softer flooring in tie stalls on resting behavior and leg injuries of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Rushen, J; Haley, D; de Passillé, A M

    2007-08-01

    To test the advantages of softer flooring in tie stalls, we compared the behavior and injuries of dairy cows housed in tie stalls with either soft rubber mats (n = 12) or concrete flooring (n = 12), both lightly covered with straw. Data were collected for 112 d beginning at 14 DIM (+/-4 d). Cows' general activity was observed continuously for 24 h every 28 d. Behavior was also scored by a scan sampling technique every 14 d such that each cow was observed for a period of 3 min every 12 min. We scored the occurrence of leg lesions and other injuries every 7 d throughout the study. Cows on rubber mats had shorter bouts of lying but the frequency of bouts was higher, leading them to tend to spend more time lying compared with cows housed on concrete. Cows on concrete spent more time standing idle, but there was no difference in the time spent eating. There was no effect of stall flooring on the number of minor abrasions to the legs and body. There was a significantly higher incidence of swelling of the carpus joints for cows housed on concrete. Cows housed on soft rubber flooring appeared to be less hesitant to change posture from lying to standing (and vice versa), and as a result changed posture more frequently and spent more time lying than cows on concrete flooring. The decreased incidence of swelling of the carpus joint for cows on soft rubber mats may have important long-term effects in preventing a variety of leg problems.

  20. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 32.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 32 Table 32 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 Tank diameter D (feet) b Pontoon roof No. of pontoon legs No. of center legs No. of legs on double-deck roof...

  1. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 32.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 32 Table 32 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 Tank diameter D (feet) b Pontoon roof No. of pontoon legs No. of center legs No. of legs on double-deck roof...

  2. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your ...

  3. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  4. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  5. Thoracic spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Narrowing of the spine ( spinal stenosis ) Scoliosis Tumor Risks Risks of CT scans include: Exposure to radiation ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tell the difference between Parkinson disease and other movement disorders Several PET scans may be taken to determine ... identify where the seizures start in your brain Movement disorders (such as Parkinson disease )

  7. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  8. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  10. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  11. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  12. Treatment of the leg ulcers by skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Jankūnas, Vytautas; Rimdeika, Rytis; Pilipaityte, Loreta

    2004-01-01

    The ulcers, located below the knees and remaining for 6 weeks and more, are called trophic leg ulcers. The leg ulcers of different etiology disable 0.8-1% of total Earth population. It was found that blood vessel problems in legs account for more than 80% of ulcers; even 65% from these are caused by venous diseases. In Lithuania about 8000 patients suffer from venous trophic ulcers. Regardless of modern methods the treatment of leg ulcers remains an extremely expensive process. The treatment cost of trophic ulcers is the highest of all surgical wounds and also requires a lot of personal investments. In order to assess the efficiency of autodermoplastics in the treatment of large venous ulcers in legs a prospective study was carried out of 111 patients who were treated in the Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital from January 2001 to January 2004. The data was analyzed exceptionally of the operated 54 patients with venous origin ulcers open for more 6 months or exceeding 50 cm2. The above-mentioned patients were prepared for surgery by dressing the wounds with hydrocolloid Granuflex bandages and were operated by transplanting a 0.2-0.3 mm thick skin graft. The results were estimated by the surgeon during the dressings after the operation. The graft was taken in 35 (64.81%) cases; in 19 (35.19%) cases the graft was partially not taken and there were no cases when it was not taken at all. We came to the conclusions that skin graft transplantation is efficient in treatment of trophic venous leg ulcers larger than 50 cm2 and cures the trophic leg ulcers of vein origin completely in 2-3 weeks for 64.81% patients.

  13. Multiple Reflector Scanning Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bing

    Narrow beamwidth antenna systems are important to remote sensing applications and point-to-point communication systems. In many applications the main beam of the antenna radiation pattern must be scannable over a region of space. Scanning by mechanically skewing the entire antenna assembly is difficult and in many situations is unacceptable. Performance during scan is, of course, also very important. Traditional reflector systems employing the well-focused paraboloidal -shaped main reflector accomplish scan by motion of a few feeds, or by phase steering a focal plane feed array. Such scanning systems can experience significant gain loss. Traditional reflecting systems with a spherical main reflector have low aperture efficiency and poor side lobe and cross polarization performance. This dissertation introduces a new approach to the design of scanning spherical reflector systems, in which the performance weaknesses of high cross polarization and high side lobe levels are avoided. Moreover, the low aperture utilization common in spherical reflectors is overcome. As an improvement to this new spherical main reflector configuration, a flat mirror reflector is introduced to minimize the mechanical difficulties to scan the main beam. In addition to the reflector system design, reflector antenna performance evaluation is also important. The temperature resolution issue important for earth observation radiometer antennas is studied, and a new method to evaluate and optimize such temperature resolution is introduced.

  14. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  15. An investigation of lower extremity energy dissipation strategies during single-leg and double-leg landing based on sagittal and frontal plane biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Chen Hua; Lee, Peter Vee Sin; Goh, James Cho Hong

    2011-06-01

    There is limited understanding of the differences in lower extremity energy dissipation strategies between single-leg and double-leg landing maneuvers. This study sought to investigate these differences in sagittal and frontal planes, and explain the differences using kinematics and kinetics. We hypothesized that single-leg and double-leg landing maneuvers involve different lower extremity energy dissipation strategies in both planes. Ten recreational athletes were recruited and instructed to perform double-leg and single-leg landing from 0.60-m height. Force-plates and motion-capture system were used to obtain kinetics and kinematics data respectively. Joint power was taken as product of joint moment and angular velocity. Joint work was computed as integral of joint power over time, whereby negative work represented energy dissipation. In the sagittal plane, the hip and knee showed major contributions to energy dissipation during double-leg landing; the hip and ankle were the dominant energy dissipaters during single-leg landing. In the frontal plane, the hip acted as the key energy dissipater during double-leg landing; the knee contributed the most energy dissipation during single-leg landing. The knee also exhibited greater frontal plane joint ROM, moment and energy dissipation during single-leg landing than double-leg landing. Our findings indicated that different energy dissipation strategies were adopted for double-leg and single-leg landing in sagittal and frontal planes. Considering the prominent frontal plane biomechanics exhibited by the knee during single-leg landing, we expect that this maneuver may have greater likelihood of leading to traumatic knee injuries, particularly non-contact ACL injuries, compared to the double-leg landing maneuver.

  16. Nigerian Female with Skin Lesions in the Leg and Face: Herpetic Sycosis Folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Dilorenzo, Dominique; Channaveeraiah, Naganna; Gilford, Patricia; Deschere, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Nongenital HSV 1 presents outside the mucus membrane. Our patient had unusual presentation that caused diagnostic dilemma. 30-year-old native Nigerian female coming with fiancée to the United States presented to our service one day after arrival through ER with a lesion on her right ankle. She was diagnosed with cellulitis, started on antibiotics, and admitted to hospital. She had fever of 39.1°C. Head and neck exam showed multiple sized lesions over tongue and palate and inner aspect of lower lip. Abdomen and genital exam was normal. Skin exam showed lesions over the face and lesions over the lateral aspect of the right leg. There was ulcerated lesion over the right lateral malleolus with surrounding erythema and edema. Her tests showed elevated ESR of 98; HIV test was negative; CT scan of the ankle showed no abscess or osteomyelitis. TB quantiferon was indeterminate; AFB stain and culture were negative; HSV IgM was elevated at 1 : 16; RPR was negative; ANA was negative; malaria screen was negative, and blood cultures were negative for bacteria, fungus, and virus. Debrided wound had no growth of bacteria or fungus or virus. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of the HSV1 outside the mucus membrane and how it can be confused with other conditions that required extensive tests. Therapeutic trail with antiviral medications resolved lesions over the leg and face.

  17. Nigerian Female with Skin Lesions in the Leg and Face: Herpetic Sycosis Folliculitis

    PubMed Central

    Dilorenzo, Dominique; Gilford, Patricia; Deschere, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Nongenital HSV 1 presents outside the mucus membrane. Our patient had unusual presentation that caused diagnostic dilemma. 30-year-old native Nigerian female coming with fiancée to the United States presented to our service one day after arrival through ER with a lesion on her right ankle. She was diagnosed with cellulitis, started on antibiotics, and admitted to hospital. She had fever of 39.1°C. Head and neck exam showed multiple sized lesions over tongue and palate and inner aspect of lower lip. Abdomen and genital exam was normal. Skin exam showed lesions over the face and lesions over the lateral aspect of the right leg. There was ulcerated lesion over the right lateral malleolus with surrounding erythema and edema. Her tests showed elevated ESR of 98; HIV test was negative; CT scan of the ankle showed no abscess or osteomyelitis. TB quantiferon was indeterminate; AFB stain and culture were negative; HSV IgM was elevated at 1 : 16; RPR was negative; ANA was negative; malaria screen was negative, and blood cultures were negative for bacteria, fungus, and virus. Debrided wound had no growth of bacteria or fungus or virus. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of the HSV1 outside the mucus membrane and how it can be confused with other conditions that required extensive tests. Therapeutic trail with antiviral medications resolved lesions over the leg and face. PMID:28018688

  18. Levodopa for idiopathic restless legs syndrome: evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Conti, Cristiane Fiquene; de Oliveira, Márcio Moysés; Andriolo, Regis Bruni; Saconato, Humberto; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib; Valbuza, Juliana Spelta; Coin de Carvalho, Luciane Bizari; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes

    2007-10-15

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensory motor disorder characterized by a distressing urge to move the legs and sometimes also other parts of the body usually accompanied by a marked sense of discomfort or pain in the leg or other affected body part. The prevalence of RLS is estimated at 2.7 to 5% of adults and it is more common in women. The treatment of RLS with levodopa has been reported thus a systematic synthesis of evidence is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of levodopa for RLS. Systematic review of randomized or quasi-randomized, double blind trials on levodopa. Relief of restless legs symptoms marked on a validated scale, subjective sleep quality, sleep quality measured by night polysomnography and actigraphy, quality of life measured by subjective measures, adverse events associated with the treatments. Nine eligible clinical trials were included. The subjective analyses of these studies showed contradictory results, although the objective analyses showed that treatment group had a statistically significant improvement of periodic leg movement (PLM) index, favoring the treatment group. The most commonly adverse event seen was gastrointestinal symptoms. The short-term treatment with levodopa was demonstrated effective and safety for PLM, but there was only few trials assessing long-term treatment and the augmentation phenomenon in RLS. Further long-term randomized controlled trials using standard follow-up measurements as the International RLS Study Group Rating Scale are necessary.

  19. Actigraph Evaluation of Acupuncture for Treating Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingzhe; Li, Mao; Wang, Qiudong; Kwak, Shin; Jiang, Wenfei; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of acupuncture in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) by actigraph recordings. Among the 38 patients with RLS enrolled, 31 (M = 12, F = 19; mean age, 47.2 ± 9.7 years old) completed the study. Patients were treated with either standard acupuncture (n = 15) or randomized acupuncture (n = 16) in a single-blind manner for 6 weeks. Changes in nocturnal activity (NA) and early sleep activity (ESA) between week 0 (baseline), week 2, week 4, and week 6 were assessed using leg actigraph recordings, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale (IRLSRS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Standard but not randomized acupuncture reduced the abnormal leg activity of NA and ESA significantly in week 2, week 4, and week 6 based on the changes in the clinical scores for IRLSRS and ESS in week 4 and week 6 compared with the baseline. No side effects were observed. The results indicate that standard acupuncture might improve the abnormal leg activity in RLS patients and thus is a potentially suitable integrative treatment for long-term use. PMID:25763089

  20. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  1. Injury due to leg bands in willow flycatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Klus, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most injuries occurred on legs with only color band(s) (58.3%) or on legs with both a USFWS band and a color band (35%); only 6.7% of injuries (4/60) were due to USFWS bands alone, yielding an overall USFWS band injury rate of only 0.6%. Injuries ranged from severe (swollen, bleeding legs; a missing foot) to relatively minor (irritations on the tarsus). Amputation of the foot occurred in 33.9% of the cases. Return rates of adult injured birds in the year(s) following injury were significantly lower than for the population at large.

  2. Military boot attenuates axial loading to the lower leg.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Schlick, Michael; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical tests to understand injury mechanisms and derive injury tolerance information using Post-Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) have not used foot protection and they have primarily focused on civilian environments such as automotive and athletic- and sports-related events. As military personnel use boots, tests with the boot are required to understand their effect on attenuating lower leg loads. The purpose of this study was therefore, to determine the modulation of human lower leg kinematics with boot compressions and share of the force absorbed by the boot from underbody blast loading. Axial impacts were delivered to the Hybrid III dummy lower leg in the neutral position. The dummy leg was instrumented with its internal upper and lower tibia load cells, and in addition, a knee load cell was attached to the proximal end. Tests were conducted at 4.4 to 8.9 m/s, with and without boots, and repeat tests were done. Morphologies of the force-time responses were similar at the three load cell locations and for all input combinations and booted and unbooted conditions. However, booted tests resulted in considerably lower maximum forces (approximately two-third reduction) than unbooted tests. These results clearly show that boots can absorb a considerable share of the impact energy and decrease impact loads transmitted to the lower leg under vertical loading, thus necessitating the generation of tolerance data using PMHS for this environment.

  3. Optimal management of chronic leg ulcers in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Goodfield, M

    1997-05-01

    Chronic leg ulceration is a very common clinical problem in the elderly. Good management depends entirely on making an accurate diagnosis, and planning treatment after considering all aspects of patient well-being. All elderly patients with leg ulcers benefit from an assessment of their vascular status, since the effects of gravity influence treatment and healing irrespective of the diagnosis. The most common causes of ulceration are venous and arterial disease. Diabetes mellitus, pressure, vasculitis, metabolic abnormalities and skin cancer are all unusual causes of leg ulceration, but must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Almost all patients with ulcerated legs benefit from the use of compression bandaging at a level appropriate to their vascular status. In patients with venous ulcers, this can be achieved with a number of bandaging techniques; however, multilayer bandaging appears to be the most cost-effective means available, particularly when combined with community-based leg ulcer clinics. The effects of oral drug therapy for venous and arterial disease have been disappointing. Local dressings are important in ulcers that are not suitable for compression therapy. The choice of dressing depends on the nature of the ulcer and the tolerability of the dressing for the patient.

  4. Leg strength and the VO2 max of older men.

    PubMed

    Lovell, D; Cuneo, R; Delphinus, E; Gass, G

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if leg strength limits VO2 max and the ability to reach a plateau during VO2 max test in older men during cycle ergometry. Men aged 70-80 years were randomly selected into a strength training (ST, n=12) 3 times weekly for 16 weeks, followed by 4 weeks detraining or a non-training control group (C, n=12). Leg strength and VO2 max were assessed every 4 weeks for 20 weeks; body composition and cardiac function were assessed before and after 16 weeks training and after 4 weeks detraining. Leg strength, upper leg muscle mass (ULMM), arterial-venous O2 difference (a-v O2 difference) and VO2 max increased in the ST group (95±0.6%, 7±0.7%. 6.2±0.5% and 8±0.8%, respectively; P<0.05) after 16 weeks training. After 4 weeks detraining, gains in ULMM (50%) and strength (75%) were retained, but VO2 max and a-v O2 difference returned to pre-training levels. There was no change in the ability of the participants to reach a plateau during VO2 max testing over the 20-week study. These findings indicate that leg strength may not limit either VO2 max or the ability to plateau during VO2 max tests in older men during cycle ergometry.

  5. The Effects of Hamstring Stretching on Leg Rotation during Knee Extension.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise.

  6. Investigating the Effects of Motion Streaks on pQCT-Derived Leg Muscle Density and Its Association With Fractures.

    PubMed

    Chan, Adrian C H; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Wong, Andy Kin On

    2017-01-03

    Lower peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived leg muscle density has been associated with fragility fractures in postmenopausal women. Limb movement during image acquisition may result in motion streaks in muscle that could dilute this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined a subset of women from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. pQCT leg scans were qualitatively graded (1-5) for motion severity. Muscle and motion streak were segmented using semi-automated (watershed) and fully automated (threshold-based) methods, computing area, and density. Binary logistic regression evaluated odds ratios (ORs) for fragility or all-cause fractures related to each of these measures with covariate adjustment. Among the 223 women examined (mean age: 72.7 ± 7.1 years, body mass index: 26.30 ± 4.97 kg/m(2)), muscle density was significantly lower after removing motion (p < 0.001) for both methods. Motion streak areas segmented using the semi-automated method correlated better with visual motion grades (rho = 0.90, p < 0.01) compared to the fully automated method (rho = 0.65, p < 0.01). Although the analysis-reanalysis precision of motion streak area segmentation using the semi-automated method is above 5% error (6.44%), motion-corrected muscle density measures remained well within 2% analytical error. The effect of motion-correction on strengthening the association between muscle density and fragility fractures was significant when motion grade was ≥3 (p interaction <0.05). This observation was most dramatic for the semi-automated algorithm (OR: 1.62 [0.82,3.17] before to 2.19 [1.05,4.59] after correction). Although muscle density showed an overall association with all-cause fractures (OR: 1.49 [1.05,2.12]), the effect of motion-correction was again, most impactful within individuals with scans showing grade 3 or above motion. Correcting for motion in pQCT leg scans strengthened the relationship between

  7. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    DOEpatents

    Lau, Louis K. S.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.

  8. Pretibial Myxedema Masquerading as a Venous Leg Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia; MacQuhae, Flor; Kirsner, Robert S

    2017-03-01

    The authors report a case of pretibial myxedema (PTM) masquerading as a venous leg ulcer to alert wound care clinicians to this diagnostic possibility. Pretibial myxedema is a localized form of mucin cutaneous deposition characterized by indurated plaques most commonly on anterior legs. It is more likely to present in patients with Graves' disease, but it can be found in euthyroid patients as well. The physiopathology of PTM is complex, and there is an accumulation of highly hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans in the dermis. Minimal morbidity is associated with PTM, but the pruritus related to mucin deposition can be intense. The skin around venous leg ulcers and the skin changes related to PTM can have a similar clinical presentation, which may be a reason PTM is under-recognized.

  9. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  10. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  11. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  12. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  13. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably.

  14. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  15. Quadrupedal gaits in hexapod animals - inter-leg coordination in free-walking adult stick insects.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Martyna; Godlewska, Elzbieta; Schmidt, Joachim; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia

    2012-12-15

    The analysis of inter-leg coordination in insect walking is generally a study of six-legged locomotion. For decades, the stick insect Carausius morosus has been instrumental for unravelling the rules and mechanisms that control leg coordination in hexapeds. We analysed inter-leg coordination in C. morosus that freely walked on straight paths on plane surfaces with different slopes. Consecutive 1.7 s sections were assigned inter-leg coordination patterns (which we call gaits) based on footfall patterns. Regular gaits, i.e. wave, tetrapod or tripod gaits, occurred in different proportions depending on surface slopes. Tetrapod gaits were observed most frequently, wave gaits only occurred on 90 deg inclining slopes and tripod gaits occurred most often on 15 deg declining slopes, i.e. in 40% of the sections. Depending on the slope, 36-66% of the sections were assigned irregular gaits. Irregular gaits were mostly due to multiple stepping by the front legs, which is perhaps probing behaviour, not phase coupled to the middle legs' cycles. In irregular gaits, middle leg and hindleg coordination was regular, related to quadrupedal walk and wave gaits. Apparently, front legs uncouple from and couple to the walking system without compromising middle leg and hindleg coordination. In front leg amputees, the remaining legs were strictly coordinated. In hindleg and middle leg amputees, the front legs continued multiple stepping. The coordination of middle leg amputees was maladapted, with front legs and hindlegs performing multiple steps or ipsilateral legs being in simultaneous swing. Thus, afferent information from middle legs might be necessary for a regular hindleg stepping pattern.

  16. Bio-inspired robotic legs drive viscous recirculating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Rintaro

    2015-11-01

    Crustaceans actuate multiple legs in a well-coordinated sequence to generate suitable flow for feeding and swimming. Inspired by tiny crustacean larvae operating at low Reynolds number, we study a scaled-up model in which slender rods oscillate independently in a bath of glycerol. Experiments reveal qualitatively different flow patterns depending on the phase and orientation of actuated rods. The observations are analyzed in the framework of slender-body theory for Stokes flow. This study shows that simple oscillatory motion of multiple legs can produce complex recirculating flows, with potential applications for mixing and pumping.

  17. A six-legged rover for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Krotkov, Eric; Bares, John

    1991-01-01

    To survive the rigors and isolation of planetary exploration, an autonomous rover must be competent, reliable, and efficient. This paper presents the Ambler, a six-legged robot featuring orthogonal legs and a novel circulating gait, which has been designed for traversal of rugged, unknown environments. An autonomous software system that integrates perception, planning, and real-time control has been developed to walk the Ambler through obstacle strewn terrain. The paper describes the information and control flow of the walking system, and how the design of the mechanism and software combine to achieve competent walking, reliable behavior in the face of unexpected failures, and efficient utilization of time and power.

  18. [The Paltrinieri operation in treatment of pseudarthroses of the leg].

    PubMed

    Burghele, N; Troianescu, O; Serban, N; Niţu, C; Zamfirescu, C

    1979-01-01

    The authors present 8 cases of pseudarthroses of the tibia secondary to surgical and orthopaedic treatments of fractures of the leg, in whom para-focal osteotomia was performed. The Paltrinieri method is a simple and efficient intervention based on the biochemical principle of re-establishing a normal tibial axis, and on exclusion of the pseudarthrosis focus from under the influence of negative mechanical factors, an intervention which leads to a revival of the capacities of consolidation of the pseudarthrosis. The very good results obtained justify the recommendation ofthis therapeutical method in the treatment of pseudarthroses, especially of the suppurated pseudarthroses of the leg.

  19. Stable Running with Asymmetric Legs: A Bifurcation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, Andreas; Kaiser, Dieter; Seyfarth, Andre; Hermann, Martin

    The spring-mass model is a frequently used gait template to describe human and animal locomotion. In this study, we transform the spring-mass model for running into a boundary value problem and use it for the computation of bifurcation points. We show that the analysis of the region of stable solutions can be reduced to the calculation of its boundaries. Using the new bifurcation approach, we investigate the influence of asymmetric leg parameters on the stability of running. Like previously found in walking, leg asymmetry does not necessarily restrict the range of stable running and may even provide benefits for system dynamics.

  20. Sleep-Related Leg Cramps: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Terry M

    2015-09-01

    Various medications and behavioral treatments for sleep-related leg cramps have been tried, but the quality of the evidence is low. Quinine seems to be effective, but dangerous. β-Agonists may be one of the more common causes of secondary leg cramps. Statins may not be implicated in leg cramps as much as has been believed. Potassium-sparing diuretics may have a higher incidence of sleep-related leg cramps than potassium-depleting diuretics. Plantar flexion of the feet may elicit most sleep-related leg cramps. More research into behavioral treatments is needed. A standardized sleep-related leg cramp questionnaire would be useful to expand research.

  1. Motion of the center of mass in children with spastic hemiplegia: balance, energy transfer, and work performed by the affected leg vs. the unaffected leg.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs.

  2. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  3. Teaching the SCANS Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

  4. SCANS: The Missing Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price-Machado, Donna

    Three specific classroom techniques for teaching vocational English as a Second Language to adults are discussed. They are three items on the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) list of "easy things" to do to integrate workplace basics into the classroom, designed to encourage a student-focused classroom. They…

  5. The Organizational Scan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald; Jackson, Stephanie D.

    1997-01-01

    Performance technologists like quick, cheap analysis that is rigorous and comprehensive. This article presents the organization scan model which makes successful compromises between the technologist's obligation to be rigorous and comprehensive and the sponsor's obligation to save money and time. Includes "Societal Bottom Line: Measurable…

  6. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used ... for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed ... called a gamma emitting tracer into a vein. This material collects mostly in the liver. It will then ...

  7. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  8. Multifocal adamantinoma simulating traumatic pathology on bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad Babar; Naeem, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    This is a case report of a young physically active patient who presented with pain in the right leg. Plain radiograph and bone scan showed lesions mimicking stress fracture. Follow-up investigations (repeated plain radiography and three phase bone scan) and histopathological examination proved it as a case of multifocal adamantinoma. This report signifies that physicians should not lock their mind only to one entity and keep the differential diagnosis list flexible especially if patient does not respond to a specific treatment. Tibial adamantinoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of stress fracture. Further, second lesion can occur in the rib cage defying the common belief that second lesion will be in the adjacent bone, fibula.

  9. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-06-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  10. Managing venous leg ulcers and oedema using compression hosiery.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Joy

    2015-10-21

    Increasing demand for services and rising costs in the NHS have resulted in reduced consultation times and resources for clinicians when treating patients with compression therapy. This article emphasises the importance of considering alternative treatment approaches, while encouraging patient choice, independence and self-care. One alternative treatment is the use of compression hosiery kits for the management of venous leg ulceration and oedema.

  11. [Compression therapy of chronic leg ulcers : Practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J; Protz, K; Hug, J; Reich-Schupke, S; Kröger, K

    2017-02-16

    Compression therapy, together with modern moist wound treatment, is the basis for a successful conservative treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. In clinical practice, it is often the patients themselves who apply compression therapies. Many of the mostly elderly patients, however, are not able to reach their legs and feet due to movement restrictions, such as arthritis, arthrosis and even obesity. An adequate compression therapy also requires extensive experience and regular training. In practice only the minority of patients can perform bandaging well and therefore this should not be recommended. Self-management with do-it-yourself medical devices will become more and more important in the future. In addition to the psychological factors, cost aspects and demographic change, an expected lack of qualified nursing staff due to the number of elderly patients who are potentially in need of care means that self-management is becoming increasingly more important. For the essentially important compression therapy of patients with chronic leg ulcers, there already exist various therapy options. The needs, preferences and abilities of the patients concerned can be considered when selecting the appropriate system. Particularly for the self-management of compression therapy, adaptive compression bandages are suitable for patients with leg ulcers during the initial decompression phase and ulcer stocking systems in the subsequent maintenance phase.

  12. General view of crane with legs erected temporary erection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of crane with legs erected - temporary erection towers still in place. Taken June 20, 1940. Fourteenth Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 13779 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Bridge Gantry Crane No. 1, Welding slab along Third Street, near intersection with Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-01-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  14. Lymph pump mechanics in the rabbit hind leg.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, F; Schmid-Schönbein, G W

    1996-07-01

    The mechanisms that govern fluid uptake by the initial lymphatics and adjustment of lymph flow rates remain to a large degree uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine how passive tissue movement contributes to lymph flow rates. Lymph fluid was collected via a cannula inserted into one of the popliteal prenodal lymphatics in the rabbit hind leg. Lymph flow rates were measured during periodic whole leg rotation and controlled oscillatory massage of the dorsal skin of the foot. Without whole leg rotation, lymph flow remained at low values (< 0.01 ml/h). Introduction of whole leg passive rotation caused a frequency-dependent increase in lymph flow rates, which were increased linearly with the log of frequency between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz. Local skin massage in the region of the initial lymphatics also led to a similar increase of lymph flow rates dependent on frequency as well as amplitude of skin displacement. Lymph flow rates during local skin massage reached a comparable order of magnitude regardless of whether the animal was alive or the heart had been arrested, suggesting that local lymph flow rates can be adjusted by periodic tissue motion independently of capillary fluid filtration pressures. The results indicate that periodic expansion and compression of initial lymphatics provide a mechanism for lymph pumping.

  15. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Jared

    1983-01-01

    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  16. Radiology-pathology conference: cutaneous angiosarcoma of the leg.

    PubMed

    Linda, Dorota D; Harish, Srinivasan; Alowami, Salem; DeNardi, Franco; Deheshi, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare aggressive vascular neoplasm with a poor prognosis, seen usually in the elderly population in a background of chronic lymphedema. We present a case of cutaneous angiosarcoma of the leg without any chronic lymphedema with clinicoradiological and histological correlation.

  17. A summary of Selected Data: DSDP Legs 20-44,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    545, 1969. Compressional Wave Velocity in Selected Saturated Bulk Density, Grain Density Samples of Gabbro , Schist, Limestone, and Porosity of...Physical Properties of Basalts, pt. 6, Chap. 46, p. 547, 1974. Gabbros , and Ultramafic Rocks from DSDP Leg 37, R. D. Hyndman and M. J. Drury, Physical

  18. A Summary of Selected Data: DSDP Legs 1-19,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Selected Saturated Bulk Density, Grain Density Samples of Gabbro , Schist, Limestone, and Porosity of Sediment Cores from the Anhydrite, Gypsum and Halite...Physical Properties of Basalts, pt. 6, Chap. 46, p. 547, 1974. Gabbros , and Ultramafic Rocks from DSDP Leg 37, R. D. Hyndman and M. J. Drury, Physical

  19. Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Active Leg Range of Motion Exercises: Lying ( ...

  20. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-15

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.

  1. Leg regeneration in Drosophila abridges the normal developmental program

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Manel; Bishop, Sarah Anne; Baguña, Jaume; Couso, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of lost body parts has traditionally been seen as a redeployment of embryonic development. However, whether regeneration and embryonic development are controlled by identical, similar or different genetic programmes has not been fully tested. Here, we analyse proximal-distal regeneration in Drosophila leg imaginal discs using the expression of positional markers, and by cell-lineage experiments, and we compare it with the pattern already known in normal development. During regeneration, the first proximal-distal positional markers reappear in overlapping patterns. As the regenerate expands they segregate, and further markers appear until the normal pattern is produced, following a proximal to distal sequence that is in fact the reverse of normal leg imaginal disc development. The results of lineage tracing support this interpretation, and show that regenerated structures derive from cells near the wound edge. Although leg development and leg regeneration are served by a set of identical genes, the ways their proximal-distal patterns are achieved are distinct from each other. Such differences can result from similar developmental gene interactions acting under different starting conditions. PMID:20563988

  2. Relief of Lower Back and Leg Pain after Myelography

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Mizuno, Tetsutaro; Akeda, Koji; Kondo, Tetsushi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that many patients will have adverse reactions such as headache and nausea after undergoing myelography, but we have often seen cases where symptoms such as lower back pain and leg pain were alleviated following myelography. To the best of our knowledge, such clinical cases of post-myelographic alleviation have not been reported. Materials and Methods: A total of 325 patients with a degenerative lumbar spinal disorder who underwent myelography were prospectively investigated at four hospitals from April 2012 to March 2014 to survey the post-myelographic alleviation of lower back and leg pain prospectively. The severities of lower back pain, leg pain and numbness of the lower extremities were evaluated and intermittent claudication distance was measured before myelography. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and myelographic findings were also evaluated for the patients that their symptoms were improved. Results: Thirty-five of 325 cases (10.8%) of these patients had their symptoms alleviated after undergoing myelography; 26 cases of lower back pain, two cases of leg pain, two cases of numbness of the lower extremity, and five cases of intermittent claudication. Conclusion: In the patients of a degenerative lumbar spinal disorder, about 10% cases with lower back pain or intermittent claudication had post-myelographic alleviation. Intradural injection therapy might be a therapeutic method to alleviate these symptoms. PMID:27990191

  3. [Restless legs syndrome and diabetes mellitus: an accidental association?].

    PubMed

    Greco, Domenico

    2011-05-01

    Although limited in number, several studies have documented an increased prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) in type 2 diabetes. Polyneuropathy only partially explains the relation between the two disorders. This association could be due to the effects of a prolonged sleep loss: in increasing the probability of developing insulin-resistance and metabolic disturbances.

  4. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. )

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  5. Restless Legs Syndrome in a Nigerian Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Fawale, Michael B.; Ismaila, Isiaka Alani; Mustapha, Adekunle F.; Komolafe, Morenikeji A.; Adedeji, Tewogbade A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is highest in the elderly in Caucasian populations; the prevalence of RLS in elderly Africans is not known. This study aimed at determining the frequency and associations of RLS in a Nigerian elderly population. Methods: The study population comprised of 633 consecutive elderly individuals aged 65–105 years attending the general outpatient clinic of the State Hospital, Ilesa, for minor complaints and routine check-up. The diagnosis of RLS was made using the 2003 minimal criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data, including sleep duration, were also obtained. Results: Restless legs syndrome was found in 3.5% of the study population with a male-female ratio of 2:1. There was no significant age (p = 0.427) or gender (p = 0.178) influence on the prevalence of RLS except in the 75- to 84-year age group where there was significant male preponderance (p = 0.044). A strong independent association between RLS and sleep duration (OR, 3.229; 95% CI, 1.283–8.486; p = 0.013) and past history of head injury (OR, 4.691; 95% CI, 1.750–12.577; p = 0.002) was found. Conclusions: Our finding support previous reports of a possible lower prevalence of RLS in Africans. Restless legs syndrome independently increases the odds of habitual sleep curtailment in elderly individuals. Head injury may be a risk factor for future RLS; this requires further investigation as indirect evidence for a possible link between RLS and traumatic brain injury exists. Citation: Fawale MB, Ismaila IA, Mustapha AF, Komolafe MA, Adedeji TA. Restless legs syndrome in a Nigerian elderly population. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):965–972. PMID:27070251

  6. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.; Ariste, A. López

    2016-02-10

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  7. Infant exploratory learning: influence on leg joint coordination.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Barbara; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A critical issue in the study of infant development is to identify the processes by which task-specific action emerges from spontaneous movement. Emergent leg action has been studied by providing contingent reinforcement to specific leg movements using an overhead infant-activated mobile, however, there is limited information on the strategies used by infants to support the emergence of task-specific leg action from spontaneous movement. The purpose of this study is to (1) determine the ability of 3 month old infants to learn, through discovery, the contingency between leg action and mobile activation using a virtual threshold, and (2) identify strategies, defined by variance of the end-effectors (feet) and hip-knee joint coordination, used by infants that learned the contingency. Fourteen 3 month old infants participated in 2 sessions of mobile reinforcement on consecutive days. As a group, infants increased the percentage of mobile activation to meet performance criteria on Day 2, but did not meet memory or learning criteria across days. However, five infants learned the contingency based on individual learning criteria. When interacting with the mobile on Day 2 as compared to spontaneous kicking on Day 1, infants who learned the contingency, but not infants who did not learn the contingency, increased variance of the end-effectors (feet) in the vertical, task-specific direction and demonstrated less in-phase hip-knee joint coordination. An important discovery is that infants can discover this very specific contingency, suggesting that this movement behavior (action) can be shaped in future work. This may have implications for the rehabilitation of infants with atypical leg action.

  8. Double tibial osteotomy for bow leg patients: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Khalilollah; Fouladi, Arash; Chinigarzadeh, Mozhdeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: High tibia osteotomy (HTO) is a common surgical operation for correction of genu varum deformity. In some patients, there are concurrent tibia vara and genu varum (bow leg). This study aimed to consider the possibility of better correction of bow leg deformity after double level tibial osteotomy (DLTO). Materials and Methods: A case series of 10 patients of genu varum in addition to tibia vara (bow leg) deformity who were referred to orthopedic ward of an academic hospital of Isfahan- Iran during 2009–2011 were included in the study. The mean age was 17.3 ± 3.1 years and all of them underwent DLTO. The results of treatment have been assessed based on clinical and radiological parameters before and after surgery. Results: The mean pre- and post operative values for Tibia-Femoral Angle, Medial Proximal of Tibia Angle (MPTA), and Lateral Distal of Tibia Angle (LDTA) were 18.13 ± 3.05° vs. 3.93 ± 0.66°, 79.13 ± 3.4° vs. 89.7 ± 1.8° and 96.40 ± 1.8° vs. 88.73 ± 3.0° respectively (P < 0.05). Improvement of all radiological parameters was meaningful. Seventy three percent of patients had normal mechanical axis of limb after surgery. The remaining cases had varus deformity in distal femur that was corrected by valgus supracondylar osteotomy in an additional operation. Limited range of motion (ROM) near knee and ankle was not observed. Conclusion: DLTO correct bow leg deformity in the point of alignment of limb and paralleling of knee and ankle joint more effectively. This method can be used in metabolic and congenital bow leg which deformities are present in throughout of the lower limb. We described this technique for the first time. PMID:24523802

  9. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s-1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  10. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  11. Ropinirole: new indication. Restless legs: disproportionate adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2006-10-01

    (1) The restless legs syndrome consists of unpleasant sensory and motor symptoms of varying intensity in the lower limbs. Symptoms occur at rest, seated or lying down, are more intense in the evening and at night, and are relieved by moving the limb. This syndrome does not cause serious physical complications. When sleep disturbances occur, non drug methods should be tried first. (2) Ropinirole is a dopaminergic agonist initially marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is the first drug to be approved for restless legs syndrome in France. (3) Three double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trials with similar designs showed minimal differences on a composite rating scale. After 12 weeks of treatment, ropinirole led to an improvement of about 3 points on a 40-point scale compared with placebo. (4) A 12-week double-blind randomised controlled trial and including patients who had "responded" to ropinirole showed a lower relapse rate in the group that continued to use ropinirole (32.6%) instead of switching to placebo (57.8%). However, we do not know if this was because of continued drug efficacy or a rebound effect in the placebo group. (5) The adverse effects of ropinirole in patients with restless legs syndrome had already been observed in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and included nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, a sudden urge to sleep, syncope, hypotension, and hallucinations. (6) An increase in the severity of restless legs symptoms, typically seen with levodopa, was not evaluated in clinical trials of ropinirole. Some cases have nevertheless been reported. They describe the appearance of symptoms increasingly early in the evening, then in the afternoon, or as a rebound effect in the morning or the latter part of the night. Their intensity increases and can affect other parts of the body. (7) In practice, ropinirole has a negative risk-benefit balance in restless legs syndrome, which is a minor health disorder.

  12. Is chair rise performance a useful measure of leg power?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Shah, Imran; Harridge, Stephen; Guralnik, Jack; Kuh, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Chair rise performance, which is simple to assess in a home or clinic setting, has been used as a method of predicting leg power deficit in older adults. More recently chair rise performance has been assessed in younger populations as a baseline for assessment of subsequent age-related declines in function and power. However, as rising from a chair repeatedly not only requires lower limb strength and power but also good balance and coordination, it may not be purely a measure of leg power especially among these younger, well functioning groups who are yet to experience age-related declines and deficits in function. The aim of this study was to assess whether chair rise performance can be considered as a predictor of leg power, and hence of deficits in this, in men and women in mid-life. We assessed the relationship of chair rise performance with leg extensor power (LEP) measured using the Nottingham Power Rig (NPR), and with standing balance performance. Methods LEP was measured in a clinic setting in a sub-sample of 81 men and 93 women from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative cohort born in Britain in 1946. The time taken to rise from a chair 10 times and standing balance time were assessed during home visits at the same age. Results Increasing LEP was associated with better chair rise performance among those who completed 10 chair rises in ≥15 seconds, after adjustment for body size (p=0.008). Better standing balance performance was associated with better chair rise performance in men, but not women. Conclusions That LEP and standing balance are both related to chair rise time in men suggests that chair rise time should not be thought of purely as a proxy measure of leg power in middle-aged populations. This has implications for longitudinal studies which want to study age-related decline in chair rise performance. PMID:21422795

  13. 78 FR 38098 - Proposed Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form...

  14. How to Comply with Requirements to Protect California Red-legged Frog from Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes buffer areas around certain habitats of the California red-legged frog, and limits on use of certain pesticides within those habitats and buffer zones to protect the red-legged frog from certain pesticides.

  15. Optical scanning holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Doh, Kyu B.; Schilling, Bradley W.; Wu, Ming H.; Shinoda, Kazunori K.; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    1995-03-01

    We first review a newly developed 3D imaging technique called optical scanning holography (OSH), and discuss recording and reconstruction of a point object using the principle of OSH. We then derive 3D holographic magnification, using three points configured as a 3D object. Finally, we demonstrated 3D imaging capability of OSH by holographically recording two planar objects at different depths and reconstructing the hologram digitally.

  16. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; ...

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  17. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  18. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  19. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  20. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  1. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  2. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  3. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  4. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  5. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  6. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  7. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  8. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  9. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  10. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  11. A Comparison of Two Injection Locations in Obese Patients Having Lower Leg/Foot Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-13

    Strain of Muscle and/or Tendon of Lower Leg; Fracture of Lower Leg; Crushing Injury of Lower Leg; Fracture Malunion - Ankle and/ or Foot; Complete Tear, Ankle and/or Foot Ligament; Pathological Fracture - Ankle and/or Foot; Loose Body in Joint of Ankle and/or Foot

  12. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  13. [Amputation of the leg with impaired circulation. The orthopaedic surgeon's view].

    PubMed

    Ender, S A; Ender, M; Machner, A; Neumann, H W

    2009-02-01

    Despite therapeutic improvements in the treatment of arterial circulatory problems of the leg, several tens of thousands of amputations are performed every year. The amputation is not the end of the treatment but is the beginning of the rehabilitation. Decisive criteria for a successful rehabilitation are the quality of the leg-stump, the immediate and early care, and an adequate artificial leg.

  14. The effect of Brazilian Propolis on leg health in broilers reared under heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing broiler chickens to heat stress increases leg abnormalities and Gait Score, also it reduced the time of Latency to Lie Test. This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplemention with green Brazilian propolis on Latency to Lie Test for leg strength and leg abnormaliti...

  15. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  16. Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskell, Todd G.; Sarid, Dror; Workman, Richard K.; Pyle, Jason L.

    1997-03-01

    A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the grown material by altering the lithographic environment. Silicon nitride growth is shown to result from lithography on silicon samples in an environment of annhydrous ammonia.

  17. Battery scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, L.F.

    1984-11-20

    A battery scanning system which is capable of monitoring and displaying the voltage of each cell in a battery or upon command provides the cell voltage distribution by displaying the cell number and voltage value of highest and lowest cell. The system has a digital logic system, display, input switches for operator generated variables, an alarm, relays, relay selection gates, an optically coupled isolation amplifier, power source and an analog-digital converter. The optically coupled analog amplifier electrically isolates the system from the battery so that large voltage offsets will not adversely affect the automatic measuring of the cells.

  18. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F. B.; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness.

  19. Real Scan Evolution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Computer Image Generation Visual Simulation Computer Graphics Al gortthm Geometric Model tng 1%ABSTRACT (C.tla. -mm. .00n ad N ue-e""V ONd Ofmi* OF 61"knsee...envtronments. modeled as a single valued el evatYo fnction of horizontal location. The objecttve of the development was to analyze the feasibility of a real...generator capable of creating complex Imagery .in real time? Is the solution amenable to efficient off-lne modeling of complex environments? The Real Scan

  20. Loss of legs: is it or not a handicap for an orb-weaving spider?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquet, Alain; Anotaux, Mylène; Leborgne, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Leg loss is a common phenomenon in spiders, and according to the species 5% to 40% of the adults can present at least one missing leg. There is no possibility of regeneration after adult moult and the animal must manage with its missing appendages until its death. With the loss of one or more legs, female orb-weaving spiders can be penalized twice: firstly, because the legs are necessary for web construction and secondly, the legs are essential for the control of the prey after its interception by the web. During development, spiders may be also penalized because regeneration has energetic costs that take away resources for survival, growth and reproduction. All these consequences should influence negatively the development of the spider and thus its fitness. We investigated the impact of leg loss in the orb-weaving spider, Zygiella x-notata by studying its frequency in a natural population and web building and prey capture behaviours in laboratory. In field populations, 9.5% to 13%, of the adult females presented the loss of one or more legs; the majority of individuals had lost only one leg (in 48% of cases, a first one). Leg loss seems to affect all the adult spiders, as there is no difference of mass between intact spiders and those with missing leg. Data obtained with laboratory-reared spiders, showed that the loss of legs due to the moult is rare (less than 1%). Considering changes in web design, spiders with missing legs decreased their silk investment, increased the distance between spiral turns but did not change the capture surface of the web. Under our laboratory experimental conditions, spiders with one or two lost legs did not present any difference in prey capture efficiency. In laboratory conditions, spiders with lost leg(s) did not show any difference in egg sac production or in longevity (adult lifespan) compared to intact spiders.

  1. Scans Solo: A One-Person Environmental Scanning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    An effective environmental scan will improve the quality of community college planning and decision making by alerting institutional leaders to the challenges and opportunities in the environment. Scanning can be done in three ways: (1) establishing a scanning committee to gather and synthesize information to guide planning; (2) sponsoring a…

  2. Free motion scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  3. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  4. Leg length inequality, pelvic tilt and lumbar back muscle activity during standing.

    PubMed

    Vink, P; Kamphuisen, H A

    1989-05-01

    The influence of an artificial leg length discrepancy on lateral pelvic tilt and on activity of the intrinsic lumbar back muscles was investigated. An artificial leg length discrepancy of up to 50 mm was created by putting boards of different height under the right foot. Lateral pelvic tilt increased linearly with increasing artificial leg length discrepancies. The rectified and averaged e.m.g. of the intrinsic lumbar back muscles showed a small increase at the longer leg side. It increased non-linearly with an increment in slope above a certain artificial leg length discrepancy (mean 34 mm).

  5. Leg Weakness Caused by Bilateral Piriformis Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee Bong; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Gi Hyeong; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Chang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome (PS) is an uncommon neuromuscular disorder caused by the piriformis muscle (PM) compressing the sciatic nerve (SN). The main symptom of PS is sciatica, which worsens with certain triggering conditions. Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there are no definite diagnostic and therapeutic choices for PS. This case report presents a young woman who mainly complained of bilateral leg weakness. Electromyography revealed bilateral sciatic neuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed structural lesions causing entrapment of the bilateral SNs. After a laborious diagnosis of bilateral PS, she underwent PM releasing surgery. Few PS cases present with bilateral symptoms and leg weakness. Therefore, in such cases, a high level of suspicion is necessary for accurate and prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26798622

  6. Leg Weakness Caused by Bilateral Piriformis Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee Bong; Nam, Ki Yeun; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Gi Hyeong; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Chang Jae

    2015-12-01

    Piriformis syndrome (PS) is an uncommon neuromuscular disorder caused by the piriformis muscle (PM) compressing the sciatic nerve (SN). The main symptom of PS is sciatica, which worsens with certain triggering conditions. Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there are no definite diagnostic and therapeutic choices for PS. This case report presents a young woman who mainly complained of bilateral leg weakness. Electromyography revealed bilateral sciatic neuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed structural lesions causing entrapment of the bilateral SNs. After a laborious diagnosis of bilateral PS, she underwent PM releasing surgery. Few PS cases present with bilateral symptoms and leg weakness. Therefore, in such cases, a high level of suspicion is necessary for accurate and prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  7. VDLLA: A virtual daddy-long legs optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakub, Abdul Razak; Ghathwan, Khalil I.

    2016-08-01

    Swarm intelligence is a strong optimization algorithm based on a biological behavior of insects or animals. The success of any optimization algorithm is depending on the balance between exploration and exploitation. In this paper, we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, which is based on daddy long legs spider (VDLLA) as a new optimization algorithm with virtual behavior. In VDLLA, each agent (spider) has nine positions which represent the legs of spider and each position represent one solution. The proposed VDLLA is tested on four standard functions using average fitness, Medium fitness and standard deviation. The results of proposed VDLLA have been compared against Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE) and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA). Additionally, the T-Test has been conducted to show the significant deference between our proposed and other algorithms. VDLLA showed very promising results on benchmark test functions for unconstrained optimization problems and also significantly improved the original swarm algorithms.

  8. Tetrafocal leg reconstruction using combined Ilizarov/TSF technique.

    PubMed

    Sala, Francesco; Talamonti, Tazio; Agus, Maria Alice

    2011-08-01

    Treatment of segmental tibial bone defects after high-energy trauma or atrophic nonunion resection is challenging. In the last two decades, distraction osteogenesis Ilizarov bone transport has become a gold standard for the treatment of segmental tibial bone defects and lengthening in spite of the fact that frequent frame modifications and the need for sequential correction of deformities during bone transport are the main limitations of the device itself. The Taylor Spatial Frame applies the concept of the Stewart platform to the standard Ilizarov frame while applying the same principles of distraction osteogenesis postulated by Ilizarov. We report the case of a patient with two problems we could treat simultaneously: an ankle equinus contracture (a consequence of limb leg discrepancy) and infected tibial nonunion and soft-tissue damage complication after plating in a 41A3 type II Gustilo fracture of the left leg.

  9. Red legs and golden gasters: Batesian mimicry in Australian ants.

    PubMed

    Merrill, D N; Elgar, M A

    2000-05-01

    There are numerous reports of invertebrates that are visual mimics of ants, but no formal reports of mimicry of an ant, by an ant. Two endemic Australian ants, Myrmecia fulvipes and Camponotus bendigensis are remarkably similar in colour and size; both are generally black but have red legs and golden gasters. The density and hue of the pubescence of each ant's gaster are relatively uncommon in ants, but are very rare when combined with the black forebody and red legs. The ants are similarly sized but are smaller than other species closely related to M. fulvipes. The range of C. bendigensis lies entirely within that of M. fulvipes, and both species excavate ground nests in open woodland. Finally, workers of both species are crepuscular and forage solitarily. These data suggest that the relatively benign formicine C. bendigensis is a Batesian mimic of the formidable myrmeciine M. fulvipes.

  10. Red legs and golden gasters: Batesian mimicry in australian ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, D. N.; Elgar, Mark A.

    There are numerous reports of invertebrates that are visual mimics of ants, but no formal reports of mimicry of an ant, by an ant. Two endemic Australian ants, Myrmecia fulvipes and Camponotus bendigensis are remarkably similar in colour and size; both are generally black but have red legs and golden gasters. The density and hue of the pubescence of each ant's gaster are relatively uncommon in ants, but are very rare when combined with the black forebody and red legs. The ants are similarly sized but are smaller than other species closely related to M. fulvipes. The range of C. bendigensis lies entirely within that of M. fulvipes, and both species excavate ground nests in open woodland. Finally, workers of both species are crepuscular and forage solitarily. These data suggest that the relatively benign formicine C. bendigensis is a Batesian mimic of the formidable myrmeciine M. fulvipes.

  11. Classifying Human Leg Motions with Uniaxial Piezoelectric Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Tunçel, Orkun; Altun, Kerem; Barshan, Billur

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative study on the different techniques of classifying human leg motions that are performed using two low-cost uniaxial piezoelectric gyroscopes worn on the leg. A number of feature sets, extracted from the raw inertial sensor data in different ways, are used in the classification process. The classification techniques implemented and compared in this study are: Bayesian decision making (BDM), a rule-based algorithm (RBA) or decision tree, least-squares method (LSM), k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN), dynamic time warping (DTW), support vector machines (SVM), and artificial neural networks (ANN). A performance comparison of these classification techniques is provided in terms of their correct differentiation rates, confusion matrices, computational cost, and training and storage requirements. Three different cross-validation techniques are employed to validate the classifiers. The results indicate that BDM, in general, results in the highest correct classification rate with relatively small computational cost. PMID:22291521

  12. Maneuverability and mobility in palm-sized legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohut, Nicholas J.; Birkmeyer, Paul M.; Peterson, Kevin C.; Fearing, Ronald S.

    2012-06-01

    Palm sized legged robots show promise for military and civilian applications, including exploration of hazardous or difficult to reach places, search and rescue, espionage, and battlefield reconnaissance. However, they also face many technical obstacles, including- but not limited to- actuator performance, weight constraints, processing power, and power density. This paper presents an overview of several robots from the Biomimetic Millisystems Laboratory at UC Berkeley, including the OctoRoACH, a steerable, running legged robot capable of basic navigation and equipped with a camera and active tail; CLASH, a dynamic climbing robot; and BOLT, a hybrid crawling and flying robot. The paper also discusses, and presents some preliminary solutions to, the technical obstacles listed above plus issues such as robustness to unstructured environments, limited sensing and communication bandwidths, and system integration.

  13. Dynamic legged locomotion for palm-size robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrouk, David; Haldane, Duncan W.; Fearing, Ronald S.

    2015-05-01

    Minimally-actuated palm-size robots are capable of running at speeds greater than 2 meters per second (20 body lengths per second), with leg stride rates of greater than 20 Hz. In this dynamic regime, passive stabilization is needed for roll-and-pitch instability. However, we have found that certain roll-oscillation modes can be used for continuous high speed turning. Other continuous turning modes have also been identified, such as modulating foot contact location through foot compliance, and controlling differential leg velocity. For the small minimally actuated robots examined, the dynamically enhanced roll-steer mode showed the best turning rate, of over 8 degrees per step, but only appears at certain running frequencies. Interstride phase and velocity control appears promising as a mode for in-plane maneuverability for under-actuated robots.

  14. Classifying human leg motions with uniaxial piezoelectric gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Tunçel, Orkun; Altun, Kerem; Barshan, Billur

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative study on the different techniques of classifying human leg motions that are performed using two low-cost uniaxial piezoelectric gyroscopes worn on the leg. A number of feature sets, extracted from the raw inertial sensor data in different ways, are used in the classification process. The classification techniques implemented and compared in this study are: Bayesian decision making (BDM), a rule-based algorithm (RBA) or decision tree, least-squares method (LSM), k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN), dynamic time warping (DTW), support vector machines (SVM), and artificial neural networks (ANN). A performance comparison of these classification techniques is provided in terms of their correct differentiation rates, confusion matrices, computational cost, and training and storage requirements. Three different cross-validation techniques are employed to validate the classifiers. The results indicate that BDM, in general, results in the highest correct classification rate with relatively small computational cost.

  15. Automatic segmentation of leg bones by using active contours.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunhee; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Sehyung; Lee, Deukhee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new active contours model to segment human leg bones in computed tomography images that is based on a variable-weighted combination of local and global intensity. This model can split an object surrounded by both weak and strong boundaries, and also distinguish very adjacent objects with those boundaries. The ability of this model is required for segmentation in medical images, e.g., human leg bones, which are usually composed of highly inhomogeneous objects and where the distances among organs are very close. We developed an evolution equation of a level set function whose zero level set represents a contour. An initial contour is automatically obtained by applying a histogram based multiphase segmentation method. We experimented with computed tomography images from three patients, and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in experimental results.

  16. Understanding venous leg ulcer pain: results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Kathleen A; Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Burke, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Venous leg ulcer pain experienced during compression bandaging is poorly understood. A prospective, pilot cohort study was initiated to determine the feasibility of conducting a large-scale, repeated measures cohort study of venous leg ulcer pain and to document and describe the venous leg ulcer pain experience during the first 5 weeks of treatment with compression bandages. Eligible individuals admitted to a nurse-led community leg ulcer service in one Canadian community were recruited for the 5-week study. Pain assessment tools (ie, numerical rating scale and short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) were evaluated by 20 venous ulcer patients (mean age = 73.7 years) and their nurses for ease of use during one baseline and five weekly follow-up visits. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) information was obtained. Nurses reported on ease of integrating pain data collection into regular clinical care. Each pain assessment tool was audited for completion. Most participants found the pain assessment tools easy to use, but nurses reported lengthened visit times with some participants as a result of tool administration difficulties, particularly the visual analogue scale (VAS). Overall completeness of pain assessment tools ranged from 85.0% (visual analogue scale) to 96.3% (present pain intensity and word descriptor list). The vast majority of patients (18) reported ulcer pain at baseline. Total mean scores for all pain assessment tools used decreased over time, but most patients reported pain throughout the study. The most common pain descriptors used were "aching," "stabbing," "sharp," "tender," and "tiring." Health-related quality of life was low and did not change during the 5-week study. The results of this study suggest that the vast majority of venous ulcer patients experience pain and that it is feasible to examine this pain in individuals receiving care in the community over time.

  17. Transition from wing to leg forces during landing in birds.

    PubMed

    Provini, Pauline; Tobalske, Bret W; Crandell, Kristen E; Abourachid, Anick

    2014-08-01

    Transitions to and from the air are critical for aerial locomotion and likely shaped the evolution of flying animals. Research on take-off demonstrates that legs generate greater body accelerations compared with wings, and thereby contribute more to initial flight velocity. Here, we explored coordination between wings and legs in two species with different wingbeat styles, and quantified force production of these modules during the final phase of landing. We used the same birds that we had previously studied during take-off: zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N=4) and diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata, N=3). We measured kinematics using high-speed video, aerodynamics using particle image velocimetry, and ground-reaction forces using a perch mounted on a force plate. In contrast with the first three wingbeats of take-off, the final four wingbeats during landing featured ~2 times greater force production. Thus, wings contribute proportionally more to changes in velocity during the last phase of landing compared with the initial phase of take-off. The two species touched down at the same velocity (~1 m s(-1)), but they exhibited significant differences in the timing of their final wingbeat relative to touchdown. The ratio of average wing force to peak leg force was greater in diamond doves than in zebra finches. Peak ground reaction forces during landing were ~50% of those during take-off, consistent with the birds being motivated to control landing. Likewise, estimations of mechanical energy flux for both species indicate that wings produce 3-10 times more mechanical work within the final wingbeats of flight compared with the kinetic energy of the body absorbed by legs during ground contact.

  18. Motion error compensation of multi-legged walking robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangwen; Chen, Xuedong; Wang, Xinjie; Tang, Weigang; Sun, Yi; Pan, Chunmei

    2012-07-01

    Existing errors in the structure and kinematic parameters of multi-legged walking robots, the motion trajectory of robot will diverge from the ideal sports requirements in movement. Since the existing error compensation is usually used for control compensation of manipulator arm, the error compensation of multi-legged robots has seldom been explored. In order to reduce the kinematic error of robots, a motion error compensation method based on the feedforward for multi-legged mobile robots is proposed to improve motion precision of a mobile robot. The locus error of a robot body is measured, when robot moves along a given track. Error of driven joint variables is obtained by error calculation model in terms of the locus error of robot body. Error value is used to compensate driven joint variables and modify control model of robot, which can drive the robots following control model modified. The model of the relation between robot's locus errors and kinematic variables errors is set up to achieve the kinematic error compensation. On the basis of the inverse kinematics of a multi-legged walking robot, the relation between error of the motion trajectory and driven joint variables of robots is discussed. Moreover, the equation set is obtained, which expresses relation among error of driven joint variables, structure parameters and error of robot's locus. Take MiniQuad as an example, when the robot MiniQuad moves following beeline tread, motion error compensation is studied. The actual locus errors of the robot body are measured before and after compensation in the test. According to the test, variations of the actual coordinate value of the robot centroid in x-direction and z-direction are reduced more than one time. The kinematic errors of robot body are reduced effectively by the use of the motion error compensation method based on the feedforward.

  19. Robotic exploration of surfaces and its application to legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pramath Raj

    1991-02-01

    Material properties like penetrability, compliance, and surface roughness are important in the characterization of the environment. While concentrating on issues of geometry and shape, researchers in perceptual robotics, until recently, have not quite addressed the issue of the extraction of material properties from the environment. The goal of this research is to design and implement a robotic system that will actively explore a surface to extract its material characteristics. Further the relevance of material properties in the legged locomotion of robots is also recognized and our research objectives are extended towards building a robotic system for exploration such that is actively perceives material properties during the process of legged locomotion. The chosen approach to the design and implementation of such a robotic system is to first select an appropriate environment model and then to design exploratory procedures salient to each attribute of interest. These exploratory procedures are then implemented through an experimental setup and the results show that material properties can be reliably measured. The design, implementation, and results of a framework for surface exploration to recover material properties are presented. Further, the exploratory procedures for exploration are integrated into an active perceptual scheme for legged locomotion. The perceptual scheme is designed around creating the ability for the robot to sense variations in terrain properties while it is walking, so that it may be able to avoid sinking, slipping, and falling due to unexpected changes in the terrain properties, and make suitable changes in its foot forces to continue locomotion. Finite element simulations of the foot-terrain interaction are used to justify some of the strategies used in this active perceptual scheme. The active perceptual scheme is implemented by simulating a leg-ankle-foot system with a PUMA arm-complaint wrist-foot system and an accelerometer mounted on

  20. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve; Mazumdar, Ani; Spencer, Steve

    2015-06-02

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the second in a series, describes the continued development and integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  1. Simpla Plus leg bag: approval by the National Customer Group.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Linda; McNicoll, Diane

    The choice of the right product for the right patients is fundamental in the adequate care of incontinent patients: therefore, it is important that nurses and healthcare professionals are aware of all the products that are available and that these products meet the required standards. The Simpla Plus leg bag, manufactured by Coloplast, is an example of one such product which has been officially approved by the National Customer Group for inclusion in the NHS purchasing and supply contract.

  2. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs, Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve; Mazumdar, Ani; Spencer, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the second in a series, describes the continued development and integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  3. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation ( ... In: Mettler FA, Guiberteau MJ, eds. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  4. Relationship between body and leg VO2 during maximal cycle ergometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, D. R.; Poole, D. C.; Schaffartzik, W.; Guy, H. J.; Prediletto, R.; Hogan, M. C.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    It is not known whether the asymptotic behavior of whole body O2 consumption (VO2) at maximal work rates (WR) is explained by similar behavior of VO2 in the exercising legs. To resolve this question, simultaneous measurements of body and leg VO2 were made at submaximal and maximal levels of effort breathing normoxic and hypoxic gases in seven trained male cyclists (maximal VO2, 64.7 +/- 2.7 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), each of whom demonstrated a reproducible VO2-WR asymptote during fatiguing incremental cycle ergometry. Left leg blood flow was measured by constant-infusion thermodilution, and total leg VO2 was calculated as the product of twice leg flow and radial arterial-femoral venous O2 concentration difference. The VO2-WR relationships determined at submaximal WR's were extrapolated to maximal WR as a basis for assessing the body and leg VO2 responses. The differences between measured and extrapolated maximal VO2 were 235 +/- 45 (body) and 203 +/- 70 (leg) ml O2/min (not significantly different). Plateauing of leg VO2 was associated with, and explained by, plateauing of both leg blood flow and O2 extraction and hence of leg VO2. We conclude that the asymptotic behavior of whole body VO2 at maximal WRs is a direct reflection of the VO2 profile at the exercising legs.

  5. Common Leg Injuries of Long-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Robert A.; Plakke, Michael; Silvis, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Context Long-distance running (greater than 3000 m) is often recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Running injury rates increase significantly when weekly mileage extends beyond 40 miles cumulatively. With the development of running analysis and other diagnostic tests, injuries to the leg secondary to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes can be diagnosed and successfully managed. Evidence Acquisition Searches used the terms running, injuries, lower extremity, leg, medial tibial stress syndrome, compartment syndrome, stress fractures, popliteal artery entrapment, gastrocnemius soleus tears, and Achilles tendinopathy. Sources included Medline, Google Scholar, and Ovid from 1970 through January 2012. Results Tibial stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome can sometimes be prevented and/or treated by correcting biomechanical abnormalities. Exertional compartment syndrome and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are caused by anatomic abnormalities and are difficult to treat without surgical correction. Conclusion Leg pain due to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes is common among long-distance runners. Knowledge of the underlying biomechanical and/or anatomic abnormality is necessary to successfully treat these conditions. PMID:24179587

  6. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S.

    2009-01-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers’ leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers’ leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults’ leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer. PMID:20436934

  7. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S

    2010-05-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers' leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers' leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults' leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer.

  8. Crypsis via leg clustering: twig masquerading in a spider.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shichang; Mao, Kuei-Kai; Lin, Po-Ting; Ho, Chiu-Ju; Hung, Wei; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    The role of background matching in camouflage has been extensively studied. However, contour modification has received far less attention, especially in twig-mimicking species. Here, we studied this deceptive strategy by revealing a special masquerade tactic, in which the animals protract and cluster their legs linearly in the same axis with their bodies when resting, using the spider Ariamnes cylindrogaster as a model. We used cardboard papers to construct dummies resembling spiders in appearance and colour. To differentiate the most important factors in the concealment effect, we manipulated body size (long or short abdomen) and resting postures (leg clustered or spread) of the dummies and recorded the responses of predators to different dummy types in the field. The results showed that dummies with clustered legs received significantly less attention from predators, regardless of the body length. Thus, we conclude that A. cylindrogaster relies on the resting posture rather than body size for predator avoidance. This study provides, to the best of our knowledge, empirical evidence for the first time that twig-mimicking species can achieve effective camouflage by contour modification.

  9. New actigraphic assessment method for periodic leg movements (PLM).

    PubMed

    Kazenwadel, J; Pollmächer, T; Trenkwalder, C; Oertel, W H; Kohnen, R; Künzel, M; Krüger, H P

    1995-10-01

    A new actigraphic method by which periodic leg movements (PLM) can be measured is presented. Data acquistion and analysis were brought into line to distinguish short-lasting repetive leg movements from random motor restlessness. The definition of PLM follows the generally accepted criteria for PLM scoring. Thirty restless legs patients, all also suffering from PLM, were investigated three times by polysomnography, including tibialis anterior surface electromyography and actigraphy. A high correlation (reliability) was found for the number of PLM per hour spent in bed between the two methods. Furthermore, the actigraph records PLM specifically. An index of random motor restlessness is not sufficient for a reliable PLM according. In addition, periodic movements in sleep (PMS) and PLM show comparable variability in general. The actigraphic assessment of PLM, however, gives a better measure because PMS recordings may result in a substantial underestimation of PLM when sleep efficiency is reduced. This method is an ambulatory assessment tool that can also be used for screening purposes.

  10. Ropinirole for the treatment of restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kushida, Clete A

    2006-01-01

    Dopaminergic agents, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, opiates, and iron supplementation comprise the classes of medications commonly used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is a disorder that is estimated to affect about 1 in 10 individuals worldwide and impacts an affected patient’s sleep, mood, daytime function, and quality of life. RLS is characterized by an urge to move the legs that is worse at bedtime and at rest; the symptoms are temporarily relieved by leg movement. It is frequently accompanied by periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS), which may independently disrupt sleep and may cause daytime drowsiness. Dopaminergic agents are considered to be first-line therapy in the management of RLS as well as PLMS. Ropinirole (Requip®, GlaxoSmithKline) is a dopamine agonist that was the first medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of moderate-to-severe primary RLS. Based on several large-scale clinical trials and open-label clinical series, this medication has been demonstrated to be effective and safe in treating the motor symptoms of RLS and improving sleep quality. PMID:19412490

  11. Is There an Association between Restless Legs Syndrome and Urticaria?

    PubMed

    Tuna, Serpil; Alan, Sevil; Samancı, Nehir; Karakaş, Ayşe Akman

    2016-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disease characterized by the urge to move the legs and sleep disturbances. Similarly, chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a dermatological disease characterized by pruritus and sleep disorders. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of RLS in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and to compare the quality of sleep of patients with and without RLS in the CSU group using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A total of 130 patients with CSU and 100 healthy controls were included in this study. The frequency of RLS, frequency of sleep disturbances, and average score of RLS in patients with CSU were statistically significantly higher than control groups (respectively P = 0.008, P = 0.009, P = 0.004). Subjective sleep quality, sleep latency and habitual sleep efficiency scores in patients with RLS were statistically significantly higher than patients without RLS (respectively P = 0.016, P = 0.007, P = 0.035). We claimed that pruritus of urticaria may decrease the quality of sleep in patients with RLS and it may trigger and worsen the restless legs syndrome. Furthermore, RLS and CSU may share a common etiology.

  12. Crypsis via leg clustering: twig masquerading in a spider

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shichang; Mao, Kuei-Kai; Lin, Po-Ting; Ho, Chiu-Ju; Hung, Wei; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min

    2015-01-01

    The role of background matching in camouflage has been extensively studied. However, contour modification has received far less attention, especially in twig-mimicking species. Here, we studied this deceptive strategy by revealing a special masquerade tactic, in which the animals protract and cluster their legs linearly in the same axis with their bodies when resting, using the spider Ariamnes cylindrogaster as a model. We used cardboard papers to construct dummies resembling spiders in appearance and colour. To differentiate the most important factors in the concealment effect, we manipulated body size (long or short abdomen) and resting postures (leg clustered or spread) of the dummies and recorded the responses of predators to different dummy types in the field. The results showed that dummies with clustered legs received significantly less attention from predators, regardless of the body length. Thus, we conclude that A. cylindrogaster relies on the resting posture rather than body size for predator avoidance. This study provides, to the best of our knowledge, empirical evidence for the first time that twig-mimicking species can achieve effective camouflage by contour modification. PMID:26064622

  13. Instability and maneuverability of a multi-legged robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, Shinya

    Our previous study showed that a centipede like multi-legged robot composed of many modules, each of which has one pair of legs, produces body undulations through a supercritical Hopf bifurcation of walking in a straight line with parallel bodies when the gait speed increases over a critical value or when the body segment joint stiffness decreases below a critical value (Aoi et al., PRE 2013, featured by Nat Phys 2013). So far, it is unclear if centipedes actively produce or resist body undulations during their locomotion and the previous study discussed the underlying mechanism responsible for the body undulations in centipede locomotion based on the robot experimental results and dynamic analysis using s simplified physical model. Furthermore, centipedes produce agile locomotion despite many legs being in contact with the ground during their locomotion, which may impede their agile motions. The present study investigated the relationship between the instability of walking in a straight line and maneuverability of the robot using a quick turn task and some evaluation criteria for maneuverability. KAKENHI 26630097.

  14. Pentoxifylline as adjunctive therapy in leg ulcer management.

    PubMed

    Brenman, S A

    1991-07-01

    Refractory or recurring leg ulcers typically signify the presence of impaired venous or arterial microcirculation (or both). A current hypothesis suggests that local oxygen and nutrient deficits occur because capillary lumens narrow and become permeable to fibrinogen and proteins by activated white blood cells and inadequate fibrinolysis. As a result, the deposition of a relatively impermeable perivascular fibrin sheath occurs, preventing adequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients. Therapy should therefore aim at reversing these deficits and improving wound healing. Pentoxifylline (Trental), used in combination with local wound care and appropriate antibiotic therapy, has been successful in significantly improving the healing of refractory leg ulcers. Pentoxifylline can reverse the abnormal function of white and red blood cells and platelets, as well as reduce blood viscosity and vascular permeability. The mechanisms of action of pentoxifylline are described in light of current hypotheses pertaining to leg ulcer development. Also discussed are nine cases in which pentoxifylline, when added to previously unsuccessful local wound care, either improved or healed the refractory ulcers.

  15. Topical Treatment of Nonhealing Venous Leg Ulcer with Propolis Ointment

    PubMed Central

    Kucharzewski, M.; Kózka, M.; Urbanek, T.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of effectiveness of topical treatment of nonhealing chronic venous leg ulcers with propolis ointment was conducted. 56 patients were included in the study and randomized into two groups. In group 1, there were 28 patients (ulceration area: 6.9–9.78 cm2) treated by means of topical propolis ointment application and short stretch bandage compression. In group 2, there were 29 patients (ulceration area: 7.2–9.4 cm2) treated by means of Unna boot leg compression without topical propolis treatment. In the study, the efficacy of both treatment methods in patients with resistive venous leg ulcers was compared. The ulceration of patients from group 1 healed completely after 6 weeks of therapy in all cases. In all patients from group 2, the process of healing was longer but successfully completed after 16 weeks of the therapy. We found that an adjunctive propolis ointment treatment increases the efficacy of the short stretch bandage compression stocking, and this combined treatment is more effective than Unna's boot compression alone. PMID:23662121

  16. Is There an Association between Restless Legs Syndrome and Urticaria?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disease characterized by the urge to move the legs and sleep disturbances. Similarly, chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a dermatological disease characterized by pruritus and sleep disorders. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of RLS in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and to compare the quality of sleep of patients with and without RLS in the CSU group using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A total of 130 patients with CSU and 100 healthy controls were included in this study. The frequency of RLS, frequency of sleep disturbances, and average score of RLS in patients with CSU were statistically significantly higher than control groups (respectively P = 0.008, P = 0.009, P = 0.004). Subjective sleep quality, sleep latency and habitual sleep efficiency scores in patients with RLS were statistically significantly higher than patients without RLS (respectively P = 0.016, P = 0.007, P = 0.035). We claimed that pruritus of urticaria may decrease the quality of sleep in patients with RLS and it may trigger and worsen the restless legs syndrome. Furthermore, RLS and CSU may share a common etiology. PMID:27134503

  17. Leg joint function during walking acceleration and deceleration.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mu; Jindrich, Devin L

    2016-01-04

    Although constant-average-velocity walking has been extensively studied, less is known about walking maneuvers that change speed. We investigated the function of individual leg joints when humans walked at a constant speed, accelerated or decelerated. We hypothesized that leg joints make different functional contributions to maneuvers. Specifically, we hypothesized that the hip generates positive mechanical work (acting like a "motor"), the knee generates little mechanical work (acting like a "strut"), and the ankle absorbs energy during the first half of stance and generates energy during the second half (consistent with "spring"-like function). We recorded full body kinematics and kinetics, used inverse dynamics to estimate net joint moments, and decomposed joint function into strut-, motor-, damper-, and spring-like components using indices based on net joint work. Although overall leg mechanics were primarily strut-like, individual joints did not act as struts during stance. The hip functioned as a power generating "motor," and ankle function was consistent with spring-like behavior. Even though net knee work was small, the knee did not behave solely as a strut but also showed motor-, and damper-like function. Acceleration involved increased motor-like function of the hip and ankle. Deceleration involved decreased hip motor-like function and ankle spring-like function and increased damping at the knee and ankle. Changes to joint mechanical work were primarily due to changes in joint angular displacements and not net moments. Overall, joints maintain different functional roles during unsteady locomotion.

  18. [Functional role of dragonfly legs before and after hatching: reorganization of coordinating interactions].

    PubMed

    Sviderskiĭ, V L; Plotnikova, S I; Gorelkin, V S; Severina, I Iu; Isavnina, I L

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of a structure-functional organization of leg apparatus were examined in the dragonfly Aeshna grandis: larvae of the final stadium, which legs perform a locomotion function and adults (imago) rising on a wing, which legs lose a locomotion function and are used mainly for catching a prey in the air. It has been demonstrated that legs of the imago practically do not differ from those of the larva either in shape or in proportion of segments of the leg and all changes in the functional role of legs of the imago are implemented due to modifications of mechanisms of limb muscle control and an appropriate reorganization or coordinating interactions. As it is proved by the obtained data, this reorganization concerns mechanisms of the generation of motor commands as well as close coordination of the activity of wing and leg apparatus and some others. The abovementioned mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism for a single DOF biped robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Conghui; Ceccarelli, Marco; Takeda, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism is presented for a single degree of freedom (DOF) biped robot. The proposed leg mechanism is composed of a Chebyshev four-bar linkage and a pantograph mechanism. In contrast to general fully actuated anthropomorphic leg mechanisms, the proposed leg mechanism has peculiar features like compactness, low-cost, and easy-operation. Kinematic equations of the proposed leg mechanism are formulated for a computer oriented simulation. Simulation results show the operation performance of the proposed leg mechanism with suitable characteristics. A parametric study has been carried out to evaluate the operation performance as function of design parameters. A prototype of a single DOF biped robot equipped with two proposed leg mechanisms has been built at LARM (Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics). Experimental test shows practical feasible walking ability of the prototype, as well as drawbacks are discussed for the mechanical design.

  20. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulčinas, A; Vaitekonis, Š

    2017-03-10

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  1. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulčinas, A.; Vaitekonis, Š.

    2017-03-01

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  2. The Scanning Process: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning the external environment will become more essential to colleges in the coming decade. Developing an environmental scanning system can identify important emerging issues that may constitute either threats or opportunities. The organizational features of a mature scanning process are described. (MLW)

  3. A scanning cavity microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm2; we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  4. Fetal cardiac scanning today.

    PubMed

    Allan, Lindsey

    2010-07-01

    The ability to examine the structure of the fetal heart in real-time started over 30 years ago now. The field has seen very great advances since then, both in terms of technical improvements in ultrasound equipment and in dissemination of operator skills. A great deal has been learnt about normal cardiac function in the human fetus throughout gestation and how it is affected by pathologies of pregnancy. There is increasing recognition of abnormal heart structure during routine obstetric scanning, allowing referral for specialist diagnosis and counselling. It is now possible to make accurate diagnosis of cardiac malformations as early as 12 weeks of gestation. Early diagnosis of a major cardiac malformation in the fetus can provide the parents with a comprehensive prognosis, enabling them to make the most informed choice about the management of the pregnancy.

  5. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device.

  6. Complications of Ilizarov leg lengthening: a comparative study between patients with leg length discrepancy and short stature.

    PubMed

    Vargas Barreto, B; Caton, J; Merabet, Z; Panisset, J C; Pracros, J P

    2007-10-01

    The Ilizarov technique has been used to treat severe limb length discrepancy and short stature. However, complications of this treatment are frequent. Between 1984 and 2001, 57 patients (94 tibias) had an Ilizarov procedure for limb lengthening. Twenty patients had limb discrepancy and 37 had short stature. Their mean age was 20.2 years (range 15-34). The average limb lengthening was 8.37 cm (range 3.2-14.7), which was equivalent to 26% (range 9.2-60%) average tibial lengthening. A total of 90 complications were observed. Thirty-three unplanned procedures were required during the lengthening programme. Two patients stopped the lengthening programme. There was no difference in the complications in leg lengthening using Ilizarov technique between the group of patients with leg length discrepancy and the group with short stature. A good knowledge of the Ilizarov technique is necessary to perform a lengthening programme with a low rate of complications.

  7. Scanning the periphery.

    PubMed

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  8. Mechatronics by Analogy and Application to Legged Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragusila, Victor

    A new design methodology for mechatronic systems, dubbed as Mechatronics by Analogy (MbA), is introduced and applied to designing a leg mechanism. The new methodology argues that by establishing a similarity relation between a complex system and a number of simpler models it is possible to design the former using the analysis and synthesis means developed for the latter. The methodology provides a framework for concurrent engineering of complex systems while maintaining the transparency of the system behaviour through making formal analogies between the system and those with more tractable dynamics. The application of the MbA methodology to the design of a monopod robot leg, called the Linkage Leg, is also studied. A series of simulations show that the dynamic behaviour of the Linkage Leg is similar to that of a combination of a double pendulum and a spring-loaded inverted pendulum, based on which the system kinematic, dynamic, and control parameters can be designed concurrently. The first stage of Mechatronics by Analogy is a method of extracting significant features of system dynamics through simpler models. The goal is to determine a set of simpler mechanisms with similar dynamic behaviour to that of the original system in various phases of its motion. A modular bond-graph representation of the system is determined, and subsequently simplified using two simplification algorithms. The first algorithm determines the relevant dynamic elements of the system for each phase of motion, and the second algorithm finds the simple mechanism described by the remaining dynamic elements. In addition to greatly simplifying the controller for the system, using simpler mechanisms with similar behaviour provides a greater insight into the dynamics of the system. This is seen in the second stage of the new methodology, which concurrently optimizes the simpler mechanisms together with a control system based on their dynamics. Once the optimal configuration of the simpler system is

  9. [A new procedure for determination of leg length and differences in leg length using sonography. I. Development and experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Krettek, C; Henzler, D; Hoffmann, R; Tscherne, H

    1994-02-01

    The precise measurement of leg length and leg length discrepancies (LLD) plays an important role in the examination of lumbar spine and lower extremities. Those real LLD which may be posttraumatic or idiopathic, can sometimes hardly be differentiated from LLD caused by spinal scoliosis or malposition. Although there is no final agreement, to which extent a LLD becomes clinically significant, most authors state that clinical assessment of LLD by tape measure or lengthening of the short leg with blocks of known thickness is highly unreliable. Radiological methods are necessary for precise detection of LLD less than 10 mm. Since previously reported non-invasive, ultrasound-supported leg-length measurement methods proved to be complicated and unhandy, a new method was developed. To avoid radiation exposure accuracy and precision were tested on human cadavers and were compared to clinical assessments by tape measurement. A measurement device was constructed consisting of a wire rope meter and a length millimeter digital display. Measurements were taken with the examined person in supine position. The device was placed beyond their feet and the end of the rope was hinged with a metal brace to a convenient transducer in exact middle position. Thus the middle of the ultrasound monitor concords with the end of the rope. The medial knee joint and ventral hip joint were used as standardised sonographic landmarks. Ten not pre-selected mortants were measured in this manner and additionally clinical LLD was obtained with a tape measure (medial ankle to anterior superior iliac spine). Afterwards all distances were anatomically prepared and measured with a meter stick.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  11. Scaling of the spring in the leg during bouncing gaits of mammals.

    PubMed

    Lee, David V; Isaacs, Michael R; Higgins, Trevor E; Biewener, Andrew A; McGowan, Craig P

    2014-12-01

    Trotting, bipedal running, and especially hopping have long been considered the principal bouncing gaits of legged animals. We use the radial-leg spring constant [Formula: see text] to quantify the stiffness of the physical leg during bouncing gaits. The radial-leg is modeled as an extensible strut between the hip and the ground and [Formula: see text] is determined from the force and deflection of this strut in each instance of stance. A Hookean spring is modeled in-series with a linear actuator and the stiffness of this spring [Formula: see text] is determined by minimizing the work of the actuator while reproducing the measured force-deflection dynamics of an individual leg during trotting or running, and of the paired legs during hopping. Prior studies have estimated leg stiffness using [Formula: see text], a metric that imagines a virtual-leg connected to the center of mass. While [Formula: see text] has been applied extensively in human and comparative biomechanics, we show that [Formula: see text] more accurately models the spring in the leg when actuation is allowed, as is the case in biological and robotic systems. Our allometric analysis of [Formula: see text] in the kangaroo rat, tammar wallaby, dog, goat, and human during hopping, trotting, or running show that [Formula: see text] scales as body mass to the two-third power, which is consistent with the predictions of dynamic similarity and with the scaling of [Formula: see text]. Hence, two-third scaling of locomotor spring constants among mammals is supported by both the radial-leg and virtual-leg models, yet the scaling of [Formula: see text] emerges from work-minimization in the radial-leg model instead of being a defacto result of the ratio of force to length used to compute [Formula: see text]. Another key distinction between the virtual-leg and radial-leg is that [Formula: see text] is substantially greater than [Formula: see text], as indicated by a 30-37% greater scaling coefficient for [Formula

  12. Earth observing scanning polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques

  13. Arm sway holds sway: locomotor-like modulation of leg reflexes when arms swing in alternation.

    PubMed

    Massaad, F; Levin, O; Meyns, P; Drijkoningen, D; Swinnen, S P; Duysens, J

    2014-01-31

    It has been argued that arm movements are important during human gait because they affect leg activity due to neural coupling between arms and legs. Consequently, one would expect that locomotor-like alternating arm swing is more effective than in-phase swing in affecting the legs' motor output. Other alternating movements such as trunk rotation associated to arm swing could also affect leg reflexes. Here, we assessed how locomotor-like movement patterns would affect soleus H-reflexes in 13 subjects performing arm swing in the sagittal plane (ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral in-phase versus locomotor-like anti-phase arm movements) and trunk rotation with the legs stationary, and leg stepping with the arms stationary. Findings revealed that soleus H-reflexes were suppressed for all arm, trunk or leg movements. However, a marked reflex modulation occurred during locomotor-like anti-phase arm swing, as was also the case during leg stepping, and this modulation flattened out during in-phase arm swing. This modulation had a peculiar bell shape and showed maximum suppression at a moment where the heel-strike would occur during a normal walking cycle. Furthermore, this modulation was independent from electromyographic activity, suggesting a spinal processing at premotoneuronal level. Therefore, trunk movement can affect legs' output, and a special neural coupling occurs between arms and legs when arms move in alternation. This may have implications for gait rehabilitation.

  14. Role of flexibility in the water repellency of water strider legs: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang-Ying; Wang, Jia-Wen; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2012-02-01

    Water striders enjoy an intriguing ability to stand and walk freely on water surfaces, which is mainly attributed to the superior water repellency of their slender legs. In previous theoretical analyses, the legs are usually treated as rigid beams and the results show that a tremendously deep dimple and a large supporting force can be achieved when the leg descends into water. In this paper, the effect of the flexibility of water strider legs on their water-repellent ability is investigated, both theoretically and experimentally. We analyze a hydrophobic and flexible leg pressing obliquely on water. The leg may undergo a large deformation and assume different geometric configurations. It is shown that the flexible leg can float easily on a water surface, inducing only a shallow water puddle and a moderate supporting force as observed in real water striders. When the long leg is sufficiently compliant, the water surface will never be pierced and the leg will never sink. The findings are experimentally testified by using flexible fibers to represent water strider legs pressing on water.

  15. A REVIEW OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEG POWER AND SELECTED CHRONIC DISEASE IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    STROLLO, S.E.; CASEROTTI, P.; WARD, R.E.; GLYNN, N.W.; GOODPASTER, B.H.; STROTMEYER, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This review investigates the relationship between leg muscle power and the chronic conditions of osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease among older adults. Current literature assessing the impact of chronic disease on leg power has not yet been comprehensively characterized. Importantly, individuals with these conditions have shown improved leg power with training. Methods A search was performed using PubMed to identify original studies published in English from January 1998 to August 2013. Leg power studies, among older adults ≥ 50 years of age, which assessed associations with osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and/or cardiovascular disease were selected. Studies concerning post-surgery rehabilitation, case studies, and articles that did not measure primary results were excluded. Results Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria, addressing osteoarthritis (n=5), diabetes mellitus (n=5), and cardiovascular disease (n=6). Studies generally supported associations of lower leg power among older adults with chronic disease, although small sample sizes, cross-sectional data, homogenous populations, varied disease definitions, and inconsistent leg power methods limited conclusions. Conclusions Studies suggest that osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease are associated with lower leg power compared to older adults without these conditions. These studies are limited, however, by the heterogeneity in study populations and a lack of standardized measurements of leg power. Future larger studies of more diverse older adults with well-defined chronic disease using standard measures of leg power and interventions to improve leg power in these older adults with chronic disease are needed. PMID:25651453

  16. Characterizing rapid-onset vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the human leg

    PubMed Central

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Restaino, Robert M.; King, Phillip M.; Crutcher, Kiera L.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) following single muscle contractions has been examined in the forearm of humans, but has not yet been characterized in the leg. Given known vascular differences between the arm and leg, we sought to characterize ROV following single muscle contractions in the leg. Sixteen healthy men performed random ordered single contractions at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using isometric knee extension made with the leg above and below heart level, and these were compared with single isometric contractions of the forearm (handgrip). Single thigh cuff compressions (300 mmHg) were utilized to estimate the mechanical contribution to leg ROV. Continuous blood flow was determined by duplex-Doppler ultrasound and blood pressure via finger photoplethysmography (Finometer). Single isometric knee extensor contractions produced intensity-dependent increases in peak leg vascular conductance that were significantly greater than the forearm in both the above- and below-heart level positions (e.g., above heart level: leg 20% MVC, +138 ± 28% vs. arm 20% MVC, +89 ± 17%; P < 0.05). Thigh cuff compressions also produced a significant hyperemic response, but these were brief and smaller in magnitude compared with single isometric contractions in the leg. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of a rapid and robust vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the leg that is largely independent of mechanical factors, thus establishing the leg as a viable model to study ROV in humans. PMID:25539935

  17. Daily Quantity of Infant Leg Movement: Wearable Sensor Algorithm and Relationship to Walking Onset

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Beth A.; Trujillo-Priego, Ivan A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Finley, James M.; Horak, Fay B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Normative values are lacking for daily quantity of infant leg movements. This is critical for understanding the relationship between the quantity of leg movements and onset of independent walking, and will begin to inform early therapy intervention for infants at risk for developmental delay. Methods: We used wearable inertial movement sensors to record full-day leg movement activity from 12 infants with typical development, ages 1–12 months. Each infant was tested three times across 5 months, and followed until the onset of independent walking. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify infant-produced leg movements. Results: Infants moved their legs tens of thousands of times per day. There was a significant effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset. Infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less, even when adjusting for age, developmental level or percentile length. We will need a much larger sample to adequately capture and describe the effect of movement experience on developmental rate. Our algorithm defines a leg movement in a specific way (each pause or change in direction is counted as a new movement), and further assessment of movement characteristics are necessary before we can fully understand and interpret our finding that infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less. Conclusions: We have shown that typically-developing infants produce thousands of leg movements in a typical day, and that this can be accurately captured in the home environment using wearable sensors. In our small sample we can identify there is an effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset, however we cannot fully explain it. PMID:26247951

  18. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  19. Differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Spink, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has emerged as a powerful experimental technique for determining thermodynamic properties of biomacromolecules. The ability to monitor unfolding or phase transitions in proteins, polynucleotides, and lipid assemblies has not only provided data on thermodynamic stability for these important molecules, but also made it possible to examine the details of unfolding processes and to analyze the characteristics of intermediate states involved in the melting of biopolymers. The recent improvements in DSC instrumentation and software have generated new opportunities for the study of the effects of structure and changes in environment on the behavior of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. This review presents some of the details of application of DSC to the examination of the unfolding of biomolecules. After a brief introduction to DSC instrumentation used for the study of thermal transitions, the methods for obtaining basic thermodynamic information from the DSC curve are presented. Then, using DNA unfolding as an example, methods for the analysis of the melting transition are presented that allow deconvolution of the DSC curves to determine more subtle characteristics of the intermediate states involved in unfolding. Two types of transitions are presented for analysis, the first example being the unfolding of two large synthetic polynucleotides, which display high cooperativity in the melting process. The second example shows the application of DSC for the study of the unfolding of a simple hairpin oligonucleotide. Details of the data analysis are presented in a simple spreadsheet format.

  20. GPR scan assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Salah, Hany; Massoud, Usama; Fouad, Mona; Abdel-Hafez, Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD). The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m) with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  1. 'A leg to stand on': an existential-phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Bruggen, H

    1999-12-01

    The analysis of a paradigm-case (a person with an injured leg, an autobiographical history related by Dr Sacks) presented here is an illustration of how existential-phenomenological analysis can be done. The aim of existential-phenomenological research is to analyse and to describe some dimensions of being. The person with an injured leg appears 'to bescotomized'. Well then, 'being-scotomized' can be analysed and described as a particular mode of 'being', even as a particular mode of 'being-ill'. 'Being' has been studied (in the philosophical tradition of Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre) as that existential movement that brings an individual, the 'self', towards the world, meanwhile 'affecting' the personal body, personal time and space, the objects in a person's life-world, the individual's life-world and, finally, coexistence. The study of 'being-ill' is the study of the particular way the self, the body, time and space, the objects, the life-world, and coexistence are affected when being-ill. 'Being-scotomized' may appear as affecting: (i) the self, isolating the subject and leading to a personal disintegration; (ii) the body to which he maintains an ambiguous relationship: being a body and having a body, and not having a part of the body any more; (iii) time and space being vanished with the vanished leg. The subject is 'at' a nowhereness and 'at' a motionless time; there is no meaningful future; (iv) the things in the person's life-world, to which it appears impossible to give the 'right' sense; (v) the life-world, revealing itself as a noland, characterized by silence and motionlessness; (vi) the others in this life-world that appears no-man's-land, uninhabitable nearly by definition. Coexistence reveals not to be possible.

  2. Diagnosis and management of restless legs syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    Simakajornboon, Narong; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent published evidence suggests that restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) are common condition in children and adolescents. It is likely that if left untreated, RLS and PLMD may lead to adverse cardiovascular and neurocognitive consequences. However, the diagnosis of RLS and PLMD in children is challenging, particularly because children are relatively unable to describe typical RLS symptoms. The International Restless Legs Study Group has recently published consensus criteria for the diagnosis of RLS and PLMD in children. In addition to clinical description of RLS symptoms, supportive evidence including the presence of clinical sleep disturbances, documented periodic limb movements in sleep from overnight sleep study and family history of restless legs syndrome may be required. Few if any controlled studies have addressed the management of RLS and PLMD, which may involve both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches. In this context, the importance of avoidance of aggravating factors and good sleep hygiene cannot be overemphasized. Children with evidence of low-iron storage, i.e., low-serum ferritin and/ or iron levels may likely benefit from iron therapy. While there is overall limited experience regarding the use of dopaminergic agents in children with RLS and PLMD, published reports suggesting efficacy of compounds such as levodopa, ropinirole, pramipexole and pergolide have emerged. Other medications including benzodiazepine, anti-convulsants, alpha-adrenergic and opioid medications have not been adequately studied in children. Children with RLS and PLMD should have regular follow-up visits to evaluate clinical improvement and to monitor adverse effects from the selected therapy. Based on aforementioned findings, it is clear that a substantial research effort is needed to evaluate the pathophysiology, PMID:19186083

  3. Effect of fatigue on single-leg hop landing biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Orishimo, Karl F; Kremenic, Ian J

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure adaptations in landing strategy during single-leg hops following thigh muscle fatigue. Kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data were recorded as thirteen healthy male subjects performed a single-leg hop in both the unfatigued and fatigued states. To sufficiently fatigue the thigh muscles, subjects performed at least two sets of 50 step-ups. Fatigue was assessed by measuring horizontal hopping ability following the protocol. Joint motion and loading, as well as muscle activation patterns, were compared between fatigued and unfatigued conditions. Fatigue significantly increased knee motion (p = 0.012) and shifted the ankle into a more dorsiflexed position (p = 0.029). Hip flexion was also reduced following fatigue (p = 0.042). Peak extension moment tended to decrease at the knee and increase at the ankle and hip (p = 0.014). Ankle plantar flexion moment at the time of peak total support moment increased from 0.8 (N x m)/kg (SD, 0.6 [N x m]/kg) to 1.5 (N x m)/kg (SD, 0.8 [N x m]/kg) (p = 0.006). Decreased knee moment and increased knee flexion during landings following fatigue indicated that the control of knee motion was compromised despite increased activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris (p = 0.014, p = 0.014, and p = 0.017, respectively). Performance at the ankle increased to compensate for weakness in the knee musculature and to maintain lower extremity stability during landing. Investigating the biomechanical adaptations that occur in healthy subjects as a result of muscle fatigue may give insight into the compensatory mechanisms and loading patterns occurring in patients with knee pathology. Changes in single-leg hop landing performance could be used to demonstrate functional improvement in patients due to training or physical therapy.

  4. Leg Vascular Responsiveness During Acute Orthostasis Following Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamick, Cynthia A.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1988-01-01

    Ten men (35-49 years old) underwent lower body negative pressure (LBNP) exposures before and offer 10 d of continuous 6 degrees head-down bedrest in order to predict the effect of weightlessness on the responsiveness of leg vasculature to an orthostatic stress. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and Impedance rheographic indices of arterial pulse volume (APV) of the legs were measured during rest and at 1 min at -30 mm Hg LBNP. Bedrest-induced deconditioning was manifested by decreases (p less than 0.06) in plasma volume (17%), peak oxygen uptake (16%), and LBNP tolerance (17%). Resting HR was unchanged after bedrest, but HR was higher (p less than 0.05) at 1 min of -30 mm Hg LBNP after, compared with before bedrest. Responses of MAP to -30 mm Hg LBNP were not altered by bodrest. Resting APV was decreased (p less than 0.05) by simulated weightlessness. However, APV was reduced (p less than 0.05) from rest to 1 min -30 mm Hg LBNP by the same relative magnitude before and after bodrest (-21.4 +/- 3.4% and -20.5 +/- 2.7%, respectively). We conclude that peripheral arterial vasoconstriction, as indicated by reductions in APV during LBNP, was not affected by bedrest. These results suggest that there was no apparent alteration in responsiveness of the leg vasculature following simulated weightlessness. Therefore, it appears unlikely that control mechanisms of peripheral resistance contribute significantly to reduced orthostatic tolerance following space-flight.

  5. Atorvastatin Increases Exercise Leg Blood Flow in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Augeri, Amanda L.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the effect of atorvastatin therapy on exercise leg blood flow in healthy middle-aged and older, men and women. BACKGROUND The vasodilatory response to exercise decreases in humans with aging and disease and this reduction may contribute to reduced exercise capacity. METHODS We used a double-blind, randomly assigned, placebo-controlled protocol to assess the effect of atorvastatin treatment on exercising leg hemodynamics. We measured femoral artery blood flow (FBF) using Doppler ultrasound and calculated femoral vascular conductance (FVC) from brachial mean arterial pressure (MAP) before and during single knee-extensor exercise in healthy adults (ages 40–71) before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 months of 80 mg atorvastatin (A: 14 men, 16 women) or placebo (P: 14 men, 22 women) treatment. FBF and FVC were normalized to exercise power output and estimated quadriceps muscle mass. RESULTS Atorvastatin reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 50%, but not in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Atorvastatin also increased exercise FBF from 44.2 ± 19.0 to 51.4 ± 22.0 mL/min/W/kg muscle whereas FBF in the placebo group was unchanged (40.1 ± 16.0 vs 39.5 ± 16.1) (p <0.01). FVC also increased with atorvastatin from 0.5 ± 0.2 to. 0.6 ± 0.2 mL/min/mmHg/W/kg muscle, but not in the placebo subjects (P: 0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.2) ( p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS High-dose atorvastatin augments exercising leg hyperemia. Statins may mitigate reductions in the exercise vasodilatory response in humans that are associated with aging and disease. PMID:22018642

  6. Intermittent exercise alters endurance in an eight-legged ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, R B; Full, R J

    1992-05-01

    Most animals move intermittently, yet many proposed performance limitations of terrestrial locomotion are based on steady-state measurements and assumptions. We examined the effect of work-rest transitions by exercising the ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata (28.1 +/- 8.1 g), intermittently on a treadmill at 0.30 m/s, a supramaximal speed [i.e., greater than the speed that elicits the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2)]. Duration of the exercise and pause periods, ratio of exercise to pause, and speed during the exercise period were varied to determine the effect on performance. Crabs fatigued after 7.5 min of continuous running, a distance capacity (i.e., total distance traveled before fatigue) of 135 m. When the task was done intermittently with 2-min exercise and 2-min pause periods, the crabs fatigued after 87 min (a total distance of 787 m), representing an 5.8-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same absolute speed (0.30 m/s) and a 2.2-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed (0.15 m/s). Pause periods less than 30 s did not result in greater distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed. Longer (3-5 min) and shorter exercise periods (less than or equal to 30 s) decreased distance capacity. Leg muscle lactate increased 10-fold to 15 mumol/g leg during intermittent exercise. However, significant amounts of lactate were cleared from the leg during the brief pause periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Two-legged hopping in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Matthew F.; Foley, John T.; Parker, Mary E.; Weiss, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory processing deficits are common within autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Deficits have a heterogeneous dispersion across the spectrum and multimodal processing tasks are thought to magnify integration difficulties. Two-legged hopping in place in sync with an auditory cue (2.3, 3.0 Hz) was studied in a group of six individuals with expressive language impaired ASD (ELI-ASD) and an age-matched control group. Vertical ground reaction force data were collected and discrete Fourier transforms were utilized to determine dominant hopping cadence. Effective leg stiffness was computed through a mass-spring model representation. The ELI-ASD group were unsuccessful in matching their hopping cadence (2.21 ± 0.30 hops·s−1, 2.35 ± 0.41 hops·s−1) to either auditory cue with greater deviations at the 3.0 Hz cue. In contrast, the control group was able to match hopping cadence (2.35 ± 0.06 hops·s−1, 3.02 ± 0.10 hops·s−1) to either cue via an adjustment of effective leg stiffness. The ELI-ASD group demonstrated a varied response with an interquartile range (IQR) in excess of 0.5 hops·s−1 as compared to the control group with an IQR < 0.03 hops·s−1. Several sensorimotor mechanisms could explain the inability of participants with ELI-ASD to modulate motor output to match an external auditory cue. These results suggest that a multimodal gross motor task can (1) discriminate performance among a group of individuals with severe autism, and (2) could be a useful quantitative tool for evaluating motor performance in individuals with ASD individuals. PMID:23532337

  8. Harvest of Red-Legged Partridge in Central Spain

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Fernández, Silvia; Viñuela, Javier; Arroyo, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    A basic rule to attain sustainable use of harvested resources is to adjust take to availability. Populations of red-legged partridges in Spain have decreased in recent decades, and releases of farm-bred partridges to improve short-term availability are increasingly common. We used questionnaires and bird surveys to assess whether harvest was related to availability of wild partridges or intensity of farm-bred partridge releases. We studied 50 hunting estates, including 6 administratively labeled as intensive (with few numerical and temporal restrictions to releases). In addition, we considered hunting pressure (number of hunters × hunting days/km2) and habitat as explanatory variables in the analyses. In intensive estates, annual harvest was exclusively related to release intensity, indicating that in these estates hunting is detached from natural resources and approaches an industrial activity based on external inputs. In non-intensive estates, harvest was affected by wild stock availability, walked-up shooting pressure, and habitat (greater harvest in estates with more Mediterranean shrubland). In these estates, releases did not increase annual harvest, and can be considered an inefficient practice. Additionally, the relationship between abundance estimates and harvest disappeared in estates with low partridge abundance estimates, suggesting possibilities for overharvesting in a large proportion of estates. Increasing the abundance of wild red-legged partridge through techniques like habitat management, and improving the adjustment of harvest to availability, may be a good strategy to increase long-term harvest in non-intensive estates. Additionally, Government and managers must create ways to segregate and label the estates where only wild red-legged partridges are managed from those where releases are used, to reduce ecological costs of management decisions. © 2012 The Wildlife Society. PMID:23049142

  9. Isokinetic leg strength and power in elite handball players.

    PubMed

    González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-06-28

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players.

  10. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Leg 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayles, F.L.; Waterman, L.S.; Manheim, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    The chemistry of the pore fluids obtained on Leg 9 is remarkable primarily in its constancy. Excepting silicon and strontium, only at one site do the concentrations of the major and minor constituents deviate notably from sea water concentrations (see Tables 1 and 2). The trends, or lack of them, seen in these samples have been discussed previously and only references will be given here. The constancy of composition and similarity to sea water is particularly noteworthy, as the sediments at all of the 9 sites are thought to be intruded by the basal basalt. The pore fluid chemistry exhibits no evidence of intrusion except possibly at Site 84.

  11. Locomotion training of legged robots using hybrid machine learning techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Doerschuk, Peggy I.; Zhang, Wen-Ran; Li, Andrew L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to control the jumping behavior of a three-link uniped robot. The biped locomotion control problem is an increment of the uniped locomotion control. Study of legged locomotion dynamics indicates that a hierarchical controller is required to control the behavior of a legged robot. A structured control strategy is suggested which includes navigator, motion planner, biped coordinator and uniped controllers. A three-link uniped robot simulation is developed to be used as the plant. Neurocontrollers were trained both online and offline. In the case of on-line training, a reinforcement learning technique was used to train the neurocontroller to make the robot jump to a specified height. After several hundred iterations of training, the plant output achieved an accuracy of 7.4%. However, when jump distance and body angular momentum were also included in the control objectives, training time became impractically long. In the case of off-line training, a three-layered backpropagation (BP) network was first used with three inputs, three outputs and 15 to 40 hidden nodes. Pre-generated data were presented to the network with a learning rate as low as 0.003 in order to reach convergence. The low learning rate required for convergence resulted in a very slow training process which took weeks to learn 460 examples. After training, performance of the neurocontroller was rather poor. Consequently, the BP network was replaced by a Cerebeller Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) network. Subsequent experiments described in this document show that the CMAC network is more suitable to the solution of uniped locomotion control problems in terms of both learning efficiency and performance. A new approach is introduced in this report, viz., a self-organizing multiagent cerebeller model for fuzzy-neural control of uniped locomotion is suggested to improve training efficiency. This is currently being evaluated for a possible

  12. Excitations in a four-leg antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin tube

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Vasile O; Zheludev, Andrey I; Regnault, L.-P.; Chung, J.-H.; Qiu, Y.; Boehm, Martin; Habicht, Klaus; Meissner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering is used to investigate magnetic excitations in the quasi-one-dimensional quantum spin-liquid system Cu$_2$Cl$_{4}\\cdot$ D$_8$C$_4$SO$_2$. Contrary to previously conjectured models that relied on bond-alternating nearest neighbor interactions in the spin chains, the dominant interactions are actually next-nearest-neighbor in-chain antiferromagnetic couplings. The appropriate Heisenberg Hamiltonian is equivalent to that of a $S=1/2$ 4-leg spin-tube with almost perfect one dimensionality and no bond alternation. A partial geometric frustration of rung interactions induces a small incommensurability of short-range spin correlations.

  13. Excitations in a Four-Leg Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Spin Tube,

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Vasile O; Zheludev, Andrey I; Regnault, L.-P.; Chung, J.-H.; Qiu, Y.; Boehm, Martin; Habicht, Klaus; Meissner, Michael; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A

    2008-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering is used to investigate magnetic excitations in the quasi-one-dimensional quantum spin-liquid system Cu2Cl4 D8C4SO2. Contrary to previously conjectured models that relied on bond-alternating nearest-neighbor interactions in the spin chains, the dominant interactions are actually next-nearest-neighbor in-chain antiferromagnetic couplings. The appropriate Heisenberg Hamiltonian is equivalent to that of a S 1=2 4-leg spin-tube with almost perfect one dimensionality and no bond alternation. A partial geometric frustration of rung interactions induces a small incommensurability of short-range spin correlations.

  14. Excitations in a four-leg antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin tube.

    PubMed

    Garlea, V O; Zheludev, A; Regnault, L-P; Chung, J-H; Qiu, Y; Boehm, M; Habicht, K; Meissner, M

    2008-01-25

    Inelastic neutron scattering is used to investigate magnetic excitations in the quasi-one-dimensional quantum spin-liquid system Cu(2)Cl(4).D(8)C(4)SO(2). Contrary to previously conjectured models that relied on bond-alternating nearest-neighbor interactions in the spin chains, the dominant interactions are actually next-nearest-neighbor in-chain antiferromagnetic couplings. The appropriate Heisenberg Hamiltonian is equivalent to that of a S=1/2 4-leg spin-tube with almost perfect one dimensionality and no bond alternation. A partial geometric frustration of rung interactions induces a small incommensurability of short-range spin correlations.

  15. TF Inner Leg Space Allocation for Pilot Plant Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. Titus and Ali Zolfaghari

    2012-09-06

    A critical design feature of any tokamak is the space taken up by the inner leg of the toroidal field (TF) coil. The radial build needed for the TF inner leg, along with shield thickness , size of the central solenoid and plasma minor radius set the major radius of the machine. The cost of the tokamak core roughly scales with the cube of the major radius. Small reductions in the TF build can have a big impact on the overall cost of the reactor. The cross section of the TF inner leg must structurally support the centering force and that portion of the vertical separating force that is not supported by the outer structures. In this paper, the TF inner leg equatorial plane cross sections are considered. Out-of- Plane (OOP) forces must also be supported, but these are largest away from the equatorial plane, in the inner upper and lower corners and outboard sections of the TF coil. OOP forces are taken by structures that are not closely coupled with the radial build of the central column at the equatorial plane. The "Vertical Access AT Pilot Plant" currently under consideration at PPPL is used as a starting point for the structural, field and current requirements. Other TF structural concepts are considered. Most are drawn from existing designs such as ITER's circular conduits in radial plates bearing on a heavy nose section, and TPX's square conduits in a case, Each of these concepts can rely on full wedging, or partial wedging. Vaulted TF coils are considered as are those with some component of bucking against a central solenoid or bucking post. With the expectation that the pilot plant will be a steady state machine, a static stress criteria is used for all the concepts. The coils are assumed to be superconducting, with the superconductor not contributing to the structural strength. Limit analysis is employed to assess the degree of conservatism in the static criteria as it is applied to a linear elastic stress analysis. TF concepts, and in particular the PPPL AT

  16. Structural synthesis of linkages for quadruped bio-robot legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonescu, O.; Robu, C.; Antonescu, P.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a few kinematic schemes of planar mechanisms with bars (linkages) used as part of the quadruped robot legs. The Dunshee linkage having only four elements as crank-rocker mechanism is analyzed. Further, the Klann linkage, which is accomplished by amplifying the crank-rocker mechanism with a dyadic kinematic chain, is also presented. More than that, the Jansen linkage, which is obtained by extending and amplifying the crank-rocker mechanism with two dyadic kinematic chains, is also analyzed. At the end of the paper, the authors present a novel linkage application consisting of a quadric kinematic chain.

  17. Caffeine Attenuates Decreases in Leg Power Without Increased Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Beatriz G; Morales, Anderson P; Sampaio-Jorge, Felipe; Barth, Thiago; de Oliveira, Marcio B C; Coelho, Gabriela M D O; Leite, Tiago C

    2016-08-01

    Ribeiro, BG, Morales, AP, Sampaio-Jorge, F, Barth, T, de Oliveira, MBC, Coelho, GMdO, and Leite, TC. Caffeine attenuates decreases in leg power without increased muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2354-2360, 2016-Caffeine ingestion has been shown to be an effective ergogenic aid in several sports. Caffeine administration may increase exercise capacity, which could lead to a greater degree of muscle damage after exercise. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Six male handball athletes ingested placebo (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) (6 mg·kg body mass) capsules on 2 different occasions. Sixty minutes after ingestion of the capsules, serum CAF levels were evaluated. Thereafter, all participants performed a protocol of vertical jumps (VJs). The protocol consisted of 4 sets of 30 seconds of continuous VJs with 60 seconds of recovery between sets. Blood lactate (LAC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined before and after the protocol. We found significant differences in serum CAF levels between PLA (0.09 ± 0.18 µg·ml) vs. CAF (6.59 ± 4.44 µg·ml) (p < 0.001). Caffeine elicited a 5.23% (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in the leg power compared with PLA. The CAF trial displayed higher LAC (p ≤ 0.05) compared with PLA (6.26 ± 2.01 vs. 4.39 ± 2.42 mmol·L, respectively) after protocol of VJs, whereas no difference in CK was observed between trials (p > 0.05). These results indicate that immediate ingestion of CAF (6 mg·kg body weight) can reduce the level of muscle fatigue and preserve leg power during the test, possibly resulting in increase in LAC. There was no increase in muscle damage, which indicates that immediate administration of (6 mg·kg body weight) CAF is safe. Thus, nutritional interventions with CAF could help athletes withstand a greater physiological overload during high-intensity training sessions. The results of this study would be applicable to sports and activities that require repetitive leg power.

  18. Tropical leg ulcers in children: more than yaws.

    PubMed

    Fegan, David; Glennon, Mary Jacqueline; Kool, Jacob; Taleo, Fasihah

    2016-04-01

    The management of yaws has changed in recent years. Mass treatment with oral azithromycin has replaced intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin. Treponemal and non-treponemal serology (equivalent to TPHA and RPR) point-of-care blood testing is now available. In addition, recent studies in yaws endemic regions have shown that a significant number of leg ulcers in children which are clinically suggestive of yaws are caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. It is noteworthy that the World Health Organization has also set the ambitious goal to eliminate yaws by 2020.

  19. Human Space Flight Challenges: Get a Leg Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the challenges that spaceflight imposes on the Human system. It describes four of the signs and symptoms of fluid shift in the astronaut when they fly in low earth orbit. It describes how the leg muscles influence blood flow It also outlines the four phases of "fluid shift" and where the majority of the central volume of blood is located in the body And it reviews other changes to the body systems as a result of Fluid Shift

  20. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-10-15

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. The impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  1. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. Furthermore, the impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  2. Dynamic stability of running: The effects of speed and leg amputations on the maximal Lyapunov exponent

    SciTech Connect

    Look, Nicole; Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; McDermott, William J.; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics.

  3. Running in the real world: adjusting leg stiffness for different surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, D. P.; Louie, M.; Farley, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    A running animal coordinates the actions of many muscles, tendons, and ligaments in its leg so that the overall leg behaves like a single mechanical spring during ground contact. Experimental observations have revealed that an animal's leg stiffness is independent of both speed and gravity level, suggesting that it is dictated by inherent musculoskeletal properties. However, if leg stiffness was invariant, the biomechanics of running (e.g. peak ground reaction force and ground contact time) would change when an animal encountered different surfaces in the natural world. We found that human runners adjust their leg stiffness to accommodate changes in surface stiffness, allowing them to maintain similar running mechanics on different surfaces. These results provide important insight into mechanics and control of animal locomotion and suggest that incorporating an adjustable leg stiffness in the design of hopping and running robots is important if they are to match the agility and speed of animals on varied terrain.

  4. Dynamic modelling and link mechanism design of four-legged mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Ho

    In order to apply the advanced biological phenomena to the leg design of mobile robots, the structural and locomotive characteristics of several selected animals and insects are studied, and the four-legged mobile robot which can cover all existing leg arrangements and locomotion patterns is modeled by a rigid multibody system consisting of links and joints. The model is simulated to prove that the given structure or locomotive conditions satisfy the requirement of minimum energy expenditure. According to the first simulation, there exist ideal forward and backward stroke distances for each pair leg. Therefore, the walking volume and link lengths of existing legged mobile robots should be modified. Also, for other structural and locomotive characteristics which have been used by living creatures, the model is simulated to determine whether or not the actual or possible biological phenomena can be applied to the leg mechanism design of mobile robot.

  5. Geomorphic features of Oregon-Washington Project EEZ-SCAN

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; Kenyon, N.H.

    1985-02-01

    During Leg 4 of Project EEZ-SCAN, long-range side-scan sonographs and seismic-reflection profiles were collected off Oregon and Washington, from the edge of the continental shelf to the boundary of the US Exclusive Economic Zone (375 km from shore). The survey was extended seaward where necessary to include the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The project utilized the British GLORIA side-scan sonar system. The records were slant-range corrected and anamorphosed, and mosaics were constructed at a scale of 1:375,000. The sonographs display precise geometry of the major geomorphic features of the area: accretionary ridges, submarine canyons, and fan valleys on the continental slope; deep-sea fans and channels in Cascadia basin; and elongate volcanic ridges making up Gorda and Juan de Fuca Ridges. Canyons with gullied walls deeply incise the upper continental slope off Washington. On the lower slope, the regime apparently changes from one of downcutting to one of overbank deposition. Cascadia basin and Cascadia Channel record intricate and complex drainage histories. The channel is not evident as a major feature on Nitinat Fan but becomes more prominent to the south, especially where it crosses Blanco Fracture Zone and enters Tufts Abyssal Plain. Recent tectonic deformation of oceanic crust in the vicinity of Gorda Ridge is evident in the sonographs. For example, long, linear volcanic ridges flanking the spreading center are distorted and rotated westward at the north end where the Gorda Ridge meets the Blanco Fracture Zone.

  6. Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is an unrecognized risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mahek; Shen, Win-Kuang; Sofi, Aamir; Tran, Canh; Jahangir, Ahad; Sultan, Sulaiman; Khan, Uzma; Viqar, Maria; Cho, Chi; Jahangir, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    Sleep apnea has been recognized as a factor predisposing to atrial fibrillation recurrence and progression. The effect of other sleep-disturbing conditions on atrial fibrillation progression is not known. We sought to determine whether frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is a risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation. In this retrospective study, patients with atrial fibrillation and a clinical suspicion of restless legs syndrome who were referred for polysomnography were divided into two groups based on severity of periodic leg movement during sleep: frequent (periodic movement index >35/h) and infrequent (≤35/h). Progression of atrial fibrillation to persistent or permanent forms between the two groups was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Of 373 patients with atrial fibrillation (77% paroxysmal, 23% persistent), 108 (29%) progressed to persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation during follow-up (median, 33 months; interquartile range, 16-50). Compared to patients with infrequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=168), patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=205) had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation progression (23% vs. 34%; p=0.01). Patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep were older and predominantly male; however, there were no significant differences at baseline in clinical factors that promote atrial fibrillation progression between both groups. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of atrial fibrillation progression were persistent atrial fibrillation at baseline, female gender, hypertension and frequent periodic leg movement during sleep. In patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep, dopaminergic therapy for control of leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome reduced risk of atrial fibrillation progression. Frequent leg movement during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome is associated

  7. A springy pendulum could describe the swing leg kinetics of human walking.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunggwi; Park, Heewon; Park, Sukyung

    2016-06-14

    The dynamics of human walking during various walking conditions could be qualitatively captured by the springy legged dynamics, which have been used as a theoretical framework for bipedal robotics applications. However, the spring-loaded inverted pendulum model describes the motion of the center of mass (CoM), which combines the torso, swing and stance legs together and does not explicitly inform us as to whether the inter-limb dynamics share the springy legged dynamics characteristics of the CoM. In this study, we examined whether the swing leg dynamics could also be represented by springy mechanics and whether the swing leg stiffness shows a dependence on gait speed, as has been observed in CoM mechanics during walking. The swing leg was modeled as a spring-loaded pendulum hinged at the hip joint, which is under forward motion. The model parameters of the loaded mass were adopted from body parameters and anthropometric tables, whereas the free model parameters for the rest length of the spring and its stiffness were estimated to best match the data for the swing leg joint forces. The joint forces of the swing leg were well represented by the springy pendulum model at various walking speeds with a regression coefficient of R(2)>0.8. The swing leg stiffness increased with walking speed and was correlated with the swing frequency, which is consistent with previous observations from CoM dynamics described using the compliant leg. These results suggest that the swing leg also shares the springy dynamics, and the compliant walking model could be extended to better present swing leg dynamics.

  8. Using a Modified Ball-Tip Guide Rod to Equalize Leg Length and Restore Femoral Offset.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Matthew W; Lang, Jason E

    Goals of total hip arthroplasty (THA) include pain alleviation, motion restoration, and normalization of leg-length inequality. Asymmetric leg lengths are associated with nerve traction injuries, lower extremity joint pain, sacroiliac discomfort, low back pain, and patient dissatisfaction. The authors present an innovative use of a modified ball-tip guide rod to help accurately restore leg length and femoral offset during direct anterior THA.

  9. Did Venus have long legs? Beauty standards from various historical periods reflected in works of art.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Research on perception of attractiveness of leg-to-body ratio (LBR) described here has shown that people prefer relatively long-legged silhouettes (particularly while assessing women). The LBR of attractive women over historical periods (analyses of attractive silhouettes from paintings, sculptures, etc) has been more changeable than that of men. The findings reported here might represent evidence against the cross-cultural universality of the attractiveness of long legs.

  10. Trapping and moving metal atoms with a six-leg molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Leo; Rieder, Karl-Heinz; Moresco, Francesca; Stojkovic, Sladjana M.; Gourdon, André; Joachim, Christian

    2005-12-01

    Putting to work a molecule able to collect and carry adatoms in a controlled way on a surface is a solution for fabricating atomic structures atom by atom. Investigations have shown that the interaction of an organic molecule with the surface of a metal can induce surface reconstruction down to the atomic scale. In this way, well-defined nanostructures such as chains of adatoms, atomic trenches and metal-ligand compounds have been formed. Moreover, the progress in manipulation techniques induced by a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) has opened up the possibility of studying artificially built molecular-metal atomic scale structures, and allowed the atom-by-atom doping of a single C60 molecule by picking up K atoms. The present work goes a step further and combines STM manipulation techniques with the ability of a molecule to assemble an atomic nanostructure. We present a well-designed six-leg single hexa-t-butyl-hexaphenylbenzene (HB-HPB) molecule, which collects and carries up to six copper adatoms on a Cu(111) surface when manipulated with a STM tip. The `HB-HPB-Cu atoms' complex can be further manipulated, bringing its Cu freight to a predetermined position on the surface where the metal atoms can finally be released.

  11. Management of symptoms of Restless Legs Syndrome with use of a traction straight leg raise: a preliminary case series.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Eric M; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is estimated to affect 5-15 percent of the U.S. population. There are few studies investigating non-pharmacological treatments for RLS, such as physical therapy and/or peripheral neural mobilization. The traction straight leg raise (tSLR) technique is one such mobilization that may affect central and peripheral neural pathways and reduce RLS symptoms. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a tSLR on the symptoms associated with RLS. A cohort of fifteen people was enrolled. Thirteen subjects (11 female) between the ages of 32-64 completed the study. Subjects completed two questionnaires to quantify their severity of RLS before treatment was initiated and at the final session. These measures included: the Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale (RLSRS) 0-40, an RLS Ordinal Scale, and a Global Rating of Change (GROC) assessments (-7, 0, +7). Patients were treated with tSLR bilaterally for four total visits on days 1, 3, 8, and 15. Results indicated an RLSRS pre-treatment average of 24.8 (severe) and post-treatment average of 9.2 (mild), representing a 63% improvement from baseline (p < 0.05). Ten of 13 subjects reported a GROC of +4 or higher at the final session, indicating at least a moderate improvement in patient status from baseline. Our results indicate that following a series of tSLR treatments symptoms were reduced in individuals with idiopathic RLS. A prospective, randomized controlled trial is necessary to evaluate the potential for a tSLR to effectively manage idiopathic RLS symptoms.

  12. Leg power in young women: relationship to body composition, strength, and function.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Fiatarone, M A; Fielding, R A

    1996-10-01

    The ability to generate high forces at high velocity (power) is an important component of physiologic reserve for both athletic performance and functional capacity. A comparison was made between different laboratory methods and field tests designed to evaluate leg power. Nineteen young healthy untrained women participated in this study. Maximum power during the double leg press (KP) occurred between 56-78% of the one repetition maximum (1-RM) and averaged (404 +/- 22 W). Rank-ordered correlation showed an association between KP and another measure of leg power measured on the leg extensor power rig (LR) when expressed per kg LBM (Rho = 0.565, P < 0.016). KP was also related to the 1-RM achieved on the double leg press (R2 = 0.584, P < 0.001). The KP test also correlated with the vertical jump (R2 = 0.538, P < 0.004) and maximal power output during the Wingate anaerobic power test (R2 = 0.299, P < 0.015). However, double leg press power was not related to time to run 40 yards (R2 = 0.020, P < 0.573) or maximal gait velocity (R2 = 0.136, P < 0.121). These results suggest that maximal power during the double leg press occurs at a higher percentage of maximal strength than previously reported. Double leg press power was related to vertical jump performance, validating this field test as a measure of leg muscle power in young women.

  13. A simple model for clock-actuated legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipel, J.; Holmes, P.

    2007-10-01

    The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model describes well the steady-state center-of-mass motions of a diverse range of walking and running animals and robots. Here we ask whether the SLIP model can also explain the dynamic stability of these gaits, and we find that it cannot do so in many physically-relevant parameter ranges. We develop an actuated, lossy, clock-torqued SLIP, or CT-SLIP, with more realistic hip-motor torque inputs, that can capture the robust stability properties observed in most animals and some legged robots. Variations of CT-SLIP at a similar level of detail and complexity may also be appropriate for capturing the whole-system center-of-mass dynamics of locomotion of legged animals and robots varying widely in size and morphology. This paper contributes to a broader program to develop mathematical models, at varied levels of detail, that capture the dynamics of integrated organismal systems exhibiting integrated whole-body motion.

  14. Noninvasive stimulation of human corticospinal axons innervating leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Martin, P G; Butler, J E; Gandevia, S C; Taylor, J L

    2008-08-01

    These studies investigated whether a single electrical stimulus over the thoracic spine activates corticospinal axons projecting to human leg muscles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and electrical stimulation over the thoracic spine were paired at seven interstimulus intervals, and surface electromyographic responses were recorded from rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and soleus. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) were set so that the first descending volley evoked by cortical stimulation had not arrived at (positive ISIs), was at the same level as (0 ISI) or had passed (negative ISIs) the site of activation of descending axons by the thoracic stimulation at the moment of its delivery. Compared with the responses to motor cortical stimulation alone, responses to paired stimuli were larger at negative ISIs but reduced at positive ISIs in all three leg muscles. This depression of responses at positive ISIs is consistent with an occlusive interaction in which an antidromic volley evoked by the thoracic stimulation collides with descending volleys evoked by cortical stimulation. The cortical and spinal stimuli activate some of the same corticospinal axons. Thus it is possible to examine the excitability of lower limb motoneuron pools to corticospinal inputs without the confounding effects of changes occurring within the motor cortex.

  15. [Compression therapy of venous leg ulcers in the decongestion phase].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J; Eder, S; Läuchli, S; Partsch, H; Stücker, M; Vanscheidt, W

    2017-01-11

    Compression therapy is the basis for successful treatment in most patients with venous leg ulcers. Concerning compression therapy, the initial phase of decongestion and the following phase of maintenance should be differentiated. While in the maintenance phase (ulcer) stocking systems are now frequently recommended, in the decongestion phase compression bandages are mostly still used, which however are often inappropriately applied. In German-speaking countries, compression therapy with short-stretch bandages has a long tradition. However, their correct application requires good training and monitoring, which is often lacking in daily practice. Less error-prone treatment alternatives are multicomponent systems, some of which have an optical marker for the control of the correct subbandage pressure. In another new type of compression system, which is called adaptive or wrap bandages, the compression pressure can be adjusted using a Velcro fastener. Accompanying intermittent pneumatic compression therapy can also be used in the decongestion phase. Thus, there are now several different treatment options that can be used for the decongestion phase in patients with venous leg ulcers. Often bandages with short-stretch materials are very prone to errors and should in most cases be replaced by other compression systems today. The patient's preference, need, and capability should be considered when selecting the appropriate system for the individual patient.

  16. Scattering of a legged robot in a heterogeneous granular terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Many granular substrates are composed of particulates of varying size, from fine sand to pebbles and boulders. Ambulatory locomotion on such heterogeneous substrates is complicated in part due to fluctuations introduced by heterogeneities. To discover principles of movement in such substrates, we developed an automated system, the ``Systematic Creation of Arbitrary Terrain and Testing of Exploratory Robots'' (SCATTER), to create heterogeneous granular substrates of varying properties such as compaction, inclination, obstacle shape/size/distribution and obstacle mobility within the substrate. We investigate how the presence of a single ``boulder'' affects the locomotion of a 6-legged robot (15cm, 150g). The robot's trajectory is straight before boulder interaction, and is scattered to an angle after the interaction. Surprisingly, the interactions with the boulder can lead to both negative and positive scattering angles-an effective attraction and repulsion between the robot and the boulder. The scattering pattern depends sensitively on the leg-boulder contact position and the boulder mobility within the fine sand. However, the scattering pattern dependence upon contact position on the boulder is insensitive to boulder shape (created using 3D printing), orientation and roughness. This work is funded by DARPA Young Faculty Award and Army Research Laboratory (ARL).

  17. Skin Rashes on Leg in Brucellosis: a Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein; Ayatollahi, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease is endemic in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is an important re-emerging infectious disease. This disease is closely associated with the evolution of mankind as an agrarian society linked to the practice of shepherding and popularization of animal husbandry. The patients with this disease are typically present with chills, fever, asthenia and sweating. This paper describes a patient with brucellosis and skin rashes on the leg. A 41-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd. The patient reported the loss of appetite, arthralgia and weight loss during previous five months. Finally, he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and high titer for Brucella agglutination test. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is very broad, ranging from asymptomatic infection to serious debilitating disease. Current patient had skin rashes on his leg. Brucellosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute infections, especially if there is a history of fresh milk product ingestion and living in an endemic region.

  18. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors. PMID:26288747

  19. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  20. Onychomycosis in patients with chronic leg ulcer and toenail abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cabete, Joana; Galhardas, Célia; Apetato, Margarida; Lestre, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Nails have a limited number of reactive patterns to disease. Accordingly, toenail changes of different etiologies may mimic onychomycosis. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of toenail onychomycosis among patients with leg ulcer and toenail abnormalities attending a dermatology clinic. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted through the analysis of clinical records and results of mycological examination. RESULTS A total of 81 patients were included, with a median age of 76.0 years. Most ulcers were of venous etiology, followed by those of mixed and arterial pathogenesis. The mycological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of onychomycosis in 27.2% of the patients. The etiologic agent was a dermatophyte in 59.1% of isolates in nail samples, while Trichophyton interdigitale was the most frequent fungal species (40.9%). CONCLUSIONS Most toenail abnormalities in patients with chronic leg ulcer were not onychomycosis. This study highlights the importance of systematic mycological examination in these patients, in order to avoid overtreatment with systemic antifungals, unnecessary costs and side effects.

  1. Apomorphine in idiopathic restless legs syndrome: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Tribl, G; Sycha, T; Kotzailias, N; Zeitlhofer, J; Auff, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopaminergic and opioidergic drugs have been found to be effective in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Objectives: To test the effect of apomorphine—a combined opioidergic and dopaminergic agonist—and subsequent selective antagonism by naloxone and metoclopramide on subjective and objective symptoms in patients with idiopathic RLS. Methods: Nine patients with RLS were pretreated with oral domperidone for three days. A modified suggested immobilisation test (SIT) was carried out between 8 pm and 1 am under the following conditions of intravenous drug administration: baseline–apomorphine–apomorphine plus naloxone–apomorphine plus metoclopramide. Outcome variables were a visual analogue scale (VAS) of subjective RLS symptoms and EMG documented periodic leg movements while awake (PLMW). Results: Compared with baseline, apomorphine resulted in a rapid and significant improvement in subjective RLS symptoms as measured by VAS (54.5% improvement; p = 0.011), and an almost immediate cessation of PLMW, measured by PLMW index (98.0% improvement; p = 0.012). Neither additional naloxone nor metoclopramide blocked this effect significantly. While given apomorphine with metoclopramide, there was a trend to reappearance of PLMW. Conclusions: Apomorphine may be an effective treatment for idiopathic RLS. Its effectiveness may reflect both to its dopaminergic and its opioidergic activity, and is not diminished significantly by blocking only one of these pathways. The trend to a worsening of the PLMW index with metoclopramide hints at a primarily dopaminergic effect of apomorphine in idiopathic RLS. PMID:15654028

  2. Seasonal variation of leg stiffness in professional Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Pruyn, Elizabeth C; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W; Cameron, Matkthew L; Johnston, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Leg stiffness (Kleg) is an important component to consider in both performance and injury in the Australian Football League (AFL). Kleg has not yet been examined longitudinally throughout an entire AFL season. A unilateral hop test was used to measure Kleg in the left and right legs of 25 professional AFL players (24.9 ± 4.3 years, 86.8 ± 8.1 kg, 187.0 ± 7.3 cm). Kleg was assessed at least once per month for each participant. Furthermore, the session rate of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the average weekly training loads experienced by the participants. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between the average monthly bilateral Kleg scores; however, average weekly training loads varied between 1,400 and 2,000 AU, depending on the training period. Thirteen participants were randomly selected to perform hop tests on 2 consecutive weeks. Reliability tests revealed these measurements to have a typical error of the measurement of 4.15% and an intraclass correlation of 0.8, proving the methods to be reliable. Although training intensity appears to vary, Kleg does not fluctuate significantly across an entire AFL season, suggesting that weekly training loads between 1,400 and 2,000 AU may be prescribed without the risk of fluctuating stiffness levels.

  3. Gravity balancing rehabilitative robot for the human legs.

    PubMed

    Fattah, Abbas; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2004-01-01

    People with severe muscle weakness from neurological injury, such as hemiparesis from stroke, often have substantial limitations. The focus of rehabilitation after stroke is often on walking function, however, equipment available to facilitate walking function is severely limited. Most devices move patients through predetermined movements rather than allowing the patient to move under their control. This work presents the design of a gravity balancing rehabilitative robot to assist persons with both leg impairment to walk through elimination of the effects of gravity. The design of the machine is based on a hybrid method for gravity balancing, with two steps: (i) locate the center of mass of a machine using auxiliary parallelograms; (ii) select springs to connect from the center of mass such that the total potential energy of the system is invariant with configuration. The design of the machine considers all motions of the leg and the pelvis by assuming the center of mass of pelvis to be located on the line joining the two hip joints. Preliminary version of this machine, with limited features, is being fabricated.

  4. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Robert D.; Martin, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection. PMID:27746585

  5. Restless leg syndrome: is it a real problem?

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Paul E; O’Keeffe, Shaun T

    2006-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition that is frequently unrecognized, misdiagnosed and poorly managed. It is characterized by uncomfortable sensations deep in the legs developing at rest that compel the person to move; symptoms are worst at night and sleep disturbance is common. RLS occurs in 7%–11% of the population in Western countries, and many such people experience troublesome symptoms. Primary RLS is familial in up to two thirds of patients. RLS may also be secondary to a number of conditions including iron deficiency, pregnancy and end-stage renal failure and, perhaps, neuropathy. Secondary RLS is most common in those presenting for the first time in later life. The pathogenesis of RLS probably involves the interplay of systemic or brain iron deficiency and impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission in the subcortex of the brain. RLS is very responsive to dopaminergic therapies. Rebound of RLS symptoms during the early morning and development of severe symptoms earlier in the day (augmentation) are problematic in those treated for a prolonged period with levodopa. Consequently, dopamine agonists have become first line treatment. Anti-convulsant medications and opioids are helpful in some patients. Correction of underlying problem wherever possible is important in the management of secondary RLS. PMID:18360657

  6. Leg ulcer plastic surgery descent by laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfer, Jacqui; Filonenko, Natalia; Salansky, Norman M.

    1994-02-01

    Low energy laser therapy (LELT) was used to treat chronic leg ulcers. Seven patients, aged 59 to 96 years, with 11 leg ulcers were referred for laser therapy by plastic surgeons. They had a history of ulceration of 3 - 50 years and five of the patients had breakdown of previous skin grafts. Laser treatments were administered with a microprocessor-controlled device. A 22 red ((lambda) equals 660 nm) laser head was utilized to provide a dose of (4 - 6) J/cm2 and 7 infrared ((lambda) equals 880 nm) head to provide a dose of (4 - 8) J/cm2. The patients were treated three to five times per week, 25 - 30 treatments per course. Three patients underwent two courses of laser therapy with three weeks interval between them. All patients, after 5 - 10 laser treatments, have gotten relief of pain and decreased the amount of analgesics used. All ulcers in six patients were completely healed and two ulcers in the seventh patient decreased in size by 75%. One may conclude the developed laser methodology might be used as a preventative measure to avoid plastic surgery or improve its success.

  7. Developmental Study on Leg-to-Body Ratio Preferences.

    PubMed

    Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have tested developmental differences in the perception of human body attractiveness and none have investigated development of Leg-to-Body Ratio (LBR) preferences. The aim of the current study was to determine whether preferences for LBR are largely innate and present among children in their early childhood, acquired in the course of socialization, and/or triggered by biological and hormonal changes. The study included 450 Polish men and women from Lower Silesia and Opole Province, Poland, whose ages ranged from 3 to 20 years. Participants were asked to choose which figurine they found the most attractive from a set of male and female figurines of various LBRs. We found that children below 8 years of age did not prefer any particular LBR and starting from about 9 years of age, preferences towards the legs of average length emerged. Importantly an LBR higher than the population average was not perceived as the most attractive until the age of 15 years. Therefore, we have empirically confirmed that LBR preferences change during develop ment.

  8. Leg morbidity and function following fibular free flap harvest.

    PubMed

    Shpitzer, T; Neligan, P; Boyd, B; Gullane, P; Gur, E; Freeman, J

    1997-05-01

    Over a period of 3 years, 50 consecutive free fibular flaps for mandibular reconstruction were performed on 47 patients. In 38 patients (81%) a skin paddle was included with the flap to provide either mucosal lining or skin cover; in 9 patients (19%) bone alone was used. Thirty-one patients (66%) required a skin graft to close the donor defect in the leg. Donor leg morbidity and function were determined by patient questionnaire and by physical examination. Forty-one donor sites in 40 patients were available for long-term follow-up. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 39 months with an average of 17 months. Immediate postoperative infection occurred in the donor site of 1 patient (2%) and required additional surgery. There was no other immediate donor site complications when closure required skin grafting. Eleven patients (27%) had late donor site morbidity, consisting of motor weakness of the great toe in 5 patients, ankle instability and/or stiffness in 3 patients, donor site pain in 1 patient, and edema in 2 patients. All complications were graded as mild in severity by the patient and by the examiner. In this series, although most donor site defects required skin grafting, short- and long-term morbidity was minimal. After a short rehabilitation period, all patients were fully able to engage in all daily and recreational activities.

  9. Habituation of lower leg stretch responses in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bloem, B R; van Vugt, J P; Beckley, D J; Remler, M P; Roos, R A

    1998-02-01

    In young healthy subjects, initially large stretch responses in leg muscles are progressively attenuated following a series of identical postural perturbations. We have studied whether this habituation of stretch responses is impaired in Parkinson's disease. Ten patients and 10 elderly controls received 10 serial 'toe-up' rotational perturbations (amplitude 10 degrees) while standing on a supporting forceplate. We recorded posturally destabilizing medium latency (ML) stretch responses from the medial gastrocnemius muscle. Functional habituation across the first few trials occurred in patients, but not in elderly controls. The rate of habituation was influenced by the size of the response to the first perturbation. This observation explained the absence of habituation in elderly subjects because their responses during the first few trials were much smaller compared to patients. These results suggest that habituation of lower leg stretch responses is unimpaired in Parkinson's disease. The presence of initially large and 'unpracticed' responses may partially explain why Parkinson patients fall in response to unexpected postural disturbances that commonly occur in daily life.

  10. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Barbarino, C

    1992-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in 12 patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency and persistent leg ulcers to assess the efficacy of pentoxifylline treatment as an adjunct to compression bandaging in the conservative management of venous leg ulcers. Six patients were allocated at random to receive twice-daily infusions of 200 mg pentoxifylline intravenously and 400 mg pentoxifylline orally 3-times daily for 7 days then 400 mg oral doses 3-times daily for a further 60 days. The control group received matching placebo in an identical regimen. Treatment outcome was assessed by changes between the start and end of the study in venous ulcer surface area, and continuous wave Doppler ultrasound was used to monitor ankle/arm systolic pressure ratio, venous pressure at the ankle, valvular competence and possible venous reflux at intervals throughout the study period. The results showed that in the patients treated with pentoxifylline complete ulcer healing took place in 4 out of 6 and there was a significant reduction in mean ulcer surface area. In the control group, complete ulcer healing was recorded in 1 out of 6 patient only and the ulcer area was only moderately reduced in the others. There was no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the variables monitored by Doppler ultrasound but the difference between treatment outcome was significant. Treatment was well-tolerated.

  11. Low back pain radiating to the leg: an atypical cause.

    PubMed

    Gialanella, B; Prometti, P; Ferlucci, C

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the case of a 47-year old female with low back pain radiating to groin and anterior regions of the left thigh and leg. At symptoms onset, electromyography showed left L3-L4 radiculopathy, and nuclear magnetic resonance revealed disc protrusion at the same level with impingement of the spinal nerve root. The clinical symptoms were ascribed to lumbar disco-radicular conflict. The patient underwent steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment with epidural steroid injections, chiropractic spinal manipulations and rehabilitation program, with no relief. Thirteen months after the onset of pain, a computed tomography of sacroiliac joints showed osteolytic lesion in the iliac bone of left joint, and a bone scintigraphy highlighted foci of intense uptake at left iliac bone and left proximal extremity of the femur. The bone biopsy and pathological examinations showed findings consistent with large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This case report highlights the fact that in making differential diagnosis of low back pain radiating to the leg we have to consider the rare possibility that pain can be due to non-Hodgkin lymphoma that involves simultaneously the iliac bone and proximal extremity of the femur.

  12. Chronic leg ulceration in the community: changing the focus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Annemarie

    2010-09-01

    Compression therapy is considered the gold standard for healing chronic venous leg ulceration, and impressive healing rates are achievable for many patients. Unfortunately, this condition is chronic, characterized by frequent recurrences and, for some patients, ulcer healing may never occur. Within community services, commissioners of nursing services tend to focus on complete ulcer healing within a defined timescale as quality indicators. The challenge, therefore, will be for community nurses to demonstrate alternative but equally effective patient-centred outcome measures for nursing interventions when healing is delayed or does not occur. The current government health policy encourages active patient involvement in treatment, with an emphasis on self-care/management for patients with chronic conditions. Self-management interventions, such as the Expert Patient Programme (Department of Health, 2001) for chronic conditions, have been positively evaluated and have demonstrated considerable benefits for patients in terms of pain reduction and improved psychosocial wellbeing. This article briefly discusses the outcomes of such interventions and suggests that nurse-led self-care programmes could be adapted for leg ulcer patients in order to provide alternative outcome measures for nursing interventions when ulcer healing may not be achievable. This article also gives an overview of current innovations developed to encourage patient involvement and self-care in this client group.

  13. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-19

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV ({sub 25}Mn K{sub {alpha}} x-ray). K{sub {alpha}}- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  14. Young's modulus and SEM analysis of leg bones exposed to simulated microgravity by hind limb suspension (HLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mehta, Rahul; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine composition of the leg bone tissue of rats that were exposed to simulated microgravity by Hind-Limb Suspension (HLS) by tail for one week. The leg bones were cross sectioned, cleaned of soft tissues, dried and sputter coated, and then placed horizontally on the stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysis. Interaction of a 17.5 keV electron beam, incident from the vertical direction on the sample, generated images using two detectors. X-rays emitted from the sample during electron bombardment were measured with an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) feature of SEM using a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 144 eV at 5.9 keV (25Mn Kα x-ray). Kα- x-rays from carbon, oxygen, phosphorus and calcium formed the major peaks in the spectrum. Relative percentages of these elements were determined using a software that could also correct for ZAF factors namely Z(atomic number), A(X-ray absorption) and F(characteristic fluorescence). The x-rays from the control groups and from the experimental (HLS) groups were analyzed on well-defined parts (femur, tibia and knee) of the leg bone. The SEM analysis shows that there are definite changes in the hydroxyl or phosphate group of the main component of the bone structure, hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], due to hind limb suspension. In a separate experiment, entire leg bones (both from HLS and control rats) were subjected to mechanical stress by mean of a variable force. The stress vs. strain graph was fitted with linear and polynomial function, and the parameters reflecting the mechanical strength of the bone, under increasing stress, were calculated. From the slope of the linear part of the graph the Young's modulus for HLS bones were calculated and found to be 2.49 times smaller than those for control bones.

  15. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Lung VQ Scan Related Topics Arrhythmia Cough Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... this topic. Related reading Chest X Ray Cough Deep Vein Thrombosis Pulmonary Embolism Rate This Content: Updated: December 9, 2016 Twitter ...

  16. Restless legs syndrome in subjects with a knee prosthesis: evidence that symptoms are generated in the periphery

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, José Carlos; da Silva Neto, João Luiz Pereira; Pradella-Hallinan, Márcia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are no data adressing the prevalence of restless legs syndrome in subjects who have knee prosthesis. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of subjects who underwent knee prosthesis surgery. METHOD: A total of 107 subjects (30 male, 77 female) were interviewed over the telephone regarding restless legs syndrome symptoms. If the patients exhibited symptoms of the syndrome, we conducted face-to-face interviews. Lastly, a therapeutic test with pramipexole was proposed for each subject. RESULTS: In our cohort, 7 males (23%) and 30 females (39%) had restless legs syndrome. Of these, 6 males and 23 females were submitted to face-to-face-interview. Of the males, 5 (83%) had restless legs after the knee surgery- exclusively in the operated leg- and reported no family restless legs history. One man had a prior case of bilateral restless legs syndrome, a positive family history and claimed exacerbation of symptoms in the operated leg. Among the females, 16 (69%) had restless legs prior to surgery. A total of 10 female patients reported bilateral symptoms, with fewer symptoms in the operated leg, while 6 displayed a worse outcome in the operated leg. The 7 females (31%) without restless legs prior to surgery and without a family history experienced symptoms only in the operated leg. All subjects responded favorably to the pramipexole therapeutic test. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that secondary unilateral restless legs syndrome may ensue from knee prosthesis surgery and that the symptoms are generated in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:22086528

  17. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  18. The value of brain scanning

    PubMed Central

    Riddoch, D.; Drolc, Z.

    1972-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 667 brain scans were performed, of which the results in 632 have been analysed. Positive scans were found in 68% of 204 cerebral tumours. There was a high rate of detection of meningiomas and malignant gliomas. Scanning was less helpful in visualizing slowly growing gliomas, and those tumours situated in the mid-line or posterior fossa. Metastases occupied an intermediate position. Positive scans occurred in a proportion of patients following acute cerebro-vascular accidents, and in a few other miscellaneous disorders. Virtually all patients with transient cerebral ischaemia, migraine, epilepsy and presenile dementia had normal brain scans. The value and limitations of this investigation have been discussed. PMID:5076491

  19. Combined endoscopic surgery in the prone-split leg position for successful single-session removal of an encrusted ureteral stent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although encrusted stents may lead to some unwanted complications including urinary tract obstruction, urinary sepsis, and potential loss of kidney function, there is currently no consensus on the most efficient method for managing stents that are intentionally left in situ. This is the first report describing the management of an encrusted stent using combined endoscopic surgery in the prone split-leg position in a single session. Case presentation A 47-year-old Asian man presented with left flank pain and macrohematuria. The patient had undergone left ureteral stenting three years previously for the treatment of left ureteral stones and hydronephrosis; however, he was lost to follow-up before the treatment for the ureter stones was completed. Therefore, the ureteral stent and stones were not removed. An abdominal radiograph and a noncontrast computed tomography scan showed encrustation along the retained stent with stone burdens in the kidney and ureter. The ureteral stent could not be removed by cystoscopy after shock wave lithotripsy of the left ureteral stones. Therefore, endoscopic lithotripsy combined with flexible ureteroscopy and miniature nephroscopy was performed with the patient in the prone split-leg position. All the stones and the encrusted ureteral stent were successfully removed in a single session. Conclusions In this case, percutaneous nephrolithomy in addition to flexible ureteroscopy was preferred because severe encrustation of the proximal stent and ureteral stones complicated the therapeutic strategy. Combined endoscopic techniques in the prone split-leg position can achieve successful and safe management of encrusted stents. PMID:24742133

  20. H:Q Ratios and Bilateral Leg Strength in College Field and Court Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Roy T.H.; Smith, Andrew W.; Wong, Del P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key components in sports injury prevention is the identification of imbalances in leg muscle strength. However, different leg muscle characteristics may occur in large playing area (field) sports and small playing area (court) sports, which should be considered in regular injury prevention assessment. This study examined the isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and bilateral leg strength balance in 40 male college (age: 23.4 ± 2.5 yrs) team sport players (field sport = 23, soccer players; court sport = 17, volleyball and basketball players). Five repetitions of maximal knee concentric flexion and concentric extension were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at two speeds (slow: 60°·s−1 and fast: 300°·s−1) with 3 minutes rest between tests. Both legs were measured in counterbalanced order with the dominant leg being determined as the leg used to kick a ball. The highest concentric peak torque values (Nm) of the hamstrings and quadriceps of each leg were analyzed after body mass normalization (Nm·kg−1). Court sport players showed significantly weaker dominant leg hamstrings muscles at both contraction speeds (P < 0.05). The H:Q ratio was significantly larger in field players in their dominant leg at 60°·s−1 (P < 0.001), and their non-dominant leg at 300°·s−1 (P < 0.001) respectively. Sport-specific leg muscle strength was evident in college players from field and court sports. These results suggest the need for different muscle strength training and rehabilitation protocols for college players according to the musculature requirements in their respective sports. PMID:23487043

  1. The Interday Measurement Consistency of and Relationships Between Hamstring and Leg Musculo-articular Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Justin P; Schmitz, Randy J; Shultz, Sandra J

    2015-10-01

    Hamstring stiffness (K(HAM)) and leg stiffness (K(LEG)) are commonly examined relative to athletic performance and injury risk. Given these may be modifiable, it is important to understand day-to-day variations inherent in these measures before use in training studies. In addition, the extent to which K(HAM) and K(LEG) measure similar active stiffness characteristics has not been established. We investigated the interday measurement consistency of K(HAM) and K(LEG), and examined the extent to which K(LEG) predicted K(HAM) in 6 males and 9 females. K(HAM) was moderately consistent day-to-day (ICC(2,5) = .71; SEM = 76.3 N·m(-1)), and 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA) revealed a systematic bias with considerable absolute measurement error (95% LOA = 89.6 ± 224.8 N·m(-1)). Day-to-day differences in procedural factors explained 59.4% of the variance in day-to-day differences in K(HAM). Bilateral and unilateral K(LEG) was more consistent (ICC(2,3) range = .87-.94; SEM range = 1.0-2.91 kN·m(-1)) with lower absolute error (95% LOA bilateral= -2.0 ± 10.3; left leg = -0.36 ± 3.82; right leg = -1.05 ± 3.61 kN·m(-1)). K(LEG) explained 44% of the variance in K(HAM) (P < .01). Findings suggest that procedural factors must be carefully controlled to yield consistent and precise K(HAM) measures. The ease and consistency of K(LEG), and moderate correlation with K(HAM), may steer clinicians toward K(LEG) when measuring lower-extremity stiffness for screening studies and monitoring the effectiveness of training interventions over time.

  2. H:q ratios and bilateral leg strength in college field and court sports players.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Roy T H; Smith, Andrew W; Wong, Del P

    2012-06-01

    One of the key components in sports injury prevention is the identification of imbalances in leg muscle strength. However, different leg muscle characteristics may occur in large playing area (field) sports and small playing area (court) sports, which should be considered in regular injury prevention assessment. This study examined the isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and bilateral leg strength balance in 40 male college (age: 23.4 ± 2.5 yrs) team sport players (field sport = 23, soccer players; court sport = 17, volleyball and basketball players). Five repetitions of maximal knee concentric flexion and concentric extension were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at two speeds (slow: 60°·s(-1) and fast: 300°·s(-1)) with 3 minutes rest between tests. Both legs were measured in counterbalanced order with the dominant leg being determined as the leg used to kick a ball. The highest concentric peak torque values (Nm) of the hamstrings and quadriceps of each leg were analyzed after body mass normalization (Nm·kg(-1)). Court sport players showed significantly weaker dominant leg hamstrings muscles at both contraction speeds (P < 0.05). The H:Q ratio was significantly larger in field players in their dominant leg at 60°·s(-1) (P < 0.001), and their non-dominant leg at 300°·s(-1) (P < 0.001) respectively. Sport-specific leg muscle strength was evident in college players from field and court sports. These results suggest the need for different muscle strength training and rehabilitation protocols for college players according to the musculature requirements in their respective sports.

  3. Development of PIMAL: Mathematical Phantom with Moving Arms and Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Eckerman, Keith F.

    2007-05-01

    The computational model of the human anatomy (phantom) has gone through many revisions since its initial development in the 1970s. The computational phantom model currently used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is based on a model published in 1974. Hence, the phantom model used by the NRC staff was missing some organs (e.g., neck, esophagus) and tissues. Further, locations of some organs were inappropriate (e.g., thyroid).Moreover, all the computational phantoms were assumed to be in the vertical-upright position. However, many occupational radiation exposures occur with the worker in other positions. In the first phase of this work, updates on the computational phantom models were reviewed and a revised phantom model, which includes the updates for the relevant organs and compositions, was identified. This revised model was adopted as the starting point for this development work, and hence a series of radiation transport computations, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5, was performed. The computational results were compared against values reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) in Publication 74. For some of the organs (e.g., thyroid), there were discrepancies between the computed values and the results reported in ICRP-74. The reasons behind these discrepancies have been investigated and are discussed in this report.Additionally, sensitivity computations were performed to determine the sensitivity of the organ doses for certain parameters, including composition and cross sections used in the simulations. To assess the dose for more realistic exposure configurations, the phantom model was revised to enable flexible positioning of the arms and legs. Furthermore, to reduce the user time for analyses, a graphical user interface (GUI) was developed. The GUI can be used to visualize the positioning of the arms and legs as desired posture is achieved to generate the input file, invoke the computations, and extract the organ dose

  4. Design and Validation of a Periodic Leg Movement Detector

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Hyatt; Leary, Eileen; Lee, Seo-Young; Carrillo, Oscar; Stubbs, Robin; Peppard, Paul; Young, Terry; Widrow, Bernard; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs) are episodic, involuntary movements caused by fairly specific muscle contractions that occur during sleep and can be scored during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Because leg movements (LM) may be accompanied by an arousal or sleep fragmentation, a high PLM index (i.e. average number of PLMs per hour) may have an effect on an individual’s overall health and wellbeing. This study presents the design and validation of the Stanford PLM automatic detector (S-PLMAD), a robust, automated leg movement detector to score PLM. NPSG studies from adult participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC, n = 1,073, 2000–2004) and successive Stanford Sleep Cohort (SSC) patients (n = 760, 1999–2007) undergoing baseline NPSG were used in the design and validation of this study. The scoring algorithm of the S-PLMAD was initially based on the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine clinical scoring rules. It was first tested against other published algorithms using manually scored LM in the WSC. Rules were then modified to accommodate baseline noise and electrocardiography interference and to better exclude LM adjacent to respiratory events. The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts. Furthermore, it provides PLM indices for sleep (PLMS) and wake plus periodicity index and other metrics. To validate the final S-PLMAD, experts visually scored 78 studies in normal sleepers and patients with restless legs syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, narcolepsy-cataplexy, insomnia, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PLM indices were highly correlated between expert, visually scored PLMS and automatic scorings (r2 = 0.94 in WSC and r2 = 0.94 in SSC). In conclusion, The S-PLMAD is a robust and

  5. Design and validation of a periodic leg movement detector.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hyatt; Leary, Eileen; Lee, Seo-Young; Carrillo, Oscar; Stubbs, Robin; Peppard, Paul; Young, Terry; Widrow, Bernard; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs) are episodic, involuntary movements caused by fairly specific muscle contractions that occur during sleep and can be scored during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Because leg movements (LM) may be accompanied by an arousal or sleep fragmentation, a high PLM index (i.e. average number of PLMs per hour) may have an effect on an individual's overall health and wellbeing. This study presents the design and validation of the Stanford PLM automatic detector (S-PLMAD), a robust, automated leg movement detector to score PLM. NPSG studies from adult participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC, n = 1,073, 2000-2004) and successive Stanford Sleep Cohort (SSC) patients (n = 760, 1999-2007) undergoing baseline NPSG were used in the design and validation of this study. The scoring algorithm of the S-PLMAD was initially based on the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine clinical scoring rules. It was first tested against other published algorithms using manually scored LM in the WSC. Rules were then modified to accommodate baseline noise and electrocardiography interference and to better exclude LM adjacent to respiratory events. The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts. Furthermore, it provides PLM indices for sleep (PLMS) and wake plus periodicity index and other metrics. To validate the final S-PLMAD, experts visually scored 78 studies in normal sleepers and patients with restless legs syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, narcolepsy-cataplexy, insomnia, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PLM indices were highly correlated between expert, visually scored PLMS and automatic scorings (r² = 0.94 in WSC and r² = 0.94 in SSC). In conclusion, The S-PLMAD is a robust and high

  6. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Giulia M.R.; Breedijk, Ronald M.P.; Brandt, Rick A.J.; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H.C.; de Jong, Babette E.; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A.; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required. PMID:24298422

  7. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  8. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  9. Characterizing the Outer Divertor Leg Transition to Full Detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, A. G.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Meyer, W. H.; Porter, G. D.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Bray, B. D.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Leonard, A. W.; Liu, C.; Eldon, D.; Groth, M.; Stangeby, P. C.; Tsui, C. K.

    2013-10-01

    Experiments at DIII-D have explored the transition from an attached to fully detached divertor condition in L- and H-mode with an unprecedented level of detail. Improved divertor Thomson scattering capturing Te <= 1 eV, coupled with high resolution spectroscopic studies of molecular and neutral emissions, and Stark broadening of the deuterium Paschen series provide essential data for modeling the transition to detachment. 2D Te and ne profiles of the outer leg reveal movement of the ionization front away from the plate not replicated in modeling. Measured Paschen and molecular emissions suggest the onset of recombination occurs prior to, and to a greater extent than modeled. These data help guide and expose any missing physics in predictions for detached operation in future devices. This work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. Response-based analysis for Tension Leg Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Dagang

    2017-03-01

    The typical industry practice for Tension Leg Platform (TLP) design focuses on a conventional short-term design recipe, which assumes that an N-year design environment leads to an N-year response. In the response-based design method, the TLP is designed to withstand N-year responses rather than respond to N-year environmental conditions. In this paper, we present an overview and a general procedure for the response-based design method and use a case study to compare the critical TLP responses between the two methods. The results of our comparison show that the conventional short-term design method often contains an element of conservatism and that the response-based design method can reduce the design conditions and thereby achieve cost savings.

  11. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles.

    PubMed

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.05) and in the lateral gastrocnemius than in the medial gastrocnemius (5 vs. 20 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.0001). We show that leg and foot muscles have different cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  12. A 6-Year-Old With Leg Cramps.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Brian P; Lautz, Andrew J; Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L; Yum, Sabrina W; Waanders, Angela; Fox, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl presented with a history of leg pain and cramping that progressively worsened over a 2- to 3-week period of time. Her examination was notable for normal vital signs, limited range of motion of her left hip, and a limp. Inflammatory markers were slightly elevated, but the serum electrolytes, calcium, and magnesium, complete blood cell count and differential, and creatine kinase level were normal. She was hospitalized for further diagnostic evaluation and was noted to have abnormal muscle movements classified as myokymia (continuous involuntary quivering, rippling, or undulating movement of muscles). Electromyography confirmed the myokymia but did not reveal evidence of a myopathy or neuropathy, prompting additional evaluation for a systemic etiology.

  13. Residual stress measurements of tension leg platform tendon welds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.S.; Smith, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Results of fatigue test of prototype welded tendons showed that fatigue life was greatly reduced for the weld repaired joint. Since tensile residual stresses near the fusion boundary were suspected to cause the fatigue life reduction, these residual stresses were measured. Residual stresses of girth welded tendon pipes for a tension leg platform (TLP) were obtained for various fabrication conditions. The stresses were measured experimentally using the blind hole drilling (BHD) technique, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Barkhausen Noise (BHN) method. The results of these measurements illustrate the reliability of each measurement technique. Effects of joint configuration, weld repair, weld cap grinding, and pre-fatigue test on residual stresses were discussed.

  14. Healing determinants in older people with leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M

    1995-10-01

    A descriptive correlational design was used to identify the physiologic, therapeutic, and psychosocial determinants of leg ulcer healing in community-residing older people with venous and venous-arterial disease (N = 156). A regression model with healing rate as the dependent variable explained 49% of the variance. Increased pain when mobilizing, increased hours with limbs horizontal to the torso, and moderate and severe liposclerosis (hardening and induration of the skin) were associated with poorer healing rates. Higher wound status scores were associated with more rapid healing rates. Self-efficacy beliefs and social support were not significant factors. The findings suggest the need for early detection and management of limb pain that interferes with normal mobility. Limb position and edema assessment prior to the application of compression bandages is recommended, with bandages that provide clients with high compression when ambulant and low compression when resting being potentially beneficial.

  15. High gain driven right leg circuit for dry electrode systems.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Federico N; Spinelli, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an improved driven right leg (DRL) circuit compensation together with a practical implementation. The proposed design allows to increase common mode voltage attenuation compared with the widely used dominant pole compensation while maintaining the same proven stability margin and design criteria, and requiring only a modification of its passive feedback network. A sample implementation of the proposed DRL was obtained estimating the values of interference model parameters for a dry electrode measurement system. A dominant pole compensated DRL with the same stability margin was also implemented in order to experimentally validate the proposed design against this established alternative. Measurements were conducted under both controlled and uncontrolled interference conditions. The proposed compensation experimentally demonstrated achieving a better reduction of power line harmonics, with a peak comparative improvement of around 18  dB at 50  Hz.

  16. The biopsychosocial effects of restless legs syndrome (RLS)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Philip M

    2006-01-01

    The symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) are associated with reductions in patients’ quality of life (QoL) and mental heath. Sleep disturbance, which is often the most troublesome symptom of RLS, may have a negative impact on patients’ daytime cognitive abilities. Research has established a relationship between the symptoms of RLS and mood symptoms, but causality is unclear. Some studies have indicated that the symptoms of RLS precede those of depression or anxiety, and others relate the severity of mood symptoms to the severity of RLS symptoms. Associations between the sleep disturbance produced by RLS and patients’ mood symptoms have also been demonstrated. The impact of RLS symptoms and their treatment on QoL, mental health, and cognition are reviewed herein. PMID:19412498

  17. Restless legs syndrome: a review of clinical and pathophysiologic features.

    PubMed

    Allen, R P; Earley, C J

    2001-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), although long ignored and still much underdiagnosed, disrupts the life and sleep considerably of those who have it. Recent clinical and basic research provides for better definition and pathophysiologic understanding of the disorder. The body of knowledge about this disorder has been expanding rapidly during the past decade and it has altered our concepts of this disorder. This review of RLS covers history, diagnosis, morbidity of sleep disturbance, relation to periodic limb movements in both sleep and waking, secondary causes, severity assessment methods, phenotypes for possible genetic patterns, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and medical treatment considerations. The emphasis on pathophysiology includes consideration of central nervous system localization, neurotransmitter and other systems involved, and the role of iron metabolism. Studies to date support the authors' recently advanced iron-dopamine model of RLS.

  18. Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kathy P; Rye, David B

    2002-12-01

    Restless leg syndrome and PLMD are nocturnal movement disorders associated with significant adverse effects on the health and well-being of patients and their families [66]. Although the pathophysiological basis remains to be fully described, current research points to abnormalities in CNS function and neurotransmitter systems. The accurate diagnosis of RLS and PMD requires a thorough history, physical examination, diagnostic tests, and often, a referral to a sleep disorders specialist. Considering the prevalence of these conditions and their negative impact, nurses should be well-versed in the assessment and management of these problems as well as in the appropriate education of patients and their families. Nursing research is greatly needed, particularly with regard to the development and testing of biobehavioral interventions designed to decrease associated symptoms and improve clinical outcomes. Finally, because of the complexity of the clinical presentation of RLS and PLMD, this population of patients presents nurse clinicians and researchers alike with an extraordinary opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration.

  19. Response-based analysis for Tension Leg Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Dagang

    2017-01-01

    The typical industry practice for Tension Leg Platform (TLP) design focuses on a conventional short-term design recipe, which assumes that an N-year design environment leads to an N-year response. In the response-based design method, the TLP is designed to withstand N-year responses rather than respond to N-year environmental conditions. In this paper, we present an overview and a general procedure for the response-based design method and use a case study to compare the critical TLP responses between the two methods. The results of our comparison show that the conventional short-term design method often contains an element of conservatism and that the response-based design method can reduce the design conditions and thereby achieve cost savings.

  20. Iron's role in paediatric restless legs syndrome - a review.

    PubMed

    Dosman, Cara; Witmans, Manisha; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2012-04-01

    Paediatric restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment is important because RLS's associated sleep disturbance causes significant developmental-behavioural morbidity and impacts family well-being. RLS is associated with brain iron insufficiency and dopaminergic dysfunction. Diagnosis requires fulfillment of diagnostic criteria, which for children are currently in evolution, and have limitations, especially in preschoolers. The community physician needs to recognize the possibility of RLS to refer to a sleep specialist for diagnostic confirmation and management recommendations, which include oral iron therapy, even though there is currently no definitive research evidence for iron efficacy in most children with RLS. A 3 mg to 6 mg elemental iron/kg/day dose for three months could be tried if the ferritin level is <50 ug/L. Sleep hygiene and behavioural strategies are also recommended. Iron supplementation should be safe in the absence of iron metabolism disorders, provided that transferrin saturation and ferritin levels are monitored pre-and post-treatment.

  1. Model task for the dynamics of an underwater two-legged walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beletskiy, V. V.; Golubkov, V. V.; Stepanova, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    A model task of two-legged underwater walking was examined. Characteristics of the walking were established. The underwater walking device is a substantial sphere, which moves on dual-member legs. The dynamics of the device were investigated with the calculation of the buoyancy of Archimedes, and the force of hydrodynamic resistance.

  2. Leg Preference and Interlateral Asymmetry of Balance Stability in Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Luis Augusto; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa; Romano, Rosangela Guimaraes; Correa, Sonia Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effect of long lasting practice on pedal behavior in sport, we compared experienced adult soccer players and nonsoccer players on leg preference in motor tasks requiring general mobilization, soccer related mobilization, and body balance stabilization. We also evaluated performance asymmetry between the right and left legs in static…

  3. Restless legs syndrome and its associated risk factors in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Azmin, Shahrul; Khairul Anuar, Abdul Manaf; Nafisah, Wan Yahya; Tan, Hui Jan; Raymond, Azman Ali; Hanita, Othman; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Restless legs syndrome has been shown to negatively impact the quality of life of patients. Studies have shown an association between restless legs syndrome and Parkinson's disease. We attempted to investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease patients and to identify associated risk factors. Method. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Exclusion criterion was a Mini Mental State Examination score of less than 21/30. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group criterion was used to identify patients with restless legs syndrome. Results. A total of 113 patients were recruited. The prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome in our cohort was 9.7% and was significantly associated with a younger onset of Parkinson's disease (P = 0.023), male gender (P = 0.045), higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P = 0.004), and less advanced Hoehn & Yahr stage (P = 0.014). Conclusion. The prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome in our Parkinson's disease population is in keeping with other studies published worldwide. The significance of the association between a younger onset of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome needs to be further investigated.

  4. Numerical Study of the High-Speed Leg of a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayani, Sudheer; Sellers, William L., III; Brynildsen, Scott E.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the numerical study of the high-speed leg of the NASA Langley 14 by 22-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The high-speed leg consists of the Settling Chamber, Contraction, Test Section, and First Diffuser. Results are shown comparing two different exit boundary conditions and two different methods of determining the surface geometry.

  5. Wings versus legs in the avian bauplan: development and evolution of alternative locomotor strategies.

    PubMed

    Heers, Ashley M; Dial, Kenneth P

    2015-02-01

    Wings have long been regarded as a hallmark of evolutionary innovation, allowing insects, birds, and bats to radiate into aerial environments. For many groups, our intuitive and colloquial perspective is that wings function for aerial activities, and legs for terrestrial, in a relatively independent manner. However, insects and birds often engage their wings and legs cooperatively. In addition, the degree of autonomy between wings and legs may be constrained by tradeoffs, between allocating resources to wings versus legs during development, or between wing versus leg investment and performance (because legs must be carried as baggage by wings during flight and vice versa). Such tradeoffs would profoundly affect the development and evolution of locomotor strategies, and many related aspects of animal ecology. Here, we provide the first evaluation of wing versus leg investment, performance and relative use, in birds-both across species, and during ontogeny in three precocial species with different ecologies. Our results suggest that tradeoffs between wing and leg modules help shape ontogenetic and evolutionary trajectories, but can be offset by recruiting modules cooperatively. These findings offer a new paradigm for exploring locomotor strategies of flying organisms and their extinct precursors, and thereby elucidating some of the most spectacular diversity in animal history.

  6. Transfer Relation between the Compression Test Rig and the Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Lower Leg

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    2 Fig. 3 FEA model for the ATD lower-leg loading...3 Fig. 4 Typical pressure distribution under the boot sole in the FEA result ................................ 4 Fig. 5 Load histories of...the ATD lower leg in 10-meter-per-second (m/s), 10-millisecond (msec) pulse loading FEA

  7. Repeatability and Validity of the Combined Arm-Leg (Cruiser) Ergometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmelink, Elisabeth K.; Wempe, Johan B.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of physical fitness of lower limb amputees is difficult, as the commonly used ergometer tests have limitations. A combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer might be valuable. The aim of this study was to establish the repeatability and validity of the combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer. Thirty healthy volunteers carried out three…

  8. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  9. Quantitative evaluation of oil-leg potential in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lisk, M.; Krieger, F.W.; Eadington, P.J. ); O'Brien, G.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Oil bearing fluid inclusions in sandstone represent hidden oil shows. The frequency of quartz grains containing these inclusions (GOI number) reflects maximum palaeo-oil saturation irrespective of the present fluid phase. In this way fluid inclusion data can be used to both identify palaeo-oil columns and to map original oil water contacts (OWC) in wells where oil has been displaced by later gas charge. Studies conducted on gas fields from the North West Shelf of Australia have shown that substantial oil columns were once present. Moreover, detailed GOI mapping has been used to define the location of the original OWC in these reservoirs allowing the height of the palaeo-column to be determined and an estimate to be made of original oil in place (OOIP). At Oliver-1 in the Timor Sea the reservoir is presently filled to spill with a 164m gas, and 14.5m oil, column. GOI mapping has, however, delineated a 96m thick palaeo-oil column within the gas leg. This is almost seven times thicker than the present oil leg which suggests that perhaps 170-190 million barrels of oil were displaced from this structure. In the Pepper gas field in the Carnarvon Basin GOI mapping has demonstrated the presence of a gross palaeo-oil column between 15 and 30 m thick, suggesting that between about 50 and 70 million barrels of oil has been displaced. This is more oil than that reservoired in any of the surrounding oil discoveries, which emphasizes the importance, from an exploration standpoint, of defining these remigration pathways.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of oil-leg potential in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lisk, M.; Krieger, F.W.; Eadington, P.J.; O`Brien, G.W.

    1996-12-31

    Oil bearing fluid inclusions in sandstone represent hidden oil shows. The frequency of quartz grains containing these inclusions (GOI number) reflects maximum palaeo-oil saturation irrespective of the present fluid phase. In this way fluid inclusion data can be used to both identify palaeo-oil columns and to map original oil water contacts (OWC) in wells where oil has been displaced by later gas charge. Studies conducted on gas fields from the North West Shelf of Australia have shown that substantial oil columns were once present. Moreover, detailed GOI mapping has been used to define the location of the original OWC in these reservoirs allowing the height of the palaeo-column to be determined and an estimate to be made of original oil in place (OOIP). At Oliver-1 in the Timor Sea the reservoir is presently filled to spill with a 164m gas, and 14.5m oil, column. GOI mapping has, however, delineated a 96m thick palaeo-oil column within the gas leg. This is almost seven times thicker than the present oil leg which suggests that perhaps 170-190 million barrels of oil were displaced from this structure. In the Pepper gas field in the Carnarvon Basin GOI mapping has demonstrated the presence of a gross palaeo-oil column between 15 and 30 m thick, suggesting that between about 50 and 70 million barrels of oil has been displaced. This is more oil than that reservoired in any of the surrounding oil discoveries, which emphasizes the importance, from an exploration standpoint, of defining these remigration pathways.

  11. Microbial Activity in the Subseafloor Sediments of ODP Leg 201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Honst, S.; Joergensen, B. B.; Blake, R.; Dickens, G.; Hinrichs, K.; Holm, N.; Mitterer, R.; Spivack, A.

    2002-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201 was the first ocean drilling expedition dedicated to the study of life deep beneath the seafloor. Its equatorial Pacific and Peru Margin sites were selected to represent the general range of subsurface environments that exists in marine sediments throughout most of the world's oceans. In water depths as great as 5300 meters and as shallow as 150 meters, the expedition drilled up to 420 meters into oceanic sediments and the underlying basaltic crust. The sediments ranged in temperature from 1° C to 25° C and in age from 0 to almost 40 million years. Leg 201 scientists found biogeochemical evidence of metabolic activity throughout the sediment column at every site. This activity is supported at all sites by the diffusion of sulfate down from the overlying ocean, as well as by the dissolution of iron- and manganese-bearing minerals. At the open ocean sites, metabolic activity deep beneath the seafloor is also supported by the transport of sulfate, nitrate and oxygen from water circulating through the underlying basaltic crust. At both the open ocean sites and the Peru margin sites, multiple metabolic activities (sulfate reduction, iron reduction, manganese reduction and methanogenesis) co-occur. Chemical flux estimates suggest that sulfate is generally the principal terminal electron acceptor in these subseafloor sediments. However, at the open ocean sites with the lowest rates of microbial respiration, manganese may rival sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. The recovered sediments and fluids are being studied further to document the controls on rates of subsurface activity, the influence of past oceanographic conditions on current activity in deeply buried sediments, and the effects of subseafloor biogeochemical processes on Earth's surface world.

  12. Association between venous leg ulcers and sex chromosome anomalies in men.

    PubMed

    Gattringer, Cornelia; Scheurecker, Christine; Höpfl, Reinhard; Müller, Hansgeorg

    2010-11-01

    We report here two cases of men, aged 46 and 23 years, with refractory chronic venous leg ulcers in association with sex chromosome aberrations: one with a 47,XXY/48,XXXY karyotype (Klinefelter syndrome) and the other with a 47,XYY karyotype (Jacob syndrome). In both patients, the occurrence of leg ulcers was the reason for seeking medical care; their medical history was other-wise unremarkable. Chromosomal analyses were performed due to the unusually young age for development of venous leg ulcers. The pathophysiology behind the occurrence of venous leg ulcers in patients with numerical aberrations of the sex chromosomes is incompletely understood. Involvement of elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in the pathogenesis of venous leg ulcers has been reported in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. Notably, our patient with 47,XXY/48,XXXY presented with androgen deficiency but normal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity.

  13. Three-dimensional topographies of water surface dimples formed by superhydrophobic water strider legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.; Zheng, Y. L.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Tian, Y.

    2016-10-01

    A water strider has a remarkable capability to stand and walk freely on water. Supporting forces of a water strider and a bionic robot have been calculated from the side view of pressed depth of legs to reconstruct the water surface dimples. However, in situ measurements of the multiple leg forces and significantly small leg/water contact dimples have not been realized yet. In this study, a shadow method was proposed to reconstruct the in situ three-dimensional topographies of leg/water contact dimples and their corresponding supporting forces. Results indicated that the supporting forces were affected by the depth, width, and length of the dimple, and that the maximum dimple depth was not proportional to the supporting forces. The shadow method also has advantages in disclosing tiny supporting force of legs in their subtle actions. These results are helpful for understanding the locomotion principles of water-walking insects and the design of biomimetic aquatic devices.

  14. Relationship between Stroking Parameters and Leg Movement Quantity in 100 Metre Front Crawl

    PubMed Central

    SORTWELL, ANDREW D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between stroking technique parameters and leg kick quantity in 100 m front crawl swim. Ten New South Wales Sydney Metropolitan swimmers were examined (14.1 ± 1.09 years). The investigation was performed during 100 meter swimming (average speed 1.35 ± .04 [m.s-1]) commencing from water at 50 m outdoor pool. Stroke length (SL), Stroke rate (SR), Swim velocity (SV), Leg Kick Quantity (LKQ) were measured. Arm stroking parameters and LKQ were analysed during segments of the 100m distance. The relationship between SR and LKQ was negative. The correlation between stroke length and leg kick quantity was statistically significant r = .96, and p = .05. Leg Kick quantity influenced stroke length. This study shows that swimming front crawl with a significant leg kick quantity (LKQ) such as a six beat kick, induces a longer stroke length (SL) and therefore improved arm stroke efficiency. PMID:27182354

  15. A simple rule for quadrupedal gait generation determined by leg loading feedback: a modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Habu, Yasushi; Fukui, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a specific rule for generating typical quadrupedal gaits (the order of the movement of four legs) through a simulated quadrupedal locomotion, in which unprogrammed gaits (diagonal/lateral sequence walks, left/right-lead canters, and left/right-lead transverse gallops) spontaneously emerged because of leg loading feedbacks to the CPGs hard-wired to produce a default trot. Additionally, all gaits transitioned according to speed, as seen in animals. We have therefore hypothesized that various gaits derive from a trot because of posture control through leg loading feedback. The body tilt on the two support legs of each diagonal pair during trotting was classified into three types (level, tilted up, or tilted down) according to speed. The load difference between the two legs led to the phase difference between their CPGs via the loading feedbacks, resulting in nine gaits (32: three tilts to the power of two diagonal pairs) including the aforementioned. PMID:25639661

  16. Determination of muscle mass changes in legs from K-40 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.; Rieksts, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The K-40 content of the upper legs was periodically measured in several subjects whose injured legs had been in a cast for 6 weeks or more. As the subjects began using the leg again, the K-40 content increased as the muscle tissue was replaced. A 25% increase in K-40 content in 6 months is typical for a normal leg use and recovery. This is equivalent to an original muscle mass loss of 20%. By measuring specific body regions, such as arms or legs, with a high-efficiency detector system, muscle mass changes which exceed a few percent can be measured. These methods could be used in space flight and bedrest studies, and in studying nutritional deficiencies due to disease or diet.

  17. A Pilot Study of the Prevalence of Leg Pain Among Women with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Missmer, Stacey A.; Bove, Geoffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiating leg pain is a common symptom presenting in manual therapy practices. Although this symptom has been reported as a complication of endometriosis, its prevalence and characteristics have not been studied. We surveyed members of a national endometriosis support group with endometriosis using a self-administered, mailed questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the prevalence and characteristics of leg pain. Of 94 respondents, leg pain was reported by 48 women (51%), and was bilateral in 59% of these symptomatic women. The likelihood of experiencing leg pain was related to weight gain since age 18, age, and height. The most common treatments tried included exercise, over-the-counter medications, and massage therapy, all with variable results. These data support leg pain as a prevalent complication of endometriosis, and that the disease may affect multiple peripheral nerves. Manual therapists should remain aware to this possible etiology for radiating pain. PMID:21665106

  18. A pilot study of the prevalence of leg pain among women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Missmer, Stacey A; Bove, Geoffrey M

    2011-07-01

    Radiating leg pain is a common symptom presenting in manual therapy practices. Although this symptom has been reported as a complication of endometriosis, its prevalence and characteristics have not been studied. We surveyed members of a national endometriosis support group with endometriosis using a self-administered, mailed questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the prevalence and characteristics of leg pain. Of 94 respondents, leg pain was reported by 48 women (51%), and was bilateral in 59% of these symptomatic women. The likelihood of experiencing leg pain was related to weight gain since age 18, age, and height. The most common treatments tried included exercise, over-the-counter medications, and massage therapy, all with variable results. These data support leg pain as a prevalent complication of endometriosis, and that the disease may affect multiple peripheral nerves. Manual therapists should remain aware to this possible etiology for radiating pain.

  19. A simple rule for quadrupedal gait generation determined by leg loading feedback: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Habu, Yasushi; Fukui, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    We discovered a specific rule for generating typical quadrupedal gaits (the order of the movement of four legs) through a simulated quadrupedal locomotion, in which unprogrammed gaits (diagonal/lateral sequence walks, left/right-lead canters, and left/right-lead transverse gallops) spontaneously emerged because of leg loading feedbacks to the CPGs hard-wired to produce a default trot. Additionally, all gaits transitioned according to speed, as seen in animals. We have therefore hypothesized that various gaits derive from a trot because of posture control through leg loading feedback. The body tilt on the two support legs of each diagonal pair during trotting was classified into three types (level, tilted up, or tilted down) according to speed. The load difference between the two legs led to the phase difference between their CPGs via the loading feedbacks, resulting in nine gaits (32: three tilts to the power of two diagonal pairs) including the aforementioned.

  20. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.